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Sample records for disinfectants activity action

  1. Activity and action screening of selected disinfectants

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    Kateřina Balharová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed to monitoring of selected disinfectants´activity in operational conditions. Hereby there have been monitored two acidic disinfectants Despon K and Mikasan D, which have had-by their producer-stated different recommended concentration. These solutions were monitored in viewpoint of their activity at different temperature, time of circulation, pH and water hardness. In this work there were measured pH of solutions in unloaded medium to be compared with pH of solutions in loaded medium and this measuring was carried out regularly each week within a one month period. During this period there was also monitored total plate count (TPC, which was stated in the dairy, where samples were taken two-times monthly. It has been found, that the disinfectants Mikasan D and Mikal 94D are effective even by high water hardness.

  2. Environmentally friendly disinfectant: Production, disinfectant action and efficiency

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    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a known disinfectant from ancient times, and it has been widely used for various purposes: for food and water disinfection, curing of wounds and as a universal antibiotic for a wide spectrum of diseases - until the Second World War and the discovery of penicillin. Until recently, it was assumed that silver, being a heavy metal, was toxic for humans and living beings. However, the newest research provides facts that the usage of silver, even for drinking water disinfection, is benign if it is added in small concentrations (in parts per billion. It has been shown in the newer scientific and technical literature that silver in colloidal form is a powerful (secondary disinfectant for drinking water, that it can be effectively used for the disinfection of water containers including swimming pools, installations in food industry, medicine, etc. Particularly, it has been shown that colloidal silver combined with hydrogen peroxide shows synergism having strong bactericidal and antiviral effects. The combination can be successfully used as a disinfectant in agriculture, food production and medicine. The original electrochemical process of production, the mechanism of physical-chemical reactions in that process and the mechanism of the antiseptic affect of the environmentally friendly disinfectant, based on the synergism of colloidal silver and hydrogen peroxide and the activity of electrochemically activated water, is shown. The starting solution was anolyte, obtained in electrochemical activation by water electrolysis of a highly diluted solution of K-tartarate in demineralized water (5.5-1CT4 M. The problem of electrolysis of very dilute aqueous solutions in membrane cells was particularly treated. It was shown that the efficiency of the electrolysis depends on the competition between the two processes: the rates of the processes of hydrogen and oxygen generation at the electrodes and the process of diffusion of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

  3. ASSESSMENT OF ACTION OF DISINFECTANTS AGAINST LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES BIOFILMS

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    T. K. CABEÇA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to assess the action of various disinfectants used in food industry against biofilm cells of Listeria monocytogenes formed on stainless steel surfaces during 24, 72 and 120 hours. Numbers of viable biofilm cells decreased after treatment with all the tested disinfectants (iodine, biguanide, quaternary ammonium compounds, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite was the most effective disinfectant against the biofilm cells, while biguanide and iodine were the least. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated attached cells on stainless steel surfaces after treatment with all the disinfectants. These observations showed that microorganisms were not completely removed from stainless steel surfaces after treatment with the disinfectants, however, the attachment did not means the viability of remaining cells. The biofilm age in hours (24, 72 and 120 had no apparent influence on resistance of microbiological cells to the disinfectants under study. In conclusion biofilm cells of L. monocytogenes can withstand disinfectants action.

  4. Investigation of arginine A-specific cysteine proteinase gene expression profiling in clinical Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates against photokilling action of the photo-activated disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh; Bahador, Abbas

    2018-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a significant root canal pathogen capable of causing endodontic infections, which during their treatment may receive sub-lethal doses of photo-activated disinfection (sPAD). As sPAD can influence microbial virulence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of sPAD on gene expression level of arginine A-specific cysteine proteinase (rgpA), as one of the underlying virulence factors involved in the development of endodontic infection via P. gingivalis strains. To find out the sPAD against 16 clinical isolates of PAD-resistant P. gingivalis that were isolated in vivo, we used toluidine blue O (TBO), methylene blue (MB), and indocyanine green (ICG) as the photosensitizers, which were excited with specific wavelength of light in vitro. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was then applied to monitor gene expression of rgpA in P. gingivalis isolates to characterize its virulence agent and understand the effect of sPAD on its pathogenicity. Maximal sPAD that could not decrease the count of P. gingivalis isolates were 6.25, 15.6, and 25 μg/mL at fluencies of 171.87, 15.6, and 93.75 J/cm 2 for TBO, ICG, and MB, respectively. ICG-sPAD could suppress the rgpA gene expression about 14-fold, while MB and TBO-mediated sPAD could cause the attenuation of rgpA expression about 4.9- and 11.6-fold, respectively. ICG-sPAD with the maximum ability to reduce rgpA gene expression compared with other photosensitizers can be an appropriate candidate for the treatment of endodontic infections.

  5. [On the bactericidal action of dibromoisocyanuric acid; experiments concerning the disinfection of hands (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, W; Puritscher, M

    1976-07-01

    The action of dibromoisocyanuric acid (DBI), C12, Br2, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCI) and chloramine T against Staph. aureus SG 511 was compared. Using the suspension test DBI and Br2 showed the strongest, chloramine T however, the weakest bactericidal power (Tab 2). Under the conditions of the "Hygienic disinfection of hands" a 0.005 M solution of DBI met the requirements specified in the "Richtlinien für die Prüfung chemischer Desinfektionsmittel" (3. Ed., Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1972), and was comparable to a chloramine T solution containing the same amount of active halogen (Tab. 3). The decrease of disinfection power compared with the suspension test can be attributed to a great error induced by protein.

  6. The antimicrobial activities of some commonly used disinfectants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disinfectants; SavlonR, JikR, Methylated spirit and kerosene were observed for their inhibitory activities on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. This was done by measuring the zone of inhibition of the disinfectants on the tested organisms. The results showed that Savlon was very effective ...

  7. Disinfection of bacteria attached to granular activated carbon.

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    LeChevallier, M W; Hassenauer, T S; Camper, A K; McFeters, G A

    1984-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate count bacteria, coliform organisms, and pathogenic microorganisms attached to granular activated carbon particles were examined for their susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. When these bacteria were grown on carbon particles and then disinfected with 2.0 mg of chlorine per liter (1.4 to 1.6 mg of free chlorine residual per liter after 1 h) for 1 h, no significant decrease in viable counts was observed. Washed cells attached to the surface of granular activated carbon particles showed similar resistance to chlorine, but a progressive increase in sublethal injury was found. Observations made by scanning electron microscope indicated that granular activated carbon was colonized by bacteria which grow in cracks and crevices and are coated by an extracellular slime layer. These data suggest a possible mechanism by which treatment and disinfection barriers can be penetrated and pathogenic bacteria may enter drinking water supplies. Images PMID:6508306

  8. Effects of Ozone and Photo‑Activated Disinfection against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of gaseous ozone (O3) and photo‑activated disinfection (PAD) methods against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms. Materials and Methods: Sixty‑five human mandibular premolars with straight root canals were selected. After root canal ...

  9. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

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    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

  10. Effect of bactericidal activity of three disinfectants on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Cesar Augusto Marchionatti Avancini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA can cause hospital-acquired infections (HA-MRSA, community- acquired ones (CA-MRSA, and infections transmitted by pets and animals raised for food production (livestock-acquired or LA-MRSA. The conduct to control the transmission of these diseases requires a careful action against the causative agents on surfaces in the environment and the choice of disinfectants and antiseptics is crucial. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the bactericidal activity of sodium hypochlorite (SH, iodophor (I and a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC, cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride, commonly used in hospital and animal production settings, on 21 MRSA isolates and a control bacterium, and test the hypothesis of cross resistance of antibiotics and disinfectants. Methods: The bactericidal activity of four successive dilutions of the disinfectants was evaluated through the suspension test, using an initial inoculum population density of 107 CFU/mL, after contact times of 5, 15 and 30 minutes. Results: Five minutes of contact of SH 25 ppm, I 12.5 ppm and QAC 125 ppm sufficed to inactivate the reference bacterium S. aureus ATCC 6538 and all MRSA. Conclusions: Once the factors that influence the efficiency of disinfectants are controlled, sodium hypochlorite, iodophor and the quaternary ammonium compound are suitable for controlling MRSA in the sources of infection. No resistance relationship was observed in the methicillin-resistant isolates with these substances.

  11. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to hydrogel contact lens disinfection correlates with cytotoxic activity.

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    Lakkis, C; Fleiszig, S M

    2001-04-01

    One of the most common pathogens in infection of hydrogel contact lens wearers is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can gain access to the eye via contamination of the lens, lens case, and lens care solutions. Only one strain per species is used in current regulatory testing for the marketing of chemical contact lens disinfectants. The aim of this study was to determine whether P. aeruginosa strains vary in their susceptibility to hydrogel contact lens disinfectants. A method for rapidly screening bacterial susceptibility to contact lens disinfectants was developed, based on measurement of the MIC. The susceptibility of 35 P. aeruginosa isolates to two chemical disinfectants was found to vary among strains. MICs ranged from 6.25 to 100% for both disinfectants at 37 degrees C, and a number of strains were not inhibited by a 100% disinfectant concentration in the lens case environment at room temperature (22 degrees C). Resistance to disinfection appeared to be an inherent rather than acquired trait, since some resistant strains had been isolated prior to the introduction of the disinfectants and some susceptible P. aeruginosa strains could not be made more resistant by repeated disinfectant exposure. A number of P. aeruginosa strains which were comparatively more resistant to short-term disinfectant exposure also demonstrated the ability to grow to levels above the initial inoculum in one chemical disinfectant after long-term (24 to 48 h) disinfectant exposure. Resistance was correlated with acute cytotoxic activity toward corneal epithelial cells and with exsA, which encodes a protein that regulates cytotoxicity via a complex type III secretion system. These results suggest that chemical disinfection solutions may select for contamination with cytotoxic strains. Further investigation of the mechanisms and factors responsible for resistance may also lead to strategies for reducing adverse responses to contact lens wear.

  12. Electrochemically activated water as an alternative to chlorine for decentralized disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Ghebremichael, Kebreab A.; Muchelemba, E.; Petruševski, Branislav; Amy, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemically activated (ECA) water is being extensively studied and considered as an alternative to chlorine for disinfection. Some researchers claim that ECA is by and large a chlorine solution, while others claim the presence of reactive

  13. Seeing is believing: an educational outreach activity on disinfection practices

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    Tetu Isabelle

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin and soft-tissue infections are very common among persons who inject drugs. They occur when microbes pass under the protective layer of the skin and proliferate. This happens when harm reduction recommendations such as skin aseptia before injection and sterile injection equipment usage are not properly followed. Methods A group of active drug users involved in a health promotion project as peer educators were asked about their formation needs. To address their inquiries concerning skin and soft-tissue infections, we devised with them a series of workshops touching upon common infections, the microflora, and microbial transmission. Results Participants learned to identify common infections and how to properly react in case of an abscess, cellulitis or phlebitis. They saw microscopic objects, found out about the high prevalence of microbes in their environment and on their skin, and could appreciate the efficiency of different washing and disinfection techniques. They visualized how easily microbes can spread from person to person and from contaminated objects to persons. Conclusion In the weeks following this activity, some participants demonstrated and reported healthy behavioural changes regarding their own injection practices. Furthermore, they shared their newfound knowledge and began enforcing its application among people they inject drugs with. Most participants greatly appreciated this activity and valued it as being highly efficient and tangible. Note: A French version of this paper is available on the Journal's web site [see Additional file 1]. Additional File 1 Article en Français (article in French. Une version française de l'article a été préparée par les auteurs. Elle est disponible à partir du site Web du Harm Reduction Journal. Click here for file

  14. Disinfectant and antibiotic activities: a comparative analysis in Brazilian hospital bacterial isolates

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    Guimarães Márcia Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. It has been shown that appropriate environmental hygienic and disinfection practices can be very helpful to hospital infection control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of some disinfectants against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant hospital bacterial isolates. The susceptibility of 27 clinical isolates to disinfectants and antibiotics was determined by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist?s (AOAC Use-Dilution method and by the Kirby-Bauer method, respectively. All strains tested were susceptible to sodium hypochlorite, glutaraldehyde and to the association quaternary ammonium - formaldehyde - ethyl alcohol disinfectants. However, the susceptibility of strains to phenol and to one quaternary ammonium compound was variable. Among twenty-one antibiotic-multiresistant strains (methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli eleven (52% and eight (38% strains were resistant to the quaternary ammonium and phenol compounds, respectively. Among six isolates that demonstrated susceptibility to antibiotics (staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, P. mirabilis, E. cloacae and E. coli two strains (33% showed resistance to these disinfectants. The results demonstrated the lack of correlation between antibiotic-susceptibility and susceptibility to disinfectants in hospital strains.

  15. Activity of disinfectants and biofilm production of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

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    Maria da C.A. Sá

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To verify the occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats on farms of Pernambuco, Brazil, and in animals slaughtered in two Brazilian cities (Petrolina/PE and Juazeiro/BA, and to characterize the susceptibility profile of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to disinfectants and antimicrobials, and its relationship with biofilm production were the objectives of this study. 398 samples were tested for sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, disinfectants, and biofilm production. Among the 108 samples collected on the properties, 75% were positive for C. pseudotuberculosis. Slaughterhouse samples indicated an occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in 15.66% and 6.31% for animals slaughtered in Petrolina and Juazeiro respectively. With respect to antimicrobials, the sensitivity obtained was 100% for florfenicol and tetracycline; 99.25% for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and lincomycin; 98.99% for cephalothin; 98.74% for norfloxacin and sulfazotrim; 97.74% for gentamicin; 94.22% for ampicillin; 91.71% for amoxicillin; 91.21% for penicillin G; 89.19% for neomycin and 0% for novobiocin. In analyzes with disinfectants, the efficiency for chlorhexidine was 100%, 97.20% for quaternary ammonium, 87.40% for chlorine and 84.40% for iodine. 75% of the isolates were weak or non-biofilm producers. For the consolidated biofilm, found that iodine decreased biofilm formation in 13 isolates and quaternary ammonia in 11 isolates. The reduction of the biofilm formation was observed for iodine and quaternary ammonium in consolidated biofilm formation in 33% and 28% of the isolates, respectively. The results of this study highlight the importance of establishing measures to prevent and control the disease.

  16. Bactericidal efficacy of silver impregnated activated carbon for disinfection of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, L.; Khan, F.A.; Usmani, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    When highly contaminated water was passed through two types of silver coated activated carbon and their mixtures with sand, the former was found to be far better medium for disinfection of water, with bactericidal efficacy of about 2.5 times that of the latter. (author)

  17. Combining fluidized activated carbon with weak alternating electric fields for disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Sharabati, J.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Yntema, D.R.; Mayer, M.J.J.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fluidized bed electrodes as a new device for disinfection. In the fluidized bed electrodes system, granular activated carbon particles were suspended, and an alternating radio frequency electric field was applied over the suspended bed. Proof-of-principle studies with the

  18. Antimicrobial activity of disinfectant agents incorporated into type IV dental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rodrigo de Paula; Lucas, Matheus Guilherme; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of two disinfectant agents, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) and 98% chlorhexidine hydrochloride powder (HYD), incorporated into type IV dental stone at the time of mixing. Agar diffusion test was used for the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The specimens were grouped in: (1) dental stone mixed with sterile distilled water; (2) paper disc soaked with CHX; (3) dental stone mixed with CHX; and (4) dental stone with incorporation of HYD, in 1% proportion of the dental stone mass and mixed with sterile distilled water. The culture medium was inoculated with microbial suspensions 1 and 24 h after pouring of the dental stone. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the average diameter of microbial growth inhibition zones. The data were analysed with a nested anova (p < 0.05) and Tukey test for specific comparisons. The disinfectant agents demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, with the exception of C. albicans, against which the CHX was ineffective in two periods of analysis. Significant differences between disinfectants were found with all microorganisms. The disinfectant agents analysed were effective against most of the microorganisms tested, except C. albicans. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Understanding the antimicrobial activity of selected disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

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    Ebrahim Aboualizadeh

    Full Text Available Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300. FTIR spectroscopy permits a detailed characterization of bacterial reactivity, allowing an understanding of the fundamental mechanism of action involved in the interaction between bacteria and disinfectants. The disinfectants studied were ethanol 70% (N = 5, isopropanol (N = 5, sodium hypochlorite (N = 5, triclosan (N = 5 and triclocarban (N = 5. Results showed less than 5% colony forming units growth of MRSA treated with triclocarban and no growth in the other groups. Nearly 70,000 mid-infrared spectra from the five treatments and the two control (untreated; N = 4 groups of MRSA (bacteria grown in TSB and incubated at 37°C (Control I / at ambient temperature (Control II, for 24h were pre-processed and analyzed using principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA. Clustering of strains of MRSA belonging to five treatments and the discrimination between each treatment and two control groups in MRSA (untreated were investigated. PCA-LDA discriminatory frequencies suggested that ethanol-treated spectra are the most similar to isopropanol-treated spectra biochemically. Also reported here are the biochemical alterations in the structure of proteins, lipid membranes, and phosphate groups of MRSA produced by sodium hypochlorite, triclosan, and triclocarban treatments. These findings provide mechanistic information involved in the

  20. Understanding the antimicrobial activity of selected disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboualizadeh, Ebrahim; Bumah, Violet V; Masson-Meyers, Daniela S; Eells, Janis T; Hirschmugl, Carol J; Enwemeka, Chukuka S

    2017-01-01

    Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300. FTIR spectroscopy permits a detailed characterization of bacterial reactivity, allowing an understanding of the fundamental mechanism of action involved in the interaction between bacteria and disinfectants. The disinfectants studied were ethanol 70% (N = 5), isopropanol (N = 5), sodium hypochlorite (N = 5), triclosan (N = 5) and triclocarban (N = 5). Results showed less than 5% colony forming units growth of MRSA treated with triclocarban and no growth in the other groups. Nearly 70,000 mid-infrared spectra from the five treatments and the two control (untreated; N = 4) groups of MRSA (bacteria grown in TSB and incubated at 37°C (Control I) / at ambient temperature (Control II), for 24h) were pre-processed and analyzed using principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA). Clustering of strains of MRSA belonging to five treatments and the discrimination between each treatment and two control groups in MRSA (untreated) were investigated. PCA-LDA discriminatory frequencies suggested that ethanol-treated spectra are the most similar to isopropanol-treated spectra biochemically. Also reported here are the biochemical alterations in the structure of proteins, lipid membranes, and phosphate groups of MRSA produced by sodium hypochlorite, triclosan, and triclocarban treatments. These findings provide mechanistic information involved in the interaction

  1. Identification of developmentally toxic drinking water disinfection byproducts and evaluation of data relevant to mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, Joan; Rice, Glenn E.; Wright, J. Michael; Hunter, E. Sidney; Teuschler, Linda K.; Lipscomb, John C.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Fransen, Margaret; Osier, Mark; Narotsky, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Reactions between chemicals used to disinfect drinking water and compounds present in source waters produce chemical mixtures containing hundreds of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although the results have been somewhat inconsistent, some epidemiological studies suggest associations may exist between DBP exposures and adverse developmental outcomes. The potencies of individual DBPs in rodent and rabbit developmental bioassays suggest that no individual DBP can account for the relative risk estimates reported in the positive epidemiologic studies, leading to the hypothesis that these outcomes could result from the toxicity of DBP mixtures. As a first step in a mixtures risk assessment for DBP developmental effects, this paper identifies developmentally toxic DBPs and examines data relevant to the mode of action (MOA) for DBP developmental toxicity. We identified 24 developmentally toxic DBPs and four adverse developmental outcomes associated with human DBP exposures: spontaneous abortion, cardiovascular defects, neural tube defects, and low birth weight infancy. A plausible MOA, involving hormonal disruption of pregnancy, is delineated for spontaneous abortion, which some epidemiologic studies associate with total trihalomethane and bromodichloromethane exposures. The DBP data for the other three outcomes were inadequate to define key MOA steps.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of different disinfectants against cariogenic microorganisms

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    Esra UZER CELIK

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHBM, and octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT on cariogenic microorganisms by using their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. CHX, PHBM, and OCT were diluted in distilled water to the final test concentrations. Using the in-tube dilution method, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Actinomyces viscosus were cultivated on blood agar and Mueller–Hinton broth (MHB at 37°C for 48 h. They were read using a spectrophotometer to detect MIC. To determine MBC, samples in the range of the turbidity threshold after 24 h were transferred onto blood agar and evaluated for growth after 24 h. Different MICs and MBCs were observed in all disinfectants against each microorganism. The lowest MIC and MBC against S. mutans (60 mg/L were obtained from PHBM. The lowest values against L. rhamnosus (15 mg/L, 30 mg/L, A. viscosus (30 mg/L, and L. acidophilus (15 mg/L, 30 mg/L were determined by OCT. PHBM and OCT have the potential to be replaced with CHX because they were effective against cariogenic microorganisms.

  3. Electrochemically activated water as an alternative to chlorine for decentralized disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Ghebremichael, Kebreab A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemically activated (ECA) water is being extensively studied and considered as an alternative to chlorine for disinfection. Some researchers claim that ECA is by and large a chlorine solution, while others claim the presence of reactive oxygen species such as ozone and hydroxyl radicals in addition to chlorine. This study compares sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ECA in terms of disinfection efficacy, trihalomethanes (THMs) formation, stability and composition. The studies were carried out under different process conditions (pH 5,7 and 9, disinfectant concentrations of 2-5 mg/L and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of 2-4 mg/L). The results indicated that in the presence of low DOC (<2 mg/L) ECA showed better disinfection efficacy for Escherichia coli inactivation, formed lower THM and had better stability compared with NaOCl at both pH 5 and 7. Stability studies of stock solutions showed that over a period of 30 days, ECA decayed by only 5% while NaOCl decayed by 37.5% at temperatures of 4 °C. In a fresh ECA of 200 mg/L chlorine, about 5.3 mg/L ozone and 36.9 mg/L ClO2 were detected. The study demonstrates that ECA could be a suitable alternative to NaOCl where decentralized production and use are required. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  4. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Song, J; Son, J H; Gutierrez, M P; Kang, T; Kim, D; Lee, L P

    2016-09-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli . Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems.

  5. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP.

  6. Effect of cavity disinfectants on antibacterial activity and microtensile bond strength in class I cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Ram; Oh, Man-Hwan; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2017-05-31

    This study was performed to compare the antibacterial activities of three cavity disinfectants [chlorhexidine (CHX), NaOCl, urushiol] and to evaluate their effect on the microtensile bond strength of Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M-ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) in class I cavities. In both experiments, class I cavities were prepared in dentin. After inoculation with Streptococcus mutans, the cavities of control group were rinsed and those of CHX, NaOCl and urushiol groups were treated with each disinfectant. Standardized amounts of dentin chips were collected and number of S. mutans was determined. Following the same cavity treatment, same adhesive was applied in etch-and-rinse mode. Then, microtensile bond strength was evaluated. The number of S. mutans was significantly reduced in the cavities treated with CHX, NaOCl, and urushiol compared with control group (p<0.05). However, there was a significant bond strength reduction in NaOCl group, which showed statistical difference compared to the other groups (p<0.05).

  7. Comparison of antimicrobial activities and compressive strength of alginate impression materials following disinfection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahab, Zahraa

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of disinfecting solution when incorporated into alginate powder instead of water against some microorganisms and on compressive strength of alginate. For measuring antimicrobial activity of alginate, 60 alginate specimens were prepared and divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate incorporated in the mix instead of water. The tested microorganisms were: gram +ve cocci, gram -ve bacilli and yeast (each group 10 samples). For measuring compressive strength, 20 specimens of alginate were divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with chlorhexidine incorporated in the mix. The statistical analysis of antimicrobial efficacy of alginate was performed with Mann-Whitney U-test, which revealed very high significant difference when comparing among groups (p 0.05). The incorporation of disinfecting agents into impression materials could serve an important role in dental laboratory infection control and it had no adverse effect on compressive strength of the hydrocolloid alginate. The risk of transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to dental laboratories via impression has been considered a topic of importance for a number of years.

  8. Activity of disinfectants against foodborne pathogens in suspension and adhered to stainless steel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Karen Cabeça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants on planktonic cells and biofilm cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Numbers of viable biofilm cells decreased after treatment with all tested disinfectants (iodine, biguanide, quaternary ammonium compounds, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite was the most effective disinfectant against biofilm cells, while biguanide was the least effective. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that cells adhered on stainless steel surface after treatment with the disinfectants. No viable planktonic cells were observed after treatment with the same disinfectants. Based on our findings, we concluded that biofilm cells might be more resistant to disinfectants than plancktonic cells.

  9. Antiviral activity of a novel composition of peracetic acid disinfectant on parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Fadi; Jiang, Jun; Tijssen, Peter; Laliberté, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    Porcine parvoviruses (PPV) are known to be particularly resistant to many disinfectants used to control other non-enveloped viruses. However, effective disinfectants used against PPV are harsh and corrosive to animal health facilities and the environment. We propose a noncorrosive “green” disinfectant that generates peracetic acid in-situ and is capable of inactivating PPV completely at a 1% concentration for a 10-minute contact time. PMID:28154460

  10. Quantitative detection and biological propagation of scrapie seeding activity in vitro facilitate use of prions as model pathogens for disinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pritzkow

    Full Text Available Prions are pathogens with an unusually high tolerance to inactivation and constitute a complex challenge to the re-processing of surgical instruments. On the other hand, however, they provide an informative paradigm which has been exploited successfully for the development of novel broad-range disinfectants simultaneously active also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Here we report on the development of a methodological platform that further facilitates the use of scrapie prions as model pathogens for disinfection. We used specifically adapted serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA for the quantitative detection, on steel wires providing model carriers for decontamination, of 263K scrapie seeding activity converting normal protease-sensitive into abnormal protease-resistant prion protein. Reference steel wires carrying defined amounts of scrapie infectivity were used for assay calibration, while scrapie-contaminated test steel wires were subjected to fifteen different procedures for disinfection that yielded scrapie titre reductions of ≤10(1- to ≥10(5.5-fold. As confirmed by titration in hamsters the residual scrapie infectivity on test wires could be reliably deduced for all examined disinfection procedures, from our quantitative seeding activity assay. Furthermore, we found that scrapie seeding activity present in 263K hamster brain homogenate or multiplied by PMCA of scrapie-contaminated steel wires both triggered accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein and was further propagated in a novel cell assay for 263K scrapie prions, i.e., cerebral glial cell cultures from hamsters. The findings from our PMCA- and glial cell culture assays revealed scrapie seeding activity as a biochemically and biologically replicative principle in vitro, with the former being quantitatively linked to prion infectivity detected on steel wires in vivo. When combined, our in vitro assays provide an alternative to titrations of biological

  11. 76 FR 39092 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Disinfectants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The ICRs scheduled to expire are Disinfectants/Disinfection...) enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (iv) minimize the burden...-community water systems such as restaurants and campgrounds. What should I consider when I prepare my...

  12. Non-traditional alternatives project for the control of dental biofilm alternative substances with antibacterial action for the disinfection of cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Mendez, Daniela; Correa Herrera, Graciela; Rivas Dona, Carmina

    2013-01-01

    The extracts of medicinal plants found in Costa Rica such as hawthorn, garlic and black tea were compared with Concepsis®, a product based on chlorhexidine used for the disinfection of dental cavities. The efficacy of the three plants was measured against S. mutans in in vitro cultures. Chlorhexidine has a higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity than the extracts of the three plants used, being the most effective agent against S. mutans [es

  13. Halogenating reaction activity of aromatic organic compounds during disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Gaimei; Chen Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    The halogenating reactions of five aromatic organic compounds (AOCs) with aqueous chlorine (HOCl/OCl - ) and aqueous bromine (HOBr/OBr - ) were studied with an aim to compare the formation properties of haloacetic acids (HAAs) for the corresponding chlorination or bromination reactions of AOCs, respectively. The experiment results indicated that the HAAs substitution efficiency for the bromination reactions of AOCs was greater than that for the chlorination reactions, and the formation of HAAs had a strong dependence on the chemical structure of AOCs. The chlorination or bromination reaction activities for the AOCs with electron donating functional groups were higher than that for them with electron withdrawing functional groups. The kinetic experiments indicated that the reactions of aqueous bromine with phenol were faster than those of aqueous chlorine with phenol and the halogen consumption exhibited rapid initial and slower consumption stages for the reactions of phenol with aqueous chlorine and bromine, respectively. In addition, the HAAs production for the chlorination reaction of phenol decreased with the increase of pH. These conclusions could provide the valuable information for the effective control of the disinfection by-products during drinking water treatment operation

  14. Can vaccinia virus be replaced by MVA virus for testing virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV is a test virus in the DVV/RKI guidelines as representative of the stable enveloped viruses. Since the potential risk of laboratory-acquired infections with VACV persists and since the adverse effects of vaccination with VACV are described, the replacement of VACV by the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA was studied by testing the activity of different chemical biocides in three German laboratories. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides (peracetic acid, aldehydes and alcohols were tested in a quantitative suspension test according to the DVV/RKI guideline. All tests were performed with a protein load of 10% fetal calf serum with both viruses in parallel using different concentrations and contact times. Residual virus was determined by endpoint dilution method. Results The chemical biocides exhibited similar virucidal activity against VACV and MVA. In three cases intra-laboratory differences were determined between VACV and MVA - 40% (v/v ethanol and 30% (v/v isopropanol are more active against MVA, whereas MVA seems more stable than VACV when testing with 0.05% glutardialdehyde. Test accuracy across the three participating laboratories was high. Remarkably inter-laboratory differences in the reduction factor were only observed in two cases. Conclusions Our data provide valuable information for the replacement of VACV by MVA for testing chemical biocides and disinfectants. Because MVA does not replicate in humans this would eliminate the potential risk of inadvertent inoculation with vaccinia virus and disease in non-vaccinated laboratory workers.

  15. Reductive dehalogenation of disinfection byproducts by an activated carbon-based electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Kemper, Jerome M; Datuin, Gwen; Akey, Ann; Mitch, William A; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight, uncharged, halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are poorly removed by the reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation process treatment units often applied for further treatment of municipal wastewater for potable reuse. Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment effectively sorbed 22 halogenated DBPs. Conversion of the GAC to a cathode within an electrolysis cell resulted in significant degradation of the 22 halogenated DBPs by reductive electrolysis at -1 V vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE). The lowest removal efficiency over 6 h electrolysis was for trichloromethane (chloroform; 47%) but removal efficiencies were >90% for 13 of the 22 DBPs. In all cases, DBP degradation was higher than in electrolysis-free controls, and degradation was verified by the production of halides as reduction products. Activated carbons and charcoal were more effective than graphite for electrolysis, with graphite featuring poor sorption for the DBPs. A subset of halogenated DBPs (e.g., haloacetonitriles, chloropicrin) were degraded upon sorption to the GAC, even without electrolysis. Using chloropicrin as a model, experiments indicated that this loss was attributable to the partial reduction of sorbed chloropicrin from reducing equivalents in the GAC. Reducing equivalents depleted by these reactions could be restored when the GAC was treated by reductive electrolysis. GAC treatment of an advanced treatment train effluent for potable reuse effectively reduced the concentrations of chloroform, bromodichloromethane and dichloroacetonitrile measured in the column influent to below the method detection limits. Treatment of the GAC by reductive electrolysis at -1 V vs. SHE over 12 h resulted in significant degradation of the chloroform (63%), bromodichloromethane (96%) and dichloroacetonitrile (99%) accumulated on the GAC. The results suggest that DBPs in advanced treatment train effluents could be captured and degraded continuously by reductive electrolysis

  16. Curvularia Haloperoxidase: Antimicrobial Activity and Potential Application as a Surface Disinfectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eva H.; Albertsen, Line; Schäfer, Thomas; Johansen, Charlotte; Frisvad, Jens C.; Molin, Søren; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    A presumed antimicrobial enzyme system, the Curvularia haloperoxidase system, was examined with the aim of evaluating its potential as a sanitizing agent. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, Curvularia haloperoxidase facilitates the oxidation of halides, such as chloride, bromide, and iodide, to antimicrobial compounds. The Curvularia haloperoxidase system caused several-log-unit reductions in counts of bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes), yeasts (Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp.), and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubigensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium paxilli) cultured in suspension. Also, bacteria adhering to the surfaces of contact lenses were killed. The numbers of S. marcescens and S. epidermidis cells adhering to contact lenses were reduced from 4.0 and 4.9 log CFU to 1.2 and 2.7 log CFU, respectively, after treatment with the Curvularia haloperoxidase system. The killing effect of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system was rapid, and 106 CFU of E. coli cells/ml were eliminated within 10 min of treatment. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect was short lived, causing no antibacterial effect against E. coli 10 min after the system was mixed. Bovine serum albumin (1%) and alginate (1%) inhibited the antimicrobial activity of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system, whereas glucose and Tween 20 did not affect its activity. In conclusion, the Curvularia haloperoxidase system is an effective sanitizing system and has the potential for a vast range of applications, for instance, for disinfection of contact lenses or medical devices. PMID:12902249

  17. Microbiological Efficacy Test Methods of Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Şahiner, Aslı

    2015-01-01

    Disinfection process is required in every area where microbiological contamination and infection risk is present, especially in medical sector, food, veterinary and general common living areas hence many disinfectants and antiseptics are being produced for different purposes. Disinfectants are made up a large group of biocidal products. Depending on the chemical properties of active substances, targeted microorganisms may differ While some disinfectants are effective in a large spectrum, othe...

  18. Disinfectant activity against different morphological forms of Helicobacter pylori: first results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gebel, J.; Vacata, V.; Sigler, Karel; Pietsch, H.; Rechenburg, A.; Exner, M.; Kistemann, T.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 48, Suppl A (2001), s. 58-63 ISSN 0195-6701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : desinfection * disinfectant efficacy * Helicobacter pylori Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.983, year: 2001

  19. Alternating electric field fluidized bed disinfection performance with different types of granular activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Yntema, D.R.; Kazlauskaite, L.; DuBois, A.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of pathogens from effluents is important to promote the reuse of these water resources and safeguarding human health, especially in water scarce areas worldwide. Previously a proof-of-principle of a method for water disinfection consisting of fluidized bed electrodes (FBE) with RX3 EXTRA

  20. Bactericidal active ingredient in cryopreserved plasma-treated water with the reduced-pH method for plasma disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    For the plasma disinfection of human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition. Physicochemical properties of PTW is discussed based on chemical kinetics. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. High performance PTW, corresponding to the disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis spore), can be obtained by special plasma system equipped with cooling device. This is equivalent to 65% H2O2, 14% sodium hypochlorite and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. But, it is deactivated soon at higher temperature (4 sec. at body temperature), and toxicity to human body seems low. For dental application, PTW was effective on infected models of human extracted tooth. Although PTW has many chemical components, respective chemical components in PTW were isolated by ion chromatography. In addition to peaks of H2O2, NO2- and NO3-, a specific peak was detected. and only this fraction had bactericidal activity. Purified active ingredient of PTW is the precursor of HOO, and further details will be discussed in the presentation. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  1. Plant stress activated by chlorine from disinfectants prepared on the base of sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargašová Agáta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phytotoxicity of disinfectants prepared on the base of sodium hypochlorite was determined. For our tests two commercial products, Savo and Dom Amor, as well as 10% NaClO solution were used. While Savo contained only NaClO, Dom Amor contained NaClO and earthworm enzymes. Products on the base of NaClO are used in households for cleaning and disinfection of floors, furniture, sanitary and kitchen equipment. Savo may be used for the disinfection of drinking waters as well. Products with NaClO are also used for bacteria, algae and pathogens reduction in irrigation waters. As a subject, young seedlings of mustard Sinapis alba L. were used for the study of chronic toxicity. The observed parameters of the inhibition of roots and shoots growth, dry (DM and fresh (FM mass as well as photosynthetic pigments production (chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids and water content in the plants were determined. The results point out that Dom Amor was the most toxic for S. alba seedlings growth and the rank order of the FAC contents for both plant parts was arranged as: Dom Amor > Savo > NaClO. All disinfectants reduced the DM and FM of roots; however, they stimulated biomass production in the shoots. On the basis of the obtained results it could be concluded, that disinfectants stimulated photosynthetic pigments production and reduced water content mainly in the roots. Dom Amor did not significantly reduced the water content in the shoots and for this parameter the following rank orders of inhibition for roots and shoots could be arranged as NaClO > Dom Amor > Savo and NaClO > Savo > Dom Amor, respectively. All commercial products increased chlorophyll a (Chla and the carotenoids (Car content in the shoots. As significant increase was confirmed first for Chla whose content in the presence of NaClO at concentration 24 mL/L overextended that in the control by 3.5 times. The rank orders of stimulation for Chla and Car were NaClO > Savo > Dom Amor and Dom

  2. Effects of ozonation on disinfection and microbial activity in waste activated sludge for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lim, Byung-Ran

    2003-07-01

    Effects of ozonation on microbial biomass activity and community structure in waste activated sludges from various treatment plants were investigated. The densities of viable cells and microbial community structure in the sludges treated with ozone at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS were measured on the basis of the respiratory quinone profile and LIVE/DEAD Backlight(TM). The results from the bacterial concentration and quinone profiles of the waste activated sludge showed that respiratory activities of microorganisms were detected at the ozone dose of 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS. However, fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus and Salmonella sp. in the ozonized sludge were not detected. This result implies that some microorganisms might be more tolerant to ozonation than the pathogenic indicators. The pathogens reduction requirements for Class A biosolids were still met by the ozonation at 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS.

  3. Effectiveness of Disinfectants on Antimicrobial and Physical Properties of Dental Impression Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demajo, Jean Karl; Cassar, Valter; Farrugia, Cher; Millan-Sango, David; Sammut, Charles; Valdramidis, Vasilis; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of chemical disinfectants on alginate and silicone impression materials. The effect of chemical disinfectants on the dimensional stability of the impression materials was also assessed. For the microbiologic assessment, impressions of the maxillary arch were taken from 14 participants, 7 using alginate and 7 using an addition silicone. The impressions were divided into three sections. Each section was subjected to spraying with MD 520 or Minuten or no disinfection (control), respectively. Antimicrobial action of the chemical disinfectants was assessed by measuring microbial counts in trypticase soy agar (TSA) media and expressing the results in colony-forming units/cm2. The surface area of the dental impressions was calculated by scanning a stone cast using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture and analyzing the data using a custom computer program. The dimensional stability of the impression materials after immersion in disinfectants was assessed by measuring the linear displacement of horizontally restrained materials using a traveling microscope. The percent change in length over 3 hours was thus determined. Alginate exhibited a higher microbial count than silicone. MD 520 eliminated all microbes as opposed to Minuten. The bacterial growth after Minuten disinfection was almost twice as much for alginate than for addition silicone impressions. The chemical disinfectants affected the alginate dimensional stability. Minuten reduced the shrinkage sustained by alginate during the first hour of storage. Alginate harbors three times more microorganisms than silicone impression material. Chemical disinfection by glutaraldehyde-based disinfectant was effective in eliminating all microbial forms for both alginate and silicone without modifying the dimensional stability. Alcohol-based disinfectants, however, reduced the alginate shrinkage during the first 90 minutes of setting. The current studies

  4. Graphene oxide–CdS composite with high photocatalytic degradation and disinfection activities under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Jincheng [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, Darren Delai, E-mail: DDSUN@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ng, Wunjern [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► GO–CdS composites were prepared through a novel two-phase mixing method. ► Uniform deposition of CdS nanoparticles on GO sheets. ► Reduced charge recombination rate. ► Enhanced photo-stability. ► High photodegradation and disinfection efficiency. -- Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO)–CdS composites were synthesized via a novel two-phase mixing method successfully. CdS nanoparticles were uniformly self-assembled on GO sheets at water/toluene interface. The photocatalytic degradation (photodegradation) and disinfection activities of GO–CdS composites were investigated thoroughly. The results show that GO–CdS composites exhibit higher efficiency in photodegradation of various water pollutants than pure CdS nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. In addition, the interactions between GO sheets and CdS nanoparticles inhibit the photo-corrosion of CdS and leaching of Cd{sup 2+}. Only 3.5 wt% Cd{sup 2+} of GO–CdS was leached out after photodegradation, while 38.6 wt% Cd{sup 2+} of CdS was lost into aqueous solution. Furthermore, the disinfection activity of GO–CdS composites was investigated for the first time. Nearly 100% of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) were killed within 25 min under visible light irradiation. The excellent performances of GO–CdS composites can be attributed to that (1) effective charge transfer from CdS to GO reduces the recombination rate of photo-generated electron–hole pairs; (2) uniform deposition of CdS on GO sheets eliminates aggregation of CdS nanoparticles; and (3) the strong interactions between GO and CdS enhancing the durability of GO–CdS composites. Finally, the mechanism behind these excellent performances was verified by transient photocurrent measurement and further confirmed by ESR technique as well as employing a radical scavenging species – dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

  5. Graphene oxide–CdS composite with high photocatalytic degradation and disinfection activities under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Jincheng; Sun, Darren Delai; Ng, Wunjern

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► GO–CdS composites were prepared through a novel two-phase mixing method. ► Uniform deposition of CdS nanoparticles on GO sheets. ► Reduced charge recombination rate. ► Enhanced photo-stability. ► High photodegradation and disinfection efficiency. -- Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO)–CdS composites were synthesized via a novel two-phase mixing method successfully. CdS nanoparticles were uniformly self-assembled on GO sheets at water/toluene interface. The photocatalytic degradation (photodegradation) and disinfection activities of GO–CdS composites were investigated thoroughly. The results show that GO–CdS composites exhibit higher efficiency in photodegradation of various water pollutants than pure CdS nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. In addition, the interactions between GO sheets and CdS nanoparticles inhibit the photo-corrosion of CdS and leaching of Cd 2+ . Only 3.5 wt% Cd 2+ of GO–CdS was leached out after photodegradation, while 38.6 wt% Cd 2+ of CdS was lost into aqueous solution. Furthermore, the disinfection activity of GO–CdS composites was investigated for the first time. Nearly 100% of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) were killed within 25 min under visible light irradiation. The excellent performances of GO–CdS composites can be attributed to that (1) effective charge transfer from CdS to GO reduces the recombination rate of photo-generated electron–hole pairs; (2) uniform deposition of CdS on GO sheets eliminates aggregation of CdS nanoparticles; and (3) the strong interactions between GO and CdS enhancing the durability of GO–CdS composites. Finally, the mechanism behind these excellent performances was verified by transient photocurrent measurement and further confirmed by ESR technique as well as employing a radical scavenging species – dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

  6. Antibacterial activity of some disinfectants, essential oils and radiation against some bacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.; Abo-State, M.A.M.; Ghaly, M.F.; Ezzat, S.M.; Hefni, H.M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial bacteria has been considered problems for all hospitals. Bacterial isolates of the present study were isolated from Sharkia Hospitals, Egypt. The isolates were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Serratia spp. and S. epidermidis. Two disinfectants (savlon and phenolics) were examined against all the bacterial isolates at the hospitals recommended concentrations to determine the most resistance bacterial isolates. Twelve essential oils, ultraviolet radiation, Gamma radiation and laser were tested against the most resistant bacterial isolates to disinfectants and antiseptics. These bacterial isolates were S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The most effective concentration of savlon was 2%, while that of phenolics were 4 and 5% . Fumigation of essential oils of Eugenia caryophyllata L., Marjorum hortensis L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. had high effects against these bacterial isolates. Rosmarinus officinalis L., Marjorum hortensis L., Eugenia caryophyllata L. and Thymus vulgaris L. essential oils had high effects on bacterial isolates by disc diffusion method. Matricaria chamomilla L. and Eucalyptus spp. oils had no effects against P. aeruginosa. Both essential oils of Jasminum gradiflocum L. and Jasminum sambac L. had no effects by fumigation and diffused essential oils. Ultraviolet irradiation had lethal effect on S. aureus when it exposed to ultraviolet for 10 minutes at a distance of 20 cm, while it had a lethal effect on P. aeruginosa when exposed to the rays for 7 minutes at the same distance. Gamma irradiation had lethal effect on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus at 2.5 and 3 KGy, respectively. Laser had a lethal effect on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus after 14 and 15 minutes of exposure, respectively

  7. [Interference for Various Quench Agents of Chemical Disinfectants on Detection of Endotoxin Activities in Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-jun; Shi, Yun; An, Dai-zhi; Bai, Miao; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    The quenching agents such as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite and sodium hyposulfite are commonly used for quenching the residual disinfectant in water. In this paper, in order to select the optimal type and concentration range of quenching agents prior to the Limulus assays, the interference effects of each quenching agent at different concentrations on endotoxin detection were investigated by the Limulus assays of kinetic-turbidity. Our results identified that, as for 0-1.0% concentration of histidine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite (pH unadjusted and pH neutral), interference on the Limulus assays was existed. Hence, these quenching agents could not be applied as neutralizers prior to Limulus assays. Although, there was no interference on endotoxin detection for the glycine, a yellow color, developed by the quenching products of glycine and glutaric dialdehyde, contributed to false positive results. Hence, glycine should not be used as quenching agents in Limulus assays for samples containing glutaric dialdehyde. Compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite, 0-1.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite elicited no obvious interference, while 1.0%-5.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite illustrated exhibition effect for endotoxin detection. All in all, compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80 and sodium sulfite, sodium hyposulfite is suitable for quenching chemicals prior to endotoxin detection and less than 0.5% of concentration is allowable.

  8. Enhanced coagulation with powdered activated carbon or MIEX secondary treatment: a comparison of disinfection by-product formation and precursor removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Knight, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The removal of both organic and inorganic disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors prior to disinfection is important in mitigating DBP formation, with halide removal being particularly important in salinity-impacted water sources. A matrix of waters of variable alkalinity, halide concentration and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration were treated with enhanced coagulation (EC) followed by anion exchange (MIEX resin) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and the subsequent disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBP-FPs) assessed and compared to DBP-FPs for untreated samples. Halide and DOC removal were also monitored for both treatment processes. Bromide and iodide adsorption by MIEX treatment ranged from 0 to 53% and 4-78%, respectively. As expected, EC and PAC treatments did not remove halides. DOC removal by EC/PAC was 70 ± 10%, while EC/MIEX enabled a DOC removal of 66 ± 12%. Despite the halide removals achieved by MIEX, increases in brominated disinfection by-product (Br-DBP) formation were observed relative to untreated samples, when favourable Br:DOC ratios were created by the treatment. However, the increases in formation were less than what was observed for the EC/PAC treated waters, which caused large increases in Br-DBP formation when high Br-DBP-forming water quality conditions occurred. The formation potential of fully chlorinated DBPs decreased after treatment in all cases.

  9. [Efficacy of disinfection treatments using essential oils and ultrasound on tomato fruits inoculated with Escherichia coli and impact on antioxidant activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Guevara, María L; Luna Guevara, Juan J; Ruiz Espinosa, Héctor; Leyva Abascal, Lucero; Díaz González, Carolina B

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce often harbors a great number of microorganisms; hence, its growing demand may constitute a risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of several disinfection procedures against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) inoculated on tomato fruits and the conservation of the antioxidant properties of these disinfected fruits. Fruits were immersed for 5 or 10min in oregano or thyme essential oil dispersions (5, 10ppm), with or without ultrasound treatment. Antioxidant activity of disinfected fruits was determined as the ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and was reported as percentage of inhibition (%I). The most efficient disinfectant treatments showing significant differences (p≤.05) between the reductions log10 CFU/g (S) of ETEC were those using 10ppm oregano for 10min, with S=3.05 in individual treatments and S=4.03 in mixed treatments. The highest %I was obtained with individual sonication treatments (69.52 and 72.48), while in combined treatments the %I values increased with thyme oil 5ppm and ultrasound for 5min (51.27%) and 10min (53.31%). Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Virucidal Activity of Fogged Chlorine Dioxide- and Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Disinfectants against Human Norovirus and Its Surrogate, Feline Calicivirus, on Hard-to-Reach Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Montazeri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human norovirus (NoV is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7.5% and a chlorine dioxide (0.2%-surfactant-based product using a fogging delivery system against human NoV GI.6 and GII.4 Sydney strains as well as the cultivable surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV dried on stainless steel coupons. Log10 reductions in human NoV and FCV were calculated utilizing RNase RT-qPCR and infectivity (plaque assay, respectively. An improved antiviral activity of hydrogen peroxide as a function of disinfectant formulation concentration in the atmosphere was observed against both GII.4 and FCV. At 12.4 ml/m3, hydrogen peroxide achieved a respective 2.5 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.3 log10 reduction in GI.6 and GII.4 NoV genome copies, and a 4.3 ± 0.1 log10 reduction in infectious FCV within 5 min. At the same disinfectant formulation concentration, chlorine dioxide-surfactant-based product resulted in a respective 1.7 ± 0.2, 0.6 ± 0.0, and 2.4 ± 0.2 log10 reduction in GI.6, GII.4, and FCV within 10 min; however, increasing the disinfectant formulation concentration to 15.9 ml/m3 negatively impacted its efficacy. Fogging uniformly delivered the disinfectants throughout the room, and effectively decontaminated viruses on hard-to-reach surfaces. Hydrogen peroxide delivered by fog showed promising virucidal activity against FCV by meeting the United States EPA 4-log10 reduction criteria for an anti-noroviral disinfectant; however, fogged chlorine dioxide-surfactant-based product did not achieve

  11. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  12. Development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for disinfection byproduct (DBP) research: A review of methods and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyang, E-mail: poplar_chen@hotmail.com [Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Water Resource Utilization and Environmental Pollution Control, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang, Tian [Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Water Resource Utilization and Environmental Pollution Control, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Bond, Tom [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gan, Yiqun [Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Water Resource Utilization and Environmental Pollution Control, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models are tools for linking chemical activities with molecular structures and compositions. Due to the concern about the proliferating number of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and the associated financial and technical burden, researchers have recently begun to develop QSAR models to investigate the toxicity, formation, property, and removal of DBPs. However, there are no standard procedures or best practices regarding how to develop QSAR models, which potentially limit their wide acceptance. In order to facilitate more frequent use of QSAR models in future DBP research, this article reviews the processes required for QSAR model development, summarizes recent trends in QSAR-DBP studies, and shares some important resources for QSAR development (e.g., free databases and QSAR programs). The paper follows the four steps of QSAR model development, i.e., data collection, descriptor filtration, algorithm selection, and model validation; and finishes by highlighting several research needs. Because QSAR models may have an important role in progressing our understanding of DBP issues, it is hoped that this paper will encourage their future use for this application.

  13. Development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for disinfection byproduct (DBP) research: A review of methods and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyang; Zhang, Tian; Bond, Tom; Gan, Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models are tools for linking chemical activities with molecular structures and compositions. Due to the concern about the proliferating number of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and the associated financial and technical burden, researchers have recently begun to develop QSAR models to investigate the toxicity, formation, property, and removal of DBPs. However, there are no standard procedures or best practices regarding how to develop QSAR models, which potentially limit their wide acceptance. In order to facilitate more frequent use of QSAR models in future DBP research, this article reviews the processes required for QSAR model development, summarizes recent trends in QSAR-DBP studies, and shares some important resources for QSAR development (e.g., free databases and QSAR programs). The paper follows the four steps of QSAR model development, i.e., data collection, descriptor filtration, algorithm selection, and model validation; and finishes by highlighting several research needs. Because QSAR models may have an important role in progressing our understanding of DBP issues, it is hoped that this paper will encourage their future use for this application.

  14. In vitro and in vivo anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of a new disinfection system utilizing photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Eisei; Mokudai, Takayuki; Yamada, Yasutomo; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of hydroxyl radical generation system by photolysis of H(2)O(2), which is a new disinfection system for the treatment of oral infection diseases such as periodontitis developed in our laboratory. Firstly, generation of the hydroxyl radical by the photolysis of H(2)O(2) in which 1 mol l(-1) H(2)O(2) was irradiated with a dual wavelength-light emitting diode (LED) at wavelengths of 400 and 465 nm was confirmed by applying an electron spin resonance-spin trapping technique. Secondly, the bactericidal effect of the system was examined under a similar condition in which Staphylococcus aureus suspended in 1 mol l(-1) H(2)O(2) was irradiated with LED light, resulting in substantial reduction of the colony forming unit (CFU) of the bacteria within a short time as 2 min. Finally, in vivo antibacterial effect of the photolysis of H(2)O(2) on a rat model of S. aureus infection was evaluated by a culture study. Since a significant reduction of recovered CFU of S. aureus was obtained, it is expected that in vitro antibacterial effect attributable to hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H(2)O(2) could be well reflected in in vivo superficial bacterial infection. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Action Research as a Professional Development Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reflective teachers are always searching for ways to improve their teaching. When this reflection becomes intentional and systematic, they are engaging in teacher research. This type of research, sometimes called "action research", can help bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing topics that are relevant to practicing teachers.…

  16. The evaluation of cultivable microbiota profile in patients with secondary endodontic infection before and after photo-activated disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh; Parker, Steven; Chiniforush, Nasim; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Secondary/persistent endodontic infection can be the outcome of failure of endodontic treatment. Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) can be a useful adjunct to mechanical and antimicrobial agents in eliminating endopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the effect of PAD on diversity and count of microbiota related to secondary/persistent endodontic infections. Root canal samples were taken using sterile paper points from the root canals of 14 patients with secondary/persistent endodontic infections after removing the root-canal filling materials. PAD was performed on teeth with toluidine blue O (TBO) in combination with diode laser. Then re-sampling was conducted from the canal root using sterile paper points and transferred to transport medium. The samples were plated and pure cultures of the target microorganisms were then isolated and identified by analytical profile index (API ® 20A) assays and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Before TBO-PAD, a total of 31 cultivable isolates could be retrieved; 25.8% of the isolated species were obligate anaerobic or microphilics including Veillonella parvula, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Propionibacterium acnes, and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and 74.2% of the isolated species were facultative anaerobic such as Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces naeslundii, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mitis, and Candida albicans. According to this in vivo study, the diversity and count of microbiota in root canal-treated teeth were decreased after TBO-PAD, so that E. faecalis, V. parvula, and C. albicans were the microorganisms that recovered after PAD. TBO-PAD is an effective approach that exhibited anti-microbial potential activity against microbiota involved in secondary/persistent endodontic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  18. A Summary of Publications on the Development of Mode-of-Action Information and Statistical Tools for Evaluating Health Outcomes from Drinking Water Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical contaminants are formed as a consequence of chemical disinfection of public drinking waters. Chemical disinfectants, which are used to kill harmful microorganisms, react with natural organic matter (NOM), bromide, iodide, and other compounds, forming complex mixtures...

  19. Health Activities Project (HAP): Heart Fitness and Action Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within the Heart Fitness and Action Module are teacher and student folios describing five activities which involve students in…

  20. Model tests for the efficacy of disinfectants on surfaces. IV. Communication: dependence of test results on the amount of contamination and the kind of active substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J; Spicher, G

    1998-12-01

    In the assessment of efficacy of surface disinfectants, many influencing factors have to be taken into account. One essential item is whether the surface to be disinfected is clean or soiled. Among the feasible soilings, the blood is of particular consequences because it ads impediments to many disinfecting agents. This paper shows to what extent the impairment of the efficacy of typical active agents depends on the blood burden of the surfaces. Therefore, test surfaces (varnished plywood) were contaminated with 0.01 to 0.08 ml of coagulating blood per test area (3 cm2). The blood contained cells of Staphylococcus aureus as test germs. The disinfection was effected by immersing the test objects in the disinfecting solution for 5 seconds and mingling the adhering disinfecting solution (about 0.02 ml) with the coagulated blood on the test surface with a glass spatula for about 20 seconds. Subsequently, the test objects remained in a horizontal position at room conditions for 4 hours and then the numbers of surviving test germs were determined. The graphical representation of the results shows that the efficacy curves of formaldehyde and phenol lie very closely together, i.e. their effect is hardly impaired by the different blood burdens of the test areas. The efficacy curves of glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid, chloramine T, and quaternary ammonium compounds lie very far apart from each other. To achieve the same microbicidal effect (log N/N0 = -5) when the contaminating amount is raised from 10 microliters/3 cm2 to 80 microliters/3 cm2, the concentration of chloramine T has to be raised by a factor of 5.4, peracetic acid by a factor of 9, glutaraldehyde by a factor of 24, quaternary ammonium compound even by a factor of 67. Ethanol and sodium hypochlorite showed a divergent behaviour. For ethanol, the efficacy diminution produced by increasing the contamination amount by a factor of 4 can be compensated by raising the concentration from 50% to about 70%. But again and

  1. Social Justice Activism: Feminism and Strategies for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernflores, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Success in social justice activism often hinges on judging when to employ the most effective strategy for action. Strategies for action include militancy, peaceful protest, and sometimes, engaging in a longer term program of "marginal gains." The militant feminism of many 19th century suffragettes, such as Emmeline Pankhurst, is a good…

  2. Monitoring Activities Review action report for the Environmental Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.

    1990-12-01

    To improve program planning and to provide bases for technical improvement of the monitoring program, the EG ampersand G Environmental Monitoring (EM) organization has regularly used the Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) process since 1982. Each MAR is conducted by a committee of individuals selected for their experience in the various types of monitoring performed by the EM organization. An MAR of the Environmental Monitoring Program was conducted in 1988. This action report identifies and discusses the recommendations of this MAR committee. This action report also identifies the actions already taken by the EM Unit in response to these recommendations, as well as the actions and schedules to be taken. 10 refs

  3. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Ait-Djoudi, Fariza; Naceur, Wahib Mohamed; Soukane, Sofiane

    2015-01-01

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body

  4. Ultraviolet disinfection of treated municipal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Laan, H; Cairns, B

    1993-12-31

    A wastewater disinfection system developed by a Canadian company, Trojan Technologies Inc., was discussed. Disinfection for pathogen reduction prior to discharge of treated municipal wastewater back into rivers and lakes has been either ignored or treated by the use of chemicals. In 1979 the first pilot ultraviolet (UV) wastewater disinfection system was established. Since then, over 500 municipal UV installations have been commissioned. The largest installation can process 212 million gallons of water per day. The advantages of UV as a disinfectant are: (1) It is more effective than chlorine. (2) There are no mutagenic/carcinogenic byproducts formed with UV. (3) No toxic chemical residuals are discharged. (4) UV is safe to both the operators and the public. (5) It is cost effective. Europe has not been as active in wastewater disinfection as has North America. One result of the absence of wastewater disinfection in Europe is that the Rhine River, for example, carries 50 million salmonella per second. Disinfection of wastewater effluents is, of course, indispensable in protecting our drinking water supply. 2 figs.

  5. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G

    2018-02-01

    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio eAvenanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others’ actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people’s behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals’ ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings.

  7. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eHauk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  8. Lead action on activity of some enzymes of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolyov, A.N.; Koshkaryova, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Lead action on activity of some enzymes of young plants of barley double-row (Hordeum distichon L.) families of cereals (Grominea). It is established that activity urease, catalase, ascorbatoxidase is in dependence as from a lead dose in a nutritious solution, and term ontogenesis. At later stages ontogenesis the increase in concentration of lead in an inhabitancy leads to sharp decrease in activity ascorbatoxidase. In the same conditions activity urease and catalase raises.

  9. Preparing Students for (Inter-)Action with Activity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore recent developments in activity theoretical HCI with the purpose of preparing designers for action. The paper discusses two projects where students engaged in iterative design applying fundamental principles from Activity Theory. They had been introduced to these principles...

  10. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Lei eLiew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON, is modulated by one’s expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices, 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ, as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing—similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ and extreme novelty (novices can result in the greatest AON activity.

  11. Applications of Photocatalytic Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gamage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the superior ability of photocatalysis to inactivate a wide range of harmful microorganisms, it is being examined as a viable alternative to traditional disinfection methods such as chlorination, which can produce harmful byproducts. Photocatalysis is a versatile and effective process that can be adapted for use in many applications for disinfection in both air and water matrices. Additionally, photocatalytic surfaces are being developed and tested for use in the context of “self-disinfecting” materials. Studies on the photocatalytic technique for disinfection demonstrate this process to have potential for widespread applications in indoor air and environmental health, biological, and medical applications, laboratory and hospital applications, pharmaceutical and food industry, plant protection applications, wastewater and effluents treatment, and drinking water disinfection. Studies on photocatalytic disinfection using a variety of techniques and test organisms are reviewed, with an emphasis on the end-use application of developed technologies and methods.

  12. Bacterial Spores Survive Treatment with Commercial Sterilants and Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Bonifacino, Aylin

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data ob...

  13. The synthetic human beta-defensin-3 C15 peptide exhibits antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, both alone and in combination with dental disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Kim, A Reum; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major etiologic agent of human dental caries that forms biofilms on hard tissues in the human oral cavity, such as tooth and dentinal surfaces. Human β-defensin-3 (HBD3) is a 45-amino-acid natural antimicrobial peptide that has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. A synthetic peptide consisting of the C-terminal 15 amino acids of HBD3 (HBD3-C15) was recently shown to be sufficient for its antimicrobial activity. Thus, clinical applications of this peptide have garnered attention. In this study, we investigated whether HBD3-C15 inhibits the growth of the representative cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans and its biofilm formation. HBD3-C15 inhibited bacterial growth, exhibited bactericidal activity, and attenuated bacterial biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. HBD3-C15 potentiated the bactericidal and anti-biofilm activity of calcium hydroxide (CH) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), which are representative disinfectants used in dental clinics, against S. mutans. Moreover, HBD3-C15 showed antimicrobial activity by inhibiting biofilm formation by S. mutans and other dentinophilic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus gordonii, which are associated with dental caries and endodontic infection, on human dentin slices. These effects were observed for HBD3-C15 alone and for HBD3-C15 in combination with CH or CHX. Therefore, we suggest that HBD3-C15 is a potential alternative or additive disinfectant that can be used for the treatment of oral infectious diseases, including dental caries and endodontic infections.

  14. The internal anticipation of sensory action effects: when action induces FFA and PPA activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary action – in particular the ability to produce desired effects in the environment – is fundamental to human existence. According to ideomotor theory we can achieve goals in the environment by means of anticipating their outcomes. We aimed at providing neurophysiological evidence for the assumption that performing actions calls for the activation of brain areas associated with the sensory effects usually evoked by the actions. We conducted an fMRI study in which right and left button presses lead to the presentation of face and house pictures. We compared a baseline phase with the same phase after participants experienced the association between button presses and pictures. We found an increase in the parahippocampal place area (PPA for the response that has been associated with house pictures and fusiform face area (FFA for the response that has been coupled with face pictures. This observation constitutes support for ideomotor theory.

  15. Monophasic action potentials and activation recovery intervals as measures of ventricular action potential duration: experimental evidence to resolve some controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronel, Ruben; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Wilms-Schopman, Francien J. G.; Opthof, Tobias; Linnenbank, André C.; Belterman, Charly N.; Janse, Michiel J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation recovery intervals (ARIs) and monophasic action potential (MAP) duration are used as measures of action potential duration in beating hearts. However, controversies exist concerning the correct way to record MAPs or calculate ARIs. We have addressed these issues

  16. Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol Extract against ... the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract of Mentha arvensis against multi-drug ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein leakage from the ... A. baumannii and acts by inducing lethal cellular damage to the bacterium.

  17. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection.

  18. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  19. Bacterial spores survive treatment with commercial sterilants and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    1999-09-01

    This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test suggest that commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged.

  20. Humidifier disinfectants, unfinished stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeyong Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Once released into the air, humidifier disinfectants became tiny nano-size particles, and resulted in chemical bronchoalveolitis. Families had lost their most beloved members, and even some of them became broken. Based on an estimate of two million potential victims who had experienced adverse effects from the use of humidifier disinfectants, we can say that what we have observed was only the tip of the iceberg. Problems of entire airways, as well as other systemic effects, should be examined, as we know these nano-size particles can irritate cell membranes and migrate into systemic circulation. The story of humidifier disinfectant is not finished yet.

  1. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 30 minutes at a concentration of 7.5 mL.m-3. Poliovirus inoculum, supplemented with 5%, heat inactivated non fat dry organic milk, were applied into the middle of the stainless steel disc and were dried under the air flow of a class II biological safety cabinet at room temperature. The Viral preparations were recovered by using flocked swabs and were titered on Vero cells using the classical Spearman-Kärber CPE reading method, the results were expressed as TCID50.ml-1. Results The infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula was kept at 105 TCID50.mL-1 up to 150 minutes at room temperature. Dried inocula exposed to airborne peracetic acid containing disinfectants were recovered at 60 and 120 minutes post-exposition and suspended in culture medium again. The cytotoxicity of disinfectant containing medium was eliminated through gel filtration columns. A 4 log reduction of infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula exposed to peracetic-based airborne disinfectant was obtained. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the virucidal activity of airborne disinfectants can be tested on dried poliovirus. PMID:23587047

  3. Elimination of biofilm and microbial contamination reservoirs in hospital washbasin U-bends by automated cleaning and disinfection with electrochemically activated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, J S; Deasy, E C; Boyle, M A; Russell, R J; O'Donnell, M J; Coleman, D C

    2016-10-01

    Washbasin U-bends are reservoirs of microbial contamination in healthcare environments. U-Bends are constantly full of water and harbour microbial biofilm. To develop an effective automated cleaning and disinfection system for U-bends using two solutions generated by electrochemical activation of brine including the disinfectant anolyte (predominantly hypochlorous acid) and catholyte (predominantly sodium hydroxide) with detergent properties. Initially three washbasin U-bends were manually filled with catholyte followed by anolyte for 5min each once weekly for five weeks. A programmable system was then developed with one washbasin that automated this process. This U-bend had three cycles of 5min catholyte followed by 5min anolyte treatment per week for three months. Quantitative bacterial counts from treated and control U-bends were determined on blood agar (CBA), R2A, PAS, and PA agars following automated treatment and on CBA and R2A following manual treatment. The average bacterial density from untreated U-bends throughout the study was >1×10(5) cfu/swab on all media with Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounting for ∼50% of counts. Manual U-bend electrochemically activated (ECA) solution treatment reduced counts significantly (<100cfu/swab) (P<0.01 for CBA; P<0.005 for R2A). Similarly, counts from the automated ECA-treatment U-bend were significantly reduced with average counts for 35 cycles on CBA, R2A, PAS, and PA of 2.1±4.5 (P<0.0001), 13.1±30.1 (P<0.05), 0.7±2.8 (P<0.001), and 0 (P<0.05) cfu/swab, respectively. P. aeruginosa was eliminated from all treated U-bends. Automated ECA treatment of washbasin U-bends consistently minimizes microbial contamination. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensenauer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection. (AJ) [de

  5. Disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensenauer, P

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection.

  6. Task Action Plans for generic activities: Category A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The document contains listings of generic technical activities as identified and placed in priority categories by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). In addition, it contains definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D and copies of forty approved Task Action Plans for Category A activites. Problem Descriptions for the Category B, C and D tasks are contained in NUREG--0471. This material was developed within the context of NRR's Program for the Resolution of Generic Issues Related to Nuclear Power Plants. As part of this program, the assignment of identified issues to priority categories and the approval of Task Action Plans were made by NRR's Technical Activities Steering Committee, chaired by the Deputy Director, NRR. The original document was published in November 1977. In December 1977 it was updated to add the Task Action Plan for Task No. A-17, Systems Interactions in Nuclear Power Plants. This update adds Task Action Plans for Tasks A-13, A-18, A-21, A-22, A-32, A-37, A-38 and A-40. Task A-41 has been included in Task A-40. In addition, as part of this update, the following changes were made to each Task Action Plan (with the exception of the Task Action Plan for Task A-9): (1) a title page was added that includes information such as Lead NRR Organization, Lead Supervisor, Task Manager, Applicability, and Projected Completion Date; (2) detailed schedule information was deleted; and (3) a new Section 3 entitled Basis for Continued Plant Operation and Licensing Pending Completion of Task was added. These changes represent general reformatting and the addition or deletion of certain general types of information. Some substantive revisions were made to several of the plans, however, a general revision of all of the plans was not undertaken at this time

  7. Hospital disinfection: efficacy and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenkofer, Markus; Block, Colin

    2005-08-01

    To review recent publications relevant to hospital disinfection (and cleaning) including the reprocessing of medical instruments. The key question as to whether the use of disinfectants on environmental surfaces rather than cleaning with detergents only reduces nosocomial infection rates still awaits conclusive studies. New disinfectants, mainly peroxygen compounds, show good sporicidal properties and will probably replace more problematical substances such as chlorine-releasing agents. The safe reprocessing of medical devices requires a well-coordinated approach, starting with proper cleaning. New methods and substances show promising activity for preventing the transmission of prions. Different aspects of virus inactivation have been studied, and the transmissibility, e.g. of norovirus, shows the need for sound data on how different disinfectant classes perform. Biofilms or other forms of surface-adherent organisms pose an extraordinary challenge to decontamination. Although resistance to biocides is generally not judged to be as critical as antibiotic resistance, scientific data support the need for proper use, i.e. the avoidance of widespread application, especially in low concentrations and in consumer products. Chemical disinfection of heat-sensitive instruments and targeted disinfection of environmental surfaces are established components of hospital infection control. To avoid danger to staff, patients and the environment, prudent use as well as established safety precautions are required. New technologies and products should be evaluated with sound methods. As emerging resistant pathogens will challenge healthcare facilities in the future even more than at present, there is a need for well-designed studies addressing the role of disinfection in hospital infection control.

  8. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of GN peptides and their mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jenssen, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    peptides due to their characteristics as naturally derived compounds with antimicrobial activity. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the mechanism of action of a small set of in silico optimized peptides. Following determination of peptide activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa......Increasing prevalence of bacteria that carries resistance towards conventional antibiotics has prompted the investigation into new compounds for bacterial intervention to ensure efficient infection control in the future. One group of potential lead structures for antibiotics is antimicrobial...

  10. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  11. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  12. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified

  13. Mechanism of action of recombinant activated factor VII: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedner, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia and inhibitors must be managed using agents that are hemostatically active in the absence of factor VIII or IX. Activated prothrombin complex concentrates have long been used in this context. However, the search for safer and more effective agents has led to the development of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark). This paper presents an update on the mechanism of action of rFVIIa, and describes how pharmacologic doses of this agent enhance thrombin production and thus contribute to the development of a stable, lysis-resistant fibrin plug at the site of vessel damage. This mechanism explains the reported efficacy of rFVIIa in a range of clinical situations characterized by impaired thrombin generation.

  14. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  15. Suitability of electrolyzed oxidizing water for the disinfection of hard surfaces and equipment in radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Pintaric, Robert; Matela, Joze; Pintaric, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospitals are faced with increasingly resistant strains of micro-organisms. When it comes to disinfection, individual parts of electronic equipment of angiology diagnostics such as patient couches of computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners prove to be very hard to disinfect. Disinfectants of choice are therefore expected to possess properties such as rapid, residue-free action without any damaging effect on the sensitive electronic equipment. This pap...

  16. Disinfection by electrohydraulic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M; Soike, K

    1967-04-28

    Electrohydraulic treatment was applied to suspensions of Escherichia coli, spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and bacteriophage T2 at an input energy that, in most cases, was below the energy required to sterilize. The input energy was held relatively constant for each of these microorganisms, but the capacitance and voltage were varied. Data are presented which show the degree of disinfection as a function of capacitance and voltage. In all cases, the degree of disinfection for a given input energy increases as both capacitance and voltage are lowered.

  17. UV disinfection of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, E.; Johansen; Myhrstad, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    UV radiation has been found to have advantages over chloration for the disinfection of water. New regulations for dietary conditions on Norwegian ships introduced in 1974 led to increased use of UV disinfection, and this has in the following years spread to waterworks. The present article is based on a study to determine possible limitation. The nature of the injuries to the microorganisms is first discussed, together with repair mechanisms. A table is given showing the energy required for 90 and 100 percent inactivation of a number of microorganisms. Some other factors affecting UV inactivation are briefly mentioned. (JIW)

  18. Evaluating the Sporicidal Activity of Disinfectants against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Spores by Using the Improved Methods Based on ASTM E2197-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwamahoro, Marie Christine; Massicotte, Richard; Hurtubise, Yves; Gagné-Bourque, François; Mafu, Akier Assanta; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2018-01-01

    Spore-forming pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile , are associated with nosocomial infection, leading to the increased use of sporicidal disinfectants, which impacts socioeconomic costs. However, C. difficile can be prevented using microorganisms such as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , a prophylactic agent that has been proven to be effective against it in recent tests or it can be controlled by sporicidal disinfectants. These disinfectants against spores should be evaluated according to a known and recommended standard. Unfortunately, some newly manufactured disinfectants like Bioxy products have not yet been tested. ASTM E2197-11 is a standard test that uses stainless steel disks (1 cm in diameter) as carriers, and the performance of the test formulation is calculated by comparing the number of viable test organisms to that on the control carriers. Surface tests are preferable for evaluating disinfectants with sporicidal effects on hard surfaces. This study applies improved methods, based on the ASTM E2197-11 standard, for evaluating and comparing the sporicidal efficacies of several disinfectants against spores of C. difficile and B. amyloliquefaciens , which are used as the test organisms. With the improved method, all spores were recovered through vortexing and membrane filtration. The results show that chlorine-based products are effective in 5 min and Bioxy products at 5% w/v are effective in 10 min. Although Bioxy products may take longer to prove their effectiveness, their non-harmful effects to hospital surfaces and people have been well established in the literature.

  19. Effect of Ozonation and Biological Activated Carbon Treatment of Wastewater Effluents on Formation of N-nitrosamines and Halogenated Disinfection Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yi-Hsueh; Mitch, William A

    2017-02-21

    Ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (O 3 /BAC) is being considered as a key component of reverse osmosis-free advanced treatment trains for potable wastewater reuse. Using a laboratory-scale O 3 /BAC system treating two nitrified wastewater effluents, this study characterized the effect of different ozone dosages (0-1.0 mg O 3 /mg dissolved organic carbon) and BAC empty bed contact times (EBCT; 15-60 min) on the formation after chlorination or chloramination of 35 regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), 8 N-nitrosamines, and bromate. DBP concentrations were remarkably similar between the two wastewaters across O 3 /BAC conditions. Ozonation increased bromate, TCNM, and N-nitrosodimethylamine, but ozonation was less significant for other DBPs. DBP formation generally decreased significantly with BAC treatment at 15 min EBCT, but little further reduction was observed at higher EBCT where low dissolved oxygen concentrations may have limited biological activity. The O 3 /BAC-treated wastewaters met regulatory levels for trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate, although N-nitrosodimethylamine exceeded the California Notification Level in one case. Regulated THMs and HAAs dominated by mass. When DBP concentrations were weighted by measures of their toxic potencies, unregulated haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, and haloacetamides dominated. Assuming toxicity is additive, the calculated DBP-associated toxicity of the O 3 /BAC-treated chloraminated effluents were comparable or slightly higher than those calculated in a recent evaluation of Full Advanced Treatment trains incorporating reverse osmosis.

  20. Natural Translating Locomotion Modulates Cortical Activity at Action Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Pozzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study verified if the translational component of locomotion modulated cortical activity recorded at action observation. Previous studies focusing on visual processing of biological motion mainly presented point light walker that were fixed on a spot, thus removing the net translation toward a goal that yet remains a critical feature of locomotor behavior. We hypothesized that if biological motion recognition relies on the transformation of seeing in doing and its expected sensory consequences, a significant effect of translation compared to centered displays on sensorimotor cortical activity is expected. To this aim, we explored whether EEG activity in the theta (4–8 Hz, alpha (8–12 Hz, beta 1 (14–20 Hz and beta 2 (20–32 Hz frequency bands exhibited selectivity as participants viewed four types of stimuli: a centered walker, a centered scrambled, a translating walker and a translating scrambled. We found higher theta synchronizations for observed stimulus with familiar shape. Higher power decreases in the beta 1 and beta 2 bands, indicating a stronger motor resonance was elicited by translating compared to centered stimuli. Finally, beta bands modulation in Superior Parietal areas showed that the translational component of locomotion induced greater motor resonance than human shape. Using a Multinomial Logistic Regression classifier we found that Dorsal-Parietal and Inferior-Frontal regions of interest (ROIs, constituting the core of action-observation system, were the only areas capable to discriminate all the four conditions, as reflected by beta activities. Our findings suggest that the embodiment elicited by an observed scenario is strongly mediated by horizontal body displacement.

  1. Disinfection of sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the liquids in the agriculture or its disposal like sea nutrient

  2. Radiation induced chemical changes in and disinfection of organic wastes suitable for supplemental feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groneman, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to disinfect organic wastes and simultaneously ease the separation of suspended solids from water. Because these effects can have important favourable impacts on the technology of upgrading organic wastes to animal feed or fertilizers, experimental studies are reported on the rationale of effects of gamma irradiation or disinfection and separation of the solid and the liquid phase of organic waste systems. The radiation inactivation of microorganisms occurs by direct and indirect action. Mechanisms of inactivation are discussed and measures are proposed how the indirect action of the radiation inactivation of microorganisms can be increased. Effects of gamma irradiation on dewatering properties of organic wastes were indirectly caused by the oxidizing OH radicals produced by the irradiation of water. OH radicals react with organic components of the solid phase which leads to their solubilisation resulting in an increase of the total organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase. Results of a mutagenicity test indicate that the solvated compounds exhibited no mutagenic activity. Microbiological case studies on the disinfection and upgrading of liquid and solid organic wastes to animal feed are discussed and the acceptance of radiation processing is evaluated. (Auth.)

  3. In silico identification of a therapeutic target for photo-activated disinfection with indocyanine green: Modeling and virtual screening analysis of Arg-gingipain from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a momentous bacterial etiological agent associated with periodontitis, peri-implantitis as well as endodontic infections. The potential advantage of Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) as a promising novel approach is the choice of a suitable target site, specific photosensitizer, and wavelength of light for delivery of the light from source to target. Since Arg-gingipain is a cysteine proteinase that is involved in the virulence of P. gingivalis, it was evaluated as a target site for PAD with indocyanine green (ICG) as a photosensitizer. In this study, we used a range of in silico strategies, bioinformatics tools, biological databases, and computer simulation molecular modeling to evaluate the capacity of Arg-gingipain. The predicted structure of Arg-gingipain indicated that it is located outside the cell and has nine domains and 17 ligands, including two calcium ions and three sodium ions with positive charges which can be a site of interaction for anionic ICG. Based on the results of this study, anionic ICG desires to bind and interact with residues of Arg-gingipain during PAD as a main site to enhance the yield of treatment of endo-periodontal lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    , it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration.

  5. Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized

  6. Thermal disinfection of hotels, hospitals, and athletic venues hot water distribution systems contaminated by Legionella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2007-11-01

    Legionella spp. (> or = 500 cfu liter(-1)) were detected in 92 of 497 water distribution systems (WDS) examined. Thermal disinfection was applied at 33 WDS. After the first and second application of the disinfection procedure, 15 (45.4%) and 3 (9%) positive for remedial actions WDS were found, respectively. Legionella pneumophila was more resistant to thermal disinfection than Legionella non-pneumophila spp. (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=1-35). WDS of hotels with oil heater were more easily disinfected than those with electrical or solar heater (RR=0.4 95% CI=0.2-0.8). Thermal disinfection seems not to be efficient enough to eliminate legionellae, unless repeatedly applied and in combination with extended heat flushing, and faucets chlorine disinfection.

  7. Mast cells in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - Activators and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanen, Petri T; Bot, Ilze

    2017-12-05

    Mast cells are potent actors involved in inflammatory reactions in various tissues, including both in the intimal and the adventitial layers of atherosclerotic arteries. In the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis, mast cells are activated to degranulate, and thereby triggered to release an abundance of preformed inflammatory mediators, notably histamine, heparin, neutral proteases and cytokines stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules. Depending on the stimulus, mast cell activation may also launch prolonged synthesis and secretion of single bioactive molecules, such as cytokines and derivatives of arachidonic acid. The mast cell-derived mediators may impede the functions of different types of cells present in atherosclerotic lesions, and also compromise the structural and functional integrity of the intimal extracellular matrix. In the adventitial layer of atherosclerotic coronary arteries, mast cells locate next to peptidergic sensory nerve fibers, which, by releasing neuropeptides may activate mast cells to release vasoactive compounds capable of triggering local vasoconstriction. The concerted actions of arterial mast cells have the potential to contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, and ultimately to destabilization and rupture of an advanced atherosclerotic plaque with ensuing atherothrombotic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrocarbon impacts and remedial action at an active service station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, S.A. [Keystone Environmental, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Linke, J. [Chevron Canada Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed a project that examined the hydrocarbon impacts and remedial action at an active service station. The presentation identified the project partners, discussed the background on the project and project goals. Chevron Canada was the site involved in the study and Keystone Environmental was responsible for testing soil samples, developing the detailed conceptual site model, and for conducting indoor air quality monitoring. The presentation also provided illustrations of the site layout, investigated areas, and soil and groundwater plume. The evaluation and selection of remedial options were also discussed as well as other project planning activities such as assembling the project team, obtaining agreement with stakeholders, and coordinating with the municipality, utility companies, residents, and neighbours. Remediation efforts that were described and illustrated in the presentation included: underpinning and shoring; excavation; and, barrier wall installation. Last, post remediation activities were identified including the installation of post remediation confirmatory wells; reinstating structures; reinstating rear yards, fences, and garages; reconnecting utilities; performance monitoring of barrier wall; and, preparing closure reports for certificates of compliance on off-site properties. 6 figs.

  9. Water disinfection agents and disinfection by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavský, J.; Barloková, D.; Kapusta, O.; Kunštek, M.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe factors of water quality change in the distribution network and legislative requirements in Slovakia for disinfectants and disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In the experimental part, the time dependence of the application of the chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on the formation of some by-products of disinfection for drinking water from WTP Hriňová is studied. We monitored trihalomethanes, free chlorine, chlorine dioxide and chlorites.

  10. Evaluation of the efficiency of the photo Fenton disinfection of natural drinking water source during the rainy season in the Sahelian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndounla, J.; Pulgarin, C.

    2014-01-01

    The photo-disinfection of water from two different wells (W1, pH: 4.6–5.1 ± 0.02) and (W2 pH: 5.6–5.7 ± 0.02) was carried out during the rainy season at Ouagadougou–Burkina Faso, West Africa. The weather variation during the rainy season significantly affects the photo-disinfection processes (solar disinfection and photo-Fenton). The dilution of the water by rainwater highly affected the chemical composition of the wells' water used in this study; very low iron contents Compared to the ones recorded during the dry season were recorded in all water samples. Both photo-disinfection processes were used to treat 25 L of water in a compound parabolic collector (CPC). None of them have shown the total inactivation of both wild enteric bacteria strains (total coliforms/E. coli and Salmonella spp.) involved in the treatment. However, the total coliforms/E. coli strains were totally inactivated during the exposure under most of the photo-Fenton treatment. Also, the remaining strains, especially those of Salmonella spp. were achieved during the subsequent 24 h of dark storage under the action of the Fenton process. Under uniquely solar radiation, total inactivation was recorded only in the total coliforms/E. coli strains. The impact of the available irradiance on the efficiency of the photo-Fenton disinfection of natural water was highlighted during the exposure under high intermittent solar radiation. The impact of the HCO 3 − concentration of both wells' water on the evolution of the pH during the photo-disinfection was recorded. Drastic decrease was noticed after the initial fast increase in presence of low HCO 3 − concentration while a steady state was observed after the increase in presence of higher concentration. The redox activities of the nitrogen components of the water during both photo-disinfection processes have led to increased concentration of nitrite in all the cases and variations were noticed in that of nitrate and ammonia. - Graphical

  11. Evaluation of the efficiency of the photo Fenton disinfection of natural drinking water source during the rainy season in the Sahelian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndounla, J., E-mail: juliette.ndounla@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering GPAO, Station 6, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Institut International d' Ingénierie de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Laboratoire Eau, Dépollution, Ecosystème et Santé (LEDES), 01 BP 594 Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Pulgarin, C., E-mail: Cesar.pulgarin@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering GPAO, Station 6, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    The photo-disinfection of water from two different wells (W1, pH: 4.6–5.1 ± 0.02) and (W2 pH: 5.6–5.7 ± 0.02) was carried out during the rainy season at Ouagadougou–Burkina Faso, West Africa. The weather variation during the rainy season significantly affects the photo-disinfection processes (solar disinfection and photo-Fenton). The dilution of the water by rainwater highly affected the chemical composition of the wells' water used in this study; very low iron contents Compared to the ones recorded during the dry season were recorded in all water samples. Both photo-disinfection processes were used to treat 25 L of water in a compound parabolic collector (CPC). None of them have shown the total inactivation of both wild enteric bacteria strains (total coliforms/E. coli and Salmonella spp.) involved in the treatment. However, the total coliforms/E. coli strains were totally inactivated during the exposure under most of the photo-Fenton treatment. Also, the remaining strains, especially those of Salmonella spp. were achieved during the subsequent 24 h of dark storage under the action of the Fenton process. Under uniquely solar radiation, total inactivation was recorded only in the total coliforms/E. coli strains. The impact of the available irradiance on the efficiency of the photo-Fenton disinfection of natural water was highlighted during the exposure under high intermittent solar radiation. The impact of the HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentration of both wells' water on the evolution of the pH during the photo-disinfection was recorded. Drastic decrease was noticed after the initial fast increase in presence of low HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentration while a steady state was observed after the increase in presence of higher concentration. The redox activities of the nitrogen components of the water during both photo-disinfection processes have led to increased concentration of nitrite in all the cases and variations were noticed in that of nitrate and

  12. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  13. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  14. Spiral-shaped reactor for water disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane; Ait-Djoudi, Fariza; Naceur, Wahib M.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine-based processes are still widely used for water disinfection. The disinfection process for municipal water consumption is usually carried out in large tanks, specifically designed to verify several hydraulic and disinfection criteria

  15. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  16. Tetracyclines function as dual-action light-activated antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya He

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI employs photosensitizing dyes activated by visible light to produce reactive oxygen species. aPDI is independent of the antibiotic resistance status of the target cells, and is thought unlikely to produce resistance itself. Among many PS that have been investigated, tetracyclines occupy a unique niche. They are potentially dual-action compounds that can both kill bacteria under illumination, and prevent bacterial regrowth by inhibiting ribosomes. Tetracycline antibiotics are regarded as bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. Doxycycline (DOTC is excited best by UVA light (365 nm while demeclocycline (DMCT can be efficiently activated by blue light (415 nm as well as UVA. Both compounds were able to eradicate Gram-positive (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria (>6 log(10 steps of killing at concentrations (10-50μM and fluences (10-20J/cm2. In contrast to methylene blue, MB plus red light, tetracyclines photoinactivated bacteria in rich growth medium. When ~3 logs of bacteria were killed with DMCT/DOTC+light and the surviving cells were added to growth medium, further bacterial killing was observed, while the same experiment with MB allowed complete regrowth. MIC studies were carried out either in the dark or exposed to 0.5mW/cm2 blue light. Up to three extra steps (8-fold increased antibiotic activity was found with light compared to dark, with MRSA and tetracycline-resistant strains of E. coli. Tetracyclines can accumulate in bacterial ribosomes, where they could be photoactivated with blue/UVA light producing microbial killing via ROS generation.

  17. Value added cleaning and disinfection of the root canal: laser-activated irrigation and laser-induced photoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Roeland J. G.; Meire, Maarten A.

    2016-03-01

    Among present-day marketed systems ultrasonic activation appears to be the best way to activate and potentiate endodontic irrigants. An alternative for ultrasonic activation of irrigants is laser activated irrigation (LAI) or photoninitiated acoustic streaming. Based on present-day research it appears that LAI (especially with Erbium lasers) can be more efficient for debris removal out of root canals and interaction with the endodontic biofilms thanks to the induction of specific cavitation phenomena and acoustic streaming. Other wavelengths are now explored to be used for LAI. Another way to interact with biofilms is to rely on laser-induced photoporation in combination with gold nanoparticles ( AuNPs). The latter is an alternative physical method for delivering macromolecules in cells. Nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapour nanobubbles that can emerge around the AuNPs.

  18. Combined Activity of Colloid Nanosilver and Zataria Multiflora Boiss Essential Oil-Mechanism of Action and Biofilm Removal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirdel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial and biofilm removal potential of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO and silver nanoparticle (SNP alone and in combination on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and evaluate the mechanism of action. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and optimal inhibitory combination (OIC of ZEO and SNP were determined according to fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC method. Biofilm removal potential and leakage pattern of 260-nm absorbing material from the bacterial cell during exposure to the compounds were also investigated. Results: MICs of SNP for both bacteria were the same as 25 μg/ mL. The MICs and MBCs values of ZEO were 2500 and 1250 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective OIC value for SNP and ZEO against Salm. Typhimurium and Staph. aureus were 12.5, 625 and 0.78, 1250 μg/ mL, respectively. ZEO and SNP at MIC and OIC concentrations represented a strong removal ability (>70% on biofilm. Moreover, ZEO at MIC and OIC concentrations did a 6-log reduction of primary inoculated bacteria during 15 min contact time. The effect of ZEO on the loss of 260-nm material from the cell was faster than SNP during 15 and 60 min. Conclusion: Combination of ZEO and SNP had significant sanitizing activity on examined bacteria which may be suitable for disinfecting the surfaces.

  19. Mosquitocidal Activity and Mode of Action of the Isoxazoline Fluralaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shiyao; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2017-02-06

    Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae , are important vectors of human diseases. Fluralaner, a recently introduced parasiticide, was evaluated as a mosquitocide in this study. On Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae fourth-instar larvae, fluralaner had 24-h LC 50 (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) values of 1.8 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively. Following topical application to adult Ae. aegypti , fluralaner toxicity reached a plateau in about 3 days, with 1- and 3-day LD 50 (lethal dose for 50% mortality) values of 1.3 ng/mg and 0.26 ng/mg, suggesting a slowly developing toxicity. Fipronil outperformed fluralaner by up to 100-fold in adult topical, glass contact, and feeding assays on Ae. aegypti . These data show that fluralaner does not have exceptional toxicity to mosquitoes in typical exposure paradigms. In electrophysiological recordings on Drosophila melanogaster larval central nervous system, the effectiveness of fluralaner for restoring nerve firing after gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment, a measure of GABA antagonism, was similar in susceptible Oregon-R and cyclodiene-resistant rdl -1675 strains, with EC 50 (half maximal effective concentration) values of 0.34 µM and 0.29 µM. Although this finding suggests low cross resistance in the presence of rdl , the moderate potency, low contact activity, and slow action of fluralaner argue against its use as an adult mosquitocide for vector control.

  20. Mosquitocidal Activity and Mode of Action of the Isoxazoline Fluralaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyao Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are important vectors of human diseases. Fluralaner, a recently introduced parasiticide, was evaluated as a mosquitocide in this study. On Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae fourth-instar larvae, fluralaner had 24-h LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% mortality values of 1.8 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively. Following topical application to adult Ae. aegypti, fluralaner toxicity reached a plateau in about 3 days, with 1- and 3-day LD50 (lethal dose for 50% mortality values of 1.3 ng/mg and 0.26 ng/mg, suggesting a slowly developing toxicity. Fipronil outperformed fluralaner by up to 100-fold in adult topical, glass contact, and feeding assays on Ae. aegypti. These data show that fluralaner does not have exceptional toxicity to mosquitoes in typical exposure paradigms. In electrophysiological recordings on Drosophila melanogaster larval central nervous system, the effectiveness of fluralaner for restoring nerve firing after gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA treatment, a measure of GABA antagonism, was similar in susceptible Oregon-R and cyclodiene-resistant rdl-1675 strains, with EC50 (half maximal effective concentration values of 0.34 µM and 0.29 µM. Although this finding suggests low cross resistance in the presence of rdl, the moderate potency, low contact activity, and slow action of fluralaner argue against its use as an adult mosquitocide for vector control.

  1. Uncertainty Driven Action (UDA) model: A foundation for unifying perspectives on design activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    are linked via uncertainty perception. The foundations of the UDA model in the design literature are elaborated in terms of the three core actions and their links to designer cognition and behaviour, utilising definitions and concepts from Activity Theory. The practical relevance and theoretical......This paper proposes the Uncertainty Driven Action (UDA) model, which unifies the fragmented literature on design activity. The UDA model conceptualises design activity as a process consisting of three core actions: information action, knowledge-sharing action, and representation action, which...... contributions of the UDA model are discussed. This paper contributes to the design literature by offering a comprehensive formalisation of design activity of individual designers, which connects cognition and action, to provide a foundation for understanding previously disparate descriptions of design activity....

  2. Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sanitizers and disinfectants can play an important role in protecting public health. They are designed to kill "pests," including infectious germs and other microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Unfortunately, sanitizers and disinfectants also contain chemicals that are "pesticides." Exposure to persistent toxic…

  3. In-Use Evaluation of Peracetic Acid for High-Level Disinfection of Endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenjiao, Wu; Hongyan, Zhang; Qing, Gu; Xiaoqi, Zhong; Liying, Gu; Ying, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Many high-level disinfectants have been used for disinfection of endoscopes such as 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both GA and OPA are widely used in disinfection of endoscopes and have been previously discussed, but there is little research on the practical use of PAA as an endoscope disinfectant. An experimental model of a flexible gastrointestinal endoscope being contaminated with 9 strains of microorganism was designed. After the cleaning and disinfecting procedure was completed, we evaluated the biocidal activity (850 ppm PAA, 2% GA, and 0.55% OPA) on our flexible gastrointestinal endoscope model. We also evaluated sterilization effectiveness of PAA on other bacteria, including some antibiotic-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile). The residual bacterial colony count number of the PAA-disinfected endoscope was significantly lower than that of the GA- and OPA-disinfected endoscopes. The biocidal effect and efficiency of the endoscope disinfection by PAA appeared to be better than either the GA- or OPA-disinfected endoscope. PAA has demonstrated a good sterilization effect on other bacterial species; of particular note are common antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile. The results of this study demonstrate that PAA is a fast and effective high-level disinfectant for use in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes.

  4. Digital food activism: Values, expertise and modes of action

    OpenAIRE

    Eli, Karin; Schneider, Tanja; Dolan, Catherine; Ulijaszek, Stanley

    2018-01-01

    New information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly enable social action and civic organisation, on both local and global scales. Ranging from social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, to mobile apps such as Buycott, and to data sharing wiki platforms and hacktivist projects, the activist landscape is rapidly shifting, collapsing geographic boundaries to form new issue publics and fast, sometimes mercurial, collective action. Within these emerging digital platforms f...

  5. Making Tracks 1.0: Action Researching an Active Transportation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel; Foran, Andrew; Robinson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the first cycle of an action research project. The objective of this action research was to examine the implementation of a school-based active transportation education program (Making Tracks). A two-cycle action research design was employed in which elementary school students' (ages 7-9), middle school…

  6. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.72 Disinfection. A public water... the direct influence of surface water and provides filtration treatment must provide disinfection...) Disinfection requirements for public water systems which provide filtration. Each public water system that...

  7. Ultraviolet disinfection of potable water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, R. L. [Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1990-06-15

    Because of upcoming surface and groundwater regulations regarding the control of microbiological and chemical contaminants, there is a need to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for primary disinfection of potable water supplies. Data is presented on microbicidal wavelengths of UV and distribution of energy output for low and medium-pressure arc lamps. Both systems were found to perform equally well for inactivating microorganisms, but each had distinct advantages in different applications. Approximate dosages for 90% inactivation of selected microorganisms by UV is presented in a table. Cost analysis for disinfection is presented in two tables as well as the advantages and disadvantages of UV disinfection.

  8. Ultraviolet disinfection of potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Because of upcoming surface and groundwater regulations regarding the control of microbiological and chemical contaminants, there is a need to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for primary disinfection of potable water supplies. Data is presented on microbicidal wavelengths of UV and distribution of energy output for low and medium-pressure arc lamps. Both systems were found to perform equally well for inactivating microorganisms, but each had distinct advantages in different applications. Approximate dosages for 90% inactivation of selected microorganisms by UV is presented in a table. Cost analysis for disinfection is presented in two tables as well as the advantages and disadvantages of UV disinfection

  9. Effective reprocessing of reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues – the devil is in the details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has recently been reported that reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues may be contaminated, especially with adapted Achromobacter species 3, when products based on surface-active ingredients are used. Fresh solution may quickly become recontaminated if dispensers are not processed adequately. Methods: We evaluated the abilities of six manual and three automatic processes for processing contaminated dispensers to prevent recolonisation of a freshly-prepared disinfectant solution (Mikrobac forte 0.5%). Dispensers were left at room temperature for 28 days. Samples of the disinfectant solution were taken every 7 days and assessed quantitatively for bacterial contamination. Results: All automatic procedures prevented recolonisation of the disinfectant solution when a temperature of 60–70°C was ensured for at least 5 min, with or without the addition of chemical cleaning agents. Manual procedures prevented recontamination of the disinfectant solution when rinsing with hot water or a thorough cleaning step was performed before treating all surfaces with an alcohol-based disinfectant or an oxygen-releaser. Other cleaning and disinfection procedures, including the use of an alcohol-based disinfectant, did not prevent recolonisation. Conclusions: These results indicate that not all processes are effective for processing reusable dispensers for surface-disinfectant tissues, and that a high temperature during the cleaning step or use of a biofilm-active cleaning agent are essential. PMID:24653973

  10. Effective reprocessing of reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues – the devil is in the details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf, Günter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: It has recently been reported that reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues may be contaminated, especially with adapted , when products based on surface-active ingredients are used. Fresh solution may quickly become recontaminated if dispensers are not processed adequately. Methods: We evaluated the abilities of six manual and three automatic processes for processing contaminated dispensers to prevent recolonisation of a freshly-prepared disinfectant solution (Mikrobac forte 0.5%. Dispensers were left at room temperature for 28 days. Samples of the disinfectant solution were taken every 7 days and assessed quantitatively for bacterial contamination. Results: All automatic procedures prevented recolonisation of the disinfectant solution when a temperature of 60–70°C was ensured for at least 5 min, with or without the addition of chemical cleaning agents. Manual procedures prevented recontamination of the disinfectant solution when rinsing with hot water or a thorough cleaning step was performed before treating all surfaces with an alcohol-based disinfectant or an oxygen-releaser. Other cleaning and disinfection procedures, including the use of an alcohol-based disinfectant, did not prevent recolonisation.Conclusions: These results indicate that not all processes are effective for processing reusable dispensers for surface-disinfectant tissues, and that a high temperature during the cleaning step or use of a biofilm-active cleaning agent are essential.

  11. Effect oof some antibiotics, disinfectants, and UV light on vability of vegetative cells and spores of C1. perfringend type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rymkiewicz, D.

    1977-01-01

    Cells and spores of 40 strains of C1. perfringens type A, pathogenic for guinea pigs, were tested for resistance to antibiotics, drugs, disinfectants used in surgery and in bacteriological laboratories, and UV light. No correlation was found between thermoresistance of spores and their resistance to other bactericidal agents. Among the common disinfectants, iodine solution showed strong bactericidal and sporostatic activity. Good bactericidal effect was also obtained by combined action of Vescodin and UV light. Drug resistance of C1. perfringens type A strains changed clearly in the past 10 years. Strains inducing gangrene became resistant to penicillin and tetracyclines, which hitherto were commonly applied. Ampicilin can now be recommended, as the antibiotic with strong bactericidal and sporostatic action. (author)

  12. In vitro study on the disinfectability of two split-septum needle-free connection devices using different disinfection procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhart, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study investigated the external disinfection of two needle-free connection devices (NFC using Octeniderm (spraying and wiping technique vs. Descoderm pads (wiping technique. The split-septum membrane of the NFC was contaminated with >10 CFU . The efficacy of the disinfection at 30 sec. exposure time was controlled by taking a swab sample and by flushing the NFC with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1 g, 1-Propanol 30.0 g, and 2-Propanol 45.0 g in solution was highly effective (CFU reduction ≥4 log against both microorganisms, whereas the use of 63.1 g 2-Propanol in 100 ml solution led to residual contamination with . Our investigation underlines that (i in clinical practice disinfection of NFCs before use is mandatory, and that (ii details of disinfection technique are of utmost importance regarding their efficacy. Our investigation revealed no significant differences between both split-septum NFC types. Clinical studies are needed to confirm a possible superiority of disinfectants with long-lasting residual antimicrobial activity.

  13. Health Activities Project (HAP): Action/Reaction Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing activities in timing, improving, and practicing to improve reaction…

  14. Formation and action of oxygen activated species in cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.E.; Meneghini, R.

    1982-01-01

    The differences of hydrogen peroxide sensibility of mammal cell lineages (man, mouse, chinese hamster) in culture are studied. The cellular survival and the frequency of DNA induced breaks by hydrogen peroxide are analysed. The efficiency of elimination of DNA breaks by cells is determined. The possible relation between the cell capacity of repair and its survival to hydrogen peroxide action is also discussed. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Macroeconomic Activity and Monetary Policy Actions: Some Preliminary Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Haslag, Joseph H; Hein, Scott E

    1992-01-01

    Monetary policy is conducted through open market operations, loans at the discount window, and changes in the reserve requirement structure. The purpose of this paper is to formally investigate the notion that the effect of changes in reserve requirement ratios is different from the effect of other policy tools. This is accomplished by decomposing the monetary base into those changes caused by changes in reserve requirement ratios and those caused by other monetary policy actions. Some prelim...

  16. A review on wastewater disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Amir Mohammadi Bovini; Yung Tse Hung

    2013-01-01

    Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent d...

  17. Resistance of bacterial biofilms formed on stainless steel surface to disinfecting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królasik, Joanna; Zakowska, Zofia; Krepska, Milena; Klimek, Leszek

    2010-01-01

    The natural ability of microorganisms for adhesion and biofilm formation on various surfaces is one of the factors causing the inefficiency of a disinfection agent, despite its proven activity in vitro. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of disinfecting substances on bacterial biofilms formed on stainless steel surface. A universally applied disinfecting agent was used in the tests. Bacterial strains: Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus hominis strains, were isolated from food contact surfaces, after a cleaning and disinfection process. The disinfecting agent was a commercially available acid specimen based on hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid, the substance that was designed for food industry usage. Model tests were carried out on biofilm formed on stainless steel (type 304, no 4 finish). Biofilms were recorded by electron scanning microscope. The disinfecting agent in usable concentration, 0.5% and during 10 minutes was ineffective for biofilms. The reduction of cells in biofilms was only 1-2 logarithmic cycles. The use of the agent in higher concentration--1% for 30 minutes caused reduction of cell number by around 5 logarithmic cycles only in the case of one microorganism, M. luteus. For other types: L. innocua, P. putida, S. hominis, the requirements placed on disinfecting agents were not fulfilled. The results of experiments proved that bacterial biofilms are resistant to the disinfectant applied in its operational parameters. Disinfecting effectiveness was achieved after twofold increase of the agent's concentration.

  18. Activate: Social Action in landscape Architecture Design Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mclean

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflection on the teaching approach adopted in two landscape architecture design studios where students were engaged in developing design projects and campaign strategies informed by personal understandings of action and advocacy for and with communities. The approach was a deliberate application of principles from advocacy theory enmeshed in an educational philosophy of learner-centeredness and the intent was for students to develop strong individual senses of awareness and empowerment in an environment that value personal interests and learning. An evaluation of the approach as an attempt to position landscape architecture as social practice is provided.

  19. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless

  20. Action Search: Learning to Search for Human Activities in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Alwassel, Humam

    2017-06-13

    Traditional approaches for action detection use trimmed data to learn sophisticated action detector models. Although these methods have achieved great success at detecting human actions, we argue that huge information is discarded when ignoring the process, through which this trimmed data is obtained. In this paper, we propose Action Search, a novel approach that mimics the way people annotate activities in video sequences. Using a Recurrent Neural Network, Action Search can efficiently explore a video and determine the time boundaries during which an action occurs. Experiments on the THUMOS14 dataset reveal that our model is not only able to explore the video efficiently but also accurately find human activities, outperforming state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Wastewater disinfection by peracetic acid: assessment of models for tracking residual measurements and inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Gehr, Ronald; Bartrand, Timothy A; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Dell'Erba, Adele; Falsanisi, Dario; Haas, Charles N

    2007-07-01

    With its potential for low (if any) disinfection byproduct formation and easy retrofit for chlorine contactors, peracetic acid (PAA) or use of PAA in combination with other disinfectant technologies may be an attractive alternative to chlorine-based disinfection. Examples of systems that might benefit from use of PAA are water reuse schemes or plants discharging to sensitive receiving water bodies. Though PAA is in use in numerous wastewater treatment plants in Europe, its chemical kinetics, microbial inactivation rates, and mode of action against microorganisms are not thoroughly understood. This paper presents results from experimental studies of PAA demand, PAA decay, and microbial inactivation, with a complementary modeling analysis. Model results are used to evaluate techniques for measurement of PAA concentration and to develop hypotheses regarding the mode of action of PAA in bacterial inactivation. Kinetic and microbial inactivation rate data were collected for typical wastewaters and may be useful for engineers in evaluating whether to convert from chlorine to PAA disinfection.

  2. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  3. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  4. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  5. Poorly processed reusable surface disinfection tissue dispensers may be a source of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Jesse, Katrin; von Baum, Heike; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-21

    Reusable surface disinfectant tissue dispensers are used in hospitals in many countries because they allow immediate access to pre-soaked tissues for targeted surface decontamination. On the other hand disinfectant solutions with some active ingredients may get contaminated and cause outbreaks. We determined the frequency of contaminated surface disinfectant solutions in reusable dispensers and the ability of isolates to multiply in different formulations. Reusable tissue dispensers with different surface disinfectants were randomly collected from healthcare facilities. Solutions were investigated for bacterial contamination. The efficacy of two surface disinfectants was determined in suspension tests against two isolated species directly from a contaminated solution or after 5 passages without selection pressure in triplicate. Freshly prepared use solutions were contaminated to determine survival of isolates. 66 dispensers containing disinfectant solutions with surface-active ingredients were collected in 15 healthcare facilities. 28 dispensers from nine healthcare facilities were contaminated with approximately 107 cells per mL of Achromobacter species 3 (9 hospitals), Achromobacter xylosoxidans or Serratia marcescens (1 hospital each). In none of the hospitals dispenser processing had been adequately performed. Isolates regained susceptibility to the disinfectants after five passages without selection pressure but were still able to multiply in different formulations from different manufacturers at room temperature within 7 days. Neglecting adequate processing of surface disinfectant dispensers has contributed to frequent and heavy contamination of use-solutions based on surface active ingredients. Tissue dispenser processing should be taken seriously in clinical practice.

  6. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M

    2016-01-01

    Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer's recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid) and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating "self-disinfecting" surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer "no-touch" (automated) decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm) light. These "no-touch" technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections. In conclusion, continued efforts to

  7. Physical Activity Participation: Social Cognitive Theory versus the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzewaltowski, David A; Noble, John M; Shaw, Jeff M

    1990-12-01

    Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

  8. Modulation of brain activity during action observation: influence of perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hétu

    Full Text Available The coupling process between observed and performed actions is thought to be performed by a fronto-parietal perception-action system including regions of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. When investigating the influence of the movements' characteristics on this process, most research on action observation has focused on only one particular variable even though the type of movements we observe can vary on several levels. By manipulating the visual perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness of observed movements in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study we aimed at investigating how the type of movements and the visual perspective can modulate brain activity during action observation in healthy individuals. Importantly, we used an active observation task where participants had to subsequently execute or imagine the observed movements. Our results show that the fronto-parietal regions of the perception action system were mostly recruited during the observation of meaningless actions while visual perspective had little influence on the activity within the perception-action system. Simultaneous investigation of several sources of modulation during active action observation is probably an approach that could lead to a greater ecological comprehension of this important sensorimotor process.

  9. 76 FR 44339 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Services. ACTION: Proposed Minor Action under the NIH Guidelines. SUMMARY: The Office of Biotechnology....nih.gov , telephone (301-496-9838), or mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National...

  10. A novel cupping-assisted plasma treatment for skin disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Graves, David B.

    2017-02-01

    A novel plasma treatment method/plasma source called cupping-assisted plasma treatment/source for skin disinfection is introduced. The idea combines ancient Chinese ‘cupping’ technology with plasma sources to generate active plasma inside an isolated, pressure-controlled chamber attached to the skin. Advantages of lower pressure include reducing the threshold voltage for plasma ignition and improving the spatial uniformity of the plasma treatment. In addition, with reduced pressure inside the cup, skin pore permeability might be increased and it improves attachment of the plasma device to the skin. Moreover, at a given pressure, plasma-generated active species are restricted inside the cup, raising local reactive species concentration and enhancing the measured surface disinfection rate. A surface micro-discharge (SMD) device is used as an example of a working plasma source. We report discharge characteristics and disinfection efficiency as a function of pressure and applied voltage.

  11. Climate Action and Activism: Scientists as Citizens and Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. B.; Peacock, K.

    2015-12-01

    Humans are not particularly good at being rational, either individually or socially; in the case of climate change, our concerns are chiefly social. The denial of climate change and its costs (ranging from denial of basic principles to using high discount rates to reduce the current value of future losses, and supported by fossil fuel companies and their many political allies) has delayed an effective response to a problem that gets worse and more costly the longer action is delayed. The central role of fossil fuels in our economies and of fossil fuel interests in our politics leads many to worry about the costs of change while denying or ignoring the costs of business as usual. Rational decision makers would not be so selective, either about the evidence or about the costs and benefits that hang in the balance. Effective communication can help call attention to the evidence and to the costs and benefits that have been neglected. Our society has no formal rules requiring scientists to become activists, even when the results of their work provide sound reasons for taking action. But ideals of citizenship and humanitarianism provide strong justification for those who choose to engage with the issues. A reticent scientist might feel that her job is done once the results of her research are published. The rest is arguably the responsibility of others—of politicians, journalists and citizens in general, to learn the relevant facts (now available as part of the published literature) and to bring those facts to bear in decisions ranging from the personal to the political and economic. But I urge scientists who feel this way to reconsider—not because their view of where the real responsibility lies is wrong, but because they are in a position to make a difference. In situations like these, where powerful interests are threatened by inconvenient facts, scientists can be very effective communicators: they have high credibility with the public (as deniers' repeated claims

  12. ParticipACTION: the future challenges for physical activity promotion in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavill Nick

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary is the concluding piece of a series of papers about the Canadian ParticipACTION initiative. It describes the resurgence of the new ParticipACTION as a national communications initiative in Canada, and sets this in an international context. The set of ParticipACTION papers in this issue establish benchmarks and provide baseline and initial impact data for the evaluation and monitoring of ParticipACTION, using qualitative and quantiative research methods. As a set, they describe a comprehensive approach to setting up evaluations of national social marketing efforts to promote physical activity.

  13. [Water disinfection by the combined exposure to super-high frequency energy and available chlorine produced during water electrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimarev, S I; Siniak, Iu E

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the effects on polluted water of SHF-energy together with the residual free (active) chlorine as a by-product of electrolysis action on dissolved chlorine-containing salts. Purpose of the studies was to evaluate input of these elements to the water disinfection effect. The synergy was found to kill microorganisms without impacts on the physicochemical properties of processed water or nutrient medium; therefore, it can be used for water treatment, and cultivation of microorganisms in microbiology.

  14. [DESIDENT CaviCide a new disinfectant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severa, J; Klaban, V

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the new disinfection agent DESIDENT CaviCide, such as characteristics, disinfection efficiency, biological degradability and ecotoxicity are described. Also areas and forms of usage this biocidal agent are mentioned.

  15. The Interplay of Networking Activities and Internal Knowledge Actions for Subsidiary Influence within MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavani, Zhaleh Najafi; Giroud, Axèle; Andersson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Building on resource dependency theory; this research investigates the joint impacts of subsidiary knowledge based actions (Reverse Knowledge Transfer (RKT) and knowledge development) and networking activities (internal and external embeddedness) on its strategic influence in the multinational co...

  16. Antiviral activity and mechanism of action of arbidol against Hantaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Hantavirus, Arbidol, Toll-like receptors, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Antiviral activity, ... hantavirus infection. Arbidol is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that has been shown to have inhibitory effect on influenza virus [4,5], respiratory syncytial virus [6], ..... species in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.

  17. Gastroprotective Activity and Mechanisms of Action of Bauhinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves (MEBP) using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. ... antisecretory activity via pylorus ligation assay; ii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl group via ... Results: MEBP exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent ...

  18. Estimating retrospective exposure of household humidifier disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D U; Friesen, M C; Roh, H S; Choi, Y Y; Ahn, J J; Lim, H K; Kim, S K; Koh, D H; Jung, H J; Lee, J H; Cheong, H K; Lim, S Y; Leem, J H; Kim, Y H; Paek, D M

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a comprehensive humidifier disinfectant exposure characterization for 374 subjects with lung disease who presumed their disease was related to humidifier disinfectant use (patient group) and for 303 of their family members (family group) for an ongoing epidemiological study. We visited the homes of the registered patients to investigate disinfectant use characteristics. Probability of exposure to disinfectants was determined from the questionnaire and supporting evidence from photographs demonstrating the use of humidifier disinfectant, disinfectant purchase receipts, any residual disinfectant, and the consistency of their statements. Exposure duration was estimated as cumulative disinfectant use hours from the questionnaire. Airborne disinfectant exposure intensity (μg/m(3)) was estimated based on the disinfectant volume (ml) and frequency added to the humidifier per day, disinfectant bulk level (μg/ml), the volume of the room (m(3)) with humidifier disinfectant, and the degree of ventilation. Overall, the distribution patterns of the intensity, duration, and cumulative exposure to humidifier disinfectants for the patient group were higher than those of the family group, especially for pregnant women and patients ≤6 years old. Further study is underway to evaluate the association between the disinfectant exposures estimated here with clinically diagnosed lung disease. Retrospective exposure to household humidifier disinfectant as estimated here can be used to evaluate associations with clinically diagnosed lung disease due to the use of humidifier disinfectant in Korea. The framework, with modifications to account for dispersion and use patterns, can also be potentially adapted to assessment of other household chemical exposures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. UV disinfection in drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, O

    2000-01-01

    UV disinfection has become a practical and safely validatable disinfection procedure by specifying the requirements for testing and monitoring in DVGW standard W 294. A standardized biodosimetric testing procedure and monitoring with standardized UV sensors is introduced and successfully applied. On-line monitoring of irradiance can be counterchecked with handheld reference sensors and makes it possible that UV systems can be used for drinking water disinfection with the same level of confidence and safety as is conventional chemical disinfection.

  20. UV disinfection for reuse applications in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, G; Schwartzel, D; Tomowich, D

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to conserve and protect limited water resources, the States of Florida and California have actively promoted wastewater reclamation and have implemented comprehensive regulations covering a range of reuse applications. Florida has a semi-tropical climate with heavy summer rains that are lost due to run off and evaporation. Much of California is arid and suffers periodic droughts, low annual rainfall and depleted ground water supplies. The high population density combined with heavy irrigation demands has depleted ground water supplies resulting in salt-water intrusion. During the past decade, Florida reuse sites have increased dramatically from 118 to 444 plants representing a total flow capacity of 826 MGD. California presently has over 250 plants producing 1 BGD with a projected increase of 160 sites over the next 20 years. To prevent the transmission of waterborne diseases, disinfection of reclaimed water is controlled by stringent regulations. Many states regulate wastewater treatment processes, nutrient removal, final effluent quality and disinfection criteria based upon the specific reuse application. As a rule, the resulting effluents have low turbidity and suspended solids. For such effluents, UV technology can economically achieve the most stringent disinfection targets that are required by the States of California and Florida for restricted and unrestricted reuse. This paper compares UV disinfection for wastewater reuse sites in California and Florida and discusses the effect of effluent quality on UV disinfection.

  1. Can pulsed xenon ultraviolet light systems disinfect aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Villamaria, Frank C; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Brown, Donna S; Liao, I-Chia; Stock, Eileen M; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E

    2015-04-01

    Whereas pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light no-touch disinfection systems are being increasingly used for room disinfection after patient discharge with manual cleaning, their effectiveness in the absence of manual disinfection has not been previously evaluated. Our study indicates that pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light systems effectively reduce aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection. These data are important for hospitals planning to adopt this technology as adjunct to routine manual disinfection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Activiti in action executable business processes in BPMN 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Rademakers, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    Activiti in Action is a comprehensive tutorial designed to introduce developers to the world of business process modeling using Activiti. Before diving into the nuts and bolts of Activiti, this book presents a solid introduction to BPMN 2.0 from a developer's perspective.

  3. Object words modulate the activity of the mirror neuron system during action imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Tang, Honghong; Ge, Yue; Yang, Suyong; Mai, Xiaoqin; Luo, Yue-Jia; Liu, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation. Twenty-two participants were recruited for the fMRI scanning and remaining data from 19 subjects were reported here. Brain activity results showed that word types elicited different modulation effects over nodes of the MNS (i.e., the right inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and STS), especially during the imitation stage. Compared with other word conditions, action imitation following manufactured objects words induced stronger activation in these brain regions during the imitation stage. These results were consistent in both task-dependent and -independent ROI analysis. Our findings thus provide evidence for the unique effect of object words on the MNS during imitation of action, which may also confirm the key role of goal inference in action imitation.

  4. Chlorine dioxide oxidation of Escherichia coli in water - A study of the disinfection kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Isaac; Maddila, Suresh; Lin, Johnson; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2017-06-07

    This study investigated the kinetics and mechanism of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) inactivation of a Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) in oxidant demand free (ODF) water in detail as a function of disinfectant concentration (0.5-5.0 mg/L), water pH (6.5-8.5), temperature variations (4-37°C) and bacterial density (10 5 -10 7 cfu/mL). The effects of ClO 2 on bacterial cell morphology, outer membrane permeability, cytoplasmic membrane disruption and intracellular enzymatic activity were also studied to elucidate the mechanism of action on the cells. Increasing temperature and disinfectant concentration were proportional to the rate of cell killing, but efficacy was found to be significantly subdued at 0.5 mg/L and less dependent on the bacterial density. The bactericidal efficiency was higher at alkaline pH of 8 or above as compared to neutral and slightly acidic pH of 7 and 6.5 respectively. The disinfection kinetic curves followed a biphasic pattern of rapid inactivation within the initial 2 min which were followed by a tailing even in the presence of residual biocide. The curves were adequately described by the C avg Hom model. Transmission Electron Microscopy images of the bacteria cells exposed to lethal concentrations of ClO 2 indicated very little observable morphological damage to the outer membranes of the cells. ClO 2 however was found to increase the permeability of the outer and cytoplasmic membranes leading to the leakage of membrane components such as 260 nm absorbing materials and inhibiting the activity of the intracellular enzyme β-D-galactosidase. It is suggested that the disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane and subsequent efflux of intracellular components result in the inactivation of the Gram-negative bacteria.

  5. [Disinfectants and main sanitary and preventive measures for protection of ventilation and air-conditioning systems from Legionella contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, V N; Golov, E A; Khramov, M V; Diatlov, I A

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to selection and assessment of disinfecting preparations for prevention of contamination by Legionella. Using system of criteria for quality assessment of disinfectants, seven newdomestic ones belonging to quaternary ammonium compounds class or to oxygen-containing preparations and designed for disinfecting of air-conditioning and ventilation systems were selected. Antibacterial and disinfecting activities of working solutions of disinfectants were tested in laboratory on the test-surfaces and test-objects of premises' air-conditioning and ventilation systems contaminated with Legionella. High antimicrobial and disinfecting activity of new preparations "Dezactiv-M", "ExtraDez", "Emital-Garant", "Aquasept Plus", "Samarovka", "Freesept", and "Ecobreeze Oxy" during their exposure on objects and materials contaminated with Legionella was shown. Main sanitary and preventive measures for defending of air-conditioning and ventilation systems from contamination by Legionella species were presented.

  6. Effect of granular activated carbon concentration on the content of organic matter and salt, influencing E. coli activity and survival in fluidized bed disinfection reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Ribeiro, A.F.M.M.R.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2014-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is used in water treatment systems, typically to remove pollutants such as natural organic matter, volatile organic compounds, chlorine, taste, and odor. GAC is also used as a key component of a new technology that combines a fluidized bed reactor with radio frequency

  7. Application of neutral electrolyzed water to disinfection of alginate impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Yuki; Chen, Ker-Kong; Nagamatsu, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neutral electrolyzed water was developed with new concepts of long-term good durability and minimum corrosiveness to metal in addition to its excellent bactericidal activities similar to acid type of electrolyzed waters. The present study examined the bactericidal effects of the neutral electrolyzed water on disinfection of the alginate impression of a dental arch model contaminated by bacteria. Only 1-min immersion in neutral electrolyzed water could sufficiently disinfect the alginate impression including the metallic tray under ultrasonic with no significant differences from acid electrolyzed waters. No bactericidal effects were found in any electrolyzed water when used as mixing water. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each electrolyzed water in a comprehensive way, it was suggested that neutral electrolyzed water may be the most appropriate for the disinfection of alginate impression.

  8. Combined effects of coagulation and adsorption on ultrafiltration membrane fouling control and subsequent disinfection in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiajian; Liang, Heng; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Haiyan; Xu, Daliang; Gan, Zhendong; Luo, Xinsheng; Zhu, Xuewu; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-02

    This study investigated the combined effects of coagulation and powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption on ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling control and subsequent disinfection efficiency through filtration performance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, and disinfectant curve. The fouling behavior of UF membrane was comprehensively analyzed especially in terms of pollutant removal and fouling reversibility to understand the mechanism of fouling accumulation and disinfectant dose reduction. Pre-coagulation with or without adsorption both achieved remarkable effect of fouling mitigation and disinfection dose reduction. The two pretreatments were effective in total fouling control and pre-coagulation combined with PAC adsorption even decreased hydraulically irreversible fouling notably. Besides, pre-coagulation decreased residual disinfectant decline due to the removal of hydrophobic components of natural organic matters (NOM). Pre-coagulation combined with adsorption had a synergistic effect on further disinfectant decline rate reduction and decreased total disinfectant consumption due to additional removal of hydrophilic NOM by PAC adsorption. The disinfectant demand was further reduced after membrane. These results show that membrane fouling and disinfectant dose can be reduced in UF coupled with pretreatment, which could lead to the avoidance of excessive operation cost disinfectant dose for drinking water supply.

  9. 4-Alkynylphenylsilatranes: Insecticidal activity, mammalian toxicity, and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsham, M.A.; Palmer, C.J.; Cole, L.M.; Casida, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    4-Ethynyl- and 4-(prop-1-ynyl)phenylsilatranes [N(CH 2 CH 2 O) 3 SiR, R = C 6 H 4 -4-C triple-bond CH or C 6 H 4 -4-C triple-bond CCH 3 ] are highly toxic to houseflies (pretreated with piperonyl butoxide) and milkweed bugs (topical LD 50 s 3-14 μg/g) and to mice (intraperitoneal LD 50 s 0.4-0.9 mg/kg), and they are moderately potent inhibitors of the [ 35 S]-tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate or TBPS binding site (GABA-gated chloride channel) of mouse brain membranes. Scatchard analysis indicates noncompetitive interaction of 4-ethynylphenylsilatrane with the TBPS binding site. Phenylsilatrane analogues with 4-substituents of H, CH 3 , Cl, Br, and C triple-bond CSi(CH 3 ) 3 are highly toxic to mice but have little or no activity in the insect and receptor assays. Radioligand binding studies with [4- 3 H]phenylsilatrane failed to reveal a specific binding site in mouse brain. Silatranes with R = H, CH 3 , CH 2 Cl, CH double-bond CH 2 , OCH 2 CH 3 , and C 6 H 4 -4-CH 2 CH 3 are of little or no activity in the insect and mouse toxicity and TBPS binding site assays as are the trithia and monocyclic analogues of phenylsilatrane. 4-Alkynylphenylsilatranes are new probes to examine the GABA receptor-ionophore complex of insects and mammals

  10. Neural activation and functional connectivity during motor imagery of bimanual everyday actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J Szameitat

    Full Text Available Bimanual actions impose intermanual coordination demands not present during unimanual actions. We investigated the functional neuroanatomical correlates of these coordination demands in motor imagery (MI of everyday actions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. For this, 17 participants imagined unimanual actions with the left and right hand as well as bimanual actions while undergoing fMRI. A univariate fMRI analysis showed no reliable cortical activations specific to bimanual MI, indicating that intermanual coordination demands in MI are not associated with increased neural processing. A functional connectivity analysis based on psychophysiological interactions (PPI, however, revealed marked increases in connectivity between parietal and premotor areas within and between hemispheres. We conclude that in MI of everyday actions intermanual coordination demands are primarily met by changes in connectivity between areas and only moderately, if at all, by changes in the amount of neural activity. These results are the first characterization of the neuroanatomical correlates of bimanual coordination demands in MI. Our findings support the assumed equivalence of overt and imagined actions and highlight the differences between uni- and bimanual actions. The findings extent our understanding of the motor system and may aid the development of clinical neurorehabilitation approaches based on mental practice.

  11. Wastewater disinfection alternatives: chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid, and UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M; Citterio, S; Nurizzo, C

    2007-11-01

    Disinfection tests were carried out at pilot scale to compare the disinfection efficiency of ozone, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), peracetic acid (PAA), and UV irradiation. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were monitored as reference microorganisms. Total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) were also enumerated by cytometry. At similar doses, NaOCl was more effective than PAA, and its action was less affected by contact time. The results obtained by ozonation were comparable for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and E. coli. On the contrary, some differences among the three indicators were observed for NaOCl, PAA, and UV. Differences increased with increasing values of the disinfectant concentration times contact time (C x t) and were probably the result of different initial counts, as total coliforms include fecal coliforms, which include E. coli. The UV irradiation lead to complete E. coli removals, even at low doses (10 to 20 mJ/cm2). Total heterotrophic bacteria appeared to be too wide a group to be a good disinfection indicator; no correlation was found among THB inactivation, dose, and contact time.

  12. Antibacterial Efficiency of Benzalkonium Chloride Base Disinfectant According To European Standard 13727, Chemical Analysis and Validation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Çinel; Çelenk, Veysel

    2018-01-01

    Antibacterial Efficiency of Benzalkonium Chloride Base Disinfectant According To European Standard 13727, Chemical Analysis and Validation Studies This study was aimed to provide principle of the chemical analyses, antibacterial efficiency test and validation procedures of the most commonly used benzalkonium chloride (BAC) base disinfectant as a biocide. Disinfectant which comprised 20 % BAC concentration was used as a prototype product and active substance was verified with chemical analysis...

  13. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Boyce

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer’s recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating “self-disinfecting” surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer “no-touch” (automated decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm light. These “no-touch” technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections

  14. Islamic Activism and Habermas' Theory of Strategic Action: a Case of Parade Tauhid in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Siddiq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Capturing the case of Parade Tauhid in Indonesia, this paper aims to describe embodied relationship between religion (Islam and politics. As part of social action, Islamic activism provides variety of contention which is practiced in the name of “Islam”: ideologically, structurally, and purposely. Within his explanation of communicative action theory, Habermas acknowledges what so-called as “strategic action” which can be defined as every action oriented to success under the aspect of rational choice and assess the efficacy of influencing decisions or positions of rational opponent. In this context, Parade Tauhid is perceived to be conducted for reaching several political and theological purposes based on rational choices, although it is practiced by performing religious event. This paper attempts to describe definition of Islamic activism, explore the event of Parade Tauhid, and analyze the parade using Habermas’s theory of strategic action.

  15. Predicting human activities in sequences of actions in RGB-D videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, David; Nunes, Luís.; Dias, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    In our daily activities we perform prediction or anticipation when interacting with other humans or with objects. Prediction of human activity made by computers has several potential applications: surveillance systems, human computer interfaces, sports video analysis, human-robot-collaboration, games and health-care. We propose a system capable of recognizing and predicting human actions using supervised classifiers trained with automatically labeled data evaluated in our human activity RGB-D dataset (recorded with a Kinect sensor) and using only the position of the main skeleton joints to extract features. Using conditional random fields (CRFs) to model the sequential nature of actions in a sequence has been used before, but where other approaches try to predict an outcome or anticipate ahead in time (seconds), we try to predict what will be the next action of a subject. Our results show an activity prediction accuracy of 89.9% using an automatically labeled dataset.

  16. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Niebles, Juan Carlos; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  17. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2016-12-13

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  18. Influence of sublethal concentrations of common disinfectants on expression of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Larsen, M. H.; Gram, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne human pathogen that causes listeriosis, a relatively rare infection with a high fatality rate. The regulation of virulence gene expression is influenced by several environmental factors, and the aim of the present study was to determine how disinfectants use......, such as antibiotic resistance....... by Northern blot analysis. Eleven disinfectants representing four different groups of active components were evaluated in this study. Disinfectants with the same active ingredients had a similar effect on gene expression. Peroxy and chlorine compounds reduced the expression of the virulence genes...

  19. Why did I do that? : Explaining Actions Activated Outside of Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantman, A; Adriaanse, M.A.; Gollwitzer, P.M; Oettingen, G

    2017-01-01

    We review the latest research investigating how people explain their own actions when they have been activated nonconsciously. We will discuss evidence that when nonconsciously activated behavior is unexpected (e.g., normviolating, against self -standards), negative affect arises and triggers

  20. 76 FR 3150 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... rodent). On July 20, 2010 the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) published a proposed action... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, MSC 7985, Bethesda...

  1. 75 FR 71677 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium... in FY 2011 from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under... approximately $24.3 million of Recovery Act funds available for reimbursement in FY 2011, as well as the $10...

  2. Dialogue--Missing in Action Competence: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in a Botswana School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silo, Nthalivi

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth case study on children's participation in environmental management activities in a primary school in Botswana was undertaken, drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and the action competence model. This research revealed that due to a lack of dialogue between teachers and children, teachers tended to view children's…

  3. Selective activation of heteromeric SK channels contributes to action potential repolarization in mouse atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jane M; Weatherall, Kate L; Choisy, Stéphanie C; James, Andrew F; Hancox, Jules C; Marrion, Neil V

    2015-05-01

    Activation of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels is proposed to contribute to repolarization of the action potential in atrial myocytes. This role is controversial, as these cardiac SK channels appear to exhibit an uncharacteristic pharmacology. The objectives of this study were to resolve whether activation of SK channels contributes to atrial action potential repolarization and to determine the likely subunit composition of the channel. The effect of 2 SK channel inhibitors was assessed on outward current evoked in voltage clamp and on action potential duration in perforated patch and whole-cell current clamp recording from acutely isolated mouse atrial myocytes. The presence of SK channel subunits was assessed using immunocytochemistry. A significant component of outward current was reduced by the SK channel blockers apamin and UCL1684. Block by apamin displayed a sensitivity indicating that this current was carried by homomeric SK2 channels. Action potential duration was significantly prolonged by UCL1684, but not by apamin. This effect was accompanied by an increase in beat-to-beat variability and action potential triangulation. This pharmacology was matched by that of expressed heteromeric SK2-SK3 channels in HEK293 cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that atrial myocytes express both SK2 and SK3 channels with an overlapping expression pattern. Only proposed heteromeric SK2-SK3 channels are physiologically activated to contribute to action potential repolarization, which is indicated by the difference in pharmacology of evoked outward current and prolongation of atrial action potential duration. The effect of blocking this channel on the action potential suggests that SK channel inhibition during cardiac function has the potential to be proarrhythmic. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contextual action recognition and target localization with an active allocation of attention on a humanoid robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ognibene, Dimitri; Chinellato, Eris; Sarabia, Miguel; Demiris, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory gaze movements are fundamental for gathering the most relevant information regarding the partner during social interactions. Inspired by the cognitive mechanisms underlying human social behaviour, we have designed and implemented a system for a dynamic attention allocation which is able to actively control gaze movements during a visual action recognition task exploiting its own action execution predictions. Our humanoid robot is able, during the observation of a partner's reaching movement, to contextually estimate the goal position of the partner's hand and the location in space of the candidate targets. This is done while actively gazing around the environment, with the purpose of optimizing the gathering of information relevant for the task. Experimental results on a simulated environment show that active gaze control, based on the internal simulation of actions, provides a relevant advantage with respect to other action perception approaches, both in terms of estimation precision and of time required to recognize an action. Moreover, our model reproduces and extends some experimental results on human attention during an action perception. (paper)

  5. Evaluation of the efficiency of the photo Fenton disinfection of natural drinking water source during the rainy season in the Sahelian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndounla, J; Pulgarin, C

    2014-09-15

    The photo-disinfection of water from two different wells (W1, pH: 4.6-5.1 ± 0.02) and (W2 pH: 5.6-5.7 ± 0.02) was carried out during the rainy season at Ouagadougou-Burkina Faso, West Africa. The weather variation during the rainy season significantly affects the photo-disinfection processes (solar disinfection and photo-Fenton). The dilution of the water by rainwater highly affected the chemical composition of the wells' water used in this study; very low iron contents Compared to the ones recorded during the dry season were recorded in all water samples. Both photo-disinfection processes were used to treat 25 L of water in a compound parabolic collector (CPC). None of them have shown the total inactivation of both wild enteric bacteria strains (total coliforms/E. coli and Salmonella spp.) involved in the treatment. However, the total coliforms/E. coli strains were totally inactivated during the exposure under most of the photo-Fenton treatment. Also, the remaining strains, especially those of Salmonella spp. were achieved during the subsequent 24h of dark storage under the action of the Fenton process. Under uniquely solar radiation, total inactivation was recorded only in the total coliforms/E. coli strains. The impact of the available irradiance on the efficiency of the photo-Fenton disinfection of natural water was highlighted during the exposure under high intermittent solar radiation. The impact of the HCO3(-) concentration of both wells' water on the evolution of the pH during the photo-disinfection was recorded. Drastic decrease was noticed after the initial fast increase in presence of low HCO3(-) concentration while a steady state was observed after the increase in presence of higher concentration. The redox activities of the nitrogen components of the water during both photo-disinfection processes have led to increased concentration of nitrite in all the cases and variations were noticed in that of nitrate and ammonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  6. Coupling of narrow and wide band-gap semiconductors on uniform films active in bacterial disinfection under low intensity visible light: implications of the interfacial charge transfer (IFCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtimi, S; Sanjines, R; Pulgarin, C; Houas, A; Lavanchy, J-C; Kiwi, J

    2013-09-15

    This study reports the design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of uniform films deposited by sputtering Ag and Ta on non-heat resistant polyester to evaluate the Escherichia coli inactivation by TaON, TaN/Ag, Ag and TaON/Ag polyester. Co-sputtering for 120 s Ta and Ag in the presence of N₂ and O₂ led to the faster E. coli inactivation by a TaON/Ag sample within ∼40 min under visible light irradiation. The deconvolution of TaON/Ag peaks obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the assignment of the Ta₂O₅ and Ag-species. The shifts observed for the XPS peaks have been assigned to AgO to Ag₂O and Ag(0), and are a function of the applied sputtering times. The mechanism of interfacial charge transfer (IFCT) from the Ag₂O conduction band (cb) to the lower laying Ta₂O₅ (cb) is discussed suggesting a reaction mechanism. The optical absorption of the TaON and TaON/Ag samples found by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) correlated well with the kinetics of E. coli inactivation. The TaON/Ag sample microstructure was characterized by contact angle (CA) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester after each disinfection cycle enabled repetitive E. coli inactivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The activity of formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde, peracetic acid, chloramine T (N-chlor-4-toluolsulfonamide), m-cresol, ethanol and benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide against bacteria which are found in coagulated blood. (Model studies for chemical disinfection of instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, G; Peters, J

    1991-05-01

    The experiments were performed using frosted glass as carrier with its surface being contaminated with whole blood containing Staphylococcus aureus as test organism. At the time of sampling, a heparin preparation was added to the blood to prevent premature coagulation. After addition of the staphylococci, coagulation was initiated by means of a heparin antagonist. 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 microliters, respectively, of the blood were homogeneously spread on rectangular test areas of 10 x 20 mm. After the blood had coagulated, each of the test objects was placed in 15 ml of the solution (20 degrees C) containing the active ingredient tested for 60 min. After that, the test objects were removed from the disinfectant and, in order to inactivate any adhering active components, treated with a neutralizing solution of suitable composition. The number of viable germs (colony-forming units) was determined quantitatively. The blood samples were ground together with quartz sand. Aliquots of the diluted suspensions were mixed with molten agar medium. The plates then were incubated at 37 degrees C over a period of 14 days. The relative number of viable germs (N/No) per test object was calculated from the number of colonies. Plotting of the microbicidal effects obtained (log N/No] versus the concentration of the active substance (see Figs. 1-3) yielded curves differing in some characteristics as e.g. curvature, slope of the lower curve section (log N/No). less than -3), concentration range according to the layer thickness of the contamination. To visualize the reduction of the efficacy of the respective disinfectants caused by blood, the concentrations of active components were determined which are necessary to achieve a microbicidal effect of log (N/No) = -4. These concentrations were plotted versus the amounts of blood per test area (Fig. 4). The resulting curve for formaldehyde was slightly U-shaped. With a raising amount of blood, the concentration required slightly

  8. Characterization of engineered nanoparticles in commercially available spray disinfectant products advertised to contain colloidal silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the potential for human exposure to silver nanoparticles from spray disinfectants and dietary supplements, we characterized the silver-containing nanoparticles in 22 commercial products that advertised the use of silver or colloidal silver as the active ingredient. Characte...

  9. Improving stethoscope disinfection at a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, Justin; Zhou, Jing; Graham, Dionne A; Potter-Bynoe, Gail; Sandora, Thomas J

    2013-11-01

    Stethoscopes are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and pose a risk for transmission of infections, but few clinicians disinfect their stethoscope after every use. We sought to improve stethoscope disinfection rates among pediatric healthcare providers by providing access to disinfection materials and visual reminders to disinfect stethoscopes. Prospective intervention study. Inpatient units and emergency department of a major pediatric hospital. Physicians and nurses with high anticipated stethoscope use. Baskets filled with alcohol prep pads and a sticker reminding providers to regularly disinfect stethoscopes were installed outside of patient rooms. Healthcare providers' stethoscope disinfection behaviors were directly observed before and after the intervention. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify independent predictors of stethoscope disinfection. Two hundred twenty-six observations were made in the preintervention period and 261 in the postintervention period (83% were of physicians). Stethoscope disinfection compliance increased significantly from a baseline of 34% to 59% postintervention (P stethoscope disinfection supplies and visible reminders outside of patient rooms significantly increased stethoscope disinfection rates among physicians and nurses at a children's hospital. This simple intervention could be replicated at other healthcare facilities. Future research should assess the impact on patient infections.

  10. [Hydrogen peroxide, chloramine T and chlorhexidrine in the disinfection of acrylic resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwińska, W; Kedzia, A; Kałowski, M

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of 3% h drogen peroxide, 5% chloramine T and 0,5% chlorhexidine gluconate solutions in disinfection of acrylic resine plates massively infected with oral flora was analysed. The acrylic resine plates used for investigations, were infected in vitro with mixed salivary flora characterized by small numbers of yeast-like fungi (1st group), or great number of these microorganisms (2nd group). Infected plates were exposed to solutions of analysed disinfectants during various time periods. After rinsing or inactivation of disinfectant residues, acrylic plates were put into bacteriological medium and incubated during 7 days period in 37 degrees C. The results of this study indicated the effectiveness of acrylic plates disinfection to be dependent on used disinfectant, time of exposition, and microorganisms present on the surface of acrylic resine. The solutions of disinfectants were less active in the cases of plates infected with material containing great numbers of yeast-like microorganisms. Among analysed disinfectants 0,5% solution of chlorhexidine was characterized by most effective and rapid activity, whereas 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide was found to be the least effective.

  11. Basal Ganglia Activity Mirrors a Benefit of Action and Reward on Long-Lasting Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Raphael; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-12-01

    The expectation of reward is known to enhance a consolidation of long-term memory for events. We tested whether this effect is driven by positive valence or action requirements tied to expected reward. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm in young adults, novel images predicted gain or loss outcomes, which in turn were either obtained or avoided by action or inaction. After 24 h, memory for these images reflected a benefit of action as well as a congruence of action requirements and valence, namely, action for reward and inaction for avoidance. fMRI responses in the hippocampus, a region known to be critical for long-term memory function, reflected the anticipation of inaction. In contrast, activity in the putamen mirrored the congruence of action requirement and valence, whereas other basal ganglia regions mirrored overall action benefits on long-lasting memory. The findings indicate a novel type of functional division between the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the motivational regulation of long-term memory consolidation, which favors remembering events that are worth acting for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Disinfection of wastewater with peracetic acid: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitis, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    Peracetic acid is a strong disinfectant with a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Due to its bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal effectiveness as demonstrated in various industries, the use of peracetic acid as a disinfectant for wastewater effluents has been drawing more attention in recent years. The desirable attributes of peracetic acid for wastewater disinfection are the ease of implementing treatment (without the need for expensive capital investment), broad spectrum of activity even in the presence of heterogeneous organic matter, absence of persistent toxic or mutagenic residuals or by-products, no quenching requirement (i.e., no dechlorination), small dependence on pH, short contact time, and effectiveness for primary and secondary effluents. Major disadvantages associated with peracetic acid disinfection are the increases of organic content in the effluent due to acetic acid (AA) and thus in the potential microbial regrowth (acetic acid is already present in the mixture and is also formed after peracetic acid decomposition). Another drawback to the use of peracetic acid is its high cost, which is partly due to limited production capacity worldwide. However, if the demand for peracetic acid increases, especially from the wastewater industry, the future mass production capacity might also be increased, thus lowering the cost. In such a case, in addition to having environmental advantages, peracetic acid may also become cost-competitive with chlorine.

  13. [The principle of registration, evaluation and testing of disinfecting preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Podgórska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Disinfectants are used to produce a state in which the number of living micro-organisms has been reduced to a level which is appropriate to the practical situation. For any products which are included in the Biocidal Directive 98/8/EC, for which specific activity is claimed, test data has to be approved by the regulatory authority and a product license obtained before the product can be offered for sale. Disinfectants can be recorded as biocidal products or medical devices. Presently, it is possible to measure the activity of a product on defined micro-organisms in specified experimental conditions. Efficacy is the result of the use of a product according to a defined application. To allow different requirements in different areas of application, separate tests and pass criteria have been or will be prepared for each of following three areas of application: medical, veterinary and group comprising food, industrial, domestic and institutional areas. The laboratory methods to be used for testing the activity of chemical disinfectants meets the European standards. The tests are categorised on a modular basis as follows: phase 1 tests, phase 2 step 1 tests, phase 2 step 2 tests and phase 3 tests. In order to claim that a product has disinfectant properties, suitable for use in the medical area, the product shall be tested according to European standards: phase 2 step 1 tests, phase 2 step 2 tests. Phase 1 tests are not required to support claims for chemical disinfectants used in human medicine. Only phase 1 tests are required to support claims for active substances for which no particular area of application is specified. Medical devices are subjects to the European Directive 93/42/EEC which requires that a product must carry a CE mark. Disinfectants which are intended specifically by its manufacturer to be used on medical devices are themselves medical devices and so these products, as well as conforming to the instrument disinfection European standards as specified

  14. Quality control of disinfection in ultrasonic baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, H. [Technical University Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Jatzwauk, L. [University Hospital of the Technical University Dresden (Germany). Abt. Krankenhaushygiene

    2002-07-01

    Numerous investigations under laboratory conditions confirmed the microbicidal efficacy of ultrasonication. Morphological destruction was shown on bacteria and fungi as well as on different virus species. Ultrasonic treatment seems to increase the effect of different antibiotics and disinfectants. Reasons for this synergism are largely unknown and uninvestigated, but the active principle seems to bee the dispersing effect of ultrasonication in combination with the destruction of cell wall or cell membrane. Unfortunately no validation of test conditions exists for most of these investigations, regarding intensity and frequency of ultrasonic waves, temperature of liquid medium and measurement of cavitation which is an essential part of physical and chemical effects in ultrasonic baths. In contrast to most laboratory experiments sound density of ultrasound for treatment of medical instruments is below 1 W/cm{sup 2} because instruments will be destroyed under stronger ultrasonic conditions. The frequency is below 50 KHz. This paper describes bactericidal and fungicidal effects of low- intensity-ultrasonication and its synergistical support to chemical disinfection. (orig.)

  15. Sensory and semantic activations evoked by action attributes of manipulable objects: Evidence from ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-lin; Huang, Hsu-Wen; Federmeier, Kara D.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2018-01-01

    “Two route” theories of object-related action processing posit different temporal activation profiles of grasp-to-move actions (rapidly evoked based on object structure) versus skilled use actions (more slowly activated based on semantic knowledge). We capitalized on the exquisite temporal resolution and multidimensionality of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to directly test this hypothesis. Participants viewed manipulable objects (e.g., calculator) preceded by objects sharing either “grasp”, “use”, or no action attributes (e.g., bar of soap, keyboard, earring, respectively), as well as by action-unrelated but taxonomically-related objects (e.g., abacus); participants judged whether the two objects were related. The results showed more positive responses to “grasp-to-move” primed objects than “skilled use” primed objects or unprimed objects starting in the P1 (0–150 ms) time window and continuing onto the subsequent N1 and P2 components (150–300 ms), suggesting that only “grasp-to-move”, but not “skilled use”, actions may facilitate visual attention to object attributes. Furthermore, reliably reduced N400s (300–500 ms), an index of semantic processing, were observed to taxonomically primed and “skilled use” primed objects relative to unprimed objects, suggesting that “skilled use” action attributes are a component of distributed, multimodal semantic representations of objects. Together, our findings provide evidence supporting two-route theories by demonstrating that “grasp-to-move” and “skilled use” actions impact different aspects of object processing and highlight the relationship of “skilled use” information to other aspects of semantic memory. PMID:29183777

  16. Channel sialic acids limit hERG channel activity during the ventricular action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norring, Sarah A; Ednie, Andrew R; Schwetz, Tara A; Du, Dongping; Yang, Hui; Bennett, Eric S

    2013-02-01

    Activity of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) 1 voltage-gated K(+) channels is responsible for portions of phase 2 and phase 3 repolarization of the human ventricular action potential. Here, we questioned whether and how physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in surface N-glycosylation modified hERG channel function. Voltage-dependent hERG channel gating and activity were evaluated as expressed in a set of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines under conditions of full glycosylation, no sialylation, no complex N-glycans, and following enzymatic deglycosylation of surface N-glycans. For each condition of reduced glycosylation, hERG channel steady-state activation and inactivation relationships were shifted linearly by significant depolarizing ∼9 and ∼18 mV, respectively. The hERG window current increased significantly by 50-150%, and the peak shifted by a depolarizing ∼10 mV. There was no significant change in maximum hERG current density. Deglycosylated channels were significantly more active (20-80%) than glycosylated controls during phases 2 and 3 of action potential clamp protocols. Simulations of hERG current and ventricular action potentials corroborated experimental data and predicted reduced sialylation leads to a 50-70-ms decrease in action potential duration. The data describe a novel mechanism by which hERG channel gating is modulated through physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in N-glycosylation; reduced channel sialylation increases hERG channel activity during the action potential, thereby increasing the rate of action potential repolarization.

  17. Coupling of narrow and wide band-gap semiconductors on uniform films active in bacterial disinfection under low intensity visible light: Implications of the interfacial charge transfer (IFCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rtimi, S.; Sanjines, R.; Pulgarin, C.; Houas, A.; Lavanchy, J.-C.; Kiwi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Design, preparation, testing and characterization of uniform sputtered films. • Interfacial charge transfer from the Ag 2 O (cb) to the lower laying Ta 2 O 5 (cb). • The optical absorption of TaON and TaON/Ag was proportional to E. coli inactivation. • Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester enables repetitive E. coli inactivation. -- Abstract: This study reports the design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of uniform films deposited by sputtering Ag and Ta on non-heat resistant polyester to evaluate the Escherichia coli inactivation by TaON, TaN/Ag, Ag and TaON/Ag polyester. Co-sputtering for 120 s Ta and Ag in the presence of N 2 and O 2 led to the faster E. coli inactivation by a TaON/Ag sample within ∼40 min under visible light irradiation. The deconvolution of TaON/Ag peaks obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the assignment of the Ta 2 O 5 and Ag-species. The shifts observed for the XPS peaks have been assigned to AgO to Ag 2 O and Ag 0 , and are a function of the applied sputtering times. The mechanism of interfacial charge transfer (IFCT) from the Ag 2 O conduction band (cb) to the lower laying Ta 2 O 5 (cb) is discussed suggesting a reaction mechanism. The optical absorption of the TaON and TaON/Ag samples found by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) correlated well with the kinetics of E. coli inactivation. The TaON/Ag sample microstructure was characterized by contact angle (CA) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester after each disinfection cycle enabled repetitive E. coli inactivation

  18. Coupling of narrow and wide band-gap semiconductors on uniform films active in bacterial disinfection under low intensity visible light: Implications of the interfacial charge transfer (IFCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rtimi, S., E-mail: sami.rtimi@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); UR Catalyse/Matériaux pour l‘Environnement et les Procédés (URCMEP), Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Université de Gabès, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Sanjines, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-IPMC-LNNME, Bat PH, Station 3, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pulgarin, C., E-mail: cesar.pulgarin@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Houas, A. [UR Catalyse/Matériaux pour l‘Environnement et les Procédés (URCMEP), Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Université de Gabès, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Lavanchy, J.-C. [Université de Lausanne, IMG, Centre d’Analyse Minérale, Bat Anthropole, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kiwi, J. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-LPI, Bat Chimie, Station 6, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Design, preparation, testing and characterization of uniform sputtered films. • Interfacial charge transfer from the Ag{sub 2}O (cb) to the lower laying Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (cb). • The optical absorption of TaON and TaON/Ag was proportional to E. coli inactivation. • Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester enables repetitive E. coli inactivation. -- Abstract: This study reports the design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of uniform films deposited by sputtering Ag and Ta on non-heat resistant polyester to evaluate the Escherichia coli inactivation by TaON, TaN/Ag, Ag and TaON/Ag polyester. Co-sputtering for 120 s Ta and Ag in the presence of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} led to the faster E. coli inactivation by a TaON/Ag sample within ∼40 min under visible light irradiation. The deconvolution of TaON/Ag peaks obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the assignment of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag-species. The shifts observed for the XPS peaks have been assigned to AgO to Ag{sub 2}O and Ag{sup 0}, and are a function of the applied sputtering times. The mechanism of interfacial charge transfer (IFCT) from the Ag{sub 2}O conduction band (cb) to the lower laying Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (cb) is discussed suggesting a reaction mechanism. The optical absorption of the TaON and TaON/Ag samples found by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) correlated well with the kinetics of E. coli inactivation. The TaON/Ag sample microstructure was characterized by contact angle (CA) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester after each disinfection cycle enabled repetitive E. coli inactivation.

  19. The placing of the disinfection stage in a reclamation plant to reduce haloform formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, O O

    1979-10-01

    Chlorination of water containing organic matter leads to the formation of various volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (VHH). Various process configurations of a water reclamation plant were studied to determine the best position of the primary disinfection stage in the plant to achieve the greatest possible reduction of haloform concentration in the water distribution system. The pros and cons of ozone and chlorine as disinfectants were also investigated. Experiment methodology is explained. Results indicate that breakpoint chlorination ahead of two active carbon adsorption stages is the preferred process sequence and disinfectant to assure the lowest possible VHH production in the distribution system. (3 diagrams, 1 drawing, 8 graphs, 54 references, 2 tables)

  20. Active action potential propagation but not initiation in thalamic interneuron dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Amanda E.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus modulate the activity of thalamocortical cells in response to excitatory input through the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter from both axons and dendrites. The exact mechanisms by which release can occur from dendrites are, however, not well understood. Recent experiments using calcium imaging have suggested that Na/K based action potentials can evoke calcium transients in dendrites via local active conductances, making the back-propagating action potential a candidate for dendritic neurotransmitter release. In this study, we employed high temporal and spatial resolution voltage-sensitive dye imaging to assess the characteristics of dendritic voltage deflections in response to Na/K action potentials in interneurons of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. We found that trains or single action potentials elicited by somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation led to action potentials that rapidly and actively back-propagated throughout the entire dendritic arbor and into the fine filiform dendritic appendages known to release GABAergic vesicles. Action potentials always appeared first in the soma or proximal dendrite in response to somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation, and the rapid back-propagation into the dendritic arbor depended upon voltage-gated sodium and TEA-sensitive potassium channels. Our results indicate that thalamic interneuron dendrites integrate synaptic inputs that initiate action potentials, most likely in the axon initial segment, that then back-propagate with high-fidelity into the dendrites, resulting in a nearly synchronous release of GABA from both axonal and dendritic compartments. PMID:22171033

  1. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  2. Assessment of peracetic acid disinfected effluents by microbiotests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M; Mezzanotte, V; Panouillères, M

    2009-09-01

    Bioassays were performed by commercially available kits on peracetic acid (PAA) solutions, at different concentrations, and on secondary effluents (from two different wastewater treatment plants) after disinfection at bench-scale, considering both samples containing residual active PAA and the same samples where residual PAA was quenched. Four indicator organisms were used: Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornutum. The experiments lead to conclude that Thamnocephalus platyurus is a very sensitive organism, probably not adequate to perform a reliable toxicity assessment of effluents for monitoring purposes. The presence of specific organic compounds deriving from human metabolism and urban pollution, even at very low concentrations, can affect the results of bioassays, especially those performed on Vibrio fischeri. PAA is toxic for bacteria and crustaceans even at concentrations lower than the ones commonly used in wastewater disinfection (2-5 mg/L), while its effect on algae is smaller. The toxic effect on bacteria was expected, as PAA is used for disinfection, but its possible influence on biological processes in the receiving aquatic environment should be considered. Toxicity on crustaceans would confirm the fact that discharging disinfected effluents could raise some environmental problems.

  3. 77 FR 3460 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... available funding, the approved claim amounts will be reimbursed on a prorated basis. All reimbursements are...., statutory increases in the reimbursement ceilings). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium...

  4. 76 FR 30696 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... in the reimbursement ceilings). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium... reimbursement under Title X of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. In our Federal Register Notice of November 24...

  5. 76 FR 24871 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... in the reimbursement ceilings). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium... reimbursement under Title X of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. DATES: In our Federal Register Notice of November...

  6. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for water disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelita Asuncion S. Dimapilis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world faces a growing challenge for adequate clean water due to threats coming from increasing demand and decreasing supply. Although there are existing technologies for water disinfection, their limitations, particularly the formation of disinfection-by-products, have led to researches on alternative methods. Zinc oxide, an essential chemical in the rubber and pharmaceutical industries, has attracted interest as antimicrobial agent. In nanoscale, zinc oxide has shown antimicrobial properties which make its potential great for various applications. This review discusses the synthesis of zinc oxide with focus on precipitation method, its antimicrobial property and the factors affecting it, disinfection mechanisms, and the potential application to water disinfection.

  7. Thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica L. latex: action of cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H V; Rajesh, R; Nanda, B L; Dharmappa, K K; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-05-04

    To validate the scientific basis of plant latex to stop bleeding on fresh cuts. Cysteine protease(s) from Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae) plant latex was assessed for pro-coagulant and thrombin like activities. A waxy material from the latex of Asclepias curassavica latex was removed by freezing and thawing. The resulted latex enzyme fraction was assayed for proteolytic activity using denatured casein as substrate. Its coagulant activity and thrombin like activity were determined using citrated plasma and pure fibrinogen, respectively. Inhibition studies were performed using specific protease inhibitors to know the type of protease. The latex enzyme fraction exhibited strong proteolytic activity when compared to trypsin and exerted pro-coagulant action by reducing plasma clotting time from 195 to 58 s whereas trypsin reduced clotting time marginally from 195 to 155 s. The pro-coagulant activity of this enzyme fraction was exerted by selectively hydrolyzing A alpha and B beta subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot when pure fibrinogen was used as substrate as assessed by fibrinogen-agarose plate method and fibrinogen polymerization assay. Trypsin failed to induce any fibrin clot under similar conditions. The electrophoretic pattern of latex enzyme fraction-induced fibrin clot was very much similar to that of thrombin-induced fibrin clot and mimic thrombin like action. The proteolytic activity including thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica latex enzyme fraction was completely inhibited by iodoaceticacid (IAA). Cysteine proteases from Asclepias curassavica latex exhibited strong pro-coagulant action and were found to be specific in its action (Thrombin like). This could be the basis for the use of plant latex in pharmacological applications that justify their use as folk medicine.

  8. Action of methotrexate and tofacitinib on directly stimulated and bystander-activated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscianz, Elisa; Candilera, Vanessa; Valencic, Erica; Loganes, Claudia; Paron, Greta; De Iudicibus, Sara; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with autoimmune activation is characteristic of rheumatic diseases from childhood to adulthood. In recent decades, significant improvements in the treatment of these types of disease have been achieved using disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate (MTX) and, more recently, using biologic inhibitors. The recent introduction of kinase inhibitors (for example, tofacitinib; Tofa) further increases the available ARDs. However, there are patients that do not respond to any treatment strategies, for whom combination therapies are proposed. The data regarding the combined action of different drugs is lacking and the knowledge of the mechanisms of ARDs and their actions upon pathogenic lymphocytes, which are hypothesized to sustain disease, is poor. An in vitro model of inflammation was developed in the current study, in which stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes were cultured together, but tracked separately, to investigate the action of MTX and Tofa on the two populations. By analysing lymphocyte proliferation and activation, and cytokine secretion in the culture supernatants, it was established that, due to the presence of activated cells, unstimulated cells underwent a bystander activation that was modulated by the ARDs. Additionally, varying administration schedules were demonstrated to affect lymphocytes differently in vitro, either directly or via bystander activation. Furthermore, MTX and Tofa exerted different effects; while MTX showed an antiproliferative effect, Tofa marginally effected activation, although only a slight antiproliferative action, which could be potentiated by sequential treatment with MTX. Thus, it was hypothesized that these differences may be exploited in sequential therapeutic strategies, to maximize the anti‑rheumatic effect. These findings are notable and must be accounted for, as bystander‑activated cells in vivo could contribute to the spread of autoimmune activation

  9. A dual potassium channel activator improves repolarization reserve and normalizes ventricular action potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Di Diego, José M; Hansen, Rie Schultz

    2016-01-01

    in cultured canine cardiac myocytes and determined whether a dual K(+) current activator can normalize K(+) currents and restore action potential (AP) configuration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ventricular myocytes were isolated and cultured for up to 48h. Current and voltage clamp recordings were made using patch...... of EADs. Our results suggest a potential benefit of K(+) current activators under conditions of reduced repolarization reserve including heart failure....

  10. Mechanism of action and application of virocids in health care-associated viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shahbaz

    2016-03-01

    properties of antiseptics and introduced selected antiseptics with extensive virucidal action, because hands play an important role in the spread of many viral diseases, and regular proper hands hygiene is essential to decontaminate hands and can interrupt the spread of viruses. Here, we compared the currently available laboratory methods, standard methods from many countries and kinds of viruses in these methods for evaluation of virocide activity. Finally, it’s good to know: any disinfectant is not virocide unless it confirms by laboratory methods.

  11. Immunomagnetic separation combined with RT-qPCR for determining the efficacy of disinfectants against human noroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Little is known about the effectiveness of disinfectants against human noroviruses (NoV partially because human NoV cannot be routinely cultured in laboratory. The objective of this study was to develop a NoV monoclonal antibody-conjugated immunomagnetic separation (IMS procedure combined with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assays to study the in vitro efficacy of disinfectants against human NoV. Monoclonal antibodies against Norwalk virus (NV, GI.1 and NoV GII.4 were produced using unique NoV capsid proteins, and the antibodies were conjugated to magnetic Dynalbeads. The immunomagnetic beads were used to simultaneously capture intact NoV in samples and effectively remove PCR inhibitors. We examined the efficacy of ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, nine commercially available disinfectants, and one prototype disinfectant using the IMS/RT-qPCR. The sensitivity of this procedure was approximately 100 virus particles for both the NV and GII.4 viruses. The average log reductions in in vitro activities varied between disinfectants. The prototype disinfectant produced an average 3.19-log reduction in NV and a 1.38-log reduction in GII.4. The prototype disinfectant is promising of inactivating NoV. This method can be used to evaluate in vitro activity of disinfectants against human NoV. The IMS/RT-qPCR method is promising as an effective method to remove PCR inhibitors in disinfectants and enable the evaluation of the efficacy of disinfectants. Keywords: Disinfectant, Norovirus, Immunomagnetic separation, Real-time RT-PCR, PCR inhibition

  12. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J.Y. Lam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1 action features, (2 visual features, or (3 semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms, and 1,000 ms to determine the relative time course of the different features . Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100 ms, 250 ms, and 1,000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1,000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1 demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2 provides new evidence for embodied theories of language.

  13. Antibacterial free fatty acids: activities, mechanisms of action and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Andrew P; Smith, Valerie J

    2010-02-01

    Amongst the diverse and potent biological activities of free fatty acids (FFAs) is the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antibacterial properties of FFAs are used by many organisms to defend against parasitic or pathogenic bacteria. Whilst their antibacterial mode of action is still poorly understood, the prime target of FFA action is the cell membrane, where FFAs disrupt the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Besides interfering with cellular energy production, FFA action may also result from the inhibition of enzyme activity, impairment of nutrient uptake, generation of peroxidation and auto-oxidation degradation products or direct lysis of bacterial cells. Their broad spectrum of activity, non-specific mode of action and safety makes them attractive as antibacterial agents for various applications in medicine, agriculture and food preservation, especially where the use of conventional antibiotics is undesirable or prohibited. Moreover, the evolution of inducible FFA-resistant phenotypes is less problematic than with conventional antibiotics. The potential for commercial or biomedical exploitation of antibacterial FFAs, especially for those from natural sources, is discussed.

  14. Pivotal role of tissue plasminogen activator in the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Mezzasalma, Marco A U; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-02-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy is an important treatment option for major depressive disorders, acute mania, mood disorders with psychotic features, and catatonia. Several hypotheses have been proposed as electroconvulsive therapy's mechanism of action. Our hypothesis involves many converging pathways facilitated by increased synthesis and release of tissue-plasminogen activator. Human and animal experiments have shown that tissue-plasminogen activator participates in many mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy or its animal variant, electroconvulsive stimulus, including improved N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated signaling, activation of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, increased bioavailability of zinc, purinergic release, and increased mobility of dendritic spines. As a result, tissue-plasminogen activator helps promote neurogenesis in limbic structures, modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity, improves cognitive function, and mediates antidepressant effects. Notably, electroconvulsive therapy seems to influence tissue-plasminogen activator metabolism. For example, electroconvulsive stimulus increases the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65 isoform in γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing neurons, which enhances the release of tissue-plasminogen activator, and the expression of p11, a protein involved in plasminogen and tissue-plasminogen activator assembling. This paper reviews how electroconvulsive therapy correlates with tissue-plasminogen activator. We suggest that interventions aiming at increasing tissue-plasminogen activator levels or its bioavailability - such as daily aerobic exercises together with a carbohydrate-restricted diet, or normalization of homocysteine levels - be evaluated in controlled studies assessing response and remission duration in patients who undergo electroconvulsive therapy.

  15. Quinoxaline 1, 4-di-N-oxides: Biological activities and mechanisms of actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyue eCheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1, 4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs have manifold biological properties, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, antitrypanosomal and antiinflammatory/antioxidant activities. These diverse activities endow them broad applications and prospects in human and veterinary medicines. As QdNOs arouse widespread interest, the evaluation of their medicinal chemistry is still in progress. In the meantime, adverse effects have been reported in some of the QdNO derivatives. For example, genotoxicity and bacterial resistance have been found in QdNO antibacterial growth promoters, conferring urgent need for discovery of new QdNO drugs. However, the modes of actions of QdNOs are not fully understood, hindering the development and innovation of these promising compounds. Here, QdNOs are categorized based on the activities and usages, among which the antimicrobial activities are consist of antibacterial, antimycobacterial and anticandida activities, and the antiprotozoal activities include antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, antitrichomonas and antiamoebic activities. The structure-activity relationship and the mode of actions of each type of activity of QdNOs are summarized, and the toxicity and the underlying mechanisms are also discussed, providing insight for the future research and development of these fascinating compounds.

  16. Baking together-the coordination of actions in activities involving people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Ekström, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explores interaction and collaboration between people with dementia and their spouses in relation to the performance of household chores with the focus on instruction as an interactional context to engage the person with dementia in collaboration to accomplish joint activities. Dementia is generally associated with pathological changes in people's cognitive functions such as diminishing memory functions, communicative abilities and also diminishing abilities to take initiative as well as to plan and execute tasks. Using video recordings of everyday naturally occurring activities, we analyze the sequential organization of actions (see Schegloff, 2007) oriented toward the accomplishment of a joint multi-task activity of baking. The analysis shows the specific ways of collaboration through instructional activities in which the person with dementia exhibits his competence and skills in accomplishing the given tasks through negotiating the instructions with his partner and carrying out instructed actions. Although the driving force of the collaboration seems to be a series of directive sequences only initiated by the partner throughout the baking activity, our analyses highlight how the person with dementia can actively use the material environment-including collaborating partners-to compensate for challenges and difficulties encountered in achieving everyday tasks. The sequential organization of instructions and instructed actions are in this sense argued to provide an interactional environment wherein the person with dementia can make contributions to the joint activity in an efficient way. While a collaborator has been described as necessary for a person with dementia to be able to partake in activities, this study shows that people with dementia are not only guided by their collaborators in joint activities but they can also actively use their collaborators in intricate compensatory ways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Supportive Environments for Physical Activity, Community Action and Policy in Eight EU Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Engbers, Luuk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multi-level theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. METHODS: Most-different and most...... on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion...... and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Framework...

  18. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  19. Disinfecting the iPad: evaluating effective methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, V; Thoppil, A; Mariyaselvam, M; Jones, R; Young, H; Sharma, S; Blunt, M; Young, P

    2014-06-01

    Tablet computers are increasingly used in healthcare, but they may carry nosocomial pathogens. There are few data available on how to clean an iPad effectively for use in the clinical setting. We aimed to identify the most effective method of decontaminating the Apple iPad, without causing damage, and establish the duration of any residual effect. Following contamination with a microbial broth (meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) and Clostridium difficile), we examined efficacy of iPad disinfection in the laboratory using six different disinfectant wipes: Sani-Cloth CHG 2% (chlorhexidine 2%/alcohol 70%), Clorox, Tristel, Trigene, soap and water, and plain cloth. Following cleaning, iPads were recontaminated to examine residual activity. After 480 Sani-Cloth CHG 2% disinfecting episodes, functional and visual analysis of iPads was performed by blinded subjects. With the exception of Clostridium difficile, Sani-Cloth CHG 2% and Clorox wipes were most effective against MRSA and VRE, and they were significantly better than the Apple-recommended plain cloth (P ≤ 0.001). A substantial residual antimicrobial effect was seen for >6h after wiping the iPad with Sani-Cloth CHG 2% despite repeated recontamination and without further disinfection. The functionality or visual appearance of the iPad was not damaged by repeated use of Sani-Cloth CHG 2% wipes. Sani-Cloth CHG 2% wipes effectively disinfect the iPad against MRSA and VRE, with a residual antibacterial effect and without causing damage. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An environmental disinfection odyssey: evaluation of sequential interventions to improve disinfection of Clostridium difficile isolation rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzlar, Brett; Deshpande, Abhishek; Fertelli, Dennis; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sethi, Ajay K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE. Effective disinfection of hospital rooms after discharge of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is necessary to prevent transmission. We evaluated the impact of sequential cleaning and disinfection interventions by culturing high-touch surfaces in CDI rooms after cleaning. DESIGN. Prospective intervention. SETTING. A Veterans Affairs hospital. INTERVENTIONS. During a 21-month period, 3 sequential tiered interventions were implemented: (1) fluorescent markers to provide monitoring and feedback on thoroughness of cleaning facility-wide, (2) addition of an automated ultraviolet radiation device for adjunctive disinfection of CDI rooms, and (3) enhanced standard disinfection of CDI rooms, including a dedicated daily disinfection team and implementation of a process requiring supervisory assessment and clearance of terminally cleaned CDI rooms. To determine the impact of the interventions, cultures were obtained from CDI rooms after cleaning and disinfection. RESULTS. The fluorescent marker intervention improved the thoroughness of cleaning of high-touch surfaces (from 47% to 81% marker removal; P disinfection, whereas during interventions periods 1, 2, and 3 the percentages of CDI rooms with positive cultures after disinfection were reduced to 57%, 35%, and 7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. An intervention that included formation of a dedicated daily disinfection team and implementation of a standardized process for clearing CDI rooms achieved consistent CDI room disinfection. Culturing of CDI rooms provides a valuable tool to drive improvements in environmental disinfection.

  1. [Sensitivity to disinfectants of Candid albicans strains isolated from the hospital environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeusiak, B

    1998-01-01

    In recent years an increase of the incidence of Candida infections caused mainly by C. albicans strains especially in high risk inpatients with neoplasms, decreased immunity, burns and after treatment with multiple antibiotics has been observed. Candida organisms are particularly dangerous for newborns being responsible for about 30% of septicaemia cases in newborns in intensive care units. Fungal infections can be endogenous in origin but exogenous infection sources occur in hospitals. The cause of the latter are errors in aseptic management and insufficiently disinfected medical instruments and equipment. The purpose of the study was a comparison of the sensitivity to disinfectants of C. albicans belonging to two laboratory strains C. albicans PZH and C. albicans ATCC 10231 used for the determination of concentrations of two disinfectants used. Besides that, this sensitivity was determined in 14 strains isolated from the patients and one from the circuit of dialysis solution supply to artificial kidney. The study was carried out by the qualitative suspension method, in which the cells in the fluid were subjected to the action of disinfectants, and by the carrier method in which the cells of the microorganisms were present on the surface of metal cylinders. By the suspension method the sensitivity was determined to chloramine T in concentrations from 5.0% to 0.001%, formalin from 10.0% to 0.25%, glutaraldehyde from 2.0% to 0.1%, Septyl from 3.5% to 0.25%. The exposure time was 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes. The tested strains differed in their sensitivity to the disinfectants used. The greatest interstrain differences were observed in the sensitivity to the disinfectants used. The greatest interstrain differences were observed in the sensitivity to chloramine T. The highest concentrations were tolerated by the strains isolated from the patients and from the artificial kidney circuit as well as by the standard strain ATCC 10231. In the 10-minute exposure time

  2. A study of the effects of different disinfectants used in Riyadh hospitals and their efficacy against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddour, Manal M.

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the means of controlling it, continue to be of major interest to the healthcare community. The bactericidal activity of some disinfectants which are in common use in seven major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh was tested against two control strains of S.aureus, namely MRSA ATCC 33591 and Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 29213. The disinfectants tested in this study were a group used for hand antisepsis (Purell, EZ-clean, Cida stat and Manorapid Synergy) and another group used for environmental disinfection (Combi spray, Tristel fusion, Alphadine, Isopropanol, Presept and Diesin). Presept, diesin and tristel fusion had a remarkable effect on the tested strains, both methicillin sensitive and methicillin resistant. There was hardly any noticeable difference between the effects on either (P>0.05). On the other hand, Purell and EZ-clean and Manorapid Synergy hand rubs had a relatively weak action after 15 and 30 minutes while their effect was better after 1 and 2 hours. There was no observable differences between their effects on MRSA or MSSA, P>0.05. Cita stat had a remarkably pronounced effect against both MRSA and MSSA. Contrary to some previous reports, this study has proven also that chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds show comparable efficacy against both MRSA and MSSA. (author)

  3. Altered cortical activation during action observation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a parametric functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haiqing; Li, Yuxin; Yin, Bo; Tang, Weijun; Yu, Xiangrong; Geng, Daoying; Chen, Yan; Huang, Weiyuan; Zhang, Biyun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate functional cerebral abnormalities in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during action observation. Thirty patients with ALS and 30 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI with an experimental paradigm while observing a video of repetitive flexion-extension of the fingers at three frequency levels or three complexity levels, alternated with periods of a static hand. A parametric analysis was applied to determine the effects of each of the two factors. Action observation activated similar neural networks as the research on execution of action in the ALS patients and healthy subjects in several brain regions related to the mirror-neuron system (MNS). In the ALS patients, in particular, the dorsal lateral premotor cortex (dPMC), inferior parietal gyrus (IPG), and SMA, were more activated compared with the activation in the controls. Increased activation within the primary motor cortex (M1), dPMC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and superior parietal gyrus (SPG) mainly correlated with hand movement frequency/complexity in the videos in the patients compared with controls. The findings indicated an ongoing compensatory process occurring within the higher order motor-processing system of ALS patients, likely to overcome the loss of function. (orig.)

  4. Altered cortical activation during action observation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a parametric functional MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haiqing; Li, Yuxin; Yin, Bo; Tang, Weijun; Yu, Xiangrong; Geng, Daoying [Huashan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yan [Fudan University, Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Huang, Weiyuan [People' s Hospital of Hainan Province, Department of Radiology, Haikou, Hainan Province (China); Zhang, Biyun [Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of radiotherapy, Affiliated Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China)

    2015-09-15

    To investigate functional cerebral abnormalities in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during action observation. Thirty patients with ALS and 30 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI with an experimental paradigm while observing a video of repetitive flexion-extension of the fingers at three frequency levels or three complexity levels, alternated with periods of a static hand. A parametric analysis was applied to determine the effects of each of the two factors. Action observation activated similar neural networks as the research on execution of action in the ALS patients and healthy subjects in several brain regions related to the mirror-neuron system (MNS). In the ALS patients, in particular, the dorsal lateral premotor cortex (dPMC), inferior parietal gyrus (IPG), and SMA, were more activated compared with the activation in the controls. Increased activation within the primary motor cortex (M1), dPMC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and superior parietal gyrus (SPG) mainly correlated with hand movement frequency/complexity in the videos in the patients compared with controls. The findings indicated an ongoing compensatory process occurring within the higher order motor-processing system of ALS patients, likely to overcome the loss of function. (orig.)

  5. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Villiger

    Full Text Available The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O, observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI, or imitate the action (O-IMIT. We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI enhances activation compared to observation-only (O in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  6. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  7. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  8. Silver disinfection in water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestry Rodriguez, Nadia

    Silver was evaluated as disinfectant to maintain water quality in water distribution system. It was used to inhibit growth of two opportunistic bacteria in planktonik form and in biofilm formation in Robbins devices with stainless steel and PVC surfaces. The results of this work show that silver is a potential secondary disinfectant to be used in water distribution systems.

  9. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    of the residual disinfectants PFA, PAA and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and their degradation products hydrogen peroxide and chlorite, in relation to organisms in the aquatic ecosystem was studied. With the help of ecotoxicity data, a preliminary environmental risk assessment of PFA, PAA and ClO2 for CSO disinfection...

  10. Adaptive Mechanisms Underlying Microbial Resistance to Disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    11775]). E.coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in warm-blooded animals . 2.1.2 Disinfectants...Nisbet, D.J. Disinfectant and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains from Cattle Carcasses , Feces, and Hides and

  11. Chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant for Ralstonia solanacearum control in water, storage and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot or bacterial wilt caused by bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is the main limiting factor in potato production. Quarantine measures are necessary to avoid spread of disease to disease-free areas. R. solanacearum has been shown to contaminate watercourses from which crop irrigation is then prohibited causing further potential losses in yield and quality. The bacteria also spread via surfaces that diseased seed potatoes come into contact with. This study showed bactericidal activity of chlorine dioxide (CIO2 on R. solanacearum for disinfection of water, surface and equipment. The results showed that CIO2 solution at concentration of 2 ppm at 30 minutes of exposure time had bactericidal effect for disinfection of water. For surface and equipment disinfection, concentration of 50 ppm showed total efficacy at 30 min and 5 sec exposure time, respectively. Results suggest that use of CIO2 as a disinfectant has a potential for control of brown rot pathogen in water, storage and equipment.

  12. Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Peggy Doyle

    2014-03-01

    Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance.

  13. Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    in interprofessional courses and if the model has a potential as mean of pedagogical development and collaboration. Methods The study is based on action research and is a mixed method study. In 2016 the project will gather data in cooperation with lecturers through qualitative methods and a followup on the baseline...... to further explore the potential of the study activity model as a mean of pedagogical development. The qualitative data will be processed by current hermeneutical and phenomenological methods. Outcomes and implications The outcome of the project should provide deeper insight into facilitating IPE and IPC......Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked...

  14. Cleaning and Disinfection of Bacillus cereus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Amanda; Klein, Dan; Lopolito, Paul; Schwarz, John Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to disassociated B. cereus spores and biofilm from a non-spore-forming species. Further, we assessed the impact that pre-cleaning has on increasing that susceptibility. Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to

  15. Lessons learned from Action Schools! BC--an 'active school' model to promote physical activity in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Macdonald, Heather M; Zebedee, Janelle A; Reed, Katherine E; McKay, Heather A

    2006-10-01

    The 'active school' model offers promise for promoting school-based physical activity (PA); however, few intervention trials have evaluated its effectiveness. Thus, our purpose was to: (1) describe Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) and its implementation (fidelity and feasibility) and (2) evaluate the impact of AS! BC on school provision of PA. Ten elementary schools were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: Usual Practice (UP, three schools), Liaison (LS, four schools) or Champion (CS, three schools). Teachers in LS and CS schools received AS! BC training and resources but differed on the level of facilitation provided. UP schools continued with regular PA. Delivery of PA during the 11-month intervention was assessed with weekly Activity Logs and intervention fidelity and feasibility were assessed using Action Plans, workshop evaluations, teacher surveys and focus groups with administrators, teachers, parents and students. Physical activity delivered was significantly greater in LS (+67.4 min/week; 95% CI: 18.7-116.1) and CS (+55.2 min/week; 95% CI: 26.4-83.9) schools than UP schools. Analysis of Action Plans and Activity Logs showed fidelity to the model and moderate levels of compliance (75%). Teachers were highly satisfied with training and support. Benefits of AS! BC included positive changes in the children and school climate, including provision of resources, improved communication and program flexibility. These results support the use of the 'active school' model to positively alter the school environment. The AS! BC model was effective, providing more opportunities for "more children to be more active more often" and as such has the potential to provide health benefits to elementary school children.

  16. Mode of Action of Lactoperoxidase as Related to Its Antimicrobial Activity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bafort

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactoperoxidase is a member of the family of the mammalian heme peroxidases which have a broad spectrum of activity. Their best known effect is their antimicrobial activity that arouses much interest in in vivo and in vitro applications. In this context, the proper use of lactoperoxidase needs a good understanding of its mode of action, of the factors that favor or limit its activity, and of the features and properties of the active molecules. The first part of this review describes briefly the classification of mammalian peroxidases and their role in the human immune system and in host cell damage. The second part summarizes present knowledge on the mode of action of lactoperoxidase, with special focus on the characteristics to be taken into account for in vitro or in vivo antimicrobial use. The last part looks upon the characteristics of the active molecule produced by lactoperoxidase in the presence of thiocyanate and/or iodide with implication(s on its antimicrobial activity.

  17. Dissociating action-effect activation and effect-based response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-05-25

    Anticipated action effects have been shown to govern action selection and initiation, as described in ideomotor theory, and they have also been demonstrated to determine crosstalk between different tasks in multitasking studies. Such effect-based crosstalk was observed not only in a forward manner (with a first task influencing performance in a following second task) but also in a backward manner (the second task influencing the preceding first task), suggesting that action effect codes can become activated prior to a capacity-limited processing stage often denoted as response selection. The process of effect-based response production, by contrast, has been proposed to be capacity-limited. These observations jointly suggest that effect code activation can occur independently of effect-based response production, though this theoretical implication has not been tested directly at present. We tested this hypothesis by employing a dual-task set-up in which we manipulated the ease of effect-based response production (via response-effect compatibility) in an experimental design that allows for observing forward and backward crosstalk. We observed robust crosstalk effects and response-effect compatibility effects alike, but no interaction between both effects. These results indicate that effect activation can occur in parallel for several tasks, independently of effect-based response production, which is confined to one task at a time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 9 CFR 166.14 - Cleaning and disinfecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting. 166.14... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.14 Cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Disinfectants to be used. Disinfection required under the regulations in this Part shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored by... who issues the ICI. (2) Cleaning and disinfection must be sufficient to neutralize any VHS virus to...

  20. Unsaturated Fatty Acid, cis-2-Decenoic Acid, in Combination with Disinfectants or Antibiotics Removes Pre-Established Biofilms Formed by Food-Related Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehr, Shayesteh; Rahmani-Badi, Azadeh; Babaie-Naiej, Hamta; Soudi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation by food-related bacteria and food-related pathogenesis are significant problems in the food industry. Even though much disinfection and mechanical procedure exist for removal of biofilms, they may fail to eliminate pre-established biofilms. cis-2 decenoic acid (CDA), an unsaturated fatty acid messenger produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is reportedly capable of inducing the dispersion of established biofilms by multiple types of microorganisms. However, whether CDA has potential to boost the actions of certain antimicrobials is unknown. Here, the activity of CDA as an inducer of pre-established biofilms dispersal, formed by four main food pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica and E. coli, was measured using both semi-batch and continuous cultures bioassays. To assess the ability of CDA combined biocides treatments to remove pre-established biofilms formed on stainless steel discs, CFU counts were performed for both treated and untreated cultures. Eradication of the biofilms by CDA combined antibiotics was evaluated using crystal violet staining. The effect of CDA combined treatments (antibiotics and disinfectants) on biofilm surface area and bacteria viability was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy, digital image analysis and LIVE/DEAD staining. MICs were also determined to assess the probable inhibitory effects of CDA combined treatments on the growth of tested microorganisms' planktonic cells. Treatment of pre-established biofilms with only 310 nM CDA resulted in at least two-fold increase in the number of planktonic cells in all cultures. While antibiotics or disinfectants alone exerted a trivial effect on CFU counts and percentage of surface area covered by the biofilms, combinational treatments with both 310 nM CDA and antibiotics or disinfectants led to approximate 80% reduction in biofilm biomass. These data suggests that combined treatments with CDA would pave the way toward developing new strategies

  1. Unsaturated fatty acid, cis-2-decenoic acid, in combination with disinfectants or antibiotics removes pre-established biofilms formed by food-related bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Sepehr

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation by food-related bacteria and food-related pathogenesis are significant problems in the food industry. Even though much disinfection and mechanical procedure exist for removal of biofilms, they may fail to eliminate pre-established biofilms. cis-2 decenoic acid (CDA, an unsaturated fatty acid messenger produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is reportedly capable of inducing the dispersion of established biofilms by multiple types of microorganisms. However, whether CDA has potential to boost the actions of certain antimicrobials is unknown. Here, the activity of CDA as an inducer of pre-established biofilms dispersal, formed by four main food pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica and E. coli, was measured using both semi-batch and continuous cultures bioassays. To assess the ability of CDA combined biocides treatments to remove pre-established biofilms formed on stainless steel discs, CFU counts were performed for both treated and untreated cultures. Eradication of the biofilms by CDA combined antibiotics was evaluated using crystal violet staining. The effect of CDA combined treatments (antibiotics and disinfectants on biofilm surface area and bacteria viability was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy, digital image analysis and LIVE/DEAD staining. MICs were also determined to assess the probable inhibitory effects of CDA combined treatments on the growth of tested microorganisms' planktonic cells. Treatment of pre-established biofilms with only 310 nM CDA resulted in at least two-fold increase in the number of planktonic cells in all cultures. While antibiotics or disinfectants alone exerted a trivial effect on CFU counts and percentage of surface area covered by the biofilms, combinational treatments with both 310 nM CDA and antibiotics or disinfectants led to approximate 80% reduction in biofilm biomass. These data suggests that combined treatments with CDA would pave the way toward

  2. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GA...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  3. Surface Disinfections: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Saccucci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of antibiotic resistance increases the chances of major infections for patients during hospitalization and the spread of health related diseases. Therefore finding new and effective solutions to prevent the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms is critical, in order to protect hospital environment, such as the surfaces of biomedical devices. Modern nanotechnology has proven to be an effective countermeasure to tackle the threat of infections. On this note, recent scientific breakthroughs have demonstrated that antimicrobial nanomaterials are effective in preventing pathogens from developing resistance. Despite the ability to destroy a great deal of bacteria and control the outbreak of infections, nanomaterials present many other advantages. Moreover, it is unlikely for nanomaterials to develop resistance due to their multiple and simultaneous bactericidal mechanisms. In recent years, science has explored more complex antimicrobial coatings and nanomaterials based on graphene have shown great potential in antibacterial treatment. The purpose of this article is to deepen the discussion on the threat of infections related to surface disinfection and to assess the state of the art and potential solutions, with specific focus on disinfection procedures using nanomaterials.

  4. Sonochemical disinfection of municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2007-01-01

    The application of high intensity, low frequency ultrasound for the disinfection of simulated and septic tank wastewaters is evaluated in this work. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted at 24 and 80 kHz ultrasound frequency with horn-type sonicators capable of operating in continuous and pulsed irradiation modes at nominal ultrasound intensities up to 450 W. For the experiments with simulated wastewaters, Escherichia coli were used as biological indicator of disinfection efficiency, while for the experiments with septic tank wastewaters, the total microbiological load was used. Complete elimination of E. coli could be achieved within 20-30 min of irradiation at 24 kHz and 450 W with the efficiency decreasing with decreasing intensity and frequency. Moreover, continuous irradiation was more effective than intermittent treatment based on a common energy input. Irradiation of the septic tank effluent prior to biological treatment at 24 kHz and 450 W for 30 min resulted in a three-log total microbiological load reduction, and this was nearly equal to the reduction that could be achieved during biological treatment. Bacterial cell elimination upon irradiation was irreversible as no reappearance of the microorganisms occurred after 24 h

  5. Point-of-use water disinfection using ultraviolet and visible light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lui, Gough Yumu, E-mail: gough@student.unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); School of Photovoltaics and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Roser, David, E-mail: djroser@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Corkish, Richard, E-mail: r.corkish@unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaics and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Ashbolt, Nicholas J., E-mail: ashbolt@ualberta.ca [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); School of Public Health, South Academic Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Stuetz, Richard, E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Improvements in point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection technologies for remote and regional communities are urgently needed. Conceptually, UV-C light-emitting diodes (LEDs) overcome many drawbacks of low-pressure mercury tube based UV devices, and UV-A or visible light LEDs also show potential. To realistically evaluate the promise of LED disinfection, our study assessed the performance of a model 1.3 L reactor, similar in size to solar disinfection bottles. In all, 12 different commercial or semi-commercial LED arrays (270–740 nm) were compared for their ability to inactivate Escherichia coli K12 ATCC W3110 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 over 6 h. Five log{sub 10} and greater reductions were consistently achieved using the 270, 365, 385 and 405 nm arrays. The output of the 310 nm array was insufficient for useful disinfection while 430 and 455 nm performance was marginal (≈ 4.2 and 2.3-log{sub 10}s E. coli and E. faecalis over the 6 h). No significant disinfection was observed with the 525, 590, 623, 660 and 740 nm arrays. Delays in log-phase inactivation of E. coli were observed, particularly with UV-A wavelengths. The radiation doses required for > 3-log{sub 10} reduction of E. coli and E. faecalis differed by 10 fold at 270 nm but only 1.5–2.5 fold at 365–455 nm. Action spectra, consistent with the literature, were observed with both indicators. The design process revealed cost and technical constraints pertaining to LED electrical efficiency, availability and lifetime. We concluded that POU LED disinfection using existing LED technology is already technically possible. UV-C LEDs offer speed and energy demand advantages, while UV-A/violet units are safer. Both approaches still require further costing and engineering development. Our study provides data needed for such work. - Highlights: • Disinfection of E. coli and E. faecalis achieved with 270 and 365–455 nm LEDs • No significant disinfection was found with 310 and > 455 nm LEDs

  6. Point-of-use water disinfection using ultraviolet and visible light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, Gough Yumu; Roser, David; Corkish, Richard; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection technologies for remote and regional communities are urgently needed. Conceptually, UV-C light-emitting diodes (LEDs) overcome many drawbacks of low-pressure mercury tube based UV devices, and UV-A or visible light LEDs also show potential. To realistically evaluate the promise of LED disinfection, our study assessed the performance of a model 1.3 L reactor, similar in size to solar disinfection bottles. In all, 12 different commercial or semi-commercial LED arrays (270–740 nm) were compared for their ability to inactivate Escherichia coli K12 ATCC W3110 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 over 6 h. Five log_1_0 and greater reductions were consistently achieved using the 270, 365, 385 and 405 nm arrays. The output of the 310 nm array was insufficient for useful disinfection while 430 and 455 nm performance was marginal (≈ 4.2 and 2.3-log_1_0s E. coli and E. faecalis over the 6 h). No significant disinfection was observed with the 525, 590, 623, 660 and 740 nm arrays. Delays in log-phase inactivation of E. coli were observed, particularly with UV-A wavelengths. The radiation doses required for > 3-log_1_0 reduction of E. coli and E. faecalis differed by 10 fold at 270 nm but only 1.5–2.5 fold at 365–455 nm. Action spectra, consistent with the literature, were observed with both indicators. The design process revealed cost and technical constraints pertaining to LED electrical efficiency, availability and lifetime. We concluded that POU LED disinfection using existing LED technology is already technically possible. UV-C LEDs offer speed and energy demand advantages, while UV-A/violet units are safer. Both approaches still require further costing and engineering development. Our study provides data needed for such work. - Highlights: • Disinfection of E. coli and E. faecalis achieved with 270 and 365–455 nm LEDs • No significant disinfection was found with 310 and > 455 nm LEDs. • UV

  7. Color vision predicts processing modes of goal activation during action cascading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkees, Bryant J; Steenbergen, Laura; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-09-01

    One of the most important functions of cognitive control is action cascading: the ability to cope with multiple response options when confronted with various task goals. A recent study implicates a key role for dopamine (DA) in this process, suggesting higher D1 efficiency shifts the action cascading strategy toward a more serial processing mode, whereas higher D2 efficiency promotes a shift in the opposite direction by inducing a more parallel processing mode (Stock, Arning, Epplen, & Beste, 2014). Given that DA is found in high concentration in the retina and modulation of retinal DA release displays characteristics of D2-receptors (Peters, Schweibold, Przuntek, & Müller, 2000), color vision discrimination might serve as an index of D2 efficiency. We used color discrimination, assessed with the Lanthony Desaturated Panel D-15 test, to predict individual differences (N = 85) in a stop-change paradigm that provides a well-established measure of action cascading. In this task it is possible to calculate an individual slope value for each participant that estimates the degree of overlap in task goal activation. When the stopping process of a previous task goal has not finished at the time the change process toward a new task goal is initiated (parallel processing), the slope value becomes steeper. In case of less overlap (more serial processing), the slope value becomes flatter. As expected, participants showing better color vision were more prone to activate goals in a parallel manner as indicated by a steeper slope. Our findings suggest that color vision might represent a predictor of D2 efficiency and the predisposed processing mode of goal activation during action cascading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Activation by Backpropagating Action Potentials Downregulates NMDAR Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Theis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of excitatory synapses are located on dendritic spines of cortical glutamatergic neurons. In spines, compartmentalized Ca2+ signals transduce electrical activity into specific long-term biochemical and structural changes. Action potentials (APs propagate back into the dendritic tree and activate voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs. For spines, this global mode of spine Ca2+ signaling is a direct biochemical feedback of suprathreshold neuronal activity. We previously demonstrated that backpropagating action potentials (bAPs result in long-term enhancement of spine VGCCs. This activity-dependent VGCC plasticity results in a large interspine variability of VGCC Ca2+ influx. Here, we investigate how spine VGCCs affect glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We combined electrophysiology, two-photon Ca2+ imaging and two-photon glutamate uncaging in acute brain slices from rats. T- and R-type VGCCs were the dominant depolarization-associated Ca2+conductances in dendritic spines of excitatory layer 2 neurons and do not affect synaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs measured at the soma. Using two-photon glutamate uncaging, we compared the properties of glutamatergic synapses of single spines that express different levels of VGCCs. While VGCCs contributed to EPSP mediated Ca2+ influx, the amount of EPSP mediated Ca2+ influx is not determined by spine VGCC expression. On a longer timescale, the activation of VGCCs by bAP bursts results in downregulation of spine NMDAR function.

  9. Anti-dengue virus serotype 2 activity and mode of action of a novel peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, M-F; Tham, H-W; Rajik, M; Sharifah, S H

    2015-10-01

    To identify a novel antiviral peptide against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) by screening a phage display peptide library and to evaluate its in vitro antiviral activity and mode of action. A phage display peptide library was biopanned against purified DENV-2 and resulted in the identification and selection of a peptide (peptide gg-ww) for further investigation. ELISA was performed, and peptide gg-ww was shown to possess the highest binding affinity against DENV-2. Thus, peptide gg-ww was synthesized for cytotoxicity and antiviral assays. Virus plaque reduction assay, real-time PCR and immunofluorescence assay were used to investigate the inhibitory effect of peptide gg-ww on DENV-2 infection in Vero cells. Three different assays (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatments assays) were performed to investigate the peptide's mode of action. Results indicated that peptide gg-ww possessed strong antiviral activity with a ~96% inhibition rate, which was achieved at 250 μmol l(-1) . Viral replication was inhibited during a simultaneous treatment assay, indicating that the entry of the virus was impeded by this peptide. Peptide gg-ww displayed antiviral action against DENV-2 by targeting an early stage of viral replication (i.e. during viral entry). Peptide gg-ww may represent a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of DENV infections and is a potential candidate to be developed as a peptide drug. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Citral against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clerya Alvino Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a yeast that commensally inhabits the human body and can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Objective. To investigate the antifungal activity of citral against C. albicans. Methodology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible citral action on cell walls (0.8 M sorbitol, cell membranes (citral to ergosterol binding, the time-kill curve, and biological activity on the yeast’s morphology. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were, respectively, 64 µg/mL and 256 µg/mL. Involvement with the cell wall and ergosterol binding were excluded as possible mechanisms of action. In the morphological interference assay, it was observed that the product inhibited pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia formation. The MIC and the MFC of citral required only 4 hours of exposure to effectively kill 99.9% of the inoculum. Conclusion. Citral showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans. Citral’s mechanism of action does not involve the cell wall or ergosterol, and further study is needed to completely describe its effects before being used in the future as a component of new antifungals.

  11. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition.

  12. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Gerson

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early music perception and cognition.

  13. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  14. Alternative disinfection technology for water purification systems; Josui shori ni okeru enso daitai shodoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, T. [The Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-10

    This paper describes chlorination substituting disinfection technologies used in water purification systems. Chloramine treatment is regarded as effective in reducing trihalomethane (THM). Chlorine is injected in the initial stage in the form of free chlorine to disinfect pathogenic microorganisms in a short time, which is then added with ammonia to convert it into chloramine for further utilization. Chlorine dioxide has not been used in Japan, but introduced in Europe and America to treat THM. Ozone has the strongest oxidizing power, and is used for disinfection, virus inactivation, decomposition of THM precursors, and removal of fungus odor. The ozone treatment will produce aldehyde if an organic matter is present, but aldehyde can be removed by treatment using organismic activated carbon. Ultraviolet ray treatment has an advantage of being difficult of producing byproducts. This system was experimentally compared with free chlorine treatment on disinfection effect, mutagenicity, suppression of producing THM byproducts, and odor removal. In order to assure reliability of microorganismic and chemical safety in tap water supply systems, assurance by considering the entire system is important, not only by operating the disinfection units, but also combining such physical water purifying technologies as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and membrane treatment. The use of chlorine substituting disinfectants is also a part of the conception. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Biomarkers of end of shift exposure to disinfection byproducts in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Solomon; Andrianou, Xanthi D; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2017-08-01

    Increased disinfectant use commonly takes place in hospitals and other health care settings. A cross-sectional study among active nurses in two Cypriot public hospitals (n=179) was conducted to examine the prevalence of exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) using both self-reported information and biomarker measurements. The objectives of this study were to: i) quantify the magnitude and variability of occupational exposure to disinfectants/DBPs in nurses, ii) generate job exposure matrices (JEM) and job task exposure matrices (JTEM) for disinfectants, and iii) assess the major determinants of urinary THMs in nurses. End of shift urinary total THM values showed high variability among the nurses, but did not differ between hospitals. The disinfectant group of alcohols/phenols was used by >98% of nurses, followed by octenidine (82%), iodine and chlorine (39%, each), chlorhexidine (25%), formaldehyde (12%), hydrogen peroxide (11%), and peracetic acid/ammonia/quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), all being Nurses were exposed to nearly double the levels of TTHMs and BrTHMs (median and IQR, 1027 [560, 2475] ng/g and 323 [212, 497] ng/g, respectively) when compared to those of the general population (552 [309,989] ng/g and 152 [87,261] ng/g, respectively). This was the first occupational health dataset reporting measurements of biomarkers of end of shift exposures to disinfectants/DBPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Induction of osteoblast differentiation by selective activation of kinase-mediated actions of the estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousteni, Stavroula; Almeida, Maria; Han, Li; Bellido, Teresita; Jilka, Robert L; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2007-02-01

    Estrogens control gene transcription by cis or trans interactions of the estrogen receptor (ER) with target DNA or via the activation of cytoplasmic kinases. We report that selective activation of kinase-mediated actions of the ER with 4-estren-3alpha,17beta-diol (estren) or an estradiol-dendrimer conjugate, each a synthetic compound that stimulates kinase-mediated ER actions 1,000 to 10,000 times more potently than direct DNA interactions, induced osteoblastic differentiation in established cell lines of uncommitted osteoblast precursors and primary cultures of osteoblast progenitors by stimulating Wnt and BMP-2 signaling in a kinase-dependent manner. In sharp contrast, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) suppressed BMP-2-induced osteoblast progenitor commitment and differentiation. Consistent with the in vitro findings, estren, but not E(2), stimulated Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated transcription in T-cell factor-lacZ transgenic mice. Moreover, E(2) stimulated BMP signaling in mice in which ERalpha lacks DNA binding activity and classical estrogen response element-mediated transcription (ERalpha(NERKI/-)) but not in wild-type controls. This evidence reveals for the first time the existence of a large signalosome in which inputs from the ER, kinases, bone morphogenetic proteins, and Wnt signaling converge to induce differentiation of osteoblast precursors. ER can either induce it or repress it, depending on whether the activating ligand (and presumably the resulting conformation of the receptor protein) precludes or accommodates ERE-mediated transcription.

  17. Suitability of electrolyzed oxidizing water for the disinfection of hard surfaces and equipment in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintaric, Robert; Matela, Joze; Pintaric, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals are faced with increasingly resistant strains of micro-organisms. When it comes to disinfection, individual parts of electronic equipment of angiology diagnostics such as patient couches of computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners prove to be very hard to disinfect. Disinfectants of choice are therefore expected to possess properties such as rapid, residue-free action without any damaging effect on the sensitive electronic equipment. This paper discusses the use of the neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) as a biocide for the disinfection of diagnostic rooms and equipment. The CT and MRI rooms were aerosolized with EOW using aerosolization device. The presence of micro-organisms before and after the aerosolization was recorded with the help of sedimentation and cyclone air sampling. Total body count (TBC) was evaluated in absolute and log values. The number of micro-organisms in hospital rooms was low as expected. Nevertheless, a possible TBC reduction between 78.99-92.50% or 50.50-70.60% in log values was recorded. The research has shown that the use of EOW for the air and hard surface disinfection can considerably reduce the presence of micro-organisms and consequently the possibility of hospital infections. It has also demonstrated that the sedimentation procedure is insufficient for the TBC determination. The use of Biocide aerosolization proved to be efficient and safe in all applied ways. Also, no eventual damage to exposed devices or staff was recorded.

  18. Successful disinfection protocol for orchid seeds and influence of gelling agent on germination and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž JEVŠNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial propagation of endangered orchid species is one of the most important actions of conservationists often jeopardized by low numbers of acquired seed, its contamination and viability. Disinfection and chemical composition of media are two of the most important factors contributing to better germination in temperate orchid species. The article deals with three world genera (Epidendrum nocturnum, Prosthechea garciana, Maxillaria rufescens and one commercial hybrid (Zygopetalum and describes an effective method of orchid seed disinfection carried out in a centrifuge. Germination percentages of all three genera and one hybrid were between 60 and 90 % from which we concluded that the risk of physical damage to the seeds by centrifugation is not significant. The time needed for disinfected seeds (E. nocturnum, P. garciana, M. rufescens to swell-form protocorms was 10 days shorter compared to undisinfected seeds (Zygopetalum hybrid - green capsule method and some other studies. Adequate wetting and stratification of the seed is very important for successful germination, which resembles processes in natural environment. Additionally, this method solves the problems of collecting and transferring the seeds after disinfection. It is also important that the time needed for disinfection is shorter, which is desirable for some sensitive species. Our study also focuses on importance of gelling agent, namely Gellan gum and agar, since we noticed an obvious superiority of the former in all phases of in vitro development.

  19. Disinfection efficacy of contact lens care solutions against ocular pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Callahan, D E; McGrath, D; Manchester, R; Norton, S E

    2001-01-01

    Three commercially available products labeled as multi-purpose contact lens solutions, one multi-purpose disinfecting solution, and a hydrogen peroxide system were evaluated for antimicrobial activity according to the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stand-alone procedure for disinfecting products. One multi-purpose solution was selected to assess its antimicrobial activity against two human corneal isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Products were challenged with bacteria and fungi, and following a specified period, aliquots of inoculated test solution were neutralized and plated on validated recovery media. After incubation the number of viable microorganisms was enumerated and mean log reductions determined. ReNu MultiPlus (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY), AOSEPT (CIBA Vision Corporation, Duluth, GA), and Opti-Free Express with Aldox (Alcon Laboratories, Ft. Worth, TX) were the only lens care products that met the stand-alone criteria for all required microorganisms within their minimum recommended disinfection time. Of these, ReNu MultiPlus provided the greatest overall antimicrobial activity. ReNu MultiPlus demonstrated a significantly higher mean log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens than Opti-Free Express. ReNu MultiPlus also gave a higher mean log reduction of S. aureus and S. marcescens than AOSEPT, and a higher mean log reduction of Candida albicans and Fusarium solani than AOSEPT, Complete Comfort Plus (Allergan, Irivine, CA), and Solo-Care (CIBA Vision Corp.) (at 4 hours). Both Complete Comfort Plus and Solo-Care (at 4 hours) met the primary acceptance criteria for bacteria; however, neither product possessed enough antimicrobial activity to meet the minimum criteria for yeast or mold. ReNu Multiplus was effective against corneal isolates of P. aeruginosa. ReNu MultiPlus, AOSEPT, and Opti-Free Express met the requirements of the stand-alone primary

  20. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G; Myers, R; Li, Y; Chen, Y; Shen, X; Fenyk-Melody, J; Wu, M; Ventre, J; Doebber, T; Fujii, N; Musi, N; Hirshman, M F; Goodyear, L J; Moller, D E

    2001-10-01

    Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. Here we report that metformin activates AMPK in hepatocytes; as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Activation of AMPK by metformin or an adenosine analogue suppresses expression of SREBP-1, a key lipogenic transcription factor. In metformin-treated rats, hepatic expression of SREBP-1 (and other lipogenic) mRNAs and protein is reduced; activity of the AMPK target, ACC, is also reduced. Using a novel AMPK inhibitor, we find that AMPK activation is required for metformin's inhibitory effect on glucose production by hepatocytes. In isolated rat skeletal muscles, metformin stimulates glucose uptake coincident with AMPK activation. Activation of AMPK provides a unified explanation for the pleiotropic beneficial effects of this drug; these results also suggest that alternative means of modulating AMPK should be useful for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  1. What contributes to action plan enactment? Examining characteristics of physical activity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Gardner, Benjamin; Keller, Jan; Lippke, Sonia; Pomp, Sarah; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with chronic conditions can benefit from formulating action plans to engage in regular physical activity. However, the content and the successful translation of plans into action, so-called plan enactment, are rarely adequately evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the content of user-specified plans and to examine whether participants were more likely to enact their plans if these plans were highly specific, viable, and instrumental. The study presents secondary analyses from a larger behavioural intervention in cardiac and orthopaedic rehabilitation. The content of 619 action plans from 229 participants was evaluated by two independent raters (i.e., qualitative analyses and ratings of specificity) and by participants themselves (i.e., instrumentality and viability). Plan enactment was also measured via self-reports. Multilevel analyses examined the relationship between these plan characteristics and subsequent plan enactment, and between plan enactment and aggregated physical activity. Participants preferred to plan leisure-time physical activities anchored around time-based cues. Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment. Interestingly, individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans. Plan enactment was positively associated with aggregated behaviour. Interventions should not only emphasize the importance of planning, but also the benefits of formulating specific contextual cues. Planning of the behavioural response seems to require less precision. Allowing for some flexibility in executing the anticipated target behaviour seems to aid successful plan enactment. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Action planning interventions are efficacious in promoting health behaviour. Characteristics of plan content (i.e., specificity) matter for unconditional behaviour

  2. Evaluation of Filtration and UV Disinfection for Inactivation of Viruses in Non-Community Water Systems in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated filtration and disinfection processes for removal and inactivation of pathogens in non-community water systems (NCWS) in two surface water supplies. Pretreatment systems included 1) pressure sand filtration, and 2) granular activated carbon adsorption, and 3...

  3. Learning in Activity: Exploring the Methodological Potential of Action Research in Activity Theorising of Social Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), founded on the seminal work of Vygotsky and evolving in the subsequent work of Leont'ev and Engestrom, continues to emerge as a robust and increasingly widely used conceptual framework for the research and analysis of the complex social mediation of human learning and development. Yet there remains…

  4. The mutagenic action of UV-light irradiation on aspergillus terreus in relation to antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Four strains of cellulolytic fungi (i.e Penicillium oxalicum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma longibrachiatum) were tested for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and antibiotic action. these fungi were cultured on Czapek Dox's media with different cellulosic substrates. A. terreus. exhibited the highest cellulolytic activity and the highest level of anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. and Escherichia Coli, Ultraviolet light as a mutagenic treatment for A.terreus was investigated. Two treated isolates U.30.12 and U.60.10 were obtained after the treatment at dose 30 and 60 min., respectively with a higher antibiotic activity in comparison with the wild isolate. A compound of fifteen carbon atom of terrecylic acid was isolated from ethyl acetate extract using spectroscopic analysis

  5. Antiviral activity and specific modes of action of bacterial prodigiosin against Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zeng, Cheng; Liu, RenHua; Chen, Jie; Li, Ru; Wang, XinYan; Bai, WenWen; Liu, XiaoYuan; Xiang, TingTing; Zhang, Lin; Wan, YongJi

    2016-05-01

    Prodigiosin, the tripyrrole red pigment, is a bacterial secondary metabolite with multiple bioactivities; however, the antiviral activity has not been reported yet. In the present study, we found the antiviral activity of bacterial prodigiosin on Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV)-infected cells in vitro, with specific modes of action. Prodigiosin at nontoxic concentrations selectively killed virus-infected cells, inhibited viral gene transcription, especially viral early gene ie-1, and prevented virus-mediated membrane fusion. Under prodigiosin treatment, both progeny virus production and viral DNA replication were significantly inhibited. Fluorescent assays showed that prodigiosin predominantly located in cytoplasm which suggested it might interact with cytoplasm factors to inhibit virus replication. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicates that prodigiosin possesses significant antiviral activity against BmNPV.

  6. Antibacterial Activities and Mechanism of Action of Acetone Extracts from Rabdosia rubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities and mechanism of action of acetone extracts from R. rubescens were reported in this paper. The results showed that 80% acetone extracts had both the highest contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Acetone extracts showed better antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains and there were no inhibitory effects found on tested Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, 80% acetone extracts from R. rubescens had relatively higher antibacterial activities with the lowest values of MIC and MBC at 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL against B. subtilis. The antibacterial mechanism of 80% acetone extracts against Bacillus subtilis might be described as disrupting cell wall, increasing cell membrane permeability, and finally leading to the leakage of cell constituents

  7. Processing of action- but not stimulus-related prediction errors differs between active and observational feedback learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  9. Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal activity and mechanism of action of monoterpenes against dermatophytes and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Miron

    Full Text Available Dermatomycosis causes highly frequent dermal lesions, and volatile oils have been proven to be promising as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of geraniol, nerol, citral, neral and geranial (monoterpenes, and terbinafine and anidulafungin (control drugs against seven opportunistic pathogenic yeasts and four dermatophyte species was evaluated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution tests. Monoterpenes were more active against dermatophytes than yeasts (geometric mean of minimal inhibitory concentration (GMIC of 34.5 and 100.4 µg.ml-1, respectively. Trichophyton rubrum was the fungal species most sensitive to monoterpenes (GMIC of 22.9 µg.ml-1. The trans isomers showed higher antifungal activity than the cis. The mechanism of action was investigated evaluating damage in the fungal cell wall (Sorbitol Protection Assay and in the cell membrane (Ergosterol Affinity Assay. No changes were observed in the MIC of monoterpenes in the sorbitol protection assay.The MIC of citral and geraniol was increased from 32 to 160 µg.ml-1 when the exogenous ergosterol concentrations was zero and 250 µg.ml-1, respectively. The monoterpenes showed an affinity for ergosterol relating their mechanism of action to cell membrane destabilization.

  11. Radiological survey activities: uranium mill tailings remedial action project procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.; Carter, T.E.

    1986-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned the responsibility for conducting remedial action at 24 sites, which are located in one eastern and nine western states. The DOE's responsibilities are being met through its Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office (UMTRA-PO) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The purpose of this Procedures Manual is to provide a standardized set of procedures that document in an auditable manner the activities performed by the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group in the Dosimetry and Biophysical Transport Section (DABTS) of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in its role as the Inclusion Survey Contractor (ISC). Members of the RASA group assigned to the UMTRA Project are headquartered in the ORNL/RASA office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and report to the ORNL/RASA Project Manager. The Procedures Manual ensures that the organizational, administrative, and technical activities of the RASA/UMTRA group conform properly to those of the ISC as described in the Vicinity Properties Management and Implementation Manual and the Summary Protocol. This manual also ensures that the techniques and procedures used by the RASA/UMTRA group and contractor personnel meet the requirements of applicable governmental, scientific, and industrial standards

  12. Comparison of Riboflavin and Toluidine Blue O as Photosensitizers for Photoactivated Disinfection on Endodontic and Periodontal Pathogens In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik Krarup; Garcia, Javier; Væth, Michael; Schlafer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivated disinfection has a strong local antimicrobial effect. In the field of dentistry it is an emerging adjunct to mechanical debridement during endodontic and periodontal treatment. In the present study, we investigate the effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and blue LED light for activation, and compare it to photoactivated disinfection with the widely used combination of toluidine blue O and red light. Riboflavin is highly biocompatible and can be activated with LED lamps at hand in the dental office. To date, no reports are available on the antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin/blue light on oral microorganisms. Planktonic cultures of eight organisms frequently isolated from periodontal and/or endodontic lesions (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherischia coli, Lactobacillus paracasei, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Propionibacterium acnes) were subjected to photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light and toluidine blue O/red light, and survival rates were determined by CFU counts. Within the limited irradiation time of one minute, photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light only resulted in minor reductions in CFU counts, whereas full kills were achieved for all organisms when using toluidine blue O/red light. The black pigmented anaerobes P. gingivalis and P. intermedia were eradicated completely by riboflavin/blue light, but also by blue light treatment alone, suggesting that endogenous chromophores acted as photosensitizers in these bacteria. On the basis of our results, riboflavin cannot be recommended as a photosensitizer used for photoactivated disinfection of periodontal or endodontic infections.

  13. Action Search: Learning to Search for Human Activities in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Alwassel, Humam; Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Traditional approaches for action detection use trimmed data to learn sophisticated action detector models. Although these methods have achieved great success at detecting human actions, we argue that huge information is discarded when ignoring

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICIENCY OF DISINFECTION METHOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. The efficiencies of three disinfection methods namely boiling, water guard and pur purifier were assessed. ... Water is an indispensable resource for supporting life systems [2- ...... developing country context: improving decisions.

  15. Enhancement of ultraviolet water disinfection process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grabi-1

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... disinfected water distribution systems, including. Legionella .... soft agar, mixed, incubated at room temperature for 2 min and poured onto the ... The determination of a log increase methodology was employed to quantify the ...

  16. Formation of trihalomethanes as disinfection byproducts in herbal spa pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2018-04-09

    Herbal spa treatments are favorite recreational activities throughout the world. The water in spas is often disinfected to control pathogenic microorganisms and guarantee hygiene. However, chlorinated water may cause the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although there have been many studies on DBP formation in swimming pools, the role of organic matter derived from herbal medicines applied in herbal spa water has been largely neglected. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effect of herbal medicines on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in simulated herbal spa water. Water samples were collected from a spa pool, and then, disinfection and herbal addition experiments were performed in a laboratory. The results showed that the organic molecules introduced by the herbal medicines are significant precursors to the formation of THMs in spa pool water. Since at least 50% of THMs were produced within the first six hours of the reaction time, the presence of herbal medicines in spa water could present a parallel route for THM exposure. Therefore, despite the undeniable benefits of herbal spas, the effect of applied herbs on DBP formation in chlorinated water should be considered to improve the water quality and health benefits of spa facilities.

  17. Basic Characteristics of Human Erroneous Actions during Test and Maintenance Activities Leading to Unplanned Reactor Trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Test and maintenance (T and M) activities of nuclear power plants are essential for sustaining the safety of a power plant and maintaining the reliability of plant systems and components. However, the potential of human errors during T and M activities has also the potential to induce unplanned reactor trips or power derate or making safety-related systems unavailable. According to the major incident/accident reports of nuclear power plants in Korea, contribution of human errors takes up about 20% of the total events. The previous study presents that most of human-related unplanned reactor trip events during normal power operation are associated with T and M activities (63%), which are comprised of plant maintenance activities such as a 'periodic preventive maintenance (PPM)', a 'planned maintenance (PM)' and a 'corrective maintenance (CM)'. This means that T and M activities should be a major subject for reducing the frequency of human-related unplanned reactor trips. This paper aims to introduce basic characteristics of human erroneous actions involved in the test and maintenance-induced unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants. The basic characteristics are described by dividing human erroneous actions into planning-based errors and execution-based errors. For the events associated with planning failures, they are, firstly, classified according to existence of the work procedure and then described for what aspects of the procedure or work plan have deficiency or problem. On the other hand, for the events associated with execution failures, they are described from the aspect of external error modes

  18. EEG alpha activity reflects motor preparation rather than the mode of action selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre eDeiber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-band activity (8-13 Hz is suppressed by sensory stimulation and movements, modulated by attention, working memory and mental tasks and may be sensitive to higher motor control functions. The aim of the present study was to examine alpha oscillatory activity during the preparation of simple left or right finger movements, contrasting the external and internal mode of action selection. Three preparation conditions were examined using a precueing paradigm with S1 as the preparatory and S2 as the imperative cue: Full, laterality instructed by S1; Free, laterality freely selected and None, laterality instructed by S2. Time-frequency analysis was performed in the alpha frequency range during the S1-S2 interval, and alpha motor-related amplitude asymmetries (MRAA were also calculated. The significant MRAA during the Full and Free conditions indicated effective external and internal motor response preparation. In the absence of specific motor preparation (None, a posterior alpha power decrease (event-related desynchronization, ERD dominated, reflecting the main engagement of attentional resources. In Full and Free motor preparation, posterior alpha ERD was accompanied by a midparietal alpha power increase (event-related synchronization, ERS, suggesting a concomitant inhibition of task-irrelevant visual activity. In both Full and Free motor preparation, analysis of alpha power according to MRAA amplitude revealed two types of functional activation patterns: 1 a motor alpha pattern, with predominantly midparietal alpha ERS and large MRAA corresponding to lateralized motor activation/visual inhibition and 2 an attentional alpha pattern, with dominating right posterior alpha ERD and small MRAA reflecting visuospatial attention. The present results suggest that alpha oscillatory patterns do not resolve the selection mode of action, but rather distinguish separate functional strategies of motor preparation. 

  19. PROBIOTIC CLEANING PREPARATIONS VERSUS CHEMICAL DISINFECTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Luepcke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic detergents are increasingly used and are a real alternative for limiting the use of chemical cleaners, chemical disinfectants and antibiotics. They therefore have a great future because they contribute to animal health, to the hygienic production of food products of animal origin and to their harmlessness and to consumer health and environmental protection where they even have a beneficial effect on the microflora apart from chemical disinfectants that have a negative impact and destroy the beneficial microflora.

  20. Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: Activation of PPAR-γ and identification of an active component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tom H.W.; Peng Gang; Kota, Bhavani P.; Li, George Q.; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF (500 mg/kg, daily) inhibited glucose loading-induced increase of plasma glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes, whereas it did not inhibit the increase in Zucker lean rats (ZL). The treatment did not lower the plasma glucose levels in fasted ZDF and ZL rats. Furthermore, RT-PCR results demonstrated that the PGF extract treatment in ZDF rats enhanced cardiac PPAR-γ mRNA expression and restored the down-regulated cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 (the insulin-dependent isoform of GLUTs) mRNA. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity of PGF extract may result from improved sensitivity of the insulin receptor. From the in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the PGF extract enhanced PPAR-γ mRNA and protein expression and increased PPAR-γ-dependent mRNA expression and activity of lipoprotein lipase in human THP-1-differentiated macrophage cells. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated that gallic acid in PGF extract is mostly responsible for this activity. Thus, our findings indicate that PPAR-γ is a molecular target for PGF extract and its prominent component gallic acid, and provide a better understanding of the potential mechanism of the anti-diabetic action of PGF

  1. Enhancing blood donor skin disinfection using natural oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdullatif, Meshari; Boujezza, Imen; Mekni, Mohamed; Taha, Mariam; Kumaran, Dilini; Yi, Qi-Long; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Effective donor skin disinfection is essential in preventing bacterial contamination of blood components with skin flora bacteria like Staphylococcus epidermidis. Cell aggregates of S. epidermidis (biofilms) are found on the skin and are resistant to the commonly used donor skin disinfectants chlorhexidine-gluconate and isopropyl alcohol. It has been demonstrated that essential oils synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate. The objective of this study was to test plant-extracted essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol for their ability to eliminate S. epidermidis biofilms. The composition of oils extracted from Artemisia herba-alba, Lavandula multifida, Origanum marjoram, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus capitatus was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A rabbit model was used to assess skin irritation caused by the oils. In addition, the anti-biofilm activity of the oils used alone or in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol was tested against S. epidermidis biofilms. Essential oil concentrations 10%, 20%, and 30% were chosen for anti-biofilm assays, because skin irritation was observed at concentrations greater than 30%. All oils except for O. marjoram had anti-biofilm activity at these three concentrations. L. multifida synergistically enhanced the anti-biofilm activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate and resulted in the highest anti-biofilm activity observed when combined with chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main component contributing to the activity of L. multifida oil was a natural terpene alcohol called linalool. The anti-biofilm activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol can be greatly enhanced by L. multifida oil or linalool. Therefore, these components could potentially be used to improve blood

  2. Predictors of stethoscope disinfection among pediatric health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jeanette; Sethi, Rosh K V; Zaghi, Justin; Ziniel, Sonja I; Sandora, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    Stethoscopes are contaminated with bacteria, but predictors of stethoscope disinfection frequency are unknown. We sought to describe health care provider stethoscope disinfection attitudes and practices and determine predictors of frequent disinfection. We used an anonymous online survey of nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians at a pediatric hospital. We assessed frequency and methods of disinfection, perceptions of contamination, and barriers to disinfection. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors of disinfecting after every use. One thousand four hundred one respondents completed the survey: 76% believed that infection transmission occurs via stethoscopes, but only 24% reported disinfecting after every use. In multivariate analyses, belief that infection transmission occurs via stethoscopes significantly increased the odds of disinfection after every use (odds ratio [OR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-3.06]). The odds of disinfection after every use were significantly decreased in those who perceived the following barriers: lack of time (OR, 0.31 [95% CI: 0.18-0.54]), lack of access to disinfection material (OR, 0.41 [95% CI: 0.29-0.57]), or lack of visual reminders to disinfect (OR, 0.22 [95% CI: 0.14-0.34]). Only a minority of pediatric health care providers reported disinfecting their stethoscopes after every use. Increasing access to disinfection materials and visual reminders in health care facilities may improve stethoscope disinfection practices. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Resibufogenin and cinobufagin activate central neurons through an ouabain-like action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Cinobufagin and resibufogenin are two major effective bufadienolides of Chan su (toad venom, which is a Chinese medicine obtained from the skin venom gland of toads and is used as a cardiotonic and central nervous system (CNS respiratory agent, an analgesic and anesthetic, and as a remedy for ulcers. Many clinical cases showed that Chan su has severe side-effects on the CNS, causing shortness of breath, breathlessness, seizure, coma and cardiac arrhythmia. We used whole-cell recordings from brain slices to determine the effects of bufadienolides on excitability of a principal neuron in main olfactory bulb (MOB, mitral cells (MCs, and the cellular mechanism underlying the excitation. At higher concentrations, cinobufagin and resibufogenin induced irreversible over-excitation of MCs indicating a toxic effect. At lower concentrations, they concentration-dependently increased spontaneous firing rate, depolarized the membrane potential of MCs, and elicited inward currents. The excitatory effects were due to a direct action on MCs rather than an indirect phasic action. Bufadienolides and ouabain had similar effects on firing of MCs which suggested that bufadienolides activated neuron through a ouabain-like effect, most likely by inhibiting Na+/K+-ATPase. The direct action of bufadienolide on brain Na+ channels was tested by recordings from stably Nav1.2-transfected cells. Bufadienolides failed to make significant changes of the main properties of Nav1.2 channels in current amplitude, current-voltage (I-V relationships, activation and inactivation. Our results suggest that inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase may be involved in both the pharmacological and toxic effects of bufadienolide-evoked CNS excitation.

  4. Efficacy of disinfectants and detergents intended for a pig farm environment where Salmonella is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Rebecca J; Mawhinney, Ian; Vaughan, Kelly; Davies, Robert H; Smith, Richard P

    2017-05-01

    Disinfection is a useful component of disease control, although products and chemical groups vary in their activity against different pathogens. This study investigated the ability of fifteen disinfectants to eliminate pig-associated Salmonella. Active compounds of products included chlorocresol, glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde/quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), iodine, peracetic acid and potassium peroxomonosulphate. Six detergents were also tested for their ability to dislodge faecal material, and interactions with specific disinfectants. Eight serovars were screened against all products using dilution tests and a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain was selected for further testing. The disinfectants were tested using models to replicate boot dip (faecal suspension) and animal housing (surface contamination) disinfection respectively at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Approved Disinfectant General Orders (GO) concentration, half GO and twice GO. Stability over time and ability to eliminate Salmonella in biofilm was also assessed. The most effective products were then field tested. Most products at GO concentration eliminated Salmonella in the faecal suspension model. One glutaraldehyde/QAC and one glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde-based product at GO concentration eliminated Salmonella in the surface contamination model. Chlorocresol-based products were more stable in the faecal suspension model. One chlorocresol and the glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde-based product were most successful in eliminating Salmonella from biofilms. All products tested on farm reduced bacterial log counts; the glutaraldehyde/QAC based product produced the greatest reduction. The type of product and the application concentration can impact on efficacy of farm disinfection; therefore, clearer guidance is needed to ensure the appropriate programmes are used for specific environments. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biogenic nanosilver incorporated reverse osmosis membrane for antibacterial and antifungal activities against selected pathogenic strains: an enhanced eco-friendly water disinfection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjumeena, R; Duraibabu, D; Sudha, J; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2014-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been used extensively in water desalination plants, waste water treatment in industries, agricultural farms and drinking water production applications. The objective of this work is to impart antibacterial and antifungal activities to commercially available RO membrane used in water purification systems by incorporating biogenic silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) synthesized using Rosa indica wichuriana hybrid leaf extract. The morphology and surface topography of uncoated and AgNPs-coated RO membrane were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Elemental composition of the AgNPs-coated RO membrane was analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The functional groups were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Hydrophilicity of the uncoated and AgNPs-coated RO membrane was analyzed using water contact angle measurements. The thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The AgNPs incorporated RO membrane exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against pathogenic bacterial strains such as E. coli, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa and fungal strains such as Candida tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans.

  6. Cortical Activation during Action Observation, Action Execution, and Interpersonal Synchrony in Adults: A functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana N. Bhat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014. In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation (“Watch” partner, action execution (“Do” on your own, and IPS (move “Together”.Methods: Fifteen typically developing adults completed a reach and cleanup task with the right arm while cortical activation was examined using a 24-channel, Hitachi fNIRS system. Each adult completed 8 trials across three conditions (Watch, Do, and Together. For each fNIRS channel, we obtained oxy hemoglobin (HbO2 and deoxy hemoglobin (HHb profiles. Spatial registration methods were applied to localize the cortical regions underneath each channel and to define six regions of interest (ROIs, right and left supero-anterior (SA or pre/post-central gyri, infero-posterior (IP or angular/supramarginal gyri, and infero-anterior (IA or superior/middle temporal gyri regions.Results: In terms of task-related differences, the majority of the ROIs were more active during Do and Together compared to Watch. Only the right/ipsilateral fronto-parietal and inferior parietal cortices had greater activation during Together compared to Do.Conclusions: The similarities in cortical activation between action execution and IPS suggest that neural control of IPS is more similar to its execution than observational aspects. To be clear, the more complex the actions performed, the more difficult the IPS behaviors. Secondly, IPS behaviors required slightly more right-sided activation (vs. execution/observation suggesting that IPS is a higher-order process involving more bilateral activation compared to its sub

  7. Antifungal Activity of (+-2,2’-Epicytoskyrin A and Its Membrane-Disruptive Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Wulansari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (+-2,2’-Epicytoskyrin A, a bis-anthraquinone isolated from fungal endophyte Diaporthe sp. GNBP-10 associated with Uncaria gambir Roxb., was investigated for its antifungal activity. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against 22 yeast strains and three filamentous fungi. The MICs of (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A ranged from 16 to 128 µg/mL, which exhibited lower activity than the antifungal nystatin. A study of the mechanism of action revealed similar effects of (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A and nystatin on Candida tropicalis at their MICs (16 and 8 µg/mL, respectively and 2 times of the MIC. Both compounds caused cytoplasmic material and ion leakages on fungal cell, which were characterized by an increase in absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm as well as Ca2+ and K+ ion concentrations. The morphology of the fungal cells after (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A treatment was observed under a scanning electron microscope. The control cells, which were not treated with either (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A or nystatin, showed a smooth surface, while the cells treated with either (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A or nystatin shrank and displayed a donut-like shape. More shrinkage was observed in the 2 times MIC concentration and even more in the cells exposed to nystatin. The action of (+-2,2’-epicytoskyrin A was proposed through membrane disruption.

  8. Alignment effects in beer mugs: Automatic action activation or response competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Sander A; Pecher, Diane; Naeije, Lilian; Zeelenberg, René

    2016-08-01

    Responses to objects with a graspable handle are faster when the response hand and handle orientation are aligned (e.g., a key press with the right hand is required and the object handle is oriented to the right) than when they are not aligned. This effect could be explained by automatic activation of specific motor programs when an object is viewed. Alternatively, the effect could be explained by competition at the response level. Participants performed a reach-and-grasp or reach-and-button-press action with their left or right hand in response to the color of a beer mug. The alignment effect did not vary as a function of the type of action. In addition, the alignment effect disappeared in a go/no-go version of the task. The same results were obtained when participants made upright/inverted decisions, so that object shape was task-relevant. Our results indicate that alignment effects are not due to automatic motor activation of the left or right limb.

  9. [The activity of glutathione antioxidant system at melaksen and valdoxan action under experimental hyperthyroidism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of glutathione antioxidant system activity and diene conjugates content in rats liver and blood serum at the influence of melaksen and valdoxan under experimental hyperthyroidism (EG) has been revealed. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione transferase (GT), growing at pathological conditions, change to the side of control value at these substunces introduction. Reduced glutathione content (GSH) at melaxen and valdoxan action increased compared with values under the pathology, that, obviously, could be associated with a reduction of its spending on the detoxication of free radical oxidation (FRO) toxic products. Diene conjugates level in rats liver and blood serum, increasing at experimental hyperthyroidism conditions, under introduction of melatonin level correcting drugs, also approached to the control meaning. Results of the study indicate on positive effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical homeostasis, that appears to be accompanied by decrease of load on the glutathione antioxidant system in comparison with the pathology.

  10. Biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized with rhamnogalacturonan gum: Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and its mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Jyothi Kora

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles synthesized from gum kondagogu (5 nm were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To decipher the mode of antibacterial action of nanoparticles, a comprehensive study was carried out employing a variety of susceptibility assays: micro-broth dilution, antibiofilm activity, growth kinetics, cytoplasmic content leakage, membrane permeabilization, etc. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell surface damage during bacterial nanoparticle interaction were also demonstrated using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, N-acetylcysteine; and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectra. Further, the biocompatibility with HeLa cell line was also evaluated. Compared to earlier reports, the minimum inhibitory concentration values were lower by 3.2- and 16-folds for Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli strains, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration values were lower by 4 and 50-folds. Thus, the biogenic silver nanoparticles were found to be more potent bactericidal agents in terms of concentration. The nanoparticles exhibited significant antibiofilm activity against test strains at 2 μg mL−1, which can have implications in the treatment of drug resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms. Growth curve in nanoparticle supplemented indicated a faster inhibition in Gram-negative bacteria as compared to Gram-positive. Treatment with nanoparticles caused cytoplasmic content leakage and membrane permeabilization in a dose dependent manner, an evidence for membrane damage. The observations noted in our study substantiated the association of ROS and membrane damage in the antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. The promising antibacterial activity enables these nanoparticles as potential bactericidal material for various environmental and biomedical applications.

  11. Interaction between some disinfectants and Tcsup(99m)-radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.; Cleynhens, B.; Hoogmartens, M.; De Roo, M.

    1985-01-01

    Contamination of Tcsup(99m) sulphur colloid with small amounts of iodinated antiseptics has been described to result in the formation of free pertechnetate and excessive blood-pool activity upon injection. As far as we know similar or other interactions have not been reported for disinfectants that are effective by another mechanism than oxidizing activity. The present study has been set up to investigate the effect of small amounts of a wide variety of commonly available antiseptics on the radiochemical and biological behaviour of different Tcsup(99m) labelled radiopharmaceuticals. (Auth.)

  12. Resistance of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms to disinfectants in the presence of organic matter and their residual effect on stainless steel and polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Moreno, Maricarmen

    2018-04-23

    The effectiveness of disinfectants can vary according to the microorganism, type of residues and surface. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of four disinfectants in the presence of organic matter and their residual effect on stainless steel grade 304 (SS) and polypropylene B (PP-B). The disinfectant effectiveness in the presence of meat extract, yolk egg and whole milk was determined according to AOAC and UNE-EN 1040:2015; the residual effect was realized according to UNE-EN 13697:2015, using approved strains. The disinfectant effectiveness was affect at different grades depending on the organic matter present; disinfectant A (400μgmL -1 , fifth generation quaternary ammonium compound, QAC) was most effective in the presence of 10% meat extract, while the disinfectant C (200μgmL -1 , peracetic acid) had better activity in the presence of 10% egg yolk and whole milk. In the evaluation of residual effect onto SS and PP-B, the QAC had the better effect, reducing 6 Log 10 CFU mL -1 of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111 24h after their application. Conversely, the disinfectants had no residual effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. The antimicrobial activity of disinfectants tested against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms was affected according to the type of organic matter. Disinfectant A had a more residual effect than the other disinfectants evaluated. Moreover, the residual effect of a disinfectant is greater on SS than on PP-B and dependent on the microorganism tested. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Stimulatory action of itopride hydrochloride on colonic motor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Tadashi; Saito, Takaharu; Mizutani, Fujie; Yamauchi, Toshie; Iwanaga, Yuji

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effects of itopride hydrochloride (itopride, N-[4-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]benzyl]-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide hydrochloride), a gastroprokinetic agent, on the colonic motor activity in vitro and in vivo, in comparison with benzamides, cisapride hydrate (cisapride), and mosapride citrate (mosapride). Itopride stimulated both peristaltic and segmental motility induced by applying intraluminal pressure to the isolated guinea pig colon. Although cisapride and mosapride enhanced the segmental motility, they markedly reduced the peristaltic motility. In conscious dogs with implanted strain gauge force transducers, itopride stimulated contractile activity in the gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon. Cisapride stimulated contractile activity in the gastric antrum, ileum, and ascending colon. Mosapride stimulated contractile activity only in the gastric antrum and ileum. In guinea pigs and rats, itopride accelerated colonic luminal transit. On the other hand, cisapride and mosapride failed to enhance colonic transit. These results demonstrate that itopride has a stimulatory action on colonic peristalsis, propelling colonic luminal contents, different from that of cisapride and mosapride. Therefore, itopride may be a useful drug for the treatment of functional bowel disorders such as functional constipation.

  14. RESISTIN, AN ADIPOKINE WITH NON-GENERALISED ACTIONS ON SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eBadoer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation has called obesity a global epidemic. There is a strong association between body weight gain and blood pressure. A major determinant of blood pressure is the level of activity in sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs. A characteristic of obesity, in both humans and in animal models, is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the skeletal muscle vasculature and to the kidneys. Obesity is now recognised as a chronic, low level inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated including those produced by adipose tissue. The most well known adipokine released from fat tissue is leptin. The adipokine, resistin,, is also released from adipose tissue. Resistin can act in the central nervous system to influence the sympathetic nerve activity. Here, we review the effects of resistin on sympathetic nerve activity and compare them with leptin. We build an argument that resistin and leptin may have complex interactions. Firstly, they may augment each other as both are excitatory on sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs; In contrast, they could antagonize each other’s actions on brown adipose tissue, a key metabolic organ. These interactions may be important in conditions in which leptin and resistin are elevated, such as in obesity.

  15. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress ''that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Naturally occurring immunomodulators with antitumor activity: An insight on their mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shimaa Ibrahim Abdelmonym; Jantan, Ibrahim; Haque, Md Areeful

    2017-09-01

    Natural products with immunomodulatory activity are widely used in treatment of many diseases including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory disorders in addition to cancer. They gained a great interest in the last decades as therapeutic agents since they provide inexpensive and less toxic products than the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents. Immunomodulators are the agents that have the ability to boost or suppress the host defense response that can be used as a prophylaxis as well as in combination with other therapeutic modalities. The anticancer activity of these immunomodulators is due to their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and induction of apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, and anti-metastasis effect. These natural immunomodulators such as genistein, curcumin, and resveratrol can be used as prophylaxis against the initiation of cancer besides the inhibition of tumor growth and proliferation. Whereas, immunostimulants can elicit and activate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the tumor that facilitate the recognition and destruction of the already existing tumor. This review represents the recent studies on various natural immunomodulators with antitumor effects. We have focused on the relationship between their anticancer activity and immunomodulatory mechanisms. The mechanisms of action of various immunomodulators such as polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, organosulfur compounds, capsaicin, vinca alkaloids, bromelain, betulinic acid and zerumbone, the affected cancerous cell lines in addition to the targeted molecules and transcriptional pathways have been review and critically analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaginal action: towards a Jungian conception of enactment, and an extraverted counterpart to active imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robin S

    2018-04-01

    This theoretical paper considers the fashion in which Jung's psychology radically challenges modern assumptions concerning the nature of subjectivity. With an eye for the clinical implications of Jung's late work, the author introduces the idea of imaginal action. In order to explain what is meant by this, the paper begins by exploring how Jung's thinking demonstrates an underlying bias towards introversion. It is argued that while Jung's interest in synchronicity ultimately resulted in his developing a worldview that might address the introverted biases of his psychology, the clinical implications of this shift have not been sufficiently clarified. With reference to some short examples from experience, the author outlines a conception of relational synchronicity wherein the intrapsychic emerges non-projectively within the interpersonal field itself. Comparing and contrasting these occurrences to the more introverted practice of active imagination, it is claimed that such a notion is implicit in Jung's work and is needed as a corrective to his emphasis on interiority. The author suggests that imaginal action might be conceived as a distinctly Jungian approach to the psychoanalytic notion of enactment. It is also shown how the idea outlined might find further support from recent developments in the field of transpersonal psychology. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Health activism and the logic of connective action. A case study of rare disease patient organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Stefania; Cappai, Franco

    2016-11-01

    This exploratory work investigates the role of digital media in expanding health discourse practices in a way to transform traditional structures of agency in public health. By focusing on a sample of rare disease patient organisations as representative of contemporary health activism, this study investigates the role of digital communication in the development of (1) bottom-up sharing and co-production of health knowledge, (2) health public engagement dynamics and (3) health information pathways. Findings show that digital media affordances for patient organisations go beyond the provision of social support for patient communities; they ease one-way, two-way and crowdsourced processes of health knowledge sharing, exchange and co-production, provide personalised routes to health public engagement and bolster the emergence of varied pathways to health information where experiential knowledge and medical authority are equally valued. These forms of organisationally enabled connective action can help the surfacing of personal narratives that strengthen patient communities, the bottom-up production of health knowledge relevant to a wider public and the development of an informational and eventually cultural context that eases patients' political action.

  19. Participating in Politics Resembles Physical Activity: General Action Patterns in International Archives, United States Archives, and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M.; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity. PMID:21177515

  20. Peracetic acid disinfection: a feasible alternative to wastewater chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S; Antonelli, M; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

    2007-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results of a bench-scale study to evaluate the feasibility of using peracetic acid (PAA) as a substitute for sodium hypochlorite both for discharge into surface water and for agricultural reuse. Trials were carried out with increasing doses (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg/L) and contact times (6, 12, 18, 36, 42, and 54 minutes) to study disinfectant decay and bacterial removal and regrowth, using fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) as process efficiency indicators. Peracetic acid decay kinetics was evaluated in tap water and wastewater; in both cases, PAA decays according to first-order kinetics with respect to time, and a correlation was found between PAA oxidative initial consumption and wastewater characteristics. The PAA disinfection efficiency was correlated with operating parameters (active concentration and contact time), testing different kinetic models. Two data groups displaying a different behavior on the basis of initial active concentration ranges (1 to 2 mg/L and 5 to 15 mg/L, respectively) can be outlined. Both groups had a "tailing-off" inactivation curve with respect to time, but the second one showed a greater inactivation rate. Moreover, the effect of contact time was greater at the lower doses. Hom's model, used separately for the two data groups, was found to best fit experimental data, and the disinfectant active concentration appears to be the main factor affecting log-survival ratios. Moreover, the S-model better explains the initial resistance of E. coli, especially at low active concentrations (< 2 mg/L) and short contact times (< 12 minutes). Microbial counts, performed by both traditional methods and flow cytometry, immediately and 5 hours after sample collection (both with or without residual PAA inactivation), showed that no appreciable regrowth took place after 5 hours, neither for coliform group bacteria, nor for total heterotrophic bacteria.

  1. Opposing actions of endocannabinoids on cholangiocarcinoma growth is via the differential activation of Notch signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Gabriel; Coufal, Monique [Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States); Li, Huang [Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Ramirez, Jonathan [Digestive Disease Research Center, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX (United States); DeMorrow, Sharon, E-mail: demorrow@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States); Digestive Disease Research Center, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) have opposing effects on cholangiocarcinoma growth. Implicated in cancer, Notch signaling requires the {gamma}-secretase complex for activation. The aims of this study were to determine if the opposing effects of endocannabinoids depend on the differential activation of the Notch receptors and to demonstrate that the differential activation of these receptors are due to presenilin 1 containing- and presenilin 2 containing-{gamma}-secretase complexes. Mz-ChA-1 cells were treated with AEA or 2-AG. Notch receptor expression, activation, and nuclear translocation were determined. Specific roles for Notch 1 and 2 on cannabinoid-induced effects were determined by transient transfection of Notch 1 or 2 shRNA vectors before stimulation with AEA or 2-AG. Expression of presenilin 1 and 2 was determined after AEA or 2-AG treatment, and the involvement of presenilin 1 and 2 in the cannabinoid-induced effects was demonstrated in cell lines with low presenilin 1 or 2 expression. Antiproliferative effects of AEA required increased Notch 1 mRNA, activation, and nuclear translocation, whereas the growth-promoting effects induced by 2-AG required increased Notch 2 mRNA expression, activation, and nuclear translocation. AEA increased presenilin 1 expression and recruitment into the {gamma}-secretase complex, whereas 2-AG increased expression and recruitment of presenilin 2. The development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the endocannabinoid system or mimicking the mode of action of AEA on Notch signaling pathways would prove beneficial for cholangiocarcinoma management.

  2. Opposing actions of endocannabinoids on cholangiocarcinoma growth is via the differential activation of Notch signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Gabriel; Coufal, Monique; Li, Huang; Ramirez, Jonathan; DeMorrow, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) have opposing effects on cholangiocarcinoma growth. Implicated in cancer, Notch signaling requires the γ-secretase complex for activation. The aims of this study were to determine if the opposing effects of endocannabinoids depend on the differential activation of the Notch receptors and to demonstrate that the differential activation of these receptors are due to presenilin 1 containing- and presenilin 2 containing-γ-secretase complexes. Mz-ChA-1 cells were treated with AEA or 2-AG. Notch receptor expression, activation, and nuclear translocation were determined. Specific roles for Notch 1 and 2 on cannabinoid-induced effects were determined by transient transfection of Notch 1 or 2 shRNA vectors before stimulation with AEA or 2-AG. Expression of presenilin 1 and 2 was determined after AEA or 2-AG treatment, and the involvement of presenilin 1 and 2 in the cannabinoid-induced effects was demonstrated in cell lines with low presenilin 1 or 2 expression. Antiproliferative effects of AEA required increased Notch 1 mRNA, activation, and nuclear translocation, whereas the growth-promoting effects induced by 2-AG required increased Notch 2 mRNA expression, activation, and nuclear translocation. AEA increased presenilin 1 expression and recruitment into the γ-secretase complex, whereas 2-AG increased expression and recruitment of presenilin 2. The development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the endocannabinoid system or mimicking the mode of action of AEA on Notch signaling pathways would prove beneficial for cholangiocarcinoma management.

  3. [European innovation partnership on active and healthy aging: moving from policy to action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Lizana, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change and aging are a common challenge in Europe. The rising number of elderly people will need support at home, and will consume more healthcare services, putting further pressure on the welfare system. Collaborative, integrated and people-centered care provision, whether in hospitals, homes or in the community, is a way forward to sustainable and efficient care systems. Innovative treatments to address chronic diseases and the functional decline of older people will enable them to live longer in better health and with a better quality of life. To fully unleash the potential of aging in the European Union, the European Commission -within its Innovation Union policy- launched the first European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP AHA). Promoting engagement and partnerships among all stakeholders in the healthcare chain is essential. This article describes the theoretical foundations, the development and expectations of the initiative, and its first actions. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Practicum in adapted physical activity: a Dewey-inspired action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind; Rugseth, Gro

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what adapted physical activity (APA) students learn from their practicum experiences. One cohort of APA students participated, and data were generated from an action research project that included observations, reflective journals, and a focus group interview. The theoretical framework for the study was Dewey's and Wackerhausen's theories of reflections. The findings show the objects of students' reflections, the kind of conceptual resources they draw on while reflecting, and their knowledge interests. In addition, two paradoxes are identified: the tension between reflecting from and on own values, and how practicum as a valued experience of reality can become too difficult to handle. In conclusion, we reflect on how practicum learning can be facilitated.

  5. A practical evaluation of detergent and disinfectant solutions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student01

    2012-01-06

    Jan 6, 2012 ... Nine sanitation chemical solutions: benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite, nitric ... cleaning and disinfection in reducing selected bacteria levels as required by ..... bacteria targeted during disinfection are attached to a.

  6. Basic Information about Chloramines and Drinking Water Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  7. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  8. [Experimental evaluation of the spraying disinfection efficiency on dental models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Yuan-fei; Xu, Kan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the disinfect effect after spraying a new kind of disinfectant on the dental plaster models. The germ-free plaster samples, which were smeared with bacteria compound including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus were sprayed with disinfectants (CaviCide) and glutaraldehyde individually. In one group(5 minutes later) and another group(15 minutes later), the colonies were counted for statistical analysis after sampling, inoculating, and culturing which were used for evaluation of disinfecting efficiency. ANOVA was performed using SPSS12.0 software package. All sample bacteria were eradicated after spraying disinfectants(CaviCide) within 5 minutes and effective bacteria control was retained after 15 minutes. There was significant difference between the disinfecting efficiency of CaviCide and glutaraldehyde. The effect of disinfection with spraying disinfectants (CaviCide) on dental models is quick and effective.

  9. Disinfection for small water supplies: a technical guide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Solsona, F

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This guide will present some disinfection systems, which will be useful in supporting disinfection programmes. The description of the different systems will provide a guideline for the selection of equipment base on balancing the simplicity...

  10. Recombinant activated factor VII: its mechanism of action and role in the control of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Geoffrey A; Hoffman, Maureane; Roberts, Harold R; Monroe, Dougald M

    2002-12-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has proven both safe and efficacious in the treatment of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia A or B who have developed inhibitors. More recently, a growing number of reports suggests that rFVIIa may also have indications for the treatment of bleeding in patients with other hemostatic disorders, including qualitative and quantitative platelet defects, factor deficiencies other than hemophilia, and in otherwise healthy patients with uncontrollable hemorrhage following surgery or trauma. We have attempted to reconcile the various proposed mechanisms of action of rFVIIa with its apparent efficacy in such diverse clinical settings. A review of the literature was performed to determine those clinical scenarios in which rFVIIa appears to have been effective in controlling associated hemorrhage. Findings from our group and others have demonstrated that rFVIIa is able to directly activate factor X and increase thrombin production on the surface of activated platelets in the absence of factor VIII or IX, as well as to improve thrombin generation in thrombocytopenia, and to yield a fibrin dot more resistant to fibrinolysis in vitro. Through these primary mechanisms, we believe that rFVIIa may be able to compensate for a variety of defects in hemostasis and merits further investigation as a general therapeutic for uncontrollable hemorrhage.

  11. Building a multiple modality, theory-based physical activity intervention: The development of CardiACTION!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Paul A; Glasgow, Russ E; Xu, Stan; Dzewaltowski, David A; Lee, Rebecca E; Thomas, Deborah; Almeida, Fabio A; Thayer, Amy N; Smith-Ray, Renae L

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the widely acknowledged benefits of regular physical activity (PA), specific goals for increased population levels of PA, and strongly recommended strategies to promote PA, there is no evidence suggesting that the prevalence of PA is improving. If PA intervention research is to be improved, theory should be used as the basis for intervention development, participant context or environment should be considered in the process, and intervention characteristics that will heighten the likelihood of translation into practice should be implemented (e.g., ease of implementation, low human resource costs). The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of the aforementioned concepts within the intervention development process associated with CardiACTION an ongoing randomized 2 × 2 factorial trial. METHODS: The Ecological Model of Physical Activity integrated with Protection Motivation Theory was used to inform the design of the interventions. This integrated model was selected to allow for the development of theory-based individual, environmental, and individually + environmentally targeted physical activity interventions. All intervention strategies were matched to proposed mediators of behavior change. Strategies were then matched to the most appropriate interactive technology (i.e., interactive computer session, automated telephone counseling, and tailored mailings) delivery channel. CONCLUSIONS: The potential implications of this study include determining the independent and combined influence of individual and environment mechanisms of behavior change on intervention effectiveness. In addition, all intervention models are developed to be scalable and disseminable to a broad audience at a low cost.

  12. Integration of Activities in the natural environment as contents of education trhough collaborative action-research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guillén Correas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The different values †given to Activities in the Natural Environment have become a mandated content block within the area of Physical Education. This research is based on the urging of its practical development of a school in the city of Zaragoza. So far, the analysis of these practices in this school, refers to some specific experiences focused on the volunteer activities done during the «snow week», which means less participant students. Collaborative action-research is the methodology used for this purpose, therefore team-work is demanded to overcome the limitations presented by this block of contents: teacher training as well as both facilities and materials must be provided. Thus, we found two groups of conclusions: firstly, the factors necessary to establish a dynamic collaborative work among teachers of this school. Secondly, the aspects required to design and strengthen the proposed contents of environmental Activities in the school, adapting them to its own physical contextual characteristics

  13. Assessment for active living: harnessing the power of data-driven planning and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Philip A; Brownson, Ross C; Brennan, Laura K

    2012-11-01

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Active Living by Design (ALbD) grant program funded 25 communities across the U.S. The ALbD National Program Office (NPO) supported grantee community partnerships with technical assistance for assessment, planning, and implementation activities intended to increase population levels of physical activity. This paper analyzes and summarizes the range of assessments conducted to identify local barriers and opportunities for active living as important elements of a thorough intervention planning process. Evaluation of the partnerships focused on documenting community changes and strategies used to produce those changes. With support from NPO staff and external evaluators, partnerships tracked and summarized their community assessment approaches as well as strengths and challenges in conducting assessments. The partnerships documented a range of assessment strategies and methods. Partnerships used several qualitative methods, including focus groups, individual and group interviews, and public meetings. Quantitative methods included surveys, audits, observations, and analysis of existing data, among others. The environmental audit was the most common assessment method used by the partnerships. Assessment processes and findings were used for not only intervention planning but also community engagement and direct advocacy. Assessment data collectors varied from professional staff to community volunteers. Assessments were essential to the identification of local barriers and assets related to active living, which in turn helped ALbD partnerships prioritize and refine their action strategies. Assessment processes were also valuable in building relationships with new partners, community members, and local officials. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dopa therapy and action impulsivity: subthreshold error activation and suppression in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluchère, F.; Deveaux, M.; Burle, B.; Vidal, F.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Witjas, T.; Eusebio, A.; Azulay, J.-P.; Hasbroucq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Impulsive actions entail (1) capture of the motor system by an action impulse, which is an urge to act and (2) failed suppression of that impulse in order to prevent a response error. Several studies indicate that dopaminergic treatment can induce action impulsivity in patients diagnosed

  15. Seasonal evaluation of disinfection by-products throughout two full-scale drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Cui, Chongwei; Yu, Shuili

    2017-07-01

    Carbonyl compounds can occur alpha-hydrogens or beta-diketones substitution reactions with disinfectants contributed to halogenated by-products formation. The objective of this research was to study the occurrence and fate of carbonyl compounds as ozonation by-products at two full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using different disinfectants for one year. The quality of the raw water used in both plants was varied according to the season. The higher carbonyl compounds concentrations were found in raw water in spring. Up to 15 (as the sum of both DWTPs) of the 24 carbonyl compounds selected for this work were found after disinfection. The dominant carbonyl compounds were formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl-glyoxal, fumaric, benzoic, protocatechuic and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid at both DWTPs. In the following steps in each treatment plant, the concentration patterns of these carbonyl compounds differed depending on the type of disinfectant applied. Benzaldehyde was the only aromatic aldehyde detected after oxidation with ozone in spring. As compared with DWTP 1, five new carbonyl compounds were formed (crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde, formic, oxalic and malonic acid) disinfection by ozone, and the levels of the carbonyl compounds increased. In addition, pre-ozonation (PO) and main ozonation (OZ) increased the levels of carbonyl compounds, however coagulation/flocculation (CF), sand filtration (SF) and granular activated carbon filtration (GAC) decreased the levels of carbonyl compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-28

    Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint.

  17. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  18. Administrators in Action--Managing Public Monies and Processing Emotion in School Activities: A Teaching Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching case describes school administrators in action performing day-to-day leadership tasks, managing public funds in school activities, and interacting with others appropriately. The case focuses on administrative challenges in handling and managing school activity funds. A method for processing emotion is discussed to assist…

  19. OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF BOOSTER DISINFECTION IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster disinfection is the addition of disinfectant at locations distributed throughout a water distribution system. Such a strategy can reduce the mass of disinfectant required to maintain a detectable residual at points of consumption in the distribution system, which may lea...

  20. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  1. Chemical aspects of peracetic acid based wastewater disinfection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) has been studied for wastewater disinfection applications for some 30 years and has been shown to be an effective disinfectant against many indicator microbes, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. One of the key advantages compared to, e.g., chlorine is the lack of harmful disinfection ...

  2. 40 CFR 141.172 - Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benchmarking. 141.172 Section 141.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.172 Disinfection profiling and benchmarking. (a... sanitary surveys conducted by the State. (c) Disinfection benchmarking. (1) Any system required to develop...

  3. Effects of some antiseptics and disinfectants on Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 6 antiseptics and disinfectants at varying concentrations (20% - 100%) and contact time (10-60 minutes) were tested for the efficacy in the reduction of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands of volunteers. Disinfectant 1 was the most effective disinfectant being bactericidal to S. aureus at 100% ...

  4. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of this chapter. The time at which the cleaning and disinfection is performed must be approved by the inspector, who will give approval only if he or she determines that the cleaning and disinfection will be... time, the inspector shall determine whether further cleaning and disinfection are necessary. The...

  5. Technical considerations during disinfection by UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhtiarzadeh, Z.; Sadeghpur, H.

    2002-01-01

    The use of new methods for treatment of water and wastewater in the country is one the rise and therefore the theoretical and practical knowledge of the industry's engineers should increase simultaneously. Ultraviolet is one of the new technologies used both for treatment of water as well as wastewater. The UV disinfection system consists of different components such as the lamp, ballast and the lamp fixtures. Each has a specification, which should be taken into account prior to design, order and purchase. The subject of price is also among the important considerations. The article presents figures cost comparison in various sections. It does not try to either approve or reject other disinfection systems such as chlorination, but the writer believes that any method should find its own practice and conditions of use, and the disinfection system designers should opt for the best system suited to their plans and avoid limiting themselves to a single one

  6. Photoreactivation Study of Wastewater Treatment Effluent Disinfected by UV-disinfection for Water Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, C.G.; Jung, K.W.; Ham, J.H.; Jeon, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Photoreactivation of microorganism following UV-disinfection is one of the research topics of interest in assessing the UV-disinfection performance. Apparent photoreactivation was examined under fluorescent lamp and solar radiation as well as in darkness. Total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were used as indicator microorganisms, and their concentration of 10~30 MPN/100mL increased to the level of 100 MPN/100mL after 24 hours, which implied that part of damaged microorganisms by UV-disinfection might be repairable with time

  7. Grassroots (Economic Activism in Times of Crisis: Mapping the Redundancy of Collective Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo D’Alisa

    2015-07-01

    mutual solidarity between individuals and more sustainable connections with the environment. This special issue is a reflection, among the many that have being proposed of late, on some of these self-organized collective actions that have pass through and/or emerged from the aftermath of the crisis. It is the result of an attempt to cross various disciplinary fields, in order to explore the redundancy of their respective explanations as to why and how some grassroots activities last and succeed, and turn this redundancy into the powerhouse for relaunching more robust and less aleatory initiatives.

  8. Motor Unit Action Potential Clustering—Theoretical Consideration for Muscle Activation during a Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Asmussen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During dynamic or sustained isometric contractions, bursts of muscle activity appear in the electromyography (EMG signal. Theoretically, these bursts of activity likely occur because motor units are constrained to fire temporally close to one another and thus the impulses are “clustered” with short delays to elicit bursts of muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a sequence comprised of “clustered” motor unit action potentials (MUAP can explain spectral and amplitude changes of the EMG during a simulated motor task. This question would be difficult to answer experimentally and thus, required a model to study this type of muscle activation pattern. To this end, we modeled two EMG signals, whereby a single MUAP was either convolved with a randomly distributed impulse train (EMG-rand or a “clustered” sequence of impulses (EMG-clust. The clustering occurred in windows lasting 5–100 ms. A final mixed signal of EMG-clust and EMG-rand, with ratios (1:1–1:10, was also modeled. A ratio of 1:1 would indicate that 50% of MUAP were randomly distributed, while 50% of “clustered” MUAP occurred in a given time window (5–100 ms. The results of the model showed that clustering MUAP caused a downshift in the mean power frequency (i.e., ~30 Hz with the largest shift occurring with a cluster window of 10 ms. The mean frequency shift was largest when the ratio of EMG-clust to EMG-rand was high. Further, the clustering of MUAP also caused a substantial increase in the amplitude of the EMG signal. This model potentially explains an activation pattern that changes the EMG spectra during a motor task and thus, a potential activation pattern of muscles observed experimentally. Changes in EMG measurements during fatiguing conditions are typically attributed to slowing of conduction velocity but could, per this model, also result from changes of the clustering of MUAP. From a clinical standpoint, this type of muscle

  9. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Herraiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine oxidase (MAO catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL. Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L, being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine. L. meyenii root (maca extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2.

  10. Hypolipidemic action of curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, P S; Srinivasan, K

    1997-01-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained on 0.5% curcumin containing diet for 8 weeks. Blood cholesterol was lowered significantly by dietary curcumin in these diabetic animals. Cholesterol decrease was exclusively from LDL-VLDL fraction. Significant decrease in blood triglyceride and phospholipids was also brought about by dietary curcumin in diabetic rats. In a parallel study, wherein diabetic animals were maintained on a high cholesterol diet, the extents of hypercholesterolemia and phospholipidemia were still higher compared to those maintained on control diet. Curcumin exhibited lowering of cholesterol and phospholipid in these animals also. Liver cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid contents were elevated under diabetic conditions. Dietary curcumin showed a distinct tendency to counter these changes in lipid fractions of liver. This effect of curcumin was also seen in diabetic animals maintained on high cholesterol diet. Dietary curcumin also showed significant countering of renal cholesterol and triglycerides elevated in diabetic rats. In order to understand the mechanism of hypocholesterolemic action of dietary curcumin, activities of hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase and HMG CoA reductase were measured. Hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase activity was markedly higher in curcumin fed diabetic animals suggesting a higher rate of cholesterol catabolism.

  11. The status of nuclear industry Cost Beneficial Licensing Actions (CBLA) activities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.M.; Sokolsky, D.

    1995-05-01

    The project addressed in this report investigated the status of nuclear utility industry Cost Beneficial Licensing Action (CBLA) and Commitment Reduction (CR) activities. The CBLA program was a recent NRC initiative to enable utilities to revise regulatory commitments that have minimal safety impact and have but have been costly to implement. The project determined that approximately half of the utilities in the industry have formal programs to address this issue and that the programs implemented to date have had mixed results: some utilities benefited greatly and others only achieved minimal rewards. The project also determined that there are some significant factors that impact the potential for success of such programs. These factors include the level of management involvement and support, the level of resources dedicated to CBLA/CR activities, and the willingness of the utility to pursue issues that previously had not been considered. In addition, the overall success of the industry efforts will be highly dependent upon the effectiveness of the respective assigned NRR Project Manager, NRC's newly formed CBLA Task Group, and the NRC's ability to effect a mechanism to provide real value added for those submittals made to the Commission that are designated as CBLA submittals. It is anticipated that the next 12 months will be critical to the success or failure of industry CBLA/CR efforts as the industry begins to use an NEI process designed to facilitate the evaluation of CBLA/CR issues and the NRC CBLA Task Group begins to function in a routine manner

  12. A Comprehensive Review on Handcrafted and Learning-Based Action Representation Approaches for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Bux Sargano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is an important research area in the fields of human perception and computer vision due to its wide range of applications. These applications include: intelligent video surveillance, ambient assisted living, human computer interaction, human-robot interaction, entertainment, and intelligent driving. Recently, with the emergence and successful deployment of deep learning techniques for image classification, researchers have migrated from traditional handcrafting to deep learning techniques for HAR. However, handcrafted representation-based approaches are still widely used due to some bottlenecks such as computational complexity of deep learning techniques for activity recognition. However, approaches based on handcrafted representation are not able to handle complex scenarios due to their limitations and incapability; therefore, resorting to deep learning-based techniques is a natural option. This review paper presents a comprehensive survey of both handcrafted and learning-based action representations, offering comparison, analysis, and discussions on these approaches. In addition to this, the well-known public datasets available for experimentations and important applications of HAR are also presented to provide further insight into the field. This is the first review paper of its kind which presents all these aspects of HAR in a single review article with comprehensive coverage of each part. Finally, the paper is concluded with important discussions and research directions in the domain of HAR.

  13. Quality assurance program plan for the Radiological Survey Activities Program - Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.J.; Berven, B.A.; Little, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for surveying designated sites in the vicinity of 24 inactive mill sites involved in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP). The purpose of these surveys is to provide a recommendation to DOE whether to include or exclude the site from UMTRAP based on whether the onsite residual radioactive material (if any) originated from the former mill sites, and radiation levels onsite are in excess of appropriate Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria. This report describes the quality assurance program plan for the RASA program in conducting all activities related to the UMTRA project. All quality assurance provisions given by the DOE, DOE/UMTRA, and ORNL organizations are integrated into this plan. Specifically, this report identifies the policies and procedures followed in accomplishing the RASA/UMTRAP QA program, identifies those organizational units involved in the implementation of these procedures, and outlines the respective responsibilities of those groups

  14. Quality assurance program plan for the radiological survey activities program: Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.J.; Berven, B.A.; Little, C.A.

    1986-08-01

    The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for surveying designated sites in the vicinity of 24 inactive mill sites involved in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP). The purpose of these surveys is to provide a recommendation to DOE whether to include or exclude the site from UMTRAP based on whether the onsite residual radioactive material (if any) originated from the former mill sites, and radiation levels onsite are in excess of appropriate Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria. This report describes the quality assurance program plan for the RASA program in conducting all activities related to the UMTRA project. All quality assurance provisions given by the DOE, DOE/UMTRA, and ORNL organizations are integrated into this plan. Specifically, this report identifies the policies and procedures followed in accomplishing the RASA/UMTRAP QA program, identifies those organizational units involved in the implementation of these procedures, and outlines the respective responsibilities of those groups

  15. Environmental approach and gas industry activities: the actions of two AFG members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The members of the French gas association (AFG) are fully aware of the responsibility they have in the domain of sustainable development. For us, it is a global commitment which consists in improving the impact of their activities in their different social, society, economical and environmental aspects. The environmental aspect is of primary importance with the Kyoto protocol and the obligation for France to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. In order to better understand the implications of an environmental approach in the gas industry sector, this paper presents the actions and projects developed by Gaz de France and Total companies for the rational use of energy, the development of renewable energy sources (geothermal, wind and solar energies, hydrogen and fuel cells) and the abatement of the impacts of their activities on the environment: development of high efficiency equipments and appliances, improvement of existing fuels, development of natural gas for vehicles, LPG fuels and bio-fuels, investment in projects of greenhouse effect abatement (carbon prototype stock), reduction of works impact on the environment, geologic sequestration of CO 2 , recycling of coal mine gas, optimum processing of industrial effluents and wastes (development of gas-fueled processes) etc.. (J.S.)

  16. Antinociceptive Action of Isolated Mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through Activation of Opioid Receptor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG, a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt. In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist, naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist, naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist naloxonazine (µ1-receptor antagonist and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg. The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor.

  17. The Development of Learning Activities in Srijanwittaya General Buddhist Scripture School: A Participatory Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrachakrapol Pongsir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study: 1 the former and present conditions, problem, expectations, possible alternative solutions to solve problems, achieve expectations and the choices made in formulating an action plan for development of learning activity. 2 the results of both expected and unexpected changes from individual, group and organization, also the new knowledge created from learning by doing processes with participatory action research. The 17 participants consist of administrators, teachers, school committee and 5 stakeholders. Such as administrative officer, caretaker, community leader and representative alumni. Research instruments included an observation form, in-depth interview, and document examination. The research finding were as follows: Srijanwittaya general buddhist scripture school lack of equipment for teaching and learning and modern teaching aids. Teachers have not been development for 21st century learning skills. These were the cause of: bored lesson, low student achievement and school has not passed the third quality evaluation by the office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment (Public Organization Researcher focus on solving problem by 4 projects were Follows: 1 promotion and development of teacher project 2 developing school environment project. 3 encourage collaboration for school development project and 4 improving manage potential for school based management project. After improving found that Srijanwittaya general buddhist scripture school, Loei province passed the quality evaluation and higher students achievement. Moreover, researcher and participants were learnt from research practice such as knowledge and experience. The new knowledge had 3 characteristics as follows: 1 new knowledge on participatory performance of school context 2 new knowledge by 5 steps of participle learning principal and 3 new knowledge by lesson learned visualizing from “SRIJAN Model”.

  18. High-performance, low-cost solar collectors for disinfection of contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, A; Diaz, A I

    2000-01-01

    Although the germicidal action of sunlight has long been recognized, its potential for practical applications has to be researched more thoroughly. This paper summarizes the progress made toward a commercially practical collector for solar disinfection applications. Nontracking compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), developed originally for capturing solar photons for thermal energy applications, were examined as potential solar photoreactors. A field demonstration of solar disinfection treatment using commercially manufactured solar reactors was conducted. Field tests showed successful destruction of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis and have provided data for full-scale design of water treatment systems. From above observations, a throughput value of 50 L/m2 h for the low-cost CPC reactor tested was estimated. For a 190 m3/d (0.05 MGD) facility, the estimated total costs for disinfection using UV-A is U.S. $0.19/m3 ($0.70/1000 gal). The use of near-UV sunlight to disinfect water supplies seems promising in rural communities of developing countries where treated water is unavailable.

  19. Kinetic model of water disinfection using peracetic acid including synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Marina J; Brandi, Rodolfo J; Cassano, Alberto E; Labas, Marisol D

    2016-01-01

    The disinfection efficiencies of a commercial mixture of peracetic acid against Escherichia coli were studied in laboratory scale experiments. The joint and separate action of two disinfectant agents, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, were evaluated in order to observe synergistic effects. A kinetic model for each component of the mixture and for the commercial mixture was proposed. Through simple mathematical equations, the model describes different stages of attack by disinfectants during the inactivation process. Based on the experiments and the kinetic parameters obtained, it could be established that the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide was much lower than that of peracetic acid alone. However, the contribution of hydrogen peroxide was very important in the commercial mixture. It should be noted that this improvement occurred only after peracetic acid had initiated the attack on the cell. This synergistic effect was successfully explained by the proposed scheme and was verified by experimental results. Besides providing a clearer mechanistic understanding of water disinfection, such models may improve our ability to design reactors.

  20. Ultraviolet air disinfection for protection against influenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Three converging lines of evidence support the belief that it may be possible, under appropriate circumstances, to interrupt the airborne transmission of influenza by ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection. These lines of evidence are: (a) that influenza is airborne; (b) that UV irradiation of the upper air of a room can provide safe and effective disinfection of air in the lower part of the room; and (c) that epidemic spread of airborne viral infections in humans can be prevented if the population under consideration remains in the UV-protected environment

  1. Drinking water contamination and it's disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    High quality water is necessary for the survival of human life. In this paper, an effort has been made to highlight the various causes of water contamination. Some of the most common impurities present in water are pathogenic microorganisms along with organize and in organize pollutants. Different treatment methods are adopted to ensure the potability of water. They include physical, chemical and ultra viable treatment along with solar disinfection etc. The adoption of a particular disinfection strategy depends on the level of treatment required and the resources available to carry out such a treatment. (author)

  2. Sensitivity to disinfection of bacterial indicator organisms for monitoring the Salmonella Enteritidis status of layer farms after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, I; Ducatelle, R; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Reu, K

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluated Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus hirae as potential indicator organisms for the possible Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) presence in layer farms after cleaning and disinfection by comparing their susceptibility to disinfection. A quantitative suspension disinfection test according to European Standard EN1656 was performed using disinfection products CID20 and Virocid (both from CID Lines, Ieper, Belgium). In a preliminary test, the sensitivity to both disinfection products was compared between ATCC strains of SE, E. coli, En. faecalis, and En. hirae. The sensitivity of SE to disinfection was most comparable to that of E. coli. A second disinfection test compared the elimination of E. coli to SE ATCC strains as well as field strains. Results showed no significant effect regarding the strain (P > 0.05 for CID20 and Virocid), meaning that no difference was detected in sensitivity toward disinfection. When comparing the sensitivity in general at species level for all concentrations of disinfectant used, no significant difference was found between E. coli and SE in sensitivity to Virocid (P > 0.05). In conclusion, because of its similar response to disinfection in a suspension disinfection test, E. coli could be used as an indicator for possible Salmonella presence after cleaning and disinfection.

  3. Mixed tocopherols prevent mammary tumorigenesis by inhibiting estrogen action and activating PPAR-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jin; Ju, Jihyeung; Paul, Shiby; So, Jae-Young; DeCastro, Andrew; Smolarek, Amanda; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S.; Newmark, Harold L.; Suh, Nanjoo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants present in vegetable oils. Although the antioxidant and anticancer activities of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) have been studied for decades, recent intervention studies with α-tocopherol have been negative for protection from cancer in humans. The tocopherols consist of 4 isoforms, α, β, γ, and δ variants, and recent attention is being made to other isoforms. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a tocopherol mixture rich in γ- and δ-tocopherols against mammary tumorigenesis. Experimental Design Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU), and then fed diets containing 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols rich in γ- and δ-tocopherols for 9 weeks. Tumor burden and multiplicity were determined, and the levels of markers of inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in the serum and in mammary tumors. The regulation of nuclear receptor signaling by tocopherols was studied in mammary tumors and in breast cancer cells. Results Dietary administration of 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols suppressed mammary tumor growth by 38%, 50%, or 80%, respectively. Tumor multiplicity was also significantly reduced in all three mixed tocopherol groups. Mixed tocopherols increased the expression of p21, p27, caspase-3 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and inhibited AKT and estrogen signaling in mammary tumors. Our mechanistic study found that γ- and δ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, activated PPAR-γ and antagonized estrogen action in breast cancer. Conclusion The results suggest that γ- and δ-tocopherols may be effective agents for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:19509159

  4. Comparative antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of bovine lactoferricin-derived synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Han, Feifei; Xie, Yonggang; Wang, Yizhen

    2011-12-01

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB), a 25 residue peptide derived from the N-terminal of bovine lactoferrin (bLF), causes depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane in susceptible bacteria. Its mechanism of action, however, still needs to be elucidated. In the present study, synthetic LfcinB (without a disulfide bridge) and LfcinB (C-C; with a disulfide bridge) as well as three derivatives with 15-, 11- and 9-residue peptides were prepared to investigate their antimicrobial nature and mechanisms. The antimicrobial properties were measured via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations, killing kinetics assays and synergy testing, and hemolytic activities were assessed by hemoglobin release. Finally, the morphology of peptide-treated bacteria was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that there was no difference in MICs between LfcinB and LfcinB (C-C). Among the derivatives, only LfcinB15 maintained nearly the same level as LfcinB, in the MIC range of 16-128 μg/ml, and the MICs of LfcinB11 (64-256 μg/ml) were 4 times more than LfcinB, while LfcinB9 exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity. When treated at MIC for 1 h, many blebs were formed and holes of various sizes appeared on the cell surface, but the cell still maintained its integrity. This suggested that LfcinB had a major permeability effect on the cytoplasmic membrane of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which also indicated it may be a possible intracellular target. Among the tested antibiotics, aureomycin increased the bactericidal activity of LfcinB against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, but neomycin did not have such an effect. We also found that the combination of cecropin A and LfcinB had synergistic effects against E. coli.

  5. An overview of remedial action technical information support activities funded by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    In 1979 the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide technical information support to the DOE's Remedial Action Programs, which comprise: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). Specific information activities that RAPIC performs to support the DOE's programs include: maintaining a computerized bibliographic database containing approximately 7000 annotated references relevant to remediation work at radioactively contaminated sites; publishing an annual bibliography, Nuclear Facility Decommissioning and Site Remedial Actions, A Selected Bibliography, ORNL/EIS-154; maintaining a document repository and providing copies of requested publications; and performing manual and computerized searches of the technical literature. The most important RAPIC function is serving as a focal point for remedial action information. With these extensive resources at its command, RAPIC is in a unique position to provide a comprehensive information base to the remedial action and environmental restoration community

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. The role of action and coping planning in the relationship between intention and physical activity: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudroit, Johan; Boiché, Julie; Stephan, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    Using a moderated mediation model, the present study investigated whether the mediation of intention into physical activity (PA) behaviour via action planning depends on the level of coping planning. A four-month prospective study was conducted among 157 French adults, who were recruited through a web-based survey. They were administrated measures of behavioural intention and sociodemographic variables at baseline and action and coping planning and PA four months later. Action planning partially mediated the contribution of intention on PA level. However, this indirect effect was conditional on the level of coping planning, insofar as action planning acted as a mediator of the intention-PA relationship only for individuals with high level of coping planning. The results highlight the complexity of the relationship between intention and behaviour and provide evidence for the distinct role of both forms of planning.

  9. A bacteriological study of hospital beds before and after disinfection with phenolic disinfectant

    OpenAIRE

    Denise de Andrade; Emília L. S. Angerami; Carlos Roberto Padovani

    2000-01-01

    In hospitals, one of the ways to control microbial contamination is by disinfecting the furniture used by patients. This study's main objective was to evaluate the microbiological condition of hospital mattresses before and after such disinfection, in order to identify bacteria that are epidemiologically important in nosocomial infection, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. RODAC plates with two different culture media were used to collect specimens. Patient beds were se...

  10. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Direction-selective circuitry in rat retina develops independently of GABAergic, cholinergic and action potential activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Sun

    Full Text Available The ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs in the mammalian retina code image motion by responding much more strongly to movement in one direction. They do so by receiving inhibitory inputs selectively from a particular sector of processes of the overlapping starburst amacrine cells, a type of retinal interneuron. The mechanisms of establishment and regulation of this selective connection are unknown. Here, we report that in the rat retina, the morphology, physiology of the ON-OFF DSGCs and the circuitry for coding motion directions develop normally with pharmacological blockade of GABAergic, cholinergic activity and/or action potentials for over two weeks from birth. With recent results demonstrating light independent formation of the retinal DS circuitry, our results strongly suggest the formation of the circuitry, i.e., the connections between the second and third order neurons in the visual system, can be genetically programmed, although emergence of direction selectivity in the visual cortex appears to require visual experience.

  12. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the radiological survey activities program --- Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.R.; Little, C.A.

    1991-08-01

    The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) at the Grand Junction Office (GJO), Colorado, of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for surveying designated sites in the vicinity of 24 inactive mill sites involved in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP). The purpose of these surveys is to provide a recommendation to DOE whether to include or exclude these sites from UMTRAP based on whether the on-site residual radioactive material (if any) originated from the former mill sites, and radiation levels on-site are in excess of appropriate Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria. This report describes the Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) for the PAG in conducting all activities related to UMTRAP. All quality assurance provisions given by the DOE, DOE/UMTRA and ORNL organizations are integrated into this plan. Specifically, this report identifies the policies and procedures followed in accomplishing the PAG/UMTRA QA program, identifies those organizational units involved in the implementation of these procedures, and outlines the respective responsibilities of those groups. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Reduction in infection risk through treatment of microbially contaminated surfaces with a novel, portable, saturated steam vapor disinfection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Benjamin D

    2009-02-01

    Surface-mediated infectious disease transmission is a major concern in various settings, including schools, hospitals, and food-processing facilities. Chemical disinfectants are frequently used to reduce contamination, but many pose significant risks to humans, surfaces, and the environment, and all must be properly applied in strict accordance with label instructions to be effective. This study set out to determine the capability of a novel chemical-free, saturated steam vapor disinfection system to kill microorganisms, reduce surface-mediated infection risks, and serve as an alternative to chemical disinfectants. High concentrations of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella enterica, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MS2 coliphage (used as a surrogate for nonenveloped viruses including norovirus), Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and the endospores of Clostridium difficile were dried individually onto porous clay test surfaces. Surfaces were treated with the saturated steam vapor disinfection system for brief periods and then numbers of surviving microorganisms were determined. Infection risks were calculated from the kill-time data using microbial dose-response relationships published in the scientific literature, accounting for surface-to-hand and hand-to-mouth transfer efficiencies. A diverse assortment of pathogenic microorganisms was rapidly killed by the steam disinfection system; all of the pathogens tested were completely inactivated within 5 seconds. Risks of infection from the contaminated surfaces decreased rapidly with increasing periods of treatment by the saturated steam vapor disinfection system. The saturated steam vapor disinfection system tested for this study is chemical-free, broadly active, rapidly efficacious, and therefore represents a novel alternative to liquid chemical disinfectants.

  14. A bacteriological study of hospital beds before and after disinfection with phenolic disinfectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Denise de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In hospitals, one of the ways to control microbial contamination is by disinfecting the furniture used by patients. This study's main objective was to evaluate the microbiological condition of hospital mattresses before and after such disinfection, in order to identify bacteria that are epidemiologically important in nosocomial infection, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. RODAC plates with two different culture media were used to collect specimens. Patient beds were selected according to previously established criteria, and surface areas on the mattresses were chosen at random. From the total of 1 040 plate cultures from 52 mattresses, positive results were obtained from 500 of them (48.1%, 263 before disinfection and 237 after disinfection. Considering the selectivity of the culture media, the positivity rate was high. There were high prevalences of S. aureus both before and after mattress disinfection. The study results suggest that the usual disinfection procedures, instead of diminishing the number of microbes, merely displace them from one part of the mattress to another, and the number of microorganisms remains the same.

  15. A bacteriological study of hospital beds before and after disinfection with phenolic disinfectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Andrade

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In hospitals, one of the ways to control microbial contamination is by disinfecting the furniture used by patients. This study's main objective was to evaluate the microbiological condition of hospital mattresses before and after such disinfection, in order to identify bacteria that are epidemiologically important in nosocomial infection, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. RODAC plates with two different culture media were used to collect specimens. Patient beds were selected according to previously established criteria, and surface areas on the mattresses were chosen at random. From the total of 1 040 plate cultures from 52 mattresses, positive results were obtained from 500 of them (48.1%, 263 before disinfection and 237 after disinfection. Considering the selectivity of the culture media, the positivity rate was high. There were high prevalences of S. aureus both before and after mattress disinfection. The study results suggest that the usual disinfection procedures, instead of diminishing the number of microbes, merely displace them from one part of the mattress to another, and the number of microorganisms remains the same.

  16. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity and Mechanisms of Action of 4-Nerolidylcatechol Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha e Silva, Luiz Francisco; Nogueira, Karla Lagos; Pinto, Ana Cristina da Silva; Katzin, Alejandro Miguel; Sussmann, Rodrigo A. C.; Muniz, Magno Perêa; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Coutinho, Julia Penna; Lima, Emerson Silva; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2015-01-01

    4-Nerolidylcatechol (1) is an abundant antiplasmodial metabolite that is isolated from Piper peltatum roots. O-Acylation or O-alkylation of compound 1 provides derivatives exhibiting improved stability and significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro inhibition of hemozoin formation, inhibition of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum cultures, and in vivo antimalarial activity of several 4-nerolidylcatechol derivatives. 1,2-O,O-Diacetyl-4-nerolidylcatechol (2) inhibited in vitro hemozoin formation by up to 50%. In metabolic labeling studies using [1-(n)-3H]geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, diester 2 significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of isoprenoid metabolites ubiquinone 8, menaquinone 4, and dolichol 12 in cultures of P. falciparum 3D7. Similarly, 2-O-benzyl-4-nerolidylcatechol (3) significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of dolichol 12. P. falciparum in vitro protein synthesis was not affected by compounds 2 or 3. At oral doses of 50 mg per kg of body weight per day, compound 2 suppressed Plasmodium berghei NK65 in infected BALB/c mice by 44%. This in vivo result for derivative 2 represents marked improvement over that obtained previously for natural product 1. Compound 2 was not detected in mouse blood 1 h after oral ingestion or in mixtures with mouse blood/blood plasma in vitro. However, it was detected after in vitro contact with human blood or blood plasma. Derivatives of 4-nerolidylcatechol exhibit parasite-specific modes of action, such as inhibition of isoprenoid biosynthesis and inhibition of hemozoin formation, and they therefore merit further investigation for their antimalarial potential. PMID:25801563

  17. Pharmacological activities, mechanisms of action, and safety of salidroside in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong ZF

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhifeng Zhong,1 Jing Han,1 Jizhou Zhang,1 Qing Xiao,1 Juan Hu,1,2 Lidian Chen1,2 1Institute of Materia Medica, Fujian Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Rehabilitation Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The primary objective of this review article was to summarize comprehensive information related to the neuropharmacological activity, mechanisms of action, toxicity, and safety of salidroside in medicine. A number of studies have revealed that salidroside exhibits neuroprotective activities, including anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-Parkinson’s disease, anti-Huntington’s disease, anti-stroke, anti-depressive effects, and anti-traumatic brain injury; it is also useful for improving cognitive function, treating addiction, and preventing epilepsy. The mechanisms underlying the potential protective effects of salidroside involvement are the regulation of oxidative stress response, inflammation, apoptosis, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotransmission, neural regeneration, and the cholinergic system. Being free of side effects makes salidroside potentially attractive as a candidate drug for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is evident from the available published literature that salidroside has potential use as a beneficial therapeutic medicine with high efficacy and low toxicity to the central nervous system. However, the definite target protein molecules remain unclear, and clinical trials regarding this are currently insufficient; thus, guidance for further research on the molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of salidroside is urgent. Keywords: salidroside, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, cognitive impairment, clinical trials

  18. Biological activity of clovers - free radical scavenging ability and antioxidant action of six Trifolium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Kowalska, Iwona; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Clovers were chosen on the basis of traditional medicine recommendations, agricultural value, or available information on their promising chemical profiles. This study evaluates and compares free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of six clover species: Trifolium alexandrinum L. (Leguminosae), Trifolium fragiferum L., Trifolium hybridum L., Trifolium incarnatum L., Trifolium resupinatum var. majus Boiss., and Trifolium resupinatum var. resupinatum L. Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts (1.5-50 µg/ml) was estimated by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (ABTS(•)) radicals. The Trifolium extract effects on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma were determined by the reduction of ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) radicals, as well as with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. The UPLC analysis of chemical profiles of the examined extracts showed the presence of three or four groups of phenolic substances, including phenolic acids, clovamides, isoflavones, and other flavonoids. The measurements of free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of the examined clover extracts revealed the strongest effect for T. alexandrinum. Furthermore, antioxidant activity assays in human plasma have shown protective effects of all extracts against peroxynitrite-induced reduction of total antioxidant capacity. Trifolium plants may be a rich source of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties. The examined extracts displayed free radical scavenging action and partly protected blood plasma against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress; however, the beneficial effects of T. alexandrinum and T. incarnatum seem to be slightly higher.

  19. Corrective Action Management Unit Report of Post-Closure Care Activities Calendar Year 2017.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) consists of a containment cell and ancillary systems that underwent regulatory closure in 2003 in accordance with the Closure Plan in Appendix D of the Class 3 Permit Modification (SNL/NM September 1997). The containment cell was closed with wastes in place. On January 27, 2015, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued the Hazardous Waste Facility Operating Permit (Permit) for Sandia National Laboratories (NMED January 2015). The Permit became effective February 26, 2015. The CAMU is undergoing post-closure care in accordance with the Permit, as revised and updated. This CAMU Report of Post-Closure Care Activities documents all activities and results for Calendar Year (CY) 2017 as required by the Permit. The CAMU containment cell consists of engineered barriers including a cover system, a bottom liner with a leachate collection and removal system (LCRS), and a vadose zone monitoring system (VZMS). The VZMS provides information on soil conditions under the cell for early leak detection. The VZMS consists of three monitoring subsystems, which include the primary subliner (PSL), a vertical sensor array (VSA), and the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) sanitary sewer (CSS) line. The PSL, VSA, and CSS monitoring subsystems are monitored quarterly for soil moisture concentration, the VSA is monitored quarterly for soil temperature, and the VSA and CSS monitoring subsystems are monitored annually for volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the soil vapor at various depths. Baseline data for the soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil vapor were established between October 2003 and September 2004.

  20. Carbon nanoparticles for solar disinfection of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddigpu, Pratap Reddy; Sawant, Bhairavi; Wanjari, Snehal; Goel, M D; Vione, Davide; Dhodapkar, Rita S; Rayalu, S

    2018-02-05

    The present manuscript deals with the application of carbon nano particles (CNP) and chitosan (CHIT) in the form of CHIT-CNP composite for the disinfection of water. The CHIT-CNP composite was prepared by the solution casting method and characterized by TEM, XRD and elemental analysis. In the present investigation we study the disinfection efficiency towards E. coli bacteria of both CNP and CHIT-CNP, under sunlight (SODIS) in identical experimental conditions. Both CNP and CHIT-CNP enhanced disinfection as compared to SODIS alone, and comparable performance was achieved when the same dose of CNP in the two materials was applied. However, the CHIT-CNP composite is in the form of a fabric and it is easier to use and handle as compared to the CNP powder, especially in rural and resource-constrained areas. Moreover the SODIS-CHIT-CNP setup, when used in a compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor showed high bactericidal efficiency compared to SODIS alone, which is promising for practical applications. The disinfection potential of the CNP powder was compared with that of the well-known material TiO 2 Degussa P25 (DP 25 ): DP 25 gave 6-log kill of bacteria in 180min, whereas CNP produced 6-log kill in 150min. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... disinfectant for hatching egg obtained from broiler breeder flock. Oregano essential ... contamination rate, hatchability of fertile egg, body weight at 21 and 42 days, body weight gain and total feed ... successful healthy hatchlings. Several ...... Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito.

  2. STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION IN A PRIVATE CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral examination is done with a mirror and probe. The mirror is then washed under the tap water and disinfected in 'V3 sterilizing' fluid concentrate. The probe is placed in a tray with ... Protective glasses are worn additionally to the gloves and facemask, when cavity preparation. is being performed. The handpiece is wiped.

  3. USE OF FENTON'S REAGENT AS A DISINFECTANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined sewage samples obtained from a wastewater treatment facility were disinfected by the Fenton's Reagent of several different compositions. The pre-settled samples contained both suspended solids (SS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at concentrations of 28 and 290 mg/L,...

  4. Action of sulfured radioprotectors on spontaneous cerebral electric activity of implanted chronic non irradiated adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.

    In a previous study, the radioprotective action of serotonin on central nervous system of lethal dose irradiated rabbit had been determined. In the present study, the possibilities of sulfured radioprotectors were considered in order to see if these products have by themselves an action on central nervous system of non irradiated animals [fr

  5. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    proportions of nitrogenous, brominated, and iodinated HDBPs than the chlorinated tap water. Conversion of the WWTF to UV disinfection reduced the loading of HDBPs to the receiving stream by > 90%. - Highlights: • Infrastructure upgrades provide opportunities for water quality improvements. • Halogenated disinfection byproducts were removed by activated sludge wastewater treatment. • Chlorine disinfected effluents contain complex mixtures of halogenated byproducts. • Conversion from chlorine to ultraviolet light disinfection eliminated byproduct formation. • Most disinfection byproducts are attenuated by in-stream processes but some were produced

  6. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Larry B. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Hladik, Michelle L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 6000 J Street Placer Hall, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Vajda, Alan M. [University of Colorado, Department of Integrative Biology, CB 171, Denver, CO 80217 (United States); Fitzgerald, Kevin C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); AECOM, 500 West Jefferson St., Ste. 1600, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Douville, Chris [City of Boulder, 4049 75th Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    greater relative proportions of nitrogenous, brominated, and iodinated HDBPs than the chlorinated tap water. Conversion of the WWTF to UV disinfection reduced the loading of HDBPs to the receiving stream by > 90%. - Highlights: • Infrastructure upgrades provide opportunities for water quality improvements. • Halogenated disinfection byproducts were removed by activated sludge wastewater treatment. • Chlorine disinfected effluents contain complex mixtures of halogenated byproducts. • Conversion from chlorine to ultraviolet light disinfection eliminated byproduct formation. • Most disinfection byproducts are attenuated by in-stream processes but some were produced.

  7. Disinfection of dental impressions - compliance to accepted standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almortadi, N; Chadwick, R G

    2010-12-18

    The responsibility of ensuring impressions have been cleaned and disinfected before dispatch to the dental laboratory lies solely with the dentist. Uncertainty of impression disinfection risks both the health of the receiving dental technician and potential repeat disinfection of an already disinfected impression with detrimental consequences for its dimensions. To ascertain, from the perspectives of dentists and dental technicians, current impression decontamination and disinfection practices with, in the case of the technicians, an estimate of the relative prevalence of contaminated voids within apparently disinfected impressions. Anonymous postal questionnaire. Dentist (n = 200) and dental technician (n = 200) potential participants, selected at random from the registers held by the General Dental Council, were invited to complete an anonymous postal questionnaire that sought to establish current practices and perceived effectiveness of impression disinfection. Questionnaire return rates of 42.1% and 31.2% were recorded for dentists and dental technicians respectively. A wide range of solutions, at different dilutions of the same product, was used by the dentists to disinfect dental impressions. 37.2% rinsed the impressions with water, and 2.6% always brushed debris away, before disinfection. 24.7% of dentists did not inform the laboratory of disinfection. Irrespective of the disinfection status of the received impressions, 50% of the responding dental technicians disinfected all impressions. 95% of them had received blood-contaminated impressions. 15% had encountered blood-filled voids upon trimming back the peripheries of impressions. 64.7% were confident that the impressions received by them had been disinfected by the dentists. Compliance with good practice is less than ideal and education in impression disinfection for both dentists and dental technicians is required to address this.

  8. Comparative study with two different enrichments in the culture media used in the disinfectant efficacy assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabagh, Bruna Peres; Souto, Aline da Silva Soares; Reis, Louise Moreira; Silva, Sérgio Alves da; Pereira, Daniella Cristina Rodrigues; Neves, Marta de Campos; Pinheiro, Rodrigo Rollin; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Miyazaki, Neide Hiromi Tokumaru; Bôas, Maria Helena Simões Villas

    2012-02-01

    Recent changes in Brazilian legislation for commercial disinfectants have been published due to the recent epidemic of nosocomial infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) in many states of Brazil over the last 8years. One of these documents requires that all the manufacturers provide evidence of efficacy of sterilizing and disinfectant products, used for semi critical medical devices, against the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau and Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594 strains by using the Confirmative in vitro Test for Determining Tuberculocidal Activity of Disinfectants recommended by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. These changes have caused additional costs and increased problems for importation of enrichment products at national laboratories where disinfectant efficacy assay service is performed. Middlebrook ADC Enrichment (ADC) is provided by a unique manufacturer and used in the official protocol. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an alternative in house low-cost enrichment composed of fetal bovine serum and glucose (FBSG) with ADC for performance of disinfectant efficacy assay against mycobacteria. After obtaining the growth curves for M. abscessus ATCC 19977, M. abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594, Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752, and Mycobacterium fortuitum ATCC 6841 by using ADC enrichment and FBSG in Kirchners and 7H9 culture media. Through statistical analysis via the Kruskal-Wallis test on the evaluation of microorganism growth rate, it was observed that there was no inhibition of RGM growth by any of the enrichments used. These results suggest that low-cost enrichment FBSG may be used as a potential substitute of ADC for composition of media for mycobacterial growth, including in disinfectant tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Evaluation of the hygienogram scores and related data obtained after cleaning and disinfection of poultry houses in Flanders during the period 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, H; De Reu, K; Van Weyenberg, S; Van Coillie, E; Meyer, E; Van Meirhaeghe, H; Van Immerseel, F; Vandenbroucke, V; Vanrobaeys, M; Dewulf, J

    2018-02-01

    Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of poultry houses is an essential aspect in farm hygiene management. Adequate performance of the different steps of a C&D protocol and the use of suitable products are key to prevent and control zoonoses and animal diseases. Hygiene monitoring on total aerobic flora through sampling with agar contact plates at different locations of the poultry house results in a hygienogram score that is used to evaluate the proper execution of C&D.This study analyzed the hygienogram scores of 19,739 poultry flocks in Flanders after C&D. Data relating to the C&D protocol, i.e., year, season, husbandry system, production type, cleaning product, sampler, active components of the disinfectant, disinfection time, disinfection temperature, and disinfection responsible, were collected.The average hygienogram score decreased significantly over time, suggesting a general improvement between 2007 and 2014. Differences in scores were found among the husbandry systems, with the barn/aviary system having a significantly better hygienogram score compared to the floor house, furnished cage, and battery. Significantly better scores also were found when a cleaning product was used in the C&D protocol. Disinfection with a peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide combination or formaldehyde gave the best scores. In addition, C&D protocols using ≥2 different disinfectants showed improved results compared to the use of one single disinfectant. Finally, disinfection applied by a specialist contractor resulted in a better score compared to disinfection by the farmer.In conclusion, analysis of the hygienogram scores and related data allowed identifying several factors, resulting in an improvement, which may reduce the total bacterial load in poultry stables and, consequently, the number of zoonotic and pathogenic micro-organisms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens biofilms to disinfectants commonly used in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Audrey; Jacques, Mario; Boulianne, Martine; Archambault, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause food poisoning in humans and various enterotoxemia in animal species. Recently, it was shown to form mono-species biofilms, a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Biofilms have been associated with tolerance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and physical and environmental stresses. Very little is known about the tolerance of C. perfringens biofilm toward disinfectants. In the present study, susceptibilities of C. perfringens biofilms to five types of commonly used disinfectants on farms and in food processing environments were analysed. In this paper, we show that C. perfringens mono-species biofilms can protect the bacterial cells from the action of potassium monopersulfate, quaternary ammonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and glutaraldehyde solutions. However, sodium hypochlorite solution was shown to be effective on C. perfringens biofilms. Our investigation of dual-species biofilms of C. perfringens with the addition of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli demonstrated that overall, the mono-species biofilm of C. perfringens was more tolerant to all disinfectants than the dual-species biofilms. For the anaerobic grown biofilms, the mono-species biofilm of C. perfringens was more tolerant to sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium chloride than the dual-species biofilms of C. perfringens with S. aureus or E. coli. This study demonstrates that C. perfringens biofilm is an effective protection mechanism to disinfectants commonly used on farms and in food processing environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Activity in ventral premotor cortex is modulated by vision of own hand in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fadiga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parietal and premotor cortices of the macaque monkey contain distinct populations of neurons which, in addition to their motor discharge, are also activated by visual stimulation. Among these visuomotor neurons, a population of grasping neurons located in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP shows discharge modulation when the own hand is visible during object grasping. Given the dense connections between AIP and inferior frontal regions, we aimed at investigating whether two hand-related frontal areas, ventral premotor area F5 and primary motor cortex (area F1, contain neurons with similar properties. Two macaques were involved in a grasping task executed in various light/dark conditions in which the to-be-grasped object was kept visible by a dim retro-illumination. Approximately 62% of F5 and 55% of F1 motor neurons showed light/dark modulations. To better isolate the effect of hand-related visual input, we introduced two further conditions characterized by kinematic features similar to the dark condition. The scene was briefly illuminated (i during hand preshaping (pre-touch flash, PT-flash and (ii at hand-object contact (touch flash, T-flash. Approximately 48% of F5 and 44% of F1 motor neurons showed a flash-related modulation. Considering flash-modulated neurons in the two flash conditions, ∼40% from F5 and ∼52% from F1 showed stronger activity in PT- than T-flash (PT-flash-dominant, whereas ∼60% from F5 and ∼48% from F1 showed stronger activity in T- than PT-flash (T-flash-dominant. Furthermore, F5, but not F1, flash-dominant neurons were characterized by a higher peak and mean discharge in the preferred flash condition as compared to light and dark conditions. Still considering F5, the distribution of the time of peak discharge was similar in light and preferred flash conditions. This study shows that the frontal cortex contains neurons, previously classified as motor neurons, which are sensitive to the observation of meaningful

  14. The humidifier disinfectant case and the legislative challenges of the 20th Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyun Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of absurdities surrounding the humidifier disinfectant (HD incident may have occurred because 1 a judicial system operates on the underlying false assumption that the involved parties are equals in knowledge, information and resource mobilization capabilities, regardless of respective real status as company or individual; 2 there is a lack of a system that mandates a company to prevent and actively manage possible catastrophes; 3 the regulatory scheme makes companies believe that as long as they are complying with the existing regulations, they have satisfied all of their responsibilities. I believe that this issue is an opportunity to bring about changes in the judicial redress system, the system of internal management of manufacturers, and the regulatory system of the government. The following regulation amendments are needed to move towards the changes stated above. First, legislation relating to victim relief that is applicable to the HD incident must be established. Second, a risk management system must be formed within the manufacturing company and to this end an institutional environment for the system must be established within regulatory framework. Furthermore, legislation must be passed that could punish companies themselves that have caused severe damage to individuals because they had failed to take necessary actions to avoid foreseeable harm. Finally, the framework of regulation must be changed so that the company, who has the necessary information regarding the product and the component chemicals used in the product, must self-directed experiment and assessment of the safety of their own products.

  15. 78 FR 21352 - Update on Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... reimbursement ceilings). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Update on Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and... not currently available for reimbursement for cleanup work performed by licensees at eligible uranium...

  16. Tertiary Students and Social Development: An Area for Direct Action--Student Rural Service Activities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kee Poo

    The study is a survey of the different kinds of voluntary rural service (service-learning) corps of students from the institutions of higher education in Malaysia. The history, organization, and activities of the service corps are examined, and this type of student social action is viewed with reference to the role of higher education in the…

  17. The Impact of Learning about Technology via Action Research as a Professional Development Activity on Higher Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premdas, Leisa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to determine the perceived impact of learning about technology via action research as a professional development activity on faculty and students in higher education. Nine faculty members--also Teaching and Technology Fellows representing various disciplines at St. John's University--were selected based…

  18. Case study of an approved corrective action integrating active remediation with intrinsic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teets, D.B.; Guest, P.R.; Blicker, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., performed UST removals and/or site assessments at UST system locations at a former US Air Force Base (AFB) in Denver, Colorado. Four UST systems, incorporating 17 USTs, were located within the petroleum, oils, and lubricants bulk storage yard (POL Yard) of the former AFB. During the tank removals and subsequent site investigations, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in soils at each site. Significant releases from two of the UST systems resulted in a dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) plume in the groundwater, and smear-zone contamination of soils beneath the majority of the POL Yard. Because of the close proximity of the UST systems, and the presence of the groundwater plume beneath the POL Yard, a corrective action plan (CAP) was prepared that encompassed all four UST systems. An innovative, risk-based CAP integrated active remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils with intrinsic remediation of groundwater. A natural attenuation evaluation for the dissolved BTEX was performed to demonstrate that natural attenuation processes are providing adequate remediation of groundwater and to predict the fate of the groundwater plume. BTEX concentrations versus distance were regressed to obtain attenuation rates, which were then used to calculate BTEX degradation rates using a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical solution. Additionally, electron acceptor concentrations in groundwater were compared to BTEX concentrations to provide evidence that natural attenuation of BTEX compounds was occurring. The natural attenuation evaluation was used in the CAP to support the intrinsic remediation with long-term monitoring alternative for groundwater, thereby avoiding the installation of an expensive groundwater remediation system

  19. Evaluation of bactericidal efficacy of silver ions on Escherichia coli for drinking water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Satya P; Gopal, K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is the development of a suitable process for the disinfection of drinking water by evaluating bactericidal efficacy of silver ions from silver electrodes. A prototype of a silver ioniser with silver electrodes and control unit has been fabricated. Silver ions from silver electrodes in water samples were estimated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A fresh culture of Escherichia coli (1.75 × 10(3) c.f.u./ml) was exposed to 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 ppb of silver ions in 100 ml of autoclaved tap water for 60 min. The effect of different pH and temperatures on bactericidal efficacy was observed at constant silver ion concentration (5 ppb) and contact time of 30 min. The maximum bactericidal activity (100%) was observed at 20 ppb of silver ion concentration indicating total disinfection after 20 min while minimum bactericidal activity (25%) was observed after 10 min at 01 ppb of silver ions. Likewise, 100% bactericidal activity was noticed with 2, 5 and 10 ppb of silver ions after 60, 50 and 40 min, respectively. Bactericidal activity at pH 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 was observed at 79.9%, 79.8%, 80.5%, 100% and 100%, respectively, whereas it was 80.4%, 88.3%, 100%, 100% and 100% at 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, 40°C and 50°C, respectively. The findings of this study revealed that very low concentrations of silver ions at pH 8-9 and temperature >20°C have bactericidal efficacy for total disinfection of drinking water. Silver ionisation is suitable for water disinfection and an appropriate alternative to chlorination which forms carcinogenic disinfection by-products.

  20. Study of base influence on the active pharmaceutical ingredients releasing from combined ointments with antimycotic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Luc

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions of mycotic diseases therapy keep staying in focus of clinical dermatology interest that is caused first of all by their considerable prevalence for international population. At the same time the dominating pathologies in this area are foot mycosis including skin, foot web space and nail plate affections. Etiotropic pharmacotherapy of foot skin and web spaces is carried out using topical antifungal medications effective against dermatomycetes. Also taking into account the frequent mixt infections, medicines with antibacterial action are desirable. Also topical antifungal medicines for therapy of foot skin mycosis have to satisfy the next requirements as rapid absorbance, safety and usability besides efficacy. Domestic dermatology for these aims has a great pharmacotherapeutical arsenal proposed by 34 semisolid dosage forms, 15 from them are made in Ukraine and the remainder are imported in our country. At the heart of practically all antimycotic medicines for topical therapy of smooth foot skin (as imported so domestic imidazole and triazole derivatives are used and because of their high value they limit the therapeutical potential of population with low profit. 2-mercaptobenzothiazole is interesting as biologically active component of ointments not only because of broad spectrum of antifungal and antibacterial action but also exceptional hydrophobic characteristics which provide long adhesion even after washing during hygienic procedures. In this connection creating of semisolid dosage forms for the topical treatment of skin integument and interdigital folds with biologically active substances from the group of nonspecific antifungal matters (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, chinosolum on the base of domestic technologies is actual for modern pharmaceutical and medical science. During creating of semisolid dosage forms for the external use one of the main experimental fragments is a selection of base which provides high consumer

  1. Global activism: new paths for Black people movement collective action in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Espinosa Bonilla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformations in actor-network collective action in the Process of Black Communities —pcn—, which were developed as a consequence of the armed conflict worsening in the Pacific region —specifically on the collective lands in the municipalities of Buenaventura and Suárez (Southwestern Colombia— in the last ten years. Information was gathered through semi-structured interviews, observation records, analysis of audio/text documents on the organizations’ claims and communiqués, and the drafting of aggregated data on displacement and conflictual facts in the region. Findings show a significant up surging of conflict within the period, in the face of which PCN’s coalitions with local and global actors have come both to neutralize and make visible armed actors’ actions against populations, and to reorient collective action, introducing innovations in the repertoires of action and setting new goals for this actor-network in the region.

  2. Peracetic Acid as a Green Disinfectant for Combined Sewer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and PAA for the inactivation of E. coli in CSO wastewater using laboratory bench-scale jar tests and Muddy Creek field site studies based on the following items:•Storage, shelf life, and application of the disinfectants.•Effectiveness of the disinfectants in the inactivation of E. coli.•Formation of harmful byproducts by the disinfectants.•Operation and maintenance costs, including the cost of the disinfectant, its storage, application, and neutralizing agent for the disinfectant to maintain the Ohio EPA guideline for residual disinfectant at the discharge point. Like many cities in the USA, Cincinnati, Ohio is attempting to find the best way to meet state and federal requirements concerning combined sewer overflow (CSO) wastewater. The Muddy Creek CSO treatment facility was constructed to provide treatment for CSO Numbers 198 and 216 from the Westwood Trunk sewer. The Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati (MSDGC) is currently using sodium hypochlorite for disinfection in this treatment facility. Because of degradation of hypochlorite during storage and the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), MSDGC is evaluating alternat

  3. Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M; Turolla, A; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

    2013-01-01

    The paper is a review of previous research on secondary effluent disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) integrated with new data about the effect of a preliminary flash-mixing step. The process was studied at bench and pilot scale to assess its performance for discharge in surface water and agricultural reuse (target microorganisms: Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria). The purposes of the research were: (1) determining PAA decay and disinfection kinetics as a function of operating parameters, (2) evaluating PAA suitability as a disinfectant, (3) assessing long-term disinfection efficiency, (4) investigating disinfected effluent biological toxicity on some aquatic indicator organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum), (5) comparing PAA with conventional disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, UV irradiation). PAA disinfection was capable of complying with Italian regulations on reuse (10 CFU/100 mL for E. coli) and was competitive with benchmarks. No regrowth phenomena were observed, as long as needed for agricultural reuse (29 h after disinfection), even at negligible concentrations of residual disinfectant. The toxic effect of PAA on the aquatic environment was due to the residual disinfectant in the water, rather than to chemical modification of the effluent.

  4. State-Level Farmers Market Activities: A Review of CDC-Funded State Public Health Actions That Support Farmers Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahin, Sahra A; Wright, Demia S; Pejavara, Anu; Kim, Sonia A

    Introducing farmers markets to underserved areas, or supporting existing farmers markets, can increase access and availability of fruits and vegetables and encourage healthy eating. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) has provided guidance and funding to state health departments (SHDs) to support the implementation of interventions, including activities around farmers markets, to address healthy eating, and improve the access to and availability of fruits and vegetables at state and community levels. For this project, we identified state-level farmers market activities completed with CDC's DNPAO funding from 2003 to 2013. State-level was defined as actions taken by the state health department that influence or support farmers market work across the state. We completed an analysis of SHD farmers market activities of 3 DNPAO cooperative agreements from 2003 to 2013: State Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Program; and Communities Putting Prevention to Work. To identify state farmers market activities, data sources for each cooperative agreement were searched using the key words "farm," "market," "produce market," and "produce stand." State data with at least one state-level farmers market action present were then coded for the presence of itemized activities. Across all cooperative agreements, the most common activities identified through analysis included the following: working on existing markets and nutrition assistance benefit programs, supporting community action, and providing training and technical assistance. Common partners were nutrition assistance benefit program offices and state or regional Department of Agriculture or agricultural extension offices. Common farmers market practices and evidence-based activities, such as nutrition assistance benefits programs and land

  5. Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of Nu-3, a protonated modified nucleotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Nubiotics" are synthetic oligonucleotides and nucleotides with nuclease-resistant backbones, and are fully protonated for enhanced ability to be taken up by bacterial cells. Nu-3 [butyl-phosphate-5'-thymidine-3'-phosphate-butyl], one of the family members of Nubiotics was efficacious in the treatment of burn-wound infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. Subsequent studies revealed that Nu-3 had a favorable toxicological profile for use as a pharmaceutical agent. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Nu-3 in vitro and its efficacy as a topical antibiotic. In addition, we investigated the possible mechanisms of Nu-3 action at the levels of DNA synthesis and bacterial membrane changes. Methods Antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC experiments with Nu-3 and controls were measured against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some hospital isolates according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Analysis of the killing kinetics of Nu-3 was also performed against two strains (Staphylococcus aureus cvcc 2248 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cvcc 5668. The mouse skin suture-wound infection model was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Nu-3. We used a 5-Bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine Labeling and Detection Kit III (Roche, Switzerland to analyze DNA replication in bacteria according to the manufacturer's instruction. The BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential Kit (Invitrogen was used to measure the bacterial membrane potential in S. aureus. Results Nu-3 had a wide antibacterial spectrum to Gram-positive, Gram-negative and some resistant bacteria. The MIC values of Nu-3 against all tested MRSA and MSSA were roughly in a same range while MICs of Oxacillin and Vancomycin varied between the bacteria tested. In the mouse model of skin wound infection study, the treatment with 5% Nu-3 glycerine solution also showed comparable therapeutic effects to

  6. Industrial Cooling Tower Disinfection Treatment to Prevent Legionella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iervolino, Matteo; Mancini, Benedetta; Cristino, Sandra

    2017-09-26

    The contamination of industrial cooling towers has been identified as one cause of legionellosis, but the real risk has been underestimated. Two different disinfection treatments were tested on Legionella colonization in an industrial Cooling Tower System (CTS). Environmental monitoring of Legionella , P. aeruginosa , and a heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 36 °C was performed from June to October 2016. The disinfection procedures adopted were based on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and silver salts (Ag⁺), in addition to an anti-algal treatment, then using hyperclorination as a shock, and then continuous treatment by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). L . pneumophila serogroup 8 was found at a concentration of 5.06 Log cfu/L after the CTS filling; a shock treatment performed by H₂O₂/Ag⁺ produced a rapid increase in contamination up to 6.14 Log cfu/L. The CTS activity was stopped and two subsequent shock treatments were performed using NaClO, followed by continuous hyperclorination. These procedures showed a significant decrease ( p Legionella concentration (1.77 Log cfu/L). The same trend was observed for P . aeruginosa (0.55 Log cfu/100 mL) and HPC (1.95 Log cfu/mL) at 36 °C. Environmental monitoring and the adoption of maintenance procedures, including anti-scale treatment, and physical, chemical, and microbiological control, ensure the good performance of a CTS, reducing the Legionella risk for public health.

  7. In vitro evaluation of the disinfection efficacy on Eimeria tenella unsporulated oocysts isolated from broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José S; Bogado, Alexey L Gomel; da Cunha, Thiago Cezar B; Garcia, João Luis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the action of eight chemical principles by disinfection efficacy (DE) of Eimeria tenella oocysts. Disinfection efficacy was evaluated by either destruction or sporulation inhibition of the oocysts. Eight treatments were performed: T1 (Glutaraldehyde 42.5 g + Benzalkonium Chloride 7.5 g); T2 (Benzalkonium chloride + quaternary ammonium salt); T3 (formol 37% + Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate 12%); T4 (sodium hypochlorite 2%); T5 (Orthodichlorobenzene 60% + Xylene 30%); T6 (Polyoctyl polyamino ethyl glycine + Polyoxyethylene alkylphenol ether + Sodium Chloride); T7 (Chloramine T) and finally T8 (free iodine 2.25% + Phosphoric acid 15 g). The control test was carried out with distilled water (T9). The best DE were observed, respectively, in T3 (79.49%), T5 (75.60%) and T4 (65.56%) treatments.

  8. Autonomy of action among elderly women on physical activity programs in Brazil and Belgium: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p107 Autonomy of action is important for quality of life. This study compared the autonomy of action of elderly female participants on physical activity programs in Brazil (IMMA, n=47, age=75±5 years and Belgium (ISEPK, n=77; age=69±7 years, using the Senior System for Evaluation of Autonomy of Action (SysSen. The SysSen is composed of a questionnaire (QSAP about the aerobic power and upper limb strength needed for a life perceived as autonomous, and a fi eld test (TSMP, in which the subject walks 800 m carrying predetermined loads. The QSAP results are used to calculate an Index of Expressed Autonomy (IAE and the TSMP to calculate an Index of Potential Autonomy (IAP. The ratio of IAP to IAE then gives an Index of Autonomy of Action (IAP/IAE=ISAC. An ISAC of 1.0 or more defi nes the subject as independent. IMMA and ISEPK data were compared with ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman ANOVA, depending on distribution (p<.05. The results revealed that: a the IAP was lower for women on the IMMA than for those on the ISEPK, whereas their needs in terms of physical activities (IAE were similar; b Most of the IMMA subjects had ISAC<1.0, in contrast with those on the ISEPK program; c In both groups, the activities related to aerobic power made a greater contribution to the IAE than those depending on upper limb strength; d All four parts of the QSAP made similar contributions to the IAE. In conclusion, the elderly women from IMMA had defi cits in autonomy of action, mainly as a result of insuffi cient physical fi tness for the declared demands of daily activities.

  9. Disinfection in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Evaluation of Effectiveness and Acute Toxicity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Collivignarelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, urban wastewater disinfection is regulated in the third part of Legislative Decree n. 152/2006, which states that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs must include a disinfection unit, with a capacity exceeding 2000 Population Equivalent (PE. This treatment shall ensure microbial quality and health security. The legislation provides the following limits for wastewater: Escherichia coli (E. coli concentration below 5000 CFU 100 mL−1 (recommended value, active chlorine concentration below 0.2 mg L−1 and lack of acute toxicity. The compliance with these conditions is shown by means of the study of correct disinfectant dosage, which also depends on wastewater characteristics. An investigation at the regional level (from 2013 to 2016 shows a correlation between acute toxicity discharge and disinfection treatment through chemical reagents (mainly with the use of chlorine compounds and peracetic acid. The experimental work concerns two active sludge WWTPs in northern Italy with small capacity (10,000–12,000 PE. The activities provide the assessment of microbiological quality and toxicity of WWTPs effluents in relation to the dosage of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, by means of the use of batch tests. The results show that with similar disinfectant dosage and comparable initial E. coli concentration, peracetic acid exhibits the best performance in terms of microbial removal (with removal yields up to 99.99%. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evident at higher doses and therefore with higher residuals of peracetic acid (2.68 mg L−1 compared to the free residual chlorine (0.17 mg L−1.

  10. Complete unconscious control: Using (in)action primes to demonstrate completely unconscious activation of inhibitory control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Although robust evidence indicates that action initiation can occur unconsciously and unintentionally, the literature on action inhibition suggests that inhibition requires both conscious thought and intentionality. In prior research demonstrating automatic inhibition in response to unconsciously processed stimuli, the unconscious stimuli had previously been consciously associated with an inhibitory response within the context of the experiment, and participants had consciously formed a goal to activate inhibition processes when presented with the stimuli (because task instructions required participants to engage in inhibition when the stimuli occurred). Therefore, prior work suggests that some amount of conscious thought and intentionality are required for inhibitory control. In the present research, we recorded event-related potentials during two go/no-go experiments in which participants were subliminally primed with general action/inaction concepts that had never been consciously associated with task-specific responses. We provide the first demonstration that inhibitory control processes can be modulated completely unconsciously and unintentionally. PMID:23747649

  11. [Control of disinfection in buildings used for poultry raising].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, P

    1989-01-01

    During a 2-year survey in turkey breeding farms, it was possible to compare six disinfection procedures by monitoring 14 first disinfections following the breeding house cleaning and 14 second disinfections prior to animal return. By swabbing all the germs from asbestos concrete surfaces, we noted that in the case of first disinfection the chloramine T-based product was more effective than phenol or quaternary ammonium-aldehyde-based products. For the second disinfection, it was demonstrated that a minimal dose of 15 kg of formaldehyde was necessary for disinfection to be satisfactory; 12 to 15 kg paraformaldehyde was as effective as 40 to 60 liters of 30-35% formol for buildings, the ground surface of which covered between 1,000 and 1,300 m2.

  12. Application and study of conjunctival sac disinfectants in ophthalmic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fei Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative endophthalmitis is the most serious complications of ophthalmic surgeries. Conjunctival sac disinfection is currently recognized as an effectively important way to reduce the risk of endophthalmitis. At present, there are some disinfectants has been used in clinic or in the researches:mercury agent, gentamicin, povidone iodine and acid electrolytic water. All kinds of disinfectants play the role of disinfection by different ways. Povidone iodine is the most widely used conjunctival sac disinfectant. Mercurial and gentamicin have been rarely used because they pollute the environment, are easy to cause drug resistant bacteria, localized side reactions and so on. The acid electrolyte water is not used in clinic at present. With the popularization and development of the ophthalmic surgeries, the ophthalmologists have become more and more concerned about the postoperative eye comfort, the research and application of conjunctival sac disinfectant in the future will continue to be updated and developed.

  13. Is free halogen necessary for disinfection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D E; Elder, E D; Worley, S D

    1988-10-01

    The principle of Le Chatelier was used in demonstrating that 3-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone (compound 1) itself kills Staphylococcus aureus rather than the very small amount of free chlorine in hydrolysis equilibrium with compound 1. On the other hand, when the N-bromo analog of compound 1 (compound 1B) was used as the disinfectant, the mixture of combined compound 1B and free bromine formed in the hydrolysis equilibrium provided disinfection. When the hydrolysis equilibrium for 1B was suppressed to the level at which a negligible amount of free bromine remained in solution, combined compound 1B was much more efficacious than combined compound 1 at killing S. aureus.

  14. Ultraviolet light - nature's own disinfection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkeberg, T [Thorolf Gregersen a/s, Oslo (Norway)

    1978-05-18

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the means by which natural pollution products, as well as much of the smaller amount of pollution products produced by man, are converted and returned to the cycle of nature. Artificial ultraviolet radiation offers an optimum method for the disinfection of drinking water and can be used in the long term without undesireable effects on man or the enviromment. There is no evidence that ultraviolet irradiation leads to radiation resistant mutations of bacteria. The geometrical arrangement of ultraviolet disinfection units is described and the capacities of typical units is mentioned as being 600-800 m/sup 3/ /hr, though there is no reason why this should not be increased.

  15. Ultraviolet light - nature's own disinfection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munkeberg, T.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the means by which natural pollution products, as well as much of the smaller amount of pollution products produced by man, are converted and returned to the cycle of nature. Artificial ultraviolet radiation offers an optimum method for the disinfection of drinking water and can be used in the long term without undesireable effects on man or the enviromment. There is no evidence that ultraviolet irradiation leads to radiation resistant mutations of bacteria. The geometrical arrangement of ultraviolet disinfection units is described and the capacities of typical units is mentioned as being 600-800 m 3 /hr, though there is no reason why this should not be increased. (JIW)

  16. Assessment of photoreactivation following ultraviolet light disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, K.; Kamiko, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Ohgaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    Photoreactivation of microorganisms following UV disinfection is one of the research topics of interest in assessing the performance of UV disinfection, because there is little consensus on how the visible light intensity relates to the photoreactivation rate and the maximum survival in wastewater treatment processes. Apparent photoreactivation by a fluorescent lamp was observed in case of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic bacteria, coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms) in raw sewage, but not E. coli B and E. coli K12 A/λ(F+). Inactivation of fecal coliform was observed simultaneously during photoreactivation process by sunlight. Dose rate at 360 nm wave length as visible light intensity showed that it was a useful indicator for assessing the photoreactivation rate and the maximum survival when photoreactivation took place by both fluorescent lamp and sunlight. The model for photoreactivation was developed. The photoreactivation rate increased with increasing visible light intensity at 360 nm. However, the maximum survival value may not be affected by visible light intensity. (author)

  17. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Falls City, Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project's Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Falls City, Texas. This surveillance was conducted March 22--26, 1993. No findings were identified during the surveillance. Three site-specific observations and three programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Falls City, Texas, remedial action program are performed adequately. However, some of the observations identify that there is potential for improving certain aspects of the occupational radiological air sampling, ensuring analytical data quality, and in communicating with the DOE and TAC on the ore sampling methods. The TAC has also received and is currently reviewing the RAC's responses regarding the observations identified during the radiological surveillance performed October 29--30, 1992

  18. Action of acoustical oscillations and hydrodynamic factors on the chemical activity of iodne in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, L.A.; Fadeev, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation results on the effect of acoustic oscillations within the frequency range of 1-500 Hz on aqueous iodine solutions and dark blue iodide-starch complex have been presented. Experiments were carried out within the range of action of acoustical and hydrodynamic oscillations without visual formation of bubbles. Form of kinetic dependences corresponds to the first order reaction in respect to iodine. Sharp increase of solution electric conductivity and noticeable increase of medium acidity were observed after the action of oscillations. It has been shown that low-frequency oscillations strengthen iodine hydrolysis and lead to iodate atom formation. Effect of oscillations with 25-30 Hz upon the iodide-starch complex results in the complex destruction, i. e. iodide atom chains removal out of clathrate starch cavities. Formation of iodide-starch complexes is promoted under the action of 250 Hz frequency, as such oscillations lead to the change of starch structure, but do not effect upon iodide

  19. UV DISINFECTION GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides technical information on selection, design and operation of UV systems; provides regulatory agencies with guidance and the necessary tools to assess UV systems at the design, start-up, and routine operation phase; provides manufacturers with the testing and performance standards for UV components and systems for treating drinking water. Provide guidance to water systems, regulators and manufacturers on UV disinfection of drinking water.

  20. Impact of UV and peracetic acid disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm(2) and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters.

  1. Impact of UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection on the Prevalence of Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Wastewater Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm2 and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters. PMID:24727265

  2. Role of disinfection in the Infection Prevention Multibarrier System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The role of disinfection in infection prevention has been analyzed over the past 50 years both in the form of benefit-risk evaluations as well as in an epidemiological sense. This has served as the basis for not only national and international guidelines and recommendations, but has also created the legal and normative framework for regulation of infection control (and hence of disinfection) in numerous and acts and ordinances. Likewise, today the efficacy of disinfection measures, user safet...

  3. Disinfectant effect of Methylated Ethanol against Listeria species

    OpenAIRE

    Y Yakubu; M D Salihu; O O Faleke; M B Abubakar; A A Magaji,A U Junaidu

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the disinfectant effect of Methylated spirit® (95% methanol and 5% ethanol) as a teat dip against Listeria species. Hand milking was employed to collect 576 (288 x 2) raw milk samples from different lactating cows within Sokoto metropolis (Nigeria). 288 samples were collected before disinfecting the udder teats with Methylated spirit®, while the other 288 were collected after disinfection with Methylated spirit®. The ...

  4. Efficacy of a variety of disinfectants against Listeria spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Best, M; Kennedy, M E; Coates, F

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of 14 disinfectants against Listeria innocua and two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of organic matter was studied. Quantitative efficacy tests were used. Many of the disinfectants tested were not as effective on Listeria spp. when the test organisms were dried onto the surface of steel disks (carrier tests) as they were when the organisms were placed in suspension (suspension test). The presence of whole serum and milk (2% fat) further reduced the disinfectant ...

  5. Development of the electrical discharge method for water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtenko, L.M.; Kononov, O.V.; Starchik, P.D.; Samojlenko, L.S.; Stavs'ka, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of processes of bacterially polluted water disinfection by the method of pulse electrical discharge in water are presented. The studies was performed to improve the disinfection technology. Main attention was concentrated to clear up effect of discharge instability on the disinfection. An influence of the shape and sizes of electrodes on repeatability of discharges was also investigated. It was found that salts solved in water greatly influence ultraviolet radiation absorption coefficients

  6. The influence of expertise on brain activation of the action observation network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, Nils; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Naumann, Tim; Kindermann, Stefan; Stark, Rudolf; Zentgraf, Karen; Williams, A Mark; Munzert, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    In many daily activities, and especially in sport, it is necessary to predict the effects of others' actions in order to initiate appropriate responses. Recently, researchers have suggested that the action-observation network (AON) including the cerebellum plays an essential role during such anticipation, particularly in sport expert performers. In the present study, we examined the influence of task-specific expertise on the AON by investigating differences between two expert groups trained in different sports while anticipating action effects. Altogether, 15 tennis and 16 volleyball experts anticipated the direction of observed tennis and volleyball serves while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The expert group in each sport acted as novice controls in the other sport with which they had only little experience. When contrasting anticipation in both expertise conditions with the corresponding untrained sport, a stronger activation of AON areas (SPL, SMA), and particularly of cerebellar structures, was observed. Furthermore, the neural activation within the cerebellum and the SPL was linearly correlated with participant's anticipation performance, irrespective of the specific expertise. For the SPL, this relationship also holds when an expert performs a domain-specific anticipation task. Notably, the stronger activation of the cerebellum as well as of the SMA and the SPL in the expertise conditions suggests that experts rely on their more fine-tuned perceptual-motor representations that have improved during years of training when anticipating the effects of others' actions in their preferred sport. The association of activation within the SPL and the cerebellum with the task achievement suggests that these areas are the predominant brain sites involved in fast motor predictions. The SPL reflects the processing of domain-specific contextual information and the cerebellum the usage of a predictive internal model to solve the anticipation task.

  7. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium were exposed to surfactants (single and combined in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  8. The role of 'no-touch' automated room disinfection systems in infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; Yezli, S; Perl, T M; Barbut, F; French, G L

    2013-01-01

    Surface contamination in hospitals is involved in the transmission of pathogens in a proportion of healthcare-associated infections. Admission to a room previously occupied by a patient colonized or infected with certain nosocomial pathogens increases the risk of acquisition by subsequent occupants; thus, there is a need to improve terminal disinfection of these patient rooms. Conventional disinfection methods may be limited by reliance on the operator to ensure appropriate selection, formulation, distribution and contact time of the agent. These problems can be reduced by the use of 'no-touch' automated room disinfection (NTD) systems. To summarize published data related to NTD systems. Pubmed searches for relevant articles. A number of NTD systems have emerged, which remove or reduce reliance on the operator to ensure distribution, contact time and process repeatability, and aim to improve the level of disinfection and thus mitigate the increased risk from the prior room occupant. Available NTD systems include hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) vapour systems, aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) and ultraviolet radiation. These systems have important differences in their active agent, delivery mechanism, efficacy, process time and ease of use. Typically, there is a trade-off between time and effectiveness among NTD systems. The choice of NTD system should be influenced by the intended application, the evidence base for effectiveness, practicalities of implementation and cost constraints. NTD systems are gaining acceptance as a useful tool for infection prevention and control. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The differential effects of heat-shocking on the viability of spores from Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium sporogenes after treatment with peracetic acid- and glutaraldehyde-based disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Jordon K; Pratt, Michael D; Lowe, Chinn-Woan; Cohen, Marissa N; Satterfield, Benjamin A; Schaalje, Bruce; O'Neill, Kim L; Robison, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated (1) the susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 19659), and Clostridium sporogenes (ATCC 3584) spores to commercially available peracetic acid (PAA)- and glutaraldehyde (GA)-based disinfectants, (2) the effects that heat-shocking spores after treatment with these disinfectants has on spore recovery, and (3) the timing of heat-shocking after disinfectant treatment that promotes the optimal recovery of spores deposited on carriers. Suspension tests were used to obtain inactivation kinetics for the disinfectants against three spore types. The effects of heat-shocking spores after disinfectant treatment were also determined. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate 6-log reduction times for each spore type, disinfectant, and heat treatment combination. Reduction times were compared statistically using the delta method. Carrier tests were performed according to AOAC Official Method 966.04 and a modified version that employed immediate heat-shocking after disinfectant treatment. Carrier test results were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. PAA-based disinfectants had significantly shorter 6-log reduction times than the GA-based disinfectant. Heat-shocking B. anthracis spores after PAA treatment resulted in significantly shorter 6-log reduction times. Conversely, heat-shocking B. subtilis spores after PAA treatment resulted in significantly longer 6-log reduction times. Significant interactions were also observed between spore type, disinfectant, and heat treatment combinations. Immediately heat-shocking spore carriers after disinfectant treatment produced greater spore recovery. Sporicidal activities of disinfectants were not consistent across spore species. The effects of heat-shocking spores after disinfectant treatment were dependent on both disinfectant and spore species. Caution must be used when extrapolating sporicidal data of disinfectants from one spore species to another. Heat

  10. Spiral-shaped reactor for water disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane

    2016-04-20

    Chlorine-based processes are still widely used for water disinfection. The disinfection process for municipal water consumption is usually carried out in large tanks, specifically designed to verify several hydraulic and disinfection criteria. The hydrodynamic behavior of contact tanks of different shapes, each with an approximate total volume of 50,000 m3, was analyzed by solving turbulent momentum transport equations with a computational fluid dynamics code, namely ANSYS fluent. Numerical experiments of a tracer pulse were performed for each design to generate flow through curves and investigate species residence time distribution for different inlet flow rates, ranging from 3 to 12 m3 s−1. A new nature-inspired Conch tank design whose shape follows an Archimedean spiral was then developed. The spiral design is shown to strongly outperform the other tanks’ designs for all the selected plug flow criteria with an enhancement in efficiency, less short circuiting, and an order of magnitude improvement in mixing and dispersion. Moreover, following the intensification philosophy, after 50% reduction in its size, the new design retains its properties and still gives far better results than the classical shapes.

  11. Biological Treatment of Water Disinfection Byproducts using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination process of drinking water include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acides (HAA5). THMs mainly consist of chloroform, and other harsh chemicals. Prolonged consumptions of drinking water containing high levels of THMs has been linked with diseases of the liver, kidneys, bladder, or central nervous system and may increase likelihood of cancer. A risk also exists for THMs exposure via inhalation while showering, bathing or washing clothes and dishes. Due to these risks, the U.S. EPA regulate THMs content in drinking water. This research investigates biological degradation of THM using chloroform as a model compound. The study aims to decrease possible risks of THMs through filtration. Throughout this year’s presentations, there is a common theme of health and safety concerns. UC researchers are working hard to clean water ways of naturally occurring contaminates as well as man-made toxins found in our waterways. The significance of these presentations translates into the promise of safer environments, and more importantly saved lives, as UC’s faculty continues to produce real-world solutions to problems threatening the world around us. A biotech process has been developed and demonstrated that effectively remove and treat volatile disinfection by-products from drinking water. The process strips low concentration disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, that are formed during the chlori

  12. Evaluation of toothbrush disinfection via different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil BASMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of using a dishwasher or different chemical agents, including 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, a mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, and 50% white vinegar, for toothbrush disinfection. Sixty volunteers were divided into five experimental groups and one control group (n = 10. Participants brushed their teeth using toothbrushes with standard bristles, and they disinfected the toothbrushes according to instructed methods. Bacterial contamination of the toothbrushes was compared between the experimental groups and the control group. Data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Duncan's multiple range tests, with 95% confidence intervals for multiple comparisons. Bacterial contamination of toothbrushes from individuals in the experimental groups differed from those in the control group (p < 0.05. The most effective method for elimination of all tested bacterial species was 50% white vinegar, followed in order by 2% NaOCl, mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, dishwasher use, and tap water (control. The results of this study show that the most effective method for disinfecting toothbrushes was submersion in 50% white vinegar, which is cost-effective, easy to access, and appropriate for household use.

  13. Production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in the presence of different disinfectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Hrubošová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to examine the effect of different disinfectants on production trichothecenes (especially of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol. Lipophilicity, chemical structure, the presence of bioactive groups and functional groups in their structure modifies biological activity and toxic potency of trichothecenes. For this reason, limits have been established designating maximum levels of mycotoxins in cereals while maintaining proper growing practices. Appropriate nutritive media were prepared with different concentration of tested disinfectants (Desanal A  plus, ProCura spray and Guaa-Pool and were inoculated using  Fusarium strains. The density of  Fusarium was 105 spores per mililitre. Nutrient media was cultivated at 15 °C and 25 °C for seven days. The strains of Fusarium graminearum CCM F-683 and Fusarium species (isolated from barley produced quantities of deoxynivalenol. Fusarium poae CCM F-584 and Fusarium species (isolated from malthouse air produced quantities of T-2 toxin. Desanal A plus prevented Fusarium growth and production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol at the concentration 10%. It is an alkaline disinfectant on the basis of active chlorine and the surfactant that contains ˂5% of NaClO. ProCura spray at the concentration 0.6% proved to be very effective. This disinfectant contains 35% of propan-1-ol and 25% of propan-2-ol.  Guaa-Pool at the concentration 0.004% proved to be very effective. It is a polymeric disinfectant with anion surface-acting agent and it contains ˂0.9% of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and ˂0.2% of alkyl (C12-C16 dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride. Lower contentration of  disinfectants that  not prevented growth of Fusarium caused higher production  of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol. The contents of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using commercially produced kits (Agra Quant® Deoxynivalenol Test kit and Agra Quant® T-2 toxin

  14. Emotional effects of shooting activities : 'real' versus 'virtual' actions and targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Marinelli, D.

    2003-01-01

    The results of an empirical study are presented to investigate the relationship between different action types (real versus virtual shooting) and different target types (real versus virtual targets) on the actual emotional state (wellbeing)of the player. The results show significantly that virtual

  15. Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome: diagnostic applications of activity-based probes and lipid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaspar, Paulo; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Strijland, Anneke; Scheij, Saskia; van Eijk, Marco; Aten, Jan; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Balreira, Andrea; Zunke, Friederike; Schwake, Michael; Sá Miranda, Clara; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 (LIMP2) mediates trafficking of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) to lysosomes. Deficiency of LIMP2 causes action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF). LIMP2-deficient fibroblasts virtually lack GBA like the cells of patients with Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal

  16. Bridging the Generation Gap: "Growing Golf" through an Action Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Norb; Cumiskey, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an action learning simulation designed for a Professional Golf Management (PGM) program housed in a College of Business of a public university. The PGA Golf Management University Program, a 4.5- to 5-year college curriculum for aspiring PGA Professionals is offered at 19 PGA accredited universities nationwide. The program…

  17. Corrective Action Management Unit Report of Post-Closure Care Activities Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) consisted of a containment cell, two treatment systems, four associated waste staging and storage areas, and support areas; all were used for management of remediation wastes between 1997 and 2003.

  18. Pulsed-Plasma Disinfection of Water Containing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kohki; MacGregor, Scott J.; Anderson, John G.; Woolsey, Gerry A.; Fouracre, R. Anthony

    2007-03-01

    The disinfection of water containing the microorganism, Escherichia coli (E. coli) by exposure to a pulsed-discharge plasma generated above the water using a multineedle electrode (plasma-exposure treatment), and by sparging the off-gas of the pulsed plasma into the water (off-gas-sparging treatment), is performed in the ambient gases of air, oxygen, and nitrogen. For the off-gas-sparging treatment, bactericidal action is observed only when oxygen is used as the ambient gas, and ozone is found to generate the bactericidal action. For the plasma-exposure treatment, the density of E. coli bacteria decreases exponentially with plasma-exposure time for all the ambient gases. It may be concluded that the main contributors to E. coli inactivation are particle species produced by the pulsed plasma. For the ambient gases of air and nitrogen, the influence of acidification of the water in the system, as a result of pulsed-plasma exposure, may also contribute to the decay of E. coli density.

  19. Differential effects of short chain fatty acids on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and neointima formation: Antioxidant action of butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxu Yuan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, a family of gut microbial metabolites, have been reported to promote preservation of endothelial function and thereby exert anti-atherosclerotic action. However, the precise mechanism mediating this protective action of SCFAs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate on the activation of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (Nlrp3 inflammasome in endothelial cells (ECs and associated carotid neointima formation. Using a partial ligated carotid artery (PLCA mouse model fed with the Western diet (WD, we found that butyrate significantly decreased Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and activation in the carotid arterial wall of wild type mice (Asc+/+, which was comparable to the effect of gene deletion of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein gene (Asc-/-. Nevertheless, both acetate and propionate markedly enhanced the formation and activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome as well as carotid neointima formation in the carotid arteries with PLCA in Asc+/+, but not Asc-/- mice. In cultured ECs (EOMA cells, butyrate was found to significantly decrease the formation and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasomes induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket or cholesterol crystals (CHC, while acetate did not inhibit Nlrp3 inflammasome activation induced by either 7-Ket or CHC, but itself even activated Nlrp3 inflammsomes. Mechanistically, the inhibitory action of butyrate on the Nlrp3 inflammasome was attributed to a blockade of lipid raft redox signaling platforms to produce O2•- upon 7-Ket or CHC stimulations. These results indicate that SCFAs have differential effects on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and associated carotid neointima formation. Keywords: Arterial endothelium, Short chain fatty acids, Inflammation, Neointima, Atherosclerosis

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Less skin irritation from alcohol-based disinfectant than from detergent used for hand disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L K; Held, E; Johansen, J D

    2005-01-01

    and forearms of 17 healthy volunteers. A control area was included. After 4 weeks an SLS patch was applied to each area. Irritant reactions were quantified with a visual score recording and measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin colour were performed on days 1, 5, 11, 38 and 40. RESULTS...... was found on the disinfectant-treated area compared with the control area and detergent area, and a similar trend was found for TEWL, although it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Alcohol-based disinfectant caused less visible skin irritation and less skin barrier disruption than the use...

  16. Antidiabetic activity of Kalanchoe pinnata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by glucose independent insulin secretagogue action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil B; Dongare, Vandana R; Kulkarni, Chaitanya R; Joglekar, Madhav M; Arvindekar, Akalpita U

    2013-11-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Crassulaceae) is used as a traditional medicine worldwide to treat several ailments, including diabetes. However, the mechanism for the antihyperglycemic action is unknown. The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue potential of Kalanchoe pinnata and assessment of the probable mechanism of action. Steam distillate of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves was subjected to solvent fractionation and antidiabetic activity was detected in dichloromethane (DCM) fraction. In the in vivo studies, rats were treated with 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight of DCM fraction for 45 days orally. Lipid profile and other biochemical parameters were estimated. The probable mechanism for insulin secretagogue action was evaluated through studies using diazoxide and nifedipine. The bioactive component from DCM fraction was studied using HPTLC, GCMS and IR. Fasting blood glucose values were reduced to 116 mg/dl from 228 mg/dl on treatment with 10 mg/kg body weight of DCM fraction, while glycated hemoglobin improved to 8.4% compared with 12.9% in diabetic controls. The insulin level and lipid profile values were close to normal values. In vitro studies demonstrated a dose-dependent insulin secretagogue action. Insulin secretion was 3.29-fold higher at 10 µg/ml as compared to the positive control. The insulin secretagogue activity was glucose independent and K(+)-ATP channel dependent. The bioactive component of the DCM fraction was identified to be a phenyl alkyl ether derivative. The DCM fraction of Kalanchoe pinnata demonstrates excellent insulin secretagogue action and can be useful in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  17. The gender differences in the inhibitory action of UVB-induced melanocyte activation by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid has an inhibitory action on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced melanocyte activation. This study examined the sex differences in the inhibitory action of tranexamic acid on UVB-induced melanocyte activation. We irradiated the eye and ear of male and female mice with UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp. We orally administered tranexamic acid (750 mg/kg/day) at 30 min before UVB exposure. Tranexamic acid inhibited the UVB-induced epidermal melanocyte activation, and the effect was more remarkable under UVB eye irradiation than under UVB ear irradiation. Furthermore, the melanocyte activity suppression effect was stronger in female mice than in male mice. Following the administration of tranexamic acid, the female displayed increased blood levels of β-endorphin and μ-opioid receptor and estradiol receptor β expression in comparison with the male. Furthermore, the effect of melanocyte activity suppression in the female mice was decreased by the administration of tamoxifen (antagonist of estrogen receptor) or naltrexone (antagonist of μ-opioid receptor). These results suggest that the suppression by tranexamic acid of the UVB-induced melanocyte activation (UVB sensitivity) is stronger in female mice than in male mice and that female hormones and β-endorphin play an important role in this sex difference. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": first-year activities and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at presenting the first-year activities and results of COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". This Action was launched in April 2013 and will last four years. The principal aim of COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects, shape-reconstruction and estimation of geophysical parameters useful for civil engineering needs; (iv) networking for the design, realization and optimization of innovative GPR equipment; (v) comparing GPR with different NDT techniques, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, liquid-penetrant, magnetic-particle, acoustic-emission and eddy-current testing; (vi) comparing GPR technology and methodology used in civil engineering with those used in other fields; (vii) promotion of a more widespread, advanced and efficient use of GPR in civil engineering; and (viii) organization of a high-level modular training program for GPR European users. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. The first WG

  19. Action spectrum for inhibition by ultraviolet radiation of photosystem 2 activity in spinach thylakoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, J.F.; Bjoern, L.O.; Aakerlund, H.-E.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (half-band width 10 nm) in the wavelength range 248-340 nm on chlorophyll fluorescence from a thin layer of spinach thylakoid suspension was investigated. It was found that the parameter most sensitive to UV radiation was the rise time of variable fluorescence. The increase in rise time was proportional to UV photon fluence and was used for the determination of an action spectrum. The action spectrum falls off from a maximum at ca. 275 nm towards longer wavelengths and rises from a minimum at 260 nm towards shorter wavelengths. The results also suggest that the UV inhibition is mainly on the PS 2 oxidizing side. Possibly damage is also inflicted to the PS 2 reaction center. (orig.)

  20. Distinct action of aranidipine and its active metabolite on renal arterioles, with special reference to renal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Hayashi, K; Fujiwara, K; Ozawa, Y; Honda, M; Saruta, T

    2000-06-01

    Aranidipine, a newly developed calcium antagonist, possesses unique pharmacologic characteristics in that its metabolite (M-1) still has antihypertensive action. We examined the effects of both agents on renal microcirculation using the isolated perfused hydronephrotic rat kidney. During norepinephrine-induced constriction, the addition of aranidipine dilated both afferent and efferent arterioles in a dose-dependent manner; at 10(-6) M, 83 +/- 6% and 90 +/- 6% reversal, respectively. In contrast, its active metabolite exerted dilator action predominantly on the afferent arteriole (79 +/- 4% vs. 44 +/- 17% at 10(-6) M for afferent and efferent arterioles, respectively). We further examined the long-term (8 weeks) effect of these agents on the development of renal injury in salt-loaded subtotally nephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Both aranidipine and M-1 reduced blood pressure by a similar magnitude. The decreases in proteinuria were observed in the aranidipine-treated group at weeks 6, 8, and 10, whereas in the M-1 group, significant reduction was attained only at week 6. Histopathologic examination revealed that both treatments improved glomerular and arteriolar sclerosis. Glomerular sclerosis, however, was less pronounced in the aranidipine-treated group than in the M-1 group. In conclusion, aranidipine has dilator action on both arterioles, whereas M-1 caused predominant dilation of afferent arterioles. Such metabolic changes may constitute a determinant of efferent arteriolar action of the calcium antagonist.

  1. Overview of decommissioning and decontamination technical information support activities funded by the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    In 1979 the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide technical information support to the Surplus Facilities Management Program, DOE's national decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) program which is managed by DOE's Richland Operations Office and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc., and to the other DOE remedial action programs. Specific information activities that RAPIC performs to support the DOE's programs and the D and D community include: maintaining a computerized bibliographic database containing about 4500 annotated citations (about 2000 on D and D) and a database of 1800 contacts involved with remedial action work at radioactively contaminated sites; publishing an annual bibliography, ''Nuclear Facility Decommissioning and Site Remedial Actions, A Selected Bibliography,'' ORNL/EIS-154 (six volumes published); maintaining a document repository and providing copies of requested publications; and performing manual and computerized searches of the technical literature. The most significant RAPIC function is serving as a focal point for D and D information. With the extensive resources at its command, RAPIC is in a unique position to provide a comprehensive information base to the D and D community. DOE makes these services available to foster good public relations and promote cooperation and information exchange

  2. Effectiveness of cleaning-disinfection wipes and sprays against multidrug-resistant outbreak strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenters, Nikki; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; de Wit, Sophie C J; van Rosmalen, Joost; Voss, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Hospital rooms play an important role in the transmission of several health care-associated pathogens. During the last few years, a number of innovative cleaning-disinfecting products have been brought to market. In this study, commercially available products combining cleaning and disinfection were compared, using 2 different application methods. The aim was to determine which product was most effective in simultaneous cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. Seven cleaning-disinfecting wipes and sprays based on different active ingredients were tested for their efficacy in removal of microbial burden and proteins. Efficacy was tested with known Dutch outbreak strains: vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Klebsiella pneumoniae OXA-48, or Acinetobacter baumannii. For all bacteria, ready-to-use cleaning-disinfecting products reduced the microbial count with a log 10 reduction >5 with a 5-minute exposure time, with the exception of a spray based on hydrogen peroxide. Omitting the aforementioned hydrogen peroxide spray, there were no significant differences between use of a wipe or spray in bacterial load reduction. Using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements, a significant difference in log 10 relative light units (RLU) reduction between various bacteria (P ≤ .001) was observed. In general, a >5 log 10 reduction of colony forming units (CFU) for tested wipes and sprays was obtained for all tested bacteria strains, with exception of hydrogen peroxide spray and VRE. Although ATP may show a difference between pre- and postcleaning, RLU reduction does not correlate with actual CFU reductions. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardioprotective Action of Ginkgo biloba Extract against Sustained β-Adrenergic Stimulation Occurs via Activation of M2/NO Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thássio R. R. Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the most popular phytotherapic agent used worldwide for treatment of several human disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in the protective actions of Ginkgo biloba on cardiovascular diseases remain poorly elucidated. Taking into account recent studies showing beneficial actions of cholinergic signaling in the heart and the cholinergic hypothesis of Ginkgo biloba-mediated neuroprotection, we aimed to investigate whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE promotes cardioprotection via activation of cholinergic signaling in a model of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we show that GBE treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days, v.o. reestablished the autonomic imbalance and baroreflex dysfunction caused by chronic β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-AR, 4.5 mg/kg/day for 8 days, i.p.. Moreover, GBE prevented the upregulation of muscarinic receptors (M2 and downregulation of β1-AR in isoproterenol treated-hearts. Additionally, we demonstrated that GBE prevents the impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the heart. GBE also prevented the pathological cardiac remodeling, electrocardiographic changes and impaired left ventricular contractility that are typical of cardiac hypertrophy. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in GBE cardioprotection in vivo, we performed in vitro studies. By using neonatal cardiomyocyte culture we demonstrated that the antihypertrophic action of GBE was fully abolished by muscarinic receptor antagonist or NOS inhibition. Altogether, our data support the notion that antihypertrophic effect of GBE occurs via activation of M2/NO pathway uncovering a new mechanism involved in the cardioprotective action of Ginkgo biloba.

  4. The action of blocking agents applied to the inner face of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels from human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P M

    1998-09-15

    The actions of clotrimazole and cetiedil, two drugs known to inhibit the Gardos channel, have been studied on single intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa) channels in inside out patches from human red blood cells, and compared with those of TEA and Ba2+ applied to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. TEA produced a fast block which was observed as a reduction in the amplitude of the single channel current. This effect was weakly voltage dependent with the fraction of the membrane potential sensed by TEA at its binding site (delta) of 0.18 and a Kd at 0 mV of 20.5 mM. Ba2+ was a very potent blocker of the channel, breaking the single channel activity up into bursts, inter-spersed with silent periods lasting several seconds. The effect of Ba2+ was very voltage sensitive, delta = 0.44, and a Kd at 0 mV of 0.15 microM. Clotrimazole applied to the inner face of the membrane at a concentration block resulting in bursts of channel activity separated by quiescent periods lasting many seconds. The effect of clotrimazole was mimicked by a quaternary derivative UCL 1559, in keeping with an action at the cytoplasmic face of the channel. A high concentration of cetiedil (100 microM) produced only a weak block of the channel. The kinetics of this action were very slow, with burst and inter-burst intervals lasting several minutes. While inhibition of the Gardos channel by cetiedil is unlikely to involve an intracellular site of action, if clotrimazole is able to penetrate the membrane, part of its effect may result from binding to an intracellular site on the channel.

  5. Testing the hierarchy of effects model: ParticipACTION's serial mass communication campaigns on physical activity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, C L; Bauman, A; Reger-Nash, B

    2010-03-01

    The hierarchy of effects (HOE) model is often used in planning mass-reach communication campaigns to promote health, but has rarely been empirically tested. This paper examines Canada's 30 year ParticipACTION campaign to promote physical activity (PA). A cohort from the nationally representative 1981 Canada Fitness Survey was followed up in 1988 and 2002-2004. Modelling of these data tested whether the mechanisms of campaign effects followed the theoretical framework proposed in the HOE. Campaign awareness was measured in 1981. Outcome expectancy, attitudes, decision balance and future intention were asked in 1988. PA was assessed at all time points. Logistic regression was used to sequentially test mediating and moderating variables adjusting for age, sex and education. No selection bias was observed; however, relatively fewer respondents than non-respondents smoked or were underweight at baseline. Among those inactive at baseline, campaign awareness predicted outcome expectancy which in turn predicted positive attitude to PA. Positive attitudes predicted high decision balance, which predicted future intention. Future intention mediated the relationship between decision balance and sufficient activity. Among those sufficiently active at baseline, awareness was unrelated to outcome expectancy and inversely related to positive attitude. These results lend support to the HOE model, in that the effects of ParticipACTION's serial mass media campaigns were consistent with the sequential rollout of its messages, which in turn was associated with achieving an active lifestyle among those initially insufficiently active. This provides support to an often-used theoretical framework for designing health promotion media campaigns.

  6. The Health Action Process Approach as a motivational model for physical activity self-management for people with multiple sclerosis: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lynch, Ruth T; Chan, Fong; Berven, Norman L

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) as a motivational model for physical activity self-management for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative descriptive research design using path analysis. One hundred ninety-five individuals with MS were recruited from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society and a neurology clinic at a university teaching hospital in the Midwest. Outcome was measured by the Physical Activity Stages of Change Instrument, along with measures for nine predictors (severity, action self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, risk perception, perceived barriers, intention, maintenance self-efficacy, action and coping planning, and recovery self-efficacy). The respecified HAPA physical activity model fit the data relatively well (goodness-of-fit index = .92, normed fit index = .91, and comparative fit index = .93) explaining 38% of the variance in physical activity. Recovery self-efficacy, action and coping planning, and perceived barriers directly contributed to the prediction of physical activity. Outcome expectancy significantly influenced intention and the relationship between intention and physical activity is mediated by action and coping planning. Action self-efficacy, maintenance self-efficacy, and recovery self-efficacy directly or indirectly affected physical activity. Severity of MS and action self-efficacy had an inverse relationship with perceived barriers and perceived barriers influenced physical activity. Empirical support was found for the proposed HAPA model of physical activity for people with MS. The HAPA model appears to provide useful information for clinical rehabilitation and health promotion interventions.

  7. Effect of drinking water disinfection by-products in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aftab; Kurzawa-Zegota, Malgorzata; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Gopalan, Rajendran C; Plewa, Michael J; Anderson, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) are generated by the chemical disinfection of water and may pose hazards to public health. Two major classes of DBPs are found in finished drinking water: haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs). HAAs are formed following disinfection with chlorine, which reacts with iodide and bromide in the water. Previously the HAAs were shown to be cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. To determine the effect of HAAs in human somatic and germ cells and whether oxidative stress is involved in genotoxic action. In the present study both somatic and germ cells have been examined as peripheral blood lymphocytes and sperm. The effects of three HAA compounds: iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoacetic acid (BAA) and chloroacetic acid (CAA) were investigated. After determining appropriate concentration responses, oxygen radical involvement with the antioxidants, butylated hydroxanisole (BHA) and the enzyme catalase, were investigated in the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay under alkaline conditions, >pH 13 and the micronucleus assay. In the Comet assay, BHA and catalase were able to reduce DNA damage in each cell type compared to HAA alone. In the micronucleus assay, micronuclei (MNi) were found in peripheral lymphocytes exposed to all three HAAs and catalase and BHA were in general, able to reduce MNi induction, suggesting oxygen radicals play a role in both assays. These observations are of concern to public health since both human somatic and germ cells show similar genotoxic responses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The influence of expertise on brain activation of the action observation network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, Nils; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Naumann, Tim; Kindermann, Stefan; Stark, Rudolf; Zentgraf, Karen; Williams, A. Mark; Munzert, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    In many daily activities, and especially in sport, it is necessary to predict the effects of others' actions in order to initiate appropriate responses. Recently, researchers have suggested that the action–observation network (AON) including the cerebellum plays an essential role during such anticipation, particularly in sport expert performers. In the present study, we examined the influence of task-specific expertise on the AON by investigating differences between two expert groups trained in different sports while anticipating action effects. Altogether, 15 tennis and 16 volleyball experts anticipated the direction of observed tennis and volleyball serves while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The expert group in each sport acted as novice controls in the other sport with which they had only little experience. When contrasting anticipation in both expertise conditions with the corresponding untrained sport, a stronger activation of AON areas (SPL, SMA), and particularly of cerebellar structures, was observed. Furthermore, the neural activation within the cerebellum and the SPL was linearly correlated with participant's anticipation performance, irrespective of the specific expertise. For the SPL, this relationship also holds when an expert performs a domain-specific anticipation task. Notably, the stronger activation of the cerebellum as well as of the SMA and the SPL in the expertise conditions suggests that experts rely on their more fine-tuned perceptual-motor representations that have improved during years of training when anticipating the effects of others' actions in their preferred sport. The association of activation within the SPL and the cerebellum with the task achievement suggests that these areas are the predominant brain sites involved in fast motor predictions. The SPL reflects the processing of domain-specific contextual information and the cerebellum the usage of a predictive internal model to solve the anticipation

  9. The influence of expertise on brain activation of the Action Observation Network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils eBalser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In many daily activities, and especially in sport, it is necessary to predict the effects of others’ actions in order to initiate appropriate responses. Recently, researchers have suggested that the action–observation network (AON including the cerebellum plays an essential role during such anticipation, particularly in sport expert performers. In the present study, we examined the influence of task-specific expertise on the AON by investigating differences between two expert groups trained in different sports while anticipating action effects. Altogether, 15 tennis and 16 volleyball experts anticipated the direction of observed tennis and volleyball serves while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The expert group in each sport acted as novice controls in the other sport with which they had only little experience. When contrasting anticipation in both expertise conditions with the corresponding untrained sport, a stronger activation of AON areas (SPL, SMA, and particularly of cerebellar structures, was observed. Furthermore, the neural activation within the cerebellum and the SPL was linearly correlated with participant’s anticipation performance, irrespective of the specific expertise. For the SPL, this relationship also holds when an expert performs a domain-specific anticipation task. Notably, the stronger activation of the cerebellum as well as of the SMA and the SPL in the expertise conditions suggests that experts rely on their more fine-tuned perceptual-motor representations that have improved during years of training when anticipating the effects of others’ actions in their preferred sport. The association of activation within the SPL and the cerebellum with the task achievement suggests that these areas are the predominant brain sites involved in fast motor predictions. The SPL reflects the processing of domain-specific contextual information and the cerebellum the usage of a predictive internal model to

  10. Anticonvulsant action of gamma-irradiated diazepam with correlation to certain brain amino acids and electrocorticogram activity in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, S.F.; Roushdy, H.M.; Hassan, S.H.M.; Elkashef, H.S.; Mahdy, A.M.; Elsayeh, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation (215 KGy) of diazepam on is anticonvulsant action, on norma and depleted cerebral gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), on glutamic acid, as well as electrocorticogram activity (ECOG) was determined in the experimental animals. For the evaluation of the anticonvulsant action of either diazepam (D) or irradiated diazepam (ID), pentyl ene tetrazole seizure test, was used and the protective dose 50 (PD50) was determined in adult male mice. GABA, the main central inhibitory transmitter which is implicated in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of D and its precursor glutamic acid, were electrophoretically separated and spectrophotometrical evaluated. Moreover, brain electrical activity was recorded using an electroencephalograph apparatus. Although the PD50 of ID as well the effect on normal brain cerebral GABA and glutamic acids did not differ significantly from that of D, yet there was certain variabilities. Thus, the effect of D was about 4 times more potent than the ID on elevating depleted cerebral GABA. Also, electrocorticogram records demonstrated that D produced a slight inhibition while ID induced a decrease in B rhythm with remarkable in the amplitude of ECOG waves. The same pattern of effects were obtained when D or ID were used in combination with INH (250 mg kg-1). 1 tab. 1 fig

  11. MUTAGENICITY AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN SURFACE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTED WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this research were to study the influence of peracetic acid (PAA) on the formation of mutagens in surface waters used for human consumption and to assess its potential application for the disinfection of drinking water. The results obtained using PAA were compared to ...

  12. Status of activities on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This report on the status of the Office of Environment's program for inactive uranium mill tailings sites is an analysis of the current status and a forecast of future activities of the Office of Environment. The termination date for receipt of information was September 30, 1980. Aerial radiological surveys and detailed ground radiological assessments of properties within the communities in the vicinity of the designated processing sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Boise, Idaho led to the designation of an initial group of vicinity properties for remedial action. The potential health effects of the residual radioactive materials on or near these properties were estimated, and the Assistant Secretary for Environment recommended priorities for performing remedial action to the Department's Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. In designating these properties and establishing recommended priorities for performing remedial action, the Office of Environment consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, representatives from the affected State and local governments, and individual property owners. After notifying the Governors of each of the affected States and the Navajo Nation of the Secretary of Energy's designation of processing sites within their areas of jurisdiction and establishment of remedial action priorities, a Sample Cooperative Agreement was developed by the Department in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and provided to the affected States and the Navajo Nation for comments. During September 1980, a Cooperative Agreement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the designated Canonsburg processing site was executed by the Department. It is anticipated that a Cooperative Agreement between the State of Utah and the Department to perform remedial actions at the designated Salt Lake City site will be executed in the near future

  13. Status of activities on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This report on the status of the Office of Environment's program for inactive uranium mill tailings sites is an analysis of the current status and a forecast of future activities of the Office of Environment. The termination date for receipt of information was September 30, 1980. Aerial radiological surveys and detailed ground radiological assessments of properties within the communities in the vicinity of the designated processing sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Boise, Idaho led to the designation of an initial group of vicinity properties for remedial action. The potential health effects of the residual radioactive materials on or near these properties were estimated, and the Assistant Secretary for Environment recommended priorities for performing remedial action to the Department's Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. In designating these properties and establishing recommended priorities for performing remedial action, the Office of Environment consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, representatives from the affected State and local governments, and individual property owners. After notifying the Governors of each of the affected States and the Navajo Nation of the Secretary of Energy's designation of processing sites within their areas of jurisdiction and establishment of remedial action priorities, a Sample Cooperative Agreement was developed by the Department in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and provided to the affected States and the Navajo Nation for comments. During September 1980, a Cooperative Agreement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the designated Canonsburg processing site was executed by the Department. It is anticipated that a Cooperative Agreement between the State of Utah and the Department to perform remedial actions at the designated Salt Lake City site will be executed in the near future.

  14. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar:" ongoing research activities and mid-term results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing activities and mid-term results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' Almost three hundreds experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been praised among the running Actions as 'COST Success Story' ('The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020,' September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects

  15. 21 CFR 880.6890 - General purpose disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use... disinfectant is a germicide intended to process noncritical medical devices and equipment surfaces. A general... prior to terminal sterilization or high level disinfection. Noncritical medical devices make only...

  16. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made.

  17. Ozone reactions with indoor materials during building disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.; Hubbard, H.; Ward, M.

    2007-01-01

    , and particularly after several hours of disinfection, surface reaction resistance dominated the overall resistance to ozone deposition for nearly all materials. Total building disinfection by-products (all carbonyls) were quantified per unit area of each material for the experimental period. Paper, office...... partition, and medium density fiberboard each released greater than 38 mg m(-2) of by-products....

  18. Microbial contamination of disinfectant solutions in some health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly used disinfectants in some health institutions in three major towns of northern Nigeria were examined for presence of bacteria contamination. For each disinfectant, stock, freshly diluted and left-over of used diluted samples were analyzed. All the stock samples were free of bacteria contaminants while 52.17% of ...

  19. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  20. Peracetic Acid as a Green Disinfectant for Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effectiven...

  1. Disinfectant effect of Methylated Ethanol against Listeria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yakubu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to determine the disinfectant effect of Methylated spirit® (95% methanol and 5% ethanol as a teat dip against Listeria species. Hand milking was employed to collect 576 (288 x 2 raw milk samples from different lactating cows within Sokoto metropolis (Nigeria. 288 samples were collected before disinfecting the udder teats with Methylated spirit®, while the other 288 were collected after disinfection with Methylated spirit®. The samples were analyzed using selective culture and isolation technique in which the 288 samples collected before disinfection, 114 (39.6% were positive for Listeria species. Among the positive samples 44 (38.6% were Listeria innocua, 16 (14.0% Listeria ivanovii, 36 (31.6% Listeria monocytogenes, 11 (9.6% Listeria welshimeri and 7 (6.1% Listeria seeligeri, while none of the 288 samples collected after disinfection was positive. The study has shown high prevalence of Listeria species in milk collected without washing/disinfecting the teats and has also established the sensitivity of Listeria species to methylated ethanol which can be used as dip for disinfecting udder teats before milking in order to prevent contamination with Listeria species and other methylated spirit-sensitive organisms. This study is essential to educate Fulani herdsmen and other milk handlers on the importance of disinfecting udder teats before milking. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 91-93

  2. Evaluation of hospital disinfection as a means of controlling endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hospital environment disinfection as a means of controlling endemic nosocomial pathogens in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria was evaluated. Disinfectant used in the Hospital was collected from the Infection Control unit and prepared in different concentrations. The isolated bacterial species from the ...

  3. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray. This report represents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant spr...

  4. Disinfection studies of Nahar (Mesua ferrea) seed kernel oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... with a k value of -0.040. Key words: Nahar (Mesua ferrea) seed kernel oil, extraction, gum Arabic, disinfection, kinetics. INTRODUCTION. Disinfection plays a key role in the reclamation and reuse of wastewater for eliminating infectious diseases, this, in part, augments domestic water supply and decreases ...

  5. Candida auris: Disinfectants and Implications for Infection Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Tsun S N; Walraven, Carla J; Lee, Samuel A

    2018-01-01

    Candida auris is a rapidly emerging pathogen and is able to cause severe infections with high mortality rates. It is frequently misidentified in most clinical laboratories, thus requiring more specialized identification techniques. Furthermore, several clinical isolates have been found to be multidrug resistant and there is evidence of nosocomial transmission in outbreak fashion. Appropriate infection control measures will play a major role in controlling the management and spread of this pathogen. Unfortunately, there are very few data available on the effectiveness of disinfectants against C. auris . Chlorine-based products appear to be the most effective for environmental surface disinfection. Other disinfectants, although less effective than chlorine-based products, may have a role as adjunctive disinfectants. A cleaning protocol will also need to be established as the use of disinfectants alone may not be sufficient for maximal decontamination of patient care areas. Furthermore, there are fewer data on the effectiveness of antiseptics against C. auris for patient decolonization and hand hygiene for healthcare personnel. Chlorhexidine gluconate has shown some efficacy in in vitro studies but there are reports of patients with persistent colonization despite twice daily body washes with this disinfectant. Hand hygiene using soap and water, with or without chlorhexidine gluconate, may require the subsequent use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer for maximal disinfection. Further studies will be needed to validate the currently studied disinfectants for use in real-world settings.

  6. Candida auris: Disinfectants and Implications for Infection Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun S. N. Ku

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Candida auris is a rapidly emerging pathogen and is able to cause severe infections with high mortality rates. It is frequently misidentified in most clinical laboratories, thus requiring more specialized identification techniques. Furthermore, several clinical isolates have been found to be multidrug resistant and there is evidence of nosocomial transmission in outbreak fashion. Appropriate infection control measures will play a major role in controlling the management and spread of this pathogen. Unfortunately, there are very few data available on the effectiveness of disinfectants against C. auris. Chlorine-based products appear to be the most effective for environmental surface disinfection. Other disinfectants, although less effective than chlorine-based products, may have a role as adjunctive disinfectants. A cleaning protocol will also need to be established as the use of disinfectants alone may not be sufficient for maximal decontamination of patient care areas. Furthermore, there are fewer data on the effectiveness of antiseptics against C. auris for patient decolonization and hand hygiene for healthcare personnel. Chlorhexidine gluconate has shown some efficacy in in vitro studies but there are reports of patients with persistent colonization despite twice daily body washes with this disinfectant. Hand hygiene using soap and water, with or without chlorhexidine gluconate, may require the subsequent use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer for maximal disinfection. Further studies will be needed to validate the currently studied disinfectants for use in real-world settings.

  7. Sewage disinfection towards protection of drinking water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolch, A

    2000-01-01

    Wastewater applied in agriculture for irrigation could replace the use of natural drinking-water resources. With respect to high concentrations of human pathogens wastewater has to be disinfected prior to use. This paper introduces disinfection methods with emphasis on UV irradiation.

  8. Endoscope disinfection and its pitfalls - requirement for retrograde surveillance cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, A. J.; Been, M. H.; Borgers, R. P.; Stokroos, I.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Peters, F. T. M.; Limburg, A. J.; Degener, J. E.

    Background and study aims: Several endoscopy-related outbreaks of infection have been reported in recent years. For early recognition of inadequate disinfection of endoscopes we designed a microbiological surveillance system to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection procedure, and to

  9. Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the Ebola Virus Makona Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley W. M. Cook

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current disease outbreak caused by the Ebola virus Makona variant (EBOV/Mak has led to unprecedented morbidity and lethality given its geographic reach and sustained transmission. Sodium hypochlorite and ethanol are well-accepted decontamination agents, however little published evidence supports the selection of appropriate concentrations and contact times. The present study addresses the environmental robustness of EBOV/Mak and evaluates the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and ethanol as disinfectants. Methods: EBOV/Mak was suspended in a simulated organic soil load and dried onto surfaces. Viability was measured at 1 hour, 24 hours, 72 hours, and 192 hours. For the evaluation of disinfectants, EBOV/Mak in a simulated organic soil was dried onto stainless steel carriers and disinfected with 0.01% (v/v, 0.1% (v/v, 0.5% (v/v and 1% (v/v sodium hypochlorite solutions or 67% (v/v ethanol at contact times of 1, 5 or 10 minutes. Results: EBOV/Mak persisted longer on steel and plastic surfaces (192 hours than cotton (<24 hours. Dilute sodium hypochlorite (0.01% and 0.1% showed little antiviral action, whereas 0.5% and 1% sodium hypochlorite solutions demonstrated recoverable virus at one minute but sterilized surfaces in five minutes. Disinfection with 67% ethanol did not fully clear infectious virions from 3/9 carriers at 1 minute but sterilized all carriers at 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite and ethanol effectively decontaminate EBOV/Mak suspended in a simulated organic load; however, selection of concentration and contact time proves critical.

  10. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  11. Defining the action spectrum of potential PGC-1α activators on a mitochondrial and cellular level in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Annette; Noe, Natalie; Tischner, Christin; Kladt, Nikolay; Lellek, Veronika; Schauß, Astrid; Wenz, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a therapeutic benefit of pharmaceutical PGC-1α activation in cellular and murine model of disorders linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. While in some cases, this effect seems to be clearly associated with boosting of mitochondrial function, additional alterations as well as tissue- and cell-type-specific effects might play an important role. We initiated a comprehensive analysis of the effects of potential PGC-1α-activating drugs and pharmaceutically targeted the PPAR (bezafibrate, rosiglitazone), AMPK (AICAR, metformin) and Sirt1 (resveratrol) pathways in HeLa cells, neuronal cells and PGC-1α-deficient MEFs to get insight into cell type specificity and PGC-1α dependence of their working action. We used bezafibrate as a model drug to assess the effect on a tissue-specific level in a murine model. Not all analyzed drugs activate the PGC pathway or alter mitochondrial protein levels. However, they all affect supramolecular assembly of OXPHOS complexes and OXPHOS protein stability. In addition, a clear drug- and cell-type-specific influence on several cellular stress pathways as well as on post-translational modifications could be demonstrated, which might be relevant to fully understand the action of the analyzed drugs in the disease state. Importantly, the effect on the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and stress response program upon drug treatment is PGC-1α dependent in MEFs demonstrating not only the pleiotropic effects of this molecule but points also to the working mechanism of the analyzed drugs. The definition of the action spectrum of the different drugs forms the basis for a defect-specific compensation strategy and a future personalized therapeutic approach.

  12. Differences in anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline enantiomers and investigation of the presumed underlying mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullié Catherine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better anti-malarial efficiency and lower neurotoxicity have been reported for mefloquine (MQ (+- enantiomer. However, the importance of stereoselectivity remains poorly understood as the anti-malarial activity of pure enantiomer MQ analogues has never been described. Building on these observations, a series of enantiopure 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives has previously been synthesized to optimize the efficiency and reduce possible adverse effects. Their in vitro activity on Plasmodium falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains is reported here along with their inhibition of β-haematin formation and peroxidative degradation of haemin, two possible mechanisms of action of anti-malarial drugs. Results The (S-enantiomers of this series of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives were found to be at least as effective as both chloroquine (CQ and MQ. The derivative with a 5-carbon side-chain length was the more efficient on both P. falciparum strains. (R -enantiomers displayed an activity decreased by 2 to 15-fold as compared to their (S counterparts. The inhibition of β-haematin formation was significantly stronger with all tested compounds than with MQ, irrespective of the stereochemistry. Similarly, the inhibition of haemin peroxidation was significantly higher for both (S and (R-enantiomers of derivatives with a side-chain length of five or six carbons than for MQ and CQ. Conclusions The prominence of stereochemistry in the anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives is confirmed. The inhibition of β-haematin formation and haemin peroxidation can be put forward as presumed mechanisms of action but do not account for the stereoselectivity of action witnessed in vitro.

  13. Disinfection of contaminated water by using solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslake, Laurie F; Connolly, Daniel J; Menon, Vilas; Duncanson, Catriona M; Rojas, Ricardo; Tavakoli, Javad

    2004-02-01

    Contaminated water causes an estimated 6 to 60 billion cases of gastrointestinal illness annually. The majority of these cases occur in rural areas of developing nations where the water supply remains polluted and adequate sanitation is unavailable. A portable, low-cost, and low-maintenance solar unit to disinfect unpotable water has been designed and tested. The solar disinfection unit was tested with both river water and partially processed water from two wastewater treatment plants. In less than 30 min in midday sunlight, the unit eradicated more than 4 log10 U (99.99%) of bacteria contained in highly contaminated water samples. The solar disinfection unit has been field tested by Centro Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente in Lima, Peru. At moderate light intensity, the solar disinfection unit was capable of reducing the bacterial load in a controlled contaminated water sample by 4 log10 U and disinfected approximately 1 liter of water in 30 min.

  14. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Data base management activities for the Remedial Action Program at ORNL: Calendar year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Bledsoe, J.L.; Newman, K.A.; Owen, P.T.; Rosen, A.E.

    1989-04-01

    The ORNL Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in 1985 in response to state and federal regulations mandating corrective actions at contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the type and extent of contamination. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. Collectively, these studies are generating a voluminous amount of data. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed for RAP to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated facilities and sites. The current DIMS and its role in supporting RAP during 1988 are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Numeric Data Base, (2) the Bibliographic Data Base, and (3) the Records Control Data Base. This report addresses all three data bases, but focuses on a description of the contents of the Numeric Data Base. The types of numeric data currently available are summarized in the tables and figures. More detailed information on the contents of the RAP Numeric Data Base has been assembled in a menu-driven format on IBM PC diskettes, which are available upon request. 6 refs

  16. Self-reported empathy and neural activity during action imitation and observation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Iacoboni, Marco; Cross, Katy A; Korb, Alex; Lee, Junghee; Nori, Poorang; Quintana, Javier; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Although social cognitive impairments are key determinants of functional outcome in schizophrenia their neural bases are poorly understood. This study investigated neural activity during imitation and observation of finger movements and facial expressions in schizophrenia, and their correlates with self-reported empathy. 23 schizophrenia outpatients and 23 healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they imitated, executed, or simply observed finger movements and facial emotional expressions. Between-group activation differences, as well as relationships between activation and self-reported empathy, were evaluated. Both patients and controls similarly activated neural systems previously associated with these tasks. We found no significant between-group differences in task-related activations. There were, however, between-group differences in the correlation between self-reported empathy and right inferior frontal (pars opercularis) activity during observation of facial emotional expressions. As in previous studies, controls demonstrated a positive association between brain activity and empathy scores. In contrast, the pattern in the patient group reflected a negative association between brain activity and empathy. Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrated largely normal patterns of neural activation across the finger movement and facial expression tasks, they reported decreased self perceived empathy and failed to show the typical relationship between neural activity and self-reported empathy seen in controls. These findings suggest that patients show a disjunction between automatic neural responses to low level social cues and higher level, integrative social cognitive processes involved in self-perceived empathy.

  17. Water and Wastewater Disinfection with Peracetic Acid and UV Radiation and Using Advanced Oxidative Process PAA/UV

    OpenAIRE

    Beber de Souza, Jeanette; Queiroz Valdez, Fernanda; Jeranoski, Rhuan Felipe; Vidal, Carlos Magno de Sousa; Cavallini, Grasiele Soares

    2015-01-01

    The individual methods of disinfection peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation and combined process PAA/UV in water (synthetic) and sanitary wastewater were employed to verify the individual and combined action of these advanced oxidative processes on the effectiveness of inactivation of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination E. coli, total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater), and coliphages (such as virus indicators). Under the experimental conditions investigated, doses o...

  18. Disinfection of drinking water by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    It is no longer mandatory that a given residue of chlorine is present in drinking water and this has led to interest in the use of ultraviolet radiation for disinfection of water in large public waterworks. After a brief discussion of the effect of ultraviolet radiation related to wavelength, the most usual type of irradiation equipment is briefly described. Practioal considerations regarding the installation, such as attenuation of the radiation due to water quality and deposits are presented. The requirements as to dose and residence time are also discussed and finally it is pointed out that hydraulic imperfections can reduce the effectiveness drastically. (JIW)Ψ

  19. Factors Influencing Physical Activity Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, Alireza; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2011-10-01

    Findings of most studies indicate that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating effects is through the continuous performance of self-care behaviors. Physical activity is a non-pharmacological method of diabetes treatment and because of its positive effects on diabetic patients, it is being increasingly considered by researchers and practitioners. This study aimed at determining factors influencing physical activity among diabetic women in Iran, using the extended theory of reasoned action in Iran. A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the desired variables (knowledge of diabetes, personal beliefs, subjective norms, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral intention and physical activity behavior). The reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. Statistical analyses of the study were conducted by inferential statistical techniques (independent t-test, correlations and regressions) using the SPSS package. The findings of this investigation indicated that among the constructs of the model, self efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes and both directly and indirectly affected physical activity. In addition to self efficacy, diabetic patients' physical activity also was influenced by other variables of the model and sociodemographic factors. Our findings suggest that the high ability of the theory of reasoned action extended by self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining physical activity can be a base for educational intervention. Educational interventions based on the proposed model are necessary for improving diabetics' physical activity behavior and controlling disease.

  20. Factors Influencing Physical Activity Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Didarloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFindings of most studies indicate that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating effects is through the continuous performance of self-care behaviors. Physical activity is a non-pharmacological method of diabetes treatment and because of its positive effects on diabetic patients, it is being increasingly considered by researchers and practitioners. This study aimed at determining factors influencing physical activity among diabetic women in Iran, using the extended theory of reasoned action in Iran.MethodsA sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the desired variables (knowledge of diabetes, personal beliefs, subjective norms, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral intention and physical activity behavior. The reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. Statistical analyses of the study were conducted by inferential statistical techniques (independent t-test, correlations and regressions using the SPSS package.ResultsThe findings of this investigation indicated that among the constructs of the model, self efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes and both directly and indirectly affected physical activity. In addition to self efficacy, diabetic patients' physical activity also was influenced by other variables of the model and sociodemographic factors.ConclusionOur findings suggest that the high ability of the theory of reasoned action extended by self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining physical activity can be a base for educational intervention. Educational interventions based on the proposed model are necessary for improving diabetics' physical activity behavior and controlling disease.

  1. Statins meditate anti-atherosclerotic action in smooth muscle cells by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kazuki [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsumura, Takeshi, E-mail: takeshim@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Senokuchi, Takafumi; Ishii, Norio; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Sarie; Murakami, Saiko [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Nakao, Saya [Department of Environmental & Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto (Japan); Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Shuji [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Nutrition Chemistry, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Statins induce PPARγ activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statin-induced PPARγ activation is mediated by COX-2 expression. • Statins suppress cell migration and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statins inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses by PPARγ activation. • Fluvastatin suppress the progression of atherosclerosis and induces PPARγ activation in the aorta of apoE-deficient mice. - Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and its activation is reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerosis. We have reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) activate PPARγ in macrophages. However, it is not yet known whether statins activate PPARγ in other vascular cells. In the present study, we investigated whether statins activate PPARγ in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) and thus mediate anti-atherosclerotic effects. Human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used in this study. Fluvastatin and pitavastatin activated PPARγ in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Statins induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Moreover, treatment with COX-2-siRNA abrogated statin-mediated PPARγ activation in HASMCs. Statins suppressed migration and proliferation of HASMCs, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in HASMCs. These effects of statins were abrogated by treatment with PPARγ-siRNA. Treatment with statins suppressed atherosclerotic lesion formation in Apoe{sup −/−} mice. In addition, transcriptional activity of PPARγ and CD36 expression were increased, and the expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α was decreased, in the aorta of statin-treated Apoe{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, statins mediate anti-atherogenic effects

  2. Statins meditate anti-atherosclerotic action in smooth muscle cells by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kazuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Ishii, Norio; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Sarie; Murakami, Saiko; Nakao, Saya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Shuji; Kawada, Teruo; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Statins induce PPARγ activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statin-induced PPARγ activation is mediated by COX-2 expression. • Statins suppress cell migration and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statins inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses by PPARγ activation. • Fluvastatin suppress the progression of atherosclerosis and induces PPARγ activation in the aorta of apoE-deficient mice. - Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and its activation is reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerosis. We have reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) activate PPARγ in macrophages. However, it is not yet known whether statins activate PPARγ in other vascular cells. In the present study, we investigated whether statins activate PPARγ in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) and thus mediate anti-atherosclerotic effects. Human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used in this study. Fluvastatin and pitavastatin activated PPARγ in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Statins induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Moreover, treatment with COX-2-siRNA abrogated statin-mediated PPARγ activation in HASMCs. Statins suppressed migration and proliferation of HASMCs, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in HASMCs. These effects of statins were abrogated by treatment with PPARγ-siRNA. Treatment with statins suppressed atherosclerotic lesion formation in Apoe −/− mice. In addition, transcriptional activity of PPARγ and CD36 expression were increased, and the expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α was decreased, in the aorta of statin-treated Apoe −/− mice. In conclusion, statins mediate anti-atherogenic effects through PPAR

  3. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, Jürgen; Exner, Martin; French, Gary; Chartier, Yves; Christiansen, Bärbel; Gemein, Stefanie; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Hartemann, Philippe; Heudorf, Ursel; Kramer, Axel; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Oltmanns, Peter; Rotter, Manfred; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper. Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges. Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects. Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection. PMID:23967396

  4. A pilot solar water disinfecting system: performance analysis and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, T.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Aeronautics and Space Engineering

    2002-07-01

    In most countries, contaminated water is the major cause of most water-borne diseases. Disinfection of water may be accomplished by a number of different physical-chemical treatments including direct application of thermal energy, chemical and filtration techniques. Solar energy also can be used effectively in this field because inactivation of microorganisms is done either by heating water to a disinfecting temperature or by exposing it to ultraviolet solar radiation. A pilot solar system for disinfecting contaminated water is designed, constructed and tested. Investigations are carried out to evaluate the performance of a wooden hot box solar facility as a solar disinfectant. Experimental data show that solar energy is viable for the disinfection process. A solar radiation model is presented and compared with the experimental data. A mathematical model of the solar disinfectant is also presented. The governing equations are solved numerically via the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, etc.) on the performance of the solar disinfectant are examined. Results showed that the system is affected by ambient temperature, wind speed, ultraviolet solar radiation intensity, the turbidity of the water, the quantity of water exposed, the contact area between the transparent water container in the solar disinfectant and the absorber plate as well as the geometrical parameters of the system. It is pointed out that for partially cloudy conditions with a low ambient temperature and high wind speeds, the thermal efficiency of the solar disinfectant is at a minimum. The use of solar energy for the disinfection process will increase the productivity of the system while completely eliminating the coliform group bacteria at the same time. (author)

  5. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper.Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges.Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects.Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection.

  6. SR 3218. Study and questioning of persons in regions with final repository activities in Germany. AS 3.2 Development of action strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohmann, Bettina; Huenecke, Katja; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Neles, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The report on the questioning of persons in regions with final repository activities in Germany includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Assessment criteria. (3) Status and analysis of selected topics: information by the operator; communication and communication channels; participation - information exchange; cooperation; concerns and risks; compensation and compensatory payments. (4) Action strategies: superior aspects (credibility, reliance, public relations, resource conservation, aspects of information and communication); site-related action recommendations and summarized action strategies (Asse, Morsleben, Gorleben, Salzgitter).

  7. Production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in the presence of different disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Hrubošová; Jarmila Vytřasová; Iveta Brožková

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of different disinfectants on production trichothecenes (especially of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol). Lipophilicity, chemical structure, the presence of bioactive groups and functional groups in their structure modifies biological activity and toxic potency of trichothecenes. For this reason, limits have been established designating maximum levels of mycotoxins in cereals while maintaining proper growing practices. Appropriate nutr...

  8. Validation of the analytical method for sodium dichloroisocyanurate aimed at drinking water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alvarez, Luis Octavio; Alejo Cisneros, Pedro; Garcia Pereira, Reynaldo; Campos Valdez, Doraily

    2014-01-01

    Cuba has developed the first effervescent 3.5 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets as a non-therapeutic active principle. This ingredient releases certain amount of chlorine when dissolved into a litre of water and it can cause adequate disinfection of drinking water ready to be taken after 30 min. Developing and validating an analytical iodometric method applicable to the quality control of effervescent 3.5 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets

  9. Quillaja saponaria Saponins with Potential to Enhance the Effectiveness of Disinfection Processes in the Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Antolak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the in vitro effect of Quillaja saponaria extracts on Asaia spp. planktonic cells and biofilms, in comparison and combination with two disinfectants: peracetic acid and N-ethyl-N,N-dimethylhexadecylammonium bromide. The growth of six bacterial strains was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Biofilm eradication was determined using the plate count method and luminometry. The planktonic cells were characterized by relatively high resistance to peracetic acid and higher sensitivity to N-ethylo-N,N-dimethylohexadecylioamonium bromide. In almost all the tested strains, growth was inhibited by 0.125% (v/v peracetic acid and 0.0313% (w/v quaternary ammonium compound. However, combinations of cell pretreatment using saponin and peracetic acid action were the most efficient against both planktonic and biofilm cells. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for peracetic acid were 4–8 times lower than those for bacterial strains without preliminary saponin action. Eradication of Asaia spp. biofilms reduced the number of living cells by 4–5 logarithmic units. These results demonstrate the synergetic action of saponin extract and disinfectant, and could be useful in the development of industrial strategies against Asaia spp. biofilms.

  10. Industrial Cooling Tower Disinfection Treatment to Prevent Legionella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Iervolino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of industrial cooling towers has been identified as one cause of legionellosis, but the real risk has been underestimated. Two different disinfection treatments were tested on Legionella colonization in an industrial Cooling Tower System (CTS. Environmental monitoring of Legionella, P. aeruginosa, and a heterotrophic plate count (HPC at 36 °C was performed from June to October 2016. The disinfection procedures adopted were based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and silver salts (Ag+, in addition to an anti-algal treatment, then using hyperclorination as a shock, and then continuous treatment by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO. L. pneumophila serogroup 8 was found at a concentration of 5.06 Log cfu/L after the CTS filling; a shock treatment performed by H2O2/Ag+ produced a rapid increase in contamination up to 6.14 Log cfu/L. The CTS activity was stopped and two subsequent shock treatments were performed using NaClO, followed by continuous hyperclorination. These procedures showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in Legionella concentration (1.77 Log cfu/L. The same trend was observed for P. aeruginosa (0.55 Log cfu/100 mL and HPC (1.95 Log cfu/mL at 36 °C. Environmental monitoring and the adoption of maintenance procedures, including anti-scale treatment, and physical, chemical, and microbiological control, ensure the good performance of a CTS, reducing the Legionella risk for public health.

  11. A new silver based composite material for SPA water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartanson, M A; Soussan, L; Rivallin, M; Chis, C; Penaranda, D; Lapergue, R; Calmels, P; Faur, C

    2014-10-15

    A new composite material based on alumina (Al2O3) modified by two surface nanocoatings - titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) - was studied for spa water disinfection. Regarding the most common microorganisms in bathing waters, two non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram positive) were selected as surrogates for bacterial contamination. The bactericidal properties of the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag material were demonstrated under various operating conditions encountered in spa water (temperature: 22-37 °C, presence of salt: CaCO3 or CaCl2, high oxygen content, etc.). Total removal of 10(8) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria was obtained in less than 10 min with 16 g L(-1) of material. Best results were observed for both conditions: a temperature of 37 °C and under aerobic condition; this latest favouring Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. The CaCO3 salt had no impact on the bactericidal activity of the composite material and CaCl2 considerably stabilized the silver desorption from the material surface thanks to the formation of AgCl precipitate. Preliminary tests of the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag bactericidal behaviour in a continuous water flow confirmed that 2 g L(-1) of material eliminated more than 90% of a 2.0 × 10(8) CFU mL(-1) bacterial mixture after one water treatment recycle and reached the disinfection standard recommended by EPA (coliform removal = 6 log) within 22 h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 21008 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Biotechnology Activities (OBA) published a proposal to revise the NIH Guidelines for Research with Recombinant... by fax to 301-496-9839 or mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of...

  13. 78 FR 12074 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Actions Under the NIH Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... recommendations of the RAC, the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) concluded that more specific guidance... address or by fax at 301-496-9839 or by mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National...

  14. 76 FR 62816 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology.... SUMMARY: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) is updating Appendix B of the NIH Guidelines to... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2011-26224 Filed 10-7-11; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  15. 75 FR 28811 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Yersinia pestis has been submitted to the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) by the Institutional... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-12453 Filed 5-21-10; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  16. Data base management activities for the Remedial Action Program at ORNL, calendar year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Newman, K.A.; Owen, P.T.

    1988-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in FY 1985 to apply corrective measures at areas contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the waste disposal sites. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. These studies are generating a voluminous amount of data on a scale unprecedented for ORNL. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed for RAP to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated facilities and sites. 10 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs

  17. NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with μ-Opioid Agonist Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Paul; Green, Brenda; Maddaford, Shawn; Rakhit, Suman; Andrews, John S

    2012-03-08

    A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the μ-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the μ-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on μ-opioid receptor function. Structure-activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 μM), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent μ-opioid binding affinity, K i = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 μM). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain.

  18. Antibacterial activity of 3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-methylquinolinium derivatives and study of their action mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Du, Ruo-Lan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Guo, Qi; Cai, Sen-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Fang, Zhi-Yuan; Yuan, Wen-Chang; Liu, Ting; Li, Xiao-Mei; Lu, Yu-Jing; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2018-12-01

    The increasing incidence of multidrug resistant bacterial infection renders an urgent need for the development of new antibiotics. To develop small molecules disturbing FtsZ activity has been recognized as promising approach to search for antibacterial of high potency systematically. Herein, a series of novel quinolinium derivatives were synthesized and their antibacterial activities were investigated. The compounds show strong antibacterial activities against different bacteria strains including MRSA, VRE and NDM-1 Escherichia coli. Among these derivatives, a compound bearing a 4-fluorophenyl group (A2) exhibited a superior antibacterial activity and its MICs to the drug-resistant strains are found lower than those of methicillin and vancomycin. The biological results suggest that these quinolinium derivatives can disrupt the GTPase activity and dynamic assembly of FtsZ, and thus inhibit bacterial cell division and then cause bacterial cell death. These compounds deserve further evaluation for the development of new antibacterial agents targeting FtsZ.

  19. The antileishmanial activity of novel oxygenated chalcones and their mechanism of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, L; Chen, M; Blom, J

    1999-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone, has antileishmanial and antimalarial activities, and alters the ultrastructure and function of the mitochondria of Leishmania spp. parasites. The present study was designed to investigate the antileishmanial activity...... resulted in a significant reduction of parasite load in the liver and the spleen compared with untreated control animals. The oxygenated chalcones also inhibited the respiration of the parasite and the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Electron microscopic studies illustrated that they altered...... the ultrastructure of the mitochondria of L. major promastigote. The data clearly indicate that this group of oxygenated chalcones has a strong antileishmanial activity and might be developed into a new antileishmanial drug. The antileishmanial activity of oxygenated chalcones might be the result of interference...

  20. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.