Moritz, Steffen; Wahl, Karina; Ertle, Andrea; Jelinek, Lena; Hauschildt, Marit; Klinge, Ruth; Hand, Iver
Inflated responsibility is ascribed a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the study was to assess interpersonal attitudes and behaviors contributing to enhanced responsibility in OCD. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that individuals diagnosed with OCD share stronger latent aggression toward…
Full Text Available The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974 particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2 documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009. Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1, Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.
Cornelis, Shana; Desmet, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly L H D; Meganck, Reitske; Willemsen, Jochem; Inslegers, Ruth; Feyaerts, Jasper
The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974) particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2) documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009). Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1), Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.
Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults’ physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with fewer ambivalent kin ties and fewer exclusively problematic kin ties. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, as compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults’ lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. PMID:22775360
Jenny L. Davis
Full Text Available At once fearful and dependent, hopeful and distrustful, our contemporary relationship with technology is highly ambivalent. Using experiential accounts from an ongoing Facebook-based qualitative study (N = 231, I both diagnose and articulate this ambivalence. I argue that technological ambivalence is rooted primarily in the deeply embedded moral prescription to lead a meaningful life, and a related uncertainty about the role of new technologies in the accomplishment of this task. On the one hand, technology offers the potential to augment or even enhance personal and public life. On the other hand, technology looms with the potential to supplant or replace real experience. I examine these polemic potentialities in the context of personal experiences, interpersonal relationships, and political activism. I conclude by arguing that the pervasive integration and non-optionality of technical systems amplifies utopian hopes, dystopian fears, and ambivalent concerns in the contemporary era.
Agergaard, Sine; Ungruhe, Christian
hand, labor migrants’ accounts show that this precarity is not exclusively based on oppression, misery, and exploitation, but that labor migration is also driven by hope and the imagination of a better future; hardships may even open up new opportunities. This article aims to scrutinize the ambivalence...... of precarity and the ways in which precarization processes also appear in highly skilled labor migration (in this case sought-after jobs as transnational athletes). The article draws on material from multisited field studies among aspiring and current soccer migrants. The experiences and conditions...... are described for female and male soccer players who originate from various West African settings and move to Northern European locations. The analysis finds ambivalent precarization processes at various points of the career. The temporality of precarization processes becomes apparent when comparing the large...
Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press.
Braga, Cátia Sofia Macedo
Tese de Doutoramento em Psicologia Aplicada The present dissertation explores the process of ambivalence resolution in psychotherapy through a narrative-dialogical lens. Ambivalence is herein defined as the conflictual relationship between two opposed positions: one expressed in a narrative novelty (i.e., distinct from the problematic pattern: an innovative moment (IM)) and another one representing the problematic pattern which impelled the client to therapy. Ambivalence mar...
Full Text Available Manifestations of sexism are under the constant influence of social changes and changes in gender relations. This paper presents modern forms of sexism, with an emphasis on the ambivalent sexism theory (Glick and Fiske, 1996. Ambivalent sexism theory addresses sexism not only on societal but also on interpersonal and personal level. In addition, this article provides a comprehensive review of the empirical findings in the field of benevolent and hostile sexism and their effect on close relations, sexual violence, beauty ideals and practices, women’s self-esteem, and their career decisions and aspirations. Finally, I place ambivalent sexism theory into the broader societal and psychological context and discuss the possibilities of surmounting current sexist ideologies and practices.
Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T.
It is close to 20 years since the authors began the collaboration that led to ambivalent sexism theory and its associated measure, both reviewed in their 1997 "Psychology of Women Quarterly" article, "Hostile and Benevolent Sexism: Measuring Ambivalent Sexist Attitudes Toward Women." This article reports the development and validation of the…
The first book-length account of the symbolic chains that link remakes and explain their disguises, Film Remakes as Rituals and Disguise is also the first book to explore how and why these stories are told. Anat Zanger focuses on contemporary retellings of three particular tales-Joan of Arc, Carmen,
Gardner, P. L.
Ambivalence is a psychological state in which a person holds mixed feelings (positive and negative) towards some psychological object. Standard methods of attitude measurement, such as Likert and semantic differential scales, ignore the possibility of ambivalence; ambivalent responses cannot be distinguished from neutral ones. This neglect arises out of an assumption that positive and negative affects towards a particular psychological object are bipolar, i.e., unidimensional in opposite directions. This assumption is frequently untenable. Conventional item statistics and measures of test internal consistency are ineffective as checks on this assumption; it is possible for a scale to be multidimensional and still display apparent internal consistency. Factor analysis is a more effective procedure. Methods of measuring ambivalence are suggested, and implications for research are discussed.
Tejas Indulal Dhamecha
Full Text Available Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images.
Many elements in contemporary leadership and management convey contempt for employees. "Thinly disguised contempt," a concept introduced by Peters and Austin in A Passion For Excellence, explains many barriers to the achievement of excellence in corporations across disciplines. Health care executives and managers can learn from the errors of corporate management and avoid replicating these errors in the health care industry.
Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.
To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…
Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA is a simple but diverse glycosaminoglycan. It plays a major role in aging, cellular senescence, cancer, and tissue homeostasis. In which way HA affects the surrounding tissues greatly depends on the molecular weight of HA. Whereas high molecular weight HA is associated with homeostasis and protective effects, HA fragments tend to be linked to the pathologic state. Furthermore, the interaction of HA with its binding partners, the hyaladherins, such as CD44, is essential for sustaining tissue integrity and is likewise related to cancer. The naked mole rat, a rodent species, possesses a special form of very high molecular weight (vHMW HA, which is associated with the extraordinary cancer resistance and longevity of those animals. This review addresses HA and its diverse facets: from HA synthesis to degradation, from oligomeric HA to vHMW-HA and from its beneficial properties to the involvement in pathologies. We further discuss the functions of HA in the naked mole rat and compare them to human conditions. Though intensively researched, this simple polymer bears some secrets that may hold the key for a better understanding of cellular processes and the development of diseases, such as cancer.
Pualuan de Gomberoff, L; Gomberoff, M
In this paper the stages are presented in the psychoanalysis of an eight-and-a-half-year-old boy consulting with a worsening symptomatology that has been evolving for more than one year. The trigger element seems to have been the birth of a brother. During the analysis the relation was clear between this brother's birth, the mother's abortions, and the previous death of a brother. The interpretation of the homicidal omnipotent fantasies and the analyst's reception of projective identifications, destructive anxieties, and castrating anxieties of the patient produced, apparently, an unimagined fast improvement of the psychotic symptoms. This took the authors retrospectively to raise the hypothesis that this patient's psychosis could be a disguised child hysteria.
Shiner, Michael; Winstock, Adam
Illicit drugs occupy an ambivalent position in late modern society; one that revolves around the twin themes of pleasure and disapproval. Drawing on Freudian psychoanalysis and Eliasian sociology this article considers how people, particularly those who use drugs, negotiate such ambivalence. Patterns of drug use and associated attitudes are examined on the basis of the Crime Survey for England and Wales and a specialist survey of largely recreational drug users in the United Kingdom. Although illicit drugs have become increasingly familiar, their use is still widely thought to be harmful and morally dubious, creating a series of challenges for those who engage in such behaviour. Ambivalence among drug users is evident in an awareness of potential costs as well as benefits; a tendency to avoid more harmful substances; a general emphasis on moderation; and a desire to use less. Building on previous work, which highlights the role of neutralisations in sustaining drug using behaviour, particular attention is paid to users' judgements about how their levels of consumption compare with other users. The analysis identifies a tendency among users to downplay their relative levels of use, which, it is argued, serves to shield them from some of the imperatives that may lead to decisions to cut down. As such, normalisation is said to be an intra-personal as well inter-personal process. The article concludes by discussing the potential of web-based personalised feedback as a harm reduction approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Apostolopoulos, George; Tzitzilonis, Vasileios; Kappatos, Vassilios
Disguised face recognition is considered as very challenging and important problem in the face recognition field. A disguised face recognition algorithm is proposed using quaternionic representation. The feature extraction module is accomplished with a new method, decomposing each face image...
Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee
Speaker identification research faces challenges due to mismatched training and test conditions, arising out of several factors. Non-electronic voice disguise is one of such factor and is commonly seen in crimes. This paper presents a study of the effect of three different types of voice disguises......, taken from the CHAINS speech corpus for the speaker identification accuracy. Out of the three voice disguises, two are variants of imitative style, namely, synchronous and repetitive synchronous imitation, and one is the fast speaking style. Different variants of multistyle training to increase...... the speaker identification accuracy are investigated in this paper. The manner in which the different speaking style’s speech examples are used for multistyle training plays an important role in the speaker identification accuracy. Further, a fusion of two multistyle training at the decision level is proposed...
Full Text Available This article describes the motion database for a large sample (n = 2400 of 7-m penalty throws in team handball that includes 1600 disguised throws. Throws were performed by both novice (n = 5 and expert (n = 5 penalty takers. The article reports the methods and materials used to capture the motion data. The database itself is accessible for download via JLU Web Server and provides all raw files in a three-dimensional motion data format (.c3d. Additional information is given on the marker placement of the penalty taker, goalkeeper, and ball together with details on the skill level and/or playing history of the expert group. The database was first used by Helm et al. (2017  to investigate the kinematic patterns of disguised movements. Results of this analysis are reported and discussed in their article âKinematic patterns underlying disguised movements: Spatial and temporal dissimilarity compared to genuine movement patternsâ (doi:10.1016/j.humov.2017.05.010 . Keywords: Motion capture data, Disguise, Expertise
Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A
Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hess, Peg McCartt; Folaron, Gail
Describes the evaluative model used to examine unsuccessful family reunification. Discusses findings regarding parental ambivalence and its effect on child placement reentry and implications of the findings for individual case assessment and for permanency services in general. (BB)
Lim, J.J.; Huebel, J.G.
A typical nuclear material accounting system employing double-entry bookkeeping is described. A logic diagram is used to model the interactions of the accounting system and the adversary when he attempts to thwart it. Boolean equations are derived from the logic diagram; solution of these equations yields the accounts and records through which the adversary may disguise SNM theft and the collusion requirements needed to accomplish this feat
Luís André Nepomuceno
Full Text Available From 1521, Gil Vicente renounces his religious theater to dedicate himself to profane and allegorical motifs, beginning a new stage in his career. Moved by the perusal of chivalric romances that spread throughout the Peninsula, the dramatist composed a series of at least four pieces dedicated to D. João III, in which the central (or circumstantial motif is the disguise of a prince in the lower classes, along with the following disclosure of his noble nature. Analyzing a specific corpus of the Vicentian theater (the pieces Rubena, Viúvo, Amadis de Gaula and Dom Duardos, the present paper tries to explain the historical motifs that permeate the theme of the ‘disguised prince’, considering the program of eulogy of the monarchy proposed by Gil Vicente, as well as an analysis of the nature of the humanist love spread by 16th century poets and philosophers. The disguise in the lower classes reveals the aristocratic essence of the courtesan, but also the ritualistic experience in the trajectory of the spiritualized love.
The social and intellectual climate of the late 1940s and early 1950s in America helped nourish humanistic, person-centered views of human behavior. During that time, psychologists such as Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, Harry Murray, and Carl Rogers emphasized the positive growth potential in human character. The psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan proposed that personality can best be understood within the context of interpersonal transactions, and he provided a practical, street-smart understanding of psychiatric symptoms that was quite an advance over the traditional medical and psychoanalytic viewpoints. These ideas, along with the concept of dimensionalizing traits rather than categorizing them, inspired my colleagues and I to conduct our cooperative work on the interpersonal circumplex, which culminated in the publication of my monograph. Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality (Leary, 1957).
Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.
Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films. Greg McCarthy. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...
The current interest in multimodal rhetoric was anticipated by Jacob Riis's social documentary texts and presentations during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In contrast with the socialist urban critiques presented by Friedrich Engels, Riis's work demonstrated profound ambivalence toward the city's poor. While calling for reform…
Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S
According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. . Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr.  interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.
M. L.J. Koenane
Full Text Available Violent or other attacks on nationals from other African states are a reality we have come to expect time-after-time in post-apartheid South Africa. We are once confronted with the ugly reality of barbaric and cruel acts of attacks on foreign internationals from other African states, which some have labelled “xenophobia” or “xenophobic attacks” while others term this “Afrophobia” (Black-on-Black conflict and violence directed at other Africans. We argue that this unsolicited characteristic of being African (indigenous will never disappear unless the moral and political disguises thereof are dealt with radically and proactively. Generally, the subject of xenophobia is one which almost everyone has an opinion on – therefore this must be a subject close to every person’s heart, be this controversial or not.
Van Denburg, Alyssa N; Shelby, Rebecca A; Caldwell, David S; O'Sullivan, Madeline L; Keefe, Francis J
Pain catastrophizing (i.e., the tendency to focus on and magnify pain sensations and feel helpless in the face of pain) is one of the most important and consistent psychological predictors of the pain experience. The present study examined, in 60 patients with osteoarthritis pain who were married or partnered: 1) the degree to which ambivalence over emotional expression and negative network orientation were associated with pain catastrophizing and 2) whether self-efficacy for pain communication moderated these relations. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant main effect for the association between ambivalence over emotional expression and pain catastrophizing; as ambivalence over emotional expression increased, the degree of pain catastrophizing increased. In addition, the interaction between ambivalence over emotional expression and self-efficacy for pain communication was significant, such that as self-efficacy for pain communication increased, the association between ambivalence over emotional expression and pain catastrophizing became weaker. Negative network orientation was not significantly associated with pain catastrophizing. Findings suggest that higher levels of self-efficacy for pain communication may help weaken the effects of ambivalence over emotional expression on pain catastrophizing. Given these results, patients may benefit from interventions that target pain communication processes and emotion regulation. This article examines interpersonal processes involved in pain catastrophizing. This study has the potential to lead to better understanding of maladaptive pain coping strategies and possibly better prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Clark, Benjamin D
The protective influence of social relationships on health is well documented; however, not all relationships are positive and negative aspects of relationships may be detrimental. Relatively less is known about the relationships characterized by both positivity and negativity (i.e., ambivalence). The goal of this study was to examine the relative influence of ambivalence in relationship quality and social behavior on cardiovascular response. 104 healthy young adults were randomly assigned to bring in either a supportive or ambivalent same-sex friend to the experiment. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive positive, negative, ambivalent or ambiguous feedback from their friend after giving a series of speeches. Cardiovascular response was obtained before, during, and after the social stressor (speech task). Results indicate a significant effect of relationship type before, during, and after the stressor task. Adjusting for baseline, heart rate reactivity and anxiety was significantly higher among those assigned to ambivalent friends relative to those assigned to supportive friends during the stressor task (pspressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity (pinfluence on health-relevant physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Disguised advertising is a modern marketing instrument that is seeing an increase in Croatian business practice but whose application is prohibited by Croatian law. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand whether Croatian businesses really do use disguised advertising, how they do it either in accordance or in contradiction with Croatian law, and whether there is a need to distinguish among several similar but different manifestations and to terminologically determine each one of these. For the purpose of this study, we explored the theoretical, legal and ethnographic conceptualizations of the term disguised advertising in the scientific literature, Croatian legislation and applied communication in business practice. The results of our research show that: a marketing literature uses various terms for describing brand usage in program content, among which disguised advertising (prikriveno oglašavanje dominates, whereas product placement (plasman proizvoda is not mentioned once; b the law distinguishes between disguised advertising that is prohibited and product placement, as a practise allowed under certain conditions and the one that is by definition identical with disguised advertising in the manner defined by marketing literature; c business entities in their communication make a distinction between disguised advertising and product placement, and they are trying to move product placement away from disguised advertising by being mentioned as sponsors/partners of the program. The analysis also indicates three different situations in which brands are used in the program content: contracted and correctly indicated brand usage; contracted but not indicated; and not-contracted brand usage. Only the first situation is considered to be a recommended marketing tool; therefore, it is necessary to differentiate it from the other two by its definition and name. It is suggested that this marketing tool be named: brand placement in both
Full Text Available This essay, translated here in Italian and preceded by the Author's inedited preface, reconstructs the trajectory of second wave feminism since the 60s, exploring its ambivalences. Shifting from an analysis focused on economic redistribution to one founded on recognition of differences, feminism has sacrificed the critique of neoliberalism on the altar of women's emancipation. In order to break the tie with neoliberalism, Fraser proposes a new conception of social justice that links the principle of non-domination with those of social protection and solidarity.
Full Text Available Background: The research of ambivalence is an actual problem of modern linguistics because of active promotion of Strategic Ambiguity as one of the key pragmatic categories on the way to understand the complexity of the concept of communicative intentions of the speaker. Generalization of conceptual and terminological findings in the Hinting Strategy of ironical utterances allows to develop the appropriate models of their practical application in the interpersonal interaction. Purpose: The purpose of the investigation is to determine the qualifying and classifying features of the irony-effect in order to demonstrate the importance of strategic ambiguity and propose a model for determining the strategically ambiguous communication. The main task of the article is to investigate the strategic ambivalence as one of the key categories of pragmatics toward understanding the complexity of the concept of intention in the speaker's communication and analyze different types of strategic ambiguity in the ironic utterances as well as the mechanisms of optimization of interpersonal interaction on the factual material of English and Ukrainian languages. Results: In the research the term strategic ambivalence refers to those communicative situations where interlocutors use ambiguity purposefully to accomplish their goals. Strategic ambiguity may be particularly useful in the interpersonal interaction. Under the circumstances of the Hinting Strategy communicative acts are often intentionally ambiguous since they allow different interpretations to coexist and therefore they are more effective in the interpersonal interaction. The communicative acts within ironical utterances are unclear and ambiguous. Although clarity is usually considered desirable for interpersonal communication, ambiguity may be more effective under the circumstances of the Hinting Stategy. Discussion: The strategic use of ambiguity minimizes the impolite speech acts. Another important
van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.
This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…
This article demonstrates that ritual plays an ambivalent role in the interaction between religion and violence. Ritual triggers and gives meaning to violence, or it enforces peace and coexistence. The first part of the article defines the ambivalence of ritual in the context of violence. The second part surveys standard rituals of ...
Pillemer, Karl; Munsch, Christin L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas; Riffin, Catherine; Suitor, J. Jill
The authors examined how ambivalence toward adult children within the same family differs between mothers and fathers and whether patterns of maternal and paternal ambivalence can be explained by the same set of predictors. Using data collected in the Within-Family Differences Study, they compared older married mothers' and fathers' (N = 129)…
Hames, Jennifer L; Hagan, Christopher R; Joiner, Thomas E
Humans have an intrinsic need for social connection; thus, it is crucial to understand depression in an interpersonal context. Interpersonal theories of depression posit that depressed individuals tend to interact with others in a way that elicits rejection, which increases their risk for future depression. In this review, we summarize the interpersonal characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of depression in the context of the relevant theories that address the role of interpersonal processes in the onset, maintenance, and chronicity of depression. Topics reviewed include social skills, behavioral features, communication behaviors, interpersonal feedback seeking, and interpersonal styles as they relate to depression. Treatment implications are discussed in light of the current research on interpersonal processes in depression, and the following future directions are discussed: developing integrative models of depression, improving measurement of interpersonal constructs, examining the association between interpersonal processes in depression and suicide, and tailoring interventions to target interpersonal processes in depression.
Full Text Available Is it good or bad for senior executives to have strong interpersonal ties to the CEO? We argue that a strong relationship with the CEO raises the likelihood that a top manager stays in office or makes an upward career move when the CEO leaves office voluntarily. At the same time, such interpersonal ties also reinforce the negative spillover effects of a dismissal of the CEO on the career prospects of the manager concerned. Our empirical analysis lends support to both arguments. We contribute to managerial succession research by underlining the ambivalence of interpersonal ties within top management teams.
The German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) had an ambivalent relationship with homosexuality. Under the principles of socialism, everyone was welcome to contribute to the greater good. The situation for queer people, here lesbians and gay men, was different: one of illegality and invisibility. A difficulty in analyzing these experiences is the theory and methodology necessary to find them and draw them together in an historical narrative. This essay offers a mode of analysis in which theories of affect illustrate long-term trends in East German conceptualizations of same-sex sexuality. By discussing a 1950 court ruling and a 1989 film, the essay demonstrates the persistence of homophobic prejudice and fear of homosexual seduction of young people and the links to historical and legal developments.
Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey
Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Eckstein, Monika; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René
Moral decisions and social relationships are often characterized by strong feelings of ambivalence which can be a catalyst for emotional distress and several health-related problems. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been identified as a key brain region in monitoring conflicting information, but the neurobiological substrates of ambivalence processing are still widely unknown. We have conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments involving 70 healthy male volunteers to investigate the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on neural and behavioral correlates of ambivalence. We chose moral decision-making and the imagery of partner infidelity as examples to probe volitional and emotional ambivalence. In both experiments, intranasal OXT diminished neural responses in the ACC to ambivalence. Under OXT, moral dilemma vignettes also elicited a reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, and the imagery of partner infidelity was rated as less arousing. Interestingly, the OXT-induced differential activation in the ACC predicted the magnitude of arousal reduction. Taken together, our findings reveal an unprecedented role of OXT in causing a domain-general decrease of neural responses to ambivalence. By alleviating emotional distress, OXT may qualify as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders with heightened ambivalence sensitivity such as schizophrenia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Preckel, Katrin; Eckstein, Monika; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René
Moral decisions and social relationships are often characterized by strong feelings of ambivalence which can be a catalyst for emotional distress and several health-related problems. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been identified as a key brain region in monitoring conflicting information, but the neurobiological substrates of ambivalence processing are still widely unknown. We have conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments involving 70 healthy male volunteers to investigate the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on neural and behavioral correlates of ambivalence. We chose moral decision-making and the imagery of partner infidelity as examples to probe volitional and emotional ambivalence. In both experiments, intranasal OXT diminished neural responses in the ACC to ambivalence. Under OXT, moral dilemma vignettes also elicited a reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, and the imagery of partner infidelity was rated as less arousing. Interestingly, the OXT-induced differential activation in the ACC predicted the magnitude of arousal reduction. Taken together, our findings reveal an unprecedented role of OXT in causing a domain-general decrease of neural responses to ambivalence. By alleviating emotional distress, OXT may qualify as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders with heightened ambivalence sensitivity such as schizophrenia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:25398434
Plagiarism is a problem with far-reaching consequences for the sciences. However, even today's best software-based systems can only reliably identify copy & paste plagiarism. Disguised plagiarism forms, including paraphrased text, cross-language plagiarism, as well as structural and idea plagiarism often remain undetected. This weakness of current systems results in a large percentage of scientific plagiarism going undetected. Bela Gipp provides an overview of the state-of-the art in plagiarism detection and an analysis of why these approaches fail to detect disguised plagiarism forms. The aut
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to predict ambivalent sexism (including hostile sexism and benevolent sexism with religious orientation types as intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and quest religiosity. In addition, the effect of demographic variables (including age, gender, education on sexist attitudes was tested. 583 (N_female= 318; N_male= 265 university students who study in different universities of Ankara/Turkey (M_age= 22.10; SD = 2.33 completed Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, and Religious Orientation Scale. Findings indicated significant gender differences on study variables and significant associations between ambivalent sexism and religious orientation types within university students sample in Turkey.
Kotagiri, Nalinikanth; Sakon, Joshua; Han, Haewook; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Kim, Jin-Woo
to SWNTs. Furthermore, iAmp coating offers protection to SWNTs against their nonspecific adsorption across disparate cell types, which has precluded a targeted strategy, and enables selective molecular targeting. The iAmp can therefore be used as an efficient dispersant, a photostable fluorescent agent, and a biocompatible disguising agent, alleviating CNTs' drawbacks and rendering them suitable for nanotheranostic and drug delivery applications.Cancer nanomedicines are opening new paradigms in cancer management and recent research points to how they can vastly improve imaging and therapy through multimodality and multifunctionality. However, challenges to achieving optimal efficacy are manifold starting from processing materials and evaluating their intended effectiveness on biological tissue, to developing new strategies aimed at improving transport of these materials through the biological milieu to the target tissue. Here, we report a fluorescent derivative of a beta-lactam antibiotic, ampicillin (termed iAmp) and its multifunctional physicobiochemical characteristics and potential as a biocompatible shielding agent and an effective dispersant. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were chosen to demonstrate the efficacy of iAmp. CNTs are known for their versatility and have been used extensively for cancer theranostics as photothermal and photoacoustic agents, but have limited solubility in water and biocompatibility. Traditional dispersants are associated with imaging artifacts and are not fully biocompatible. The chemical structure of iAmp is consistent with a deamination product of ampicillin. Although the four-membered lactam ring is intact, it does not retain the antibiotic properties. The iAmp is an effective dispersant and simultaneously serves as a fluorescent label for single-walled CNTs (SWNTs) with minimal photobleaching. The iAmp also enables bioconjugation of SWNTs to bio-ligands such as antibodies through functional carboxyl groups. Viability tests show that i
Hart, Joshua; Hung, Jacqueline A; Glick, Peter; Dinero, Rachel E
The authors present an integrative account of how attachment insecurities relate to sexism. Two studies showed that attachment avoidance predisposes men to endorse hostile but to reject benevolent sexism (BS), whereas attachment anxiety predisposes men toward ambivalent (both hostile and benevolent) sexism. The authors also tested predicted mediators, finding that men's social dominance orientation (a competitive intergroup ideology) mediated the avoidance to hostile sexism link. In addition, romanticism (an idealized interpersonal ideology) mediated attachment insecurity to BS links: (a) Avoidant men tended to reject romanticism (i.e., were cynical about romance) and, in turn, were likely to reject BS, whereas (b) anxious men tended to endorse romanticism (i.e., were idealistic about romance) and, in turn, likely to endorse BS. The authors conclude that men's sexism stems in part from dispositional attachment working models, both directly and through the interpersonal and intergroup ideologies they generate.
I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.
Full Text Available I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.
This article contrasts the view on low turnout as a threat to democracy with the unfashionable argument that low turnout might be a blessing in disguise. The political sophistication of those who participate is then relatively high, and their choices presumably better. This is consistent with the
van Harreveld, Frenk; van der Pligt, Joop; de Liver, Yael N
People are generally averse toward conflict between beliefs and/or feelings underlying their attitudes-that is, attitudinal ambivalence. This review integrates literature on attitudinal ambivalence with theories on decision making and coping strategies to gain a better understanding of when and how people deal with feelings of ambivalence. First it shows that ambivalence is experienced as being particularly unpleasant when the ambivalent attitude holder is confronted with the necessity to make a choice concerning the ambivalent attitude object; then, incongruent evaluative components of the attitude become accessible, and feelings of uncertainty about the potential outcomes arise, which may involve the anticipation of aversive emotions. Several coping strategies are employed when ambivalence is experienced as unpleasant. Emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies are discussed. The article concludes with a discussion of the MAID (model of ambivalence-induced discomfort), which aims to describe the consequences of ambivalence.
Three hundred and six (306) undergraduates participated in a study that examined abilities in interpersonal relations and interpersonal motivations. Results indicated that: (1) Three interpersonal motivations underlay interpersonal attitudes, namely, other-praise acquisition, other-rejection avoidance, and relationship avoidance. (2) Abilities in interpersonal relations, such as social skills and perceived interpersonal competence, influenced relative strengths among the individual's three interpersonal motivations. High levels of abilities in interpersonal relations lead to stronger motivation to acquire praise by others. In contrast, those with low levels of abilities were motivated to avoid interpersonal relations altogether. Those in-between were motivated to avoid rejection by others.
Full title: Sink or Swim? Debt Review's Ambivalent "Lifeline" ---- A Second Sequel To "… A Tale of Two Judgments" Nedbank V Andrews (240/2011) 2011 Zaecpehc 29 (10 May 2011); Firstrand Bank Ltd V Evans 2011 4 SA 597 (KZD) And Firstrand Bank Ltd V Janse Van Rensburg 2012 2 All SA 186 (ECP). The interface ...
Bakhtin was a literary theorist and was the widely acknowledged father of dialogism. This working paper shows how Bakhtin and dialogism can be used to capture complexity, ambivalence and ambiguity in the social world. In following the spirit of dialogism, I will refer to my own research experiences...
Joshi, S.P.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Previous content analyses of teen girl magazines have investigated the concept of sexual ambivalence--messages about sex and sexuality that contradict each other. However, no study to date has examined a more encompassing notion of sexual ambivalence by focusing on relationship ambivalence (i.e.,
Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig
Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain.
Korzeneva, I.B.; Styazhkina, T.V.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Malinina, T.V.; Prokhorovskaya, V.D.; Kholod, O.N.
Herein we have studied the effects of some hereditary and environmental factors on children's states of health. The factors under investigation, along with radiation, also impact the immunological status and human adaptivity, thus disguising hazardous radiation effects. The state-of-health criterion we have chosen are children's liability to a wide range of intrinsic diseases through the first three years of life. The analysis involved 626 children (326 male and 300 female) who's parents and grandparents lived in the vicinity of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC), a large-scale nuclear facility. Our results should preferably be taken into consideration when projecting radiation effects on the human body. (author)
Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Bechensteen, Brit; Hallberg, Ulrika
Childhood overweight represents a health problem, and research points towards parents as key players. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge of how parents of children who are overweight or obese experience their parenthood. Focus group discussions with 17 parents were analysed according to the qualitative method of modified grounded theory. The results expressed the parents' ambivalence between preventing the child's overweight and not negatively affecting the child's self-esteem. The most important issue seemed to be their concern about the child's construction of self-understanding and experiences in interaction with the environment. The parents had become uncertain of their responsibility, priorities and how to act. In conclusion, parenting a child with weight issues could be a process of loving the child the way he/she is while still wanting changes for improved health, resulting in ambivalence. In addition to traditional advice about lifestyle, many parents seem to need counselling assistance with respect to their parental role.
Full Text Available This study is grounded in a phenomenological lifeworld perspective. It aims at providing rich descriptions of lived experience of the process of losing weight after obesity surgery. Two women participated in in-depth interviews four times each during the first postoperative year. Based on the women's experiences, a meaning structure—the ambivalence of losing weight after obesity surgery—was identified across the women's processes of change. This consisted of five core themes: movement and activity—freedom but new demands and old restraints; eating habits and digestion—the complexity of change; appearance—smaller, but looser; social relations—stability and change; and being oneself—vulnerability and self-assurance. These core themes changed over time in terms of dominance. The experience of ambivalence is discussed according to a phenomenological perspective of the body as lived experience.
Breitholtz, Agneta; Snellman, Ingrid; Fagerberg, Ingegerd
The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of professional carers' experiences in caring situations when a conflict of interest arises with the older person receiving care. The findings reveal the complexity of the carers' ambivalence when facing a conflict of interest, weighing up between the older persons' right to self-determination and external demands. The carers are alone in their ambivalence, and the conclusion is that they need help and support to be more present in the encounter. The implication for this study is to focus on care as a person-centered practice and to focus on people as interdependent on support carers to maintain older people's right to self-determination in the relationship.
Full Text Available As part of the scientific project titled “The Curriculum of Social Competences and Relations in School”, the aim of this paper is to examine the quality of interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils. On a sample of 432 teachers from 20 towns, 35 primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, and 432 pupils, it was confirmed that there is a difference in the appraisal of the quality of their interpersonal relations. Although the overall quality of interpersonal relations between pupils and teachers is at a moderately satisfactory level, pupils still appraise the quality of interpersonal relations lower than their teachers. In view of latent dimensionality, a factor questionnaire structure was used (14 variables; ordinal type and two main components (subscales determined: didactic support and interaction, and rough verbal and physical treatment. As part of the differential draft of our research, no gender differences were established (between female and male teachers in the appraisal of the quality of interpersonal relations with pupils (on two subscales. The correlation analysis confirmed a low negative statistically significant correlation between the years of service and the subscale rough verbal and physical treatment (Rho=-0.101. In view of the subscale of rough verbal and physical treatment between pupils and teachers, such results on a negative correlation imply that older teachers, as opposed to their younger colleagues, use more corporal punishment in schools, treat pupils rudely, use nasty and impolite words, and call pupils insulting names.
Full Text Available This close reading of the text highlights how Miss Jane, in her double role as protagonist and narrator, shows considerable ambivalence towards friend and foe alike, with the result that the apparently transparent ideological meaning of entire episodes is blurred by what some critics have merely put down to “conservatism.” I examine Miss Jane’s almost constant suppression of emotion, and frequent displays of ambivalence towards other black people; her ambiguous relationship to oppressive, but familiar whites like Albert Cluveau or Robert Samson; and her conflicted relation to black heroes and heroics. Is the leading character a variation on the “mammy” who has internalized racist figures of speech, and uses contradictory images that undermine black heroics and validate white oppression? Or is Gaines’s point to undo the “retrick” of heroics and of alienation alike, and, against of backdrop of constant, ordinary destruction of black lives, to cast the adult Miss Jane as a Brer Rabbit-like figure, for whom survival and resistance are both dialectically connected and opposed? Is there a contradiction between her “progress” towards resistance shown in the last section, and her metadiscursive comments in the present, and does her literally walking out of her own story give a conclusive meaning to her narrative, or does it point to the author’s not having been able to resolve the ambivalence and ambiguities within the text?
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Tylén, Kristian
What is the proper unit of analysis in the psycholinguistics of dialogue? While classical approaches are largely based on models of individual linguistic processing, recent advances stress the social coordinative nature of dialogue. In the influential interactive alignment model, dialogue is thus...... dialogue based on the notion of interpersonal synergy. Crucial to this synergetic model is the emphasis on dialogue as an emergent, self-organizing, interpersonal system capable of functional coordination. A consequence of this model is that linguistic processes cannot be reduced to the workings...... of individual cognitive systems but must be approached also at the interpersonal level. From such a perspective follows a number of new predictions: beyond simple synchrony, dialogue affords complementary dynamics, constrained by contextual sensitivity and functional specificity. We substantiate our arguments...
In addition to the traditional learning outcomes for technical disciplinary knowledge, the CDIO-syllabus also specifies personal and interpersonal learning outcomes. The argument for teaching interpersonal skills rest upon the team-based working environment that is typical for engineers, where...... of the social interaction in a small group of students and thus facilitates communication and teamwork operation. Students find the Social Risk Analysis being easy to apprehend and meaningful in engineering teaching, and most significantly, they perceive that the Social Risk Analysis facilitates the work...... activities and assessment of the course, and further, redesign of the engineering work assignments in order to impel cooperation, communication and participation of the students in a team. The establishment of an engineering context provides an important basis for the teaching of interpersonal skill using...
Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker treated the problematic implications of scientific-technological progress, emerging in the lifetime of his generation, under the key-word "ambivalence". Obviously it means a proto-theoretical, fuzzy concept that cannot be introduced explicitly per definition; starting with an intuitive perception, "ambivalence" should gradually gain meaning by using it in different argumentative contexts. Following a circular course (Kreisgang)--a procedure typical for Weizsäcker's style of thought--, he moves successively from explicit ambivalence in the application sphere of science through ambivalent features in scientists' behaviour and action up to the general ambivalence of human existence, disclosed only at an anthropological level of deliberation. The given paper delineates the ambivalence concept used by Weizsäcker during the 1960s and 1970s.
Fingerman, Karen L.; Pitzer, Lindsay; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Birditt, Kira S.; Mroczek, Daniel
This study considered implications of intergenerational ambivalence for each party's psychological well-being and physical health. Participants included 158 families (N = 474) with a son or daughter aged 22 to 49, their mother and father. Actor-Partner-Interaction Models (APIM) revealed that parents and offspring who self-reported greater ambivalence showed poorer psychological well-being. Partner reports of ambivalence were associated with poorer physical health. When fathers reported greate...
Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander
The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives...
... partnership upon its formation. The partnership agreement provides that C is to receive payments characterized... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disguised sales of property to partnership..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.707...
... 1.707-4, if a partnership assumes or takes property subject to a qualified liability (as defined in... liabilities, as defined in paragraph (a)(6) of this section) assumed or taken subject to by the partnership... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disguised sales of property to partnership...
Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M
This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p < .001). Examining changes in tobacco attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p < .001). Ambivalent message participants also expressed significantly lower intentions to use tobacco when provided with social norms indicating antitobacco sentiments (p < .02), and this significant decrease in intentions was associated with changes in attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hohman, Zachary P.; Crano, William D.; Niedbala, Elizabeth M.
This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N =152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p <.001). Examining changes in tobacco attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p <.001). Ambivalent message participants also expressed significantly lower intentions to use tobacco when provided with social norms indicating antitobacco sentiments (p <.02), and this significant decrease in intentions was associated with changes in attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. PMID:26460476
Schultz Larsen, Troels
of the successful implementation but failed diffusion of an innovation project. The case study demonstrates how a bureaucratic context represents not only barriers to innovation but also a number of complex drivers. The outline of these ambivalent relations is used to tease out the Janus face of the new spirit......Building on a growing body of literature on public innovation and the rediscovery of bureaucracy, this article explores the relations between innovation and bureaucracy. A framework for studying innovation in a bureaucratic context is developed and its relevance assessed through a case study...... of innovation in public administration....
Strike, Carol; Watson, Tara Marie; Kolla, Gillian; Penn, Rebecca; Bayoumi, Ahmed M
Community stakeholders express a range of opinions about supervised injection facilities (SIFs). We sought to identify reasons for ambivalence about SIFs amongst community stakeholders in two Canadian cities. We used purposive sampling methods to recruit various stakeholder representatives (n = 141) for key informant interviews or focus group discussions. Data were analyzed using a thematic process. We identified seven reasons for ambivalence about SIFs: lack of personal knowledge of evidence about SIFs; concern that SIF goals are too narrow and the need for a comprehensive response to drug use; uncertainty that the community drug problem is large enough to warrant a SIF(s); the need to know more about the "right" places to locate a SIF(s) to avoid damaging communities or businesses; worry that a SIF(s) will renew problems that existed prior to gentrification; concern that resources for drug use prevention and treatment efforts will be diverted to pay for a SIF(s); and concern that SIF implementation must include evaluation, community consultation, and an explicit commitment to discontinue a SIF(s) in the event of adverse outcomes. Stakeholders desire evidence about potential SIF impacts relevant to local contexts and that addresses perceived potential harms. Stakeholders would also like to see SIFs situated within a comprehensive response to drug use. Future research should determine the relative importance of these concerns and optimal approaches to address them to help guide decision-making about SIFs.
Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray the racist and anti-racist dimensions of Joseph Conrad in his short story “An Outpost of Progress” (1897. Conrad’s alleged racist status espoused by thinkers such as Chinua Achebe and Edward Said, particularly in Heart of Darkness, has constantly been the subject of heated debates in literature. A myriad of analogous traces in the short story “An Outpost of Progress” lend Conrad’s voice to a highly racist position while many other anti-racist traces observed in the story could lower the resonance of the same voice, hence an inconclusive ambivalence or a liminal position in Conrad’s tone. This paper is thus divided into two sections. The first section has the racist traces of Conrad in the short story on top of its agenda whereas the second section ventures into the anti-racist footprints of Conrad’s voice in the story. In so doing, this paper sets out to turn to Achebe and Said in arguing for the racist position of Conrad; however, the anti-racist facets of the story will be substantiated via relying on the arguments developed by thinkers such as D. C. R. A. Goonetilleke and Benita Parry. An ironic ambivalence swaying from a racist tone to an anti-racist tone in Conrad’s voice in “An Outpost of Progress” is the conclusive maxim.
Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.
Society’s relationship with modern animal farming is an ambivalent one: on the one hand there is rising criticism about modern animal farming; on the other hand people appreciate certain aspects of it, such as increased food safety and low food prices. This ambivalence reflects the two faces of
van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.; de Liver, Y.N.
People are generally averse toward conflict between beliefs and/or feelings underlying their attitudes—that is, attitudinal ambivalence. This review integrates literature on attitudinal ambivalence with theories on decision making and coping strategies to gain a better understanding of when and how
Tighe, Lauren A.; Birditt, Kira S.; Antonucci, Toni C.
The parent-child relationship is often characterized by ambivalence, defined as the simultaneous experience of positive and negative relationship quality. This study examines reports of intergenerational ambivalence in 3 developmental periods: adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood, as well as its implications for depressive symptoms…
Focuses on the second stage of ethnic identity development, Ethnic Ambivalence/Evasion, experienced by Asian Americans through 39 personal narratives. Ethnic Ambivalence/Evasion, one of four identified stages that culminate with ethnic identity incorporation, typically occurs during the years of childhood and adolescence, and so is a stage…
Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter
Theorizes that workplace sexual harassment results from the complex interplay of ambivalent motives and gender stereotyping of women and jobs. It argues that ambivalence combines hostile and "benevolent" sexist motives based on paternalism, gender differentiation, and heterosexuality and that organizational context can encourage or discourage the…
Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…
Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed online social media being a big-data window for testifying conventional social theories quantitatively and exploring much detailed human behavioral patterns. In this paper, by tracing the emoticon use in Weibo, a group of hidden "ambivalent users" are disclosed for frequently posting ambivalent tweets containing both positive and negative emotions. Further investigation reveals that this ambivalent expression could be a novel indicator of many unusual social behaviors. For instance, ambivalent users with the female as the majority like to make a sound in midnights and at weekends. They mention their close friends frequently in ambivalent tweets, which attract more replies and serve as a more private communication way. Ambivalent users also respond differently to public affairs from others and demonstrate more interests in entertainment and sports events. Moreover, the sentiment shift in ambivalent tweets is more evident than usual and exhibits a clear "negative to positive" pattern. The above observations, though being promiscuous seemingly, actually point to the self-regulation of negative mood in Weibo, which could find its basis from the traditional emotion management theories in sociology but makes an important extension to the online environment in this study. Finally, as an interesting corollary, ambivalent users are found connected with compulsive buyers and turn out to be perfect targets for online marketing.
Hu, Yue; Zhao, Jichang; Wu, Junjie
Recent decades have witnessed online social media being a big-data window for testifying conventional social theories quantitatively and exploring much detailed human behavioral patterns. In this paper, by tracing the emoticon use in Weibo, a group of hidden "ambivalent users" are disclosed for frequently posting ambivalent tweets containing both positive and negative emotions. Further investigation reveals that this ambivalent expression could be a novel indicator of many unusual social behaviors. For instance, ambivalent users with the female as the majority like to make a sound in midnights and at weekends. They mention their close friends frequently in ambivalent tweets, which attract more replies and serve as a more private communication way. Ambivalent users also respond differently to public affairs from others and demonstrate more interests in entertainment and sports events. Moreover, the sentiment shift in ambivalent tweets is more evident than usual and exhibits a clear "negative to positive" pattern. The above observations, though being promiscuous seemingly, actually point to the self-regulation of negative mood in Weibo, which could find its basis from the traditional emotion management theories in sociology but makes an important extension to the online environment in this study. Finally, as an interesting corollary, ambivalent users are found connected with compulsive buyers and turn out to be perfect targets for online marketing.
Schneider, Iris K; Eerland, Anita; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; van der Pligt, Joop; van der Stoep, Nathan; Zwaan, Rolf A
Prior research exploring the relationship between evaluations and body movements has focused on one-sided evaluations. However, people regularly encounter objects or situations about which they simultaneously hold both positive and negative views, which results in the experience of ambivalence. Such experiences are often described in physical terms: For example, people say they are "wavering" between two sides of an issue or are "torn." Building on this observation, we designed two studies to explore the relationship between the experience of ambivalence and side-to-side movement, or wavering. In Study 1, we used a Wii Balance Board to measure movement and found that people who are experiencing ambivalence move from side to side more than people who are not experiencing ambivalence. In Study 2, we induced body movement to explore the reverse relationship and found that when people are made to move from side to side, their experiences of ambivalence are enhanced.
Gilligan, Megan; Suitor, J Jill; Feld, Scott; Pillemer, Karl
Ambivalence has become an important conceptual development in the study of parent-adult child relations, with evidence highlighting that intergenerational relationships are characterized by a mix of positive and negative components. Recent studies have shown that ambivalence has detrimental consequences for both parents' and adult children's psychological well-being. The underlying assumption of this line of research is that psychological distress results from holding simultaneous positive and negative feelings toward a parent or child. The authors question this assumption and explore alternative interpretations by disaggregating the positive and negative dimensions commonly used to create indirect measures of intergenerational ambivalence. Data for the analyses were collected from 254 older mothers and a randomly selected adult child from each of the families. The findings suggest that the negative component is primarily responsible for the association between indirect measures of ambivalence and psychological well-being. Implications of these findings for the study of intergenerational ambivalence are discussed.
The present commentary re-introduces Heider's (1958) common-sense psychology and his treatment of intentionality, comparing and contrasting his theoretical formulations with those of Elstrup (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 43:4, 2009). Special emphasis is made in all those aspects of Heider's theory that are related to the perception, interpretation, prediction and control of our behavior and that of another person. Also, different social aspects of interpersonal relations are presented. Finally, some ideas regarding different approaches to the study of attributing are discussed.
van Harreveld, F.; Rutjens, B.T.; Rotteveel, M.; Nordgren, L.F.; van der Pligt, J.
It has long been assumed that people experience evaluative conflict or ambivalence as unpleasant. In three studies we provide direct evidence for the assumption that ambivalence is unpleasant, but only when one has to commit to one side of the issue. In those situations ambivalence will be related
Butler, Emily A
Several characteristics of emotions are that they: first, evolve dynamically over time, second, extend beyond the individual to incorporate multiple people, and third, function as a system. In other words, emotions can be seen as temporal interpersonal systems. This review summarizes current models for temporal interpersonal emotion systems (TIES), evidence they matter beyond levels of emotional responding, their connections with relationship quality and interpersonal regulation, and some of the challenges for studying them. Important directions for future research include distinguishing between different patterns of interpersonal emotional dynamics and extending theory and experimental work to uncover mechanisms for altering harmful TIES and promoting beneficial ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article asks what Malians think about their country’s political crisis, including its causes, status, and possible solutions. An Afrobarometer survey of public opinion conducted at the end of 2012 finds the electorate in an apprehensive and ambivalent mood. Malians express declining faith in democracy as well as considerable (but diminishing trust in the army. In a sign of democratic resilience, however, a large and broad majority continues to believe in elections as the best way to reconstitute a government. But only in the context of a stable and intact state – with an inclusive constitutional settlement, trustworthy civilian institutions, and engaged citizenry – will Mali be ready again for routine presidential and legislative elections.
Full Text Available 'The Superhero Costume – Identity and Disguise in Fact and Fiction', B. Brownie and D. Graydon, Bloomsbury Academic, 192 pages, 2016, 15 b/w images, ISBN: 978-1472595904 This review provides a costume designer’s reading of 'The Superhero Costume – Identity and Disguise in Fact and Fiction' by Barbara Brownie and Danny Graydon (Bloomsbury, 2016. This book explores the superhero costume within comics, films and its translation into real life, and shows how difficult it is to stitch the line between symbolism and practicality, spectacle and realism, and ultimately between fiction and fact. While there remains some unevenness in how the gender of superheroes makes a difference to the costume and there is a lack of a useful conclusion as far as academic books go, this book discusses a lot of issues that could (and should inform the designs within a superhero’s wardrobe.
Braga, Cátia; Oliveira, João Tiago; Ribeiro, António P; Gonçalves, Miguel M
Ambivalence can be understood as a cyclical movement between two opposing positions of the self: one expressed in a novelty-an innovative moment (IM)-and another one conveyed by a return to the maladaptive pattern. If not properly addressed and resolved during therapy, ambivalence can prevent change and lead to psychotherapeutic failure. Two processes of ambivalence resolution have been suggested: (1) the dominance of the innovative position and consequent inhibition of the problematic position and (2) the negotiation between both positions. To empirically study both processes of ambivalence resolution in a successful case of emotion-focused therapy. Sessions were independently coded with three coding systems-the IMs, the return to the problem and the ambivalence resolution. Ambivalence tended to be resolved from the initial to the final sessions. Although resolutions through dominance tended to decrease and resolutions through negotiation seemingly increased along treatment, dominance was, nonetheless, the most prominent process of resolution along the whole treatment. Although it has been suggested that integrating opposing parts of the self is a necessary process for psychotherapeutic success, a less integrative process of ambivalence resolution may also be an important resource along the process.
Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna
Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.
Wilson Alves de Paiva
Full Text Available A ARTE DE DIZER O QUE NÃO É: MENTIRA, DISFARCE E ENCENAÇÃO NA PEDAGOGIA ROUSSEAUNIANA Resumo: embora Rousseau tenha defendido a frase Vitam impedero vero com tanto fervor, sua obra é marcada por algumas afirmações que sugerem o contrário. Porém, bem entendidas, tais afirmações conduzem à ideia de que, como antídoto, a arte e a ciência podem ser utilizadas contra seu mau e, nesse sentido, mentir e disfarçar podem virar instrumentos pedagógicos eficientes, sobretudo no processo pedagógico de formação do homem e do cidadão. Palavras-chave: Rousseau. Emílio. Pedagogia rousseauniana. Arte e educação. Formação humana. Abstract: although Rousseau has defended the Latim phrase Vitam impendere vero so fervently, his work is marked by some statements that suggest otherwise. However, well understood, such statements lead to the idea that, as an antidote, the art and science can be used against their evil, so that lying and disguising itself can become effective teaching tools, especially in the educational process of the formation of man and the citizen. Keywords: Rousseau. Emile. Pedagogy. Art and education. Human formation.
Kearns, Megan C; Calhoun, Karen S
This study utilized a cross-sectional design in order to explore the relationship between interpersonal effectiveness, defined as level of assertiveness, social perception, and perceived self-efficacy, and repeated sexual victimization in adolescence and adulthood. In addition, we compared global versus situation-specific measures of interpersonal effectiveness. Results indicated that global measures of interpersonal effectiveness failed to differentiate victim groups, and there were also no group differences in social perception. However, on situation-specific measures, revictimized women were significantly lower than nonvictims on sexual assertiveness and sexual self-efficacy. These results support the hypothesis that interpersonal functioning is related to sexual revictimization and highlight the need to measure interpersonal functioning specifically in sexual situations as it relates to women's sexual assault history.
Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L
Hammen (1991) provided evidence for a stress generation process in which individuals with a history of depression contributed to the occurrence of stressors, especially interpersonal and conflict events. However, few studies have examined the factors contributing to stress generation. This study examines aspects of individuals' interpersonal style, operationalized as attachment, dependency, and reassurance seeking, as predictors of conflict stress generation within romantic relationships. These effects were examined both prospectively over a 4-week period and cross-sectionally using a 14-day daily diary in a sample of female college students. Overall, there was significant evidence that interpersonal style contributes to the occurrence of interpersonal stressors. Specifically, anxious attachment and reassurance seeking prospectively predicted romantic conflict stress over a 4-week period, and a variety of interpersonal behaviors were associated with romantic conflict stressors on a daily basis. These results are interpreted in relation to previous literature, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Ran, Weina; Yamamoto, Masahiro
This study investigates the role of attitudinal ambivalence in moderating the effects of junk food advertisements on behavioral intentions by tapping different facets of this construct-felt ambivalence, potential ambivalence, and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Results based on an online survey of college students indicate that attention to junk food advertisements has an indirect positive effect on intentions to eat junk food through its positive effect on attitudes toward junk food. A moderated mediation model reveals that this indirect effect of junk food advertisements is weakened as respondents' levels of felt ambivalence increase. This moderating role is not observed for the measures of potential ambivalence and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Implications are discussed for health interventions.
Hartmann, Armin; Zeeck, Almut; Barrett, Marna S
Eating disorders are often chronic in nature and lead to a number of problems among which interpersonal issues are suggested to be central. Although research has shown that individuals with disturbed patterns of eating consistently report problems in social interactions, this study is unique in assessing a range of interpersonal problems among patients with all types of eating disorders before and after intensive hospital-based treatment. A total of 208 patients receiving a primary diagnosis of restrictive anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa of the binge/purging-subtype were included in the study. Eating pathology, symptom severity, and interpersonal patterns were examined before and after treatment. Patients with eating disorders exhibited a generally nonassertive, submissive interpersonal style, with anorexic patients of the binge/purging-subtype reporting more difficulties with social inhibition and nonaffiliation. These patterns were found to change over the course of treatment with interpersonal problems at intake predictive of greater binge severity at discharge. Furthermore, issues of dominance and social avoidance predicted outcome for specific subgroups of patients. Results underscore the importance of interpersonal problems in eating disorders and suggest that interpersonal patterns remain a focus of treatment and future research. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T
Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.
Durkin, Kevin; Rae, Kirsty; Stritzke, Werner G K
Many women experience ambivalent orientations towards chocolate, both craving for it and having concerns about eating it. The present study investigated the effect of viewing thin and overweight images of models in chocolate advertisements on ambivalent attitudes. Participants were 84 females, aged 17-63, allocated to a thin model condition, an overweight model condition, or a control group. As predicted, following exposure to their respective images, participants in the thin condition had increased avoidance, approach and guilt scores, while participants in the overweight condition had decreased approach and guilt scores, with no change in avoidance. Control participants demonstrated ambivalence, but no changes over time. The findings show that common advertising strategies for chocolate are likely to exacerbate ambivalence in female consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hofsess, Christy D; Tracey, Terence J G
In this study, we sought to challenge the existing conceptualization of interpersonal capabilities as a distinct construct from interpersonal traits by explicitly taking into account the general factor inherent within most models of circumplexes. A sample of 206 college students completed a battery of measures including the Battery of Interpersonal Capabilities (BIC; Paulhus & Martin, 1987). Principal components analysis and the randomization test of hypothesized order relations demonstrated that contrary to previous findings, the BIC adhered to a circular ordering. Joint analysis of the BIC with the Interpersonal Adjective Scale (Wiggins, 1995) using principal components analysis and structural equation modeling demonstrated that the 2 measures represented similar constructs. Furthermore, the general factor in the BIC was not correlated with measures of general self-competence, satisfaction with life, or general pathology.
Renzetti, Claire M; Lynch, Kellie R; DeWall, C Nathan
Research on risk factors for men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol-IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol-IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol-IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof
Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085
Full Text Available A qualitative pilot study on the attitudes of some citizens in southern Sweden toward predictive genetic testing – and a quantitative nation wide opinion poll targeting the same issues, was initiated by the Cultural Scientific Research Team of BAGADILICO. The latter is an international biomedical research environment on neurological disease at Lund University. The data of the two studies crystallized through analysis into themes around which the informants’ personal negotiations of opinions and emotions in relation to the topic centred: Concept of Risk,‘Relations and Moral Multi-layers, Worry, Agency and Autonomy, Authority, and Rationality versus Emotion. The studies indicate that even groups of people that beforehand are non-engaged in the issue, harbour complex and ambivalent emotions and opinions toward questions like this. A certain kind of situation bound pragmatism that with difficulty could be shown by quantitative methods alone emerges. This confirms our belief that methodological consideration of combining quantitative and qualitative methods is crucial for gaining a more complex representation of attitudes, as well as for problematizing the idea of a unified public open to inquiry.
Ibabe, Izaskun; Arnoso, Ainara; Elgorriaga, Edurne
There is currently a consensus that sexism is one of the most important causes of intimate partner violence, but this has yet to be empirically demonstrated conclusively. The key objective of the study was to adapt Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and to validate it to the Basque language. It also aims to analyze the prevalence of violence in dating relationships and verify if ambivalent sexism in young men and women is a valid predictor of perpetration and/or victimization in their dating relationships. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and Dating Relationship Questionnaire were administered to 1378 undergraduate students (66% women and 45% Basque), aged between 17 and 30. The psychometric properties of the Basque and Spanish versions of the ASI are deemed to be acceptable. Sufficient guarantees are provided to be used as an instrument for measuring ambivalent sexism in adult Basque speakers. Ambivalent sexism among young men and women are both positively associated with the perpetration of violence and victimization in their dating relationships. However, ambivalent sexism or two sub-types of sexism (hostile and benevolent) are not relevant risk factors to be perpetrator or victim of violence in dating relationships, due to accounting for 3% or less of variance in dating violence.
Jin Joo eLee
Full Text Available We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind’s readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naivete' of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to incorporate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust.
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es el de delimitar el espacio conceptual de la inteligencia interpersonal, relacionándolo con las situaciones en las cuales se utiliza. Para ello se establecen, en primer lugar, los aspectos relacionados con la naturaleza intelectual y el tipo de objetos representados. Sigue un apartado dedicado a los orígenes de la misma y su función en la adaptación de la especie humana. Un tercer apartado trata del tipo de procedimientos adecuados para su medición, no como una recopilación de instrumentos comúnmente utilizados, sino como una manera de hacer explícitos qué tipo de indicios son buena prueba de este tipo de inteligencia. A continuación se describen algunas de las principales confusiones asociadas a la idea de esta forma de inteligencia, integrando finalmente todos los aspectos tratados en el apartado de conclusiones.
Foa, U G
High population density and increased institutional specialization, which are relatively novel features of human society. have provided conditions for a more efficient exchange of universalistic resources, while decreasing the opportunity for exchanging particularistic ones. The parallel with physical environment is striking: in both cases technology has created new problems in the process of solving old ones. Whether it is natural resources or interpersonal resources, physical ecology or social ecology, recognizing and defining the new problem is the first step toward its solution. The importance of particularistic resources in solving problems of modern society has scarcely been recognized. Welfare institutions, for example, often require clients to lose status for the money they receive. This form of exchange deprives the client of a resource which is already scarce for him, thus further reducing his chances of autonomous performance as a resource exchanger in society. By ignoring the significance of particularistic resources for social functioning, we tend to see the solution of social problems exclusively in terms of a better distribution of economic resources. Improvement of education, for instance, is considered almost equivalent to allocating more money for schools. Truly money is one of the neighbors of information in the order, but the other one is status. Evidence to suggest that higher status improves educational achievement has, indeed, been repeatedly reported (26). The very mention of particularistic resources in social planning causes uneasiness and bafflement. The economist Levitan (27), for example, in reviewing the activities of VISTA (a program of the Office of Economic Opportunity), wonders how to evaluate goals such as dedication, involvement, and good feeling. The reluctance to include particularistic resources in social engineering will hopefully decrease as we improve techniques for their observation and measurement and as we begin to
In this paper it will be argued that the basic document of Christianity, the Bible, contains a unique potential for accepting the other and solving conflicts by non-violent means, but that this potential has never been available in pure form. The history of Christianity from the very beginnings in the New Testament period up to the present has been one of great ambiguity, an amalgam of attempts to live out the fundamental values as well as of compromise and open betrayal. This process will be outlined, illustrated and the factors will be pointed at, which in different situations bring to the fore the conflicting elements of Christian tradition. Examples of Christian pacifism, the ethical compromise of the just-war doctrine throughout the centuries will be commented on. The emphasis, however, is on developments in the twentieth century with the great regression of fascism. Finally, the focus is on more recent developments in reflection and action, when Christians begin to transcend the just-war doctrine and struggle to overcome the institution of war responding to the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction. Concrete examples of decisions are discussed and the shadow of a powerful Christian fundamentalism is critically assessed. Nevertheless, it is argued that despite all the failures of historic and contemporary Christianity the basic values of Christian tradition could serve as a motivating force to meet the challenges of a historical situation when violence is dangerously increasing on a global scale. However, these values will only become effective if people relate personally and practically to the ambivalent historical process, critically and responsibly.
Anna Rita CALABRÒ
Full Text Available Following the 9/11 attacks, a coalition of West Countries, led by the United States of America, militarily occupied two countries – Afghanistan and Iraq – in part rewriting the rules which up until then had clearly outlined the difference between a war of aggression and a war of defence. By analyzing the various speeches of ten important world leaders of West Democratic Countries on terrorism of fundamentalist matrix, we will outline a contradiction: declaring the necessity of war as a condition and objective of peace. This is solved in different ways: it becomes an ambivalent strategy in the cases of Obama and Merkel, with the latter being less explicit; in the cases of Bush, Berlusconi, Blair and Rice it leads, albeit with different motivations and arguments, to a stark choice: war; whereas it disappears in the speeches of Zapatero, Prodi and Cameron, who speak of actions and strategies to combat terrorism without ever mentioning war. Without offering any value judgment of the content of the various arguments, I only take them as a pretext to reflect on the rules of ambivalent communication: a communication which starts from a clear contradiction, and argues the necessity of it, before demonstrating its usefulness and proposing strategies of action that take it into account. The essay is divided into two parts: in the first one (which is published in this issue I discuss the concept of sociological ambivalence, I distinguish ambivalence from contradictions and ambiguity and I identify the argumentative strategies of an ambivalent communication. Then I analyze the speech the President of the United States of America Barack Obama delivered on December 10, 2009 in Oslo when he received the Nobel Peace Prize as an example of “good” ambivalent communication. In the second part of the essay (which will be published in the next issue, I analyze the speeches of other world leaders as different examples of ambivalent communication.
José Enrique López Martínez
Full Text Available Abstract:In this work I study the theme of fake insanity and foolishness in Spanish Baroque Drama, starting with the work of Lope de Vega. In the first place, I consider some important sources in Italian Drama, specially Grazzini’s La Spiritata and Girolamo Bargagli’s La Pellegrina. Afterwards, I analyse in chronological order some of Lope’s plays that introduce this theme in Hispanic Theater, written at the turn of the XVIIth Century, such as Los locos de Valencia and El mármol de Felisardo; until many late plays by Lope and other playwrights that kept on reproducing the literary elements of those early comedias. In this survey, I examine the metatheatrical sense of fake insanity, the dramatic subgenres where it was featured, its importance for the plots, and its relation to other forms of dramatic deception, like the woman in male disguise and the nobleman as servant; as well as some dramatic and literary devices it relied on: the different kinds of simulated madness, its discoursive features, and the motif of the fake wedding. Resumen:En este trabajo se analiza el desarrollo del tema de la locura y la simpleza fingida en el teatro barroco español, a partir de la obra de Lope de Vega. Primero, se consideran algunos importantes antecedentes italianos, especialmente las obras La Spiritata, de Grazzini, y La Pellegrina, de Girolamo Bargagli. Después, se analizan con detalle y en orden cronológico algunas comedias del Fénix escritas en la última década del siglo XVI y primera del XVII en que introduce este tema en el teatro hispánico, como Los locos de Valencia o El mármol de Felisardo, hasta mencionar varias obras tardías del propio Lope y otros autores que continuaron reproduciendo los recursos de aquellas comedias tempranas. En este recorrido, se hace énfasis en el carácter metateatral de la locura fingida, los subgéneros dramáticos en la que fue incluida, importancia argumental, formas de caracterización y relación con
Hopwood, Christopher J; Ansell, Emily B; Pincus, Aaron L; Wright, Aidan G C; Lukowitsky, Mark R; Roche, Michael J
Previous research on aversive interpersonal behavior has provided limited links between interpersonal sensitivities and comprehensive models of personality and social behavior. Study 1 (N = 1,336) of this article demonstrated that interpersonal sensitivities can be mapped onto the interpersonal circumplex and that people generally find others' behavior that is least similar to their own generally most aversive. In Study 2 (N = 299), a broader array of correlates with interpersonal sensitivities was investigated, and results again suggested that interpersonal opposites are generally perceived as most aversive. Study 3 (N = 315) specified romantic, platonic, or nonclose relationships and again found this pattern. Conceptualizing sensitivities with the interpersonal circumplex model permits investigators to distinguish general from specific kinds of sensitivity, allows for tests of the convergent and discriminant validity of interpersonal sensitivities, and integrates sensitivities into a well-established nomological net composed of multiple constructs relevant to social behavior and interpersonal dysfunction. © 2011 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hogerbrugge, Martijn J A; Komter, Aafke E
Research on family relations has extensively used the intergenerational solidarity model proposed by Bengtson and colleagues. Recently, the relevance of this model for explaining changes in family relations has been questioned, and the concept of intergenerational ambivalence has been proposed as a relevant addition to the model, supposedly acting as a catalyst, and thus serving as an explanation for changes in family relations. This study tests both the viability of the intergenerational solidarity model and the hypothesized effect of ambivalence employing longitudinal data. We use data from 2 waves of the Netherlands' Kinship Panel Study on parent-adult child relationships to estimate latent variable structural equation models. Affection, association, and support between family members are core, mutually reinforcing dimensions of solidarity. The hypothesis that ambivalence is a catalyst for change in family relations was not confirmed. Adding conflict separately revealed that it only affects the core solidarity dimensions but is itself, like normative and structural solidarity, not influenced by them. The relevance of the concept of intergenerational ambivalence for studying changes in family relations can be questioned. The viability of the intergenerational solidarity model is, however, confirmed. The concept of intergenerational ambivalence might be further explored in qualitative studies on family change.
Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A.
As inherently social beings people routinely interact with others. Interpersonal activities such as dancing, conversation, or team sports require people to coordinate at several different levels, ranging from the coordination of physical movements and physiological states of the body to the coordination of mental states and cognitive or linguistic activity. One of the challenges confronted by researchers in this interdisciplinary field has been to find ways to objectively quantify interpersonal coupling on the basis of brief, noisy, nonstationary, and complex time series of human behavioral sequences. Given their robustness to these challenges, recurrence-based strategies have played a very important role in the development of this field of research. This chapter provides a review of current behavioral, cognitive, and physiological research that has used recurrence methods to quantify interpersonal coupling.
Lee, Tiane L.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter; Chen, Zhixia
Gender-based structural power and heterosexual dependency produce ambivalent gender ideologies, with hostility and benevolence separately shaping close-relationship ideals. The relative importance of romanticized benevolent versus more overtly power-based hostile sexism, however, may be culturally dependent. Testing this, northeast US (N=311) and central Chinese (N=290) undergraduates rated prescriptions and proscriptions (ideals) for partners and completed Ambivalent Sexism and Ambivalence toward Men Inventories (ideologies). Multiple regressions analyses conducted on group-specific relationship ideals revealed that benevolent ideologies predicted partner ideals, in both countries, especially for US culture’s romance-oriented relationships. Hostile attitudes predicted men’s ideals, both American and Chinese, suggesting both societies’ dominant-partner advantage. PMID:23914004
Lee, Tiane L; Fiske, Susan T; Glick, Peter; Chen, Zhixia
Gender-based structural power and heterosexual dependency produce ambivalent gender ideologies, with hostility and benevolence separately shaping close-relationship ideals. The relative importance of romanticized benevolent versus more overtly power-based hostile sexism, however, may be culturally dependent. Testing this, northeast US ( N =311) and central Chinese ( N =290) undergraduates rated prescriptions and proscriptions (ideals) for partners and completed Ambivalent Sexism and Ambivalence toward Men Inventories (ideologies). Multiple regressions analyses conducted on group-specific relationship ideals revealed that benevolent ideologies predicted partner ideals, in both countries, especially for US culture's romance-oriented relationships. Hostile attitudes predicted men's ideals, both American and Chinese, suggesting both societies' dominant-partner advantage.
Neuberger, Franz S; Haberkern, Klaus
This study employs the concept of structured ambivalence to analyse the effect of grandchild care on quality of life (QoL) in different cultural contexts. We define structured ambivalence as the contradiction between behaviour and cultural norms. The analysis is based on the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe with 14 countries in the sample. We focus on grandparents aged 50 and over with at least one grandchild 12 years old or younger ( n = 12,740). In countries with high grandparent obligations, grandparents who did not look after their grandchildren reported a lower quality of life. Compliance with such grandparental obligations (e.g. providing grandchild care in a country with high grandparent obligations) was found to increase the QoL of grandparents. Family policy should consider family practices that better match the realities of current grandparents' lives in order to reduce structured ambivalence and increase the QoL of grandparents.
Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric
The existence of diverging discourses in the media and academia on the use of prescription medications to improve cognition in healthy individuals, i.e. "cognitive enhancement" (CE) creates the need to better understand perspectives from stakeholders. This qualitative focus-group study examined perspectives from students, parents and healthcare providers on CE. Stakeholders expressed ambivalence regarding CE (i.e. reactions to, definitions of, risks, and benefits). They were reluctant to adopt analogies to performance-enhancing steroids and caffeine though these analogies were useful in discussing concepts common to the use of different performance-enhancing substances. Media coverage of CE was criticized for lack of scientific rigor, ethical clarity, and inadvertent promotion of CE. Ambivalence of stakeholders suggests fundamental discomfort with economic and social driving forces of CE. Forms of public dialogue that voice the unease and ambivalence of stakeholders should be pursued to avoid opting hastily for permissive or restrictive health policies for CE.
Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T.; Kervyn, Nicolas; Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Akande, Adebowale (Debo); Adetoun, Bolanle E.; Adewuyi, Modupe F.; Tserere, Magdeline M.; Ramiah, Ananthi Al; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Bonn, Gregory; Tafarodi, Romin W.; Bosak, Janine; Cairns, Ed; Doherty, Claire; Capozza, Dora; Chandran, Anjana; Chryssochoou, Xenia; Iatridis, Tilemachos; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Costa-Lopes, Rui; González, Roberto; Lewis, Janet I.; Tushabe, Gerald; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Mayorga, Renée; Rouhana, Nadim N.; Castro, Vanessa Smith; Perez, Rolando; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Morales Marente, Elena; Palacios Gálvez, Marisol; Sibley, Chris G.; Asbrock, Frank; Storari, Chiara C.
Income inequality undermines societies: the more inequality, the more health problems, social tensions, and the lower social mobility, trust, life expectancy. Given people’s tendency to legitimate existing social arrangements, the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) argues that ambivalence—perceiving many groups as either warm or competent, but not both—may help maintain socio-economic disparities. The association between stereotype ambivalence and income inequality in 37 cross-national samples from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Asia, and Africa investigates how groups’ overall warmth-competence, status-competence, and competition-warmth correlations vary across societies, and whether these variations associate with income inequality (Gini index). More unequal societies report more ambivalent stereotypes, while more equal ones dislike competitive groups and do not necessarily respect them as competent. Unequal societies may need ambivalence for system stability: income inequality compensates groups with partially positive social images. PMID:23039178
Scher, A; Mayseless, O
A general model of the determinants of parenting was employed to explore the antecedents of the ambivalent attachment pattern in Israel. Specifically, three classes of variables were identified: maternal, infant, and child-care context. Participants were 98 mothers and their infants. This research was part of a longitudinal study on sleep patterns. Mothers filled out questionnaires and were observed with their infants in the Ainsworth Strange Situation laboratory procedure. Mothers of ambivalent infants showed lower education level, higher separation anxiety, and higher parenting stress than mothers of secure infants. Infants' perceived difficult temperament did not discriminate between the two groups. Longer hours spent at work and placement in group day-care were both associated with ambivalent attachment. The findings are discussed in light of the importance of considering distal factors such as maternal attitudes and general caregiving strategy in clarifying the antecedents of attachment patterns.
FISkE, SUSAN T.
Not all biases are equivalent, and not all biases are uniformly negative. Two fundamental dimensions differentiate stereotyped groups in cultures across the globe: status predicts perceived competence, and cooperation predicts perceived warmth. Crossing the competence and warmth dimensions, two combinations produce ambivalent prejudices: pitied groups (often traditional women or older people) appear warm but incompetent, and envied groups (often nontraditional women or outsider entrepreneurs) appear competent but cold. Case studies in ambivalent sexism, heterosexism, racism, anti-immigrant biases, ageism, and classism illustrate both the dynamics and the management of these complex but knowable prejudices. PMID:24115779
un manque de logique dans la prise de décisions importantes de la vie. À ce jour, aucune étude empirique n’a examiné les effets de l’ambivalence dans...majesté la reine, représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2003 DRDC Toronto TR 2003 - 144 i Abstract This research explores...soutien de la paix (Thompson et Gignac, 2001), en examinant l’effet de variables démographiques sur les degrés de motivation et d’ambivalence (ou
Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...
Tanner, Amanda Elizabeth; Jelenewicz, Shameeka M; Ma, Alice; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Houston, Avril Melissa; Paluzzi, Pat
To examine, from a youth's perspective, adolescent pregnancy and parenting in Baltimore, Maryland, a city with high rates of adolescent pregnancy. Six gender-stratified focus groups with 13- to 19-year-olds (4 female and 2 male groups; n = 47). We recorded focus groups, transcribed them verbatim, and analyzed them using the constant comparison method. Participants completed questionnaires to collect demographic and behavioral information. Results fit into a social-ecological framework. Individual (e.g., contraceptive use behaviors, religion), interpersonal (e.g., peer norms, maintaining male partners), and community (e.g., clinic factors, perceptions of community) level influences on adolescent pregnancy emerged. Participants discussed contradictory messages that were often gendered in their expectations; for instance, women were responsible for not getting pregnant and raising children. Adolescents expressed beliefs both against (e.g., challenging to complete school) and supporting early childrearing (e.g., religion). Recommendations for addressing the different influences included mentors, education, and community resources. Adolescents' perspectives and values regarding pregnancy and parenting may not mirror traditional and expected norms for pregnancy and requirements for raising a child. These findings challenge the framing of existing interventions as they may not accurately reflect adolescents' values regarding pregnancy and parenting, and thus may need to be modified to highlight positive attitudes toward contraception and postponing pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.; Bobik, Chad; Coston, Tracie D.; Greeson, Cyndy; Jedlicka, Christina; Rhodes, Emily; Wendorf, Greta
Presents the results of seven studies that focused on the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Tests emotional intelligence with empathy and self-monitoring, social skills, cooperation, relations with others, and marital satisfaction. Explores preference for emotionally intelligent partners in the final study. Includes…
Danner, Jean Ortowski; And Others
This curriculum guide on interpersonal relations in the workplace give techniques for instructors to use in evaluating these skills in their students. Eighteen competencies are included in this guide: adaptability; attendance; attitude; communication (nonverbal); communication (verbal); communication (written); confidence; cooperation; enthusiasm;…
Trachsel, Manuel; Ferrari, Lara; Holtforth, Martin Grosse
Both the experiential two-chair approach (TCA) and the cognitive decision-cube technique (DCT) have been used for the treatment of ambivalence in counselling. The aims of this study were (a) to show that partnership ambivalence is reduced after a brief stand-alone intervention using either TCA or DCT, and (b) to test the hypothesized mechanisms of…
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions. Participants were 338 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale were used. The relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions…
Sijercic, Iris; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A; Hara, Kimberley M
Previous research has found that client motivational language (especially arguments against change or counterchange talk; CCT) in early therapy sessions is a reliable predictor of therapy process and outcomes across a broad range of treatments including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Existing studies have considered the general occurrence of CCT, but the present study differentiated 2 types of CCT in early CBT sessions for 37 clients with generalized anxiety disorder: (a) statements that are uttered to express ambivalence regarding change versus (b) statements that are intended to oppose the therapist or therapy. Two process coding systems were used to accomplish this differentiation. Findings indicated that a higher number of CCT statements that occurred in the presence of resistance (opposition to the therapist or therapy) were a substantive and consistent predictor of lower homework compliance and poorer outcomes, up to 1 year posttreatment. Moreover, when both types of CCT were considered together, only opposition CCT was related to outcomes, and ambivalent CCT was not significantly predictive of proximal and distal outcomes. These findings suggest that the interpersonal context in which CCT statements occur may be critically important to their predictive capacity. More broadly, the findings of this study have implications for the future study of client motivational language and underscore the clinical importance of detecting opposition CCT. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Barton, K R; Yazdani, A; Ayer, N; Kalvapalle, S; Brown, S; Stapleton, J; Brown, D G; Harrigan, K A
Near misses and losses disguised as wins have been of interest to gambling researchers and policymakers for many years (e.g., Griffiths in J Gambl Stud 9(2):101-120, 1993). This systematic literature review describes the behavioural, psychological, and psychobiological effects of near misses and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) in an effort to evaluate their precise influence on the player and to highlight areas requiring further investigation. A systematic search for relevant studies was conducted using Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Sociology databases, and the Gambling Research Exchange Ontario Knowledge Repository. A total of 51 (from an initial pool of 802) experimental peer-reviewed studies using human participants were found between 1991 and 2015. The systematic review revealed that near misses motivate continued play, but have varying effects on the emotional state or betting behaviour of the player. Near miss events were also shown to be associated with elevated skin conductance levels and diffuse activity across the brain, most consistently in areas processing reinforcement and reward. Re-examination of the studies of near misses events after classifying the type of game feedback suggested that the effectiveness of near misses is related to the phenomenology of a near miss itself rather than as a response to auditory or visual feedback provided by a slot machine. In contrast to near misses, the presence of LDWs was found to relate to an overestimation of how much a player is actually winning and was consistently viewed as an exciting event. The effect of LDWs appears to be driven by the presence of visuals and sounds most often associated with a true win. Practical implications and directions for future research are also discussed.
Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.
We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…
King Lear, or Julius Caesar, but he suffers of his failure to realize his ideal, to fulfill hid dream to live a life as he wants. Ultimately this suffering leads to terror and ambivalence of his soul which at last makes him drowned in an oozy swamp of the brutal world. CITED WORKS. Bogard, T., 1972. Contour in Times: The Plays of.
Ingjerd G. Kymre
Full Text Available This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU nurses’ attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses’ attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But “as much as possible” is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence.
Schneider, I.K.; Eerland, A.; van Harreveld, F.; Rotteveel, M.; van der Pligt, J.; van der Stoep, N.; Zwaan, R.A.
Prior research exploring the relationship between evaluations and body movements has focused on one-sided evaluations. However, people regularly encounter objects or situations about which they simultaneously hold both positive and negative views, which results in the experience of ambivalence. Such
Schneider, I.K.; Eerland, A.; van Harreveld, F.; Rotteveel, M.; van der Pligt, J.; van der Stoep, N.; Zwaan, R.A.
Prior research exploring the relationship between evaluations and body movements has focused on one-sided evaluations. However, people regularly encounter objects or situations about which they simultaneously hold both positive and negative views, which results in the experience of ambivalence. Such
This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…
Naum, Magdalena Ewa
The northernmost regions of Fennoscandia attracted attention of travellers and geographers for centuries. These regions were often imagined in ambivalent terms as homelands of evil and dearth or as places of true happiness. From the seventeenth century onwards, Sápmi (Lapland) became a destinatio...
This paper explores the ambivalence of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and its Framework towards neoliberal governance. The paper examines the ways that the NGSS serves as a mechanism within neoliberal governance: in its production of disposable populations through testing and through the infusion of engineering throughout the NGSS to…
R.I. van Gaalen (Ruben); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); A.E. Komter (Aafke)
textabstractWe challenge the common idea that solidarity has positive, whereas conflict has negative implications, by investigating intergenerational ambivalence – defined as the co-occurrence of solidarity and conflict – and relationship quality. We use representative data on non-coresident adult
Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith
Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.
Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Karhu, Markku; Christensen, Cecillia
Engineers are very much part of the ongoing globalization and they are encountering problems of cross-disciplinary nature. Team working skills respecting other peoples’ qualifications are required so therefore interpersonal skills are becoming more and more important, including communications...... skills, leadership and awareness. Consequently, educational programs for teaching engineers should work with the fact that the capability of communicating with people with different background competences is important, nevertheless the engineering education has traditionally focused on technical skills...... to the CDIO (conceive, design, implement and operate) approach in the autumn of 2008. The CDIO pedagogy encouraged to develop an interactive course in interpersonal skills, where the students have to take an active part in the exercises as well as involve themselves in the interactive communication process...
Full Text Available Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face to face, by imposing superficial communications experiences, grammatical and spelling erosion of the language. Therefore, the study aims to capture the spread of social networks, their use and impact on interpersonal communication. More specifically, they look for the answer to the question: what is the nature of interpersonal communication that is found on social networking sites: personal, emotional, private or shared, informal, and public?
Adrian LESENCIUC; Aura CODREANU
The concepts of interpersonal communication competence, intercultural communication competence and intercultural competence are prone to frequent misunderstanding as a result of an epistemic field that does not draw clear cut distinctions among the disciplines the former are subject of. With a view to facilitating future research in the fields of the aforementioned concepts, this paper will focus on their operationalization by delineating not only the differences among them, but also their in...
Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas
In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.
Lipsitz, Joshua D.; Markowitz, John C.
Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. IPT’s interpersonal model integrates both relational theory, building on work by Sullivan, Bowlby, and others, and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness to highlight contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. IPT frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient’s life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve (better manage or negotiate) this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. We propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT’s interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials of IPT. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. PMID:24100081
Martoredjo, Nikodemus Thomas
Interpersonal communication is transactional and two-way direction. Therefore active listening skills play a key role in interpersonal communication. These active listening skills can have a positive impact on communication and at the same time creating a better relationship. So it is very useful to improve the skills of active listening. This paper intends to reveal the important role of active listening skills in interpersonal communication, identifying the challenges that exist within it b...
Lipsitz, Joshua D.; Markowitz, John C.
Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. IPT’s interpersonal model integrates both relational theory, building on work by Sullivan, Bowlby, and others, and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness to highlight contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psyc...
Primada Qurrota Ayun
Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Com...
Ayun, Primada Qurrota
Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Com...
Zakrisson, Ingrid; Anderzén, Marie; Lenell, Fredrik; Sandelin, Håkan
This study tested predictions regarding ambivalent sexism, previously studied cross-culturally, here "within-culturally", between groups from different organizational settings. Based on three samples (334 adults in general, 744 industrial employees, and 189 high school students), completing a Swedish version of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the results revealed that men scored higher on hostile and benevolent sexism than women, and high school students scored higher than both adult samples on both forms of sexism. The results generally confirmed the predictions; the gender gap in benevolent sexism decreased as a function of increasing levels of general sexism and the correlation between hostile and benevolent sexism decreased with higher levels of general sexism. In fact, the groups scoring highest on general sexism displayed significant negative correlations indicating a polarized ideology of women among these groups. Implications, both theoretical and practical, derived from these results are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Chen, Zhixia; Fiske, Susan T.; Lee, Tiane L.
Glick-Fiske's (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory(ASI) and a new Gender-Role Ideology in Marriage (GRIM) inventory examine ambivalent sexism toward women, predicting power-related, gender-role beliefs about mate selection and marriage norms. Mainland Chinese, 552, and 252 U.S. undergraduates participated. Results indicated that Chinese and men most endorsed hostile sexism; Chinese women more than U.S. women accepted benevolent sexism. Both Chinese genders prefer home-oriented mates (women especially seeking a provider and upholding him; men especially endorsing male-success/female-housework, male dominance, and possibly violence). Both U.S. genders prefer considerate mates (men especially seeking an attractive one). Despite gender and culture differences in means, ASI-GRIM correlations replicate across those subgroups: Benevolence predicts initial mate selection; hostility predicts subsequent marriage norms. PMID:24058258
Glick, Peter; Lameiras, Maria; Fiske, Susan T; Eckes, Thomas; Masser, Barbara; Volpato, Chiara; Manganelli, Anna Maria; Pek, Jolynn C X; Huang, Li-Li; Sakalli-Ugurlu, Nuray; Rodríguez Castro, Yolanda; Pereira, Maria Luiza D'Avila; Willemsen, Tineke M; Brunner, Annetje; Six-Materna, Iris; Wells, Robin; Glick, Peter
A 16-nation study involving 8,360 participants revealed that hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men, assessed by the Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (P. Click & S.T. Fiske, 1999), were (a) reliably measured across cultures, (b) positively correlated (for men and women, within samples and across nations) with each other and with hostile and benevolent sexism toward women (Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, P. Click & S.T. Fiske, 1996), and (c) negatively correlated with gender equality in cross-national comparisons. Stereotype measures indicated that men were viewed as having less positively valenced but more powerful traits than women. The authors argue that hostile as well as benevolent attitudes toward men reflect and support gender inequality by characterizing men as being designed for dominance.
Osmara Alves dos Santos
Full Text Available Objective To analyze the determinants of emergency contraception non-use among women in unplanned and ambivalent pregnancies. Method Cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 366 pregnant women from 12 primary health care units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A multinomial logistic regression was performed, comparing three groups: women who used emergency contraception to prevent ongoing pregnancies (reference; women who made no use of emergency contraception, but used other contraceptive methods; and women who made no use of any contraceptive methods at all. Results Cohabitation with a partner was the common determinant of emergency contraception non-use. No pregnancy risk awareness, ambivalent pregnancies and no previous use of emergency contraception also contributed to emergency contraception non-use. Conclusion Apart from what is pointed out in the literature, knowledge of emergency contraception and the fertile period were not associated to its use.
Jin, Chang Hyun; Villegas, Jorge
The purpose of this study was to understand the effect that individual characteristics have on consumer advertising processing under high- and low-interactivity circumstances on the Web. Tests on the relationship between individual differences and advertising responses form the basis of this empirical study on the Web. The results indicated that consumers have a higher tendency to avoid or experience ambivalence about Internet advertisements under low-interactivity circumstances, and attitudinal ambivalence lead to avoidance when responding to advertisements on the Internet. Personality variables are the main factors in consumer decision-making behaviors and Internet characteristics, such as levels of interactivity, can greatly influence the effectiveness of advertising in online environments. Advertising credibility could influence people's consumer attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors over time on the Web.
Chen, Zhixia; Fiske, Susan T; Lee, Tiane L
Glick-Fiske's (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory(ASI) and a new Gender-Role Ideology in Marriage (GRIM) inventory examine ambivalent sexism toward women, predicting power-related, gender-role beliefs about mate selection and marriage norms. Mainland Chinese, 552, and 252 U.S. undergraduates participated. Results indicated that Chinese and men most endorsed hostile sexism; Chinese women more than U.S. women accepted benevolent sexism. Both Chinese genders prefer home-oriented mates (women especially seeking a provider and upholding him; men especially endorsing male-success/female-housework, male dominance, and possibly violence). Both U.S. genders prefer considerate mates (men especially seeking an attractive one). Despite gender and culture differences in means, ASI-GRIM correlations replicate across those subgroups: Benevolence predicts initial mate selection; hostility predicts subsequent marriage norms.
Birditt, Kira S.; Miller, Laura M.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.
Tensions are normative in the parent and adult child relationship, but there is little research on the topics that cause the most tension or whether tensions are associated with overall relationship quality. Adult sons and daughters, aged 22 to 49, and their mothers and fathers (N = 158 families, 474 individuals) reported the intensity of different tension topics and relationship quality (solidarity and ambivalence) with one another. Tensions varied between and within families by generation, gender and age of offspring. In comparison to tensions regarding individual issues, tensions regarding the relationship were associated with lower affective solidarity and greater ambivalence. Findings are consistent with the developmental schism hypothesis, which indicates that parent-child tensions are common and are the result of discrepancies in developmental needs which vary by generation, gender, and age. PMID:19485648
Lipsitz, Joshua D; Markowitz, John C
Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. Integrating relational theory and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness, IPT highlights contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. It frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient's life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. Here we propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT's interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. © 2013.
Widom, Cathy Spatz
Interpersonal behavior in psychopaths was explored using the Prisoner's Dilemma game. Various personality characteristics frequently cited as distinguishing psychopaths from others were operationalized and studied. (Editor)
Lüscher, Kurt; Haller, Miriam
Ambivalence is a widely used concept in gerontology, mostly used in the common sense meaning. We propose that an elaborated notion based on the historical and systematic analysis, reveals important theoretical, methodological and practical potentials of the idea of ambivalence for the study of aging. We exemplify this view by proposing a heuristic perspective for the analysis of processes to constitute and reconstitute identities in old age using a model based on a multidimensional understanding of ambivalence. Ambivalence is defined as referring to the experiences of vacillating between polar contradictions of feeling, thinking, wanting and social structures in the search for the sense and meaning of social relationships, facts and texts, which are important for unfolding and altering facets of the self and agency.
Cataloged from PDF version of article. This study, which takes Robin Wood’s methodology to find the answer to the question ‘what does the monster stand for?’ as its base with certain nuances, investigates the ambivalent and shifting sets of connotations embedded in Dracula movies. The main focus is on the sexual and sexuality-related connotations involving fear and desire. A secondary set of connotations related to Otherness attributed to foreign cultures is also investigate...
Queirolo, A F
Three psychological phenomena are detected during dental attention. Their characteristics are studied and a strategy is performed to adapt three pedodontic patients to dental attention. The three patients presented great resistance to pedodontics dental attention. The method to overcome the resistance to dental attention due to anguish is to establish a good relation-ship between the dentist and the patient, a good management of the ambivalent feeling of the child and the elimination of the phenomenon of transference.
Fox, Jesse; Potocki, Bridget
Although previous research has investigated relationships between media consumption, sexism, and rape myth acceptance (RMA), limited research has investigated video games despite their emergence as one of the most popular forms of media entertainment globally. Given that video games typically feature even less diverse and more objectified representations of women than traditional mainstream media, we predicted that there would be relationships between video game consumption and negative beliefs and attitudes about women. In this study, we conducted a survey (N = 351) of male and female adults and used structural equation modeling to analyze relationships among video game consumption, trait interpersonal aggression, ambivalent sexism, and first-order (percentage of false rape accusations) and second-order cultivation effects (RMA). We found support for the hypothesized cultivation model, indicating a relationship between video game consumption and RMA via interpersonal aggression and hostile sexism. Although these findings cannot be interpreted causally, we discuss the implications of these associations and future directions for research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Keller, Carmen; van der Horst, Klazine
In a random sample of the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N=1388, 730 women), the technique of spontaneous associations was used to examine the relationship between valence (positive, negative) and content of participants' spontaneous associations with the term "eating" and dietary restraint, ambivalence toward eating, and health consciousness. Regression analysis revealed ambivalence to be the most important and food health consciousness the second most important predictor of restrained eating. Correspondence analysis of the content of the spontaneous associations revealed high-restrained eaters to have fewer associations with eating than unrestrained eaters. High-restrained eaters most often had negative associations with diet and positive associations with health. Unrestrained eaters mentioned a variety of positive associations, such as community, comfort and well-being, preparation of food, aesthetics, and various specific foods (e.g., starchy side dishes, and sweets). Results support the notion that the conflict between weight control and eating enjoyment is rather pronounced in high-restrained eaters, resulting in ambivalence toward eating, and the inhibition of associations with palatable foods. This was less pronounced, but still present, in medium-restrained eaters. In contrast, unrestrained eaters seemed to have a balanced and conflict-free relationship with eating. However, restrained eating also seemed to be driven by health considerations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ribeiro, António P; Mendes, Inês; Stiles, William B; Angus, Lynne; Sousa, Inês; Gonçalves, Miguel M
Ambivalence can be understood as a cyclical movement between an emerging narrative novelty-an Innovative Moment (IM)-and a return to a problematically dominant self-narrative. The return implies that the IM, with its potential for change is devalued right after its emergence. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the probability of the client expressing such form of ambivalence decreases across treatment in good-outcome cases but not in poor-outcome cases. Return-to-the-Problem Markers (RPMs) signaling moments of devaluation of IMs were coded in passages containing IMs in six clients with major depression treated with emotion-focused therapy: three good-outcome cases and three poor-outcome cases. The percentage of IMs with RPMs decreased across therapy in good-outcome cases, whereas it remained unchanged and high in the poor-outcome cases. These results were consistent with the theoretical suggestion that therapeutic failure may be associated with this form of ambivalence.
Sollami, Alfonso; Caricati, Luca; Mancini, Tiziana
Nurse-physician stereotypes have been proposed as a factor hindering interprofessional collaboration among practitioners and interprofessional learning among nursing and medical students. Using socio-psychological theories about ambivalent stereotypes, the present work aimed to analyse: a) the content of nurse and physician stereotypes held by nursing and medical students and b) the role of auto-stereotype on students' attitude toward interprofessional education (IPE). Methods. A cross-sectional on-line survey was adopted and a questionnaire was emailed to 205 nursing students and 151 medical students attending an Italian university. Nursing and medical students shared the stereotypical belief that nurses are warmer but less competent than physicians. Nurses and physicians were basically depicted with ambivalent stereotypes: nurses were seen as communal, socially competent and caring but less competent, not agentic and less autonomous, while physicians were seen as agentic, competent and autonomous, but less communal, less collectivist and less socially competent. Moreover, a professional stereotypical image impacted the students' attitude toward IPE. More precisely, when nurses and physicians were seen with classic ambivalent stereotypes, both nursing and medical students were less favourable towards interprofessional education programmes. The content of professional stereotypes of healthcare students was still linked to classical views of nurses as caring and physicians as curing. This seemed to limit students' attitude and intention to be engaged in IPE.
Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Temes, Christina M.; Elkin, Irene; Gallop, Robert
Objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the interpersonal accuracy of interventions in cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy as a predictor of the outcome of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Method: The interpersonal accuracy of interventions was rated using transcripts of treatment sessions…
Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael
Weight fluctuations pose serious challenges to people's health. Research suggests that the interplay between cognitive dietary restraint and counter-regulative overeating impairs weight control. In a random sample from the general population (N = 2733, 49% male), a longitudinal survey was conducted over 4 consecutive years (2010-2013). Self-reported weight was used to calculate the variance of three weight changes from one wave to the next. Separate regression analyses for women and men were conducted. The dependent variable was weight fluctuation, and the independent variables were eating styles (emotional, external, and restrained) and ambivalence toward palatable food. Age and weight changes between the fourth and first years were controlled. A significant positive effect of emotional eating for men and women, and a significant positive effect of ambivalence for women, were found. Participants who demonstrated high levels of emotional eating, and women who had high levels of ambivalence in the beginning of the study, had more extreme relative weight fluctuations in the consecutive years than did persons with low levels of emotional eating or women with low levels of ambivalence. Restrained and external eating had no effect. The results suggest that emotional eating and ambivalence toward palatable food need to be addressed to prevent health-damaging weight fluctuations. Furthermore, ambivalence toward palatable food was revealed as an additional overeating tendency beyond emotional eating that must be considered to understand the interplay between dietary restraint and overeating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Tsai, Ying-Mei
The psychological benefit of gratitude has been well demonstrated in previous studies. However, when we examined these studies closely, we found that the moderators were rarely investigated, suggesting that further work is needed to explore the boundaries of gratitude In this regard, the authors have proposed that ambivalence over emotional expression might be a potential moderator that would inhibit the beneficial effect of gratitude on well-being. Two studies were conducted to examine our hypothesis. Study 1 consisted of 353 Taiwanese college students who completed the Gratitude Questionnaire-Taiwan version (GQ-T), Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), and one question about subjective happiness. We found that ambivalence over emotional expression significantly moderated the effect of gratitude on happiness. To validate our findings in Study 1, 233 Taiwanese college students were recruited for Study 2, and they completed the GQ-T, AEQ, subjective happiness short-form UCLA loneliness scale, as well as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Both studies demonstrated that ambivalence over emotional expression moderated the relationship between gratitude and well-being indexes. Simply stated, the authors found that across the two independent samples, among students who are high in ambivalence over emotional expression, the beneficial effect of gratitude on subjective happiness was inhibited. However, the moderating pattern for loneliness and depression was contrary to our expectations, indicating that high ambivalence over emotional expression does not inhibit gratitude. Possible explanations and implications for social relationships and emotional expression are discussed.
Halverson, Charles F., Jr.
Demonstrates that evaluative connotations of personality characteristics have more persuasive effect on interpersonal judgment for persons low in cognitive complexity than for cognitively complex persons. Stresses need for conceptualizing interpersonal judgment as function of interaction between cognitive complexity and evaluative requirements of…
Thelen, Mark H.; And Others
Assessed changes in bulimia in female college students (N=44) and in relation between bulimia and interpersonal relationships over time. Found (1) stable symptomology for normals and bulimics; (2) strong negative correlations between bulimia measures and interpersonal relationships with men; and (3) improvement in symptomology and relationships…
Full Text Available In this item, the writer emphasizes the origination of the interpersonal communications in contemporary circumstances on the present evolutionary stage of the civilization. In addition the phenomenon of the interpersonal communications determine the social being of the humans in the area of the family and nation together with the area of the wide social community.
Results indicate that personality differences, superior/subordinate relationships, power struggle and competition are responsible for interpersonal conflicts in Ghanaian university libraries. It then makes recommendations on how to manage the various types of interpersonal conflicts within university libraries. Keywords: ...
comparison, and between a subjectivist and objectivist standard of interpersonal comparison. The paper provides a normative argument for pluralism and objectivism with regard to interpersonal comparison, and it suggests that the Capability Approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum fits...
Coldren, Jeffrey; Hively, Jodi
Assuming that learning is an inherently social process, this research explores interpersonal variables that affect teaching. Specifically, does the interpersonal teaching style affect student impressions of the instructor? Eighty-five undergraduates viewed one of three ten-minute videos that portrayed either an authoritarian, authoritative, or…
Strickland, Ben; Arnn, John
All interpersonal relationships are a function of the basic beliefs, expectations, and reactions of the people involved. These conditions may not be written or even verbalized formally, but they exist nontheless and are as binding as any legal contract. Giving specific and intentional consideration to interpersonal contracts and utilizing them as…
Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn
This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...
Full Text Available This study aimed to test the significance effect of self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication. Subjects in this reasearch were guidance and counseling students in Satwa Wacana Christian University, Salatiga. Analysis of data used simple regression to determine the effect of self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication. The results showed that Sig. = 0.012, which means that there was a significant relationship between self-concept and interpersonal communication. Besides, the value of R Square or determination coefficient was 0.048, which means that self-concept has the contribution effect of a 4.8% on the student interpersonal communication, while the remaining 95.2% was influenced by other factors. It can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication.
Wagner, C C; Kiesler, D J; Schmidt, J A
Contemporary interpersonal theory uses 2 models to represent the process and content of interpersonal transactions. The interpersonal transaction cycle is a dynamic model demonstrating the interaction between the overt behaviors and the covert intrapsychic experiences of 2 interacting individuals in action-reaction event chains. The interpersonal circle is a static model codifying individual differences across various interpersonal content domains (e.g., traits, acts, problems, impacts). The present study used 150 pairs of undergraduates to demonstrate cross-observer structural convergence of 2 separate interpersonal circumplex inventories measuring the "action" and "reaction" components of the transaction cycle, providing evidence that both components of the cycle can be captured by existing circumplex measures, and allowing researchers to proceed on to more comprehensive tests of interpersonal theory.
Schutte, N S; Malouff, J M; Bobik, C; Coston, T D; Greeson, C; Jedlicka, C; Rhodes, E; Wendorf, G
In 7 studies, the authors examined the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. In Studies 1 and 2, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for empathic perspective taking and self-monitoring in social situations. In Study 3, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for social skills. In Study 4, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence displayed more cooperative responses toward partners. In Study 5, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for close and affectionate relationships. In Study 6, the participants' scores for marital satisfaction were higher when they rated their marital partners higher for emotional intelligence. In Study 7, the participants anticipated greater satisfaction in relationships with partners described as having emotional intelligence.
Kligman, M; Culver, C M
The term 'manipulation' is frequently employed but rarely discussed or defined in psychiatric circles. This paper reviews previous conceptual analyses of the term by philosophers and psychiatrists, and examines its use in ordinary discourse. A series of characteristics which comprise the conceptual core of the term when it is unambiguously applied in interpersonal settings are proposed. Manipulation is contrasted with other behavior control methods such as rational persuasion and coercion, with emphasis on the role played by deception and the communicative context in which the manipulative transaction occurs. It is argued that manipulative behavior is fundamentally intentional, and the usefulness of the concept of 'unconscious manipulation' is questioned. Though the proposal that Manipulative Personality Disorder be formally recognized as a new diagnostic category is rejected, it is urged that the concept of manipulation receive wider attention and discussion within the mental health community.
Andersen, Susan M; Przybylinski, Elizabeth
Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked. In these pages, we briefly review the literature on meaning as interpersonally defined and then selectively review research on transference in interpersonal perception. Based on this, we then highlight a recent series of studies focused on shared meaning systems in transference. The highlighted studies show that values and beliefs that develop in close relationships (as shared reality) are linked in memory to significant-other knowledge, and thus, are indirectly activated (made accessible) when cues in a new person implicitly activate that significant-other knowledge (in transference), with these shared beliefs then actively pursued with the new person and even protected against threat. This also confers a sense of mutual understanding, and all told, serves both relational and epistemic functions. In concluding, we consider as well the relevance of co-construction of shared reality n such processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Primada Qurrota Ayun
Full Text Available Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Computer Mediated Communication, Ecology Media and Interpersonal Intimacy. The method used in this research is phenomenology. The results of this study indicate that the instant messenger is a medium that is considered to be practical and easy to communicate interpersonally with family, friends, and lovers. Interpersonal communication process through instant messenger can not reach the stage of intimate relationship, because of interactions that occur frequently experienced miscommunication due to an incorrect perception. Interpersonal communication is more effective if it is done face to face. Teens when communicating via instant messenger, tend not to believe and to tell the truth.
Full Text Available The present paper seeks to investigate J.M. Coetzee's Foe and Disgrace in terms of Homi K. Bhabha's concept of Identities/Subjectivities. Homi K. Bhabha is one of the most important contemporary figure in postcolonial studies; he argues that ‘’there is always ambivalence at the site of colonial dominance. The colonizer aggressively states his superiority to the colonized, but is always anxiously contemplating his own identity, which is never quite as stable as his aggression implies’’. The paper also seeks on the notion of hybridity which indicates that the practices of colonial authority is intermingling other texts and discourses which results in a hybridization that facilitates colonial domination. Bhabha's reading of Lacan accords well with the ambivalence he traces in various writers. It is what Lacan calls the mirror stage that is central to Bhabha's reading. Bhabha believes that ‘’the mirror stage encapsulates what happens in colonial discourse's stereotyping productions: the mirror stage is at least a good model for the colonial situation’’. Bhabha suggests that like’’ the mirror phase the fullness of the stereotype_ its image as identity_ is always threatened by lack.’’ A telling and recurring idea in Coetzee's fiction is that the force of the colonizer is formative of the identity of the colonized, something to be embraced and this paper aims to investigate this closely by using Bhabha's concepts. Keywords: Ambivalence, Apartheid, Colonial discourse, Hybridity, Marginality, Mimicry, Stereotype, Uncanny
Chung, J P Y
Interpersonal psychotherapy is one of two evidence-based formal psychotherapies for perinatal mood disorders. It is a time-limited, non-transference / cognitive-based therapy that focuses on communication and social support and can be easily conducted in a perinatal clinic setting. There is limited patient access to interpersonal psychotherapy in Hong Kong because the therapy is not widely disseminated. This case report aimed to illustrate the principles and techniques of interpersonal psychotherapy in perinatal psychiatry, and to raise interest among mental health professionals in Hong Kong in this evidence-based treatment.
Nikodemus Thomas Martoredjo
Full Text Available Interpersonal communication is transactional and two-way direction. Therefore active listening skills play a key role in interpersonal communication. These active listening skills can have a positive impact on communication and at the same time creating a better relationship. So it is very useful to improve the skills of active listening. This paper intends to reveal the important role of active listening skills in interpersonal communication, identifying the challenges that exist within it both internally and externally as well as indicate the action that needs to be developed to improve these skills.
The purpose of this study was to test empirically two major conceptualizations of parent-child relations in later adulthood-intergenerational solidarity-conflict and ambivalence paradigms-and their predictive validity on elders' quality of life using comparative cross-national data. Data were from a sample of 2,064 elders (aged 75 and older) from the five-country OASIS study (Old Age and Autonomy: The Role of Service Systems and Intergenerational Family Solidarity; Norway, England, Germany, Spain, and Israel). Multivariate and block-recursive regression models estimated the predictivity of the two conceptualizations of family dynamics on quality of life controlling for country, personal characteristics, and activity of daily living functioning. Descriptive analyses indicated that family solidarity, especially the affective/cognitive component (called Solidarity A), was high in all five countries, whereas conflict and ambivalence were low. When I entered all three constructs into the regression Solidarity A, reciprocal intergenerational support and ambivalence predicted quality of life. Controlling for activity of daily living functioning, socioeconomics status, and country, intergenerational relations had only a weak explanatory power, and personal resources explained most of the variance. The data suggest that the three constructs exist simultaneously but in varying combinations, confirming that in cross-cultural contexts family cohesion predominates, albeit with low degrees of conflict and ambivalence. The solidarity construct evidenced relatively robust measurement. More work is required to enhance the ambivalence measurement.
This study investigated the interactive effects of attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing on persuading people to eat less junk food. Within the heuristic-systematic model of information processing, an attitudinal ambivalence (ambivalent or univalent toward eating junk food) by health message framing (advantage- or disadvantage-framed appeals) between-subjects experiment was conducted to explore a cognitive resource-matching effect and the underlying mediation processes. Ambivalent individuals reported a higher level of cognitive elaboration than univalent individuals did. The disadvantage frame engendered more extensive cognitive elaboration than the advantage frame did. Ambivalent individuals were more persuaded by the disadvantage frame and, for them, cognitive elaboration mediated the persuasion process via the systematic route. Univalent individuals were equally persuaded by the advantage frame and the disadvantage frame and, for them, neither the perceived frame valence nor cognitive elaboration mediated persuasion. Discussion of the null results among the univalent group leads to a response-reinforcement explanation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Francisco Sáez de Adana
Full Text Available The ambivalence of gene trading in Octavia Butler's Xenogenesis trilogy is treated in this paper. Genetic manipulation is one of the main science-related issues addressed in that trilogy. The behavior of the alien race presented in the paper, the Oankali, is analyzed from three points of view and compared with contemporary human behavior. Interbreeding with other species and the creation of new ones, the use of genetic engineering to cure diseases and the acknowledgement of DNA information as property when it is used for research or other objectives are considered.
Jeffrey L. Meikle
Full Text Available This article analyses a variety of ways in which the “road movie” has been reinterpreted by modern European directors (German Wim Wenders, Finn Aki Kaurismäki or American director Jim Jarmusch with his pronounced European sensibilities. Despite the ubiquity of American popular culture in many of these movies, the films themselves are far from representing a simple “colonization” on the part of American culture. The ambivalent view of the United States adopted by these men has helped transform a typically “American” genre into a new demonstration of transatlantic cultural hybridity.
This paper explores the ambivalence of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and its Framework towards neoliberal governance. The paper examines the ways that the NGSS serves as a mechanism within neoliberal governance: in its production of disposable populations through testing and through the infusion of engineering throughout the NGSS to resolve social problems through technical fixes. However, the NGSS, like earlier standards, is reactionary to forces diminishing the power of institutional science (e.g., the AAAS) including neoliberal prioritizing market value over evidence. The NGSS explicitly takes on neoliberal junk science such as the anti-global-warming Heartland Institute.
Harrigan, K; Dixon, M; Brown, D
We simulated the commercially available multi-line slot machine game "Money Storm," including its bonus wins. Our results show that after a specified amount of time (such as 1 or 50 h), when players played a single line, there were marked differences between one player and the next-a few won a lot, others lost far more than average. When playing 20 lines there were fewer big winners and fewer players quickly losing a large percentage of their money. We simulated a Gambler's Ruin scenario whereby players arrived with $100 and made $1 wagers until broke. Again we saw a reduction in the variability among player as the number of lines wagered increased, fewer players lost their entire bankroll quickly, and fewer players had big wins. The bonus wins in Money Storm contribute approximately 24% to the payback of the game, and our simulations of bonus wins shows that with 20 lines wagered the players spend approximately 11% of their time in bonus wins. With one line wagered, there are no losses disguised as wins while with 20 lines wagered the majority of hits are losses disguised as wins. Players using multi-line machines can thus tune the characteristics of the machine gambling experience to match their preferred pattern, though most seem in practice to bet on the most possible lines. Our results serve to inform researchers, counsellors, gamblers and others about how slot machines are designed, and the effect that wagering on multiple lines has on short-term and long-term play, bonus wins, and losses disguised as wins.
With Facebook we see a built in commercialization of our communication infrastructure to an unprecedented degree. Instead of choosing transparency, Facebook chooses to build its own business motives invisibly into the software architecture, so that it becomes a nonhuman actor. Behind our back Fac...
Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...
Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío
Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schmitt, David R.
Social relations between two persons require that consequences each receives depend at least in part on the responses of the other. Historically, research in several areas has focused on two contingencies, cooperation and competition, in which reinforcement is determined by the responses of both participants. A major research question in social psychology and applied behavior analysis has been: Which contingency is more effective with regard to the quantity or quality of some response? Although this question has not been addressed in the experimental analysis of behavior, this area provides a perspective and method to more fully investigate the relevant controlling variables. Among these are the frequency of opportunities to audit the performances of others, information (or lack of it) provided by social or nonsocial stimuli with regard to reinforcement and performance, degree of face-to-face interaction, types of reinforcement contingencies, and number of participants. A neglected dependent variable is cost effectiveness—amount of behavior maintained by a given reinforcer amount. The larger agenda for the experimental analysis of interpersonal relations includes a variety of forms of reinforcement interdependence that raise issues of basic and applied interest. PMID:16812396
The first part of this paper will deal with the quality of interpersonal communication in a world in full process of technologization – globalisation. Without underestimating the benefits of information technology and “plethoric” communication we outline the unwanted impact they have when used excessively and exclusively in interpersonal communication. In the second part, we will talk about the connections between the quality of interpersonal relation and the behavioural options of the interl...
Yantis, Betty; Nixon, John E.
Investigates the impact of interpersonal relationships on decision-making success in small groups using a business simulation game as a research vehicle. The study concludes that group decision making may be unfavorably affected by personality conflicts. (Author/JJD)
Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.
The concept of attraction is not reserved for the study of interpersonal relationships between husband and wife, family members, or lifelong friends. On the contrary, it contains much potential as a variable describing interpersonal business exchange relationships. This potential has been noted...... by well-known industrial marketing scholars in the past, and recent theoretical advances have incorporated attraction to describe buyer– supplier exchange, although primarily at the interorganizational level of analysis. The in-depth understanding of interpersonal attraction between boundary spanners...... representing buying and supply companies has yet to be developed. By drawing on social psychology and social exchange literature, this paper attempts to fill some of this gap. It contributes by uncovering the elements and process of interpersonal attraction. Furthermore, propositions are formulated to guide...
Gurtman, Michael B.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.
The structure and magnitude of sex differences in interpersonal problems across several data sets were examined, guided by the interpersonal circumplex model and the structural summary method. Data were self-reported interpersonal difficulties, assessed with the 64-item version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP; L. M. Horowitz, S. E.…
Sellaro, R.; Hommel, B.; De, Kwaadsteniet E.W.; Van, de Groep S.; Colzato, L.S.
Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a...
Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun
This paper intends to reveal various facets of interpersonal skills and also the importance of public relations skills, including librarian's own skills, that helps the users to cultivate interpersonal skills as a positive reference service. Surveys of professional librarians show a high need for the skills for professional competencies, management, networking and teamwork. The perceived need for skills in these areas may reflect the increasing interdependence of library workers and relianc...
Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-P?rez, Ana; Pablos, Adri?n; Mart?nez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; G?mez-Olivencia, Asier; Berm?dez de Castro, Jos? Mar?a; Carbonell, Eudald
Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...
Moss, Simon A; Wilson, Samuel G
According to some scholars, if individuals experience over three times as many positive emotions as negative emotions, they are more likely to thrive. We contend, however, that perhaps positive and negative emotions that overlap in time are likely to enhance wellbeing. Specifically, if positive and negative emotions are experienced simultaneously rather than separately-called ambivalent emotions-the fundamental needs of individuals are fulfilled more frequently. Considerable evidence supports this perspective. First, many emotions that enhance wellbeing, although classified as positive, also coincide with negative feelings. Second, ambivalent emotions, rather than positive or negative emotions separately, facilitate creativity and resilience. Third, ambivalent emotions activate distinct cognitive systems that enable individuals to form attainable goals, refine their skills, and enhance their relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören; Krämer, Ulrike M; Paulus, Frieder M
In our daily lives, we constantly engage in reciprocal interactions with other individuals and represent ourselves in the context of our surrounding social world. Within social interactions, humans often experience interpersonal emotions such as embarrassment, shame, guilt, or pride. How interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level is of major interest for social neuroscience research. While the configuration of laboratory settings in general is constraining for emotion research, recent neuroimaging investigations came up with new approaches to implement socially interactive and immersive scenarios for the real-life investigation of interpersonal emotions. These studies could show that among other brain regions the so-called mentalizing network, which is typically involved when we represent and make sense of others' states of mind, is associated with interpersonal emotions. The anterior insula/anterior cingulate cortex network at the same time processes one's own bodily arousal during such interpersonal emotional experiences. Current research aimed to explore how we make sense of others' emotional states during social interactions and investigates the modulating factors of our emotional experiences during social interactions. Understanding how interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level may yield significant implications for neuropsychiatric disorders that affect social behavior such as social anxiety disorders or autism.
Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Renata Lucena Dalmaso
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p63 This article aims to investigate the visual representation of the connection between immigration and the construction of an Australian identity as a nation in Shaun Tan’s graphic novel The Arrival (2006. Based on the debate about imagined communities and the ambivalence on the narration of a nation, proposed by Benedict Anderson and Homi Bhabha, we will discuss how The Arrival creates moments for the appearance of the ambivalence of cultural difference at the same time that it also constructs a horizontal imagined community. On these terms, The Arrival depicts some of the liminal positionality that immigrants have to deal when they arrive in a new place, but also constructs a cohesive and homogeneous narrative that entails the assimilation of the immigrants. In other words, this work offers a closure that can be read as an assimilation of the colonial discourse for a series post-colonial issues.
Tarik Ziyad Gulcu
Full Text Available Salman Rushdie’s memoirs, essays and novels contribute to the appreciation of the contradictions in his outlook on life. His experiences in his family enable Rushdie to make efforts for objective and tolerant judgement of British lifestyle and culture. However, his isolation from the society in Britain despite his struggle for adaptation to British cultural values cause contradictions in his cultural identity. While Rushdie expresses his allegiance to India and its culture in The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999, he reflects his alienation from his homeland in this novel as well. Similarly, in his Imaginary Homelands (1981-1991 whereas Rushdie questions the injustice and inequality caused by imperialism in The New Empire within Britain (1982, he justifies the colonialist discourse in Kipling (1990. He elaborates on the contradictions in his outlook on life in terms of his cultural ambivalence in his fictions such as Midnight’s Children (1981 and Shame (1983. However, in his latest novel, Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015, Rushdie reflects his cultural identity conflict in terms of rationalism-mysticism dichotomy. With the use of allegory as well as the lack of linearity in time and space, Rushdie justifies his cultural ambivalence in relation to the dynamism of contemporary world. Thus, Rushdie’s latest novel invites reading for its representation of the oppositions in his approach to life.
In this article, I examine the interaction between intimacy and psychiatry to explore the ambivalences in the use of pharmaceuticals in psychiatric practice. Of particular interest is how pharmaceuticals come to constitute in multiple ways what pathology is and what form of life needs to be restored, and how psychiatric medications reconfigure the ambivalence of intimacy in post-socialist China. Following the life of Mei, a female psychiatric patient, for two years, I have made a series of discoveries related to medicine and intimacy in China. Specifically, I show that psychopharmaceuticals indicate a diseased body that threatens the intimate bond. They also highlight a socially suffering subject that is in lack of love from the intimate partner who demands the latter's redemption. I discuss how these multiple and contradicting meanings of psychopharmaceuticals and intimacy are socio-historically situated. Thus, while previous research in medical anthropology criticizes pharmaceuticalization for reducing the socio-political life (bios) to a biological body (zoē), I argue that these life forms co-exist in a pharmaceutical "zone of indistinction" (Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1998), in which they constitute and contradict each other. This discussion warns researchers against falling back into the usual orientation of either biomedicine or the social sciences.
Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian
The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.
Fourie, David P
Systemic hypnosis is often seen as equivalent to an Ericksonian approach even though they reflect different epistemologies. Second-order articulations of systems theory emphasize the self-organization and autonomy of living systems: all systemic actions are aimed at the conservation of the system's autonomy; loss of autonomy means death as a system. In human systems verbal and non-verbal language reflects the meanings central to the system's autonomy and its conservation. Previous work has shown how symptomatic behaviour can be seen as linguistic expressions of the conservation of an ambivalent autonomy (Fourie, 1996a, 2003). Such behaviour therefore implies, expresses and even recursively conserves certain meanings that in time have become entrenched in the system. In this view, psychotherapy is aimed at the co-operative deconstruction of such entrenched meanings, helping them to transform into more functional, less ambivalent, understandings and actions. It is the aim of this paper to show how hypnosis can be employed for this purpose in a way which is coherent with a systemic rather than an Ericksonian epistemology.
Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela
Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Woody, Erik; Ethier, Nicole; Sadler, Pamela
To demonstrate how a novel computer joystick coding method can illuminate the study of interpersonal processes in psychotherapy sessions, we applied it to Shostrom's (1966) well-known films in which a client, Gloria, had sessions with 3 prominent psychotherapists. The joystick method, which records interpersonal behavior as nearly continuous flows on the plane defined by the interpersonal dimensions of control and affiliation, provides an excellent sampling of variability in each person's interpersonal behavior across the session. More important, it yields extensive information about the temporal dynamics that interrelate clients' and therapists' behaviors. Gloria's 3 psychotherapy sessions were characterized using time-series statistical indices and graphical representations. Results demonstrated that patterns of within-person variability tended to be markedly asymmetric, with a predominant, set-point-like interpersonal style from which deviations mostly occurred in just 1 direction (e.g., occasional submissive departures from a modal dominant style). In addition, across each session, the therapist and client showed strongly cyclical variations in both control and affiliation, and these oscillations were entrained to different extents depending on the therapist. We interpreted different patterns of moment-to-moment complementarity of interpersonal behavior in terms of different therapeutic goals, such as fostering a positive alliance versus disconfirming the client's interpersonal expectations. We also showed how this method can be used to provide a more detailed analysis of specific shorter segments from each of the sessions. Finally, we compared our approach to alternative techniques, such as act-to-act lagged relations and dynamic systems and pointed to a variety of possible research and training applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available La sociabilité des journalistes sur Twitter, entendue ici comme l’ensemble desréseaux de relations ponctuelles ou durables qui se nouent avec les sources, les pairs et le public, se déploie sur différents registres de pratiques professionnelles. À partir d’une enquête qualitative, fondée sur l’entretien en face à face et l’observation en ligne, auprès d’un échantillon de 23 journalistes, trois caractéristiques de cette sociabilité professionnelle ont été distinguées : sa performativité, son ambivalence et sa multidimensionnalité. La sociabilité performative se fonde sur un maillage cumulatif de liens qui prend appui sur la construction d’une identité numérique servant à la constitution d’un capital de visibilité diversement apprécié. Les professionnels interrogés ont d’ailleurs des appropriations très différenciées des fonctionnalités de la plateforme. La sociabilité ambivalente est constituée par les relations qui se tissent d’une part avec les confrères de la rédaction d’appartenance et d’autre part avec ceux d’autres médias. La sociabilité interne oscille entre autonomie individuelle et contrôle plus ou moins important de leur hiérarchie. La sociabilité externe repose à la fois sur des stratégies de concurrence et de solidarité interprofessionnelle au sein de la communauté journalistique. La sociabilité multidimensionnelle passe d’abord par la quête de contacts ponctuels comme sources d’information ; ensuite par la constitution de liens très ciblés, notamment chez les journalistes spécialisés ; et enfin par l’essor de conversations amicales et informelles propices au divertissement. De fait, le principe selon lequel l’accumulation de liens serait corrélée à une certaine influence dans la profession est à relativiser : en effet, il faut que ces contacts soient pertinents dans son domaine de spécialité et isolés les uns des autres pour que le journaliste
Di Blas, Lisa; Grassi, Michele; Luccio, Riccardo; Momente, Silvia
The authors developed the Interpersonal Behavior Questionnaire for Children with the aim of assessing the constructs of the interpersonal circumplex model, that is, Dominance and Love and their possible combinations, via third- to fifth-grade children's self- and peer reports. In the three studies presented herein, the authors examined several…
de Vries, R.E.
Since leadership styles have been most commonly defined in terms of interpersonal influence, one would assume that they have their main projections on the interpersonal circumplex. In this study, the relations between leadership styles from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Leader
up all hopes of continuing physics, my husband persuaded me to visit the Institute of Theoretical Physics at University of Stony. Brook to meet Prof. George Sterman, a renowned theoretical physi- cist, who is also, as I learnt later, an excellent human being. He understood my dilemma about wanting to get back to physics ...
Bagalad, Bhavana S; Mohan Kumar, K P; Puneeth, H K
Myofibroblasts are the unique population of smooth muscle-like fibroblasts. These cells have a role in growth factors secretion, matrix deposition and degradation. Thereby, myofibroblast contributes in both human physiology and pathology. This review explains the myofibroblastic lesions, imperative role of myofibroblasts in organogenesis, repair, regeneration, inflammation and tumorigenesis.
Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick
. The paper picks out two sets of discourses from this city: on the one hand a newspapers discourses about the city’s brand and on the other interviews with female inhabitants about experiences and visions of social differences and divides. The analysis reveals indirect and euphemized forms of class divisions...
Igrew up in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, in a large family of ten children. My father, a doctor by profession, gave priority to higher education for children above all other matters. My mother, although highly intelligent and well-informed, could not study beyond high school. She made sure that her daughters re- ceived as good an ...
Reviews the report "Do Charter Schools Measure Up? The Charter School Experiment After 10 Years" created by the American Federation of Teachers. Argues that rather than being serious research, the report is an indictment against charter schools for the purpose of retaining the union's power in public schools. (WFA)
Bayu Permana Sukma
Full Text Available Writers can apply interpersonal metadiscourse markers to encode an interaction and build a relationship with their readers. In some particular genres, such as newspaper discourse, they can even be used as means of attaining persuasive goals. Initiated by the idea, the present writer attempts to explore the use of interpersonal metadiscourse markers in Indonesian newspaper opinion articles. This present study aims to investigate interpersonal metadiscourse categories and subcategories applied and most predominantly occuring in the type of newspaper article. For the data, eleven selected articles of an Indonesian newspaper were taken to analyze by using Dafouz’s (2008 classification of interpersonal metadiscourse markers. Results reveal that interpersonal metadiscourse categories (hedges, certainty markers, attributors, attitude markers, and commentaries and subcategories (epistemic verbs, probability adverbs, deontic verbs, attitudinal adverbs, attitudinal adjectives, cognitive verbs, rhetorical questions, inclusive expressions, personalizations, and asides were used in Indonesian opinion articles. It is also found that attitude markers and two subcategories, which are deontic and epistemic verbs, are most frequently present in the texts.
Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A
Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Full Text Available The present study examined the mediating effects of ambivalent sexism (hostile and benevolent in the relationship between sex role orientation (masculinity and femininity and gender stereotypes (dominance and assertiveness in college students. The variables were measured using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, and the Attitudes toward Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships Scale (AGSRRS. These inventories were administered to 250 undergraduate students at Istanbul University in Istanbul and Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey. Results indicate that benevolent sexism mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and male dominance. Benevolent sexism also mediates femininity and male dominance, as well as femininity and male assertiveness. Hostile sexism was mediated only between the masculine personality trait and benevolent sexism. The present findings expand the literature on sex role orientation by revealing evidence that masculine and feminine individuals experience ambivalent sexism distinctively. The results are discussed in terms of the assumptions of sex role orientation, ambivalent sexism, and gender stereotypes.
Solo singing is associated with the expression of passions during the 17th century. Cantatas were sung by women as well as castrati, playing an ambivalent game on gender, eroticism, and passions. Contemporary testimonies of these performances juxtaposed with the medical theory of the humors shows...
Bae, So Hee
This paper discusses the complex and competing language ideologies that Korean educational migrant families in Singapore hold about the normativity and legitimacy of English language varieties. During their educational migration in Singapore, Korean families show ambivalent attitudes toward the local variety of English in Singapore, Singlish.…
Ballard, Mary E.
Children of alcoholics are at risk for socioemotional and behavioral problems. Adult children of alcoholic parents (ACAs) are at risk for problems in interpersonal relationships. ACAs have been found to have decreased self-esteem and self-acceptance in comparison to adults whose parents are not alcoholic (NACAs). College students who were young…
Rassin, Michal; Lowenthal, Miri; Silner, Dina
The refusal to donate an organ is a phenomenon in need of exploration and explanation. This article refers to the major fear of becoming an organ donor in relation to a global culture perspective and to the Halacha (Jewish law). A theoretical critique about the ambivalence demonstrated by health care providers and families will discuss these concepts in relation to brain death, from the stages of hospitalization, through the period prior to the assertion of brain death, ending with brain death, and its perspective as a liminal situation.Finally, we conclude that nursing practices during the care of the "brain dead" patient, and toward the patient's family, should convey an unequivocal message. That is, brain death describes irreversible cessation of all brain function, and therefore, the patient becomes a dead body and can be treated as a potential organ donor.
As a society, we share assumptions that exhibit a profound historical ambivalence regarding young people at work. On the one hand, we all acknowledge that there is something socially and morally reprehensible about forcing children to toil. Many of us see child labor as a vestigial remnant of the harshest aspects of the Industrial Revolution. On the other hand, we also continue to see work as a sign of the moral and social health of a community and hence, we see employment among the young as a stabilizing and redemptive activity. Especially when addressing the nation's poor, urban and African-American populations, youth unemployment is almost universally understood as a root cause of social unrest and community breakdown. This paper outlines some of the historical arguments about children in the work force and raises the question about the national resolve to seriously address this issue.
China's tradition of taking care of one's aging parents continues to evolve, as evidenced by the growth in nursing home residents in Shanghai. However, how these families make the decision to institutionalize remains unclear. To fill this gap, this study draws on power relations to examine communication dynamics when oldest-old and their adult children decide to institutionalize. This study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve dyads of matched elderly residents and their children participated in face-to-face, in-depth interviews (N=24). The format and content of intergenerational communication indicated that both conflicts and compromises took place. Adult children achieved greater decision-making power than their frail parents, which evoked older adults' ambivalent feelings. A discrepancy in perceived filial piety between generations also emerged. These dynamics of caregiving decision-making offer insight in understanding evolving filial piety in urban China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wiener, R L; Hurt, L; Russell, B; Mannen, K; Gasper, C
This research tests the possibility that the reasonable woman as compared to the reasonable person test of hostile work environment sexual harassment interacts with hostile and benevolent sexist beliefs and under some conditions triggers protectionist attitudes toward women who complain of sexual harassment. We administered to a sample of undergraduates the ambivalent sexism inventory along with the fact patterns in two harassment cases and asked them to make legally relevant decisions under either the reasonable woman or person standard. We found that those high in hostile sexism, and women, found more evidence of harassment. However, those high in benevolent sexism did not exhibit the hostile sexism effects. Although men were less sensitive to the reasonable woman standard than women, under some conditions the reasonable woman standard enabled both genders to find greater evidence of harassment. The results are discussed from the perspectives of law and psychology.
Tomić Katarina N.
Full Text Available The Dark triad is a construct of pathological personality traits, which consists of three components conceptually different, but still with significant empirical overlap: narcissism, Machiavellianism and subclinical psychopathy. The concept of Dark Triad found its place in the current structural models of personality, such as the Big-five and HEXACO model, and also an Interpersonal circumplex, within which the personal qualities project itselves into certain patterns of interpersonal behavior. This paper provides a brief theoretical overview of the basic elements of the Dark Triad, and an overview of current research related to (un justified observation of the three constituent dimensions as a single construct in theoretical and empirical terms. Also, the paper presents an overview of the emotional dysfunctions typical for the triad, as well as the problems and consequences in the area of interpersonal and social relations.
Zhang, J; Jin, S
This study is an examination of the effects of interpersonal relations on suicide ideation in a national sample of 1,433 individuals from China. The effect of gender as well as Chinese-Western comparisons are also examined. Suicide ideation rates (defined as thinking about committing suicide) and rates for planned suicide were significantly lower than those in most U.S. samples; Chinese women consistently scored higher than men in both areas. LISREL path analyses indicated that interpersonal conflict had the greatest direct and total effect on suicide ideation, and social isolation was the weakest predictor among the three measures of interpersonal relations. A path model using the Chinese data calls into question Durkheim's social integration theory for predicting suicide. Findings are discussed in relation to Chinese culture.
Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Gleason, Katie A; Adams, Ryan; Malcolm, Kenya T
This multimethod research linked the Big-Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict in childhood. Agreeableness was the personality dimension of focus because this dimension has been associated with maintaining positive interpersonal relations in adolescents and adults. In two studies, elementary school children were assessed on the Big-Five domains of personality. Study 1 (n=276) showed that agreeableness was uniquely associated with endorsements of conflict resolution tactics in children as well as parent and teacher reports of coping and adjustment. Study 2 (n=234) revealed that children's perceptions of themselves and others during conflict was influenced by their agreeableness regardless of their partner's agreeableness. Observers also reported that pairs higher in agreeableness had more harmonious, constructive conflicts. Overall findings suggest that of the Big-Five dimensions, agreeableness is most closely associated with processes and outcomes related to interpersonal conflict and adjustment in children.
Venera Mihaela Cojocariu
Full Text Available This paper represents a thorough phase in the effort to identify and assort the strengths and weaknesses of e-learning educational services. This paper reviews a synthesis of the assessments on the e-learning educational services through a survey of the specialized literature from 2000 to 2012 in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of e-learning educational services which were reported during the past decade. The steps of our approach are the following: 1. The identification of a large number of specialized studies that analyze the above mentioned issue; 2. A basic theoretical review of the research from the perspective of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the e-learning educational services and some of their implications on the intellectual development of the beneficiaries; 3. A descriptive statistical data analysis which is carried out in order to extract information about strengths and weaknesses relevant to the literature taken into consideration; 4. Results classification and interpretation; 5. Formulating practical suggestions for the notion of e-learning educational services considering the development of studies on the impact of their use on the intellectual development of the beneficiaries. The study results highlighted that strengths and weaknesses are not 'pure', but ambivalent, simultaneously incorporating meanings and limits with different weights. A predictive model of future e-learning educational services can be designed on the basis of the results obtained in the research. This predictive model is based on a pedagogical concept that takes into account the ambivalence of the higher indices which have been identified.
Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun
In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.
Bottai, T; Biloa-Tang, M; Christophe, S; Dupuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rahioui, H; Adida, M; Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Pringuey, D; Azorin, J-M
Bipolar disorder is common, recurrent, often severe and debiliting disorder. All types of bipolar disorder have a common determinant: depressive episode. It is justify to propose a psychotherapy which shown efficacy in depression. Howewer, perturbations in circadian rhythms have been implicated in the genesis of each episode of the illness. Biological circadian dysregulation can be encouraged by alteration of time-givers (Zeitgebers) or occurrence of time-disturbers (Zeitstörers). Addition of social rhythm therapy to interpersonal psychotherapy leads to create a new psychotherapy adaptated to bipolar disorders: InterPersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). IPSRT, in combinaison with medication, has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for bipolar disorders. IPSRT combines psychoeducation, behavioral strategy to regularize daily routines and interpersonal psychotherapy which help patients cope better with the multiple psychosocial and relationship problems associated with this chronic disorder. The main issues of this psychotherapy are: to take the history of the patient's illness and review of medication, to help patient for "grief for the lost healthy self" translated in the french version in "acceptance of a long-term medical condition", to give the sick role, to examinate the current relationships and changes proximal to the emergence of mood symptoms in the four problem areas (unresolved grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, role déficits), to examinate and increase daily routines and social rhythms. French version of IPSRT called TIPARS (with few differences), a time-limited psychotherapy, in 24 sessions during approximatively 6 months, is conducted in three phases. In the initial phase, the therapist takes a thorough history of previous episodes and their interpersonal context and a review of previous medication, provides psychoeducation, evaluates social rhythms, introduces the Social Rhythm Metric, identifies the patient's main interpersonal
Full Text Available Este artículo explora los nuevos avances en la investigación de la comunicación interpersonal en diversos campos psicológicos y sociales, mostrando la poderosa influencia de esta dimensión de la comunicación sobre la conciencia humana, y la gran cantidad de fenómenos que indican que la dimensión interpersonal de la comunicación es fundamental para el control y el desarrollo de las relaciones humanas.
Diana M. Kiss de A.
Full Text Available El artículo explora los mecanismos que operan en el intercambio textual interpersonal que establecen los usuarios de las interfases de comunicación in terpersonal disponibles en Internet. Se propone una aproximación a los procesos de construcción del contexto de interacción, a la elaboración del sujeto de la enunciación y al diálogo escrito de naturaleza virtual; elementos que distinguen a la comunicación interpersonal mediatizada por la tecnología digital.
Telli, Sibel; Cakiroglu, Jale; den Brok, Perry
The purpose of the study was to examine associations between Turkish high school students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behavior and drawn attention to the relationship between students' affective outcomes and teachers' interpersonal behavior. The Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction
Pulles, Niels J.; Hartman, Paul
Interpersonal interactions between boundary spanning individuals have a fundamental role in how interorganizational interactions develop. This study examines interpersonal interaction and the effects of likeability on two attributes that are central to many organizations: commodity prices as
Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…
Turner, Colin; Andrews, Philippa
This book explores interpersonal skills for college administrators through analysis of fictional, but typical, scenes and dialogues set at a fictional "Elmdale College". The analysis and discussion use transactional analysis, gestalt psychology, and neuro-linguistic programming theories to help the reader understand the underlying…
Padfield, Nicolas; Löwgren, Jonas; Hobye, Mads
We present five design cases as an annotated portfolio, exploring ways to design for intimate, interpersonal touch and social intimacy in interaction design. Five key qualities are elicited from the cases, including novel connotations sparking curiosity; providing an excuse to interact; unfolding...
cognitive process, and that the human capacity for inference is crucially important in interpersonal communication in these contexts. Generally, communication involves 'the transmission of messages between individuals acting consciously and intentionally for that end' (Harder, 2009, p. 62). It is an integral part of our ...
Tine Vertommen; Filip Van Den Ede; Nicolette Schipper-van Veldhoven
Children worldwide are confronted with interpersonal violence (IV) on a daily basis. They encounter violence in children’s books, cartoons, on television and in the media or, more personally, in social media, at home, at school, in church or on the streets, with the acts being perpetrated by
Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip
In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,
The study investigated the effect of enhanced thinking skills (ETS) and social skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design with a 3x2 factorial matrix was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable ...
This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...
Jordan, Kevin D.; Foster, Penni Smith
Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal…
Interpersonal relationship involves activities where two or more people need to communicate with one another. As human beings, we always come in contact with people and in the process, relate with them and sometimes react to their utterances and actions. Pathologies, maladaptive behaviours and most human problems ...
Full Text Available Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.
Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald
Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.
Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane
Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…
Reviews the unique contributions of Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm in synthesizing a psychoanalytic outlook with concern for political, economic, and social issues. Discusses some of the reasons why succeeding generations of interpersonal psychoanalysts have lost touch with these issues. Concludes with suggestions about how contemporary…
Rich, Alexander R.; Bonner, Ronald L.
Examined depression, life stress, cognitive distortions, cognitive rigidity, problem-solving, loneliness, and family support in college freshmen (N=158) using self-report measures. Results suggest that depression has important interpersonal correlates. Loneliness and poor self-appraised social problem-solving combined and interacted with life…
I. Consiglio (Irene)
markdownabstractIn this dissertation, I explore the intersection between interpersonal and consumer behaviour in three chapters. In chapter 2, I propose that consumers with low self-esteem become wary of new relationships with alternative service providers if they experience service failures in a
Widom, Cathy S.
The repertory grid technique was used to explore psychopaths' interpersonal and personal construct systems. Subjects were asked to construe as individuals, and subjects were asked how they thought people in general construed the situations. Psychopaths showed a significant degree of general misperception about people in general. (Author)
North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.
The seven interpersonal relations units in the consumer education guide are: Expressing Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction with Consumer Goods and Services, What to Do in Case of a Financial Crisis, Bridging the Generation Gap, Rebellion, Emotions, Discovering Myself, and Dual Role (homemaker/wage earner). Grade levels of the units, are…
Dr. Naveen K Mehta
Full Text Available Suffering can be virtuous when a person takes some lessons out of it. In this context, Suffering empowers one to come out from the dreadful clutches of pains and agonies, it leads to attain Moksha which is the ultimate aim of every human being. The conseq uent suffering in state of knowledge leads to confession, repentance and forgiveness. The redemption is that of liberty from the wrongdoings. The suffering is a purifying agent like fire that burns off whatever is mean and trifling. Once that happens, one returns to the pre-sin state that is freedom from sin or salvation. The present paper is an attempt to study suffering as a blessing in disguise in the select dramas of legendry dramatists Kālidāsa and Shakespeare.
Cain, N M; Pincus, A L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin
Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severit...
Rahioui, H; Blecha, L; Bottai, T; Depuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rammouz, I; Ghachem, R
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a brief, structured psychotherapy initially intended to treat adult depression that was developed in the 1970s and manualized in 1984 by G. Klerman and his team. Two main theories served as a basis for its design: Bowlby's attachment theory and communication theory. Klerman theorized that tensions and problems in interpersonal relationships (i.e. disputes) cause psychological distress in vulnerable individuals that may lead to a major depressive episode. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that an insecure attachment style is strongly associated with lifetime depression. Severe depressive episodes have been correlated with avoidant attachment in women. IPT is based on the hypothesis that recent or ongoing disturbances in interpersonal relationships either trigger or follow the onset of mood disorder. In practice, IPT assists patients in analysing their interpersonal relationship modes, correlating their relational states with their mood and in learning to use better communication. Resolving difficulties in interpersonal relationships through the use of better communication skills promotes the improvement of depressive symptoms. Klerman identified four interpersonal areas that seem to be highly correlated with depressive episodes: grief (a close and important personal relation who has died), interpersonal disputes (conflicts with significant people such as a spouse or another close family member), role transition (significant life changes such as retirement, parenthood or chronic and invalidating illness) and interpersonal deficits (patients who have limited social contacts and few interpersonal relations). Classically, IPT is planned around 12-16 weekly sessions. During the initial sessions, the therapist will explore all existing interpersonal relations and any significant dysfunctions, both recent and ongoing. Following this interview, the area the patient considers as driving the current depressive episode will be
Full Text Available A partir d’une enquête effectuée en milieu urbain taiwanais auprès de neuf Français(es ayant migré à Taiwan et marié(es avec des Taiwanais(es, l’auteur propose de réfléchir à la question des pratiques alimentaires en situation de mixité conjugale. Il fait l’hypothèse que ces pratiques alimentaires doivent être observées et s’apprécier en fonction des différents repas et moments alimentaires: petit-déjeuner, déjeuner, nourritures de rue, dîner conjugal, repas dans la belle famille. Ces situations sont riches d’ambivalences : attachement aux habitudes mais aussi passage du dégoût au goût ou bien de la méfiance à la curiosité, double appréciation pour la nourriture dont la présentation n’est pas estimée de la même façon que les produits eux-mêmes, efforts pour accepter les manières de table dans le cadre d’un rapport de force social et/ou affectif, enfin ‘‘oubli’’ de la question alimentaire au profit du lien social qu’il produit.From an investigation made in urban zones with nine male and female French people having migrated to Taiwan and married with Taiwaneses, the author studies the issue of food tensions in situation of mixed couples. He presents the hypothesis that these tensions vary according to food grips: breakfast, lunch, street foods, conjugal dinner, meals with allies. Such food tensions provoke varied practices and judgments: attachment to habits but also the passage of disgust to appreciation, distrust regarding curiosity, double appreciation for food displayed which is not esteemed in the same way as the products themselves, efforts to accept table manners within the framework of a social or emotional balance of power, finally ‘‘forgetting’’ the issue for the benefit of the social link which it produces.
The result indicated that personality types (introvert and extrovert) do not affect counsellors' interpersonal skill in counselling therapy. It was also concluded that counsellor personality types do not have much implication on the use of interpersonal skills. The researcher, therefore, recommended that mastering interpersonal ...
Hill, Robert W.; Zrull, Mark C.; McIntire, Karen
Findings from 214 pairs of undergraduates support the validity of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (L. Alden, J. Wiggins, and A. Pincus, 1990) and describe discrepancies in self- versus peer-reported interpersonal problems. Results also describe differences in the general interpersonal distress factor accounted for by ipsatizing…
Pulido, Juan J.; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Leo, Francisco M.; Sánchez-Cano, Jorge; García-Calvo, Tomás
Purpose: The objectives were to develop and validate the Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire. The Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire analyzes the interpersonal style adopted by coaches when implementing their strategy of supporting or thwarting athletes' basic psychological needs. Method: In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis…
Gerhana, M. T. C.; Mardiyana; Pramudya, I.
This research aimed to know experimentation Project Based Learning (PjBL) and Problem Based Learning (PBL) with scientific approach viewed from interpersonal intelligence. The subjects of this research were grade X MIPA students in SMA N 1 Minggir. This research instruments used were test and questionnaire. The result of the research showed that: (1) Students subjected PjBL with scientific approach had a better learning achievement than PBL with scientific approach; (2) students with high interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low and medium interpersonal intelligence, students with low and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement; (3) In PjBL, students with high interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low and medium interpersonal intelligence, students with low and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement. In PBL, students with high and medium interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low interpersonal intelligence, students with high and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement; (4) In high interpersonal intelligence, students subjected PjBL had a better learning achievement than students subjected PBL. In medium and low interpersonal intelligence, students subjected PjBL gave same learning achievement than students subjected PBL.
Cain, Nicole M; De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Clarkin, John F
Individuals high in rejection sensitivity (RS) are at risk for experiencing high levels of interpersonal distress, yet little is known about the interpersonal profiles associated with RS. This investigation examined the interpersonal problems, sensitivities, and values associated with RS in 2 samples: 763 multicultural undergraduate students (Study 1) and 365 community adults (Study 2). In Study 1, high anxious RS was associated with socially avoidant interpersonal problems, whereas low anxious RS was associated with vindictive interpersonal problems. In Study 2, we assessed both anxious and angry expectations of rejection. Circumplex profile analyses showed that the high anxious RS group reported socially avoidant interpersonal problems, sensitivities to remoteness in others, and valuing connections with others, whereas the high angry RS group reported vindictive interpersonal problems, sensitivities to submissiveness in others, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior. Low anxious RS was related to domineering interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior, whereas low angry RS was related to submissive interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing receiving approval from others. Overall, results suggest that there are distinct interpersonal profiles associated with varying levels and types of RS.
From 1784 to 1798, the military expert and natural philosopher Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, worked in Munich for Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria on a series of reforms that demanded a careful articulation of the reformer's expertise. This case study of Rumford's welfare reforms posits that the ambivalent nature of expertise, which relies simultaneously on generally accessible and on exclusive knowledge, was already present in the conceptual framework of Rumford's mechanical experimental philosophy and that this ambivalence was visible in the performative practice of the experimenter. Gestures of revelation and concealment and of displaying and obscuring were crucial to Rumford's (temporary) success in establishing his authority in Bavaria. Challenged by local advisers, the reformer called on a newly emergent form of public. Rumford's conceptual and practical articulation of expertise thus contributed to an increasing polarization of the political order in the Bavarian capital.
Zhang’s texts also describe insecurely attached infants and children who sink into a nonchalant and avoidant state after experiencing distress, terror, or resentment due to insensitive and unpredictable mothering. Absent and ambivalent mothers are generally harassed by the feeling of guilt, resulting from conditional maternal commitment, mother-child conflicts, and the high expectations of the motherhood myth. Children’s counterstrategies also regulate and enhance maternal or alloparental care.
Ribeiro, A. P.; Ribeiro, Eugénia.; Loura, J.; Gonçalves, Miguel M.; Stiles, William B.; Horvath, Adam O.
We understand ambivalence as a cyclical movement between two opposing parts of the self. The emergence of a novel part produces an innovative moment, challenging the current maladaptive self-narrative. However, the novel part is subsequently attenuated by a return to the maladaptive self-narrative. This study focused on the analysis of the therapeutic collaboration in episodes in which a relatively poor-outcome client in narrative therapy expressed ambivalence. Method: For our ana...
Gamze Ergil Altin
Full Text Available Perinatal depression is a psychiatric disorder that is not sufficiently diagnosed and directed to treatment. Its acute and chronic outcomes influence not only the mother but also the infant and the relationship between them. Both pregnancy and the postpartum periods are the times of significant physiological and emotional changes which also influence interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal risk factors like insufficient social support and increased social conflict can have an important impact on the women’s mental and physiological health during this period. Studies have shown that women prefer psychological and social management over drugs during this period. Interpersonal psychotherapy is a time-limited treatment approach, especially focusing on interpersonal difficulties with the goal of reducing depressive symptoms and improving interpersonal functioning. Such distressing factors which can occur during pregnancy and delivery are compatible with the four main problem areas that interpersonal psychotherapy addresses so that the therapist can easily use interpersonal psychotherapy in order to solve such difficulties.
Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony
The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others while OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040
Hyland, Annmarie; Mc Grath, Margaret
To examine occupational therapists' attitudes and beliefs towards addressing clients' sexuality and sexual needs during everyday practice. A cross-sectional internet based survey was conducted among a convenience sample (n = 120) of occupational therapists working in Ireland. Respondents' perceived knowledge, awareness and confidence to address sexuality were examined. Respondents also reported current practice relating to addressing sexuality. Sexuality although considered a legitimate area of practice was rarely addressed by occupational therapists. Participants reported low levels of awareness, knowledge and confidence relating to addressing client sexuality. Specific barriers identified by participants to addressing sexuality include lack of training, perceived lack of readiness of the client, client's age and marital status, perceived appropriateness of sexuality for the client. Occupational therapists in Ireland appear to be ambivalent towards the inclusion of sexuality as part of practice. Current practice rarely includes clients' sexual needs and appears to be influenced by a hetro-normative conservative discourse of sexuality. Additional training and education, which challenges current assumptions relating to sexuality, is required to ensure that the needs of people with illness and disability are met.
In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association (APA), faced with increased professional competition, revised the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Psychiatric expertise was redefined along a biomedical model via a standardised nosology. While they were an integral part of capturing professional authority, the revisions demystified psychiatric expertise, leaving psychiatrists vulnerable to infringements upon their autonomy by institutions adopting the DSM literally. This research explores the tensions surrounding standardisation in psychiatry. Drawing on in-depth interviews with psychiatrists, I explore the 'sociological ambivalence' psychiatrists feel towards the DSM, which arises from the tension between the desire for autonomy in practice and the professional goal of legitimacy within the system of mental health professions. To carve a space for autonomy for their practice, psychiatrists develop 'workarounds' that undermine the DSM in practice. These workarounds include employing alternative diagnostic typologies, fudging the numbers (or codes) on official paperwork and negotiating diagnoses with patients. In creating opportunities for patient input and resistance to fixed diagnoses, the varied use of the DSM raises fundamental questions for psychiatrists about the role of the biomedical model of mental illness, especially its particular manifestation in the DSM.
Full Text Available What do inherited financial assets signify to heirs and testators and how does this shape their conduct? Based on grounded theory methodology and twenty open, thematically structured interviews with US heirs, future heirs and testators, this article explicates a theoretical account that proposes a moral ambivalence as the core category to understand the social meaning of inherited financial assets. In particular, the analysis reveals that the social meaning of inherited assets is a contingent, individual compromise between seeing inherited assets as unachieved wealth and seeing them as family means of support. Being the lifetime achievement of another person, inheritances are, on the one hand, morally dubious and thus difficult to appropriate. Yet in terms of family solidarity, inheritances are "family money," which is used when need arises. Taken from this angle, inheriting is not the transfer of one individual's privately held property to another person, but rather the succession of the social status as support-giver along with the resources that belong to this status to the family's next generation. Heirs need to find a personal compromise between these poles, which always leaves room for interpretation. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401131
Its focus on snow-dependent activities makes Alpine winter tourism especially sensitive to climate change. Stakeholder risk perceptions are a key factor in adaptation to climate change because they fundamentally drive or constrain stakeholder action. This paper examines climate change perceptions of winter tourism stakeholders in Tyrol (Austria). Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews were conducted. Four opinion categories reflecting different attitudes toward climate change issues were identified: convinced planners , annoyed deniers , ambivalent optimists , convinced wait-and-seers . Although the findings generally indicate a growing awareness of climate change, this awareness is mainly limited to perceiving the issue as a global phenomenon. Awareness of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change that lead to a demand for action could not be identified. Current technical strategies, like snowmaking, are not primarily climate-induced. At present, coping with climate change is not a priority for risk management. The findings point out the importance of gaining and transferring knowledge of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change in order to induce action at the destination level.
Its focus on snow-dependent activities makes Alpine winter tourism especially sensitive to climate change. Stakeholder risk perceptions are a key factor in adaptation to climate change because they fundamentally drive or constrain stakeholder action. This paper examines climate change perceptions of winter tourism stakeholders in Tyrol (Austria). Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews were conducted. Four opinion categories reflecting different attitudes toward climate change issues were identified: convinced planners, annoyed deniers, ambivalent optimists, convinced wait-and-seers. Although the findings generally indicate a growing awareness of climate change, this awareness is mainly limited to perceiving the issue as a global phenomenon. Awareness of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change that lead to a demand for action could not be identified. Current technical strategies, like snowmaking, are not primarily climate-induced. At present, coping with climate change is not a priority for risk management. The findings point out the importance of gaining and transferring knowledge of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change in order to induce action at the destination level. PMID:27064520
de Gois Leite, Cyntia Maria; de Carvalho, Ricardo Josématos
This article uses the contributions of ergonomics to understand the work performed by hotel managers. The concern to understand the job of managers is something new in the ergonomics and few studies address this issue, especially in what concerns the work of hotel managers and its aspects of performance and health, which is the focus of this article. Through a literature review on the subject, it is sought to understand the managers' work activity, the impacts on their health and their organizational performance, as managers take an ambivalent position in organizations, since they have to deal directly with the demands of upper and lower hierarchies in a context of high competition, organizational changes and user requirements. It is then inferred there is a risk of increased work density for managers, bringing negative consequences to their health and organizational performance. This phenomenon, still poorly covered by ergonomics, contributes to a certain invisibility of the manager's work in society as a whole, when the manager may suffer from health problems, which are also common in certain populations of workers who do not take the managerial function.
The concept of 'gay community', and gay men's attachment to and involvement in gay community activities, has held both a symbolic and practical role in understanding and guiding responses to HIV in developed world contexts. In the West, the HIV epidemic has disproportionately affected gay men. Being involved in and connected to gay community activities (what, in Australia, is described as 'gay community attachment') predicted the adoption of safe sex practices. However, the meaning of gay community is changing. This presents a challenge to those working in HIV prevention. With reference to previous research, the meaning of gay community is analysed in qualitative interviews conducted with Australian gay men. The interview data indicate that gay men are often ambivalent about gay communities, suggesting a need for subtlety in the ways we think about and address gay men in HIV education and health promotion. The concept of 'personal communities' may better reflect the ways in which gay men engage with each other and their social networks. Recognising and responding to the changing nature of gay life will ensure that the flexibility and pragmatism of HIV programmes aimed at gay men are maintained.
Full Text Available The Maysles brothers’ 1975 documentary, Grey Gardens, portrays the lives of Edith Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith, known as Little Edie, the aunt and first cousin, respectively, of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. The mother and daughter live together in their East Hampton house that is literally falling apart. As their identical names imply, the Beales share a symbiotic relationship which is reflected in every aspect of their life. I argue that Grey Gardens calls for Julia Kristeva’s insistence on abjection as a crucial struggle with “spatial ambivalence (inside/outside uncertainty” and an attempt to mark out a space in the undifferentiated field of the mother-child symbiosis. In Powers of Horror, Kristeva (1982 states, “abjection preserves what existed in the archaism of pre-objectal relationship” (p. 10. Grey Gardens portrays the topology of the mother-child dyad, which pertains to a particular spatio-temporality: where this primordial relationship is concerned, object and subject crumble, and the distinction between past and present is irrelevant.
Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between the text and accompanying illustrations in Clive Barker’s children’s novel The Thief of Always: A Fable. This tale of abduction was published in the social background of fear around the child predator of the early 1990s and incorporates ideas of monstrous villainy, loss of childhood innocence, and insatiable desires. As a fable, Thief is a cautionary tale that not only teaches that childhood years are precious and are not to be wished away or squandered in idle leisure, but also of the dangers that some adults pose to children. Problematically, an honest and frank discussion of adult sexual desires toward children would despoil the very innocence that is trying to be protected; thus, a lesson such as this must be sublimated within the story. Yet, it is the illustrations, and more specifically the way in which the illustrations corroborate and contradict the plot of this story that reveals an underlying ambivalence toward the figure of the child and an echoing duality present in both the child and the child predator.
Lu, Qian; Yeung, Nelson; Man, Jenny; Gallagher, Matthew W; Chu, Qiao; Deen, Sidra H
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common among breast cancer survivors. However, the association and the underlying mediating mechanism between psychosocial factors and PTSS were rarely investigated among breast cancer survivors. Previous studies have suggested the importance of emotional expression in cancer survivors' PTSS. This study examined the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE; defined as the conflict between the desire to express feelings and the fear of its consequences) and PTSS, and proposed intrusive thoughts as the mediators in such an association. We tested this proposed mediation model among Chinese breast cancer survivors whose culture discourages emotional expression. Participants were 118 Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors in the USA, who were diagnosed with breast cancer of stages 0-III within the past 5 years. They completed questionnaires measuring their levels of AEE, PTSS, and intrusive thoughts. AEE was positively associated with intrusive thoughts (r = 0.43, p expression tend to have higher PTSS, and this may be partially due to the lack of opportunities to discuss emotional events, thereby increasing the repetitive cancer-related negative thoughts. Intervention for PTSS should consider helping cancer patients to develop adaptive emotional regulation strategies to reduce the detrimental effects of cancer-related intrusive thoughts.
Full Text Available The Shakespearean hobby-horse, mentioned emphatically in Hamlet, brings into focus a number of problems related to early modern popular culture. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries the word was characterised by semantic ambivalence, with simultaneously valid meanings of a breed of horse, a morris character, a foolish person, and a wanton woman. The overlapping of these meanings in different cultural discourses of the age (playtexts, emblem books, popular verse, pictures exemplifies the interaction of different productions of early modern popular culture, from social humiliating practices to festivals and public playhouses. This attests to a complex circulation of cultural memory regarding symbols of popular culture, paradoxically both ‘forgotten’ and ‘remembered’ as a basically oral-ritual culture was transformed into written forms. In this context, the Hamletian passage gains new overtones, while the different versions of the playtext (Q1 & 2: 1603, 1604, F: 1623 also offer insights into the changing attitudes regarding popular culture, as it became gradually commercialised and politicised in the following decades. Finally, Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale and Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair solidify a critical and sceptical attitude, which seems to have signalled the end of ‘Merry Old England’ on-stage and off-stage as well.
Vecina, Maria L; Piñuela, Raul
Ambivalent sexism has served to justify and maintain patriarchy and traditional gender roles characterized by inequality and male domination in the intimate partner violence (IPV) literature; according to the Moral Foundation Theory (MFT) there are two specific moral foundations related to inequality and domination: fairness and authority. We connect these separate fields arguing that sexist attitudes can be related to specific patterns of endorsement of the five moral foundations. Our hypothesis is that ambivalent sexism in men convicted of violence against the partner may be rooted in at least these two moral foundations, and that at least these two moral foundations may also serve to predict intention to change the violent behavior against the partner. Controlling for political orientation, the results show that benevolent sexism correlates positively with the authority foundation; and hostile sexism correlates negatively with the fairness foundation. Both foundations contribute to explaining the two dimensions of ambivalent sexism (benevolent and hostile) and only the fairness foundation predict intention to change the violent behavior against the partner. New treatment approaches could be designed to increase moral concerns about fairness and to reduce moral concerns about authority in people who, at least, have once used violence against their partners.
ABSTRACT: Today, with the development of communication technologies, social network sites become common and popular. People prefer to communicate with each other via social network sites. In particular, Facebook is used by almost everyone and today it has about 901 million users from all around the world. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the influence of Facebook on interpersonal communication among 200 students who study at the Faculty of Communication and Media Studies at the ...
Original accounts of an introspectively and linguistically highly gifted schizophrenic woman serve as a means to reflect about the meaning of the concept of intersubjectivity in the sense of Husserl, the constitution of self and world and its failure in the schizophrenic ego disorder. Concerning general psychopathology, there can be attempted to propose a typology of disordered intersubjectivity and consequently interpersonality. Psychotherapy of schizophrenics means reconstruction of intersubjectivity.
Ojiako, Udechukwu; Manville, Graham; Zouk, Nadine; Chipulu, Maxwell
One particular area of project management literature that has continued to gain momentum in literature is its social dimension; with a number of scholars emphasising the fact that there is a considerable social dimension to every project activity. Within this context, the authors examine parameters that drive social facets of projects with a particular focus on social cohesion, interpersonal conflicts and national culture. Data from 167 project managers working in Kuwait were collected utilis...
Clerkin, Elise M; Smith, April R; Hames, Jennifer L
Social networking sites like Facebook represent a potentially valuable means for individuals with low self-esteem or interpersonal difficulties to connect with others; however, recent research indicates that individuals who are most in need of social benefits from Facebook may be ineffective in their communication strategies, and thereby sabotage their potential to benefit interpersonally. The current study tested whether reassurance seeking via Facebook negatively influenced self-esteem, and whether this change in self-esteem mediated the relationship between Facebook reassurance seeking and greater thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Participants completed measures online at two time-points approximately 24 days apart. Results provided evidence that Facebook reassurance seeking predicted lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn predicted increased feelings that one does not belong and that one is a burden. Key limitations to this study include our use of a predominantly young, female, Caucasian sample, a novel reassurance seeking measure, and only evaluating two time points. These results suggest that Facebook usage has the potential for negative and far-reaching influences on one's interpersonal functioning. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Tolston, Michael T; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J
The present study investigated how constraining movement affects interpersonal coordination and joint cognitive performance. Pairs of participants worked cooperatively to solve picture-puzzle tasks in which they conversed to identify differences between pictures in 3 degree-of-constraint conditions: both participants were free to move their hands (free-free; FF); both participants' hands were restrained (restrained-restrained; RR); and the hands of 1 participant were free while the hands of the other participant were restrained (free-restrained; FR). Eye tracking data were collected, and movement was measured at the waist, hand, and head. Data were analyzed using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQ). Postural sway coordination, gaze coordination, and task performance were predicted to be highest in FF, followed by RR, and then by FR. Results showed the asymmetric FR condition generally exhibited lesser degrees of coordination than the symmetric Conditions FF and RR, and that the patterning of coordination in the symmetric conditions varied across the measured body segments. These results demonstrate that movement restraints affect not only interpersonal postural coordination, but also joint attention. Additionally, significant positive relationships were found between task performance and total amount of anterior-posterior movement measured at the head, hand and waist; number of utterances; and number of differences pairs found in the puzzles. These findings indicate a relationship between movement and task performance consistent with the hypotheses that both interpersonal coordination and cognitive performance are sensitive to local action constraints.
Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie
A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osman, Ossama T; Abbas, Alaa K; Eid, Hani O; Salem, Mohamed O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M
We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity and outcome of hospitalised interpersonal violence-related injured patients in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates so as to give recommendations regarding the magnitude of this problem, its causes and priorities of prevention. Data were retrieved from Al-Ain Hospital Trauma Registry, which was prospectively collected over three years. There were 75 patients (males = 85.3%) having a mean age of 30 years. Eighty-one percent had blunt trauma. The estimated annual injury hospitalisation of interpersonal violence in Al-Ain city was 6.7 per 100,000 population. Females were significantly more injured by a family member (p = 0.02), at home (p = 0.005), and had more severe injuries (p = 0.003). There was a trend for children less than 18 years old to have more penetrating trauma (p = 0.06) and to be injured by a family member (p = 0.09). There was only one case of woman sexual assault and two cases of child abuse. The mean (SD) hospital stay was 7.87 (14.1) days. Less than 3% (n = 2) were admitted to the intensive care unit with no deaths. In conclusion, the majority of patients in our study had minor injuries. Nevertheless, the psychological impact may be major. This highlights the need to develop suitable mental health services in support of victims of interpersonal violence.
O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L
The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tyas Hapsari Dewi
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication and extrovert personality type with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace on employees Editorial Suara Merdeka Semarang. The sample in this study was 60 employees. Major hypothesis in this study is that there is a relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication and extrovert personality types with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Minor hypotheses in this study were 1 There is a positive relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace, 2 There is a positive relationship between the extroverted personality type with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Major hypothesis testing using regression analysis two predictors, the results obtained ry (1-2 = 0.639 with p = 0.000 (p 0,05.
Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P
Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with vs. without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were 2 empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients that were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: Although the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the nonassertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and nonredundant information about individuals with PD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S.; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P.
Objective Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. Method The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Results Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with versus without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were two empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients which were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: While the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the non-assertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Conclusions Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and non-redundant information about individuals with PD. PMID:26030762
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.
Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462
Salzer, Simone; Leibing, Eric; Jakobsen, Thorsten; Rudolf, Gerd; Brockmann, Josef; Eckert, Jochen; Huber, Dorothea; Klug, Günther; Henrich, Gerhard; Grande, Tilmann; Keller, Wolfram; Kreische, Reinhard; Biskup, Joachim; Staats, Hermann; Warwas, Jasmin; Leichsenring, Falk
Interpersonal problems were studied in 121 patients treated with psychoanalytic therapy using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Four characteristic subtypes were identified, which differed in the quality and flexibility of their interpersonal behavior. Independent of the predominant type of interpersonal problems, the psychotherapy treatment led to strong decreases in interpersonal distress and increases in interpersonal differentiation. Psychoanalytic therapy was highly effective for all identified interpersonal subtypes and seems to help patients achieve more satisfactory relationships.
Cary, Lindsey A; Chasteen, Alison L; Remedios, Jessica
Much like sexism, ageism is a multifaceted prejudice; it involves benevolent and hostile attitudes toward older adults. There are many scales designed to measure hostile ageism, yet none dedicated to measuring benevolent ageism. In the current studies, we developed and validated a 13-item measure: the Ambivalent Ageism Scale (AAS). We employed four stages of scale development and validation. In Stage 1, we created 41 benevolent ageist items adapted from existing ageism measures. In Stages 2 and 3, we further refined the pool of items through additional testing and factor analysis and retained nine items loading strongly on two factors related to benevolent ageism: cognitive assistance/physical protection and unwanted help. In order to enable researchers to contrast benevolent and hostile attitudes, we then added four hostile ageist items. In Stage 4, we assessed the test-retest reliability of the 13-item scale. The AAS had good test-retest reliability (r = .80) and good internal consistency (α = .91). As predicted, the benevolent and hostile ageism subscales differentially predicted attitudes toward older adults: higher scores on the hostile subscale predicted lower competence and warmth ratings, whereas higher scores on the benevolent subscale predicted higher warmth perceptions. The AAS is a useful tool for researchers to assess hostile and benevolent ageism. This measure serves as an important first step in designing interventions to reduce the harmful effects of both hostile and benevolent ageism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This paper looks at the impact of acute power shortage in South Asia, state initiatives that are less than firm and decisive and attempts to make some suggestions on the issues involved. The discussion would be of interest to planners in other developing countries as well as independent power producers looking for investment opportunities in the region. The South Asian Region consists of countries of the Indian Ocean rim. The region is important as 1/5th of all humanity lives here. Yet it generates only about 5% of all the electricity produced in the world. While in absolute terms the economy especially that of India is one of the largest in the world the per capita GDP is among the lowest. So is the per capita power generation that is around 250 kWh (compare with 12308 kWh in the US). The acute shortage of power in a state of high industrial growth for a region that is richly endowed with various sources of energy as well has a developed capital goods industry, leads to the question as to what has gone wrong? The process of planning and execution of power projects as well as the lack of will for solid action seems to be the culprit. The governments of the region have well understood that the states' resources are just not adequate to support the massive investments required in the power sector. IPPs therefore are being welcomed, but with a sense of ambivalence. Power purchase agreements with private developers have dragged on in a state of uncertainty for years. Important on the agenda is to reform the state owned and monopolistic power utilities. Reforms and privatization are being aimed at supply side improvements, transmission and distribution loss reduction, end use efficiency improvement and encouragement to captive power generation by the industry. Some of the issues that stand out as facilitators and impediments are discussed in this paper
Zhang, Yong-An; Du, Yilun
Shanghai was considered to be a "capital of opium" in modern China, hence the history of opium in the city has received significant attention. In the Shanghai International Settlement, where Chinese and foreigners lived as neighbours, drugs were considered by the administration as both "trouble maker", and important financial resource. This paper explores how the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC), the most senior governing body in the settlement, used its position to maximize political and economic profit from the trade and consumption of opium. The paper is based on documentary analysis of records of the SMC board meetings and other related material stored at Shanghai Municipal Archives. Interpretive approaches were used to analyze the shifting SMC strategies on opium consumption, the competing power relations and the way they were negotiated between actors with a stake in the region, including semi-colonialism and world systems analysis. With the dual purpose of preventing damage and enhancing municipal management, the SMC introduced a licensing system permitting the consumption and trade of drugs. However, the anti-opium policies of the late Qing government and the Anglo-Chinese 10 Year Agreement meant SMC had to shut down opium "houses" (opium dens) and "shops" (for the sale of opium to be consumed off the premises). Over almost a decade, the SMC shifted emphasis from political regulation of a social, recreational practice to maximizing financial benefit. In the process, SMC made full use of the opportunities it gained from a period of ambivalent Chinese and British power relations and local community rule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kuncorowati, R. H.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.
Creative thinking ability was one of student’s ability to determine various alternative solutions toward mathematics problem. One of indicators related to creative thinking ability was interpersonal intelligence. Student’s interpersonal intelligence would influence to student’s creativity. This research aimed to analyze creative thinking ability level of junior high school students in Karanganyar using descriptive method. Data was collected by test, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. The result showed that students with high interpersonal intelligence achieved third and fourth level in creative thinking ability. Students with moderate interpersonal intelligence achieved second level in creative thinking ability and students with low interpersonal intelligence achieved first and zero level in creative thinking ability. Hence, students with high, moderate, and low interpersonal intelligence could solve mathematics problem based on their mathematics creative thinking ability.
Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam
The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful meta-framework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS meta-framework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.
The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, we subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model. PMID:22589411
Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F
The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, the authors subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the inventory of interpersonal problems-circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model.
Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin
Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severity as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) or diagnostic comorbidity but did exhibit differential responses to outpatient psychotherapy. Overall, friendly-submissive social phobia patients had significantly lower scores on measures of social anxiety and significantly higher scores on measures of well-being and satisfaction at posttreatment than cold-submissive social phobia patients. We discuss the results in terms of interpersonal theory and the clinical relevance of assessment of interpersonal functioning prior to beginning psychotherapy with socially phobic patients.
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.
In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849
This study is aimed to analyse interpersonal communication on politics among Russian migrants in Finland, and to find an answer to the question: What are the essentials of the interpersonal communication on politics among Russian migrants in Finland? The study presents an exploration of scientific discussion on political communication. The research focuses political communication among citizens on interpersonal level, and considers different approaches, theories and findings in that fiel...
Simpson, Roy L
Part I of this 2-part series about technology's role in interpersonal communications examined how humans interact; proposed a caring theory of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution; and delineated ways that technology--in general--supports this carative model of interpersonal relations. Part II will examine the barriers to adoption of carative technologies, describe the core capabilities required to overcome them, and discuss specific technologies that can support carative interpersonal relationships.
Belinskaya E.P.; Bronin I.D.
The paper focuses on the issue of accuracy of interpersonal perception in computer-mediated communication. It shows how J.Biesanz’s social accuracy model of interpersonal perception may be used in explorations of interpersonal perception in mediated contacts — via personal webpages in social media. In the study the subjects (15 people) were asked to assess individuals with whom they were unacquainted basing on their webpages in VKontakte (30 web pages) using a brief version of the Big Five In...
ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit incent...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...
Stea, Diego; Pedersen, Torben; Foss, Nicolai Juul
networks are also associated with cognitive costs, which may reduce the focal employee's ability to both recognize the need for help and engage in helping behaviours. For these reasons, the authors assert an inverted U-shaped relation between the size of an ego's social network and engagement in helping...... behaviour. However, high-quality relationships imply higher mutual understanding between the actors, and hence lower cognitive costs. In turn, the position (and threshold) of the curve between network size and interpersonal helping should be influenced by the quality of the relationship between the provider...
Dontsov, Aleksander I.
Full Text Available Human communities are based on a certain set of everyday attitudes, on the coordination of the actions of “the self ” in a group, and on the regulation of social practices. The results of this study show that a number of factors act as determinants of trust/ distrust ambivalence: the multidimensionality and the dynamics of interactions among people; the high level of subjectivity in evaluating risks resulting from openness and from confidence in partners involved in an interaction; and a subject’s contradictory attitude toward the personal traits of an interacting partner (power, activity, honesty, trustworthiness. Japanese scholars have proved the necessity of taking into account quality of life (QOL as one of the determinants of the development of interpersonal confidence. The study demonstrates that people try to bring trust into their daily routines as a way of organizing conscientious, emotionally open interactions that take into account the interests of all parties. Mistrust blocks access to the emotional, intellectual, and activity-related resources supporting life and undermines faith in the possibility of virtue and morality. Yet a supplementary study (using instant diagnostics indicates that in practice respondents did not demonstrate a high level of confidence (in two cities it was 0%; in one city, it was 4.6%. In spite of emotionally positive views regarding trust, as well as constructive estimates of its moral/behavioral potential, a considerable number of respondents were not open and oriented to the interests of others. A tendency toward caution, inwardness, and constrained sincerity leads to nonconformity in one’s actions in a group and to changes in the vector of social practices from socio-partner regulation to disorganized interaction.
Veldman, Ietje; Admiraal, Wilfried; Mainhard, Tim; Wubbels, Theo; van Tartwijk, Jan
In this study, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring teachers' interpersonal self-efficacy: the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction-Self-Efficacy (QTI-SE). We used the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction as a basis to construct items. Current scales on teacher self-efficacy in classroom management cover…
Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan
The overall aims of this study were to identify qualities of interpersonal interaction within teacher-parent-pupil learning partnerships and to explore whether these characteristics were predictors of learning and teaching outcomes for teachers, parents and pupils participating in pursuit of expertise on musical instruments. This article presents…
Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria; Arias, V. Santiago
In this brief forum article, the authors suggest that in order to truly understand communication education, both interpersonal and instructional variables must be analyzed. Instructors, researchers, and scholars need to find balance between content and relationship aspects while being aware of context boundaries to truly assist in maximizing…
Veldman, Ietje; Admiraal, Wilfried; Mainhard, Tim; Wubbels, Theo; Van Tartwijk, Jan
In this study, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy: the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction-Self-Efficacy (QTI-SE). We used the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction as a basis to construct items. Current scales on teacher
Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Scott, Lori N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A
We examined the relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal problems in a sample of 825 clinical and community participants. Sixteen psychiatric diagnoses and five transdiagnostic dimensions were examined in relation to self-reported interpersonal problems. The structural summary method was used with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales to examine interpersonal problem profiles for each diagnosis and dimension. We built a structural model of mental disorders including factors corresponding to detachment (avoidant personality, social phobia, major depression), internalizing (dependent personality, borderline personality, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress, major depression), disinhibition (antisocial personality, drug dependence, alcohol dependence, borderline personality), dominance (histrionic personality, narcissistic personality, paranoid personality), and compulsivity (obsessive-compulsive personality). All dimensions showed good interpersonal prototypicality (e.g., detachment was defined by a socially avoidant/nonassertive interpersonal profile) except for internalizing, which was diffusely associated with elevated interpersonal distress. The findings for individual disorders were largely consistent with the dimension that each disorder loaded on, with the exception of the internalizing and dominance disorders, which were interpersonally heterogeneous. These results replicate previous findings and provide novel insights into social dysfunction in psychopathology by wedding the power of hierarchical (i.e., dimensional) modeling and interpersonal circumplex assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elliott, Kari A; Erickson, Michael D; Fowler, Edward T; Gieseking, John K; Weiss, Mary P
.... This project expands the findings from the 2003 Army Training and Leadership Development Panel, Communication Task Force initiative, which identified a perceived gap in interpersonal skills exhibited...
This study examines the relationship between four components of assertiveness ("open expression", "control of emotion", "consideration for others" and "self-direction") and interpersonal behaviors on friends, interpersonal stress events, social anxiety. A questionnaire which included scales to measure the four components of assertiveness, activities with friend, considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events and social anxiety was completed by 177 high school students. The results showed that "self-direction" had curvilinear relations with considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events. An excessively high score for "self-direction" was associated with fewer considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events. An optimum score for "self-direction" was associated with more considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events.
This paper compares and contrasts the underlying principles of two conceptual systems-the interpersonal circle and the interpersonal octagon-for classifying and measuring a person's interpersonal tendencies. Both systems have been represented by two intersecting axes: a horizontal one extending from close/warm involvement to distant/cold separation and a vertical one extending from upper/control to lower/submission. In both systems, intermediate axes have been inserted between these two main ones. Where the circle would appear to be concerned with traits, the octagon is concerned with what have been termed states of relatedness. The two systems differ in their explanation and definition of adaptive and maladaptive relating behaviour. Whereas the circle has been closely aligned with the establishment of a bipolar relationship between the poles of the axes and with the mathematical model that is called the circumplex, the octagon has not. The most widely used circle-based measure is the circumplex version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. It generates high positive correlations between scales and a large, first general factor, but these imperfections have been corrected by the statistical procedure called ipsatization. The principal octagon-based measure is the Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire. A number of high positive correlations have been demonstrated between the scales of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems and the corresponding scales of the Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire. Therefore, despite there being differences in the underlying theories, the two questionnaires would appear to be measuring similar constructs. The interpersonal circle and the interpersonal octagon are two separate theoretical systems for representing a person's relating tendencies. Both systems are constructed around a horizontal, close-distant axis and a vertical, upper-lower axis. Both systems acknowledge that relating can be either adaptive or maladaptive
Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer
This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.
Full Text Available This research investigates into interpersonal trust and workplace outcomes in organizations within social exchange perspective. Current study is building upon the theoretical underpinnings of trust studies that pose trust as a psychological state and a social glue. Current research develops a theoretical model of interpersonal trust presuming that different trust objects -namely peers and senior managementhave unique and direct effects on global workplace outcomes: Affective commitment, turnover intention, and job satisfaction. The data was collected via convenience sampling and data consists of 134 professionals working in Turkey. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM using Partial Least Squares (PLS is employed to test our model. Findings suggest that trust in peers and trust in senior management translate into higher affective commitment. Results indicate a positive association between job satisfaction and trust in senior management. Turnover intention however, did not significantly associate with any of the trust variables suggesting the difference between economic exchange and social exchange, which involves reciprocal behaviors. Simultaneous investigation of two trust objects in organizations as well as inclusion of variety of contextual factors bring rigor to the scope of the research and the explanations of workplace outcomes.
Full Text Available The purpose of any discourses, either spoken or written ones, is to communicate the messages to the targeted audiences. Written discourse appears to be the most cau-tious piece of work since it is a product of a well-organised and long-term writing process. To achieve the communicative purpose, an author should interpersonally interact with the targeted readers. The interpersonal interaction can be realised through the use of modalisation to express certainty and uncertainty as well as the use of attitudinal evaluation to evaluate things, events, people, situations and etc. In this case, the analysis of some extracts which are produced as guidelines for the teachers suggest that the written texts are quite convincing and evaluative as well as successful in persuading the readers. This is typical to this genre of discourse as its ultimate goal is to win over the interest of the reader in using the product. In other word, the author tries to make the text convincing and persuasive in order to win over the teachers’ interest in using the textbook in their classrooms.
Cornelis, Erlinde; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick
Two experiments were conducted among adolescents in 2011 in urban parts of Belgium, Europe. The effectiveness of two-sided binge drinking and marijuana prevention messages was investigated in relation to argument type, refutation, and issue ambivalence. Study 1 (n = 373) serves as a baseline study for study 2 (n = 156). Data were collected through a printed questionnaire in classrooms in Flemish secondary schools. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Implications for health practitioners, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are given.
Kim, Sungsu; Pjesivac, Ivanka; Jin, Yan
The current study examined the effects of framing in promotional health messages on intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza virus. The findings of an experimental study (N = 86) indicated that exposure to both benefits and side effects of vaccination (gain-framed with risk disclosure message) led to lower intention to receive the flu vaccine. This relationship was mediated by both perceived vaccine efficacy and felt ambivalence in a serial order, revealing the underlying psychological mechanisms important for understanding health-related behaviors. Theoretical implications of constructing sub-framed messages are discussed and the concept of second-order framing is introduced.
Maercker, Andreas; Horn, Andrea B
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common reaction to traumatic experiences. We propose a socio-interpersonal model of PTSD that complements existing models of post-traumatic memory processes or neurobiological changes. The model adds an interpersonal perspective to explain responses to traumatic stress. The framework draws from lifespan psychology, cultural psychology and research into close relationships and groups. Additionally, clinical knowledge about PTSD is incorporated. This involves knowledge about shame, guilt, estrangement feelings and protective factors, such as social support and forgiveness. Three levels are proposed at which relevant interpersonal processes can be situated and should be adequately researched. First, the individual level comprises social affective states, such as shame, guilt, anger and feelings of revenge. Second, at the close relationship level, social support, negative exchange (ostracism and blaming the victim), disclosure and empathy are proposed as dyadic processes relevant to PTSD research and treatment. Third, the distant social level represents culture and society, in which the collectivistic nature of trauma, perceived injustice, and social acknowledgement are concepts that predict the response trajectories to traumatic stress. Research by the current authors and others is cited in an effort to promote future investigation based on the current model. Methodological implications, such as multi-level data analyses, and clinical implications, such as the need for couple, community or larger-level societal interventions, are both outlined. The socio-interpersonal model proposes an interpersonal view of the processes that occur in the aftermath of a traumatic experience. At the individual level, the model integrates the social affective phenomena that clinical research identifies in PTSD patients, including shame, guilt, anger, revenge and the urges or reluctance to disclose. At the level of close relationships, there is
This viewpoint paper focusses on the interpersonal problems that result in an unhealthy/unsafe school environment. Within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, the prevalence of domestic violence, child abuse, sexism, cultural intolerance and other destructive interpersonal interactions and ...
Background: Interpersonal conflicts often result into physical injuries of different magnitudes. Every year, a significant portion of patients admitted with injuries to the Accident and Emergency units of the hospitals in Rwanda, like in other African countries, are victims of intentional interpersonal violence. Globally, studies ...
Forand, Nicholas R.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; German, Ramaris E.; Wenze, Susan J.
Several studies have shown that body satisfaction affects interpersonal functioning. However, few have studied the specific interpersonal correlates of another important body image dimension, appearance investment--that is, the importance a woman places on appearance. We used an experience sampling design with PDA (personal digital assistant)…
DeKay, Sam H.
Recent research has identified interpersonal communication skills as critical attributes for new employees and more experienced workers seeking promotion. However, despite the significance of interpersonal communication in the workplace, one's knowledge of these skills and how they may be taught is limited. The two articles comprising this theme…
STUART, SCOTT; O’HARA, MICHAEL W.
Postpartum depression is a frequent complication of childbirth. Postpartum depression is associated with disruptions in interpersonal relationships, and the puerperium is a period of major role transition. In contrast to other subtypes of depression, however, postpartum depression often is not treated with medication, which is relatively contraindicated for women who are breastfeeding. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) focuses specifically on the effects of depression on interp...
Payne, Allison Ann; Hutzell, Kirsten L.
This study uses a large nationally representative sample to compare and contrast interpersonal bullying and cyberbullying by asking the following questions: (a) How does the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization compare with the prevalence of interpersonal bullying victimization? (b) How does the relationship between demographic predictors and…
Chaffee, Steven H.
Some of the major assumptions, empirical inferences, and theoretical linkages that underlie the generalization that interpersonal influence is more efficacious than mass communication in bringing about social change are examined in this paper. The central premise of the paper is that the presumed competition between mass and interpersonal channels…
Kimsey, William D.; Hantz, Alan
The relationships among mass media, interpersonal communication, and voting behavior were explored in a two-stage panel study of 141 respondents during a 1974 Illinois congressional election. Analyses of perceived exposures to mass media and to interpersonal communication were interpreted as supporting Rogers and Shoemakers' (1971)…
Rocchi, Meredith; Pelletier, Luc; Desmarais, Philippe
According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), basic psychological needs will be influenced by other individuals' interpersonal behaviors. The objective of the present research is to extend the validity of the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ and IBQ-Self) to the sport context. The measure was designed to assess perceptions of…
This paper carries on a tentative interpersonal metafunction analysis of Barack Obama's victory speech from the interpersonal metafunction, which aims to help readers understand and evaluate the speech regarding its suitability, thus to provide some guidance for readers to make better speeches. This study has promising implications for speeches as…
performed via a “relationship game” model of interpersonal communication. A call for more empirical research of Chinese interpersonal communication from a cultural .... in the social network. A methodological consequence is that the analysis of face behaviour, even when pertaining to a single individual, must extend its ...
Cambra, Ronald E.; Klopf, Donald W.
The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation--Behavior (FIRO-B) was administered to 504 Japanese, 219 Australian, 73 Korean, and 397 United States college students to assess interpersonal needs in the four cultures. The FIRO-B provides ratings for inclusion, control, and affection needs on an "expressed" dimension to indicate the…
This study aimed to elaborate the relationships between sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. Of the 707 individuals recruited to this study, 675 successfully completed the survey. The results showed high sensation-seekers and high Internet dependents were more likely to engage in online interpersonal deception than were their counterparts.
Parkinson, Brian; Simons, Gwenda; Niven, Karen
Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners' worry positively predicted female partners' interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners' interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A's worry over time positively predicted partner B's motivation to reduce partner A's worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A's negative affect were positive predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A's expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners' expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners' reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners' expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Ansell, Emily B.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective To explore associations between specific interpersonal constructs and the developmental progression of behaviors leading to binge eating disorder (BED). Method Eighty-four consecutively evaluated, treatment-seeking obese (BMI ≥ 30) men and women with BED were assessed with structured diagnostic and clinical interviews and completed a battery of established measures to assess the current and developmental eating- and weight-related variables as well as interpersonal functioning. Results Using the interpersonal circumplex structural summary method, amplitude, elevation, the affiliation dimension, and the quadratic coefficient for the dominance dimension were associated with eating and weight-related developmental variables. The amplitude coefficient and more extreme interpersonal problems on the dominance dimension (quadratic)—i.e., problems with being extremely high (domineering) or low in dominance (submissive)—were significantly associated with ayounger age at onset of binge eating, BED, and overweight as well as accounted for significant variance in age at binge eating, BED, and overweight onset. Greater interpersonal problems with having an overly affiliative interpersonal style were significantly associated with, and accounted for significant variance in, ayounger age at diet onset. Discussion Findings provide further support for the importance of interpersonal problems among adults with BED and converge with recent work highlighting the importance of specific types of interpersonal problems for understanding heterogeneity and different developmental trajectories of individuals with BED. PMID:22727087
Quilty, Lena C; Mainland, Brian J; McBride, Carolina; Bagby, R Michael
Empirical research has converged to support the concurrent association between social difficulties and psychiatric symptoms; yet, longitudinal associations between interpersonal problems and treatment outcome require clarification. The current investigation evaluated the influence of interpersonal problems assessed prior to treatment on interpersonal impacts assessed during treatment as well as on treatment outcome in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). 125 participants with a primary diagnosis of MDD were randomized to receive cognitive behavioural therapy or interpersonal therapy. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex before and after treatment. Therapists completed the Impact Message Inventory during and after treatment. Interpersonal distress improved over the course of treatment; all other interpersonal changes were non-significant when distress was taken into account. Pre-treatment rigidity and agentic problems predicted less reduction in depressive symptoms, whereas agentic and communal impacts upon therapists during treatment predicted greater symptom change. Overall interpersonal distress was only indirectly associated with treatment response later in treatment, through its association with agentic style. Results did not differ across therapy type, and were replicated across self-report and interviewer-rated measures of depression severity. Limitations include the brief duration of treatment, lack of medication arm, and potentially restricted generalizability of patients in a randomized control trial to those in routine practice. Interpersonal style demonstrated a trait-like stability over treatment, and appears to fluctuate due to co-occurring distress. Yet, specific interpersonal styles were negative prognostic indicators, even within therapy specifically targeting interpersonal functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Tsai, William; Lu, Qian
Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is the inner conflict of desiring emotion expression and fearing consequence of emotion expression. Few studies to date have examined the effects of AEE within an ethnic group that prioritizes emotional self-control. The present study examined the associations between AEE and well-being (viz., quality of life and depressive symptoms) as a function of acculturation among a sample of Chinese American breast cancer survivors. Ninety-six Chinese breast cancer survivors (M age = 54.64 years old, SD = 7.98) were recruited from Southern California. Participants filled out a paper-pen questionnaire containing the Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Short Form (CESD-10). Acculturation was a statistically significant moderator of the relations between AEE and depressive symptoms, and a statistically marginally significant moderator of the relations between AEE and quality of life. Simple slopes revealed that AEE was negatively associated with quality of life (B = -.45, p .05, for quality of life and depressive symptoms, respectively). These results suggest that less acculturated Chinese breast cancer survivors are protected by Chinese cultural values of emotional self-control and restraint, and thus do not experience the detrimental effects of AEE on their depressive symptoms and quality of life. Implications are discussed.
Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David
This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issue of accuracy of interpersonal perception in computer-mediated communication. It shows how J.Biesanz’s social accuracy model of interpersonal perception may be used in explorations of interpersonal perception in mediated contacts — via personal webpages in social media. In the study the subjects (15 people were asked to assess individuals with whom they were unacquainted basing on their webpages in VKontakte (30 web pages using a brief version of the Big Five Inventory. The outcomes reveal which objective parameters of the assessed webpages contribute most to the accuracy of interpersonal perception in the subjects, and also prove that the accuracy of interpersonal perception in this case is shaped by its normative component, not by the distinctive one. This suggests that in virtual communication one’s perception of a partner may be more affected by stereotypes than in real communication — a hypothesis that needs to be further tested.
Hamamci, Zeynep; Büyüköztürk, Sener
In this study, an Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale was developed to assess cognitive distortions in individuals' interpersonal relationships. The sample comprised 425 university students. A factor analysis yielded three factors: Interpersonal Rejection, Unrealistic Relationship Expectation and Interpersonal Misperception. To examine construct validity the correlations between the scores on the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Scale (.54), the Irrational Belief Scale (.54), and the Conflict Tendency Scale (.53) were estimated. The first factor, the second factor, and the total scale discriminated married individuals who had low and high conflict intensity and conflict frequency. The reliability of the scale was estimated by performing a test-retest correlation (.74). Cronbach internal consistency coefficient alpha was .67.
Mandeep K. Dhami
Full Text Available Using Brunswik's (1952 lens model framework, Hammond (1965 proposed interpersonal conflict theory to explain the nature, source, and resolution of disagreement or ``cognitive conflict'' between parties performing judgment tasks. An early review by Brehmer (1976 highlighted the potential of this approach in, for example, understanding the structure of cognitive conflicts, and the effect of task and person variables on judgment policy change and conflict resolution. However, our bibliographic and content reviews from 1976 to the present day demonstrate that research on cognitive conflict using the lens model has declined sharply, while research on ``task conflict'' has grown dramatically. There has also been a shift to less theoretical precision and methodological rigor. We discuss possible reasons for these developments, and suggest ways in which lens model research on cognitive conflict can be revitalized by borrowing from recent theoretical and methodological advances in the field of judgment and decision making.
Conduct disorder (CD) affects 2-9% of children in this country and has been found to be relatively stable through childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood. Although many behaviors that comprise CD have been studied, there has been a lack of research on cruelty to animals. It has been suggested that animal cruelty may be exhibited by 25% of CD children and that animal abuse may be the earliest symptom evident in CD children. In addition, several studies have found a significant relationship between childhood cruelty to animals and violence toward people. Available research is reviewed in this report, including early studies on the relationship between animal cruelty and interpersonal violence, recent assessment attempts, and intervention techniques. Future research needs are also outlined and discussed.
Kawamoto, Taishi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nittono, Hiroshi
People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion.
Madsen, Sabine; Matook, Sabine
Agile information systems development (ISD) is a people-centered approach that emphasizes frequent interaction and genuine co-operation between customers and developers. While business relationships are the norm in the workplace, agile ISD leads to the creation of close interpersonal relationships....... Drawing on relationship theory and friendship literature we propose a theoretical framework of three types of workplace relationships. The framework is used for deriving theoretical preconceptions about agile relationships and their impact on the agile ISD team’s ability to deliver valuable, working...... software frequently. We also present the interpretive approach we will apply. An understanding of the relationship specific aspects of agile ISD as well as of the importance and impact of certain relationship characteristics can help explain why some agile projects succeed, while others fail...
This article examines a range of lexico-grammatical resources for projection in German, i.e. grammatical phenomena that can be deployed in order to attribute an utterance to someone other than the present speaker. The aim is to examine these well-described phenomena (cf. Zifonun et al. 1997) from...... a systemic functional point of view and to demonstrate how the systemic concepts of semantic domain and different linguistic metafunctions, in this case the ideational and the interpersonal, can shed new light on this field. Based on analyses of newspaper examples, it is demonstrated how the resources...... that places it in both metafunctions. The article is a pilot study focusing on the linguistic potential of projection, and should be seen as a contribution to the ongoing description of German grammar in terms of systemic functional linguistics (e.g. Steiner & Teich 2004). It may furthermore serve...
Horowitz, Leonard M; Wilson, Kelly R; Turan, Bulent; Zolotsev, Pavel; Constantino, Michael J; Henderson, Lynne
Circumplex models have organized interpersonal behavior along 2 orthogonal dimensions--communion (which emphasizes connection between people) and agency (which emphasizes one person's influence over the other). However, many empirical studies have disconfirmed certain predictions from these models. We therefore revised the model in 4 ways that highlight interpersonal motives. In our revision: (a) the negative pole of communion is indifference, not hostility; (b) a given behavior invites (not evokes) a desired reaction from the partner; (c) the complement of a behavior is a reaction that would satisfy the motive behind that behavior; (d) noncomplementary reactions induce negative affect. If the motive is unclear, the meaning of the behavior is ambiguous. This ambiguity helps explain failures in social support, miscommunications in everyday life, and features of most personality disorders. The model emphasizes measurable individual differences: Reactions that are complementary for one person need not be complementary for another.
Boudreaux, Michael J; Ozer, Daniel J; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Wright, Aidan G C
The interpersonal circumplex (IPC) is a well-established model of social behavior that spans basic personality and clinical science. Although several measures are available to assess interpersonal functioning (e.g., motives, traits) within an IPC framework, researchers studying interpersonal difficulties have relied primarily on a single measure, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (IIP-C; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Although the IIP-C is a widely used measure, it is currently the only measure specifically designed to assess maladaptive interpersonal behavior using the IPC framework. The purpose of the current study is to describe a new 64-item measure of interpersonal problems, called the Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Problems (CSIP). Interpersonal problems derived from a pool of 400 personality-related problems were assessed in two large university samples. In the scale development sample (N = 1,197), items that best characterized each sector of the IPC were identified, and a set of eight 8-item circumplex scales was developed. Psychometric properties of the resulting measure were then examined in the validation sample (N = 757). Results from confirmatory circumplex structural analyses indicated that the CSIP fit well to a quasi-circumplex model. The CSIP converged with the IIP-C and the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, 1995), and associated in theoretically expected ways with broader assessments of adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits and symptoms of psychological distress. The CSIP augments the IIP-C with additional content, thereby helping to extend the underlying constructs, and provides an alternative means for studying the interpersonal consequences of personality and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kravetz, S; Faust, M; Lipshitz, S; Shalhav, S
This study used Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria for mediation to investigate the extent to which interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between learning disabilities (LD) and social adaptation in the classroom. Twenty-two children with and 22 children without a diagnosis of LD completed a semistructured developmental clinical interview measure of interpersonal understanding. They were also rated by their fourth- and fifth-grade teachers on a measure of social adaptation in the classroom. Interpersonal understanding and social adaptation in the classroom were found to be positively correlated. Children with LD exhibited less interpersonal understanding and social adaptation. Although this group difference on social adaptation was greatly reduced when interpersonal understanding was statistically controlled, it remained statistically significant. These results suggest that reduced social adaptation in the classroom and lower interpersonal understanding are both associated with a diagnosis of LD. However, they do not conclusively support the claim that interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between LD and social adaptation. Thus, whether the social difficulties of people with LD stem from the same complex phenomena that produce these people's learning problems remains an open question.
Crouch, B I; Thomas, K C; Rothwell, E; Planalp, S; Ellington, L; Teemant, K
Poison control center (PCC) personnel face many challenges in communicating with callers and with each other. The purpose of this study was to identify interpersonal communication issues that affect the work environment within PCCs. As part of a larger questionnaire study distributed electronically to members of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) to assess communication training needs for PCCs, three questions were included to assess interpersonal communication within the work environment: (1) How important is interpersonal communication within your center to a positive work environment? (not at all to extremely important, 1-7); (2) How disruptive is interpersonal communication to your work? (not at all to extremely disruptive, 1-7); and (3) What communication issues do you find most disruptive to your work? (free-text response). Descriptive and qualitative content analyses were used to identify themes in responses. A total of 537 responses were received from SPIs, directors, medical directors, and other PCC staff. Interpersonal communication within the PCC was rated as extremely important to a positive work environment (median = 7 and IQR = 6-7; 62.3% rated as extremely important). Interpersonal communication was rated as less than moderately disruptive on average (median = 3 and IQR = 2-4). Free-text responses were received from 335 (62%) respondents. Free-text comments were broadly categorized as relating to PCC personnel and work environment and issues related to PCC callers. Categories that emerged from the PCC personnel and work environment category included the following: poor interpersonal communication (n = 104; 31%); background noise (n = 96; 29%); poor work procedures (n = 51; 15%); and poor management communication (n = 38; 11%). Interpersonal communication within PCCs was considered to be important for a positive work environment. Although not found to be strongly disruptive by most respondents, several specific interpersonal
Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L
The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention.
Rahayu Puji Haryanti
Full Text Available Different from that in the second half of the eighteenth century, travel literature today is a paradise for women authorship. Under the cosmopolitan worldview, women travellers compete with their male counterparts observing and reporting their adventure around the world. Mary Gray, an Irish author who now lives in New Zealand, for example, presents her experience traveling in Indonesia in the reform era. Showing some indication of East- West relation, the work is considered as containing postcolonial discourses offeringalternative answers to the world problem related to new imperial phenomena. Using the postcolonial approach and Pratt‘s theory in travel writing, this research was conducted to identify the traveler‘s strategy called the ‗seeing woman‘ the positions she tries to achieve in her object representation.The result shows some traces of ambivalence within the new imperial andcosmopolitan imperatives.
Kempke, Stefan; Luyten, Patrick
This paper provides an overview of the growing convergence among psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral approaches of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). From a traditional psychoanalytic point of view, OCD is mainly conceptualized in terms of a constant conflict between feelings of love and hate. More recent psychodynamic theories of OCD, such as the object-relational model, focus on the role of ambivalent mental representations or cognitive-affective schemas of self and others. This notion of mental representations or schemas links psychodynamic formulations to cognitive-behavioral approaches of OCD. Moreover, there is increasing overlap between psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral models concerning the core dynamics involved in OCD. Implications of this convergence for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Chrisler, Joan C; Gorman, Jennifer A; Marván, Maria Luisa; Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid
College students in southeastern Mexico (n = 185) and the northeastern United States (n = 96) utilized a semantic differential scale to rate subtypes of women: a menstruating woman, a menopausal woman, a pregnant woman, a premenstrual woman, a woman with a hysterectomy, a teenage girl, a woman in love, and a woman with a young baby. Americans reported significantly more negative attitudes than Mexicans did toward a menstruating woman, a premenstrual woman, a teenage girl, and a pregnant woman. Participants chose more positive words to describe a teenage girl, a woman in love, a pregnant woman, and a woman with a young baby, which is suggestive of a pronatal bias. Participants also completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Men scored significantly higher than women on hostile sexism. Mexicans scored significantly higher than Americans on both hostile and benevolent sexism. Sexism scores are related to attitudes toward premenstrual, menstruating, and menopausal women; women with a hysterectomy; and women with a young baby.
Škařupová, Kateřina; Blinka, Lukas
Background and aims The present study explores the relationship between social motivations and addiction to online gaming and if that possible connection can be explained by the personality traits responsible for social functioning. Methods We employ Bernstein's concept of interpersonal dependency to distinguish healthy dependency, dysfunctional detachment, and destructive overdependence, and Charlton and Danforth's conceptualisation of online gaming addiction and high engagement. An online questionnaire was administered to a self-nominated sample of 4,074 online gamers. Two regression models were constructed to separately explain gaming addiction and high engagement using social motivations to play, while controlling for age, gender, and time spent online. Results High scores on subscales measuring dysfunctional detachment and destructive overdependence were positively associated with online gaming addiction, while healthy dependency was negatively correlated with addiction scores. In contrast, the overall role of social motivation was negligible. Discussion People with healthy relationship profiles are less likely to develop problematic patterns of online gaming. High in-game engagement, although sharing some factors with addiction, was only poorly explained by the study variables, suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of addiction and engagement.
Full Text Available People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012, Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 4, 11. In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1 constructional elements of social exclusion, (2 detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3 development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion and (4 sources of social exclusion.
Mbengu D. Nyiawung
Full Text Available The Jewish peasantry as a character group in the Gospel of Luke has, thus far, not really attracted much attention in Lukan scholarship. In cases where it has been studied, scholars have often treated ὄχλος [crowd] and λαὸς [people] as synonymous characters. But the question of Jesus’ identity, as depicted in the New Testament, was crucial to the early church and it is this exact question that animates the relationship between Jesus and the various ‘systems’ functioning as part of Luke’s Gospel. From an etic viewpoint, the context of Luke’s Gospel indicates that Jesus’ leadership was characterised by conflict, opposition and rejection. Therefore, this article attempted, through an emic reading of Luke, to differentiate between (and describe the role played by each of these character groups in Luke’s narrative, focusing on the relationship between Jesus and the Jewish peasantry – with special reference to the ambivalent attitude of the latter. It was argued that each Lukan character group has to be read and understood in terms of their attitude, as well as in the broader context of Luke’s intention with their inclusion and specific description. Therefore the various terminologies used when referring to the Jewish peasantry were also discussed; for any analysis of a biblical character group should begin with a reading of the Greek text, because working only with translations can lead to a misappropriation of the text. In order to attain the goals as set out above, this study used a character group which seemed ambivalent and hypocritical in their attitude to analyse Jesus’ leadership approach.
Secrecy, concealment, and thought supression are assumed to be important aspects of psychopathology. However, most studies address these from an intrapersonal perspective. This study investigates both the intra- as well as the interpersonal consequences of experimentally induced concealment. Two
Montgomery III, William H
Being self aware and using interpersonal skills will be significant to leader success given the 2006 release of the Army's new mandate to create, develop, and nurture a different kind of Army leader...
Reddy, W. Brendan
Significant positive changes in self actualization were attained in members of both intensive residential sensitivity training laboratories and nonintensive nonresidential sensitivity training laboratories. Affection compatibility was the prime interpersonal variable associated with self actualization gains. (Author)
Dulmen, A.M. van; Holl, R.A.
Paediatric care places great demands on interpersonal communication skills, especially as regards the handling of psychosocial issues. Recent shifts in paediatric morbidity and increases in patient empowerment furthermore emphasize the need for continuing paediatric education in communication
Estimating the burden of disease attributable to interpersonal violence in South Africa in 2000. R Norman, D Bradshaw, M Schneider, R Jewkes, S Mathews, N Abrahams, R Matzopoulos, T Vos, South African Comparitive Risk Assessment Collaboration Grou ...
Schachter, Frances Fuchs; And Others
Reports on a study designed to provide data on developmental and sociolinguistic patterns of interpersonal speech usage from ages 2 to 5 years which may have important implications for poverty school programs. (Author/CS)
Elliott, Kari A; Erickson, Michael D; Fowler, Edward T; Gieseking, John K; Weiss, Mary P
... by Army civilian leaders. Thirty-eight (38) Army civilian managers from four leadership levels completed questionnaires and participated in face-to-face interviews describing the important interpersonal skills that were necessary...
Locke, Geoffrey W; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E; Petry, Nancy M
The college years are a time for developing independence and separating from one's family, and they are also a time in which substance use often escalates. This study examined the relationships between use of substances and interpersonal guilt, an emotion that can arise from feelings about separation among college students. In total, 1865 college students completed a survey evaluating substance use and interpersonal guilt. Regular users of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit drugs were compared with nonregular users of each substance. Sequential linear regression, controlling for confounding variables, examined relationships between regular use of each substance and scores on a guilt index. Risky drinkers and daily smokers had significantly more interpersonal guilt than their peers who did not regularly use these substances. In contrast, regular cannabis users had significantly less guilt than nonregular cannabis users. These data suggest that substance use among college students may be related to interpersonal guilt and family separation issues, and this relationship may vary across substances.
, interpersonal and textual meanings otherwise known as the “metafunctions” of language (Halliday and Matthiessen 61). This means that language transmits experience and reality (ideational), enacts social roles and relationships ...
Aekyung Han, RN, PhD
Conclusions: Based on this research, the development of an anger expression intervention program for nurses is recommended to establish the means of expressing the suppressed emotions, which would help the nurses experience less interpersonal problems.
Cheshin, A.; Heerdink, M.W.; Kossakowski, J.J.; van Kleef, G.A.
Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers’ facial displays influence how
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro
The effect of parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity was studied in 469 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which consists of the factors of care and protection, and interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). In male subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of paternal protection (P < .01) and maternal protection (P < .05). In female subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of maternal protection (P < .001). The present study suggests that in both males and females, interpersonal sensitivity is increased by high protection of the same-sex parents and that in males there is an additional effect of high maternal protection.
Horita, Yuji; Otsuka, Yasumasa
Interpersonal helping behavior in organizational citizenship behavior can enhance social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a workers' interpersonal helping behavior enhancement program increased interpersonal helping behavior, social support, and quantitative workload, and reduced psychological stress responses. A total of 72 workers in a manufacturing company in Japan participated in this study. After excluding 24 participants due to incomplete answers to a questionnaire, retirement, or absence from training, a total of 26 participants working in branch B assigned to an intervention group (22 male and 4 female) and a total of 22 participants working in branch C assigned to a control group (19 male and 3 female) were used for per-protocol analyses. In addition, after excluding 10 participants due to incomplete answers at pre test, a total of 35 participants working in branch B assigned to an intervention group (30 male and 5 female) and a total of 27 participants working in branch C assigned to a control group (23 male and 4 female) were used for intention to treat (ITT) analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior was assessed using the Japanese version of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to measure quantitative workload, psychological stress responses, and social support. Only the intervention group participants attended a seminar on psychological education, performed role-playing, and did four weeks' homework (HW). Both the intervention and control group participants answered pre test (pre), post test (post), and follow-up test (follow-up) at the same times. To evaluate the effects of the workers' interpersonal helping behavior enhancement program, two-way analysis of variances were performed for per-protocol analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior, quantitative workload, psychological stress responses, and social support were used as the dependent variables, time
Abadi, Totok Wahyu; Sukmawan, Fandrian; Utari, Dian Asha
The purpose of this study is to analyze and explain the use of social media among teenagers, the development of interpersonal relationships, and the influence of social media on the development of adolescent interpersonal relationships in Sidoarjo. This research, which involves a hundred high school students as the respondents, uses explanative approach. Through random sampling of data collection, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics analyzing techniques and multiple regression...
Bearing in mind that modern technological tools for communication play an integral role in sustaining of social relationships, the aim of this article is to determine whether the internet has been replacing face to face (FtF) contacts in sustaining interpersonal relationships and are there some aspects of personal networks contact that are handled by interpersonal media of the internet, email and IM (Instant Messenger). The analysis has been performed on two levels, first through examin...
Medical educators have promoted skillful communication as a means for doctors to develop positive relationships with their patients. In practice, communication tends to be defined primarily as what doctors say, with less attention to how, when, and to whom they say it. These latter elements of communication, which often carry the emotional content of the discourse, are usually referred to as interpersonal skills. Although recognized as important by some educators, interpersonal skills have re...
[Introduction] Many researchers emphasise the importance of interpersonal communication competence in learning, in working life, and in society in general (Daly, 1998; Morreale, Osborn and Pearson, 2000). Changes in the working life (e.g., globalisation, the development of information and communication technology, the increase in abstract, conceptual, and knowledge-intensive work, and the increase in collaborative interaction) have established new challenges to interpersonal...
Lustman, Alex; Comaneshter, Doron; Vinker, Shlomo
Continuity of care is one of the core principles of primary care. The importance of interpersonal continuity in treating diabetic patients is unclear. To examine the association of interpersonal continuity of care, by the primary care physician, on the process of diabetic care and on health end points including diabetes control, hospital admissions and mortality. We conducted a population based cohort study, 23,294 eligible participants were identified in Clalit Health Services Central Region at January 1, 2011 and followed through to December 31, 2012. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to the data to study simultaneously the independent relationship between low interpersonal continuity, adjusted for background characteristics, and outcomes of care, including hospitalization and mortality. Achieving clinical targets was more likely in the high interpersonal continuity group HBA1 C OR 1.11 (CI 1.04-1.19), blood pressure OR 1.12 (1.04-1.20), LDL OR 1.14 (1.06-1.22). Patients with high interpersonal continuity had lower odds for mortality OR 0.59 (0.50-0.70). Admissions to hospital were lower in the high interpersonal continuity group, OR 0.82 (0.75-0.90), however when adjusting for background characteristics the difference in OR for hospital admissions became non-significant 0.92 (0.84-1.01). High interpersonal continuity was associated with improved outcomes of process, and both primary and secondary clinical targets amongst adult patients with diabetes. This study is the first to find an association between interpersonal continuity and mortality amongst adults with diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malikeh Beheshtifar; Elham Zare
Interpersonal conflict is conflict that occurs between two or more individuals that work together in groups or teams. This is a conflict that occurs between two or more individuals. Many individual differences lead to interpersonal conflict, including personalities, culture, attitudes, values, perceptions, and the other differences. Conflict arises due to a variety of factors. Individual differences in goals, expectations, values, proposed courses of action, and suggestions about how to best ...
Watts , Cody; Sharlin , Ehud; Woytiuk , Peter
International audience; Increasingly, the movements of players' physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based on this unconventional interaction technique re...
Gamze Ergil Altin
Perinatal depression is a psychiatric disorder that is not sufficiently diagnosed and directed to treatment. Its acute and chronic outcomes influence not only the mother but also the infant and the relationship between them. Both pregnancy and the postpartum periods are the times of significant physiological and emotional changes which also influence interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal risk factors like insufficient social support and increased social conflict can have an important imp...
Vydia, Vensy; Irliana, Nursanti; Savitri, Anna Dian
Internet provides any information which could help teenagers in many cases, including to communicate with their friends. On the other way, internet technology which makes communication easier, does some negative effects related with interpersonal communication. Teenagers are not willing to do direct communication, including with their families. The purpose of this research is to find out and to prove whether social media impacts to interpersonal communication and cyberbullying of teenagers ....
Vensy Vydia; Nursanti Irliana; Anna Dian Savitri
Internet provides any information which could help teenagers in many cases, including to communicate with their friends. On the other way, internet technology which makes communication easier, does some negative effects related with interpersonal communication. Teenagers are not willing to do direct communication, including with their families. The purpose of this research is to find out and to prove whether social media impacts to interpersonal communication and cyberbullying of teenage...
Scocco, P; Barbieri, I; Frank, E
Numerous studies indicate that stressful life events are key precipitants of psychological disturbances. Severe stress often precedes the onset or exacerbation of illness in vulnerable individuals and may be of primary importance in the genesis of some mental disorders. Several authors have suggested that major life events play a role in the development of panic-related symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of stressful life events, in particular events focused in the interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas (grief, role disputes, role transitions, interpersonal deficits), in patients suffering from panic disorder. We interviewed 55 patients suffering from panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, in accordance with the diagnostic criteria specified in MINI PLUS. The panic attack profile was evaluated with the Panic Attack and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale. We assessed the ability to adapt to and derive satisfaction from the social environment with the Social Adjustment Scale Self Report and interpersonal problems with Interpersonal Questionnaire. Using the Interpersonal Questionnaire we found that all subjects had had relevant interpersonal problems in the year preceding the onset of PD: 92.7% had experienced a role transition, 85.5% interpersonal deficits, 74.5% a role dispute and 38.2% had suffered the loss of a relative or significant other. These results were confirmed by Paykel's scale, on which the whole sample reported a high frequency of life events in the 6 months before onset of illness. These preliminary data suggest a rationale for the therapeutic strategies of interpersonal psychotherapy in individuals with panic disorder.
Schmid Mast, Marianne
The goal of these series of studies was to introduce a new individual difference construct, interpersonal hierarchy expectation (IHE), and to show that it predicts interpersonal perception. IHE means expecting social interactions and relationships to be hierarchically structured. I developed a self-report questionnaire to measure IHE (IHE Scale [IHES]). In 5 studies, 581 undergraduates took the IHES together with an array of self-report personality measures. Three studies included a measure o...
Hur, Yera; Cho, A-Ra; Kim, Sun
Medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs must be considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs. A total of 171 students in Konyang University College of Medicine were examined using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, and one-sample proportion test. The proportion of the 4 pairs of MBTI dimensions were Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I) (53.2% vs. 46.8%), Sensing (S)-Intuition (N) (63.2% vs. 36.8%), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F) (59.7% vs. 40.4%), and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) (56.1% vs. 43.9%). The predominant personality types were ISTJ (16.4%), ESTJ (14.0%), and ESFJ (10.5%). The level of interpersonal needs were medium rage that was inclusion (mean=8.1), control (mean=8.8), affection (mean=8.1), expressed behavior (mean=12.1), wanted behavior (mean=12.9), and overall interpersonal needs (mean=25.0). Of the basic social needs, males and females differed significantly with regard to control needs (p=0.028). Educational programs that take into account personality types and characteristics of interpersonal needs are crucial in providing effective medical education. Our results suggest that the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs should be considered in developing an interpersonal relations improvement program for medical students.
Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Carrión Martínez, José J; Luque de la Rosa, Antonio; Garzón Fernández, Anabella; Martos Martínez, África; Simón Márquez, Maria Del Mar; Barragán Martín, Ana B; Gázquez Linares, José J
This article analyzes the characteristics of antisocial behavior and interpersonal values of high school students ( Compulsory Secondary Education ) (CSE), the profile of students with high levels of antisocial behavior with regard to interpersonal values, and possible protection from antisocial behavior that interpersonal values could provide. The Interpersonal Values Questionnaire was used to assess interpersonal values, and the Antisocial-Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire was employed to assess antisocial behaviors. The sample was made up of 885 CSE students aged 14-17. The results revealed a greater prevalence of antisocial behaviors among males and fourth-year CSE students. Moreover, antisocial behaviors were more frequent among participants with high scores in Stimulation, Recognition, Independence, and Leadership and low scores in Conformity and Benevolence. Lastly, logistic regression analyses showed that low scores in Conformity and Benevolence and high scores in Independence predicted high scores in antisocial behavior. The possibility of identifying certain interpersonal values which could positively or negatively affect the appearance of antisocial behavior during adolescence is discussed.
Di Blas, Lisa
This article presents evidence for the validity of the circumplex model to represent how parents and teachers organize interpersonal attributes in children. Study 1 showed that the ratings of adults using interpersonal adjectives to describe 4- to 10-year-old children conformed to a circumplex structure. Eight scales-labeled Interpersonal Adjective Scales for Children (IAS-C)-were developed to represent the circular sequence of children's interpersonal attributes, as ordered around the reference axes of Extraversion and Social Appropriateness. The continuum of interpersonal variables substantially corresponded to Schaefer's model for social and emotional behavior, as follows: Warm-Agreeable, Sociable-Cheerful, Exuberant-Dominant, Impulsive-Aggressive, Egocentric-Irritable, Fearful-Insecure, Shy-Silent, and Mild-Placid. Study 2 demonstrated cross-validity for the IAS-C and how they are related to Big Five measures. Study 3 used data from Studies 1 and 2 in a confirmatory approach to test the circumplex IAS-C structure. Findings are discussed in relation to the adult circumplex model and suggest that the child circumplex has distinctive features that must be kept in due consideration when attempting to assess interpersonal qualities in children validly.
Full Text Available Interpersonal sexual objectification is defined as the act of reducing a woman to her body or body parts. It could be considered as a form of sexist discrimination, in which women have a differential treatment minimizing the importance of their inner qualities. The aim of this study, in which involved 251 participants, was to analyze the perception of interpsersonal sexual objectification in men and women. In addition, we examined the relationship between the interpersonal sexual objectification and ideological variables (sexism and power as well as self-esteem and enjoyment of sexualization. Results showed gender differences in interpersonal sexual objectification. Women experienced more sexual objectification in their interpersonal relationships. Also, results showed the effect of gender in the variables that predicted interpersonal sexual objectification. In men, self-esteem and power were related with more experiences of sexual objectification. Specifically, power predicted the perception of objectification and this effect was mediated by enjoyment of sexualization. However, in women, benevolent sexism predicted the perception of interpersonal sexual objectification and this effect was mediated by enjoyment of sexualization.
Longman-Mills, S; Carpenter, K
Of particular public health concern to the Jamaican authorities is the consistently high numbers of new HIV infections among adolescents and young adults. The thrust in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns has largely been toward an increase in knowledge and attitudes as opposed to personality variables. However, it is widely believed that persons with high interpersonal skills may be less likely to engage in sex risk behaviours. This study investigated interpersonal competence as a personality characteristic associated with sexual risk-taking among Jamaican adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 500 adolescents, ages 13-18 years (250 males and 250 females) from nine randomly selected secondary government schools within Kingston and St Andrew was used. The sample ensured maximum variation in age groups. The BarOn EQ-i:YV(S) was utilized to provide a measure of interpersonal competence and the Sex Risk Scale from the Adolescent Risk Inventory acted as a measure of sex risk behaviours. The Spearman's rho correlational statistic was used to investigate the hypothesis. Of the students surveyed, 58.6% reported that they were sexually active; 31.8% reported having multiple sexual partners and 28.2% reporting inconsistent condom use. A significant, inverse relationship was observed between interpersonal competence and sex risk behaviours (p adolescents with high interpersonal skills are less likely to participate in risky sexual behaviours. Therefore, interventions aimed at reducing risky adolescent sexual practices might benefit from the inclusion of strategies to build interpersonal skills.
Bjørkvik, Jofrid; Biringer, Eva; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Nielsen, Geir Høstmark
This study explored associations between self-esteem and interpersonal functioning in a one-year clinic cohort of psychiatric outpatients (n= 338). At intake, patients completed questionnaires measuring self-esteem, interpersonal problems, interpersonal style, and general symptomatic distress. They were also diagnosed according to the ICD-10. Interpersonal behaviour was measured along the agency and communion dimensions of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex [IIP-C]. The results show that lower self-esteem was associated with higher levels of interpersonal problems in general. Further, lower self-esteem was first and foremost linked to frustrated agentic motives, as measured by the IIP-C. Hence, the study concludes that fostering patient agency should be considered as an important goal in psychotherapy. Furthermore, the analyses revealed an interaction effect of agency and communion on self-esteem, indicating a need for balancing the two motive dimensions. Finally, some questions are raised concerning the interpretation of the IIP-C subscales in general.
Williams, Trevor F.; Simms, Leonard J.
Interpersonal dysfunction is a defining feature of personality disorders (PDs) and can serve as a criterion for comparing PD models. In this study, the interpersonal coverage of four competing PD models was examined using a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric patients who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half (NEO-PI-3FH; McCrae & Costa, 2007), Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012), Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF; Simms et al., 2011), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Questionnaire (SCID-II PQ; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995). Participants also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-SC; Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) to assess interpersonal dysfunction. Analyses compared the severity and style of interpersonal problems that characterize PD models. Previous research with DSM-5 Section II and III models was generally replicated. Extraversion and Agreeableness facets related to the most well defined interpersonal problems across normal-range and pathological traits. Pathological trait models provided more coverage of dominance problems, whereas normal-range traits covered nonassertiveness better. These results suggest that more work may be needed to reconcile descriptions of personality pathology at the level of specific constructs. PMID:26168406
Han, Aekyung; Won, Jongsoon; Kim, Oksoo; Lee, Sang E
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anger expression types in nurses and to analyze the differences between the anger expression types and interpersonal problems. The data were collected from 149 nurses working in general hospitals with 300 beds or more in Seoul or Gyeonggi province, Korea. For anger expression type, the anger expression scale from the Korean State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory was used. For interpersonal problems, the short form of the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and Duncan's multiple comparisons test. Three anger expression types in nurses were found: low-anger expression, anger-in, and anger-in/control type. From the results of multivariate analysis of variance, there were significant differences between anger expression types and interpersonal problems (Wilks lambda F = 3.52, p interpersonal problems by Duncan's post hoc test (p interpersonal problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J
Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Presniak, Michelle D; Bissada, Hany
We assessed whether an attachment-based treatment, Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) had a greater impact compared to Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Cold/Distant and Intrusive/Needy interpersonal problems. Ninety-five individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomized to GPIP or GCBT and assessed at pre-, post-, and six months post-treatment. Both therapies resulted in a significant decrease in all eight interpersonal problem subscales except the Nonassertive subscale. GPIP resulted in a greater reduction in the Cold/Distant subscale compared to GCBT, but no differences were found for changes in the Intrusive/Needy subscale. GPIP may be most relevant for those with BED who have Cold/Distant interpersonal problems and attachment avoidance.
Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming
The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.
Gallo, Linda C; Smith, Timothy W; Ruiz, John M
Previous research suggests that the structure of adult attachment is dimensional, but the specific dimensions remain unclear. Given its relational nature, studies should examine attachment structure in association with conceptually related interpersonal constructs. The interpersonal model (Kiesler, 1996) provides an integrative framework to examine this structure and associations between dimensions of attachment security (i.e., Anxiety and Avoidance) and: 1) the dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex, 2) the five-factor model of personality, 3) recollections of mothers and fathers, and 4) current self-processes and adult social functioning. In two samples of undergraduates, the Anxiety and Avoidance dimensions were associated with a hostile-submissive interpersonal style. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that dimensions representing combinations of Anxiety and Avoidance, and roughly corresponding to the dimensions from Secure (i.e., low Anxiety and Avoidance) to Fearful (i.e., high Anxiety and Avoidance) attachment and from Preoccupied (i.e., high Anxiety and low Avoidance) to Dismissive (i.e., low Anxiety and high Avoidance) attachment related to the interpersonal constructs. The Secure to Fearful dimension (i.e., overall attachment security) seemed to share relatively more variance with the interpersonal constructs. These dimensions were associated with theoretically consistent characteristics, recollections of early experiences with parents, self-representations, and social functioning.
Full Text Available The development of the interpersonal behaviour of managers has received a good deal of attention, especially in terms of the most appropriate interpersonal styles in the work context and the skills involved in developing and maintaining effective interpersonal relationships. The design of effective interpersonal development programs requires a thorough evaluation of an individual’s interpersonal development needs. In order to do this, evaluators should have an understanding of the most appropriate interpersonal styles for managers. Given the aims of the investigation, the approach that was followed was to evaluate the relevant literature in this field. The theoretical goal was to study and describe the most appropriate theoretical interpersonal style repertoire of middle-level managers using the interpersonal approach, and specifically the 1982 Interpersonal Circle. The conclusions support the notion that dominant, assured, exhibitionistic, social, friendly, warm and trusting styles are the most relevant of the 16 interpersonal segments, while the assured-dominant, social-exhibitionistic and warm-friendly octants are viewed as the most appropriate. Opsomming Die ontwikkeling van die interpersoonlike gedrag van bestuurders het reeds heelwat aandag gekry. Dit geld veral vir aangeleenthede wat verband hou met die mees toepaslike interpersoonlike style binne die werkskonteks en die vaardighede wat die ontwikkeling van effektiewe interpersoonlike verhoudings onderlê. Die ontwikkeling van effektiewe interpersoonlike ontwikkelingsprogramme vereis ’n deeglike evaluering van ’n individu se interpersoonlike ontwikkelingsbehoeftes. Om dit te vermag, is dit nodig vir evalueerders om te verstaan wat die mees toepaslike interpersoonlike style vir bestuurders is. Gegee die doelwitte van die ondersoek is die metode wat gevolg is ’n evaluering van die relevante literatuur in hierdie gebied. Die teoretiese doel was om die mees toepaslike teoretiese
Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.
In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.
Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya
Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors' face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder.
Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya
Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors’ face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder. PMID:25978817
Vitacco, Michael J.; Kosson, David S.
Interpersonal characteristics are core features of the psychopathy construct which have a unique pattern of correlations with a variety of external correlates. To improve the assessment of interpersonal traits, the current study evaluated the internal structure of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P) through exploratory and confirmatory…
Gokben Hizli Sayar
Full Text Available Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy is a psychotherapy modality that helps the patient recognize the relationship between disruptions in social rhythms and the onset of previous episodes of psychiatric disorders. It uses psychoeducation and behavioral techniques to maintain social rhythm and sleep/wake regularity. It is closely related to and ldquo;social zeitgeber theory and rdquo; that emphasizes the importance that social rhythm regularity may play in synchronization of circadian rhythms in individuals with or at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy have been shown to stabilize social rhythms and enhance course and outcome in bipolar disorder. This review focuses on the theoretical principles and the basic steps of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy as a psychotherapy approach in bipolar disorder. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar databases were searched without temporal restriction. Search terms included interpersonal social rhythm therapy, bipolar, mood disorders. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and randomized controlled trials of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in bipolar disorder selected. These researches also summarized on the final part of this review. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 438-446
José Wicto Pereira Borges
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to elaborate an instrument for the measurement of the interpersonal relationship in nursing care through the Item Response Theory, and the validation thereof. Method: methodological study, which followed the three poles of psychometry: theoretical, empirical and analytical. The Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire was developed in light of the Imogene King’s Interpersonal Conceptual Model and the psychometric properties were studied through the Item Response Theory in a sample of 950 patients attended in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Health Care. Results: the final instrument consisted of 31 items, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.90 and McDonald’s Omega of 0.92. The parameters of the Item Response Theory demonstrated high discrimination in 28 items, being developed a five-level interpretive scale. At the first level, the communication process begins, gaining a wealth of interaction. Subsequent levels demonstrate qualitatively the points of effectiveness of the interpersonal relationship with the involvement of behaviors related to the concepts of transaction and interaction, followed by the concept of role. Conclusion: the instrument was created and proved to be consistent to measure interpersonal relationship in nursing care, as it presented adequate reliability and validity parameters.
Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L
Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation.
Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Sanislow, Charles A.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Markowitz, John C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Morey, Leslie C.
Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. PMID:24015858
Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C
Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. 2014 APA
Lo Coco, Gianluca; Sutton, Rachel; Tasca, Giorgio A; Salerno, Laura; Oieni, Veronica; Compare, Angelo
The interpersonal model has been validated for binge eating disorder (BED), but it is not yet known if the model applies to individuals who are obese but who do not binge eat. The goal of this study was to compare the validity of the interpersonal model in those with BED versus those with obesity, and normal weight samples. Data from a sample of 93 treatment-seeking women diagnosed with BED, 186 women who were obese without BED, and 100 controls who were normal weight were examined for indirect effects of interpersonal problems on binge eating psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Findings demonstrated the mediating role of negative affect for those with BED and those who were obese without BED. Testing a reverse model suggested that the interpersonal model is specific for BED but that this model may not be specific for those without BED. This is the first study to find support for the interpersonal model in a sample of women with obesity but who do not binge. However, negative affect likely plays a more complex role in determining overeating in those with obesity but who do not binge. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Hur, Yera; Cho, A Ra; Huh, Sun; Kim, Sun
Knowing one's interpersonal relationship preferences can be tremendously helpful for medical students' lives. The purpose of this study was to examine the interpersonal needs in medical students. Between 2010 and 2015, a total of 877 students from four Korean medical schools took the Korean version of the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation - Behaviour (FIRO-B) scale. The FIRO-B results were analyzed by descriptive statistics, frequency, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The medical students' scores for interpersonal needs were moderate overall, with the highest scores for control (M = 8.63, SD = 3.08), followed by affection (M = 8.14, SD = 4.34), and inclusion (M = 7.81, SD = 4.30). Gender differences showed in three areas: expressed control (male > female, t = 4.137, p female, t = 2.761, p = 0.006). By school type, differences were shown in expressed control (t = 3.581, p interpersonal orientations, which will help them to adjust to medical school life. In addition, the FIRO-B can be useful when mentoring and coaching students.
Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L
Impairments in self and interpersonal functioning are core features of personality pathology. Clinical theory and research indicate that compromised self-awareness and distorted interpersonal perceptions are particularly prominent in individuals exhibiting pathological narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Therefore we conducted a study to gain a better understanding of interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. A large sample (N=437) of moderately acquainted individuals assigned to 1 of 93 small mixed-sex groups completed self- and informant ratings on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) in a round-robin design. The social relations model (SRM) was used to partition the variance in dyadic ratings to investigate several hypotheses about interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. SRM analyses demonstrated evidence of assimilation (the tendency to perceive and rate others similarly) and consensus (the extent to which multiple observers form similar impressions of another person) in interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. Results also indicated modest self-other agreement and assumed similarity (the tendency for people to perceive others as similar to themselves) for PNI higher order factors and subscale ratings. Finally, results suggested that individuals high in pathological narcissism had some awareness of how peers would rate them (metaperception) but believed that others would rate them similarly to how they rated themselves.
Full Text Available Over the last forty years, the gap between men and women with respect to labor-market outcomes, paid hours of work, hours working at home, occupations, college majors, and education levels in the United States has narrowed or disappeared. We ask whether these substantial changes in women's lives—changes in precisely the variables that have seemed to matter so much to our understanding of political participation—have enabled women's political action in the United States. We find that they have not, and we suggest that the brakes on the translation of education and occupation into political participation come from continuing ambivalence about jobs and careers. Of course, these ambivalent attitudes may very well reflect a reality about the complications of workforce participation in a world with unequal and limited access to childcare, parental leave, high-paying jobs, and opportunities for career advancement.
Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol
Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.
Grisham, Jessica R; Steketee, Gail; Frost, Randy O
There is some evidence that compulsive hoarding is associated with social impairment, which may contribute to poor functional outcomes among hoarding patients. In this study, individuals with compulsive hoarding (n = 30) were compared to nonhoarding anxious or depressed patients (n = 30) and nonclinical community participants (n = 30) with respect to clinical characteristics, interpersonal difficulties, and emotional intelligence. All participants were diagnosed using a semi-structured interview and completed self-report measures. Participants with compulsive hoarding endorsed more depression and schizotypal personality disorder symptoms than participants in both comparison groups. Hoarding participants also reported more interpersonal difficulties than community volunteers, but they did not differ significantly from nonhoarding participants with an anxiety or mood disorder. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that hoarding-related beliefs were marginally related to increased interpersonal problems over and above the effect of depression and anxiety. The groups did not differ significantly with respect to emotional intelligence. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Yang, Chun; Dillard, James Price; Li, Ruobing
Fear of infectious disease often motivates people to protect themselves. But, it can also produce negative bio-social-psychological effects whose severity is on par with those of the disease. The WHO declaration of Zika as a world health crisis presented an opportunity to study factors that bring about fear. Beginning nine days after the WHO announcement, data were gathered from women aged 18-35 living in the southern United States (N = 719). Respondents reported experiencing fear of Zika at levels akin to those reported following other significant crises/disasters (e.g., the terrorist attacks of 9/11). Fear increased as a function of (1) personal, but not other-relevance, (2) frequency of media exposure, but not media content, and (3) frequency of interpersonal exposure and interpersonal content. It is argued that media and interpersonal message sources may be innately predisposed to amplify, rather than attenuate, risk. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.
Milani, Luca; Osualdella, Dania; Di Blasio, Paola
International literature has identified a stable correlation between problems in the sphere of adolescents' personal relationships and potential Internet dependence. The objective of this research is to verify in an Italian context the relationship among problematic Internet use (PIU), the quality of interpersonal relationships, and the cognitive strategies habitually used by adolescents to face daily problems. The participants in the research were 98 adolescents ages 14 to 19 (M = 16.28 years). The following instruments were administered to the participants: the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Test of Interpersonal Relationships (TRI); and the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC). Parents of the participants were administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the participants, 36.7% showed signs of PIU. These adolescents use the Internet for many hours per week; most utilize dysfunctional coping strategies and show worse interpersonal relations than peers who do not show signs of PIU.
Lee, Charlotte Tsz-Sum; Doran, Diane Marie
Patient safety is compromised by medical errors and adverse events related to miscommunications among healthcare providers. Communication among healthcare providers is affected by human factors, such as interpersonal relations. Yet, discussions of interpersonal relations and communication are lacking in healthcare team literature. This paper proposes a theoretical framework that explains how interpersonal relations among healthcare team members affect communication and team performance, such as patient safety. We synthesized studies from health and social science disciplines to construct a theoretical framework that explicates the links among these constructs. From our synthesis, we identified two relevant theories: framework on interpersonal processes based on social relation model and the theory of relational coordination. The former involves three steps: perception, evaluation, and feedback; and the latter captures relational communicative behavior. We propose that manifestations of provider relations are embedded in the third step of the framework on interpersonal processes: feedback. Thus, varying team-member relationships lead to varying collaborative behavior, which affects patient-safety outcomes via a change in team communication. The proposed framework offers new perspectives for understanding how workplace relations affect healthcare team performance. The framework can be used by nurses, administrators, and educators to improve patient safety, team communication, or to resolve conflicts.
Lumba-Brown, Angela; Batek, Margie; Choi, Pamela; Keller, Martin; Kennedy, Robert
Pediatric interpersonal violence is a public health crisis resulting in morbidity and mortality and recidivism. St. Louis City and surrounding areas have the highest rates of youth interpersonal violence nationally. St. Louis Children's Hospital (SLCH) Social Work in conjunction with Pediatric Emergency Medicine established a novel emergency department (ED)-initiated program to determine whether co-location of services followed by outpatient mentoring reduced the rate of morbidity, mortality, and recidivism in youths experiencing interpersonal violence. SLCH developed the "Empowering Youth Through Interpersonal Violence Prevention Program," co-locating initial social work services and emergency medical services in the pediatric ED. Youths, ages 8 to 17 years, presenting for interpersonal violence were approached for immediate social work counseling and subsequent individualized outpatient mentoring, developed from national best practices and model programs. A prospective 2:1 randomized, controlled pilot study assessing for youth morbidity, mortality, and recidivism was conducted for program service feasibility from 2012 to 2014. The study was followed by a 1-year retrospective analysis of program service integration as a hospital standard-of-care evaluating the same outcome measures. Of the 24 youths who participated in the pilot study and received the intervention, there was a 4% rate of morbidity and recidivism. Conversely, there was a 3.4% rate of mortality, 6.7% rate of morbidity, and 11.8% recidivism rate in those who refused to participate in services. EYIPP was offered as a service from 2014 to 2015 and 57 youths participated with a 3.5% rate of both morbidity and recidivism. During this time, 78 eligible youths declined services with a 1.1% rate of morbidity, and 2.3% recidivism rate. This novelprogram reduces recidivism, morbidity, and mortality in youths presenting to SLCH for interpersonal violence-related injuries suggesting that co-location of social
Steiner, Silvan; Macquet, Anne-Claire; Seiler, Roland
Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice. PMID:28894428
Women who experience intimate partner violence often rely on informal support to mitigate intimate partner violence's health effects. Yet there is little known about who gives the support and how it is provided. This paper explores from whom and how low-income women experiencing domestic violence in urban India seek informal support. In South Asia, women's reliance on kin for support is culturally valued, yet the urban social context makes it more likely that they will access such support from non-kin when they experience intimate partner violence. The paper draws on observations and interviews with 10 families collected over 14 months of in-depth ethnographic research in one Delhi slum community. Using a case study approach to explore women's responses to violence longitudinally, it was possible to track how women drew on support. Results show that even as women sought emotional support and direct intervention from their neighbours to deal with their domestic violence, they restricted these relationships, faced stigma, and emphasised the need to protect their families. Understanding the informal, but deeply ambivalent, systems of social support that women engage to deal with intimate partner violence is a first step toward strengthening such networks, a key recommendation to stem the health impacts of domestic violence.
Bryan, Jennifer L; Quist, Michelle C; Young, Chelsie M; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Lu, Qian
This study evaluated pet affinity as a buffer between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and social support. AEE occurs when one desires to express emotions but is reluctant to do so and is related to negative psychological outcomes. Individuals high in AEE may have difficulty receiving social support and thus may not gain accompanying benefits. Social support has been associated with positive health outcomes, and pet support is positively associated with human social support. The present study explores the potential protective effect of pet affinity. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate dog owners completed measures assessing perceived social support, pet affinity, and AEE. AEE was expected to be negatively associated with social support, and pet affinity was expected to buffer the negative effects of AEE on social support. We found that AEE was negatively associated with perceived social support. An interaction between pet affinity and AEE emerged such that the negative association between AEE and social support was weaker among those higher in pet affinity. Thus, at high levels of AEE, those who felt a close connection with their pets reported more perceived social support than those less connected with their pets. Overall, these findings emphasize the potential benefits of pet affinity.
Scourfield, Jonathan; Roen, Katrina; McDermott, Liz
The research presented in this paper set out to explore the cultural context of youth suicide and more specifically any connections between sexual identity and self-destructive behaviour, in the light of international evidence about the disproportionate risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) young people. The empirical basis for the paper is qualitative research that was carried out in the North West of England and South Wales. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with a total of 69 young people, with a purposive sample to reflect diversity of sexual identity, social class and regional and rural-urban location. The paper presents a thematic analysis of the data specifically relating to the experiences of LGBT young people. A range of strategies that LGBT young people employ in the face of distress are described. These are categorised as resilience, ambivalence and self-destructive behaviour (including self-harm and suicide). The potential implications for health and social care of these strategies include the need for ecological approaches and for sexual cultural competence in practitioners, as well as prioritisation of LGBT risk within suicide prevention policies.
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This essay examines African American novelist Pauline Hopkins’s deployment of the trope of respectable domesticity to contest black disenfranchisement in the context of African Americans’ ambivalent relationship to late-nineteenth-century US imperial expansion in the Asia Pacific. This essay analyzes Contending Forces (1900 in relation to two crucial yet underexplored contexts: first, Hopkins’s commentaries on international race relations; second, African American intellectuals’ commentaries on US imperial ventures in the Asia Pacific and on Chinese immigration in the Colored American Magazine, where Hopkins’s fictional works were serialized. Situated within these contexts of comparative racialization, Hopkins’s works offer critical responses to the masculine nationalist representations of black–Asian relations, illuminating the divisive effects of nationalist identification on differentially racialized subjects, the uneven effects of marriage on the black community, and this institution’s structural ties to imperialism and to the color-based class hierarchy within the imagined black community—all of which call for radical reimagining of race relations beyond the nation form.
Mønster, Dan; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær
Recent research suggests that shared behavioral dynamics during interpersonal interaction are indicative of subjective and objective outcomes of the interaction, such as feelings of rapport and success of performance. The role of shared physiological dynamics to quantify interpersonal interaction...... production task. Moreover, high team synchrony is found indicative of team cohesion, while low team synchrony is found indicative of a teams' decision to adopt a new behavior across multiple production sessions. We conclude that team-level measures of synchrony offer new and complementary information...
Full Text Available Internet provides any information which could help teenagers in many cases, including to communicate with their friends. On the other way, internet technology which makes communication easier, does some negative effects related with interpersonal communication. Teenagers are not willing to do direct communication, including with their families. The purpose of this research is to find out and to prove whether social media impacts to interpersonal communication and cyberbullying of teenagers . Further, this research is giving some solutions for teenagers to hpersonal communication altough they are social media addicted. The subject of this research is 500 students in age of 16 up to 19 years old.
Mandracchia, Jon T; Smith, Phillip N
The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that severe suicide ideation is caused by the combination of thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB), yet few studies have actually examined their interaction. Further, no studies have examined this proposal in male prisoners, a particularly at-risk group. To address this gap, the current study surveyed 399 male prisoners. TB and PB interacted to predict suicide ideation while controlling for depression and hopelessness. High levels of both TB and PB were associated with more severe suicide ideation. The interpersonal theory may aid in the detection, prevention, and treatment of suicide risk in prisoners. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Milloshi, Riva
This article presents results from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study, which obtained lifetime prevalence rates of interpersonal violence from a national sample of adult Latino women. Results show that more than half of the women in the study (53.6%) reported at least one victimization experience during their lifetime, with approximately two thirds of the victimized women (66.2%) experiencing more than one victimization incident, pointing to significant levels of polyvictimization and revictimization patterns across all victimization types. The results provide estimates of lifetime interpersonal violence and present a broader scope of the victimization experiences for this population.
Full Text Available This article is a literature study, concerning the interpersonal communication role in conjunction with technical dental and oral health care conducted by the dentists towards the patient individually. In addition, interpersonal communication means to be synergic communication among dentist and the patient. In relation with the verbal or non verbal dental care process, the effectiveness of interpersonal communication is identified through the perception of the messages and it’s translated by recipient perception, and it will be the same meaning as the messager’s perception. In this case, the dentist and the patient will be capable to send or accept mutual messages as messanger and message recipient. In conclusion, in the dental and oral medical care on the procedure point of view, the similar perception determines very much the successfulness of the wholedental and oral health care process toward diagnosis, determination therapy plan, treatment and post treatment process.
König, Julia; Onnen, Margarete; Karl, Regina; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi
Interpersonal traits may influence psychotherapy success. One way of conceptualizing such traits is the interpersonal circumplex model. In this study, we analyse interpersonal circumplex data, assessed with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz, Strauß, & Kordy, 1994) from a randomized study with 138 patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder after trauma in adulthood. The study compared cognitive processing therapy and dialogical exposure therapy, a Gestalt-based intervention. We divided the interpersonally heterogeneous sample according to the quadrants of the interpersonal circumplex. The division into quadrants yielded subgroups that did not differ in their general psychological distress, but the cold-submissive quadrant tended to exhibit higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and interpersonal distress than the other three. There was also a trend for patients in different quadrants to be affected differently by the treatments. Correlation analyses supported these results: in cognitive processing therapy, more dominant patients had more successful therapies, while in dialogical exposure therapy, success was not correlated with interpersonal style. Results indicate that especially patients with cold interpersonal styles profited differentially from the two treatments offered. Dividing samples according to the interpersonal circumplex quadrants seems promising. Interpersonal traits may contribute to psychotherapy outcome. Dividing the sample according to the quadrants of the interpersonal circumplex, as opposed to cluster analysis, yielded promising results. Patients higher in dominance fared better with cognitive processing therapy, while interpersonal style had no correlations with therapy success in dialogical exposure therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tasca, Giorgio A; Foot, Meredith; Leite, Catherine; Maxwell, Hilary; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany
This mixed method systematic case study applied an interpersonal stage model of the therapeutic process to examine interpersonal processes among a highly adherent Group Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) therapist and a highly adherent Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) therapist and their groups of binge eating disordered (BED) patients. This is the first case study to apply the interpersonal stage model of psychotherapy to compare GCBT and GPIP methods and the first to apply the model to group therapy. Early-, middle-, and late-stage transcribed video recordings of sequential interactions among therapists and patients in each of these two time-limited group therapies were analyzed with the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). We also provide qualitative presentations of the transcripts from each stage as context for the quantitative analyses. BED patients in both groups achieved positive outcomes for binge eating and depression. Consistent with their treatment model, the GPIP therapist was more autonomy-giving, whereas the GCBT therapist was more controlling/directive. The GPIP therapist and her group had high levels of interpersonal complementary interaction sequences in the early stage followed by lower complementarity in the middle stage. The GCBT therapist and her group showed a high-low-high pattern of complementarity across the three stage of therapy. However, overall the GPIP group had higher levels complementarity than the GCBT group. This mixed method case study of group processes based on an interpersonal stage model of psychotherapy suggested specific therapist behaviors in each modality to maximize positive therapeutic interactions at each stage of group therapy. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Spence, Susan H; O'Shea, Gabrielle; Donovan, Caroline L
This study adds to the body of evidence regarding the theoretical underpinnings of interpersonal psychotherapy and the mechanisms through which it impacts upon depression in adolescents. The aims were to determine whether the interpersonal constructs proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy do indeed change in response to this therapy and whether such changes are associated with changes in depression in young people. Thirty-nine adolescents, aged 13-19 years, with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder, were randomly assigned in blocks to group or individual treatment. Assessments were conducted at pre and posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up. The results supported the hypotheses, with significant improvements in social skills, social functioning, and the quality of parent-adolescent relationships, and an increase in secure attachment style and decrease in insecure attachment style being evident following treatment. Benefits were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Adolescents who showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms over this period tended to also show greater improvement in parent reported social skills, quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, and attachment style from pretreatment to 12-month follow-up. The findings are consistent with the proposed underpinnings of interpersonal psychotherapy. Adolescents showed significant improvements in interpersonal functioning and changes in attachment style following treatment, and changes in social skills, parent-adolescent conflict and attachment style were associated with reductions in depression. As such, the results add to the body of knowledge regarding the construct validity of interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention for depression in young people. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian
This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, "interactive alignment" and "interpersonal synergy", and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy…
Lay, Mary M.
Discusses how gender studies reveal psychological and cultural sources of interpersonal conflict during collaboration. Notes that an awareness of these conflict sources enables scholars and teachers in technical communication to predict and ease interpersonal conflict among collaborators. (MM)
Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; den Brok, Perry; Bosker, Roel J.
This study is aimed at describing profiles of interpersonal behavior of Indonesian mathematics teachers and examining associations between students' perceptions of their mathematics teachers' interpersonal behavior and their motivation in learning mathematics. Data were collected with the Indonesian
van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Manstead, A.S.R.
Three experiments investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. In the course of a computer-mediated negotiation, participants received information about the emotional state (anger, happiness, or none) of their opponent. Consistent with a strategic-choice
van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.
Three experiments investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. In the course of a computer-mediated negotiation, participants received information about the emotional state (anger, happiness, or none) of their opponent. Consistent with a strategic-choice
Righetti, F.; Kumashiro, M.; Campbell, S.
When people pursue important goals, they are often surrounded by close others who could provide help and support for the achievement of these goals. The present work investigated whether people are more likely to be open to such interpersonal goal support from a romantic partner when they perceive
Hogan, Christopher; Harris, Rafael S.; Cassidy, Jennie M.
The impact of including process observers (all master's-level trainees) and their notes on the outcome of interpersonal group therapy at a university counseling center was investigated. For a total of four groups, one method per group of delivering the notes to the participants was designated and assessed for perceived differences. A self-report…
Thorngren, Jill M.; Kleist, David M.
Multiple Family Group Therapy has been identified as a viable treatment model for a variety of client populations. A combination of family systems theories and therapeutic group factors provide the opportunity to explore multiple levels of intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships between families. This article depicts a Multiple Family Group…
interpersonal violence. Part I. Alcohol and substance abuse. Dan J Stein, Dorothy Boshoff, Hester Abrahams,. Felicity Daniels, Annalene Traut, Jan H de Bruyn,. Johan van der Spuy. Background. Patients presenting with fresh trauma frequentty have evidence of substance abuse. Nevertheless, few South African studies ...
Friedlander, Myrna L.; And Others
Compared structural and Milan systemic approaches to determine extent to which major proponents behave in ways that are consistent with theory. Focused on interpersonal control dynamics between therapist and family system. Findings from three published transcripts of each treatment were generally congruent with theory and reflected hypothesized…
Based on the idea that feedback seeking enhances job performance, the study was aimed at investigating managers' feedback seeking tendencies on their intra personal, interpersonal and leadership skills, and their preferred feedback sources: subordinates, peers and superiors. Using cross-sectional survey design, 156 ...
Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Pinto, Anthony; Markowitz, John C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, M. Tracie; Morey, Leslie C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective: The identification of reliable predictors of course in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been difficult. Evidence suggests that the co-occurrence of personality pathology is associated with longer time to MDD remission. Interpersonal pathoplasticity, the mutually influencing nonetiological relationship between psychopathology and…
The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using Rotter's social learning theory in understanding violence, interpersonal trust and gullibility in HIV prevention. The study examines social learning concepts and how they can be applied to HIV prevention programmes in violent circumstances. The study surveyed ...
This note sketches aspects of the development of the Interpersonal System of Personality (ISP), using information appearing in dissertations, theses, notes, correspondence, and publications prior to the classic 1951 paper by M. B. Freedman, T. F. Leary, A. G. Ossorio, and H. S. Coffey. Topics include the setting and the creation of the ISP, the…
Murphy, Nora A.; Hall, Judith A.
A meta-analytic review investigated the association between general intelligence and interpersonal sensitivity. The review involved 38 independent samples with 2988 total participants. There was a highly significant small-to-medium effect for intelligence measures to be correlated with decoding accuracy (r=0.19, p less than 0.001). Significant…
Trauma secondary to interpersonal violence (IPV) predominated. A disproportionately high level of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs) in relation to total road traffic collisions was noted. Blunt force trauma secondary to motor vehicle collisions was the leading cause of death, while blunt force trauma secondary to ...
O'Keefe, Garrett J.
Critiques and studies have found the traditional two-step flow model of social influence inadequate to describe and explain relationships between interpersonal and mass communications during political campaigns. A study was undertaken to incorporate a wider range of variables pertinent to both kinds of political communication behaviors to redefine…
Reardon, Kathleen K.; Rogers, Everett M.
Challenges the intellectual separation of interpersonal and mass media communication, arguing that this division rests primarily on grounds of historical convenience and university politics. Discusses the consequences of this dichotomy and suggests ways of encouraging intellectual exchange between the two subdisciplines. (MM)
Hynes, Geraldine E.
Companies that recognize the relationship between employee engagement and business success will seek ways to foster and facilitate workers' emotional well-being. One way to encourage employee engagement is to provide training in interpersonal communication. This research analyzes what one U.S.-based company is doing to achieve that goal. The…
Wilson, Keith G; Heenan, Adam; Kowal, John; Henderson, Peter R; McWilliams, Lachlan A; Castillo, Dyana
The interpersonal theory of suicide offers a conceptual framework for understanding suicidal ideation (SI) that may be applicable to individuals with chronic pain. The theory emphasizes the importance of 2 interpersonal constructs as precursors to SI: perceived burdensomeness (the belief that one has become a burden to others) and thwarted belongingness (a lack of social integration or connection). Our objective was to test the interpersonal theory of suicide in people with chronic pain. Hierarchical regression analysis was used in a cross-sectional study of 282 patients of an interdisciplinary pain clinic. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was the criterion measure of SI, and independent variables included both general and pain-specific predictors. After adjusting for other known or putative risk factors related to pain and mental health, perceived burdensomeness significantly predicted SI, whereas thwarted belongingness did not. As expected according to theory, the interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was also significant; perceived burdensomeness was a strong predictor of SI at high levels of thwarted belongingness, but only marginally at low levels. Other independent predictors were male sex, number of prior suicide attempts, and hopelessness. These findings are in line with some, but not all, of the major predictions of the interpersonal theory of suicide. In general, however, they support the relevance of the theory for individuals with chronic pain.
Background: The interpersonal relationship between the nurse and other health care providers is poor. Moreover, the ineffective therapeutic communication skills within the health team are the bane to effective and efficient health care delivery system. Nurses, as members of the health team are supposed to communicate ...
El-Falaky, Mai Samir
The present study examines the discourse of a number of Short Messaging Service (SMS). The selected data is analyzed according to the lexico-grammatical choices reflected in the interpersonal metafunction. Results are, then, interpreted for the purpose of deciding how service providers use language to convince a large number of customers of their…
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.
The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing…
Dijkstra, M.T.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Evers, A.; van Dierendonck, D.
Interpersonal conflict at work correlates with stress related outcomes such as psychological strain and exhaustion. Consistent with conflict theory, we argued that this relationship is moderated by the way conflict is managed. Cross-sectional data collected in The Netherlands, from students with
Johnson, H Durell; Wernli, Molly A; LaVoie, Joseph C
ABSTRACT. Given the voluntary nature of adolescent friendships, forgiveness of interpersonal transgressions has been identified as a critical aspect of maintaining these relationships. However, transgression forgiveness is related to a range of situational (e.g., transgression severity), interpersonal (e.g., friendship commitment), and intrapersonal (e.g., victim's empathy) factors. Data from 161 adolescents were used to examine the nature of the relationships between these factors and forgiveness and to examine the differential association patterns for adolescent boys and girls. Results for the overall adolescent sample indicated both situational and interpersonal factor associations with forgiveness (R2 = .52, p interpersonal factor associations and differential situational factor associations with female (R2 = .46, p < .001), and male (R2 = .60, p < .001) forgiveness. Findings suggest the likelihood of forgiving may be contextually dependent, and that researchers should consider transgression, relationship, and intrapersonal characteristics when examining forgiveness. Further, the present study suggests the contextual factors associated with forgiveness may be further differentiated by gender.
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…
Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.
We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…
The standardised TEOSQ (Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire) of Duda (1989) and intra- and interpersonal relations scale of Minnaar (1997) were administered to 112 male and female South African competitive sport participants between the ages of 17 and 25 years. The results of the study confirmed the ...
Richardson, George B.; Montgomery, LaTrice; Brubaker, Michael D.
Only 7.6% of adolescents in need of substance abuse treatment actually receive it. Many adolescents are hesitant to seek treatment due to public stigma (i.e., negative attitudes and beliefs of the general public toward individuals who abuse substances). However, decades of research indicate that interpersonal contact with stigmatized groups helps…
Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly
RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…
Wilson, Keith G; Kowal, John; Henderson, Peter R; McWilliams, Lachlan A; Péloquin, Katherine
Chronic pain is a known risk factor for suicide. To date, however, few studies of people with chronic pain have tested specific predictions about suicidal ideation that are derived from theory. The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that the psychological constructs of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are unique and independent precursors to suicidal ideation. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical sample of patients with chronic pain. A total of 303 patients of a chronic pain rehabilitation program completed measures of pain severity, duration, and disability; cognitive-affective measures of depression and catastrophizing; and interpersonal measures of relationship distress and self-perceived burden to others. The latter measures were included as indices of the belongingness and burdensomeness constructs. Participants also rated two items pertaining to suicidal ideation. In a multiple regression analysis, both distress in interpersonal relations (β = 0.12, p = .037) and self-perceived burden to others (β = 0.25, p < .001) were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, even after adjusting statistically for demographic characteristics, pain severity and duration, functional limitations, catastrophizing, and depression. These findings suggest that the interpersonal theory is relevant to understanding elevated rates of suicidal ideation among people with chronic pain, and may have broader applicability to other populations with chronic illness or disability.
Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.; Dutkiewicz, Erik L.
Although bestiality is an infrequent form of animal cruelty, the possibility of identifying a potential link between these acts and later interpersonal violence is an area of research that deserves further exploration. In a replication of the Hensley, Tallichet, and Singer study and based on survey data from male inmates at a medium- and…
Spear, Steve; And Others
This study examined the effects of functional communication patterns on interpersonal attraction, using a ten-category system of interaction analysis. Eight undergraduates were randomly selected and assigned to four unacquainted male-female pairs. After completing a physical attraction measure of their partners in the pairs, members of two pairs…
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Shibuya, Naoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro
The effects of dysfunctional parenting styles on interpersonal sensitivity were studied in 640 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM), and perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which is consisted of care and protection factors. Parental rearing was classified into 4 types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Males with paternal affectionless control showed higher total IPSM scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (p = 0.022). Females with maternal affectionate constraint (p = 0.001), neglectful parenting (p = 0.022), and affectionless control (p = 0.003) showed higher total IPSM scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. In males and females, dysfunctional parenting styles by the opposite-sex parents did not affected total IPSM scores. The present study suggests that in both males and females interpersonal sensitivity is increased by dysfunctional parenting styles by the same-sex parents.
Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.
This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…
Hunt, John W.; Baruch, Yehuda
A study assessed the impact of interpersonal skills training on top managers (n=252) by analyzing feedback from subordinates. The skills most responsive to training had clear objectives and outcome criteria and could be expressed as step-by-step routines. Soft skills were more difficult to improve in this way. (Contains 62 references.) (JOW)
Schramm, E; Berger, M
In general work involves health promoting functions but can also have hazardous impacts on well-being. Due to a massive change in working conditions it has become increasingly more recognized that depressive disorders are highly prevalent at the workplace and that work stress belongs to the most common triggers of depressive disorders, particularly in men. It is relevant to differentiate between subjectively experienced burnout and clinical depression. The best investigated psychosocial work stressors include increased job demands in connection with low control possibilities and lack of gratification, interpersonal conflicts, role stress and social isolation. For the treatment of work-related clinical depression, an additional focus of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) of depression, namely "work-related stress and burnout experience" was conceptualized based on a vulnerability-stress model and the fact that work usually takes place in an interpersonal context. This new problem area focuses on role stress and conflicts at work and the reduction of stressful working conditions. Interpersonal psychotherapy has so far been useful for the treatment of depression due to problems at work; however, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this newly designed problem area.
Interpersonal Skills and Sociability among some Commercial Bank Workers: Implications for Work-Team Management. David E Okurame. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.5(1) 2000: 13-22. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...
This study attempted to map EFL teachers' interpersonal behavior as perceived by students, its relationship with the students' English language achievement, and to examine if it could predict students' English language achievement. The samples of the study were randomly selected 353 grade 9 students from Secondary ...
Ward, Karen M.; Bosek, Rebecca L.; Trimble, Erin L.
Romantic relationships are important in the lives of adults with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore dating and romantic relationships among these adults and to identify the nature and extent of interpersonal violence in their relationships. A random sample of 47 women and men participated in semistructured…
Endedijk, H.M.; Ramenzoni, V.C.; Cox, R.F.A.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Bekkering, H.; Hunnius, S.
During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their
Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine
During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their
Tuk, M.A.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smidts, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.
Previous research suggests that people form impressions of others based on their facial appearance in a very fast and automatic manner, and this especially holds for trustworthiness. However, as yet, this process has been investigated mostly in a social vacuum without taking interpersonal factors
Rhodes, Darson L.; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Rocco, Mary; Todd, Lauren
The use of Facebook® among college students is prevalent, and its relationship with interpersonal skills is unknown. A cross-sectional design study using a convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in one of four sections of an upper-level nutrition course at a Northeastern, public university was conducted to investigate this…
Family therapy is primarily focused upon interpersonal or transactional issues. Gestalt therapy is particularly well suited for short term work on intrapersonal and boundary issues. This paper shows how the selective integration of the two approaches provides a significant, new dimension in the development of family therapy. (Author)
María Del Mar Molero
Full Text Available The present study analyzes the relation between delinquent behaviors, interpersonal values and academic performance. It also analyzes the possible protective function of interpersonal values against delinquent behaviors. The Interpersonal Values Questionnaire (IVQ was used to assess interpersonal values, and the Antisocial-Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire (A-D was employed to assess antisocial behaviors. The sample was made up of 885 students of Compulsory Secondary Education, aged from 14 to 17 years. The results show that individuals who fail a subject as well as those who repeat a course present higher means in delinquent behaviors. Repeaters present higher means in the values of recognition and leadership, and non-repeaters in the value stimulation, whereas students who do not fail obtain higher scores in the value benevolence. Students with high levels of recognition, independence, and leadership, as well as students with low levels of conformity and benevolence display significantly higher levels of delinquent behaviors. Lastly, the probability of presenting a high level of delinquent behaviors is greater in individuals with: high independence, high leadership, high recognition, low benevolence, and low conformity.
Gennip, Anna Eva (Nanine) van
This dissertation focused on how the social context in which peer assessment takes place is related to the learning effects of peer assessment. We wanted to identify interpersonal beliefs in peer assessment settings that influence the peer assessment process on the one hand, but could also been seen
Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen
Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…
Hughey, Judy K.
The relationship between interpersonal skills is positively correlated with effective academic advising. Professional academic advisors feel significant pressure to meet a wide array of student needs, increase retention rates, help students in their efforts of academic achievement and career exploration, and support institutions to excel in…
Adams, Catherine; van Manen, Max
In this paper we discuss how online seminar participants experience dimensions of embodiment, virtual space, interpersonal relations, and temporality; and how interacting through reading-writing, by means of online technologies, creates conditions, situations, and actions of pedagogical influence and relational affectivities. We investigate what…
Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom
technologies for interpersonal surveillance between parents and children, partners, and school mates. The findings from our in-depth interviews suggest, for instance, that the use of smartphones in families involve negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can...
Presents a selective review of the research and theory on the experience, expression, and communication of emotion. Suggests that the research is affected by cultural context and cultural differences. Maintains that contradictions can be resolved by considering the intrapersonal, interpersonal, social, and intergroup aspects of emotions. (CFR)
Hlavka, Heather R.; Kruttschnitt, Candace; Carbone-Lopez, Kristin C.
Research on women's experiences of interpersonal violence has grown dramatically and, as a result, the ethical issues surrounding this research are a concern. Although regulatory procedures ensure that research participants are protected from undue risk, little is known about the impact of victimization research on participants. In this study, the…
In treating bipolar disorder, specific psychotherapies in adjunct to pharmacotherapy have been shown to be effective in preventing new episodes and treating depressive episodes. Among those, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) developed by Frank, amalgamation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) with behavioral therapy focused on social rhythm has been shown to be an efficacious adjunct to mediation in preventing new episodes in bipolar I patients and in treating depression in bipolar I arid II disorder. IPSRT has also been shown to enhance total functioning, relationship functioning and life satisfaction among patients with bipolar disorder, even after pretreatment functioning and concurrent depression were covaried. IPSRT was designed to directly address the major pathways to recurrence in bipolar disorder, namely medication nonadherence, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms. IPT, originated by Klerman et al., is a strategic time-limited psychotherapy focused on one or two of four current interpersonal problem areas (ie, grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal dificits). In IPSRT, the fifth problem area "grief for the lost healthy self" has been added in order to promote acceptance of the diagnosis and the need for life-long treatment. Social rhythm therapy is a behavioral approach aiming at increasing regularity of social rhythms using the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), a chart to record daily social activities including how stimulating they were, developed from observation that disruptions in social rhythms often trigger affective episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. IPSRT also appears to be a promising intervention for a subset of individuals with bipolar II depression as monotherapy for the acute treatment.
Wilson, Sylia; Stroud, Catherine B; Durbin, C Emily
Personality disorders are defined in the current psychiatric diagnostic system as pervasive, inflexible, and stable patterns of thinking, feeling, behaving, and interacting with others. Questions regarding the validity and reliability of the current personality disorder diagnoses prompted a reconceptualization of personality pathology in the most recent edition of the psychiatric diagnostic manual, in an appendix of emerging models for future study. To evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of the current personality disorder diagnoses, we conducted a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical research on associations between personality disorders and interpersonal functioning, defined using the interpersonal circumplex model (comprising orthogonal dimensions of agency and communion), as well as functioning in specific relationship domains (parent-child, family, peer, romantic). A comprehensive literature search yielded 127 published and unpublished studies, comprising 2,579 effect sizes. Average effect sizes from 120 separate meta-analyses, corrected for sampling error and measurement unreliability, and aggregated using a random-effects model, indicated that each personality disorder showed a distinct profile of interpersonal style consistent with its characteristic pattern of symptomatic dysfunction; specific relationship domains affected and strength of associations varied for each personality disorder. Overall, results support the construct and discriminant validity of the personality disorders in the current diagnostic manual, as well as the proposed conceptualization that disturbances in self and interpersonal functioning constitute the core of personality pathology. Importantly, however, contradicting both the current and proposed conceptualizations, there was not evidence for pervasive dysfunction across interpersonal situations and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Timothy Joseph POWER
Full Text Available RESUMEN: Uno de los aspectos menos estudiados de la cultura política del Brasil es su tasa extraordinariamente baja de confianza interpersonal. Después de revisar la literatura sobre confianza interpersonal, el presente artículo examina el nivel brasileño de confianza social en perspectiva regional y global. Analiza datos de sondeos recientes y demuestra que el mejor predictor de confianza es la educación, una área en que Brasil presenta un desarrollo inferior al de sus vecinos. El artículo también sugiere una agenda de investigación futura para estudiar este aspecto singular de la cultura política brasileña, dentro de la cual las variables de desigualdad social y de exposición a la televisión tendrían papeles importantes. Tal agenda de investigación es de gran consecuencia dado el papel importante de la confianza interpersonal, tanto para el desarrollo económico como para la consolidación democrática.ABSTRACT: One of the most understudied aspects of Brazilian political culture is the country’s extraordinarily low rates of interpersonal trust. After reviewing the literature on interpersonal trust, this paper provides regional and global perspective on Brazil’s level of social trust. It examines data from recent public opinion surveys in Brazil and demonstrates that the strongest predictor of trust is education, an area in which Brazil lags behind its neighbors. The paper also suggests a future research agenda for investigating this unique aspect of Brazilian political culture, in which the variables of inequality and television exposure would play important roles. Such a research agenda is critical given the important role played by trust in both economic development and democratic consolidation.
Adams, Ryan S.; Tracey, Terence J. G.
The Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS) is a well-supported instrument that is designed to map interpersonal traits onto the interpersonal circumplex. However, three versions of the IAS exist and these vary with respect to the degree to which they included item definitions (i.e., glossary added at the end, definitions attached to each item, and…
Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana. A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software. Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in the GDHS
Full Text Available Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana.A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS. Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software.Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in
Daniel Chaves de Brito
Full Text Available No diagnóstico da modernidade, incerteza e insegurança - e portanto o medo - são elementos presentes. Partindo dessa constatação, este trabalho tem por objetivo descrever os efeitos ambivalentes do medo sobre a sociedade contemporânea. Nesta tentativa, busca-se o apoio de diversas teorias sociais que, embora não enfoquem o medo, mostram de certa forma os riscos constantes do processo de modernização. Por outro lado, isso permite separar a crítica social que ainda tenta continuar pensando a modernidade com base nas premissas conceituais da razão ocidental, de uma outra, que por sua própria fadiga proclama sua autodestruição. Entende-se aqui que se despedir da razão e considerar o movimento autônomo da modernidade é fazer surgir um processo que apenas garante a modernização do medo.In the diagnosis of the modernity, uncertainty and insecurity - and therefore the fear - they are present elements. Leaving of that verification, this work has for objective to describe the ambivalent effects of the fear on the contemporary society. In that attempt, the support of several social theories is looked for that, although they don't focus the fear, they show the constant risks of the modernization process in a certain way. On the other hand, that allows to separate the social critic, that it still tries to continue thinking the modernity with base about the conceptual premises of the western reason, of another one, that for your own fatigue proclaims your self-destruction. Understands each other here that to say good-bye of the reason and to consider the autonomous movement of the modernity is to do a process that just guarantees the modernization of the fear to appear.
Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Levy, Becca R; Keene, Danya E; Monin, Joan K
To determine how older adult spouses react to their partners' interpersonal suffering. Spouses of individuals with musculoskeletal pain were recorded describing their partners' suffering while their blood pressure (BP) was monitored. After the account, spouses described their distress. Speeches were transcribed and analyzed with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software and coded for interpersonal content. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted with interpersonal content variables predicting BP and distress. Exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti to explore mechanisms behind quantitative results. Describing partners' suffering as interpersonal and using social (family) words were associated with higher systolic BP reactivity. Husbands were more likely to describe partners' suffering as interpersonal. Qualitative results suggested shared stressors and bereavement-related distress as potential mechanisms for heightened reactivity to interpersonal suffering. Spouses' interpersonal suffering may negatively affect both men and women's cardiovascular health, and older husbands may be particularly affected. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lavigne, B; Audebert-Mérilhou, E; Buisson, G; Kochman, F; Clément, J P; Olliac, B
Depression disorder may become the first cause of morbidity by 2030, according to the World Health Organization. It is actually one of the main causes of disease and handicap in children aged from 10 to 19. The major risk is suicide, whose prevalence is estimated, in France, around 6.7 for 100,000, which is probably underestimated. At present, the discussions about prescription of antidepressants in an adolescent's depression remain intense which is why psychotherapy becomes the first choice of treatment. We propose here to present one of them, Interpersonal PsychoTherapy (IPT), which remains largely unknown in France, and its adaptations in the adolescent population. IPT is a brief psychotherapy, structured in twelve to sixteen sessions, which was created by Klerman and Weissman in the seventies inspired by the biopsychosocial model of Meyer, interpersonal theory of Sullivan, and attachment theory of Bowlby. It is divided into three parts: the initial phase, the intermediate phase, and the termination phase. IPT was adapted for adolescents by Mufson in 1993, but a few modifications must be considered. Parental implication is the first. Indeed, parents, rather than the adolescent, often ask for the consultation; but it is the latter who benefits from the therapy. Parents may be met at some point in the therapy, for example between each phase and at the end. The initial phase is very close for the adolescent as for the adult; but the therapist must be careful about employing the "sick role" which can be used by the adolescent to avoid school, and as a consequence, to exacerbate the interpersonal deficit. The intermediate phase focuses on one of the four interpersonal issues: complicated bereavement, role transition, interpersonal role disputes, and interpersonal deficit. Complicated bereavement may become problematic when prolonged or when the adolescent had complicated relations with the deceased. The therapist essentially works on emotion verbalization. The role
Moeller, Sara K; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Hanson, Devin M
Interpersonally cold (relative to warm) individuals may be less skilled in inferring the emotional states of others, a factor that should contribute to their poorer social relationships. Systematic support for this hypothesis was obtained in 4 studies (total N = 434 undergraduates) involving diverse emotion- and affect-decoding tasks. Specifically, relatively cold individuals exhibited lower accuracy in decoding emotional facial expressions (Study 1), in labeling the emotions of others from audio and video clips (Study 2), in predicting the emotions of others from social scenario descriptions (Study 3), and in the normative accuracy of their word evaluations (Study 4). Altogether, the results demonstrate that cold individuals appear broadly deficient in linking emotion and affect to relevant environmental stimuli. Implications of the findings for understanding the nature and correlates of interpersonal coldness are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Creamer, M; Campbell, I M
The discrepancy between the way individuals perceive themselves and the way they are perceived by their partners has been proposed as an indicator of dyadic adjustment. The present study employed the CPI to investigate the relation of interpersonal perception within dyads and real similarity of spouses to marital satisfaction. The subjects were 20 married couples. Support was provided for the use of the real similarity-assumed similarity-accuracy paradigm in studies of interpersonal perception. No sex differences were found in the ability of individuals to predict their spouse's responses on the CPI. Accuracy of prediction was correlated significantly with scores on the Hogan Empathy scale for males, but not for females. Conversely, accuracy was related significantly to dyadic adjustment in the case of females, but not males. Real similarity also was correlated positively with dyadic adjustment. Avenues for further research are suggested.
Robinson, Michael D.; Ode, Scott; Spencer L., Palder; Fetterman, Adam K.
Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed. PMID:22399360
Aline Cristina Zerwes Ferreira
Full Text Available A descriptive qualitative research conducted with 20 drug addicts during treatment at a Center of Psychosocial Attention for Alcohol and other Drugs, aimed to identify intra and interpersonal determinants of relapse perceived by the drug addict. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, submitted to Content Analysis, and organized into categories following predictive determinants for relapse. The relapse occurred by intrapersonal determinants, as self-efficacy expressed by self-confidence in interrupting the drug consumption; the result expectation by anticipation of pleasurable drug effects; the motivation by the absence of volition to interrupt the consumption; coping with the difficulty to confront daily problems; negative and positive emotional states; and craving. Interpersonal determinants expressed by social support were related to the influence of thirds. The identification of these determinants during treatment to favor relapse prevention and effective rehabilitation.
Trucco, Elisa M; Wright, Aidan G C; Colder, Craig R
Motivational factors such as social goals are important features of developing social adjustment, and thus researchers studying social adjustment need psychometrically sound measures of social goals. A valid measure of social goals for English-speaking youth is lacking. Such a measure would increase understanding of children's social adjustment and allow for testing developmental models of social goals and interpersonal functioning. The authors' aim was to revise the Interpersonal Goals Inventory for Children (IGI-C) for an English-speaking sample and examine its validity. The revised IGI-C (IGI-CR) fit a circumplex model and performed as expected with most external criterion variables examined. In addition, some differences were observed across males and females, offering insights into gender differences in social goals. Results support the IGI-CR as a sound measure.