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Sample records for diseases efns task

  1. EFNS task force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippi, M; Agosta, F; Barkhof, F

    2012-01-01

    The European Federation of the Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines on the use of neuroimaging in the diagnosis and management of dementia are designed to revise and expand previous EFNS recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to provide ...

  2. EFNS guidelines on neurostimulation therapy for neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFNS Panel on Neuropathic Pain, Vienna; Cruccu, Giorgio; Aziz, T. Z.

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacological relief of neuropathic pain is often insufficient. Electrical neurostimulation is efficacious in chronic neuropathic pain and other neurological diseases. European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) launched a Task Force to evaluate the evidence for these techniques...... and to produce relevant recommendations. We searched the literature from 1968 to 2006, looking for neurostimulation in neuropathic pain conditions, and classified the trials according to the EFNS scheme of evidence for therapeutic interventions. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is efficacious in failed back surgery...

  3. EFNS guidelines on neurostimulation therapy for neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFNS Panel on Neuropathic Pain, Vienna; Cruccu, Giorgio; Aziz, T. Z.

    2007-01-01

    and to produce relevant recommendations. We searched the literature from 1968 to 2006, looking for neurostimulation in neuropathic pain conditions, and classified the trials according to the EFNS scheme of evidence for therapeutic interventions. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is efficacious in failed back surgery......Pharmacological relief of neuropathic pain is often insufficient. Electrical neurostimulation is efficacious in chronic neuropathic pain and other neurological diseases. European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) launched a Task Force to evaluate the evidence for these techniques......TMS) has transient efficacy in central and peripheral neuropathic pains (level B). Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is efficacious in central post-stroke and facial pain (level C). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) should only be performed in experienced centres. Evidence for implanted peripheral stimulations...

  4. EFNS guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases: EFNS task force on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elovaara, I.; Apostolski, S.; Doorn, P. van

    2008-01-01

    and consensus recommendations are given according to EFNS guidance regulations. The efficacy of IVIG has been proven in Guillain-Barre syndrome (level A), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (level A), multifocal mononeuropathy (level A), acute exacerbations of myasthenia gravis (MG...

  5. EFNS Task Force on Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe : present status and recommendations for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, P; Chollet, F; Paulson, O; von Kummer, R; Laihinen, A; Leenders, K; Yancheva, S

    A Task Force on 'Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe' was appointed in September 1998 by the education committee of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) in order to: (1) examine the present status of teaching of neuroimaging in the training of neurology in

  6. EFNS Task Force on Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe : present status and recommendations for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, P; Chollet, F; Paulson, O; von Kummer, R; Laihinen, A; Leenders, K; Yancheva, S

    2001-01-01

    A Task Force on 'Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe' was appointed in September 1998 by the education committee of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) in order to: (1) examine the present status of teaching of neuroimaging in the training of neurology in

  7. EFNS guideline on the treatment of tension-type headache - report of an EFNS task force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers; Linde, M.

    2010-01-01

    search and the consensus of an expert panel. Methods: All available medical reference systems were screened for the range of clinical studies on TTH. The findings in these studies were evaluated according to the recommendations of the EFNS resulting in level A, B or C recommendations and good practice...... and relaxation training most likely are effective. Physical therapy and acupuncture may be valuable options for patients with frequent TTH, but there is no robust scientific evidence for efficacy. Simple analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended for the treatment of episodic TTH...

  8. EFNS guidelines on the clinical management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MALS)--revised report of an EFNS task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter M; Abrahams, Sharon; Borasio, Gian D; de Carvalho, Mamede; Chio, Adriano; Van Damme, Philip; Hardiman, Orla; Kollewe, Katja; Morrison, Karen E; Petri, Susanne; Pradat, Pierre-Francois; Silani, Vincenzo; Tomik, Barbara; Wasner, Maria; Weber, Markus

    2012-03-01

    The evidence base for the diagnosis and management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is weak. To provide evidence-based or expert recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ALS based on a literature search and the consensus of an expert panel. All available medical reference systems were searched, and original papers, meta-analyses, review papers, book chapters and guidelines recommendations were reviewed. The final literature search was performed in February 2011. Recommendations were reached by consensus. Patients with symptoms suggestive of ALS should be assessed as soon as possible by an experienced neurologist. Early diagnosis should be pursued, and investigations, including neurophysiology, performed with a high priority. The patient should be informed of the diagnosis by a consultant with a good knowledge of the patient and the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient and relatives/carers should receive regular support from a multidisciplinary care team. Medication with riluzole should be initiated as early as possible. Control of symptoms such as sialorrhoea, thick mucus, emotional lability, cramps, spasticity and pain should be attempted. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding improves nutrition and quality of life, and gastrostomy tubes should be placed before respiratory insufficiency develops. Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation also improves survival and quality of life. Maintaining the patient's ability to communicate is essential. During the entire course of the disease, every effort should be made to maintain patient autonomy. Advance directives for palliative end-of-life care should be discussed early with the patient and carers, respecting the patient's social and cultural background. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  9. EFNS task force on management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: guidelines for diagnosing and clinical care of patients and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, P M; Borasio, G D; Dengler, R; Hardiman, O; Kollewe, K; Leigh, P N; Pradat, P-F; Silani, V; Tomik, B

    2005-12-01

    Despite being one of the most devastating diseases known, there is little evidence for diagnosing and managing patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although specific therapy is lacking, correct early diagnosis and introduction of symptomatic and specific therapy can have a profound influence on the care and quality of life of the patient and may increase survival time. This document addresses the optimal clinical approach to ALS. The final literature search was performed in the spring of 2005. Consensus recommendations are given graded according to the EFNS guidance regulations. Where there was lack of evidence but consensus was clear we have stated our opinion as good practice points. People affected with possible ALS should be examined as soon as possible by an experienced neurologist. Early diagnosis should be pursued and a number of investigations should be performed with high priority. The patient should be informed of the diagnosis by a consultant with a good knowledge of the patient and the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient and relatives should receive regular support from a multidisciplinary care team. Medication with riluzole should be initiated as early as possible. PEG is associated with improved nutrition and should be inserted early. The operation is hazardous in patients with vital capacity < 50%. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation improves survival and quality of life but is underused. Maintaining the patients ability to communicate is essential. During the entire course of the disease, every effort should be made to maintain patient autonomy. Advance directives for palliative end of life care are important and should be fully discussed early with the patient and relatives respecting the patients social and cultural background.

  10. EFNS guidelines for the molecular diagnosis of neurogenetic disorders: motoneuron, peripheral nerve and muscle disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burgunder, J-M

    2011-02-01

    These EFNS guidelines on the molecular diagnosis of motoneuron disorders, neuropathies and myopathies are designed to summarize the possibilities and limitations of molecular genetic techniques and to provide diagnostic criteria for deciding when a molecular diagnostic work-up is indicated.

  11. EFNS guidelines for the molecular diagnosis of neurogenetic disorders: motoneuron, peripheral nerve and muscle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgunder, J-M; Schöls, L; Baets, J; Andersen, P; Gasser, T; Szolnoki, Z; Fontaine, B; Van Broeckhoven, C; Di Donato, S; De Jonghe, P; Lynch, T; Mariotti, C; Spinazzola, A; Tabrizi, S J; Tallaksen, C; Zeviani, M; Harbo, H F; Finsterer, J

    2011-02-01

    These EFNS guidelines on the molecular diagnosis of motoneuron disorders, neuropathies and myopathies are designed to summarize the possibilities and limitations of molecular genetic techniques and to provide diagnostic criteria for deciding when a molecular diagnostic work-up is indicated. To collect data about planning, conditions and performance of molecular diagnosis of these disorders, a literature search in various electronic databases was carried out and original papers, meta-analyses, review papers and guideline recommendations reviewed. The best level of evidence for genetic testing recommendation (B) can be found for the disorders with specific presentations, including familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A, myotonic dystrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. For a number of less common disorders, a precise description of the phenotype, including the use of immunologic methods in the case of myopathies, is considered as good clinical practice to guide molecular genetic testing. These guidelines are provisional and the future availability of molecular-genetic epidemiological data about the neurogenetic disorders under discussion in this article will allow improved recommendation with an increased level of evidence. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  12. Guidelines on routine cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Report from an EFNS task force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deisenhammer, F; Bartos, A; Egg, R

    2006-01-01

    total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins, glucose, lactate, cell count, cytological staining, and investigation of infectious CSF. The methods included a Systematic Medline search for the above-mentioned variables and review of appropriate publications by one or more of the task force members. Grading...... of the CSF/serum glucose ratio or increased lactate concentration indicates bacterial or fungal meningitis or leptomeningeal metastases. Intrathecal immunoglobulin G synthesis is best demonstrated by isoelectric focusing followed by specific staining. Cellular morphology (cytological staining) should...... of evidence and recommendations was based on consensus by all task force members. It is recommended that CSF should be analysed immediately after collection. If storage is needed 12 ml of CSF should be partitioned into three to four sterile tubes. Albumin CSF/serum ratio (Qalb) should be preferred to total...

  13. EFNS guidelines on cognitive rehabilitation: report of an EFNS task force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappa, S.F.; Benke, T.; Clarke, S.; Rossi, B.; Stemmer, B.; Heugten, C.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of language, spatial perception, attention, memory, calculation and praxis are a frequent consequence of acquired brain damage [in particular, stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI)] and a major determinant of disability. The rehabilitation of aphasia and, more recently, of other

  14. EFNS guidelines on the Clinical Management of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (MALS) - revised report of an EFNS task force.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Background: The evidence base for the diagnosis and management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is weak. Objectives: To provide evidence-based or expert recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ALS based on a literature search and the consensus of an expert panel. Methods: All available medical reference systems were searched, and original papers, meta-analyses, review papers, book chapters and guidelines recommendations were reviewed. The final literature search was performed in February 2011. Recommendations were reached by consensus. Recommendations: Patients with symptoms suggestive of ALS should be assessed as soon as possible by an experienced neurologist. Early diagnosis should be pursued, and investigations, including neurophysiology, performed with a high priority. The patient should be informed of the diagnosis by a consultant with a good knowledge of the patient and the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient and relatives\\/carers should receive regular support from a multidisciplinary care team. Medication with riluzole should be initiated as early as possible. Control of symptoms such as sialorrhoea, thick mucus, emotional lability, cramps, spasticity and pain should be attempted. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding improves nutrition and quality of life, and gastrostomy tubes should be placed before respiratory insufficiency develops. Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation also improves survival and quality of life. Maintaining the patient\\'s ability to communicate is essential. During the entire course of the disease, every effort should be made to maintain patient autonomy. Advance directives for palliative end-of-life care should be discussed early with the patient and carers, respecting the patient\\'s social and cultural background.

  15. Communication of the Association of Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy (EFN) at the Johannesburg world summit in august 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Very little is completely proven about how the increased greenhouse effect will change the world climate. Meanwhile the high probability that dramatic event will occurs, leads us to apply the precautionary principle. Facing this giant problem, EFN believes that mankind, and especially countries members of OECD, must undertake several kinds of actions, explained in this paper: reducing energy waste, develop the renewable energies, take into account the potentialities of the nuclear energy and accept the market in CO 2 emission credits. (A.L.B.)

  16. Dual task and postural control in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires de Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with neurodegenerative diseases are required to use cognitive resources while maintaining postural control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a frontal cognitive task on postural control in patients with Alzheimer, Parkinson and controls. Thirty-eight participants were instructed to stand upright on a force platform in two experimental conditions: single and dual task. Participants with Parkinson's disease presented an increase in the coefficient of variation greater than 100% in the dual task as compared to the single task for center of pressure (COP area and COP path. In addition, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease had a higher number of errors during the execution of the cognitive task when compared to the group of elderly without neurodegenerative diseases. The motor cortex, which is engaged in postural control, does not seem to compete with frontal brain regions in the performance of the cognitive task. However, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease presented worsened performance in cognitive task.

  17. EFNS guideline on the treatment of tension-type headache - report of an EFNS task force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Evers, S; Linde, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    and relaxation training most likely are effective. Physical therapy and acupuncture may be valuable options for patients with frequent TTH, but there is no robust scientific evidence for efficacy. Simple analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended for the treatment of episodic TTH...

  18. Dual-Task Interference: The Effects of Verbal Cognitive Tasks on Upright Postural Stability in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dual-task interference has previously been demonstrated to have a significant effect on postural control among individuals with Parkinson's disease, the impact of speech complexity on postural control has not been demonstrated using quantitative biomechanical measures. The postural stability of twelve participants with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and twelve healthy age-matched controls was evaluated under three conditions: (1 without a secondary task, (2 performing a rote repetition task and (3 generating a monologue. Results suggested a significant effect of cognitive load on biomechanical parameters of postural stability. Although both groups increased their postural excursion, individuals with Parkinson's disease demonstrated significantly reduced excursion as compared with that of healthy age-matched controls. This suggests that participants with Parkinson's disease may be overconstraining their postural adjustments in order to focus attention on the cognitive tasks without losing their balance. Ironically, this overconstraint may place the participant at greater risk for a fall.

  19. Planning and task management in Parkinson's disease: differential emphasis in dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Stefurak, Taresa

    2008-03-01

    Seventeen patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease completed a complex computer-based task that involved planning and management while also performing an attention-demanding secondary task. The tasks were performed concurrently, but it was necessary to switch from one to the other. Performance was compared to a group of healthy age-matched control participants and a group of young participants. Parkinson's patients performed better than the age-matched controls on almost all measures and as well as the young controls in many cases. However, the Parkinson's patients achieved this by paying relatively less attention to the secondary task and focusing attention more on the primary task. Thus, Parkinson's patients can apparently improve their performance on some aspects of a multidimensional task by simplifying task demands. This benefit may occur as a consequence of their inflexible exaggerated attention to some aspects of a complex task to the relative neglect of other aspects.

  20. Motor-cognitive dual-task deficits in individuals with early-mid stage Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Hamana, Katy; Kelson, Mark; Rosser, Anne; Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori

    2016-09-01

    Huntington disease (HD) results in a range of cognitive and motor impairments that progress throughout the disease stages; however, little research has evaluated specific dual-task abilities in this population, and the degree to which they may be related to functional ability. The purpose of this study was to a) examine simple and complex motor-cognitive dual-task performance in individuals with HD, b) determine relationships between dual-task walking ability and disease-specific measures of motor, cognitive and functional ability, and c) examine the relationship of dual-task measures to falls in individuals with HD. Thirty-two individuals with HD were evaluated for simple and complex dual-task ability using the Walking While Talking Test. Demographics and disease-specific measures of motor, cognitive and functional ability were also obtained. Individuals with HD had impairments in simple and complex dual-task ability. Simple dual-task walking was correlated to disease-specific motor scores as well as cognitive performance, but complex dual-task walking was correlated with total functional capacity, as well as a range of cognitive measures. Number of prospective falls was moderately-strongly correlated to dual-task measures. Our results suggest that individuals with HD have impairments in cognitive-motor dual-task ability that are related to disease progression and specifically functional ability. Dual-task measures appear to evaluate a unique construct in individuals with early to mid-stage HD, and may have value in improving the prediction of falls risk in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Are factors related to dual-task performance in people with Parkinson's disease dependent on the type of dual task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouwen, Carolien; Molenaar, Esther A L M; Keus, Samyra H J; Münks, Liesbeth; Heremans, Elke; Vandenberghe, Wim; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-02-01

    Impaired dual-task performance significantly impacts upon functional mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify determinants of dual-task performance in people with PD in three different dual tasks to assess their possible task-dependency. We recruited 121 home-dwelling patients with PD (mean age 65.93 years; mean disease duration 8.67 years) whom we subjected to regular walking (control condition) and to three dual-task conditions: walking combined with a backwards Digit Span task, an auditory Stroop task and a Mobile Phone task. We measured dual-task gait velocity using the GAITRite mat and dual-task reaction times and errors on the concurrent tasks as outcomes. Motor, cognitive and descriptive variables which correlated to dual-task performance (p task gait velocity and executive function, tested by the alternating intake test, was significantly associated with gait velocity during the Digit Span (R(2) = 0.65; p task (R(2) = 0.62; p task. Age was a surplus determinant of gait velocity while using a mobile phone. Single-task gait velocity and executive function as measured by a verbal fluency switching task were independent determinants of dual-task gait performance in people with PD. In contrast to expectation, these factors were the same across different tasks, supporting the robustness of the findings. Future study needs to determine whether these factors predict dual-task abnormalities prospectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parkinson's Disease Is Associated with Goal Setting Deficits during Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Friedman, Gilad; Yehene, Eynat

    2004-01-01

    Ten Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients and 10 control participants were tested using a task-switching paradigm in which there was a random task sequence, and the task was cued in every trial. Five PD patients showed a unique error profile. Their performance approximated guessing when accuracy was dependent on correct task identification, and was…

  3. Attention Deficit ِDuring Dual-Task Performance in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Salehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the present investigation was the evaluation of divided attention deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients by using dual-task paradigm in order to ascertain whether this method can be useful in the early diagnosis of AD or not.  Methods & Materials: A total of 23 elderly individuals (11 females and 12 males voluntarily participated in the investigation: 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 10 healthy elderly individuals. The experimental setup consisted of (a single -task and (b dual-task trials at two levels of difficulty. In singletask condition, the participants were asked to recite the months of the year continuously with normal order (easy and backward (difficult. They also performed a computerized visuospatial/motor tracking task. The participants then performed the tracking task in conjunction with each of the months reciting tasks as dual-task condition. Results: The results showed a significant interaction (disease×level of difficulty effect. So that, the performance impairment on combine performance in two simultaneous tasks was related to task difficulty, but the elderly control group did not differ in the easy and difficult conditions. Conclusion: These findings not only increase our understanding of the attention deficits in AD patients, but also have implications for the mediating effect of cognitive load in using dual-task paradigm for studying attention mechanisms of cognitively suffered individuals.

  4. Rare disease diagnosis as an information retrieval task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly more clinicians use web Information Retrieval (IR) systems to assist them in diagnosing difficult medical cases, for instance rare diseases that they may not be familiar with. However, web IR systems are not necessarily optimised for this task. For instance, clinicians’ queries tend...

  5. Speech fluency profile on different tasks for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2017-07-20

    To characterize the speech fluency profile of patients with Parkinson's disease. Study participants were 40 individuals of both genders aged 40 to 80 years divided into 2 groups: Research Group - RG (20 individuals with diagnosis of Parkinson's disease) and Control Group - CG (20 individuals with no communication or neurological disorders). For all of the participants, three speech samples involving different tasks were collected: monologue, individual reading, and automatic speech. The RG presented a significant larger number of speech disruptions, both stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies, and higher percentage of speech discontinuity in the monologue and individual reading tasks compared with the CG. Both groups presented reduced number of speech disruptions (stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies) in the automatic speech task; the groups presented similar performance in this task. Regarding speech rate, individuals in the RG presented lower number of words and syllables per minute compared with those in the CG in all speech tasks. Participants of the RG presented altered parameters of speech fluency compared with those of the CG; however, this change in fluency cannot be considered a stuttering disorder.

  6. Improving Dual-Task Walking Paradigms to Detect Prodromal Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Belghali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gait control is a complex movement, relying on spinal, subcortical, and cortical structures. The presence of deficits in one or more of these structures will result in changes in gait automaticity and control, as is the case in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. By reviewing recent findings in this field of research, current studies have shown that gait performance assessment under dual-task conditions could contribute to predict both of these diseases. Such suggestions are relevant mainly for people at putatively high risk of developing AD (i.e., older adults with mild cognitive impairment subtypes or PD (i.e., older adults with either Mild Parkinsonian signs or LRRK2 G2019S mutation. Despite the major importance of these results, the type of cognitive task that should be used as a concurrent secondary task has to be selected among the plurality of tasks proposed in the literature. Furthermore, the key aspects of gait control that represent sensitive and specific “gait signatures” for prodromal AD or PD need to be determined. In the present perspective article, we suggest the use of a Stroop interference task requiring inhibitory attentional control and a set-shifting task requiring reactive flexibility as being particularly relevant secondary tasks for challenging gait in prodromal AD and PD, respectively. Investigating how inhibition and cognitive flexibility interfere with gait control is a promising avenue for future research aimed at enhancing early detection of AD and PD, respectively.

  7. Manifold regularized multi-task feature selection for multi-modality classification in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Cheng, Bo; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as its prodromal stage (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, MCI), is very important for possible delay and early treatment of the disease. Recently, multi-modality methods have been used for fusing information from multiple different and complementary imaging and non-imaging modalities. Although there are a number of existing multi-modality methods, few of them have addressed the problem of joint identification of disease-related brain regions from multi-modality data for classification. In this paper, we proposed a manifold regularized multi-task learning framework to jointly select features from multi-modality data. Specifically, we formulate the multi-modality classification as a multi-task learning framework, where each task focuses on the classification based on each modality. In order to capture the intrinsic relatedness among multiple tasks (i.e., modalities), we adopted a group sparsity regularizer, which ensures only a small number of features to be selected jointly. In addition, we introduced a new manifold based Laplacian regularization term to preserve the geometric distribution of original data from each task, which can lead to the selection of more discriminative features. Furthermore, we extend our method to the semi-supervised setting, which is very important since the acquisition of a large set of labeled data (i.e., diagnosis of disease) is usually expensive and time-consuming, while the collection of unlabeled data is relatively much easier. To validate our method, we have performed extensive evaluations on the baseline Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Communication of the Association of Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy (EFN) at the Johannesburg world summit in august 2002; Communication de l'Association des Ecologistes pour le Nucleaire (AEPN) au sommet mondial de Johannesbourg aout 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Very little is completely proven about how the increased greenhouse effect will change the world climate. Meanwhile the high probability that dramatic event will occurs, leads us to apply the precautionary principle. Facing this giant problem, EFN believes that mankind, and especially countries members of OECD, must undertake several kinds of actions, explained in this paper: reducing energy waste, develop the renewable energies, take into account the potentialities of the nuclear energy and accept the market in CO{sub 2} emission credits. (A.L.B.)

  9. Impact of cardiac symptoms on self-reported household task performance in women with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, L P

    2001-01-01

    Household tasks are highly salient physical activities for women. Inability to perform household tasks may serve as an important marker of limitations imposed by cardiac symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cardiac symptoms on perceived ability to perform household tasks in women with coronary artery disease and to examine relationships among age, whether the woman lived alone, ability to perform household tasks, and cardiac-related quality of life. Forty-one women with confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease and a mean age of 66 years (SD 12 years) were interviewed about the impact of their cardiac symptoms and perceived ability to perform household tasks (Household Activities Scale) and cardiac-related quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire). The women were primarily white (89.4%) and retired (65.9%). Forty-six percent were married, and 26.8% lived alone. "Washing dishes" (51.3%) was the only task a majority of the sample could perform without limitation. Household tasks most commonly reported as no longer performed included carrying laundry (24.4%), vacuuming (30.0%), and scrubbing the floor (51.2%). The task most commonly modified because of cardiac symptoms was changing bed linens (60%). Of the 14 household tasks, women performed a mean of 3.39 (SD 3.36) activities without difficulty. Total number of household activities performed without difficulty was associated with better quality of life in the area of exertional capacity (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Women who lived alone reported greater perceived ability to perform household tasks than women who did not live alone (r = 0.31, P = 0.05). Age was not significantly associated with perceived household task performance (r = -0.22, P = 0.17). Women with coronary artery disease (CAD) perceived cardiac symptoms as disrupting their ability to perform household tasks. Future research is needed to determine the independent impact of cardiac symptoms on functional limitations

  10. Impact of Dual Task on Parkinson's Disease, Stroke and Ataxia Patients' Gait: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly Arjona Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Performing dual task for neurological patients is complex and it can be influenced by the localization of the neurological lesion. Objective: Comparing the impact of dual task on gait in patients with Parkinson's disease, stroke and ataxia. Method: Subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD in initial phase, stroke and ataxia, with independent gait, were evaluated while doing simple gait, with cognitive, motor and cognitive-motor gait demand, assessing average speed and number of steps. Results: Ataxia and stroke patients, compared with PD, showed an increase in the number of steps and decrease the average speed on the march with cognitive demand. Subjects with PD performed better on tasks when compared to others. Conclusion: In this study the impact of dual task was lower in Parkinson's disease patients.

  11. Cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Sato, Atsushi; Imamura, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients' memory impairments in daily living.

  12. Altered kinematics of arm swing in Parkinson's disease patients indicates declines in gait under dual-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Elise I; Miller Koop, Mandy; Streicher, Matthew C; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Alberts, Jay L

    2018-03-01

    Declines in simultaneous performance of a cognitive and motor task are present in Parkinson's disease due to compromised basal ganglia function related to information processing. The aim of this project was to determine if biomechanical measures of arm swing could be used as a marker of gait function under dual-task conditions in Parkinson's disease patients. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson's disease completed single and dual-task cognitive-motor tests while walking on a treadmill at a self-selected rate. Multiple cognitive domains were evaluated with five cognitive tests. Cognitive tests were completed in isolation (single-task) and simultaneously with gait (dual-task). Upper extremity biomechanical data were gathered using the Motek CAREN system. Primary outcomes characterizing arm swing were: path length, normalized jerk, coefficient of variation of arm swing time, and cognitive performance. Performance on the cognitive tasks were similar across single and dual-task conditions. However, biomechanical measures exhibited significant changes between single and dual-task conditions, with the greatest changes occurring in the most challenging conditions. Arm swing path length decreased significantly from single to dual-task, with the greatest decrease of 21.16%. Jerk, characterizing smoothness, increased significantly when moving from single to dual-task conditions. The simultaneous performance of a cognitive and gait task resulted in decrements in arm swing while cognitive performance was maintained. Arm swing outcomes provide a sensitive measure of declines in gait function in Parkinson's disease under dual-task conditions. The quantification of arm swing is a feasible approach to identifying and evaluating gait related declines under dual-task conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouwen, Carolien; Molenaar, Esther A L M; Keus, Samyra H J; Münks, Liesbeth; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of DT outcome measures in patients with PD. A repeated-measures design was used. Patients with PD ("on" medication, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) performed 2 cognitive tasks (ie, backward digit span task and auditory Stroop task) and 1 functional task (ie, mobile phone task) in combination with walking. Tasks were assessed at 2 time points (same hour) with an interval of 6 weeks. Test-retest reliability was assessed for gait while performing each secondary task (DT gait) for both cognitive tasks while walking (DT cognitive) and for the functional task while walking (DT functional). Sixty-two patients with PD (age=39-89 years, Hoehn and Yahr stages II-III) were included in the study. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) showed excellent reliability for DT gait measures, ranging between .86 and .95 when combined with the digit span task, between .86 and .95 when combined with the auditory Stroop task, and between .72 and .90 when combined with the mobile phone task. The standard error of measurements for DT gait speed varied between 0.06 and 0.08 m/s, leading to minimal detectable changes between 0.16 and 0.22 m/s. With regard to DT cognitive measures, reaction times showed good-to-excellent reliability (digit span task: ICC=.75; auditory Stroop task: ICC=.82). The results cannot be generalized to patients with advanced disease or to other DT measures. In people with PD, DT measures proved to be reliable for use in clinical studies and look promising for use in clinical practice to assess improvements after DT training. Large effects, however, are needed to obtain meaningful effect sizes.

  14. Manifold Regularized Multi-Task Feature Selection for Multi-Modality Classification in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Cheng, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as its pro-dromal stage (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, MCI), is very important for possible delay and early treatment of the disease. Recently, multi-modality methods have been used for fusing information from multiple different and complementary imaging and non-imaging modalities. Although there are a number of existing multi-modality methods, few of them have addressed the problem of joint identification of disease-related brain regions from multi-modality data for classification. In this paper, we proposed a manifold regularized multi-task learning framework to jointly select features from multi-modality data. Specifically, we formulate the multi-modality classification as a multi-task learning framework, where each task focuses on the classification based on each modality. In order to capture the intrinsic relatedness among multiple tasks (i.e., modalities), we adopted a group sparsity regularizer, which ensures only a small number of features to be selected jointly. In addition, we introduced a new manifold based Laplacian regularization term to preserve the geometric distribution of original data from each task, which can lead to the selection of more discriminative features. Furthermore, we extend our method to the semi-supervised setting, which is very important since the acquisition of a large set of labeled data (i.e., diagnosis of disease) is usually expensive and time-consuming, while the collection of unlabeled data is relatively much easier. To validate our method, we have performed extensive evaluations on the baseline Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data of Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24505676

  15. Comparing kinematic changes between a finger-tapping task and unconstrained finger flexion-extension task in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, W P; Rodrigues, J P; Mastaglia, F L; Thickbroom, G W

    2013-06-01

    Repetitive finger tapping is a well-established clinical test for the evaluation of parkinsonian bradykinesia, but few studies have investigated other finger movement modalities. We compared the kinematic changes (movement rate and amplitude) and response to levodopa during a conventional index finger-thumb-tapping task and an unconstrained index finger flexion-extension task performed at maximal voluntary rate (MVR) for 20 s in 11 individuals with levodopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (OFF and ON) and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Between-task comparisons showed that for all conditions, the initial movement rate was greater for the unconstrained flexion-extension task than the tapping task. Movement rate in the OFF state was slower than in controls for both tasks and normalized in the ON state. The movement amplitude was also reduced for both tasks in OFF and increased in the ON state but did not reach control levels. The rate and amplitude of movement declined significantly for both tasks under all conditions (OFF/ON and controls). The time course of rate decline was comparable for both tasks and was similar in OFF/ON and controls, whereas the tapping task was associated with a greater decline in MA, both in controls and ON, but not OFF. The findings indicate that both finger movement tasks show similar kinematic changes during a 20-s sustained MVR, but that movement amplitude is less well sustained during the tapping task than the unconstrained finger movement task. Both movement rate and amplitude improved with levodopa; however, movement rate was more levodopa responsive than amplitude.

  16. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Implicit Behavioral Change in Response to Cognitive Tasks in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomilcar, Iris; Morris, Robin G; Brown, Richard G; Mograbi, Daniel C

    2018-03-01

    Lack of awareness about impairments is commonly found in Alzheimer disease (AD), but recent evidence suggests that patients may respond to the experience of illness despite limited awareness. In this study, we explored whether implicit emotional responses to experiences of failure in cognitive tasks would result in longer-term change in behavior. Twenty-two patients with AD were seen 1 week after a previous session in which they performed computer tasks that had been manipulated to be either too difficult (failure condition) or very easy (success condition) for them. At the second session, both types of tasks were set to have medium difficulty and were administered so that the participants decided how long to persist on each task. Task persistence was determined by relative time spent doing the tasks, considering that participants would be more likely to stop performing tasks in which they had experienced failure during the first session. Task persistence in the second session was not affected by performance in the first session. However, when participants' awareness of performance in the first session was taken into account, differences were found in persistence between tasks in the second session. During the second session, participants stopped performing tasks after a sequence of errors. There were no self-reported changes in motivation or enjoyment in response to task failure. These findings suggest that implicit learning of task valence may be compromised in AD, but that initial moments of awareness of performance may influence long-term adaptation in unaware patients.

  18. Frontal Tasks and Behavior in Rigid or Tremor-Dominant Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Milner, Vera; Caruso, Paola; Gazzin, Silvia; Rumiati, Raffaella

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is not an unambiguous entity, and there is a general consensus for the statement that an akinetic-rigid dominant type of presentation has a worse prognosis, in the follow-up. The aim of our study was to examine the differences in frontal tasks and behavior, in 2 PD naive groups: the rigid and the tremor-dominant types of presentation, according to motor scores. Our study has showed some important differences in frontal tasks and in behavior, performing more apathy, aggressiveness, and irritability in the rigid type, and more depression and anxiety in the tremor-dominant type. The former group causes the caregiver more distress and has a very rapid disease progression. It can be argued that rigid type PD presentation needs specific dedicated cares and more strong clinical attention.

  19. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yamagishi; Takuya Sato; Atsushi Sato; Toru Imamura

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the ...

  20. Effects of Functional-Task Training on Older Adults With Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Renata V; Ayán, Carlos; Fraga, Francisco J; da Silva, Thays M V; Cancela, José M; Santos-Galduròz, Ruth F

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of functional-task training on cognitive function, activities of daily living (ADL) performance, and functional fitness in community-dwelling older adults with diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 57 participants (22 functional-task training group [FTG], 21 social gathering group [SGG], 14 control group [CG]) were recruited. Participants in both intervention groups carried out three 1-hr sessions per week of a functional-task program and social gathering activities for 12 weeks. Significant improvements were observed in executive functions (TMT, t-test, p = .03) in the SGG and in upper limb strength (arm curl, t-test, p = .01) in the FTG. Functional-task training has no significant effect on cognitive function, ADL, and functional fitness among people with AD, although it may contribute to slowing down the process of deterioration this illness causes.

  1. Effects of dual-task training on balance and executive functions in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Fernandes; Nuno Rocha; Rubim Santos; João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task training compared with single-task training on balance and executive functions in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Fifteen subjects, aged between 39 and 75 years old, were randomly assigned to the dual-task training group (n = 8) and single-task training group (n = 7). The training was run twice a week for 6 weeks. The single-task group received balance training and the dual-task group performed cognitive task...

  2. Freezing during tapping tasks in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc; Tard, Céline

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait also experience sudden motor blocks (freezing) during other repetitive motor tasks. We assessed the proportion of patients with advanced PD and freezing of gait who also displayed segmental "freezing" in tapping tasks. Fifteen Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait were assessed. Freezing of gait was evaluated using a standardized gait trajectory with the usual triggers. Patients performed repetitive tapping movements (as described in the MDS-UPDRS task) with the hands or the feet in the presence or absence of a metronome set to 4 Hz. Movements were recorded with a video motion system. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of segmental freezing in these tapping tasks. The secondary endpoints were (i) the relationship between segmental episodic phenomena and FoG severity, and (ii) the reliability of the measurements. For the upper limbs, freezing was observed more frequently with a metronome (21% of trials) than without a metronome (5%). For the lower limbs, the incidence of freezing was higher than for the upper limbs, and was again observed more frequently in the presence of an auditory cue (47%) than in its absence (14%). Although freezing of the lower limbs was easily assessed during an MDS-UPDRS task with a metronome, it was not correlated with the severity of freezing of gait (as evaluated during a standardized gait trajectory). Only this latter was a reliable measurement in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

  3. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamagishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Results: Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Conclusion: The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients’ memory impairments in daily living.

  4. The effects of dual tasking on handwriting in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, S; Nackaerts, E; Nieuwboer, A; Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Swinnen, S P; Heremans, E

    2014-03-28

    Previous studies have shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience extensive problems during dual tasking. Up to now, dual-task interference in PD has mainly been investigated in the context of gait research. However, the simultaneous performance of two different tasks is also a prerequisite to efficiently perform many other tasks in daily life, including upper limb tasks. To address this issue, this study investigated the effect of a secondary cognitive task on the performance of handwriting in patients with PD. Eighteen PD patients and 11 age-matched controls performed a writing task involving the production of repetitive loops under single- and dual-task conditions. The secondary task consisted of counting high and low tones during writing. The writing tests were performed with two amplitudes (0.6 and 1.0cm) using a writing tablet. Results showed that dual-task performance was affected in PD patients versus controls. Dual tasking reduced writing amplitude in PD patients, but not in healthy controls (p=0.046). Patients' writing size was mainly reduced during the small-amplitude condition (small amplitude p=0.017; large amplitude p=0.310). This suggests that the control of writing at small amplitudes requires more compensational brain-processing recourses in PD and is as such less automatic than writing at large amplitudes. In addition, there was a larger dual-task effect on the secondary task in PD patients than controls (p=0.025). The writing tests on the writing tablet proved highly correlated to daily life writing as measured by the 'Systematic Screening of Handwriting Difficulties' test (SOS-test) and other manual dexterity tasks, particularly during dual-task conditions. Taken together, these results provide additional insights into the motor control of handwriting and the effects of dual tasking during upper limb movements in patients with PD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-scale patterns of diversification in the widespread legume genus Senna and the evolutionary role of extrafloral nectaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazzi, Brigitte; Sanderson, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Unraveling the diversification history of old, species-rich and widespread clades is difficult because of extinction, undersampling, and taxonomic uncertainty. In the context of these challenges, we investigated the timing and mode of lineage diversification in Senna (Leguminosae) to gain insights into the evolutionary role of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs). EFNs secrete nectar, attracting ants and forming ecologically important ant-plant mutualisms. In Senna, EFNs characterize one large clade (EFN clade), including 80% of its 350 species. Taxonomic accounts make Senna the largest caesalpinioid genus, but quantitative comparisons to other taxa require inferences about rates. Molecular dating analyses suggest that Senna originated in the early Eocene, and its major lineages appeared during early/mid Eocene to early Oligocene. EFNs evolved in the late Eocene, after the main radiation of ants. The EFN clade diversified faster, becoming significantly more species-rich than non-EFN clades. The shift in diversification rates associated with EFN evolution supports the hypothesis that EFNs represent a (relatively old) key innovation in Senna. EFNs may have promoted the colonization of new habitats appearing with the early uplift of the Andes. This would explain the distinctive geographic concentration of the EFN clade in South America. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Defensive effects of extrafloral nectaries in quaking aspen differ with scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brent; Wagner, Diane; Doak, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    The effects of plant defenses on herbivory can differ among spatial scales. This may be particularly common with indirect defenses, such as extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), that attract predatory arthropods and are dependent on predator distribution, abundance, and behavior. We tested the defensive effects of EFNs in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) against damage by a specialist herbivore, the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella Cham.), at the scale of individual leaves and entire ramets (i.e., stems). Experiments excluding crawling arthropods revealed that the effects of aspen EFNs differed at the leaf and ramet scales. Crawling predators caused similar reductions in the percent leaf area mined on individual leaves with and without EFNs. However, the extent to which crawling predators increased leaf miner mortality and, consequently, reduced mining damage increased with EFN expression at the ramet scale. Thus, aspen EFNs provided a diffuse defense, reducing damage to leaves across a ramet regardless of leaf-scale EFN expression. We detected lower leaf miner damage and survival unassociated with crawling predators on EFN-bearing leaves, suggesting that direct defenses (e.g., chemical defenses) were stronger on leaves with than without EFNs. Greater direct defenses on EFN-bearing leaves may reduce the probability of losing these leaves and thus weakening ramet-scale EFN defense. Aspen growth was not related to EFN expression or the presence of crawling predators over the course of a single season. Different effects of aspen EFNs at the leaf and ramet scales suggest that future studies may benefit from examining indirect defenses simultaneously at multiple scales.

  7. Motor dual-tasking deficits predict falls in Parkinson's disease: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Maechtel, Mirjam; Hasmann, Sandra E; Hobert, Markus A; Heger, Tanja; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Falls severely affect lives of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Cognitive impairment including dual-tasking deficits contribute to fall risk in PD. However, types of dual-tasking deficits preceding falls in PD are still unclear. Walking velocities during box-checking and subtracting serial 7s were assessed twice a year in 40 PD patients over 2.8 ± 1.0 years. Fourteen patients reported a fall within this period (4 excluded fallers already reported falls at baseline). Their dual-task costs (DTC; mean ± standard deviation) 4.2 ± 2.2 months before the first fall were compared with 22 patients never reporting falls. ROC analyses and logistic regressions accounting for DTC, UPDRS-III and disease duration were used for faller classification and prediction. Only walking/box-checking predicted fallers. Fallers showed higher DTC for walking while box-checking, p = 0.029, but not for box-checking while walking, p = 0.178 (combined motor DTC, p = 0.022), than non-fallers. Combined motor DTC classified fallers and non-fallers (area under curve: 0.75; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.60-0.91) with 71.4% sensitivity (95%CI: 41.9%-91.6%) and 77.3% specificity (54.6%-92.2%), and significantly predicted future fallers (p = 0.023). Here, 20.4%-points higher combined motor DTC (i.e. the mean difference between fallers and non-fallers) was associated with a 2.6 (1.1-6.0) times higher odds to be a future faller. Motor dual-tasking is a potentially valuable predictor of falls in PD, suggesting that avoiding dual task situations as well as specific motor dual-task training might help to prevent falls in PD. These findings and their therapeutic relevance need to be further validated in PD patients without fall history, in early PD stages, and with various motor-motor dual-task challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emulation of Physician Tasks in Eye-Tracked Virtual Reality for Remote Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlosky, Jason; Itoh, Yuta; Ranchet, Maud; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Morgan, John; Devos, Hannes

    2017-04-01

    For neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson's disease, early and accurate diagnosis is still a difficult task. Evaluations can be time consuming, patients must often travel to metropolitan areas or different cities to see experts, and misdiagnosis can result in improper treatment. To date, only a handful of assistive or remote methods exist to help physicians evaluate patients with suspected neurological disease in a convenient and consistent way. In this paper, we present a low-cost VR interface designed to support evaluation and diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease and test its use in a clinical setting. Using a commercially available VR display with an infrared camera integrated into the lens, we have constructed a 3D virtual environment designed to emulate common tasks used to evaluate patients, such as fixating on a point, conducting smooth pursuit of an object, or executing saccades. These virtual tasks are designed to elicit eye movements commonly associated with neurodegenerative disease, such as abnormal saccades, square wave jerks, and ocular tremor. Next, we conducted experiments with 9 patients with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and 7 healthy controls to test the system's potential to emulate tasks for clinical diagnosis. We then applied eye tracking algorithms and image enhancement to the eye recordings taken during the experiment and conducted a short follow-up study with two physicians for evaluation. Results showed that our VR interface was able to elicit five common types of movements usable for evaluation, physicians were able to confirm three out of four abnormalities, and visualizations were rated as potentially useful for diagnosis.

  9. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2015-12-01

    Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer's disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer's disease. To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer's disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Academic clinical research center. One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task and executive function (APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task, which

  10. Protocol for a randomized comparison of integrated versus consecutive dual task practice in Parkinson's disease: the DUALITY trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strouwen, C.; Molenaar, E.A.L.M.; Keus, S.H.J.; Munks, L.; Munneke, M.; Vandenberghe, W.; Bloem, B.R.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple tasking is an integral part of daily mobility. Patients with Parkinson's disease have dual tasking difficulties due to their combined motor and cognitive deficits. Two contrasting physiotherapy interventions have been proposed to alleviate dual tasking difficulties: either to

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Language Production in Parkinson's Disease Using a Cued Sentence Generation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; De Letter, Miet; Corthals, Paul; Van Borsel, John; Santens, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined language production skills in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A unique cued sentence generation task was created in order to reduce demands on memory and attention. Differences in sentence production abilities according to disease severity and cognitive impairments were assessed. Language samples were obtained from 20…

  12. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone

  13. Effects of dual-task training on balance and executive functions in Parkinson's disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Rocha, Nuno; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task training compared with single-task training on balance and executive functions in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Fifteen subjects, aged between 39 and 75 years old, were randomly assigned to the dual-task training group (n = 8) and single-task training group (n = 7). The training was run twice a week for 6 weeks. The single-task group received balance training and the dual-task group performed cognitive tasks simultaneously with the balance training. There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. After the intervention, the results for mediolateral sway with eyes closed were significantly better for the dual-task group and anteroposterior sway with eyes closed was significantly better for the single-task group. The results suggest superior outcomes for the dual-task training compared to the single-task training for static postural control, except in anteroposterior sway with eyes closed.

  14. Extrafloral nectaries in Combretaceae: morphology, anatomy and taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Tilney

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs in members of the Combretaceae are nectaries not involved with pollination and occurring on vegetative structures; they are believed to attract ants to protect plants against herbivorv by other insects. In the Combretaceae EFNs are reported in species of Terminalia L. and Pteleopsis Engl., putative EFNs in Meiostemon Exell & Stace and Quisqualis L., and an absence of EFNs in Combretum Loefl. and Lumnitzera Willd. EFNs in the family are generally spherical in shape and may be raised, level with the surface or somewhat concave. They are similar in the Terminalia and  Pteleopsis species where they display varying degrees of internal zonation and are composed of small cells; those species observed in the field were all found to have functional EFNs. In Meiostemon tetrandrum (Exell Exell & Stace, Quisqualis indica L.. Q. littorea (Engl. Exell and Q. paviflora Gerrard ex Sond.. apparent EFNs lack internal zonation and are composed of enlarged cells; confirmation is required as to whether these are functional . The formation of EFNs appears to be highly flexible. They are usually essentially associated with new growth but their occurrence is sporadic and they do not appear on every leaf or every' branch of a plant. The distribution of EFNs on leaves, when present, is of taxonomic significance to separate species of Pteleopsis and Terminalia: otherwise the presence or absence and distribution of EFNs are too variable and sporadic in occurrence to be of taxonomic significance at the species level. Indiscriminate use of the terms gland and domatium instead of EFN. and possible confusion with damage caused by other organisms, has probably con­tributed to many of these structures not previously being recorded as EFNs. Floral and extrafloral nectar samples of T. phanerophlebia Engl. & Diels differed in sugar composition.

  15. Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance.

  16. Gait, dual task and history of falls in elderly with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Juliana H; Andrade, Larissa P; Rossi, Paulo G; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Vale, Francisco A C; Rebelatto, José R

    Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling older adults with preserved cognition, 40 older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and 38 older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease. The assessment consisted of anamneses, gait (measured by the 10-meter walk test), dual task (measured by the Timed Up and Go Test associated with the motor-cognitive task of calling a phone number), and history of falls in the past year. There were no differences among all groups for all variables. However, the Alzheimer's disease Group performed significantly worse in the dual task than the other groups. No item of dual task could distinguish people with preserved cognition from those with mild cognitive impairment. The groups with cognitive impairment included more fallers, and specific characteristics in history of falls between groups were identified. Dual task could distinguish Alzheimer's disease patients specifically from other cognitive profiles. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Auditory post-processing in a passive listening task is deficient in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Bluschke, Annet; Dippel, Gabriel; Rupp, André; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thomas, Christine

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether automatic auditory post-processing is deficient in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is related to sensory gating. Event-related potentials were recorded during a passive listening task to examine the automatic transient storage of auditory information (short click pairs). Patients with Alzheimer's disease were compared to a healthy age-matched control group. A young healthy control group was included to assess effects of physiological aging. A bilateral frontal negativity in combination with deep temporal positivity occurring 500 ms after stimulus offset was reduced in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but was unaffected by physiological aging. Its amplitude correlated with short-term memory capacity, but was independent of sensory gating in healthy elderly controls. Source analysis revealed a dipole pair in the anterior temporal lobes. Results suggest that auditory post-processing is deficient in Alzheimer's disease, but is not typically related to sensory gating. The deficit could neither be explained by physiological aging nor by problems in earlier stages of auditory perception. Correlations with short-term memory capacity and executive control tasks suggested an association with memory encoding and/or overall cognitive control deficits. An auditory late negative wave could represent a marker of auditory working memory encoding deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The phylogenetic distribution of extrafloral nectaries in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Keeler, Kathleen H

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the evolutionary patterns of ecologically relevant traits is a central goal in plant biology. However, for most important traits, we lack the comprehensive understanding of their taxonomic distribution needed to evaluate their evolutionary mode and tempo across the tree of life. Here we evaluate the broad phylogenetic patterns of a common plant-defence trait found across vascular plants: extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), plant glands that secrete nectar and are located outside the flower. EFNs typically defend plants indirectly by attracting invertebrate predators who reduce herbivory. Records of EFNs published over the last 135 years were compiled. After accounting for changes in taxonomy, phylogenetic comparative methods were used to evaluate patterns of EFN evolution, using a phylogeny of over 55 000 species of vascular plants. Using comparisons of parametric and non-parametric models, the true number of species with EFNs likely to exist beyond the current list was estimated. To date, EFNs have been reported in 3941 species representing 745 genera in 108 families, about 1-2 % of vascular plant species and approx. 21 % of families. They are found in 33 of 65 angiosperm orders. Foliar nectaries are known in four of 36 fern families. Extrafloral nectaries are unknown in early angiosperms, magnoliids and gymnosperms. They occur throughout monocotyledons, yet most EFNs are found within eudicots, with the bulk of species with EFNs being rosids. Phylogenetic analyses strongly support the repeated gain and loss of EFNs across plant clades, especially in more derived dicot families, and suggest that EFNs are found in a minimum of 457 independent lineages. However, model selection methods estimate that the number of unreported cases of EFNs may be as high as the number of species already reported. EFNs are widespread and evolutionarily labile traits that have repeatedly evolved a remarkable number of times in vascular plants. Our current understanding of the

  19. Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference.

  20. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus; Lolk, Annette; Gottrup, Hanne; Høgh, Peter; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Beyer, Nina

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies with the purpose of preserving function and quality of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in community-dwelling patients with mild AD. Baseline results from 185 participants (50-90 years old) in the single blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50 or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while the other physical function tests only randomly correlated with tests of cognition. Results in the dual-task counting backwards correlated significantly with results in all tests of cognition (r = .259-.388), which accounted for 7%-15% of the variation indicating that a faster time to complete dual-task performance was associated with better cognitive performance. The evidence of the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition is important when creating new rehabilitation interventions to patients with mild AD.

  1. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strouwen, C.; Molenaar, E.A.; Keus, S.H.; Munks, L.; Bloem, B.R.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains

  2. 78 FR 2996 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...

  3. 77 FR 56845 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...

  4. 78 FR 27969 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...

  5. 78 FR 59939 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... September 17, 2013, announcing the next meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force... the Task Force to consider the findings of systematic reviews and issue findings and recommendations...

  6. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  7. Iowa Gambling Task in patients with early-onset Parkinson’s disease: strategy analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gescheidt, T.; Czekóová, Kristína; Urbánek, Tomáš; Mareček, R.; Mikl, M.; Kubíková, R.; Telecká, S.; Andrlová, H.; Husárová, I.; Bareš, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2012), s. 1329-1335 ISSN 1590-1874 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2432 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Parkinson’s disease * decision making * Iowa gambling task * executive function Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology Impact factor: 1.412, year: 2012

  8. Glucanases and Chitinases as Causal Agents in the Protection of Acacia Extrafloral Nectar from Infestation by Phytopathogens1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Pozo, María J.; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Adame-Álvarez, Rosa M.; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Nectars are rich in primary metabolites and attract mutualistic animals, which serve as pollinators or as an indirect defense against herbivores. Their chemical composition makes nectars prone to microbial infestation. As protective strategy, floral nectar of ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana langsdorffii × Nicotiana sanderae) contains “nectarins,” proteins producing reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were detected in Acacia extrafloral nectar (EFN), which is secreted in the context of defensive ant-plant mutualisms. We investigated whether these PR proteins protect EFN from phytopathogens. Five sympatric species (Acacia cornigera, A. hindsii, A. collinsii, A. farnesiana, and Prosopis juliflora) were compared that differ in their ant-plant mutualism. EFN of myrmecophytes, which are obligate ant-plants that secrete EFN constitutively to nourish specialized ant inhabitants, significantly inhibited the growth of four out of six tested phytopathogenic microorganisms. By contrast, EFN of nonmyrmecophytes, which is secreted only transiently in response to herbivory, did not exhibit a detectable inhibitory activity. Combining two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that PR proteins represented over 90% of all proteins in myrmecophyte EFN. The inhibition of microbial growth was exerted by the protein fraction, but not the small metabolites of this EFN, and disappeared when nectar was heated. In-gel assays demonstrated the activity of acidic and basic chitinases in all EFNs, whereas glucanases were detected only in EFN of myrmecophytes. Our results demonstrate that PR proteins causally underlie the protection of Acacia EFN from microorganisms and that acidic and basic glucanases likely represent the most important prerequisite in this defensive function. PMID:20023149

  9. 78 FR 63208 - UPDATE-Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force). The in-person Task Force meeting is being replaced by... CDC's ability to complete the necessary scientific and logistical support for the meeting. The Task...

  10. Assessing the state of the art in biomedical relation extraction: overview of the BioCreative V chemical-disease relation (CDR) task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Peng, Yifan; Leaman, Robert; Davis, Allan Peter; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Li, Jiao; Wiegers, Thomas C; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Manually curating chemicals, diseases and their relationships is significantly important to biomedical research, but it is plagued by its high cost and the rapid growth of the biomedical literature. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in developing computational approaches for automatic chemical-disease relation (CDR) extraction. Despite these attempts, the lack of a comprehensive benchmarking dataset has limited the comparison of different techniques in order to assess and advance the current state-of-the-art. To this end, we organized a challenge task through BioCreative V to automatically extract CDRs from the literature. We designed two challenge tasks: disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction. To assist system development and assessment, we created a large annotated text corpus that consisted of human annotations of chemicals, diseases and their interactions from 1500 PubMed articles. 34 teams worldwide participated in the CDR task: 16 (DNER) and 18 (CID). The best systems achieved an F-score of 86.46% for the DNER task--a result that approaches the human inter-annotator agreement (0.8875)--and an F-score of 57.03% for the CID task, the highest results ever reported for such tasks. When combining team results via machine learning, the ensemble system was able to further improve over the best team results by achieving 88.89% and 62.80% in F-score for the DNER and CID task, respectively. Additionally, another novel aspect of our evaluation is to test each participating system's ability to return real-time results: the average response time for each team's DNER and CID web service systems were 5.6 and 9.3 s, respectively. Most teams used hybrid systems for their submissions based on machining learning. Given the level of participation and results, we found our task to be successful in engaging the text-mining research community, producing a large annotated corpus and improving the results of

  11. Temporal Variation in the Abundance and Richness of Foliage-Dwelling Ants Mediated by Extrafloral Nectar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Belchior

    Full Text Available Plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are common in the Brazilian cerrado savanna, where climatic conditions having marked seasonality influence arboreal ant fauna organization. These ant-plant interactions have rarely been studied at community level. Here, we tested whether: 1 EFN-bearing plants are more visited by ants than EFN-lacking plants; 2 ant visitation is higher in the rainy season than in dry season; 3 plants producing young leaves are more visited than those lacking young leaves in the rainy season; 4 during the dry season, plants with old leaves and flowers are more visited than plants with young leaves and bare of leaves or flowers; 5 the composition of visiting ant fauna differs between plants with and without EFNs. Field work was done in a cerrado reserve near Uberlândia, MG State, Brazil, along ten transects (total area 3,000 m2, in the rainy (October-January and dry seasons (April-July of 2010-2011. Plants (72 species; 762 individuals were checked three times per season for ant presence. Results showed that 21 species (29% and 266 individuals (35% possessed EFNs. These plants attracted 38 ant species (36 in rainy, 26 in dry season. In the rainy season, plants with EFNs had higher ant abundance/richness than plants without EFNs, but in the dry season, EFN presence did not influence ant visitation. Plant phenology affected ant richness and abundance in different ways: plants with young leaves possessed higher ant richness in the rainy season, but in the dry season ant abundance was higher on plants possessing old leaves or flowers. The species composition of plant-associated ant communities, however, did not differ between plants with and without EFNs in either season. These findings suggest that the effect of EFN presence on a community of plant-visiting ants is context dependent, being conditioned to seasonal variation.

  12. Temporal Variation in the Abundance and Richness of Foliage-Dwelling Ants Mediated by Extrafloral Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Ceres; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2016-01-01

    Plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) are common in the Brazilian cerrado savanna, where climatic conditions having marked seasonality influence arboreal ant fauna organization. These ant-plant interactions have rarely been studied at community level. Here, we tested whether: 1) EFN-bearing plants are more visited by ants than EFN-lacking plants; 2) ant visitation is higher in the rainy season than in dry season; 3) plants producing young leaves are more visited than those lacking young leaves in the rainy season; 4) during the dry season, plants with old leaves and flowers are more visited than plants with young leaves and bare of leaves or flowers; 5) the composition of visiting ant fauna differs between plants with and without EFNs. Field work was done in a cerrado reserve near Uberlândia, MG State, Brazil, along ten transects (total area 3,000 m2), in the rainy (October-January) and dry seasons (April-July) of 2010-2011. Plants (72 species; 762 individuals) were checked three times per season for ant presence. Results showed that 21 species (29%) and 266 individuals (35%) possessed EFNs. These plants attracted 38 ant species (36 in rainy, 26 in dry season). In the rainy season, plants with EFNs had higher ant abundance/richness than plants without EFNs, but in the dry season, EFN presence did not influence ant visitation. Plant phenology affected ant richness and abundance in different ways: plants with young leaves possessed higher ant richness in the rainy season, but in the dry season ant abundance was higher on plants possessing old leaves or flowers. The species composition of plant-associated ant communities, however, did not differ between plants with and without EFNs in either season. These findings suggest that the effect of EFN presence on a community of plant-visiting ants is context dependent, being conditioned to seasonal variation.

  13. Dual-task as a predictor of falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jessica; Ansai, Juliana Hotta; Masse, Fernando Arturo Arriagada; Vale, Francisco Assis Carvalho; Takahashi, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros; Andrade, Larissa Pires de

    2018-04-04

    A dual-task tool with a challenging and daily secondary task, which involves executive functions, could facilitate the screening for risk of falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease. To verify if a motor-cognitive dual-task test could predict falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease, and to establish cutoff scores for the tool for both groups. A prospective study was conducted with community-dwelling older adults, including 40 with mild cognitive impairment and 38 with mild Alzheimer's disease. The dual-task test consisted of the Timed up and Go Test associated with a motor-cognitive task using a phone to call. Falls were recorded during six months by calendar and monthly telephone calls and the participants were categorized as fallers or non-fallers. In the Mild cognitive impairment Group, fallers presented higher values in time (35.2s), number of steps (33.7 steps) and motor task cost (116%) on dual-task compared to non-fallers. Time, number of steps and motor task cost were significantly associated with falls in people with mild cognitive impairment. Multivariate analysis identified higher number of steps spent on the test to be independently associated with falls. A time greater than 23.88s (sensitivity=80%; specificity=61%) and a number of steps over 29.50 (sensitivity=65%; specificity=83%) indicated prediction of risk of falls in the Mild cognitive impairment Group. Among people with Alzheimer's disease, no differences in dual-task between fallers and non-fallers were found and no variable of the tool was able to predict falls. The dual-task predicts falls only in older people with mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Recognition of facial and musical emotions in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, A; Doé de Maindreville, A; Henry, A; de Labbey, S; Bakchine, S; Ehrlé, N

    2013-03-01

    Patients with amygdala lesions were found to be impaired in recognizing the fear emotion both from face and from music. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), impairment in recognition of emotions from facial expressions was reported for disgust, fear, sadness and anger, but no studies had yet investigated this population for the recognition of emotions from both face and music. The ability to recognize basic universal emotions (fear, happiness and sadness) from both face and music was investigated in 24 medicated patients with PD and 24 healthy controls. The patient group was tested for language (verbal fluency tasks), memory (digit and spatial span), executive functions (Similarities and Picture Completion subtests of the WAIS III, Brixton and Stroop tests), visual attention (Bells test), and fulfilled self-assessment tests for anxiety and depression. Results showed that the PD group was significantly impaired for recognition of both fear and sadness emotions from facial expressions, whereas their performance in recognition of emotions from musical excerpts was not different from that of the control group. The scores of fear and sadness recognition from faces were neither correlated to scores in tests for executive and cognitive functions, nor to scores in self-assessment scales. We attributed the observed dissociation to the modality (visual vs. auditory) of presentation and to the ecological value of the musical stimuli that we used. We discuss the relevance of our findings for the care of patients with PD. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  15. Decreasing water availability across the globe improves the effectiveness of protective ant-plant mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Laura C; Peixoto, Paulo E C

    2017-08-01

    Abiotic conditions can increase the costs of services and/or the benefits of rewards provided by mutualistic partners. Consequently, in some situations, the outcome of mutualisms can move from beneficial to detrimental for at least one partner. In the case of protective mutualisms between ant bodyguards and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), plants from arid environments face a trade-off between EFN production and maintenance and water and carbon economy. This trade-off may increase EFN costs and decrease their value as a defensive strategy to plants in such environments. Despite this, the presence of EFNs is an ubiquitous trait in plants from arid environments, suggesting that they provide greater benefits to plants in these environments to compensate for their higher costs. We used a meta-analysis to investigate if such benefits do increase with decreasing water availability and the possible underlying causes (such as ant behaviour or ant diversity). As predicted, ant effect on EFN plants performance increased as mean annual precipitation decreased. We also found that the frequency of dominant ants on EFN plants increased in drier areas. Due to the more aggressive behaviour of dominant ants, we suggest that they represent an important factor shaping the adaptive value of EFNs to plants in arid environments. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Longitudinal changes in task-evoked brain responses in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban eEkman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson’s disease. Previous cross-sectional research has demonstrated a link between cognitive impairments and fronto-striatal dopaminergic dysmodulation. However, longitudinal studies that link disease progression with altered task-evoked brain activity are lacking. Therefore, our objective was to longitudinally evaluate working-memory related brain activity changes in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment.Patients were recruited within a longitudinal cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. We longitudinally (at baseline examination and at 12-months follow-up compared 28 patients with Parkinson’s disease without mild cognitive impairment with 11 patients with Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Functional MRI blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured during a verbal two-back working-memory task. Patients with mild cognitive impairment under-recruited bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, right putamen, and lateral parietal cortex at both time-points (main effect of group: p<0.001, uncorrected. Critically, a significant group-by-time interaction effect (p<0.001, uncorrected was found in the right fusiform gyrus, indicating that working-memory related activity decreased for patients with Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment between baseline and follow-up, while patients without mild cognitive impairment were stable across time-points. The functional connectivity between right fusiform gyrus and bilateral caudate nucleus was stronger for patients without MCI relative to patients with MCI.Our findings support the view that deficits in working-memory updating are related to persistent fronto-striatal under-recruitments in patients with early phase Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. The longitudinal evolution of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease translates into additional task

  17. Geographic mosaic of plant evolution: extrafloral nectary variation mediated by ant and herbivore assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Nogueira

    Full Text Available Herbivory is an ecological process that is known to generate different patterns of selection on defensive plant traits across populations. Studies on this topic could greatly benefit from the general framework of the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution (GMT. Here, we hypothesize that herbivory represents a strong pressure for extrafloral nectary (EFN bearing plants, with differences in herbivore and ant visitor assemblages leading to different evolutionary pressures among localities and ultimately to differences in EFN abundance and function. In this study, we investigate this hypothesis by analyzing 10 populations of Anemopaegma album (30 individuals per population distributed through ca. 600 km of Neotropical savanna and covering most of the geographic range of this plant species. A common garden experiment revealed a phenotypic differentiation in EFN abundance, in which field and experimental plants showed a similar pattern of EFN variation among populations. We also did not find significant correlations between EFN traits and ant abundance, herbivory and plant performance across localities. Instead, a more complex pattern of ant-EFN variation, a geographic mosaic, emerged throughout the geographical range of A. album. We modeled the functional relationship between EFNs and ant traits across ant species and extended this phenotypic interface to characterize local situations of phenotypic matching and mismatching at the population level. Two distinct types of phenotypic matching emerged throughout populations: (1 a population with smaller ants (Crematogaster crinosa matched with low abundance of EFNs; and (2 seven populations with bigger ants (Camponotus species matched with higher EFN abundances. Three matched populations showed the highest plant performance and narrower variance of EFN abundance, representing potential plant evolutionary hotspots. Cases of mismatched and matched populations with the lowest performance were associated

  18. Graphical Tasks to Measure Upper Limb Function in Patients With Parkinson's Disease : Validity and Response to Dopaminergic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Esther J.; Tolonen, Antti J.; Cluitmans, Luc; van Gils, Mark; Zietsma, Rutger C.; Borgemeester, Robbert W. K.; van Laar, Teus; Maurits, Natasha M.

    The most widely used method to assess motor functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale-III (UPDRS-III). The UPDRS-III has limited ability to detect subtle changes in motor symptoms. Alternatively, graphical tasks can be used to provide objective

  19. Million Hearts 2022: Understanding the Links between Environmental Pollutant Exposure and Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events - Justus-Warren Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    The webinar was requested by the Justus-Warren Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Task Force. From their website, “The task force was established in 1995 in North Carolina to provide statewide leadership for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Meetings are...

  20. Scene Categorization in Alzheimer's Disease: A Saccadic Choice Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Lenoble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We investigated the performance in scene categorization of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD using a saccadic choice task. Method: 24 patients with mild AD, 28 age-matched controls and 26 young people participated in the study. The participants were presented pairs of coloured photographs and were asked to make a saccadic eye movement to the picture corresponding to the target scene (natural vs. urban, indoor vs. outdoor. Results: The patients' performance did not differ from chance for natural scenes. Differences between young and older controls and patients with AD were found in accuracy but not saccadic latency. Conclusions: The results are interpreted in terms of cerebral reorganization in the prefrontal and temporo-occipital cortex of patients with AD, but also in terms of impaired processing of visual global properties of scenes.

  1. Deficits in inhibitory control and conflict resolution on cognitive and motor tasks in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Casabona, Enrique; Bringas, Maria Luisa; Álvarez, Mario; Álvarez, Lázaro; Pavón, Nancy; Rodríguez-Oroz, Maria-Cruz; Macías, Raúl; Obeso, Jose A; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2011-07-01

    Recent imaging studies in healthy controls with a conditional stop signal reaction time (RT) task have implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in response inhibition and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in conflict resolution. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by striatal dopamine deficiency and overactivity of the STN and underactivation of the pre-SMA during movement. We used the conditional stop signal RT task to investigate whether PD produced similar or dissociable effects on response initiation, response inhibition and response initiation under conflict. In addition, we also examined inhibition of prepotent responses on three cognitive tasks: the Stroop, random number generation and Hayling sentence completion. PD patients were impaired on the conditional stop signal reaction time task, with response initiation both in situations with or without conflict and response inhibition all being significantly delayed, and had significantly greater difficulty in suppressing prepotent or habitual responses on the Stroop, Hayling and random number generation tasks relative to controls. These results demonstrate the existence of a generalized inhibitory deficit in PD, which suggest that PD is a disorder of inhibition as well as activation and that in situations of conflict, executive control over responses is compromised.

  2. A training approach to improve stepping automaticity while dual-tasking in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chomiak, Taylor; Watts, Alexander; Meyer, Nicole; Pereira, Fernando V.; Hu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). M...

  3. Effect of cognitive and motor tasks on postural stability in Parkinson's disease: a posturographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Roberta; Bove, Marco; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2003-06-01

    To analyse the effect of concomitant cognitive or motor task performance on balance control in Parkinson's disease (PD), we performed a posturographic study in 24 PD patients and in 20 sex- and age-matched control subjects. Postural sway was measured with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) during quiet stance and during performance of calculation or motor sequence of thumb opposition to the other fingers. No difference of centre of foot pressure (COP) parameters was observed during quiet standing (either EO or EC) between patients and controls, but visual deprivation induced in both groups a worsening of postural stability. COP area was significantly increased in PD patients during dual task performance, whereas no difference of COP path and x-y axes was observed. The effects induced by the performance of cognitive or motor task were significantly more evident in PD patients with clinical evidence of postural instability (presence of prior falls in the history). This study demonstrates that dual task interference on postural control can be observed in PD patients during performance of cognitive as well as motor tasks. The balance deterioration during dual task performance was significantly enhanced in patients with history of prior falls. These findings have some implications for the strategies to be used in reducing the risk of fall in PD. Copyright 2003 Movement Disorder Society

  4. Occurrence and structure of extrafloral nectariesin Pterodon pubescens Benth. and Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Élder Antônio Sousa e

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are structurally variable and widely spread among the angiosperms. The occurrence of EFNs in leaves of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth. and Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae were detected in adult specimens, at the time of production of new buds and flowers. The goals of the present study are to register the occurrence of the EFNs in P. pubescens and P. polygalaeflorus, and provide comparative data on the anatomical structures. The EFNs occur in the rachis and are located under the insertion of each petiolule. Each nectary consists of a small elevation whose apical portion is deeply invaginated, resulting in a depression (secretory pole, a common characteristic of both species. Unicellular, nonglandular trichomes occur along the rachis, being less numerous in P. polygalaeflorus while in P. pubescens they cover the EFNs. The secretory tissue consists of parenchyma cells with dense cytoplasm compactly arranged. The nectar reaches the surface of the EFNs by rupturing the thin cuticle which covers the secretory pole, since both species lack stomata or any other interruption at the epidermis. The basic difference between the two species, in relation to the EFNs, is the density of the pubescence, which is always greater in P. pubescens. Structural and dimensional modifications may be observed, even between basal and apical nectaries in the same rachis, so it does not constitute a taxonomical tool.

  5. The Influence of Parkinson’s Disease Motor Symptom Asymmetry on Hand Performance: An Examination of the Grooved Pegboard Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Scharoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of motor symptom asymmetry in Parkinson’s disease (PD on Grooved Pegboard (GP performance in right-handed participants. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale was used to assess motor symptoms and separate participants with PD into two groups (right-arm affected, left-arm affected for comparison with a group of healthy older adults. Participants completed the place and replace GP tasks two times with both hands. Laterality quotients were computed to quantify performance differences between the two hands. Comparisons among the three groups indicated that when the nonpreferred hand is affected by PD motor symptoms, superior preferred hand performance (as seen in healthy older adults is further exaggerated in tasks that require precision (i.e., place task. Regardless of the task, when the preferred hand is affected, there is an evident shift to superior left-hand performance, which may inevitably manifest as a switch in hand preference. Results add to the discussion of the relationship between handedness and motor symptom asymmetry in PD.

  6. EFNS guidelines on diagnosis and management of neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellner, J; Boggild, M; Clanet, M

    2010-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or Devic's disease is a rare inflammatory and demyelinating autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by recurrent attacks of optic neuritis (ON) and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), which is distinct from multiple sclerosis...

  7. EFNS guidelines on diagnosis and management of neuromyelitis optica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellner, J.; Boggild, M.; Clanet, M.; Hintzen, R.Q.; Illes, Z.; Montalban, X.; Du Pasquier, R.A.; Polman, C.H.; Sorensen, P.S.; Hemmer, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or Devic's disease is a rare inflammatory and demyelinating autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by recurrent attacks of optic neuritis (ON) and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), which is distinct

  8. Timing tasks synchronize cerebellar and frontal ramping activity and theta oscillations: Implications for cerebellar stimulation in diseases of impaired cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Lynn Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing is a fundamental and highly conserved mammalian capability yet the underlying neural mechanisms are widely debated. Ramping activity of single neurons that gradually increase or decrease activity to encode the passage of time, has been speculated to predict a behaviorally relevant temporal event. Cue-evoked low-frequency activity has also been implicated in temporal processing. Ramping activity and low-frequency oscillations occur throughout the brain and could indicate a network-based approach to timing. Temporal processing requires cognitive mechanisms of working memory, attention, and reasoning which are dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disease. Therefore, timing tasks could be used to probe cognition in animals with disease phenotypes. The medial frontal cortex and cerebellum are involved in cognition. Cerebellar stimulation has been shown to influence medial frontal activity and improve cognition in schizophrenia. However, the mechanism underlying the efficacy of cerebellar stimulation is unknown. Here we discuss how timing tasks can be used to probe cerebellar interactions with the frontal cortex and the therapeutic potential of cerebellar stimulation. The goal of this theory and hypothesis manuscript is threefold. First, we will summarize evidence indicating that in addition to motor learning, timing tasks involve cognitive processes that are present within both the cerebellum and medial frontal cortex. Second, we propose methodologies to investigate the connections between these areas in patients with Parkinson’s disease, autism, and schizophrenia. We hypothesis that cerebellar transcranial stimulation may rescue medial frontal ramping activity, theta oscillations, and timing abnormalities, thereby restoring executive function in diseases of impaired cognition. These hypotheses could inspire the use of timing tasks as biomarkers for neuronal and cognitive abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disease and promote the therapeutic

  9. Three's a Crowd: Trade-Offs between Attracting Pollinators and Ant Bodyguards with Nectar Rewards in Turnera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Emily M; Luo, Elaine Y; Cembrowski, Adam R; Shore, Joel S; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-07-01

    Many plants attract insect pollinators with floral nectar (FN) and ant "bodyguards" with extrafloral nectar (EFN). If nectar production is costly or physiologically linked across glands, investment in one mutualism may trade off with investment in the other. We confirmed that changes in FN and EFN availability alter pollination and ant defense mutualisms in a field population of Turnera ulmifolia. Plants with additional FN tended to produce more seeds, while plants with reduced EFN production experienced less florivory. We then mimicked the consumptive effects of mutualists by removing FN or EFN daily for 50 days in a full factorial design using three Turnera species (T. joelii, T. subulata, and T. ulmifolia) in a glasshouse experiment. For T. ulmifolia and T. subulata, but not T. joelii, removing either nectar reduced production of the other, showing for the first time that EFN and FN production can trade off. In T. subulata, increased investment in FN decreased seed set, suggesting that nectar production can have direct fitness costs. Through the linked expression of EFN and FN, floral visitors may negatively affect biotic defense, and extrafloral nectary visitors may negatively affect pollination.

  10. Dynamic extrafloral nectar production: the timing of leaf damage affects the defensive response in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian M; Koptur, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    • Extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates food for protection mutualisms between plants and defensive insects. Understanding sources of variation in EFN production is important because such variations may affect the number and identity of visitors and the effectiveness of plant defense. We investigated the influence of plant developmental stage, time of day, leaf age, and leaf damage on EFN production in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii. The observed patterns of variation in EFN production were compared with those predicted by optimal defense theory.• Greenhouse experiments with potted plants were conducted to determine how plant age, time of day, and leaf damage affected EFN production. A subsequent field study was conducted to determine how leaf damage, and the resulting increase in EFN production, affected ant visitation in S. chapmanii.• More nectar was produced at night and by older plants. Leaf damage resulted in increased EFN production, and the magnitude of the response was greater in plants damaged in the morning than those damaged at night. Damage to young leaves elicited a stronger defensive response than damage to older leaves, in line with optimal defense theory. Damage to the leaves of S. chapmanii also resulted in significantly higher ant visitation in the field.• Extrafloral nectar is an inducible defense in S. chapmanii. Developmental variations in its production support the growth differentiation balance hypothesis, while within-plant variations and damage responses support optimal defense theory. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Eco-Friendly Nets and Floating Row Covers Reduce Pest Infestation and Improve Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Yields for Smallholder Farmers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha O. Gogo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important vegetable for supplying vitamins, minerals and fiber in human diets worldwide. Successful open field production of tomato in the tropics is limited by insect pests among other constraints. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Teaching Field, Egerton University, Kenya with the objective of evaluating the effects of agricultural nets (agronets herein called eco-friendly nets (EFNs and floating row covers (FRCs on pest population and yield of tomatoes. A randomized complete block design with five replications was used. Tomato plants were protected with either fine mesh EFN (0.4-mm pore diameter, large mesh EFN (0.9-mm pore diameter or FRC. The EFN and FRC were maintained permanently closed or opened thrice a week from 9 am to 3 pm. Two control treatments were used: open unsprayed (untreated control or open and sprayed with alpha-cypermethrin based insecticide (treated control. The use of EFN and FRC helped to manage pests with the lowest pest population obtained under FRC maintained permanently covered and the highest population recorded in the untreated control. Covering tomato plants with EFN or FRC also resulted in more marketable fruit and lower yield losses compared with the unprotected systems. The EFN and FRC offer great potential as part of integrated systems for pest management and yield improvement in tomato production in regions with a tropical climate.

  12. Subthreshold depression and subjective cognitive complaints in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, G; Vitale, C; Trojano, L; Angrisano, M G; Picillo, M; Errico, D; Agosti, V; Grossi, D; Barone, P

    2014-03-01

    Subthreshold depression (SubD) is characterized by clinically relevant depressive symptoms not meeting criteria for major depression. The possible association of SubD with subjective cognitive complaints and/or objective cognitive impairments was investigated in a sample of consecutive, non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) outpatients. Amongst 115 patients, SubD was identified in 30 patients, major depression in 33; 36 patients were classified as non-depressed. Enrolled patients were administered tests and questionnaires validated in PD for assessing objective and subjective cognitive dysfunctions. On objective cognitive measures SubD patients did not differ from non-depressed patients, whereas depressed patients achieved significantly lower scores than the other two groups. SubD and depressed patients reported more cognitive complaints than non-depressed patients. SubD is a non-motor aspect of PD that is not related to objective cognitive deficits but is associated with subjective cognitive complaints, thus impacting on patients' well-being. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  13. European guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Kohnen, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the first European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines in 2005 on the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS; also known as Willis-Ekbom disease), there have been major therapeutic advances in the field. Furthermore, the management of RLS is now a pa...

  14. Iowa Gambling Task Performance in Parkinson Disease Patients with Impulse Control Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biars, Julia W; Johnson, Nicole L; Nespeca, Michelle; Busch, Robyn M; Kubu, Cynthia S; Floden, Darlene P

    2018-04-27

    A subgroup of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) develops impulse control disorders (ICD) associated with their dopamine replacement therapy. Patients and their families may be reluctant to report ICD symptoms or unaware these symptoms are related to PD medication, which can make detecting an ICD difficult for clinicians. Ideally, a behavioral measure that is sensitive to ICD could be employed to ensure that patients with these behaviors are identified and treated. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a standardized decision-making task, has proven sensitive in other populations with impulse control problems. We hypothesized that the IGT would differentiate between PD patients with and without ICD. We compared IGT performance and disease variables in 24 PD patients with ICD and 24 PD patients without ICD. Patient groups were matched in terms of age, sex, and duration of PD. There were no significant differences in IGT scores between PD groups. IGT performance declined with increasing age, but the majority of patients performed within normal limits based on published age- and education-corrected normative data. The IGT did not distinguish between PD patients with and without ICD. Increasing age negatively impacted performance in both groups. Other studies have found that IGT performance may decline in normal aging. Our results suggest that the IGT lacks the sensitivity and specificity needed to differentiate between age-related deficits and disruption in frontal-subcortical circuits underlying ICD associated with PD medications. Therefore, the IGT is not an appropriate behavioral measure for ICD in PD patients.

  15. Measuring prefrontal cortical activity during dual task walking in patients with Parkinson's disease: feasibility of using a new portable fNIRS device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwhof, F.; Reelick, M.F.; Maidan, I.; Mirelman, A.; Hausdorff, J.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Bloem, B.R.; Muthalib, M.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties in performing a second task during walking (i.e., dual task walking). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising approach to study the presumed contribution of dysfunction within the prefrontal cortex (PFC)

  16. A training program to improve gait while dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Giladi, Nir; Brozgol, Marina; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in the ability to perform another task while walking (ie, dual tasking [DT]) are associated with an increased risk of falling. Here we describe a program we developed specifically to improve DT performance while walking based on motor learning principles and task-specific training. We examined feasibility, potential efficacy, retention, and transfer to the performance of untrained tasks in a pilot study among 7 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Seven patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage, 2.1±0.2) were evaluated before, after, and 1 month after 4 weeks of DT training. Gait speed and gait variability were measured during usual walking and during 4 DT conditions. The 4-week program of one-on-one training included walking while performing several distinct cognitive tasks. Gait speed and gait variability during DT significantly improved. Improvements were also seen in the DT conditions that were not specifically trained and were retained 1 month after training. These initial findings support the feasibility of applying a task-specific DT gait training program for patients with PD and suggest that it positively affects DT gait, even in untrained tasks. The present results are also consistent with the possibility that DT gait training enhances divided attention abilities during walking. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Enhance Dual-Task Gait Training in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabrun, Siobhan M; Lamont, Robyn M; Brauer, Sandra G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of a combined anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and dual task gait training intervention in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and to provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. A pilot, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled parallel group trial with 12 week follow-up. A university physiotherapy department. Sixteen participants diagnosed with PD received nine dual task gait training sessions over 3 weeks. Participants were randomized to receive either active or sham tDCS applied for the first 20 minutes of each session. The primary outcome was gait speed while undertaking concurrent cognitive tasks (word lists, counting, conversation). Secondary measures included step length, cadence, Timed Up and Go, bradykinesia and motor speed. Gait speed, step length and cadence improved in both groups, under all dual task conditions. This effect was maintained at follow-up. There was no difference between the active and sham tDCS groups. Time taken to perform the TUGwords also improved, with no difference between groups. The active tDCS group did however increase their correct cognitive response rate during the TUGwords and TUGcount. Bradykinesia improved after training in both groups. Three weeks of dual task gait training resulted in improved gait under dual task conditions, and bradykinesia, immediately following training and at 12 weeks follow-up. The only parameter enhanced by tDCS was the number of correct responses while performing the dual task TUG. tDCS applied to M1 may not be an effective adjunct to dual task gait training in PD. Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001093774.

  18. Extrafloral nectar fuels ant life in deserts

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Diez, Patricia; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Interactions mediated by extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing plants that reward ants with a sweet liquid secretion are well documented in temperate and tropical habitats. However, their distribution and abundance in deserts are poorly known. In this study, we test the predictions that biotic interactions between EFN plants and ants are abundant and common also in arid communities and that EFNs are only functional when new vegetative and reproductive structures are developing. In a seasonal dese...

  19. Time to redefine PD? Introductory statement of the MDS Task Force on the definition of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Daniela; Postuma, Ronald B; Bloem, Bastiaan; Chan, Piu; Dubois, Bruno; Gasser, Thomas; Goetz, Christopher G; Halliday, Glenda M; Hardy, John; Lang, Anthony E; Litvan, Irene; Marek, Kenneth; Obeso, José; Oertel, Wolfgang; Olanow, C Warren; Poewe, Werner; Stern, Matthew; Deuschl, Günther

    2014-04-01

    With advances in knowledge disease, boundaries may change. Occasionally, these changes are of such a magnitude that they require redefinition of the disease. In recognition of the profound changes in our understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD), the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to consider a redefinition of PD. This review is a discussion article, intended as the introductory statement of the task force. Several critical issues were identified that challenge current PD definitions. First, new findings challenge the central role of the classical pathologic criteria as the arbiter of diagnosis, notably genetic cases without synuclein deposition, the high prevalence of incidental Lewy body (LB) deposition, and the nonmotor prodrome of PD. It remains unclear, however, whether these challenges merit a change in the pathologic gold standard, especially considering the limitations of alternate gold standards. Second, the increasing recognition of dementia in PD challenges the distinction between diffuse LB disease and PD. Consideration might be given to removing dementia as an exclusion criterion for PD diagnosis. Third, there is increasing recognition of disease heterogeneity, suggesting that PD subtypes should be formally identified; however, current subtype classifications may not be sufficiently robust to warrant formal delineation. Fourth, the recognition of a nonmotor prodrome of PD requires that new diagnostic criteria for early-stage and prodromal PD should be created; here, essential features of these criteria are proposed. Finally, there is a need to create new MDS diagnostic criteria that take these changes in disease definition into consideration. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. O desempenho da dupla tarefa na Doença de Parkinson The dual task performance in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NB Teixeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A capacidade de o indivíduo realizar duas tarefas ao mesmo tempo é um pré-requisito para uma vida normal. Em circunstâncias normais, a realização concomitante de tarefas motoras e cognitivas é comum. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desempenho de pacientes com Doença de Parkinson na realização de dupla tarefa motora-cognitiva. MÉTODO: Dois grupos foram estudados. Um grupo foi composto por 10 indivíduos saudáveis e o outro por 10 pacientes com diagnóstico de Doença de Parkinson, ambos com idades entre 47 e 75 anos, pareados em relação ao gênero e idade. Foi solicitado que vestissem uma camisa de botões o mais rapidamente possível de forma isolada (tarefa simples e enquanto verbalizavam nomes próprios femininos (dupla tarefa, em ordem aleatória. Cada tarefa foi repetida três vezes. O tempo de movimento e os erros cometidos foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes levaram mais tempo para completar ambas as tarefas (p= 0,006 quando comparados aos indivíduos saudáveis. Ambos os grupos cometeram mais erros na dupla tarefa (p= 0,03. Houve uma redução no tempo de movimento com a repetição da tarefa (p= 0,039. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sugerem que indivíduos com Doença de Parkinson apresentam um prejuízo no desempenho motor em relação ao grupo controle, no entanto, o custo para o desempenho desta tarefa independe da interferência motora-cogntiva e a possibilidade de melhora do desempenho com a prática é real.INTRODUCTION: A capacity to perform two tasks at the same time is a prerequisite for an individual to have a normal life. Under normal circumstances, performing motor and cognitive tasks concomitantly is common. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was investigate the motor-cognitive dual task performance in Parkinson's disease patients. METHOD: Two groups were studied. One group was composed by 10 healthy individuals and the other by 10 patients with a diagnosis of Parkinson

  1. Gene expression signature is shared by patients with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia at the superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Y; Katsel, P; Haroutunian, V; Domany, E

    2011-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia are two common diseases of the brain with significant differences in neuropathology, etiology and symptoms. This dissimilarity in the two diseases makes a comparison of the two ideal for detecting molecular substrates that are common to brain disorders in general. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles across multiple brain areas, taken postmortem from patients with well-characterized Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia, and from cognitively normal control group with no neuro- or psychopathology. Although the totality of gene expression changes in the two diseases is dissimilar, a subset of genes appears to play a role in both diseases in specific brain regions. We find at Brodmann area 22, the superior temporal gyrus, a statistically significant number of genes with apparently disregulated expression in both diseases. Furthermore, we found genes that differentiate the two diseases from the control across multiple brain regions, and note that these genes were usually down-regulated. Brodmann area 8, part of the superior frontal cortex, is relatively abundant with them. We show overwhelming statistical evidence for Alzheimer's and Schizophrenia sharing a specific molecular background at the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that impairment of the regulation of autophagy pathway is shared, in BA 22, by the two diseases. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  2. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  3. Correlations between Motor Symptoms across Different Motor Tasks, Quantified via Random Forest Feature Classification in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuhner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObjective assessments of Parkinson’s disease (PD patients’ motor state using motion capture techniques are still rarely used in clinical practice, even though they may improve clinical management. One major obstacle relates to the large dimensionality of motor abnormalities in PD. We aimed to extract global motor performance measures covering different everyday motor tasks, as a function of a clinical intervention, i.e., deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus.MethodsWe followed a data-driven, machine-learning approach and propose performance measures that employ Random Forests with probability distributions. We applied this method to 14 PD patients with DBS switched-off or -on, and 26 healthy control subjects performing the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG, the Functional Reach Test (FRT, a hand coordination task, walking 10-m straight, and a 90° curve.ResultsFor each motor task, a Random Forest identified a specific set of metrics that optimally separated PD off DBS from healthy subjects. We noted the highest accuracy (94.6% for standing up. This corresponded to a sensitivity of 91.5% to detect a PD patient off DBS, and a specificity of 97.2% representing the rate of correctly identified healthy subjects. We then calculated performance measures based on these sets of metrics and applied those results to characterize symptom severity in different motor tasks. Task-specific symptom severity measures correlated significantly with each other and with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part III, correlation of r2 = 0.79. Agreement rates between different measures ranged from 79.8 to 89.3%.ConclusionThe close correlation of PD patients’ various motor abnormalities quantified by different, task-specific severity measures suggests that these abnormalities are only facets of the underlying one-dimensional severity of motor deficits. The identification and characterization of this underlying motor deficit

  4. Deficits of spatial and task-related attentional selection in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, P; Bublak, P; Sorg, C; Kurz, A; Förstl, H; Müller, H J; Schneider, W X; Perneczky, R; Finke, K

    2012-01-01

    Visual selective attention was assessed with a partial-report task in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls. Based on Bundesen's "theory of visual attention" (TVA), two parameters were derived: top-down control of attentional selection, representing task-related attentional weighting for prioritizing relevant visual objects, and spatial distribution of attentional weights across the left and the right hemifield. Compared with controls, MCI patients showed significantly reduced top-down controlled selection, which was further deteriorated in AD subjects. Moreover, attentional weighting was significantly unbalanced across hemifields in MCI and tended to be more lateralized in AD. Across MCI and AD patients, carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4) displayed a leftward spatial bias, which was the more pronounced the younger the ApoE4-positive patients and the earlier disease onset. These results indicate that impaired top-down control may be linked to early dysfunction of fronto-parietal networks. An early temporo-parietal interhemispheric asymmetry might cause a pathological spatial bias which is associated with ApoE4 genotype and may therefore function as early cognitive marker of upcoming AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual task multimodal physical training in Alzheimer’s disease: effect on cognitive functions and muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Naves Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual task multimodal physical training (MPT on the cognitive functions and muscle strength in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were 19 subjects with AD in the mild and moderate stages, divided into training group (TG and control group (CG. The TG performed dual task MPT for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at the pre- and post-intervention moments. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Clock Drawing Test (CDT and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB were used to assess cognition. For muscle strength, the Chair Lift and Sit Test (CLST and Manual Grasp Force (MGF were used. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze pre and post intragroup moments. The TG showed a significant improvement in FAB and CLST (p≤0.05 and a tendency to improve the MMSE score (p≤0.08. The CG showed significant improvement in CLST (p≤0.05. Dual task MPT improves the frontal cognitive functions and lower limb muscle strength of older adults with AD.

  6. Upper Extremity Motor Learning among Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis Evaluating Movement Time in Simple Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Felix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning has been found to occur in the rehabilitation of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD. Through repetitive structured practice of motor tasks, individuals show improved performance, confirming that motor learning has probably taken place. Although a number of studies have been completed evaluating motor learning in people with PD, the sample sizes were small and the improvements were variable. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the ability of people with PD to learn motor tasks. Studies which measured movement time in upper extremity reaching tasks and met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that people with PD and neurologically healthy controls both demonstrated motor learning, characterized by a decrease in movement time during upper extremity movements. Movement time improvements were greater in the control group than in individuals with PD. These results support the findings that the practice of upper extremity reaching tasks is beneficial in reducing movement time in persons with PD and has important implications for rehabilitation.

  7. Intraindividual variability across cognitive tasks as a potential marker for prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maria Kälin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that increased cognitive intraindividual variability (IIV across accuracy scores from tests representing different cognitive domains (across-domain IIV might indicate prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although IIV has been proposed to index cognitive control processes, IIV across accuracy scores from cognitive control tasks (within-domain IIV has not been examined in healthy controls subjects (HCS, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD patients in a single comparative study. This study examines the discriminative properties of within-domain IIV, and across-domain IIV in 149 HCS, 31 MCI and 26 AD. Three tasks representing different cognitive domains were identified to calculate across-domain IIV. Three other tasks representing cognitive control were identified to calculate within-domain IIV. The intraindividual standard deviation (ISD was calculated across accuracy scores. To compare IIV between groups, ANCOVAs with the covariates age, gender, education, and mean performance were computed. IIV scores in general were higher in AD vs. HCS (p< 0.01. Only across-domain IIV was higher in AD vs. MCI (p=0.001, and only within-domain IIV was higher in MCI vs. HCS (p=0.05. Within-domain IIV may constitute a cognitive marker for the detection of prodromal AD at the MCI stage, whereas across-domain IIV may detect beginning AD at the MCI stage.

  8. The impact of occipital lobe cortical thickness on cognitive task performance: An investigation in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eileanoir B; Rees, Elin M; Labuschagne, Izelle; Durr, Alexandra; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund A C; Reilmann, Ralf; Johnson, Hans; Hobbs, Nicola Z; Langbehn, Douglas R; Stout, Julie C; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Scahill, Rachael I

    2015-12-01

    The occipital lobe is an important visual processing region of the brain. Following consistent findings of early neural changes in the occipital lobe in Huntington's Disease (HD), we examined cortical thickness across four occipital regions in premanifest (preHD) and early HD groups compared with controls. Associations between cortical thickness in gene positive individuals and performance on six cognitive tasks, each with a visual component, were examined. In addition, the association between cortical thickness in gene positive participants and one non-visual motor task was also examined for comparison. Cortical thickness was determined using FreeSurfer on T1-weighted 3T MR datasets from controls (N=97), preHD (N=109) and HD (N=69) from the TRACK-HD study. Regression models were fitted to assess between-group differences in cortical thickness, and relationships between performance on the cognitive tasks, the motor task and occipital thickness were examined in a subset of gene-positive participants (N=141). Thickness of the occipital cortex in preHD and early HD participants was reduced compared with controls. Regionally-specific associations between reduced cortical thickness and poorer performance were found for five of the six cognitive tasks, with the strongest associations in lateral occipital and lingual regions. No associations were found with the cuneus. The non-visual motor task was not associated with thickness of any region. The heterogeneous pattern of associations found in the present study suggests that occipital thickness negatively impacts cognition, but only in regions that are linked to relatively advanced visual processing (e.g., lateral occipital, lingual regions), rather than in basic visual processing regions such as the cuneus. Our results show, for the first time, the functional implications of occipital atrophy highlighted in recent studies in HD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Basal Ganglia, Dopamine and Temporal Processing: Performance on Three Timing Tasks on and off Medication in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Malone, Tim J. L.; Dirnberger, Georg; Edwards, Mark; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2008-01-01

    A pervasive hypothesis in the timing literature is that temporal processing in the milliseconds and seconds range engages the basal ganglia and is modulated by dopamine. This hypothesis was investigated by testing 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication, and 20 healthy controls on three timing tasks.…

  10. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  11. Education for a New Era: Stakeholders’ Perception of Qatari Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Ellili-Cherif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of a qualitative research study that explores principal, teacher, and parent perceptions with regard to Qatar’s education reform, Education for a New Era (EFNE launched in 2004. The study focuses on the effects of the reform on each group, their perceived advantages and disadvantages of the reform, and the challenges they face in the implementation of EFNE. Data for this study was collected through an open-ended questionnaire. The results point to the positive effects of EFNE on improving instruction, principals' leadership style, and learner attitude to education. These stakeholders believe that the reform is too ambitious and sometimes unrealistic. The three groups also report challenges that revolve around the amount of extra effort and work it requires from them, the continuous reform changes, and the threats to the local culture and language. Discussion and conclusions are provided regarding EFNE.

  12. Dual task interference on postural sway, postural transitions and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fortaleza, Ana Claudia; Mancini, Martina; Carlson-Kuhta, Patty; King, Laurie A; Nutt, John G; Chagas, Eliane Ferrari; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Horak, Fay B

    2017-07-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is associated with less automatic gait and more impaired cognition, balance and postural transitions compared to people with PD who do not have FoG. However, it is unknown whether dual-task cost during postural sway, postural transitions (such as gait initiation and turning), and gait are more in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait (FoG+) compared to those who do not have FoG (FoG-). Here, we hypothesized that the effects of a cognitive dual task on postural sway, postural transitions and gait would be larger in FoG+ than FoG-. Thirty FoG- and 24 FoG+ performed an Instrumented Stand and Walk test in OFF medication state, with and without a secondary cognitive task (serial subtraction by 3s). Measures of postural sway, gait initiation, turning, and walking were extracted using body-worn inertial sensors. FoG+ showed significantly larger dual task cost than FoG- for several gait metrics, but not during postural sway or postural transitions. During walking, FoG+ exhibited a larger dual task cost than FoG- resulting in shorter stride length and slower stride velocity. During standing, FoG+ showed a larger postural sway compared to FoG- and during gait initiation, FoG+, but not FoG-, showed a longer first step duration during the dual-task condition compared to single-task condition (interaction effect, p=0.04). During turning, both groups showed a slower turn peak speed in the dual-task condition compared to single task condition. These findings partly support our hypothesis that dual task cost on walking is greater in FoG+ than FoG-. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The role of nuclear power in preserving our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, B.

    2006-01-01

    Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy (EFN) is an international organization gathering over 8000 members and supporters in favor of clean energy. It is growing rapidly in 56 countries and 5 continents. EFN's mission is to provide information about energy and the environment. The paper describes the activities of this organization and some of the ideas it has put forward on energy and the environment. EFN believes that there is no fundamental contradiction between energy conservation and nuclear energy and renewable energies. All clean energies should be developed. It promotes an energy policy based on energy conservation, energy efficiency and cleaner energies

  14. Characterization of systemic disease in primary Sjogren's syndrome : EULAR-SS Task Force recommendations for articular, cutaneous, pulmonary and renal involvements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Seror, Raphaele; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J.; Doerner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Theander, Elke; Bombardieri, Stefano; De Vita, Salvatore; Mandl, Thomas; Ng, Wan-Fai; Kruize, Aike; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To reach a European consensus on the definition and characterization of the main organspecific extraglandular manifestations in primary SS. Methods. The EULAR-SS Task Force Group steering committee agreed to approach SS-related systemic involvement according to the EULAR SS Disease

  15. Extrafloral nectaries of annatto ( Bixa orellana L.: anatomy, nectar composition and activity during organ development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Marques de Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to anatomically characterize the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs of annatto (Bixa orellana and determine the composition of its nectar in order to better understand their structure and function during organ development. Standard light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for anatomical analysis, and test-strips and a refractometer for determining nectar composition. Both receptacle and stem EFNs were found to possess similar anatomy and nectar composition, and to secrete from early to advanced developmental stages of the organs to which they are associated. EFNs consisting of uniseriate epidermis, nectariferous parenchyma and subnectariferous parenchyma were found located where vascular tissue is immersed. Some layers of nectariferous parenchyma exhibited sclerification and cells with phenolic compounds or calcium oxalate druses were present. Nectar exuded by stomata was acidic, diluted and found to contain sugar. The anatomical and histochemical features of annatto EFNs ensure their integrity and nectar secretion function during the development of buds, flowers and fruits.

  16. The functional neuroanatomy of multitasking: combining dual tasking with a short term memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Asymmetric pain processing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Y; Schlesinger, I; Fadel, S; Erikh, I; Sprecher, E; Yarnitsky, D

    2013-10-01

    Reduced endogenous pain inhibition, as part of the degenerative process, is presumed to be the mechanism underlying the common presence of pain in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aimed to assess an endogenous pain inhibitory system in PD using the conditioned pain modulation paradigm. Twenty-six predominantly unilateral PD patients and 19 controls underwent psychophysical pain assessment before and after patients' morning dopaminergic medication. An unexpected increase in several parameters of pain perception for PD patients was found after dopaminergic medication (e.g. for 49°C noxious heat stimulation an increase from 70.6 ± 4.0 to 77.6 ± 4.0 on the numerical pain scale, P < 0.001). This increase was seen in patients with predominantly left-sided PD, regardless of the stimulated side (for 49°C noxious heat stimulation, predominantly left-sided PD patients, pain perception increased from 73.5 ± 6.8 to 85.0 ± 6.8, P < 0.001, whereas predominantly right-sided PD patients did not show a significant increase, 68.3 ± 6.8 to 70.4 ± 6.5, P = 0.777). Baseline efficiency of conditioned pain modulation inversely correlated with age at disease onset (r = -0.522; P = 0.009) and disease severity (Unified PD Rating Scale, r = 0.447; P = 0.032) but did not differ between patients and controls. Increased sensory response causing hyperalgesia occurs after dopaminergic medication in patients with predominantly left-sided PD. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  18. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plant and homopteran sugar sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, V.; Fischer, M.D.; Wäckers, F.L.; Volkl, W.

    2001-01-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba), an annual plant bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFN) at the base of the upper leaves, is regularly infested by two aphid species, Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. EFN and A. fabae are commonly attended by the ant, Lasius niger, while Ac. pisum usually remains uninfested.

  19. Differential processing of natural scenes in typical and atypical Alzheimer disease measured with a saccade choice task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eBoucart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Though atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, including structures (hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex that support scene perception and the binding of an object to its context, appears early in Alzheimer disease (AD few studies have investigated scene perception in people with AD. We assessed the ability to find a target object within a natural scene in people with typical AD and in people with atypical AD (posterior cortical atrophy. Pairs of colored photographs were displayed left and right of fixation for one second. Participants were asked to categorize the target (an animal either in moving their eyes toward the photograph containing the target (saccadic choice task or in pressing a key corresponding to the location of the target (manual choice task in separate blocks of trials. For both tasks performance was compared in two conditions: with isolated objects and with objects in scenes. Patients with atypical AD were more impaired to detect a target within a scene than people with typical AD who exhibited a pattern of performance more similar to that of age-matched controls in terms of accuracy, saccade latencies and benefit from contextual information. People with atypical AD benefited less from contextual information in both the saccade and the manual choice tasks suggesting a higher sensitivity to crowding and deficits in figure/ground segregation in people with lesions in posterior areas of the brain.

  20. Effects of task structure on category priming in patients with Parkinson's disease and in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory G; Brown, Sandra J; Christenson, Gina; Williams, Rebecca E; Kindermann, Sandra S; Loftis, Christopher; Olsen, Ryan; Siple, Patricia; Shults, Clifford; Gorell, Jay M

    2002-05-01

    Lexical decision tasks have been used to study both shifts of attention and semantic processing in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Whereas other laboratories have reported normal levels of semantic priming among PD patients, our laboratory has reported abnormally large levels. In this study, two experiments were performed to determine the influence of task structure on the extent of semantic priming during lexical decision-making and pronunciation tasks among PD patients and neurologically healthy controls. In Experiment 1, the effect of Prime Dominance (the ratio of category to neutral trials) on lexical decision-making was studied. Although equal numbers of word and nonword trials were presented, half of the PD patients and controls were studied under Category Prime Dominance (category : neutral prime ratio of 2:1) and half were studied under Neutral Prime Dominance (category : neutral prime ratio of 1:2). In Experiment 2, PD and control participants were studied on lexical decision-making and pronunciation tasks where twice as many words as nonword trials were presented, consistent with other studies from our laboratory. In Experiment 1, we found no group differences in the magnitude of priming and no effect of Prime Dominance. Moreover, the findings were similar in pattern and magnitude to results published by Neely (1977). In Experiment 2, we observed larger priming effects among PD patients than among controls, but only on the lexical decision (LD) task. These results support the hypothesis that abnormally large category-priming effects appear in LD studies of PD patients when the number of word trials exceeds the number of nonword trials. Furthermore, increased lexical priming in PD appears to be due to processes operating during the decision-making period that follows presentation of the lexical target.

  1. Functional anatomy of outcome evaluation during Iowa Gambling Task performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an fMRI study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gescheidt, T.; Mareček, R.; Mikl, M.; Czekóová, K.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Vaníček, J.; Shaw, D. J.; Bareš, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 12 (2013), s. 2159-2166 ISSN 1590-1874 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2432 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Parkinson’s disease * Iowa Gambling Task * Decision-making Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2013

  2. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus Mejling

    2016-01-01

    blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50...... or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. RESULTS: Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while...

  3. 75 FR 32186 - Task Force on Community Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8... by space available. Purpose: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the Guide to...

  4. 75 FR 4402 - Task Force on Community Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8..., limited only by space available. Purpose: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the...

  5. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  6. The effect of conditional EFNB1 deletion in the T cell compartment on T cell development and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eph kinases are the largest family of cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. The ligands of Ephs, ephrins (EFNs, are also cell surface molecules. Ephs interact with EFNs transmitting signals in both directions, i.e., from Ephs to EFNs and from EFNs to Ephs. EFNB1 is known to be able to co-stimulate T cells in vitro and to modulate thymocyte development in a model of foetal thymus organ culture. To further understand the role of EFNB1 in T cell immunity, we generated T-cell-specific EFNB1 gene knockout mice to assess T cell development and function in these mice. Results The mice were of normal size and cellularity in the thymus and spleen and had normal T cell subpopulations in these organs. The bone marrow progenitors from KO mice and WT control mice repopulated host spleen T cell pool to similar extents. The activation and proliferation of KO T cells was comparable to that of control mice. Naïve KO CD4 cells showed an ability to differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells similar to control CD4 cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the function of EFNB1 in the T cell compartment could be compensated by other members of the EFN family, and that such redundancy safeguards the pivotal roles of EFNB1 in T cell development and function.

  7. Can Dual Task Walking Improve in Parkinson's Disease After External Focus of Attention Exercise? A Single Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eric N; Intzandt, Brittany N; Almeida, Quincy J

    2018-01-01

    It may be possible to use attention-based exercise to decrease demands associated with walking in Parkinson's disease (PD), and thus improve dual task walking ability. For example, an external focus of attention (focusing on the effect of an action on the environment) may recruit automatic control processes degenerated in PD, whereas an internal focus (limb movement) may recruit conscious (nonautomatic) control processes. Thus, we aimed to investigate how externally and internally focused exercise influences dual task walking and symptom severity in PD. Forty-seven participants with PD were randomized to either an Externally (n = 24) or Internally (n = 23) focused group and completed 33 one-hour attention-based exercise sessions over 11 weeks. In addition, 16 participants were part of a control group. Before, after, and 8 weeks following the program (pre/post/washout), gait patterns were measured during single and dual task walking (digit-monitoring task, ie, walking while counting numbers announced by an audio-track), and symptom severity (UPDRS-III) was assessed ON and OFF dopamine replacement. Pairwise comparisons (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) and repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Pre to post: Dual task step time decreased in the external group (Δ = 0.02 seconds, CI 0.01-0.04). Dual task step length (Δ = 2.3 cm, CI 0.86-3.75) and velocity (Δ = 4.5 cm/s, CI 0.59-8.48) decreased (became worse) in the internal group. UPDRS-III scores (ON and OFF) decreased (improved) in only the External group. Pre to washout: Dual task step time ( P = .005) and percentage in double support ( P = .014) significantly decreased (improved) in both exercise groups, although only the internal group increased error on the secondary counting task (ie, more errors monitoring numbers). UPDRS-III scores in both exercise groups significantly decreased ( P = .001). Since dual task walking improvements were found immediately, and 8 weeks after the cessation of an

  8. Medial temporal lobe involvement in an implicit memory task: evidence of collaborating implicit and explicit memory systems from FMRI and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Phyllis; Smith, Edward E; Troiani, Vanessa; Anderson, Chivon; Moore, Peachie; Grossman, Murray

    2008-12-01

    We used a prototype extraction task to assess implicit learning of a meaningful novel visual category. Cortical activation was monitored in young adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We observed occipital deactivation at test consistent with perceptually based implicit learning, and lateral temporal cortex deactivation reflecting implicit acquisition of the category's semantic nature. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during exposure and test suggested involvement of explicit memory as well. Behavioral performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy seniors was also assessed, and AD performance was correlated with gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. AD patients showed learning, consistent with preserved implicit memory, and confirming that AD patients' implicit memory is not limited to abstract patterns. However, patients were somewhat impaired relative to healthy seniors. Occipital and lateral temporal cortical volume correlated with successful AD patient performance, and thus overlapped with young adults' areas of deactivation. Patients' severe MTL atrophy precluded involvement of this region. AD patients thus appear to engage a cortically based implicit memory mechanism, whereas their relative deficit on this task may reflect their MTL disease. These findings suggest that implicit and explicit memory systems collaborate in neurologically intact individuals performing an ostensibly implicit memory task.

  9. Gait, dual task and history of falls in elderly with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ansai, Juliana H.; Andrade, Larissa P.; Rossi, Paulo G.; Takahashi, Anielle C.M.; Vale, Francisco A.C.; Rebelatto, Jos? R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. Objective to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling o...

  10. Are stem nectaries common in Gentianaceae Juss.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdnéa Casagrande Dalvi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are specialized structures that produce and release nectar and are located on leaves, cotyledons and, more seldomly, stems. Peculiar leaf nectaries have been described for thirty-three Neotropical species of Gentianaceae, while stem nectaries have been reported for only nine. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of stem EFNs within Gentianaceae and investigate the existence of a correlation between their occurrence and the geographical distribution of species. Samples of internodal regions from field and herbarium specimens were submitted to standard light microscopy techniques. Data regarding the geographical distribution of species were acquired from herbarium specimens and the literature. A total of 37 species were investigated, representing 25 genera distributed among five tribes. Nectaries, composed of modified epidermal cells, were observed in 16 species restricted to the Neotropical tribes Helieae, Saccifolieae, Potalieae and Coutoubeinae; exceptions were Cicendia quadrangularis and Zygostigma australe, which both occur in the Neotropics but do not possess EFNs. These results demonstrate that stem EFNs are common among Neotropical taxa of Gentianaceae, and are typically absent from taxa in temperate regions.

  11. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  12. No time for candy: passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) plants down-regulate damage-induced extra floral nectar production in response to light signals of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Miriam M; Mazza, Carlos A; Astigueta, María S; Ciarla, Ana M; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-09-01

    Plant fitness is often defined by the combined effects of herbivory and competition, and plants must strike a delicate balance between their ability to capture limiting resources and defend against herbivore attack. Many plants use indirect defenses, such as volatile compounds and extra floral nectaries (EFN), to attract canopy arthropods that are natural enemies of herbivorous organisms. While recent evidence suggests that upon perception of low red to far-red (R:FR) ratios, which signal the proximity of competitors, plants down-regulate resource allocation to direct chemical defenses, it is unknown if a similar phytochrome-mediated response occurs for indirect defenses. We evaluated the interactive effects of R:FR ratio and simulated herbivory on nectar production by EFNs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). The activity of petiolar EFNs dramatically increased in response to simulated herbivory and hormonal treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Low R:FR ratios, which induced a classic "shade-avoidance" repertoire of increased stem elongation in P. edulis, strongly suppressed the EFN response triggered by simulated herbivory or MeJA application. Strikingly, the EFN response to wounding and light quality was localized to the branches that received the treatments. In vines like P. edulis, a local response would allow the plants to precisely adjust their light harvesting and defense phenotypes to the local conditions encountered by individual branches when foraging for resources in patchy canopies. Consistent with the emerging paradigm that phytochrome regulation of jasmonate signaling is a central modulator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, our results demonstrate that light quality is a strong regulator of indirect defenses.

  13. Task shifting to clinical officer-led echocardiography screening for detecting rheumatic heart disease in Malawi, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims Sanyahumbi, Amy; Sable, Craig A; Karlsten, Melissa; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Kazembe, Peter N; Minard, Charles G; Penny, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease in asymptomatic children may result in early diagnosis and prevent progression. Physician-led screening is not feasible in Malawi. Task shifting to mid-level providers such as clinical officers may enable more widespread screening. Hypothesis With short-course training, clinical officers can accurately screen for rheumatic heart disease using focussed echocardiography. A total of eight clinical officers completed three half-days of didactics and 2 days of hands-on echocardiography training. Clinical officers were evaluated by performing screening echocardiograms on 20 children with known rheumatic heart disease status. They indicated whether children should be referred for follow-up. Referral was indicated if mitral regurgitation measured more than 1.5 cm or there was any measurable aortic regurgitation. The κ statistic was calculated to measure referral agreement with a paediatric cardiologist. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a generalised linear mixed model, and were calculated on the basis of World Heart Federation diagnostic criteria. The mean κ statistic comparing clinical officer referrals with the paediatric cardiologist was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.82). The κ value ranged from a minimum of 0.57 to a maximum of 0.90. For rheumatic heart disease diagnosis, sensitivity was 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.95) and specificity was 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.72). There was substantial agreement between clinical officers and paediatric cardiologists on whether to refer. Clinical officers had a high sensitivity in detecting rheumatic heart disease. With short-course training, clinical officer-led echo screening for rheumatic heart disease is a viable alternative to physician-led screening in resource-limited settings.

  14. ADAM13 Induces Cranial Neural Crest by Cleaving Class B Ephrins and Regulating Wnt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuo; Xu, Guofeng; Bridges, Lance C.; Williams, Phoebe; White, Judith M.; DeSimone, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The cranial neural crest (CNC) are multipotent embryonic cells that contribute to craniofacial structures and other cells and tissues of the vertebrate head. During embryogenesis, CNC is induced at the neural plate boundary through the interplay of several major signaling pathways. Here we report that the metalloproteinase activity of ADAM13 is required for early induction of CNC in Xenopus. In both cultured cells and X. tropicalis embryos, membrane-bound Ephrins (Efns) B1 and B2 were identified as substrates for ADAM13. ADAM13 upregulates canonical Wnt signaling and early expression of the transcription factor snail2, whereas EfnB1 inhibits the canonical Wnt pathway and snail2 expression. We propose that by cleaving class B Efns, ADAM13 promotes canonical Wnt signaling and early CNC induction. PMID:20708595

  15. Effects of deep brain stimulation of the peduncolopontine area on working memory tasks in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Mazzone, Paolo; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Peppe, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at investigating the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation (25 Hz) of the peduncolopontine (PPN) area on working memory (WM) functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Five PD patients who underwent simultaneous PPN area- and subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation participated in the study. PD patients were evaluated in the morning at least 12 h after antiparkinsonian therapy withdrawal in two conditions: i) after continuous PPN area stimulation (Off Therapy/On PPN: "On" condition); ii) at least 120 min after PPN area had been switched "Off" (Off Ther/Off PPN: "Off" condition). The experimental WM task consisted of an n-back paradigm with verbal and visual-object stimuli. PD patients showed a consistent response time decrease on both the verbal and the visual-object tasks passing from the "Off" to the "On" condition (p processing of information in the content of WM, possibly through the modulation of the attentional resources.

  16. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyysalo Sampo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the preparation, resources, results and analysis of three tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011: the main tasks on Infectious Diseases (ID and Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications (EPI, and the supporting task on Entity Relations (REL. The two main tasks represent extensions of the event extraction model introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2009 (ST'09 to two new areas of biomedical scientific literature, each motivated by the needs of specific biocuration tasks. The ID task concerns the molecular mechanisms of infection, virulence and resistance, focusing in particular on the functions of a class of signaling systems that are ubiquitous in bacteria. The EPI task is dedicated to the extraction of statements regarding chemical modifications of DNA and proteins, with particular emphasis on changes relating to the epigenetic control of gene expression. By contrast to these two application-oriented main tasks, the REL task seeks to support extraction in general by separating challenges relating to part-of relations into a subproblem that can be addressed by independent systems. Seven groups participated in each of the two main tasks and four groups in the supporting task. The participating systems indicated advances in the capability of event extraction methods and demonstrated generalization in many aspects: from abstracts to full texts, from previously considered subdomains to new ones, and from the ST'09 extraction targets to other entities and events. The highest performance achieved in the supporting task REL, 58% F-score, is broadly comparable with levels reported for other relation extraction tasks. For the ID task, the highest-performing system achieved 56% F-score, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance at the established ST'09 task. In the EPI task, the best result was 53% F-score for the full set of extraction targets and 69% F-score for a reduced set of core extraction targets, approaching a level

  17. Decision and dopaminergic system: An ERPs study of Iowa Gambling Task in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eMapelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches reported behavioural and emotional impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD, even in the earliest stages. This impairment affects also decision-making and learning processes. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is commonly used to examine the decision-making capacity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neural correlates of feedback evaluation in the decision-making process into a learning context, using IGT and event-related potentials (ERPs in a group of non-demented medicated PD patients. Fifteen PD patients and 15 healthy controls were recruited for the study. PD patients were administrated a basic neuropsychological assessment oriented to exclude cognitive impairments. Both groups underwent the computerized IGT during electroencephalography (EEG registration. To analyse ERPs, continuous EEG data were epoched within a time-window starting 1000 ms before and ending 1000 ms after feedback presentation and averaged separately for positive (i.e. win condition and negative (i.e. loss condition feedbacks. Behavioural data revealed a significant lower performance of PD patients (p<.05 compared with the controls. While controls demonstrated a correct feedback evaluation, PD patients did not show any learning, selecting more disadvantageous decks even in the last part of task. Furthermore, ERPs results revealed that controls showed a significant difference (p<.05 in ERPs morphology recorded after the win and the loss conditions, suggesting that positive and negative feedbacks were differently evaluated and processed. PD patients showed a different pattern: their ERPs morphology was the same for positive and negative feedback. Interestingly, our ERPs results suggest that in PD patients an incorrect evaluation of context-relevant outcomes could be the reason of a poor performance in decision-making tasks, and could explain cognitive and behavioural problems related to impulse control disorder.

  18. Global oral health inequalities: task group--periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L J; Armitage, G C; Klinge, B; Lang, N P; Tonetti, M; Williams, R C

    2011-05-01

    Periodontal diseases constitute one of the major global oral health burdens, and periodontitis remains a major cause of tooth loss in adults worldwide. The World Health Organization recently reported that severe periodontitis exists in 5-20% of adult populations, and most children and adolescents exhibit signs of gingivitis. Likely reasons to account for these prevalent diseases include genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors, as well as individual and socio-economic determinants. Currently, there are fundamental gaps in knowledge of such fundamental issues as the mechanisms of initiation and progression of periodontal diseases, which are undefined; inability to identify high-risk forms of gingivitis that progress to periodontitis; lack of evidence on how to prevent the diseases effectively; inability to detect disease activity and predict treatment efficacy; and limited information on the effects of integration of periodontal health as a part of the health care program designed to promote general health and prevent chronic diseases. In the present report, 12 basic, translational, and applied research areas have been proposed to address the issue of global periodontal health inequality. We believe that the oral health burden caused by periodontal diseases could be relieved significantly in the near future through an effective global collaboration.

  19. Balancing the Demands of Two Tasks: An Investigation of Cognitive-Motor Dual-Tasking in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchard-MacDonald, Emma; Paul, Lorna; Evans, Jonathan J

    2018-03-01

    People with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (PwRRMS) suffer disproportionate decrements in gait under dual-task conditions, when walking and a cognitive task are combined. There has been much less investigation of the impact of cognitive demands on balance. This study investigated whether: (1) PwRRMS show disproportionate decrements in postural stability under dual-task conditions compared to healthy controls, and (2) dual-task decrements are associated with everyday dual-tasking difficulties. The impact of mood, fatigue, and disease severity on dual-tasking was also examined. A total of 34 PwRRMS and 34 matched controls completed cognitive (digit span) and balance (movement of center of pressure on Biosway on stable and unstable surfaces) tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. Everyday dual-tasking was measured using the Dual-Tasking Questionnaire. Mood was measured by the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale. Fatigue was measured via the Modified Fatigue Index Scale. No differences in age, gender, years of education, estimated pre-morbid IQ, or baseline digit span between groups. Compared with controls, PwRRMS showed significantly greater decrement in postural stability under dual-task conditions on an unstable surface (p=.007), but not a stable surface (p=.679). Balance decrement scores were not correlated with everyday dual-tasking difficulties or fatigue. Stable surface balance decrement scores were significantly associated with levels of anxiety (rho=0.527; p=.001) and depression (rho=0.451; p=.007). RRMS causes dual-tasking difficulties, impacting balance under challenging conditions, which may contribute to increased risk of gait difficulties and falls. The relationship between anxiety/depression and dual-task decrement suggests that emotional factors may be contributing to dual-task difficulties. (JINS, 2018, 24, 247-258).

  20. The Electrostatically Formed Nanowire: A Novel Platform for Gas-Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Shalev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN gas sensor is based on a multiple-gate field-effect transistor with a conducting nanowire, which is not defined physically; rather, the nanowire is defined electrostatically post-fabrication, by using appropriate biasing of the different surrounding gates. The EFN is fabricated by using standard silicon processing technologies with relaxed design rules and, thereby, supports the realization of a low-cost and robust gas sensor, suitable for mass production. Although the smallest lithographic definition is higher than half a micrometer, appropriate tuning of the biasing of the gates concludes a conducting channel with a tunable diameter, which can transform the conducting channel into a nanowire with a diameter smaller than 20 nm. The tunable size and shape of the nanowire elicits tunable sensing parameters, such as sensitivity, limit of detection, and dynamic range, such that a single EFN gas sensor can perform with high sensitivity and a broad dynamic range by merely changing the biasing configuration. The current work reviews the design of the EFN gas sensor, its fabrication considerations and process flow, means of electrical characterization, and preliminary sensing performance at room temperature, underlying the unique and advantageous tunable capability of the device.

  1. Effects of Speaking Task on Intelligibility in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Intelligibility tests for dysarthria typically provide an estimate of overall severity for speech materials elicited through imitation or read from a printed script. The extent to which these types of tasks and procedures reflect intelligibility for extemporaneous speech is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to compare…

  2. EFNS review on the role of muscle biopsy in the investigation of myalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakides, T; Angelini, Cinzia; Schaefer, J

    2013-01-01

    Myalgia, defined as any pain perceived in muscle, is very common in the general population and a frequent cause for referral to neurologists, rheumatologists and internists in general. It is however only rarely due to primary muscle disease and often referred from ligaments, joints, bones...

  3. Characteristics of brain functional alterations and task functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Cushing’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the relationship between the brain functional alterations of patients with Cushing's disease (CD and patients' mental symptom by applying the Evaluating Emotional Scales and task functional magnetic resonance imaging (Task fMRI. Methods Task fMRI was performed on 8 patients with diagnosed CD admitted in the Department of Endocrinology of Chinese PLA General Hospital from Nov. 2015 to Nov. 2016 and 21 healthy people with matched age, gender and education level as control. Meanwhile, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, Positive and Negative Affective Scale (PANAS and Cushing Quality of Life Scale (Cushing QOL were obtained to assess the brain functions. Results Significant depression and anxiety were observed in patients with CD, and their positive affective score was substantially lower while the negative affective score was relatively higher compared with that in the controls. Task fMRI revealed that, when watching the positive pictures, the activation degree of left cerebellum and right postcentral gyrus weakened in CD patients than in the controls, and the positive correlations existed between the activation degree of left cerebellum and the 16 o'clock adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH level, and between the activation degree of right postcentral gyrus and the urinary free cortisol (UFC level in CD patients. In contrast, when watching the negative pictures, the activation degree of left cerebellum, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus was weakened in CD patients than in the controls, and the activation degree of left cerebellum was negatively correlated to the 0 o'clock cortisol level and SAS score, but is positively correlated to the UFC level. When watching the neutral pictures, the activation degree of left cerebellum and left parahippocampal gyrus was weakened in CD patients than in the controls. Conclusions CD patients may have impaired brain function with

  4. A Method to Train Marmosets in Visual Working Memory Task and Their Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuki; Koba, Reiko; Miwa, Miki; Yamaguchi, Chieko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Takemoto, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Learning and memory processes are similarly organized in humans and monkeys; therefore, monkeys can be ideal models for analyzing human aging processes and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. With the development of novel gene modification methods, common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) have been suggested as an animal model for neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, the common marmoset's lifespan is relatively short, which makes it a practical animal model for aging. Working memory deficits are a prominent symptom of both dementia and aging, but no data are currently available for visual working memory in common marmosets. The delayed matching-to-sample task is a powerful tool for evaluating visual working memory in humans and monkeys; therefore, we developed a novel procedure for training common marmosets in such a task. Using visual discrimination and reversal tasks to direct the marmosets' attention to the physical properties of visual stimuli, we successfully trained 11 out of 13 marmosets in the initial stage of the delayed matching-to-sample task and provided the first available data on visual working memory in common marmosets. We found that the marmosets required many trials to initially learn the task (median: 1316 trials), but once the task was learned, the animals needed fewer trials to learn the task with novel stimuli (476 trials or fewer, with the exception of one marmoset). The marmosets could retain visual information for up to 16 s. Our novel training procedure could enable us to use the common marmoset as a useful non-human primate model for studying visual working memory deficits in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.

  5. The ant assemblage visiting extrafloral nectaries of Hibiscus pernambucensis (Malvaceae) in a mangrove forest in Southeast Brazil (Hymenoptera : Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cogni, R; Freitas, AVL

    2002-01-01

    Ant species visiting extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of Hibiscus pernambucensis were studied in a daily flooded mangrove forest in Picinguaba, Southeast Brazil. Nineteen ant species in five subfamilies were observed visiting the EFNs. The most common species (in order of abundance) were Camponotus sp.2, Brachymyrmex sp. and Pseudomyrmex gracilis during the warm season and Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus crassus and Camponotus sp.2 during the cold season. A twenty-four hour census showed that ant ac...

  6. Anatomia, ultra-estrutura e secreção do nectário extrafloral de Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda (Malvaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Joecildo Francisco; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the extrafloral nectary (EFN) of Hibiscus pernambucensis, a native shrub species occurring in mangrove and restinga along Brazil's coastline. EFNs occur as furrows with a protuberant border on the abaxial surface veins of the leaf blade. Each nectary consists of numerous secretory multicellular trichomes, epidermal cells in palisade-like arrangements and non-vascularized parenchyma tissue. Nectar secretion is prolonged, since secretion starts in very young leaves and rem...

  7. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 77 FR 4561 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Disease, Mental Health, and Alcohol. Meeting Accessibility: This meeting is open to the public, limited... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  9. Does the radiologically isolated syndrome exist? A dual-task cost pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattola, Vincenzo; Logiudice, Anna Lisa; Bonanno, Lilla; Famà, Fausto; Milardi, Demetrio; Chillemi, Gaetana; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Marino, Silvia; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Russo, Margherita

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous performance of motor and cognitive tasks may compete for common brain network resources in aging or patients with some neurological diseases, suggesting the occurrence of a cognitive-motor interference. While this phenomenon has been well described for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, it never has been tested on asymptomatic subject with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggestive of demyelinating disease (i.e., radiologically isolated syndrome: RIS). In this pilot study, 10 RIS subjects and 10 sex/age-matched healthy controls were tested by means of static posturography under eyes opened (single-task trial) and while performing two different cognitive tasks (semantic modified word list generation for first dual-task trial and phonemic semantic modified word list generation for second dual-task trial), to estimate the dual-task cost (DTC) of standing balance. In our sample, under cognitive interference (without any substantial differences between semantic and phonemic modified word list generation), the RIS group showed significance differences in CoP (center of pressure) total sway area, ellipse eccentricity, CoP sway path length, CoP median sway velocity along the AP (anteroposterior) axis and along the ML (mediolateral) axis, reflecting a higher negative DTC respect to healthy subjects (which have simply shown a statistical trend, failing to reach a significance, in some trials). The phenomenon of cognitive-motor interference might be unmasked by a dual-task posturography in RIS subjects, too. We hypothesize that this approach could be useful to early reveal the presence of a demyelinating disease and to reach a MS diagnosis in subjects otherwise classified as RIS.

  10. Limited effect of dopaminergic medication on straight walking and turning in early to moderate Parkinson’s disease during single and dual tasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad eElshehabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Parkinson’s disease (PD, the effects of dopaminergic medication on straight walking and turning were mainly investigated under single tasking (ST conditions. However, multitasking situations are considered more daily relevant.Methods: Thirty-nine early to moderate PD patients performed the following standarized ST and dual tasks (DT as fast as possible for one minute during On- and Off-medication while wearing inertial sensors: straight walking and turning, checking boxes, and subtracting serial 7s. Quantitative gait parameters, as well as velocity of the secondary tasks were analyzed.Results: The following parameters improved significantly in On-medication during ST: gait velocity during straight walking (p=0.03; step duration (p=0.048 and peak velocity (p=0.04 during turning; velocity of checking boxes during ST (p=0.04 and DT (p=0.04. Velocity of checking boxes was the only parameter that also improved during DT.Conclusion: These results suggest that dopaminergic medication does not relevantly influence straight walking and turning in early to moderate PD during DT.

  11. Developmental Reorganization of the Core and Extended Face Networks Revealed by Global Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhu, Qi; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2017-08-28

    Prior studies on development of functional specialization in human brain mainly focus on age-related increases in regional activation and connectivity among regions. However, a few recent studies on the face network demonstrate age-related decrease in face-specialized activation in the extended face network (EFN), in addition to increase in activation in the core face network (CFN). Here we used a voxel-based global brain connectivity approach to investigate whether development of the face network exhibited both increase and decrease in network connectivity. We found the voxel-wise resting-state functional connectivity (FC) within the CFN increased with age in bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus, suggesting the integration of the CFN during development. Interestingly, the FC of the voxels in the EFN to the right fusiform face area and occipital face area decreased with age, suggesting that the CFN segregated from the EFN during development. Moreover, the age-related connectivity in the CFN was related to behavioral performance in face processing. Overall, our study demonstrated developmental reorganization of the face network achieved by both integration within the CFN and segregation of the CFN from the EFN, which may account for the simultaneous increases and decreases in neural activation during the development of the face network. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. An assessment of Movement Disorder Society Task Force diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal-Cantürk, P; Hanağası, H A; Bilgiç, B; Gürvit, H; Emre, M

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Mild cognitive impairment constitutes a major risk for the development of Parkinson's disease dementia in the course of the disease. A Movement Disorder Society Task Force proposed diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI), comprising two operational levels: Level I and Level II. The objective of our study was to test the accuracy of Level I versus Level II diagnostic criteria. Eighty-six consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease were screened and 68 patients without dementia or depression were included in the study. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Evaluation-R screening tools for Level I and an extensive neuropsychological battery for Level II assessment. We first diagnosed PD-MCI on the basis of Level II assessment and then calculated sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve, comparing the performance of the three screening batteries. None of the three screening batteries proposed for Level I assessment provided satisfactory combined sensitivity and specificity for detecting PD-MCI, and their performance was similar. Using the Level II criteria, 29 patients (43%) were diagnosed as having PD-MCI. Lowest cut-off levels that provided at least 80% sensitivity were 24 for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, 29 for the Mini-Mental State Examination and 87 for the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Evaluation-R. However, specificity levels were below 80% at these cut-off levels. We conclude that Level I assessment alone using screening batteries is not sufficiently sensitive/specific to detect PD-MCI. © 2017 EAN.

  13. Establishing a New Screening System for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease with Mental Rotation Tasks that Evaluate Visuospatial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayuko; Shinozaki, Jun; Yazawa, Shogo; Ueki, Yoshino; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shimohama, Shun; Nagamine, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The mental rotation task is well-known for the assessment of visuospatial function; however, it has not been used for screening of dementia patients. The aim of this study was to create a simple screening test for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) by focusing on non-amnestic symptoms. Age-matched healthy controls (age 75.3±6.8), patients with MCI (76.5±5.5), and AD (78.2±5.0) participated in this study. They carried out mental rotation tasks targeting geometric graphics or alphabetical characters with three rotating angles (0°, 90°, and 180°) and indicated the correct answer. Response accuracy and reaction time were recorded along with their eye movements using an eye tracker. To quantify their visual processing strategy, the run count ratio (RC ratio) was calculated by dividing the mean number of fixations in incorrect answers by that in correct answers. AD patients showed lower accuracy and longer reaction time than controls. They also showed a significantly greater number of fixation and smaller saccade amplitude than controls, while fixation duration did not differ significantly. The RC ratio was higher for AD, followed by MCI and control groups. By setting the cut-off value to 0.47 in the 180° rotating angle task, we could differentiate MCI patients from controls with a probability of 80.0%. We established a new screening system for dementia patients by evaluating visuospatial function. The RC ratio during a mental rotation task is useful for discriminating MCI patients from controls.

  14. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: U.S. Preventive services Task Force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2014-04-15

    Update of the 2003 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the efficacy of multivitamin or mineral supplements in the general adult population for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This recommendation applies to healthy adults without special nutritional needs (typically aged 50 years or older). It does not apply to children, women who are pregnant or may become pregnant, or persons who are chronically ill or hospitalized or have a known nutritional deficiency. The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of multivitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. (I statement). The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of single- or paired-nutrient supplements (except β-carotene and vitamin E) for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. (I statement). The USPSTF recommends against β-carotene or vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. (D recommendation).

  15. Detection of prospective memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment of suspected Alzheimer's disease etiology using a novel event-based prospective memory task.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Blanco-Campal, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relative discriminatory efficacy of an event-based prospective memory (PM) task, in which specificity of the instructions and perceptual salience of the PM cue were manipulated, compared with two widely used retrospective memory (RM) tests (Rivermead Paragraph Recall Test and CERAD-Word List Test), when detecting mild cognitive impairment of suspected Alzheimer\\'s disease etiology (MCI-AD) (N = 19) from normal controls (NC) (N = 21). Statistical analyses showed high discriminatory capacity of the PM task for detecting MCI-AD. The Non-Specific-Non-Salient condition proved particularly useful in detecting MCI-AD, possibly reflecting the difficulty of the task, requiring more strategic attentional resources to monitor for the PM cue. With a cutoff score of <4\\/10, the Non-Specific-Non-Salient condition achieved a sensitivity = 84%, and a specificity = 95%, superior to the most discriminative RM test used (CERAD-Total Learning: sensitivity = 83%; specificity = 76%). Results suggest that PM is an early sign of memory failure in MCI-AD and may be a more pronounced deficit than retrospective failure, probably reflecting the greater self-initiated retrieval demands involved in the PM task used. Limitations include the relatively small sample size, and the use of a convenience sample (i.e. memory clinic attenders and healthy active volunteers), reducing the generalizability of the results, which should be regarded as preliminary. (JINS, 2009, 15, 154-159.).

  16. Switching between Abstract Rules Reflects Disease Severity but Not Dopaminergic Status in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, Angie A.; Cools, Roshan; Barker, Roger A.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to disambiguate the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on cognitive control as indexed by task set switching, by addressing discrepancies in the literature pertaining to disease severity and paradigm heterogeneity. A task set is governed by a rule that determines how relevant stimuli (stimulus set) map onto specific responses…

  17. Considerations for the development of task-based search engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petcu, Paula; Dragusin, Radu

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous experience from working on a task-based search engine, we present a list of suggestions and ideas for an Information Retrieval (IR) framework that could inform the development of next generation professional search systems. The specific task that we start from is the clinicians......' information need in finding rare disease diagnostic hypotheses at the time and place where medical decisions are made. Our experience from the development of a search engine focused on supporting clinicians in completing this task has provided us valuable insights in what aspects should be considered...... by the developers of vertical search engines....

  18. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  19. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  20. Procedural learning changes in patients with Wilson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumei Jiang; Xiang Shen; Xiaoping Wang; Wenjie Li

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we compared explicit memory performance, using the Wechsler Memory Scale, and implicit memory performance, using the Nissen software version of the serial reaction time task, in patients with Wilson's disease to normal controls. The Wilson's disease patients exhibited deficits in explicit memory tasks, such as figure recall and understanding memory. Moreover, the Wilson's disease patients exhibited deficits in implicit memory tasks, including significantly prolonged response times. These findings indicate that Wilson's disease patients have explicit and implicit partial memory impairments.

  1. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of rasagiline as adjunctive therapy in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, E; Stern, M B

    2012-02-01

    Rasagiline, an MAO-B inhibitor, is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this post hoc analysis, the efficacy, safety and tolerability of rasagiline as an adjunct to levodopa were compared with placebo in elderly (≥70 years) and younger (Rasagiline: Efficacy and Safety on the Treatment of 'OFF' and Lasting effect in Adjunct therapy with Rasagiline Given Once daily randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with the primary efficacy end-point being the reduction from baseline in daily OFF time. Secondary efficacy end-points included scores for Clinical Global Improvement (CGI)-Examiner during ON time, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-ADL during OFF time, UPDRS-Motor during ON time and total daily ON time with and without troublesome dyskinesia. Tolerability was evaluated from adverse events (AEs) in the two age groups. Rasagiline decreased daily OFF time versus placebo (Prasagiline but were not significant. Between-group comparisons (≥70 vs. efficacy was unaffected by age for all end-points (P>0.1), and rasagiline was well tolerated amongst both groups of patients with a comparable incidence of total and dopaminergic AEs (P>0.1). Adjunct rasagiline is efficacious and well tolerated in elderly non-demented patients (≥70 years) with moderate to advanced PD. Confirmation of the efficacy and safety of rasagiline in the elderly patient subgroup is especially relevant because of the increasing number of elderly patients with PD. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  2. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  3. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  4. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sanbonmatsu

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  5. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  6. Task demand, task management, and teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar

    2001-03-15

    The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)

  7. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...... of the reviewed theories, appears able to compensate for the explanatory gaps they leave behind. The EFN proposes consciousness as the phenomenon emerging from a distinct network of neural paths broadcasting the neural changes associated to any mental process. It additionally argues for the need to include a 5th...

  8. The task-to-task communication between computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuzi; Zhang Bingyun; Zhao Weiren

    1992-01-01

    The task-to-task communication is used in the Institute of High Energy Physics. The BES (Beijing Spectrometer) uses the communication mode to take some of the BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Collider) running parameters needed by BES experiments in a periodic time. The authors describe the principle of transparent task-to-task communication and how to use it in BES on-line data acquisition system

  9. Economy of scale: third partner strengthens a keystone ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Kirsten M; Palmer, Todd M

    2018-02-01

    While foundation species can stabilize ecosystems at landscape scales, their ability to persist is often underlain by keystone interactions occurring at smaller scales. Acacia drepanolobium is a foundation tree, comprising >95% of woody cover in East African black-cotton savanna ecosystems. Its dominance is underlain by a keystone mutualistic interaction with several symbiotic ant species in which it provides housing (swollen thorns) and carbohydrate-rich nectar from extra-floral nectaries (EFN). In return, it gains protection from catastrophic damage from mega-herbivores. Crematogaster mimosae is the ecologically dominant symbiotic ant in this system, also providing the highest protection services. In addition to tending EFN, C. mimosae tend scale insects for carbohydrate-rich honeydew. We investigated the role of scale insects in this specialized ant-plant interaction. Specifically, does this putatively redundant third partner strengthen the ant-plant mutualism by making the ant a better protector of the tree? Or does it weaken the mutualism by being costly to the tree while providing no additional benefit to the ant-plant mutualism? We coupled observational surveys with two scale-manipulation experiments and found evidence that this third partner strengthens the ant-plant mutualism. Trees with scale insects experimentally removed experienced a 2.5X increase in elephant damage compared to trees with scale insects present over 10 months. Reduced protection was driven by scale removal causing a decrease in ant colony size and per capita baseline activity and defensive behavior. We also found that ants increased scale-tending and the density of scale insects on trees when EFN were experimentally reduced. Thus, in this system, scale insects and EFN are likely complementary, rather than redundant, resources with scale insects benefitting ants when EFN production is low (such as during annual dry periods in this semi-arid ecosystem). This study reveals that a third

  10. Task analysis and support for problem solving tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is concerned with Task Analysis as the basis for ergonomic design to reduce human error rates, rather than for predicting human error rates. Task Analysis techniques usually provide a set of categories for describing sub tasks, and a framework describing the relations between sub-tasks. Both the task type categories and their organisation have implications for optimum interface and training design. In this paper, the framework needed for considering the most complex tasks faced by operators in process industries is discussed such as fault management in unexpected situations, and what is likely to minimise human error in these circumstances. (author)

  11. Building gold standard corpora for medical natural language processing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleger, Louise; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Kaiser, Megan; Molnar, Katalin; Stoutenborough, Laura; Kouril, Michal; Marsolo, Keith; Solti, Imre

    2012-01-01

    We present the construction of three annotated corpora to serve as gold standards for medical natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Clinical notes from the medical record, clinical trial announcements, and FDA drug labels are annotated. We report high inter-annotator agreements (overall F-measures between 0.8467 and 0.9176) for the annotation of Personal Health Information (PHI) elements for a de-identification task and of medications, diseases/disorders, and signs/symptoms for information extraction (IE) task. The annotated corpora of clinical trials and FDA labels will be publicly released and to facilitate translational NLP tasks that require cross-corpora interoperability (e.g. clinical trial eligibility screening) their annotation schemas are aligned with a large scale, NIH-funded clinical text annotation project.

  12. Childhood Obesity Task Forces Established by State Legislatures, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sonia A.; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction States and communities are considering policy and environmental strategies, including enacting legislation, to reduce and prevent childhood obesity. One legislative approach has been to create task forces to understand key issues and develop a course of action. The goal of this study was to describe state-level, childhood obesity task forces in the United States created by legislation from 2001 through 2010. Methods We used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity database to identify state-level childhood obesity task forces created through legislation from 2001 through 2010. Results We identified 21 states that had enacted legislation creating childhood obesity task forces of which 6 had created more than one task force. Most task forces were charged with both gathering and reviewing information and making recommendations for obesity-prevention actions in the state. Most legislation required that task forces include representation from the state legislature, state agencies, community organizations, and community members. Conclusion Evaluation of the effectiveness of obesity-prevention task forces and the primary components that contribute to their success may help to determine the advantages of the use of such strategies in obesity prevention. PMID:23987250

  13. Interstate Migrant Education Task Force: Migrant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…

  14. Clinical Complexity in Medicine: A Measurement Model of Task and Patient Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R; Weir, C; Del Fiol, G

    2016-01-01

    Complexity in medicine needs to be reduced to simple components in a way that is comprehensible to researchers and clinicians. Few studies in the current literature propose a measurement model that addresses both task and patient complexity in medicine. The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated approach to understand and measure clinical complexity by incorporating both task and patient complexity components focusing on the infectious disease domain. The measurement model was adapted and modified for the healthcare domain. Three clinical infectious disease teams were observed, audio-recorded and transcribed. Each team included an infectious diseases expert, one infectious diseases fellow, one physician assistant and one pharmacy resident fellow. The transcripts were parsed and the authors independently coded complexity attributes. This baseline measurement model of clinical complexity was modified in an initial set of coding processes and further validated in a consensus-based iterative process that included several meetings and email discussions by three clinical experts from diverse backgrounds from the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of Utah. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa. The proposed clinical complexity model consists of two separate components. The first is a clinical task complexity model with 13 clinical complexity-contributing factors and 7 dimensions. The second is the patient complexity model with 11 complexity-contributing factors and 5 dimensions. The measurement model for complexity encompassing both task and patient complexity will be a valuable resource for future researchers and industry to measure and understand complexity in healthcare.

  15. The effect of single-task and dual-task balance exercise programs on balance performance in adults with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konak, H E; Kibar, S; Ergin, E S

    2016-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious disease characterized by muscle weakness in the lower extremities, shortened length of trunk, and increased dorsal kyphosis leading to poor balance performance. Although balance impairment increases in adults with osteoporosis, falls and fall-related injuries have been shown to occur mainly during the dual-task performance. Several studies have shown that dual-task performance was improved with specific repetitive dual-task exercises. The aims of this study were to compare the effect of single- and dual-task balance exercise programs on static balance, dynamic balance, and activity-specific balance confidence in adults with osteoporosis and to assess the effectiveness of dual-task balance training on gait speed under dual-task conditions. Older adults (N = 42) (age range, 45-88 years) with osteoporosis were randomly assigned into two groups. Single-task balance training group was given single-task balance exercises for 4 weeks, whereas dual-task balance training group received dual-task balance exercises. Participants received 45-min individualized training session, three times a week. Static balance was evaluated by one-leg stance (OLS) and a kinesthetic ability trainer (KAT) device. Dynamic balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Time Up and Go (TUG) test, and gait speed. Self-confidence was assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC-6) scale. Assessments were performed at baseline and after the 4-week program. At the end of the treatment periods, KAT score, BBS score, time in OLS and TUG, gait speeds under single- and dual-task conditions, and ABC-6 scale scores improved significantly in all patients (p gait speeds under single- and dual-task conditions showed significantly greater improvement in the dual-task balance training group than in the single-task balance training group (p gait speeds showed greater improvement following the application of a specific type of dual-task exercise programs

  16. Generic cognitive adaptations to task interference in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated how the activation of previous tasks interferes with the execution of future tasks as a result of temporal manipulations. Color and shape matching tasks were organized in runs of two trials each. The tasks were specified by a cue presented before a task run, cueing

  17. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC. Barbosa

    Full Text Available Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, are important components of ecological communities’ evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  18. Working Memory Training Improves Dual-Task Performance on Motor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takehide; Kaneko, Fuminari; Nagahata, Keita; Shibata, Eriko; Aoki, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated whether working memory training improves motor-motor dual-task performance consisted of upper and lower limb tasks. The upper limb task was a simple reaction task and the lower limb task was an isometric knee extension task. 45 participants (age = 21.8 ± 1.6 years) were classified into a working memory training group (WM-TRG), dual-task training group, or control group. The training duration was 2 weeks (15 min, 4 times/week). Our results indicated that working memory capacity increased significantly only in the WM-TRG. Dual-task performance improved in the WM-TRG and dual-task training group. Our study provides the novel insight that working memory training improves dual-task performance without specific training on the target motor task.

  19. Contemporary Primary Prevention Aspirin Use by Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Impact of US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations, 2007-2015: A Serial, Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Jeremy R; Duval, Sue; Walts, Adrienne; Kopecky, Stephen L; Luepker, Russell V; Hirsch, Alan T

    2017-10-03

    No previous study has evaluated the impact of past US Preventive Services Task Force statements on primary prevention (PP) aspirin use in a primary care setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate temporal changes in PP aspirin use in a primary care population, stratifying patients by their 10-year global cardiovascular disease risk, in response to the 2009 statement. This study estimated biannual aspirin use prevalence using electronic health record data from primary care clinics within the Fairview Health System (Minnesota) from 2007 to 2015. A total of 94 270 patient encounters had complete data to estimate a 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score using the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association global risk estimator. Patients were stratified into low- (aspirin use averaged 43%. When stratified by low, intermediate and high risk, average PP aspirin use was 41%, 63%, and 73%, respectively. Average PP aspirin use decreased after the publication of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement: from 45% to 40% in the low-risk group; from 66% to 62% in the intermediate-risk group; and from 76% to 73% in the high-risk group, before and after the guideline. Publication of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation was not associated with an increase in aspirin use. High risk PP patients utilized aspirin at high rates. Patients at intermediate risk were less intensively treated, and patients at low risk used aspirin at relatively high rates. These data may inform future aspirin guideline dissemination. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  1. Reduced modulation of scanpaths in response to task demands in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Pertzov, Yoni; Yong, Keir X X; Nicholas, Jennifer; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-02-01

    A difficulty in perceiving visual scenes is one of the most striking impairments experienced by patients with the clinico-radiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However whilst a number of studies have investigated perception of relatively simple experimental stimuli in these individuals, little is known about multiple object and complex scene perception and the role of eye movements in posterior cortical atrophy. We embrace the distinction between high-level (top-down) and low-level (bottom-up) influences upon scanning eye movements when looking at scenes. This distinction was inspired by Yarbus (1967), who demonstrated how the location of our fixations is affected by task instructions and not only the stimulus' low level properties. We therefore examined how scanning patterns are influenced by task instructions and low-level visual properties in 7 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 8 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease, and 19 healthy age-matched controls. Each participant viewed 10 scenes under four task conditions (encoding, recognition, search and description) whilst eye movements were recorded. The results reveal significant differences between groups in the impact of test instructions upon scanpaths. Across tasks without a search component, posterior cortical atrophy patients were significantly less consistent than typical Alzheimer's disease patients and controls in where they were looking. By contrast, when comparing search and non-search tasks, it was controls who exhibited lowest between-task similarity ratings, suggesting they were better able than posterior cortical atrophy or typical Alzheimer's disease patients to respond appropriately to high-level needs by looking at task-relevant regions of a scene. Posterior cortical atrophy patients had a significant tendency to fixate upon more low-level salient parts of the scenes than controls irrespective of the viewing task. The study provides a detailed characterisation of

  2. Task-set inertia and memory-consolidation bottleneck in dual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2006-11-01

    Three dual-task experiments examined the influence of processing a briefly presented visual object for deferred verbal report on performance in an unrelated auditory-manual reaction time (RT) task. RT was increased at short stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) relative to long SOAs, showing that memory consolidation processes can produce a functional processing bottleneck in dual-task performance. In addition, the experiments manipulated the spatial compatibility of the orientation of the visual object and the side of the speeded manual response. This cross-task compatibility produced relative RT benefits only when the instruction for the visual task emphasized overlap at the level of response codes across the task sets (Experiment 1). However, once the effective task set was in place, it continued to produce cross-task compatibility effects even in single-task situations ("ignore" trials in Experiment 2) and when instructions for the visual task did not explicitly require spatial coding of object orientation (Experiment 3). Taken together, the data suggest a considerable degree of task-set inertia in dual-task performance, which is also reinforced by finding costs of switching task sequences (e.g., AC --> BC vs. BC --> BC) in Experiment 3.

  3. Advanced Imaging Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    3oijsteii 14.) v ilson f3 1vj Ar inj~on, VA Ž222JY L. or p AtLnZ: -,iii~iarn Ouriey I d.LU ýu ndoldt i~d txlJlýjLuqucqe, 14,, f. /A i’ Atun : ý...34ivision iY) LiOX d /M ye I v - iv i S i 01-1 I ,/L i r ic u .L Lbr~ J o-r y At~rlt -lex earker 1.i nj .on, A½iI r -I efnLi.) DL-4 NAS’A Aines Atun

  4. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...

  5. Pelargonidin Improves Passive Avoidance Task Performance in a Rat Amyloid Beta25-35 Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Via Estrogen Receptor Independent Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sohanaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a disorder with multiple pathophysiological causes, destructive outcomes, and no available definitive cure. Pelargonidin (Pel, an anthocyanin derivative, is an estrogen receptor agonist with little estrogen side effects. This study was designed to assess Pel memory enhancing effects on the a rat Amyloid Beta25-35 (Aβ intrahippocampal microinjections model of AD in the passive avoidance task performance paradigm and further evaluate the potential estrogen receptor role on the memory-evoking compound. Equally divided rats were assigned to 5 groups of sham, Aβ intrahippocampal microinjected, Pel pretreated (10 mg/kg; P.O, α estrogen antagonist intra-cerebrovascular (i.c.v. microinjected, and β estrogen antagonist (i.c.v microinjected animals. Intrahippocampal microinjections of Aβ were adopted to provoke AD model. Passive avoidance task test was also used to assess memory performance. Pel pretreatment prior to Aβ microinjections significantly improved step-through latency (P<0.001 in passive avoidance test. In α and β estrogen, antagonists received animals, passive avoidance task performance was not statistically changed (P=0.11 & P=0.41 respectively compared to Pel pretreated and sham animals. Our results depicted that Pel improves Aβ induced memory dysfunction in passive avoidance test performance through estrogen receptor independently related pathways.

  6. Artistic productivity and creative thinking in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, M; Rusconi, M L; Isaias, I U; Pezzoli, G

    2012-03-01

    Creative drive and enhanced artistic-like production may emerge in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during dopaminergic therapy. However, it has not been described to date whether this artistic-like production results from dopaminergic drugs triggering innate skills or it could be considered as a repeated behavior possibly associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs). We investigated creative drive in a cohort of cognitively preserved patients with PD by means of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). We also investigated a putative association between creative drive and ICDs in 36 PD patients with (PD-c) or without (PD-nc) increased artistic-like production and 36 healthy controls (HC). We considered artistic-like productivity to be enhanced if patients reported working on any form of art more than 2h per day after the introduction of dopaminergic treatment. The TTCT, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11A), the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI), and the Punding Rating Scale were applied. Mean TTCT score of PD-c was found to be similar to HC (169.4±51.6 vs. 170.2±69.7, respectively), and both PD-c and HC had significantly higher TTCT scores than patients with PD-nc (125.4±46.1 Partistic-like production in patients with PD is not associated with impulsivity or ICDs. Artistic-like production might represent the emerging of innate skills in a subset of predisposed patients with PD on dopaminergic therapy. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  7. Building a Framework for a Dual Task Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. McIsaac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of dual task interference has gained increasing attention in the literature for the past 35 years, with six MEDLINE citations in 1979 growing to 351 citations indexed in 2014 and a peak of 454 cited papers in 2013. Increasingly, researchers are examining dual task cost in individuals with pathology, including those with neurodegenerative diseases. While the influence of these papers has extended from the laboratory to the clinic, the field has evolved without clear definitions of commonly used terms and with extreme variations in experimental procedures. As a result, it is difficult to examine the interference literature as a single body of work. In this paper we present a new taxonomy for classifying cognitive-motor and motor-motor interference within the study of dual task behaviors that connects traditional concepts of learning and principles of motor control with current issues of multitasking analysis. As a first step in the process we provide an operational definition of dual task, distinguishing it from a complex single task. We present this new taxonomy, inclusive of both cognitive and motor modalities, as a working model; one that we hope will generate discussion and create a framework from which one can view previous studies and develop questions of interest.

  8. Dynamics of the central bottleneck: dual-task and task uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Sigman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Why is the human brain fundamentally limited when attempting to execute two tasks at the same time or in close succession? Two classical paradigms, psychological refractory period (PRP and task switching, have independently approached this issue, making significant advances in our understanding of the architecture of cognition. Yet, there is an apparent contradiction between the conclusions derived from these two paradigms. The PRP paradigm, on the one hand, suggests that the simultaneous execution of two tasks is limited solely by a passive structural bottleneck in which the tasks are executed on a first-come, first-served basis. The task-switching paradigm, on the other hand, argues that switching back and forth between task configurations must be actively controlled by a central executive system (the system controlling voluntary, planned, and flexible action. Here we have explicitly designed an experiment mixing the essential ingredients of both paradigms: task uncertainty and task simultaneity. In addition to a central bottleneck, we obtain evidence for active processes of task setting (planning of the appropriate sequence of actions and task disengaging (suppression of the plan set for the first task in order to proceed with the next one. Our results clarify the chronometric relations between these central components of dual-task processing, and in particular whether they operate serially or in parallel. On this basis, we propose a hierarchical model of cognitive architecture that provides a synthesis of task-switching and PRP paradigms.

  9. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincses, Péter; Karádi, Kázmér; Feldmann, Ádám; Dorn, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, Tibor; Csathó, Árpád

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 52) were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC) and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC). Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics. PMID:28293444

  10. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGathmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring - an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task. This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST, measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task.

  11. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathmann, Bettina; Schiebener, Johannes; Wolf, Oliver T.; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring—an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task). This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST) and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST), measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task. PMID:25741308

  12. The effects of stimulus modality and task integrality: Predicting dual-task performance and workload from single-task levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.; Shively, R. J.; Vidulich, M. A.; Miller, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of stimulus modality and task difficulty on workload and performance was investigated. The goal was to quantify the cost (in terms of response time and experienced workload) incurred when essentially serial task components shared common elements (e.g., the response to one initiated the other) which could be accomplished in parallel. The experimental tasks were based on the Fittsberg paradigm; the solution to a SternBERG-type memory task determines which of two identical FITTS targets are acquired. Previous research suggested that such functionally integrated dual tasks are performed with substantially less workload and faster response times than would be predicted by suming single-task components when both are presented in the same stimulus modality (visual). The physical integration of task elements was varied (although their functional relationship remained the same) to determine whether dual-task facilitation would persist if task components were presented in different sensory modalities. Again, it was found that the cost of performing the two-stage task was considerably less than the sum of component single-task levels when both were presented visually. Less facilitation was found when task elements were presented in different sensory modalities. These results suggest the importance of distinguishing between concurrent tasks that complete for limited resources from those that beneficially share common resources when selecting the stimulus modalities for information displays.

  13. Resolving task rule incongruence during task switching by competitor rule suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-07-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an experiment involving 2 object classification tasks and 2 location classification tasks, the authors show that irrelevant task rules that generate response conflicts are inhibited. This competitor rule suppression (CRS) is seen in response slowing in subsequent trials, when the competing rules become relevant. CRS is shown to operate on specific rules without affecting similar rules. CRS and backward inhibition, which is another inhibitory phenomenon, produced additive effects on reaction time, suggesting their mutual independence. Implications for current formal theories of task switching as well as for conflict monitoring theories are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing in task-switching situations: the impact of task practice and task-sequencing demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta; Gaspard, Hanna; Karbach, Julia; Blaye, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examined whether developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing for task-goal maintenance are dependent on the amount of task practice and task-sequencing demands. To measure task-goal maintenance we applied a switching paradigm in which children either performed only task A or B in single-task blocks or switched between them on every second trial in mixed-task blocks. Task-goal maintenance was determined by comparing the performance between both blocks (mixing costs). The influence of verbal self-cueing was measured by instructing children to either name the next task aloud or not to verbalize during task preparation. Task-sequencing demands were varied between groups whereas one group received spatial task cues to support keeping track of the task sequence, while the other group did not. We also varied by the amount of prior practice in task switching while one group of participants practiced task switching first, before performing the task naming in addition, and the other group did it vice versa. Results of our study investigating younger (8–10 years) and older children (11–13 years) revealed no age differences in beneficial effects of verbal self-cueing. In line with previous findings, children showed reduced mixing costs under task-naming instructions and under conditions of low task-sequence demands (with the presence of spatial task cues). Our results also indicated that these benefits were only obtained for those groups of children that first received practice in task switching alone with no additional verbalization instruction. These findings suggest that internal task-cueing strategies can be efficiently used in children but only if they received prior practice in the underlying task so that demands on keeping and coordinating various instructions are reduced. Moreover, children benefitted from spatial task cues for better task-goal maintenance only if no verbal task-cueing strategy was introduced first. PMID:24381566

  15. Functional MRI Assessment of Task-Induced Deactivation of the Default Mode Network in Alzheimer’s Disease and At-Risk Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Pihlajamäki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in old age, and is characterized by prominent impairment of episodic memory. Recent functional imaging studies in AD have demonstrated alterations in a distributed network of brain regions supporting memory function, including regions of the default mode network. Previous positron emission tomography studies of older individuals at risk for AD have revealed hypometabolism of association cortical regions similar to the metabolic abnormalities seen in AD patients. In recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of AD, corresponding brain default mode regions have also been found to demonstrate an abnormal fMRI task-induced deactivation response pattern. That is, the relative decreases in fMRI signal normally observed in the default mode regions in healthy subjects performing a cognitive task are not seen in AD patients, or may even be reversed to a paradoxical activation response. Our recent studies have revealed alterations in the pattern of deactivation also in elderly individuals at risk for AD by virtue of their APOE e4 genotype, or evidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. In agreement with recent reports from other groups, these studies demonstrate that the pattern of fMRI task-induced deactivation is progressively disrupted along the continuum from normal aging to MCI and to clinical AD and more impaired in e4 carriers compared to non-carriers. These findings will be discussed in the context of current literature regarding functional imaging of the default network in AD and at-risk populations.

  16. Standards in Neurological Rehabilitation, June 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Barnes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS Scientific Panel on Neurorehabilitation established a Task Force on standards in neurological rehabilitation in June 1996. The remit for the Task Force was to: (1 produce a report on the state of neurological rehabilitation across Europe; and (2 recommend standards for the provision of neurological services for disabled people. The main conclusions of the Task Force were as follows: (1 A questionnaire circulated to each European member country has indicated a significant lack of adequate neurological rehabilitation facilities across Europe. Very few countries have any established network of neurological rehabilitation centres. Few countries have adequately trained neurological rehabilitation physicians, therapists or nurses. Such poor facilities should be seen in the context of the large numbers and increasing prevalence of people with neurological disabilities. (2 The Task Force has summarized the significant benefits that can follow from the establishment of a dedicated and cost effective neurological rehabilitation service including functional improvement, reduction of unnecessary complications, better coordination and use of limited resources, improved opportunities for education, training and research and a clear point of contact for the disabled person. (3 The Task Force recommends minimum standards for the prevention of neurological disability including access to health education, genetic counselling and emergency resources. The Task Force also encourages governments to invest in improved legislation for accident prevention. (4 The Task Force has outlined some minimum standards for the staffing of a neurological rehabilitation service including improved training both for neurologists and rehabilitation physicians. Such training could include a cross-national training programme both for physicians and other health care staff. (5 The Task Force supports a two-tier system of

  17. One Europe, one neurologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisold, W; Galvin, R; Lisnic, V; Lopes Lima, J; Mueller, E; Oberndorfer, St; Vodusek, D B

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a major shift in emphasis within neurology from being a largely diagnostic discipline to one much more actively involved in treating disease. There have been major scientific advances leading to new and effective treatments. There is also a much greater awareness of the burden of neurological disease (Olesen J, Leonardi M. European Journal of Neurology 2003; 10: 471) and informed sufferers are requesting specific intervention. There is wide variation in the delivery of neurological services throughout Europe. This is reflected in manpower levels, the place of neurology related to other medical specialties and different mixes of hospital and private office practice. These differences have been thrown into sharper focus by the recent expansion of the European Union (EU). Initial training in neurology is given to undergraduate/pre-graduate students. Post-graduate education is delivered within a residency program leading to specialist qualification and certification. We now recognize that this is only the beginning of a life long program of continuous education and development (CME/CPD). National and international exchange programs facilitate the growth of knowledge and promote professional harmony and cooperation. The free migration of medical specialists has been an aspiration but remains limited by cultural, linguistic, personal, professional, political and economic factors. Two bodies, the European Board of Neurology (EBN-UEMS) http://www.uems-neuroboard.org (Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes) and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) http://www.efns.org are actively involved in harmonising and developing neurology at the European level.

  18. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of a Dual-Tasking Paradigm in a Memory Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene Schjnning; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Siersma, Volkert

    2018-01-01

    -tasking paradigm, such as the Timed Up and Go-Dual Task (TUG-DT), may be useful in the diagnostic assessment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic ability of a dual-tasking paradigm in patients with MCI or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate...... the association between the dual-tasking paradigm and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers. METHODS: The study is a prospective cohort study conducted in a clinical setting in two memory clinics. Eighty-six patients were included (28 MCI, 17 AD, 41 healthy controls (HC)). The ability to perform dual...

  19. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  20. The comparison of Selective Attention Deficit in Dual Task Performance in Elderly Alzheimer Patients and Healthy Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. m. Azadian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare selective attention deficit in elderly Alzheimer patients and healthy elderly individuals using the dual task. Therefore, 23 subjects (11 females and 12 males age 62 to 81 years; 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 10 healthy elderly subjects (EHI with normal cognitive function participated in this study. people with Alzheimer's disease. healthy people was selected through some neurologist identified Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ. After obtaining the average number of correct counting of months of the year in both simple and difficult cognitive task the overall error (E or Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE, and variable error (VE were calculated for the tracking task. Then each person performed 10 tasks simultaneously (under Dual-task in both simple and difficult mode. Analysis of variance in cognitive tasks showed that there was a significant interaction between task difficulty and risk of AD (p0.05. In other words, at dual conditions of tracking task, accuracy and consistency of both groups was equally reduced, which was most prominent in difficult conditions. This decrease indicates increased interference at response level due to defects in the mechanisms of selective attention in dual cognitive and tracking tasks and both groups.

  1. Functional mobility in a divided attention task in older adults with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sheila de Melo; Radanovic, Márcia; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Motor disorders may occur in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly under divided attention conditions. We examined functional mobility in 104 older adults (42 with MCI, 26 with mild AD, and 36 cognitively healthy) using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) under 4 experimental conditions: TUG single task, TUG plus a cognitive task, TUG plus a manual task, and TUG plus a cognitive and a manual task. Statistically significant differences in mean time of execution were found in all four experimental conditions when comparing MCI and controls (p .8, p .7, p < .001 for MCI vs. AD). The authors conclude that functional motor deficits occurring in MCI can be assessed by the TUG test, in single or dual task modality.

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Gaucher Disease in India - Consensus Guidelines of the Gaucher Disease Task Force of the Society for Indian Academy of Medical Genetics and the Indian Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ratna Dua; Kapoor, Seema; Kishnani, Priya S; Dalal, Ashwin; Gupta, Neerja; Muranjan, Mamta; Phadke, Shubha R; Sachdeva, Anupam; Verma, Ishwar C; Mistry, Pramod K

    2018-02-15

    Gaucher disease (GD) is amongst the most frequently occurring lysosomal storage disorder in all ethnicities. The clinical manifestations and natural history of GD is highly heterogeneous with extreme geographic and ethnic variations. The literature on GD has paucity of information and optimal management guidelines for Indian patients. Gaucher Disease Task Force was formed under the auspices of the Society for Indian Academy of Medical Genetics. Invited experts from various specialties formulated guidelines for the management of patients with GD. A writing committee was formed and the draft guidelines were circulated by email to all members for comments and inputs. The guidelines were finalized in December 2016 at the annual meeting of the Indian Academy of Medical Genetics. These guidelines are intended to serve as a standard framework for treating physicians and the health care systems for optimal management of Gaucher disease in India and to define unique needs of this patient population. Manifestations of GD are protean and a high index of suspicion is essential for timely diagnosis. Patients frequently experience diagnostic delays during which severe irreversible complications occur. Leucocyte acid b-glucosidase activity is mandatory for establishing the diagnosis of Gaucher disease; molecular testing can help identify patients at risk of neuronopathic disease. Enzyme replacement therapy for type 1 and type 3 Gaucher disease is the standard of care. Best outcomes are achieved by early initiation of therapy before onset of irreversible complications. However, in setting of progressive neurological symptoms such as seizures and or/ neuroregression, ERT is not recommended, as it cannot cross the blood brain barrier. The recommendations herein are for diagnosis, for initiation of therapy, therapeutic goals, monitoring and follow up of patients. We highlight that prevention of recurrence of the disease through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is essential

  3. [Proceeding memory in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Ma; Chamorro-Sánchez, Jorge; Díaz-Marta, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Procedural learning can acquire or develop skills through performance and repetition of a task unconsciously or unintentionally. Procedural skills are considered as the cornerstone in the neuropsychological rehabilitation to promote the autonomy of patients with brain damage, as those with Alzheimer's disease. This review presents data about procedural skills in Alzheimer's disease. Over the past three decades, we have found 40 articles studying various procedural skills in the Alzheimer's disease: motor, perceptual-motor, cognitive, perceptual-cognitive and those developed through serial reaction-time paradigm. We analyzed every study evaluating a procedural skill, indicating the used task and preservation or no preservation of procedural learning. Overall, most of the papers published describe conservation of learning procedures or relatively conserved in Alzheimer's disease, which could be used to promote patient autonomy.

  4. Ontogênese, anatomia e ultra-estrutura dos nectários extraflorais de Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae Ontogenesis, anatomy, and ultrastructure of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae extrafloral nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élder Antônio Sousa Paiva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne apresenta nectários extraflorais (NEFs, os quais são descritos pela primeira vez no gênero. Neste trabalho foram estudadas a distribuição, ontogênese, estrutura e ultra-estrutura dos nectários extraflorais (NEFs. Amostras de folhas em várias fases de desenvolvimento foram coletadas, fixadas e processadas para estudos em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão e varredura, segundo técnicas convencionais. Testes histoquímicos foram empregados para determinar a natureza química da secreção. Os NEFs estão distribuídos por todo o limbo, sendo mais concentrados nos terços basal e médio de cada folíolo. Estes nectários são embutidos no mesofilo, apresentam tecido secretor envolvido por uma endoderme e são vascularizados por xilema e floema. A atividade secretora dos NEFs é limitada à fase juvenil da folha. Nas folhas mais velhas, os NEFs tornam-se não funcionais. O tecido secretor dos NEFs é formado a partir da protoderme, enquanto a endoderme tem origem no meristema fundamental. No tecido secretor de nectários funcionais as células apresentam citoplasma denso, núcleo volumoso, mitocôndrias, plastídios com sistema de membranas pouco desenvolvido, gotas de óleo dispersas no citosol, dictiossomos e segmentos de retículo endoplasmático liso. A secreção é liberada por meio de rupturas cuticulares e apresenta polissacarídeos e lipídios.Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne, known as "jatobá-do-cerrado" has extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, which are reported for the first time in Hymenaea genus. In this research the origin, distribution, structure, and ultrastructure of the EFNs were studied. Samples of leaflets at different developmental stages were collected, fixed and processed by standard methods for analyses at light and electronic microscopes; histochemical tests were employed to determine the nature of secretion products. EFNs are distributed all over

  5. Measuring prefrontal cortical activity during dual task walking in patients with Parkinson's disease: feasibility of using a new portable fNIRS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwhof, Freek; Reelick, Miriam F; Maidan, Inbal; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Muthalib, Makii; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties in performing a second task during walking (i.e., dual task walking). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising approach to study the presumed contribution of dysfunction within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to such difficulties. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility of using a new portable and wireless fNIRS device to measure PFC activity during different dual task walking protocols in PD. Specifically, we tested whether PD patients were able to perform the protocol and whether we were able to measure the typical fNIRS signal of neuronal activity. We included 14 PD patients (age 71.2 ± 5.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage II/III). The protocol consisted of five repetitions of three conditions: walking while (i) counting forwards, (ii) serially subtracting, and (iii) reciting digit spans. Ability to complete this protocol, perceived exertion, burden of the fNIRS devices, and concentrations of oxygenated (O 2 Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin from the left and right PFC were measured. Two participants were unable to complete the protocol due to fatigue and mobility safety concerns. The remaining 12 participants experienced no burden from the two fNIRS devices and completed the protocol with ease. Bilateral PFC O 2 Hb concentrations increased during walking while serially subtracting (left PFC 0.46 μmol/L, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.81, right PFC 0.49 μmol/L, 95 % CI 0.14-0.84) and reciting digit spans (left PFC 0.36 μmol/L, 95 % CI 0.03-0.70, right PFC 0.44 μmol/L, 95 % CI 0.09-0.78) when compared to rest. HHb concentrations did not differ between the walking tasks and rest. These findings suggest that a new wireless fNIRS device is a feasible measure of PFC activity in PD during dual task walking. Future studies should reduce the level of noise and inter-individual variability to enable measuring differences in PFC activity between different dual

  6. Cognitive task analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the

  7. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kincses

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n=48 and healthy controls (n=52 were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC. Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics.

  8. Children's Task Engagement during Challenging Puzzle Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Algina, James; Snyder, Patricia; Cox, Martha

    2017-01-01

    We examined children's task engagement during a challenging puzzle task in the presence of their primary caregivers by using a representative sample of rural children from six high-poverty counties across two states. Weighted longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to identify a task engagement factor…

  9. Self-reported quality of ADL task performance among patients with COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Wilcke, Jon Torgny

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience problems in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The objective was to examine the self-reported quality of ADL task performance among COPD patients, and to investigate whether age...... concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While...... more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender...

  10. Work motivation, task delegation and job satisfaction of general practice staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria; Le, Jette V; Ledderer, Loni; Pedersen, Line B; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the practise staff's overall job satisfaction, and this association is important to explore since job satisfaction is related to medical as well as patient-perceived quality of care. This study aimed: (1) to investigate associations between degrees of task delegation in the management of chronic disease in general practice, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a case and the staff's work motivation, (2) to investigate associations between the work motivation of the staff and their job satisfaction. The study was based on a questionnaire to which 621 members of the practice staff responded. The questionnaire consisted of a part concerning degree of task delegation in the management of COPD in their respective practice and another part being about their job satisfaction and motivation to work. In the first analysis, we found that 'maximal degree' of task delegation was significantly associated with the staff perceiving themselves to have a large degree of variation in tasks, odds ratio (OR) = 4.26, confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 16.62. In the second analysis, we found that this perceived large degree of variation in tasks was significantly associated with their overall job satisfaction, OR = 2.81, confidence interval = 1.71, 4.61. The results suggest that general practitioners could delegate highly complex tasks in the management of COPD to their staff without influencing the staff's work motivation, and thereby their job satisfaction, negatively, as long as they ensure sufficient variation in the tasks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. A training approach to improve stepping automaticity while dual-tasking in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, Taylor; Watts, Alexander; Meyer, Nicole; Pereira, Fernando V.; Hu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). Methods: This was a 4-week prospective intervention pilot study. The intervention uses a sensor system and algorithm that runs off the iPod Touch which calculates step height (SH) in real-time. These measurements were then used to trigger auditory (treatment group, music; control group, radio podcast) playback in real-time through wireless headphones upon maintenance of repeated large amplitude stepping. With small steps or shuffling, auditory playback stops, thus allowing participants to use anticipatory motor control to regain positive feedback. Eleven participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (Trial Number: ISRCTN06023392). Fear of falling (FES-I), general cognitive functioning (MoCA), self-reported freezing of gait (FOG-Q), and DT step automaticity were evaluated. Results: While we found no significant effect of training on FES-I, MoCA, or FOG-Q, we did observe a significant group (music vs podcast) by training interaction in DT step automaticity (Ptraining to increase motor automaticity for people living with PD. The training approach described here can be implemented at home to meet the growing demand for self-management of symptoms by patients. PMID:28151878

  12. Attentional bias and anxiety in individuals with coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginting, H.; Näring, G.W.B.; Becker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether in an emotional Stroop task, individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) would show greater attention towards the threatening words related to their disease than healthy persons, and if such an attentional bias is associated with anxiety. An emotional Stroop task with

  13. Predictive Validity And Usefulness Of Visual Scanning Task In Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The visual scanning task is a useful screening tool for brain damage in HIV/AIDS by inference from impairment of visual information processing and disturbances in perceptual mental strategies. There is progressive neuro-cognitive decline as the disease worsens. Keywords: brain, cognition, HIV/AIDS, predictive validity, ...

  14. Detailed analysis of the supermarket task included on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    The supermarket task, which is included in the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, requires the quick (1 min) generation of words for things that can be bought in a supermarket. Cluster size and switches are investigated during this task. We investigated how the severity of dementia related to cluster size and switches on the supermarket task in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We administered the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test to 250 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and to 49 healthy volunteers. Patients had Mini-Mental State Examination scores from 12 to 26 and Clinical Dementia Rating scale scores from 0.5 to 3. Patients were divided into four groups based on their Clinical Dementia Rating score (0.5, 1, 2, 3). We performed statistical analyses between the four groups and control subjects based on cluster size and switch scores on the supermarket task. The score for cluster size and switches deteriorated according to the severity of dementia. Moreover, for subjects with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5, cluster size was impaired, but switches were intact. Our findings indicate that the scores for cluster size and switches on the supermarket task may be useful for detecting the severity of symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. EnergyFit Nevada (formerly known as the Nevada Retrofit Initiative) final report and technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvill, Anna; Bushman, Kate; Ellsworth, Amy

    2014-06-17

    The EnergyFit Nevada (EFN) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP, and referred to in this document as the EFN program) currently encourages Nevada residents to make whole-house energy-efficient improvements by providing rebates, financing, and access to a network of qualified home improvement contractors. The BBNP funding, consisting of 34 Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grants (EECBG) and seven State Energy Program (SEP) grants, was awarded for a three-year period to the State of Nevada in 2010 and used for initial program design and implementation. By the end of first quarter in 2014, the program had achieved upgrades in 553 homes, with an average energy reduction of 32% per home. Other achievements included: Completed 893 residential energy audits and installed upgrades in 0.05% of all Nevada single-family homes1 Achieved an overall conversation rate of 38.1%2 7,089,089 kWh of modeled energy savings3 Total annual homeowner energy savings of approximately $525,7523 Efficiency upgrades completed on 1,100,484 square feet of homes3 $139,992 granted in loans to homeowners for energy-efficiency upgrades 29,285 hours of labor and $3,864,272 worth of work conducted by Nevada auditors and contractors4 40 contractors trained in Nevada 37 contractors with Building Performance Institute (BPI) certification in Nevada 19 contractors actively participating in the EFN program in Nevada 1 Calculated using 2012 U.S. Census data reporting 1,182,870 homes in Nevada. 2 Conversion rate through March 31, 2014, for all Nevada Retrofit Initiative (NRI)-funded projects, calculated using the EFN tracking database. 3 OptiMiser energy modeling, based on current utility rates. 4 This is the sum of $3,596,561 in retrofit invoice value and $247,711 in audit invoice value.

  16. Effects of Task Complexity, Task Conditions, and Task Difficulty on the Grammatical Accuracy of EFL Learners in Written Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.

  17. Walking modality, but not task difficulty, influences the control of dual-task walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrightson, J G; Smeeton, N J

    2017-10-01

    During dual-task gait, changes in the stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) are suggested to represent the allocation of cognitive control to walking [1]. However, contrasting effects have been reported for overground and treadmill walking, which may be due to differences in the relative difficulty of the dual task. Here we compared the effect of overground and treadmill dual-task walking on STV in 18 healthy adults. Participants walked overground and on a treadmill for 120s during single-task (walking only) and dual-task (walking whilst performing serial subtractions in sevens) conditions. Dual-task effects on STV, cognitive task (serial subtraction) performance and perceived task difficulty were compared between walking modalities. STV was increased during overground dual-task walking, but was unchanged during treadmill dual-task walking. There were no differences in cognitive task performance or perceived task difficulty. These results show that gait is controlled differently during overground and treadmill dual-task walking. However, these differences are not solely due to differences in task difficulty, and may instead represent modality dependent control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Beads task vs. box task: The specificity of the jumping to conclusions bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, Ryan P; Ephraums, Rachel; Delfabbro, Paul; Andreou, Christina

    2017-09-01

    Previous research involving the probabilistic reasoning 'beads task' has consistently demonstrated a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, where individuals with delusions make decisions based on limited evidence. However, recent studies have suggested that miscomprehension may be confounding the beads task. The current study aimed to test the conventional beads task against a conceptually simpler probabilistic reasoning "box task" METHODS: One hundred non-clinical participants completed both the beads task and the box task, and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) to assess for delusion-proneness. The number of 'draws to decision' was assessed for both tasks. Additionally, the total amount of on-screen evidence was manipulated for the box task, and two new box task measures were assessed (i.e., 'proportion of evidence requested' and 'deviation from optimal solution'). Despite being conceptually similar, the two tasks did not correlate, and participants requested significantly less information on the beads task relative to the box task. High-delusion-prone participants did not demonstrate hastier decisions on either task; in fact, for box task, this group was observed to be significantly more conservative than low-delusion-prone group. Neither task was incentivized; results need replication with a clinical sample. Participants, and particularly those identified as high-delusion-prone, displayed a more conservative style of responding on the novel box task, relative to the beads task. The two tasks, whilst conceptually similar, appear to be tapping different cognitive processes. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the JTC bias and the theoretical mechanisms thought to underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Automatic Retrieval of Newly Instructed Cue-Task Associations Seen in Task-Conflict Effects in the First Trial after Cue-Task Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Pereg, Maayan

    2017-01-01

    Novel stimulus-response associations are retrieved automatically even without prior practice. Is this true for novel cue-task associations? The experiment involved miniblocks comprising three phases and task switching. In the INSTRUCTION phase, two new stimuli (or familiar cues) were arbitrarily assigned as cues for up-down/right-left tasks performed on placeholder locations. In the UNIVALENT phase, there was no task cue since placeholder's location afforded one task but the placeholders were the stimuli that we assigned as task cues for the following BIVALENT phase (involving target locations affording both tasks). Thus, participants held the novel cue-task associations in memory while executing the UNIVALENT phase. Results show poorer performance in the first univalent trial when the placeholder was associated with the opposite task (incompatible) than when it was compatible, an effect that was numerically larger with newly instructed cues than with familiar cues. These results indicate automatic retrieval of newly instructed cue-task associations.

  20. Roles of ADAM13-regulated Wnt activity in early Xenopus eye development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuo; Xu, Guofeng; Bridges, Lance C.; Williams, Phoebe; Nakayama, Takuya; Shah, Anoop; Grainger, Robert M.; White, Judith M.; DeSimone, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Pericellular proteolysis by ADAM family metalloproteinases has been widely implicated in cell signaling and development. We recently found that Xenopus ADAM13, an ADAM metalloproteinase, is required for activation of canonical Wnt signaling during cranial neural crest (CNC) induction by regulating a novel crosstalk between Wnt and ephrin B (EfnB) signaling pathways (Wei et al., 2010b). In the present study we show that the metalloproteinase activity of ADAM13 also plays important roles in eye development in X. tropicalis. Knockdown of ADAM13 results in reduced expression of eye field markers pax6 and rx1, as well as that of the pan-neural marker sox2. Activation of canonical Wnt signaling or inhibition of forward EfnB signaling rescues the eye defects caused by loss of ADAM13, suggesting that ADAM13 functions through regulation of the EfnB-Wnt pathway interaction. Downstream of Wnt, the head inducer Cerberus was identified as an effector that mediates ADAM13 function in early eye field formation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the Wnt target gene snail2 restores cerberus expression and rescues the eye defects caused by ADAM13 knockdown. Together these data suggest an important role of ADAM13-regulated Wnt activity in eye development in Xenopus. PMID:22227340

  1. Extrafloral nectar secretion from wounds of Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortzing, Tobias; Calf, Onno W; Böhlke, Marlene; Schwachtje, Jens; Kopka, Joachim; Geuß, Daniel; Kosanke, Susanne; van Dam, Nicole M; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-25

    Plants usually close wounds rapidly to prevent infections and the loss of valuable resources such as assimilates(1). However, herbivore-inflicted wounds on the bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara appear not to close completely and produce sugary wound secretions visible as droplets. Many plants across the plant kingdom secrete sugary nectar from extrafloral nectaries(2) to attract natural enemies of herbivores for indirect defence(3,4). As ants forage on wound edges of S. dulcamara in the field, we hypothesized that wound secretions are a form of extrafloral nectar (EFN). We show that, unlike EFN from known nectaries, wound secretions are neither associated with any specific structure nor restricted to certain locations. However, similar to EFN, they are jasmonate-inducible and the plant controls their chemical composition. Wound secretions are attractive for ants, and application of wound secretion mimics increases ant attraction and reduces herbivory on S. dulcamara plants in a natural population. In greenhouse experiments, we reveal that ants can defend S. dulcamara from two of its native herbivores, slugs and flea beetle larvae. Since nectar is defined by its ecological function as a sugary secretion involved in interactions with animals(5), such 'plant bleeding' could be a primitive mode of nectar secretion exemplifying an evolutionary origin of structured extrafloral nectaries.

  2. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  3. Repeated cognitive stimulation alleviates memory impairments in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Coria, Hilda; Yeung, Stephen T; Ager, Rahasson R; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Baglietto-Vargas, David; LaFerla, Frank M

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive memory and cognitive decline. Previous studies have identified the benefits of cognitive enrichment on reducing disease pathology. Additionally, epidemiological and clinical data suggest that repeated exercise, and cognitive and social enrichment, can improve and/or delay the cognitive deficiencies associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, 3xTg-AD mice were exposed to a rigorous training routine beginning at 3 months of age, which consisted of repeated training in the Morris water maze spatial recognition task every 3 months, ending at 18 months of age. At the conclusion of the final Morris water maze training session, animals subsequently underwent testing in another hippocampus-dependent spatial task, the Barnes maze task, and on the more cortical-dependent novel object recognition memory task. Our data show that periodic cognitive enrichment throughout aging, via multiple learning episodes in the Morris water maze task, can improve the memory performance of aged 3xTg-AD mice in a separate spatial recognition task, and in a preference memory task, when compared to naïve aged matched 3xTg-AD mice. Furthermore, we observed that the cognitive enrichment properties of Morris water maze exposer, was detectable in repeatedly trained animals as early as 6 months of age. These findings suggest early repeated cognitive enrichment can mitigate the diverse cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Gait and Cognition in Parkinson’s Disease: Cognitive Impairment Is Inadequately Reflected by Gait Performance during Dual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Gaßner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive and gait deficits are common symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Motor-cognitive dual tasks (DTs are used to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. However, it is unclear if DT gait performance is indicative for cognitive impairment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if cognitive deficits are reflected by DT costs of spatiotemporal gait parameters.MethodsCognitive function, single task (ST and DT gait performance were investigated in 67 PD patients. Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA followed by a standardized, sensor-based gait test and the identical gait test while subtracting serial 3’s. Cognitive impairment was defined by a MoCA score <26. DT costs in gait parameters [(DT − ST/ST × 100] were calculated as a measure of DT effect on gait. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between MoCA performance and gait parameters. In a linear regression model, DT gait costs and clinical confounders (age, gender, disease duration, motor impairment, medication, and depression were correlated to cognitive performance. In a subgroup analysis, we compared matched groups of cognitively impaired and unimpaired PD patients regarding differences in ST, DT, and DT gait costs.ResultsCorrelation analysis revealed weak correlations between MoCA score and DT costs of gait parameters (r/rSp ≤ 0.3. DT costs of stride length, swing time variability, and maximum toe clearance (|r/rSp| > 0.2 were included in a regression analysis. The parameters only explain 8% of the cognitive variance. In combination with clinical confounders, regression analysis showed that these gait parameters explained 30% of MoCA performance. Group comparison revealed strong DT effects within both groups (large effect sizes, but significant between-group effects in DT gait costs were not observed.ConclusionThese findings suggest that DT gait performance is not indicative

  5. Investigating Antecedents of Task Commitment and Task Attraction in Service Learning Team Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Bryan S.; Manegold, Jennifer G.

    2018-01-01

    The authors investigated the antecedents of team task cohesiveness in service learning classroom environments. Focusing on task commitment and task attraction as key dependent variables representing cohesiveness, and task interdependence as the primary independent variable, the authors position three important task action phase processes as…

  6. Aims and tasks in parental caregiving for children receiving palliative care at home: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Lisa M; Kars, Marijke C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Bosman, Diederik K; Colenbrander, Derk A; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-03-01

    In paediatric palliative care (PPC), parents are confronted with increasing caregiving demands. More children are cared for at home, and the need for PPC of children is lengthened due to technical and medical improvements. Therefore, a clear understanding of the content of parental caregiving in PPC becomes increasingly important. The objective is to gain insight into parental caregiving based on the lived experience of parents with a child with a life-limiting disease. An interpretative qualitative study using thematic analysis was performed. Single or repeated interviews were undertaken with 42 parents of 24 children with a malignant or non-malignant disease, receiving PPC. Based on their ambition to be a 'good parent', parents caring for a child with a life-limiting disease strived for three aims: controlled symptoms and controlled disease, a life worth living for their ill child and family balance. These aims resulted in four tasks that parents performed: providing basic and complex care, organising good quality care and treatment, making sound decisions while managing risks and organising a good family life. Parents need early explanation from professionals about balancing between their aims and the related tasks to get a grip on their situation and to prevent becoming overburdened. What is Known: • In paediatric palliative care, parents are confronted with increasing caregiving demands. • Parenting is often approached from the perspective of stress. What is New: • Parents strive for three aims: controlled symptoms and controlled disease, a life worth living for their child and family balance. • Parents perform four tasks: providing basic and complex care, organising good quality care, making decisions while managing risks and organising a good family life. • Professionals need insight into the parents' aims and tasks from the parental perspective to strengthen parents' resilience.

  7. Memory binding and white matter integrity in familial Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarimäki, Heini; Bastin, Mark E.; Londoño, Ana C.; Pettit, Lewis; Lopera, Francisco; Della Sala, Sergio; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Binding information in short-term and long-term memory are functions sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease. They have been found to be affected in patients who meet criteria for familial Alzheimer’s disease due to the mutation E280A of the PSEN1 gene. However, only short-term memory binding has been found to be affected in asymptomatic carriers of this mutation. The neural correlates of this dissociation are poorly understood. The present study used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether the integrity of white matter structures could offer an account. A sample of 19 patients with familial Alzheimer’s disease, 18 asymptomatic carriers and 21 non-carrier controls underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and memory binding assessment. The short-term memory binding task required participants to detect changes across two consecutive screens displaying arrays of shapes, colours, or shape-colour bindings. The long-term memory binding task was a Paired Associates Learning Test. Performance on these tasks were entered into regression models. Relative to controls, patients with familial Alzheimer’s disease performed poorly on both memory binding tasks. Asymptomatic carriers differed from controls only in the short-term memory binding task. White matter integrity explained poor memory binding performance only in patients with familial Alzheimer’s disease. White matter water diffusion metrics from the frontal lobe accounted for poor performance on both memory binding tasks. Dissociations were found in the genu of corpus callosum which accounted for short-term memory binding impairments and in the hippocampal part of cingulum bundle which accounted for long-term memory binding deficits. The results indicate that white matter structures in the frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable to the early stages of familial Alzheimer’s disease and their damage is associated with impairments in two memory binding

  8. Sex differences in task distribution and task exposures among Danish house painters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Thomsen, Jane Frølund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures...... correction were used to evaluate sex differences. RESULTS: Statistically significant (psex differences were revealed in task proportions, but the proportions differed by less than 4%. For task exposures, no statistically significant sex differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Only minor sex differences...... and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. METHODS: To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N = 9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task...

  9. The Effect of a Workload-Preview on Task-Prioritization and Task-Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minotra, Dev

    2012-01-01

    With increased volume and sophistication of cyber attacks in recent years, maintaining situation awareness and effective task-prioritization strategy is critical to the task of cybersecurity analysts. However, high levels of mental-workload associated with the task of cybersecurity analyst's limits their ability to prioritize tasks.…

  10. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99 for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99 for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99 for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77, and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement

  11. Exploring relations between task conflict and informational conflict in the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Shahar, Nitzan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency difference between incongruent and congruent trials and manipulated by varying the congruent-to-incongruent trial ratio. We replicated previous findings showing that increasing the ratio of incongruent-to-congruent trials reduces the latency difference between the incongruent and congruent condition (i.e., informational conflict), as does increasing the proportion of color words (i.e., task conflict). A significant under-additive interaction between the two proportion manipulations (congruent vs. incongruent and color words vs. neutrals) indicated that the effects of task conflict and informational conflict were not additive. By assessing task conflict as the contrast between color words and neutrals, we found that task conflict existed in all of our experimental conditions. Under specific conditions, when task conflict dominated behavior by explaining most of the variability between congruency conditions, we also found negative facilitation, thus demonstrating that this effect is a special case of task conflict.

  12. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…

  13. Microprocessor multi-task monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludemann, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-task monitor program for microprocessors. Although written for the Intel 8085, it incorporates features that would be beneficial for implementation in other microprocessors used in controlling and monitoring experiments and accelerators. The monitor places permanent programs (tasks) arbitrarily located throughout ROM in a priority ordered queue. The programmer is provided with the flexibility to add new tasks or modified versions of existing tasks, without having to comply with previously defined task boundaries or having to reprogram all of ROM. Scheduling of tasks is triggered by timers, outside stimuli (interrupts), or inter-task communications. Context switching time is of the order of tenths of a milllisecond

  14. Recommendations for a National High Blood Pressure Community Education Plan. Report of Task Force III--Community Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    Hypertensive disease being one of the most important medical problems now facing American medicine brought about the formation of the Federally sponsored National High Blood Pressure Education Program, which included four Task Forces. Task Force 3 reviews in this study information and experience useful for the development of guidelines for…

  15. Walking and talking: an investigation of cognitive-motor dual tasking in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, F; Rochester, L; Paul, L; Rafferty, D; O'Leary, C P; Evans, J J

    2009-10-01

    Deficits in motor functioning, including walking, and in cognitive functions, including attention, are known to be prevalent in multiple sclerosis (MS), though little attention has been paid to how impairments in these areas of functioning interact. This study investigated the effects of performing a concurrent cognitive task when walking in people with MS. Level of task demand was manipulated to investigate whether this affected level of dual-task decrement. Eighteen participants with MS and 18 healthy controls took part. Participants completed walking and cognitive tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. Compared to healthy controls, MS participants showed greater decrements in performance under dual-task conditions in cognitive task performance, walking speed and swing time variability. In the MS group, the degree of decrement under dual-task conditions was related to levels of fatigue, a measure of general cognitive functioning and self-reported everyday cognitive errors, but not to measures of disease severity or duration. Difficulty with walking and talking in MS may be a result of a divided attention deficit or of overloading of the working memory system, and further investigation is needed. We suggest that difficulty with walking and talking in MS may lead to practical problems in everyday life, including potentially increasing the risk of falls. Clinical tools to assess cognitive-motor dual-tasking ability are needed.

  16. Strategic Adaptation to Task Characteristics, Incentives, and Individual Differences in Dual-Tasking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian P Janssen

    Full Text Available We investigate how good people are at multitasking by comparing behavior to a prediction of the optimal strategy for dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. In our experiment, 24 participants had to interleave entering digits on a keyboard with controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. The difficulty of the tracking task was systematically varied as a within-subjects factor. Participants were also exposed to different explicit reward functions that varied the relative importance of the tracking task relative to the typing task (between-subjects. Results demonstrate that these changes in task characteristics and monetary incentives, together with individual differences in typing ability, influenced how participants choose to interleave tasks. This change in strategy then affected their performance on each task. A computational cognitive model was used to predict performance for a wide set of alternative strategies for how participants might have possibly interleaved tasks. This allowed for predictions of optimal performance to be derived, given the constraints placed on performance by the task and cognition. A comparison of human behavior with the predicted optimal strategy shows that participants behaved near optimally. Our findings have implications for the design and evaluation of technology for multitasking situations, as consideration should be given to the characteristics of the task, but also to how different users might use technology depending on their individual characteristics and their priorities.

  17. Influence of time pressure in a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Verleger, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of strategy for a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task by varying time pressure in 11 Ss (mean age 28 yrs). Besides reaction time (RT) and accuracy, we measured response force and derived two measures from the event-related EEG potential to form

  18. Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-efficacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a fine-tuned task-specific level. The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-efficacy beliefs, domain-related prior knowledge, learning strategy use, and task performance as they were applied to English vocabulary learning from reading tasks. Participants were 120 second-year university students (mean age 21) from a Chinese university. This experiment had two conditions (simple/complex). A vocabulary level test was first conducted to measure participants' prior knowledge of English vocabulary. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the learning tasks. Participants were administered task booklets together with the self-efficacy scales, measures of learning strategy use, and post-tests. Data obtained were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis. Results from the MANOVA model showed a significant effect of vocabulary level on self-efficacy beliefs, learning strategy use, and task performance. Task complexity showed no significant effect; however, an interaction effect between vocabulary level and task complexity emerged. Results from the path analysis showed self-efficacy beliefs had an indirect effect on performance. Our results highlighted the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs and learning strategy use. Our findings indicate that students' prior knowledge plays a crucial role on both self-efficacy beliefs and task performance, and the predictive power of self-efficacy on task performance may lie in its association with learning strategy use. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Multi-task linear programming discriminant analysis for the identification of progressive MCI individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guan; Liu, Yufeng; Thung, Kim-Han; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Accurately identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) individuals who will progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is very important for making early interventions. Many classification methods focus on integrating multiple imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). However, the main challenge for MCI classification using multiple imaging modalities is the existence of a lot of missing data in many subjects. For example, in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study, almost half of the subjects do not have PET images. In this paper, we propose a new and flexible binary classification method, namely Multi-task Linear Programming Discriminant (MLPD) analysis, for the incomplete multi-source feature learning. Specifically, we decompose the classification problem into different classification tasks, i.e., one for each combination of available data sources. To solve all different classification tasks jointly, our proposed MLPD method links them together by constraining them to achieve the similar estimated mean difference between the two classes (under classification) for those shared features. Compared with the state-of-the-art incomplete Multi-Source Feature (iMSF) learning method, instead of constraining different classification tasks to choose a common feature subset for those shared features, MLPD can flexibly and adaptively choose different feature subsets for different classification tasks. Furthermore, our proposed MLPD method can be efficiently implemented by linear programming. To validate our MLPD method, we perform experiments on the ADNI baseline dataset with the incomplete MRI and PET images from 167 progressive MCI (pMCI) subjects and 226 stable MCI (sMCI) subjects. We further compared our method with the iMSF method (using incomplete MRI and PET images) and also the single-task classification method (using only MRI or only subjects with both MRI and PET images

  20. Multi-task linear programming discriminant analysis for the identification of progressive MCI individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Yu

    Full Text Available Accurately identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI individuals who will progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD is very important for making early interventions. Many classification methods focus on integrating multiple imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. However, the main challenge for MCI classification using multiple imaging modalities is the existence of a lot of missing data in many subjects. For example, in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study, almost half of the subjects do not have PET images. In this paper, we propose a new and flexible binary classification method, namely Multi-task Linear Programming Discriminant (MLPD analysis, for the incomplete multi-source feature learning. Specifically, we decompose the classification problem into different classification tasks, i.e., one for each combination of available data sources. To solve all different classification tasks jointly, our proposed MLPD method links them together by constraining them to achieve the similar estimated mean difference between the two classes (under classification for those shared features. Compared with the state-of-the-art incomplete Multi-Source Feature (iMSF learning method, instead of constraining different classification tasks to choose a common feature subset for those shared features, MLPD can flexibly and adaptively choose different feature subsets for different classification tasks. Furthermore, our proposed MLPD method can be efficiently implemented by linear programming. To validate our MLPD method, we perform experiments on the ADNI baseline dataset with the incomplete MRI and PET images from 167 progressive MCI (pMCI subjects and 226 stable MCI (sMCI subjects. We further compared our method with the iMSF method (using incomplete MRI and PET images and also the single-task classification method (using only MRI or only subjects with both MRI and

  1. Correlates of academic procrastination: discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C

    1995-03-01

    The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.

  2. Memory binding and white matter integrity in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Saarimäki, Heini; Bastin, Mark E; Londoño, Ana C; Pettit, Lewis; Lopera, Francisco; Della Sala, Sergio; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Binding information in short-term and long-term memory are functions sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. They have been found to be affected in patients who meet criteria for familial Alzheimer's disease due to the mutation E280A of the PSEN1 gene. However, only short-term memory binding has been found to be affected in asymptomatic carriers of this mutation. The neural correlates of this dissociation are poorly understood. The present study used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether the integrity of white matter structures could offer an account. A sample of 19 patients with familial Alzheimer's disease, 18 asymptomatic carriers and 21 non-carrier controls underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and memory binding assessment. The short-term memory binding task required participants to detect changes across two consecutive screens displaying arrays of shapes, colours, or shape-colour bindings. The long-term memory binding task was a Paired Associates Learning Test. Performance on these tasks were entered into regression models. Relative to controls, patients with familial Alzheimer's disease performed poorly on both memory binding tasks. Asymptomatic carriers differed from controls only in the short-term memory binding task. White matter integrity explained poor memory binding performance only in patients with familial Alzheimer's disease. White matter water diffusion metrics from the frontal lobe accounted for poor performance on both memory binding tasks. Dissociations were found in the genu of corpus callosum which accounted for short-term memory binding impairments and in the hippocampal part of cingulum bundle which accounted for long-term memory binding deficits. The results indicate that white matter structures in the frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable to the early stages of familial Alzheimer's disease and their damage is associated with impairments in two memory binding functions known to

  3. "Photographing money" task pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongxiang

    2018-05-01

    "Photographing money" [1]is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.

  4. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....

  5. Policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambisya Yoswa M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a severe health worker shortage and a high demand for health care services. This study aimed to assess the policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative, descriptive study through 34 key informant interviews and eight (8 focus group discussions, with participants from various levels of the health system. Results Policy makers understood task shifting, but front-line health workers had misconceptions on the meaning and intention(s of task shifting. Examples were cited of task shifting within the Ugandan health system, some formalized (e.g. psychiatric clinical officers, and some informal ones (e.g. nurses inserting IV lines and initiating treatment. There was apparently high acceptance of task shifting in HIV/AIDS service delivery, with involvement of community health workers (CHW and PLWHA in care and support of AIDS patients. There was no written policy or guidelines on task shifting, but the policy environment was reportedly conducive with plans to develop a policy and guidelines on task shifting. Factors favouring task shifting included successful examples of task shifting, proper referral channels, the need for services, scarcity of skills and focused initiatives such as home based management of fever. Barriers to task shifting included reluctance to change, protection of professional turf, professional boundaries and regulations, heavy workload and high disease burden, poor planning, lack of a task shifting champion, lack of guidelines, the name task shifting itself, and unemployed health professionals. There were both positive and negative views on task shifting: the positive ones cast task shifting as one of the solutions to the dual problem of lack of skills and high demand for service, and as something that is already happening; while negative ones saw it as a quick fix intended for the poor, a threat to quality care and likely to compromise the health

  6. A new semantic vigilance task: vigilance decrement, workload, and sensitivity to dual-task costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Samantha L; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive resource theory is a common explanation for both the performance decline in vigilance tasks, known as the vigilance decrement, and the limited ability to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. The limited supply of cognitive resources may be utilized faster than they are replenished resulting in a performance decrement, or may need to be allocated among multiple tasks with some performance cost. Researchers have proposed both domain-specific, for example spatial versus verbal processing resources, and domain general cognitive resources. One challenge in testing the domain specificity of cognitive resources in vigilance is the current lack of difficult semantic vigilance tasks which reliably produce a decrement. In the present research, we investigated whether the vigilance decrement was found in a new abbreviated semantic discrimination vigilance task, and whether there was a performance decrement in said vigilance task when paired with a word recall task, as opposed to performed individually. As hypothesized, a vigilance decrement in the semantic vigilance task was found in both the single-task and dual-task conditions, along with reduced vigilance performance in the dual-task condition and reduced word recall in the dual-task condition. This is consistent with cognitive resource theory. The abbreviated semantic vigilance task will be a useful tool for researchers interested in determining the specificity of cognitive resources utilized in vigilance tasks.

  7. Mood states determine the degree of task shielding in dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwosta, Katharina; Hommel, Bernhard; Goschke, Thomas; Fischer, Rico

    2013-01-01

    Current models of multitasking assume that dual-task performance and the degree of multitasking are affected by cognitive control strategies. In particular, cognitive control is assumed to regulate the amount of shielding of the prioritised task from crosstalk from the secondary task. We investigated whether and how task shielding is influenced by mood states. Participants were exposed to two short film clips, one inducing high and one inducing low arousal, of either negative or positive content. Negative mood led to stronger shielding of the prioritised task (i.e., less crosstalk) than positive mood, irrespective of arousal. These findings support the assumption that emotional states determine the parameters of cognitive control and play an important role in regulating dual-task performance.

  8. Validation of a Behavioral Approach for Measuring Saccades in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis H; Renfroe, Jenna B; Duppstadt-Delambo, Amy; Hinson, Vanessa K

    2017-01-01

    Speed and control of saccades are related to disease progression and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD). Traditional eye-tracking complexities encumber application for individual evaluations and clinical trials. The authors examined psychometric properties of standalone tasks for reflexive prosaccade latency, volitional saccade initiation, and saccade inhibition (antisaccade) in a heterogeneous sample of 65 PD patients. Demographics had minimal impact on task performance. Thirty-day test-retest reliability estimates for behavioral tasks were acceptable and similar to traditional eye tracking. Behavioral tasks demonstrated concurrent validity with traditional eye-tracking measures; discriminant validity was less clear. Saccade initiation and inhibition discriminated PD patients with cognitive impairment. The present findings support further development and use of the behavioral tasks for assessing latency and control of saccades in PD.

  9. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eSalo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or simple (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model modality atypical, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  10. The predictive value of general movement tasks in assessing occupational task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of evaluating individuals' movement behavior it is generally assumed that the tasks chosen will predict their competency to perform activities relevant to their occupation. This study sought to examine whether a battery of general tasks could be used to predict the movement patterns employed by firefighters to perform select job-specific skills. Fifty-two firefighters performed a battery of general and occupation-specific tasks that simulated the demands of firefighting. Participants' peak lumbar spine and frontal plane knee motion were compared across tasks. During 85% of all comparisons, the magnitude of spine and knee motion was greater during the general movement tasks than observed during the firefighting skills. Certain features of a worker's movement behavior may be exhibited across a range of tasks. Therefore, provided that a movement screen's tasks expose the motions of relevance for the population being tested, general evaluations could offer valuable insight into workers' movement competency or facilitate an opportunity to establish an evidence-informed intervention.

  11. Learning radiological appearances of diseases: Does comparison help?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Ellen M.; de Bruin, Anique B H; Robben, Simon C. F.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    Comparison learning is a promising approach for learning complex real-life visual tasks. When medical students study radiological appearances of diseases, comparison of images showing diseases with images showing no abnormalities could help them learn to discriminate relevant, disease-related

  12. Task-related activity in sensorimotor cortex in Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor: changes in beta and gamma bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Rowland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease patients in the OFF medication state, basal ganglia local field potentials exhibit changes in beta and gamma oscillations that correlate with reduced voluntary movement, manifested as rigidity and akinesia. However, magnetoencephalography and low-resolution electrocorticography (ECoG studies in Parkinson’s patients suggest that changes in sensorimotor cortical oscillations differ from those of the basal ganglia. To more clearly define the role of sensorimotor cortex oscillatory activity in Parkinson’s, we performed intraoperative, high-resolution (4 mm spacing ECoG recordings in 10 Parkinson’s patients (2 females, ages 47-72 undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS lead placement in the awake, OFF medication state. We analyzed ECoG potentials during a computer-controlled reaching task designed to separate movement preparation from movement execution and compared findings to similar invasive recordings in eight patients with essential tremor (3 females, ages 59-78, a condition not associated with rigidity or akinesia. We show that 1 cortical beta spectral power at rest does not differ between Parkinson’s and essential tremor patients (p = 0.85, 2 early motor preparation in Parkinson’s patients in the OFF medication state is associated with a larger beta desynchronization compared to patients with essential tremor (p = 0.0061, and 3 cortical broadband gamma power is elevated in Parkinson’s patients compared to essential tremor patients during both rest and task recordings (p = 0.004. Our findings suggest an oscillatory profile in sensorimotor cortex of Parkinson’s patients that, in contrast to the basal ganglia, may act to promote movement to oppose the anti-kinetic bias of the dopamine-depleted state.

  13. Task conflict and proactive control: A computational theory of the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Davelaar, Eddy J; Henik, Avishai; Goldfarb, Liat; Usher, Marius

    2018-01-01

    The Stroop task is a central experimental paradigm used to probe cognitive control by measuring the ability of participants to selectively attend to task-relevant information and inhibit automatic task-irrelevant responses. Research has revealed variability in both experimental manipulations and individual differences. Here, we focus on a particular source of Stroop variability, the reverse-facilitation (RF; faster responses to nonword neutral stimuli than to congruent stimuli), which has recently been suggested as a signature of task conflict. We first review the literature that shows RF variability in the Stroop task, both with regard to experimental manipulations and to individual differences. We suggest that task conflict variability can be understood as resulting from the degree of proactive control that subjects recruit in advance of the Stroop stimulus. When the proactive control is high, task conflict does not arise (or is resolved very quickly), resulting in regular Stroop facilitation. When proactive control is low, task conflict emerges, leading to a slow-down in congruent and incongruent (but not in neutral) trials and thus to Stroop RF. To support this suggestion, we present a computational model of the Stroop task, which includes the resolution of task conflict and its modulation by proactive control. Results show that our model (a) accounts for the variability in Stroop-RF reported in the experimental literature, and (b) solves a challenge to previous Stroop models-their ability to account for reaction time distributional properties. Finally, we discuss theoretical implications to Stroop measures and control deficits observed in some psychopathologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  15. The Applicability of Rhythm-Motor Tasks to a New Dual Task Paradigm for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ji Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the interplay between cognitive and motor functions during walking, cognitive demands required during gait have been investigated with regard to dual task performance. Along with the needs to understand how the type of concurrent task while walking affects gait performance, there are calls for diversified dual tasks that can be applied to older adults with varying levels of cognitive decline. Therefore, this study aimed to examine how rhythm-motor tasks affect dual task performance and gait control, compared to a traditional cognitive-motor task. Also, it examined whether rhythm-motor tasks are correlated with traditional cognitive-motor task performance and cognitive measures. Eighteen older adults without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Each participant was instructed to walk at self-paced tempo without performing a concurrent task (single walking task and walk while separately performing two types of concurrent tasks: rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks. Rhythm-motor tasks included instrument playing (WalkIP, matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkRC, and instrument playing while matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkIP+RC. The cognitive-motor task involved counting forward by 3s (WalkCount.f3. In each condition, dual task costs (DTC, a measure for how dual tasks affect gait parameters, were measured in terms of walking speed and stride length. The ratio of stride length to walking speed, a measure for dynamic control of gait, was also examined. The results of this study demonstrated that the task type was found to significantly influence these measures. Rhythm-motor tasks were found to interfere with gait parameters to a lesser extent than the cognitive-motor task (WalkCount.f3. In terms of ratio measures, stride length remained at a similar level, walking speed greatly decreased in the WalkCount.f3 condition. Significant correlations between dual task-related measures during rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks support the

  16. The Task Is Not Enough: Processing Approaches to Task-Based Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehan, Peter; Xiaoyue, Bei; Qian, Li; Wang, Zhan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on three research studies, all of which concern second language task performance. The first focuses on planning, and compares on-line and strategic planning as well as task repetition. The second study examines the role of familiarity on task performance, and compares this with conventional strategic planning. The third study…

  17. Single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance after concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2017-07-01

    To compare single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance between athletes after concussion with controls on observer-timed, spatio-temporal, and center-of-mass (COM) balance control measurements. Ten participants (19.0±5.5years) were prospectively identified and completed a tandem gait test protocol within 72h of concussion and again 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months post-injury. Seven uninjured controls (20.0±4.5years) completed the same protocol in similar time increments. Tandem gait test trials were performed with (dual-task) and without (single-task) concurrently performing a cognitive test as whole-body motion analysis was performed. Outcome variables included test completion time, average tandem gait velocity, cadence, and whole-body COM frontal plane displacement. Concussion participants took significantly longer to complete the dual-task tandem gait test than controls throughout the first 2 weeks post-injury (mean time=16.4 [95% CI: 13.4-19.4] vs. 10.1 [95% CI: 6.4-13.7] seconds; p=0.03). Single-task tandem gait times were significantly lower 72h post-injury (p=0.04). Dual-task cadence was significantly lower for concussion participants than controls (89.5 [95% CI: 68.6-110.4] vs. 127.0 [95% CI: 97.4-156.6] steps/minute; p=0.04). Moderately-high to high correlations between tandem gait test time and whole-body COM medial-lateral displacement were detected at each time point during dual-task gait (r s =0.70-0.93; p=0.03-0.001). Adding a cognitive task during the tandem gait test resulted in longer detectable deficits post-concussion compared to the traditional single-task tandem gait test. As a clinical tool to assess dynamic motor function, tandem gait may assist with return to sport decisions after concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EFNS guidelines on pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attal, Nadine; Cruccu, G; Haanpää, M

    2006-01-01

    for the efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, pregabalin and opioids, with a large number of class I trials, followed by topical lidocaine (in PHN) and the newer antidepressants venlafaxine and duloxetine (in PPN). A small number of controlled trials were performed in central pain, trigeminal...

  19. When predictions take control: The effect of task predictions on task switching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wout eDuthoo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aimed to investigate the role of self-generated predictions in the flexible control of behaviour. Therefore, we ran a task switching experiment in which participants were asked to try to predict the upcoming task in three conditions varying in switch rate (30%, 50% and 70%. Irrespective of their predictions, the colour of the target indicated which task participants had to perform. In line with previous studies (Mayr, 2006; Monsell & Mizon, 2006, the switch cost was attenuated as the switch rate increased. Importantly, a clear task repetition bias was found in all conditions, yet the task repetition prediction rate dropped from 78% over 66% to 49% with increasing switch probability in the three conditions. Irrespective of condition, the switch cost was strongly reduced in expectation of a task alternation compared to the cost of an unexpected task alternation following repetition predictions. Hence, our data suggest that the reduction in the switch cost with increasing switch probability is caused by a diminished expectancy for the task to repeat. Taken together, this paper highlights the importance of predictions in the flexible control of behaviour, and suggests a crucial role for task repetition expectancy in the context-sensitive adjusting of task switching performance.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of attention and visual function on gait impairment in Parkinson's disease: influence of task and turning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Samuel; Galna, Brook; Delicato, Louise S; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn

    2017-07-01

    Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) which has been linked to cognitive and visual deficits, but interactions between these features are poorly understood. Monitoring saccades allows investigation of real-time cognitive and visual processes and their impact on gait when walking. This study explored: (i) saccade frequency when walking under different attentional manipulations of turning and dual-task; and (ii) direct and indirect relationships between saccades, gait impairment, vision and attention. Saccade frequency (number of fast eye movements per-second) was measured during gait in 60 PD and 40 age-matched control participants using a mobile eye-tracker. Saccade frequency was significantly reduced in PD compared to controls during all conditions. However, saccade frequency increased with a turn and decreased under dual-task for both groups. Poorer attention directly related to saccade frequency, visual function and gait impairment in PD, but not controls. Saccade frequency did not directly relate to gait in PD, but did in controls. Instead, saccade frequency and visual function deficit indirectly impacted gait impairment in PD, which was underpinned by their relationship with attention. In conclusion, our results suggest a vital role for attention with direct and indirect influences on gait impairment in PD. Attention directly impacted saccade frequency, visual function and gait impairment in PD, with connotations for falls. It also underpinned indirect impact of visual and saccadic impairment on gait. Attention therefore represents a key therapeutic target that should be considered in future research. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890

  2. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  3. On-Orbit Engineering and Vehicle Integration Poster Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerdinger, Madison

    2014-01-01

    One of the duties of the MER Managers is getting the consoles to review and sign Electronic Flight Notes (EFN) and Mission Action Requests (Chit) before they are due. Chits and EFNs and are accessible through the Mission Control Center - Houston (MCC-H) Gateway. Chits are the official means of documenting questions and answers, technical direction, real-time changes to Flight Rules (FR) and procedures, request for analysis, etc. between various consoles concerning on-orbit operations. EFNs are documents used by the Flight Control Team (FCT) to communicate precise details between console positions and manage real time changes to FR and Systems Operation Data File (SODF) procedures. On GMT 2013/345 the External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) on the Columbus (COL) Moderate Temperature Loop (MTL) Interface Heat Exchanger (IFHX) shut down due to low temperatures. Over the next couple of days, the core temperature of COL MT IFHX dropped due to the failure of the Flow Control Valve (FCV). After the temperature drop was discovered, heaters were turned on to bring the temperatures back to nominal. After the incident occurred, a possible freeze threat was discovered that could have ruptured the heat exchanger. The COL MT IFHX rupturing would be considered a catastrophic failure and potentially result in a loss of the vehicle and/or the lives of the International Space Station (ISS) crew members

  4. Sensitivity to reward and punishment in Parkinson's disease: an analysis of behavioral patterns using a modified version of the Iowa gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Studies using the Iowa gambling task (IGT) have shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) make disadvantageous choices characterized by immediate large rewards and delayed larger punishments. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either PD patients are hypersensitive to immediate outcomes and/or insensitive to delayed consequences or PD patients are hypersensitive to rewards and/or insensitive to punishments. In this study, we used a modified IGT in which selection of cards from the disadvantageous decks leads to immediate, small punishments and delayed, smaller rewards and selection of cards from the advantageous decks leads to immediate, large punishments and delayed larger rewards. We then compared the results obtained using this modified IGT with those obtained using the original IGT. If the PD patients were hypersensitive to the immediate outcomes of decisions, they would make disadvantageous choices in both the original and the modified IGTs. Differences between the results of the original and modified tasks would indicate impairments in balancing reward and punishment. In our analysis, PD patients selected advantageous decks and gained as much as normal subjects during the modified IGT, but they selected disadvantageous decks during the original IGT. These results indicate that the decision-making difficulties of PD patients are caused by their inability to balance reward and punishment and their hypersensitivity to reward and/or insensitivity to punishment.

  5. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  6. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and 2 are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e. decreasing SOAs do not increase RTs and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/ or error rates in Task 1. This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  7. Lexical priming in Alzheimer's disease and aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria; Beauchamps, Mireille; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean Philippe; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Lexical priming was examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in aphasic patients. Control participants were divided into young and elderly [cf. Arroyo-Anlló et al.: Eur J Cogn Psychol 2004;16:535-553]. For lexical priming, a word-stem completion task was used. Normal elderly participants had lexical priming scores that were significantly lower than those of young individuals. Analysis of covariance with age and educational level as covariates showed that the control participants, aphasic and Alzheimer patients did not differ significantly on the lexical priming task. Our results suggest that performance in the lexical priming task diminishes with physiological aging, but is not significantly affected by mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease or by fluent or non-fluent aphasia. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Cognitive task load analysis : Allocating tasks and designing support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for Cognitive Task Analysis that guides the early stages of software development, aiming at an optimal cognitive load for operators of process control systems. The method is based on a practical theory of cognitive task load and support. In addition to the classical measure

  9. Semantic, phonologic, and verb fluency in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    Full Text Available Abstract Verbal fluency tasks have been identified as important indicators of executive functioning impairment in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Although the usual evaluation of this ability considers phonologic and semantic criteria, there is some evidence that fluency of verbs would be more sensitive in disclosing frontostriatal physiopathology since frontal regions primarily mediate retrieval of verbs. Huntington's disease usually affects these circuitries. Objective: To compare three types of verbal fluency task in the assessment of frontal-striatal dysfunction in HD subjects. Methods: We studied 26 Huntington's disease subjects, divided into two subgroups: mild (11 and moderate (15 along with 26 normal volunteers matched for age, gender and schooling, for three types of verbal fluency: phonologic fluency (F-A-S, semantic fluency and fluency of verbs. Results: Huntington's disease subjects showed a significant reduction in the number of words correctly generated in the three tasks when compared to the normal group. Both controls and Huntington's disease subjects showed a similar pattern of decreasing task performance with the greatest number of words being generated by semantic elicitation followed by verbs and lastly phonologic criteria. We did not find greater production of verbs compared with F-A-S and semantic conditions. Moreover, the fluency of verbs distinguished only the moderate group from controls. Conclusion: Our results indicated that phonologic and semantic fluency can be used to evaluate executive functioning, proving more sensitive than verb fluency. However, it is important to point out that the diverse presentations of Huntington's disease means that an extended sample is necessary for more consistent analysis of this issue.

  10. [Different patterns of brain activation between patients of Alzheimer's disease with and without depression: a functional MRI study during emotion Stroop task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-tao; Jia, Jian-ping

    2007-04-03

    To examine whether emotional factor influences the depression onset in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty mild AD patients conforming to the of DSM-IV criteria with a clinical dementia rating score of 1.0 were divided into 2 groups: 11 patients without depression (AD group), and 9 patients with depression confirming to the National Institute of Mental Health-dAD criteria with a Cornell scale for depression in dementia score>12 (dAD group), without significant differences in age, gender, educational level, onset duration, and MMSE scores between these 2 groups. Ten age-and gender ratio-matched healthy elderly subjects were used as controls. Emotion Stroop task was performed to these 3 groups: emotion Stroop task images were presented with colored positive or negative emotion words (such as HAPPY or SUICIDE, etc.) at the left part of the image to induce emotional responses and with pure color at the right part of the image. The subjects were asked to press the right button when the ink color of the emotion word was congruent with the color at the right part, and press the left button when the ink color of the word was not congruent with the color at the right part. Neutral words were used in the test of general word task. The reaction time, false ratio, and missing ratio were recorded. Functional MRI (fMRI) was conducted. The behavioral data were analyzed with SPSS 11.0 software and the fMRI data were analyzed with SPM2 software. The emotion Stroop task showed that the reaction time of the normal control group was 848 ms+/-320 ms, significantly shorter than those of the dAD and AD groups (1528 ms+/-302 ms and 1173 ms+/-237 ms respectively, both Pdifference between the latter 2 groups (P=0.22). The missing ratio of the normal control group was 0, significantly lower than those of the AD and dAD groups (3.1% and 2.5% respectively, both Pdifference between the latter 2 groups (P=0.29). The fMRI results showed that the bilateral amygdala, left parietal lobe, and left

  11. Mechanisms of Practice-Related Reductions of Dual-Task Interference with Simple Tasks: Data and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Torsten, Schubert

    2017-01-01

    In dual-task situations, interference between two simultaneous tasks impairs performance. With practice, however, this impairment can be reduced. To identify mechanisms leading to a practice-related improvement in sensorimotor dual tasks, the present review applied the following general hypothesis: Sources that impair dual-task performance at the beginning of practice are associated with mechanisms for the reduction of dual-task impairment at the end of practice. The following types of processes provide sources for the occurrence of this impairment: (a) capacity-limited processes within the component tasks, such as response-selection or motor response stages, and (b) cognitive control processes independent of these tasks and thus operating outside of component-task performance. Dual-task practice studies show that, under very specific conditions, capacity-limited processes within the component tasks are automatized with practice, reducing the interference between two simultaneous tasks. Further, there is evidence that response-selection stages are shortened with practice. Thus, capacity limitations at these stages are sources for dual-task costs at the beginning of practice and are overcome with practice. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the existence of practice-related mechanisms associated with capacity-limited motor-response stages. Further, during practice, there is an acquisition of executive control skills for an improved allocation of limited attention resources to two tasks as well as some evidence supporting the assumption of improved task coordination. These latter mechanisms are associated with sources of dual-task interference operating outside of component task performance at the beginning of practice and also contribute to the reduction of dual-task interference at its end. PMID:28439319

  12. Self-Efficacy, Task Complexity and Task Performance: Exploring Interactions in Two Versions of Vocabulary Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed for better understanding of the interactions between task complexity and students' self-efficacy beliefs and students' use of learning strategies, and finally their interacting effects on task performance. This investigation was carried out in the context of Chinese students learning English as a foreign language in a…

  13. Executive summary of European Task Force document on diagnostic tools in rhinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, P. W.; Scadding, G.; Alobid, I.; Bachert, C.; Fokkens, W. J.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Gevaerts, P.; Guilemany, J.; Kalogjera, L.; Lund, V. J.; Mullol, J.; Passalacqua, G.; Toskala, E.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This Executive Summary of the EAACI Task Force document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology provides the readers with an over- view of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease, published in full version in the first issue of Clini- cal and Translational Allergy. A

  14. Morfologia de nectários em Leguminosae senso lato em áreas de caatinga no Brasil Nectary morphology of Leguminosae senso lato in areas of dry seasonal forest in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectários extraflorais (Nefs são glândulas secretoras de néctar encontradas em diversas espécies de Angiospermas, inclusive Leguminosae. Essas estruturas podem se apresentar sob diferentes formas (elevados, embebidos; com ou sem estipe; cores distintas e posições nas plantas (na raque, no pecíolo, sendo essas características relevantes aos estudos de taxonomia e sistemática. Este trabalho analisou a diversidade morfológica dos Nefs em Leguminosae de uma área prioritária para a conservação da caatinga no Estado de Pernambuco. As 35 espécies de Legumionsae estudadas foram coletadas no Município de Mirandiba, no semi-árido Pernambucano, e submetidas às técnicas usuais para análise e descrição morfológica. Entre essas espécies, foram caracterizados Nefs com origem primária (não substitutivos e secundária (substitutivos. Dois diferentes tipos com onze formatos distintos foram encontrados entre elas. Uma grande variedade de localização, coloração, projeção, e dimensão foram registradas aqui. Uma chave de identificação e ilustrações foram elaboradas também. Os dados apresentados aqui ampliam o número de espécies estudadas com Nefs para a família, e também confirmam a importância taxonômica e ecológica dessas estruturas para os legumes da região do semi-árido do Brasil.Extrafloral nectaries (Efns are nectar secreting glands found in many species of Angiosperms, including Leguminosae. These structures have various forms (elevated, embedded; stalk present or not; different colors and positions on the plants (on the rachis, on the petiole, and these characteristics are relevant to taxonomy and morphology studies. This work analyses the morphological diversity of Efns in Leguminosae from a priority conservation area of caatinga in Pernambuco state. The 35 Leguminosae species studied were collected in Mirandiba municipality, a semi-arid region of Pernambuco and submitted to the usual techniques of anatomy and

  15. A deficit in optimizing task solution but robust and well-retained speed and accuracy gains in complex skill acquisition in Parkinson׳s disease: multi-session training on the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Karni, Avi

    2014-05-01

    There are inconsistent results in the research literature relating to whether a procedural memory dysfunction exists as a core deficit in Parkinson׳s disease (PD). To address this issue, we examined the acquisition and long-term retention of a cognitive skill in patients with moderately severe PD. To this end, we used a computerized version of the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle. Sixteen patients with PD (11 males, age 60.9±10.26 years, education 13.8±3.5 years, disease duration 8.6±4.7 years, UPDRS III "On" score 16±5.3) were compared with 20 healthy individuals matched for age, gender, education and MMSE scores. The patients were assessed while taking their anti-Parkinsonian medication. All participants underwent three consecutive practice sessions, 24-48h apart, and a retention-test session six months later. A computerized version of the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle, with four disks, was used for training. Participants completed the task 18 times in each session. Number of moves (Nom) to solution, and time per move (Tpm), were used as measures of acquisition and retention of the learned skill. Robust learning, a significant reduction in Nom and a concurrent decrease in Tpm, were found across all three training sessions, in both groups. Moreover, both patients and controls showed significant savings for both measures at six months post-training. However, while their Tpm was no slower than that of controls, patients with PD required more Nom (in 3rd and 4th sessions) and tended to stabilize on less-than-optimal solutions. The results do not support the notion of a core deficit in gaining speed (fluency) or generating procedural memory in PD. However, PD patients settled on less-than-optimal solutions of the task, i.e., less efficient task solving process. The results are consistent with animal studies of the effects of dopamine depletion on task exploration. Thus, patients with PD may have a problem in exploring for optimal task solution rather than in skill acquisition and

  16. Effective task communication : the role of task information and the interpersonal teacher-student relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekkamp, H.; Dijk, van E.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.; Mainhard, T.; Brok, den P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Students who perceive assigned academic tasks as more clear perform better on these tasks. Moreover, it has been shown that "task clarity" (as experienced by students) varies across teachers. Apparently, some teachers are more effective than other teachers in communicating tasks. There is, however,

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Argentina ADNI Amyloid Imaging Task Force Alzheimer’s Association Business Consortia (AABC) Biomarker Consortium GBSC Working Groups Global Alzheimer’s Association Interactive Network International Alzheimer's Disease Research ...

  18. Kokkos' Task DAG Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.

  19. Relationship between the MDS-UPDRS domains and the health-related quality of life of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martín, P; Rodríguez-Blázquez, C; Forjaz, M J; Alvarez-Sánchez, M; Arakaki, T; Bergareche-Yarza, A; Chade, A; Garretto, N; Gershanik, O; Kurtis, M M; Martínez-Castrillo, J C; Mendoza-Rodríguez, A; Moore, H P; Rodríguez-Violante, M; Singer, C; Tilley, B C; Huang, J; Stebbins, G T; Goetz, C G

    2014-03-01

    The Movement Disorder Society sponsored version of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) is a comprehensive instrument for assessing Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study was aimed at determining the relationships between MDS-UPDRS components and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluations in PD patients. An international, multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out of 435 PD patients assessed with the MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr (HY), Clinical Impression Severity for PD, EQ-5D and PD Questionnaire - eight items (PDQ-8). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, exploratory factor analysis and multiple linear regression models (dependent variables EQ-5D and PDQ-8) were performed. The participants' age was 66.71 ± 10.32 years (51.5% men). PD duration was 8.52 ± 6.14, and median HY was 2 (range 1-5). The correlation between the EQ-5D index and the MDS-UPDRS ranged from -0.46 (Part IV) to -0.72 (Part II) and for the PDQ-8 index from 0.47 (Part III) to 0.74 (Part II). In multiple regression models with the MDS-UPDRS domains as independent variables, the main determinant for both the EQ-5D index and the PDQ-8 was Part II followed by Part I. After factorial grouping of the cardinal PD manifestations embedded in the MDS-UPDRS Parts III and IV for inclusion into multiple regression models, a factor formed by M-EDL, nM-EDL and fluctuations was the main determinant for both the EQ-5D and PDQ-8 indexes. The MDS-UPDRS component most tightly related with the HRQoL measures was a combination of motor and non-motor experiences of daily living. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  20. Implicit and Explicit Knowledge Both Improve Dual Task Performance in a Continuous Pursuit Tracking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewolds, Harald E; Bröker, Laura; de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Künzell, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of predictability on dual-task performance in a continuous tracking task. Participants practiced either informed (explicit group) or uninformed (implicit group) about a repeated segment in the curves they had to track. In Experiment 1 participants practices the tracking task only, dual-task performance was assessed after by combining the tracking task with an auditory reaction time task. Results showed both groups learned equally well and tracking performance on a predictable segment in the dual-task condition was better than on random segments. However, reaction times did not benefit from a predictable tracking segment. To investigate the effect of learning under dual-task situation participants in Experiment 2 practiced the tracking task while simultaneously performing the auditory reaction time task. No learning of the repeated segment could be demonstrated for either group during the training blocks, in contrast to the test-block and retention test, where participants performed better on the repeated segment in both dual-task and single-task conditions. Only the explicit group improved from test-block to retention test. As in Experiment 1, reaction times while tracking a predictable segment were no better than reaction times while tracking a random segment. We concluded that predictability has a positive effect only on the predictable task itself possibly because of a task-shielding mechanism. For dual-task training there seems to be an initial negative effect of explicit instructions, possibly because of fatigue, but the advantage of explicit instructions was demonstrated in a retention test. This might be due to the explicit memory system informing or aiding the implicit memory system.

  1. Task Uncertainty Can Account for Mixing and Switch Costs in Task-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is required in situations that involve uncertainty or change, such as when resolving conflict, selecting responses and switching tasks. Recently, it has been suggested that cognitive control can be conceptualised as a mechanism which prioritises goal-relevant information to deal with uncertainty. This hypothesis has been supported using a paradigm that requires conflict resolution. In this study, we examine whether cognitive control during task switching is also consistent with this notion. We used information theory to quantify the level of uncertainty in different trial types during a cued task-switching paradigm. We test the hypothesis that differences in uncertainty between task repeat and task switch trials can account for typical behavioural effects in task-switching. Increasing uncertainty was associated with less efficient performance (i.e., slower and less accurate), particularly on switch trials and trials that afford little opportunity for advance preparation. Interestingly, both mixing and switch costs were associated with a common episodic control process. These results support the notion that cognitive control may be conceptualised as an information processor that serves to resolve uncertainty in the environment. PMID:26107646

  2. Performance Enhancements Under Dual-task Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.

    1984-01-01

    Research on dual-task performance has been concerned with delineating the antecedent conditions which lead to dual-task decrements. Capacity models of attention, which propose that a hypothetical resource structure underlies performance, have been employed as predictive devices. These models predict that tasks which require different processing resources can be more successfully time shared than tasks which require common resources. The conditions under which such dual-task integrality can be fostered were assessed in a study in which three factors likely to influence the integrality between tasks were manipulated: inter-task redundancy, the physical proximity of tasks and the task relevant objects. Twelve subjects participated in three experimental sessions in which they performed both single and dual-tasks. The primary task was a pursuit step tracking task. The secondary tasks required the discrimination between different intensities or different spatial positions of a stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of a model of dual-task integrality.

  3. Self-reported quality of ADL task performance among patients with COPD exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Wilcke, Jon Torgny; Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes

    2014-07-01

    Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience problems in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The objective was to examine the self-reported quality of ADL task performance among COPD patients, and to investigate whether age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics correlate with the self-reported ADL ability. Eighty patients admitted to hospital with COPD exacerbations participated. In a cross-sectional study, the patients' self-reported ADL ability was assessed using the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) instrument. Data concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender, or routine COPD characteristics. Decreased quality of ADL task performance seemed to be extremely common among COPD patients. Therefore, addressing the problems in individually tailored pulmonary rehabilitation programmes may be advantageous.

  4. Task-relevant cognitive and motor functions are prioritized during prolonged speed-accuracy motor task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Satas, Andrius; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Cekanauskaite, Agne; Valanciene, Dovile; Majauskiene, Daiva; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of prolonged speed-accuracy motor task on the indicators of psychological, cognitive, psychomotor and motor function. Ten young men aged 21.1 ± 1.0 years performed a fast- and accurate-reaching movement task and a control task. Both tasks were performed for 2 h. Despite decreased motivation, and increased perception of effort as well as subjective feeling of fatigue, speed-accuracy motor task performance improved during the whole period of task execution. After the motor task, the increased working memory function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation at rest and during conflict detection, and the decreased efficiency of incorrect response inhibition and visuomotor tracking were observed. The speed-accuracy motor task increased the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials, while grip strength was not affected. These findings demonstrate that to sustain the performance of 2-h speed-accuracy task under conditions of self-reported fatigue, task-relevant functions are maintained or even improved, whereas less critical functions are impaired.

  5. Quantitative Motor Performance and Sleep Benefit in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gilst, Merel M; van Mierlo, Petra; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2015-10-01

    Many people with Parkinson disease experience "sleep benefit": temporarily improved mobility upon awakening. Here we used quantitative motor tasks to assess the influence of sleep on motor functioning in Parkinson disease. Eighteen Parkinson patients with and 20 without subjective sleep benefit and 20 healthy controls participated. Before and directly after a regular night sleep and an afternoon nap, subjects performed the timed pegboard dexterity task and quantified finger tapping task. Subjective ratings of motor functioning and mood/vigilange were included. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography. On both tasks, patients were overall slower than healthy controls (night: F2,55 = 16.938, P Parkinson patients. Here we show that the subjective experience of sleep benefit is not paralleled by an actual improvement in motor functioning. Sleep benefit therefore appears to be a subjective phenomenon and not a Parkinson-specific reduction in symptoms. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  7. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  8. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  9. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of a Dual-Tasking Paradigm in a Memory Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Malene Schjnning; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Siersma, Volkert; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Hoegh, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Daily living requires the ability to perform dual-tasking. As cognitive skills decrease in dementia, performing a cognitive and motor task simultaneously become increasingly challenging and subtle gait abnormalities may even be present in pre-dementia stages. Therefore, a dual-tasking paradigm, such as the Timed Up and Go-Dual Task (TUG-DT), may be useful in the diagnostic assessment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic ability of a dual-tasking paradigm in patients with MCI or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the association between the dual-tasking paradigm and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers. The study is a prospective cohort study conducted in a clinical setting in two memory clinics. Eighty-six patients were included (28 MCI, 17 AD, 41 healthy controls (HC)). The ability to perform dual-tasking was evaluated by the TUG-DT. Patients underwent a standardized diagnostic assessment and were evaluated to determine progression yearly. ROC curve analysis illustrated a high discriminative ability of the dual-tasking paradigm in separating MCI patients from HC (AUC: 0.78, AUC: 0.82) and a moderate discriminative ability in separating MCI from AD (AUC: 0.73, AUC: 0.55). Performance discriminated clearly between all groups (p paradigm for progression and rate of cognitive decline. A moderately strong correlation between the dual-tasking paradigm and CSF AD biomarkers was observed. In our study, we found that patients with MCI and mild AD have increasing difficulties in dual-tasking compared to healthy elderly. Hence, the dual-tasking paradigm may be a potential complement in the diagnostic assessment in a typical clinical setting.

  10. Prospective memory in young and older adults: the effects of task importance and ongoing task load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed

    2014-01-01

    Remembering to perform an action in the future, called prospective memory, often shows age-related differences in favor of young adults when tested in the laboratory. Recently Smith, Horn, and Bayen (2012; Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 495) embedded a PM task in an ongoing color-matching task and manipulated the difficulty of the ongoing task by varying the number of colors on each trial of the task. Smith et al. found that age-related differences in PM performance (lower PM performance for older adults relative to young adults) persisted even when older adults could perform the ongoing task as well or better than the young adults. The current study investigates a possible explanation for the pattern of results reported by Smith et al. by including a manipulation of task emphasis: for half of the participants the prospective memory task was emphasize, while for the other half the ongoing color-matching task was emphasized. Older adults performed a 4-color version of the ongoing color-matching task, while young adults completed either the 4-color or a more difficult 6-color version of the ongoing task. Older adults failed to perform as well as the young adults on the prospective memory task regardless of task emphasis, even when older adults were performing as well or better than the young adults on the ongoing color-matching task. The current results indicate that the lack of an effect of ongoing task load on prospective memory task performance is not due to a perception that one or the other task is more important than the other.

  11. Increased cognitive control after task conflict? Investigating the N-3 effect in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Stefanie; Grange, James A

    2018-05-25

    Task inhibition is considered to facilitate switching to a new task and is assumed to decay slowly over time. Hence, more persisting inhibition needs to be overcome when returning to a task after one intermediary trial (ABA task sequence) than when returning after two or more intermediary trials (CBA task sequence). Schuch and Grange (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 41:760-767, 2015) put forward the hypothesis that there is higher task conflict in ABA than CBA sequences, leading to increased cognitive control in the subsequent trial. They provided evidence that performance is better in trials following ABA than following CBA task sequences. Here, this effect of the previous task sequence ("N-3 effect") is further investigated by varying the cue-stimulus interval (CSI), allowing for short (100 ms) or long (900 ms) preparation time for the upcoming task. If increased cognitive control after ABA involves a better preparation for the upcoming task, the N-3 effect should be larger with long than short CSI. The results clearly show that this is not the case. In Experiment 1, the N-3 effect was smaller with long than short CSI; in Experiment 2, the N-3 effect was not affected by CSI. Diffusion model analysis confirmed previous results in the literature (regarding the effect of CSI and of the ABA-CBA difference); however, the N-3 effect was not unequivocally associated with any of the diffusion model parameters. In exploratory analysis, we also tested the alternative hypothesis that the N-3 effect involves more effective task shielding, which would be reflected in reduced congruency effects in trials following ABA, relative to trials following CBA; congruency effects did not differ between these conditions. Taken together, we can rule out two potential explanations of the N-3 effect: Neither is this effect due to enhanced task preparation, nor to more effective task shielding.

  12. Functional tasks exercise improves daily function in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Vreede, P.L. de

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is characterised by a reduction in physical reserve, the physiological capacity in excess of that needed for daily activities, that provides a margin of safety that absorbs age- or disease-related changes without a loss in function. When physical capacity falls below the ability required for the performance of daily tasks, functional limitations and a loss of independence may occur. Approximately 20% of people between 65 and 75 years of age report problems with activities of daily livi...

  13. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  14. Blink activity and task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Yamaoka, K

    1993-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between task difficulty and blink activity, which includes blink rate, blink amplitude, and blink duration. Two kinds of tasks established two levels of difficulty. In Exp. 1, a mental arithmetic task was used to examine the relationship. Analysis showed that blink rate for a difficult task was significantly higher than that for an easier one. In Exp. 2, a letter-search task (hiragana Japanese alphabet) was used while the other conditions were the same as those in Exp. 1; however, the results of this experiment were not influenced by the difficulty of the task. As results indicate that blink rate is related to not only difficulty but also the nature of the task, the nature of the task is probably dependent on a mechanism in information processing. The results for blink amplitude and blink duration showed no systematic change during either experiment.

  15. Task uncertainty can account for mixing and switch costs in task-switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Cooper

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is required in situations that involve uncertainty or change, such as when resolving conflict, selecting responses and switching tasks. Recently, it has been suggested that cognitive control can be conceptualised as a mechanism which prioritises goal-relevant information to deal with uncertainty. This hypothesis has been supported using a paradigm that requires conflict resolution. In this study, we examine whether cognitive control during task switching is also consistent with this notion. We used information theory to quantify the level of uncertainty in different trial types during a cued task-switching paradigm. We test the hypothesis that differences in uncertainty between task repeat and task switch trials can account for typical behavioural effects in task-switching. Increasing uncertainty was associated with less efficient performance (i.e., slower and less accurate, particularly on switch trials and trials that afford little opportunity for advance preparation. Interestingly, both mixing and switch costs were associated with a common episodic control process. These results support the notion that cognitive control may be conceptualised as an information processor that serves to resolve uncertainty in the environment.

  16. Preferential processing of task-irrelevant beloved-related information and task performance: Two event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2017-09-18

    People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition. We examined whether beloved-related information is preferentially processed even when it is task-irrelevant and whether this hurts task performance. In two event-related potential studies, participants who had recently fallen in love performed a visuospatial short-term memory task. Task-irrelevant beloved, friend, and stranger faces were presented during maintenance (Study 1), or encoding (Study 2). The Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) reflecting early automatic attentional capturing and the Late Positive Potential (LPP) reflecting sustained motivated attention were largest for beloved pictures. Thus, beloved pictures are preferentially processed even when they are task-irrelevant. Task performance and reaction times did not differ between beloved, friend, and stranger conditions. Nevertheless, self-reported obsessive thinking about the beloved tended to correlate negatively with task performance, and positively with reaction times, across conditions. So, although task-irrelevant beloved-related information does not impact task performance, more obsessive thinking about the beloved might relate to poorer and slower overall task performance. More research is needed to clarify why people experience trouble focusing on beloved-unrelated tasks and how this negative effect of love on cognition could be reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Activities of daily living measured by the Harvard Automated Phone Task track with cognitive decline over time in non-demented elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Locascio, Joseph J.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden to both patients and caregivers. Mild impairment in instrumental activities of daily living is often seen at the stage of mild cognitive impairment. The field of Alzheimer’s disease is moving toward earlier diagnosis and intervention and more sensitive and ecologically valid assessments of instrumental or complex activities of daily living are needed. The Harvard Automated Phone Task, a novel performance-based activities of daily living instrument, has the potential to fill this gap. Objective To further validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task by assessing its longitudinal relationship to global cognition and specific cognitive domains in clinically normal elderly and individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Design In a longitudinal study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with cognitive measures using mixed effects models. The Harvard Automated Phone Task’s ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups at baseline was also assessed. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants Two hundred and seven participants (45 young normal, 141 clinically normal elderly, and 21 mild cognitive impairment) were recruited from the community and the memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Measurements Participants performed the three tasks of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, which consist of navigating an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, repetitions, and correct completion of the task. The primary outcome measure used for each of the tasks was total time adjusted for correct completion. Results The Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between young normal, clinically normal elderly, and mild cognitive impairment

  18. Rules and more rules: the effects of multiple tasks, extensive training, and aging on task-switching performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou G; Hoyer, William J; Cerella, John

    2008-06-01

    Task-switching performance was assessed in young and older adults as a function of the number of task sets to be actively maintained in memory (varied from 1 to 4) over the course of extended training (5 days). Each of the four tasks required the execution of a simple computational algorithm, which was instantaneously cued by the color of the two-digit stimulus. Tasks were presented in pure (task set size 1) and mixed blocks (task set sizes 2, 3, 4), and the task sequence was unpredictable. By considering task switching beyond two tasks, we found evidence for a cognitive control system that is not overwhelmed by task set size load manipulations. Extended training eliminated age effects in task-switching performance, even when the participants had to manage the execution of up to four tasks. The results are discussed in terms of current theories of cognitive control, including task set inertia and production system postulates.

  19. Task leaders reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriaux, E.F.; Jehee, J.N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.1. ''Survey of existing documentation relevant to this programme's goals'' and report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.2. ''Survey of existing Operator Support Systems and the experience with them'' are presented. 2 tabs

  20. Task Shifting the Management of Non-Communicable Diseases to Nurses in Kibera, Kenya: Does It Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Some

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa there is an increasing need to leverage available health care workers to provide care for non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This study was conducted to evaluate adherence to Médecins Sans Frontières clinical protocols when the care of five stable NCDs (hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, epilepsy, asthma, and sickle cell was shifted from clinical officers to nurses.Descriptive, retrospective review of routinely collected clinic data from two integrated primary health care facilities within an urban informal settlement, Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya (May to August 2014.There were 3,554 consultations (2025 patients; 733 (21% were by nurses out of which 725 met the inclusion criteria among 616 patients. Hypertension (64%, 397/616 was the most frequent NCD followed by asthma (17%, 106/616 and diabetes mellitus (15%, 95/616. Adherence to screening questions ranged from 65% to 86%, with an average of 69%. Weight and blood pressure measurements were completed in 89% and 96% of those required. Laboratory results were reviewed in 91% of indicated visits. Laboratory testing per NCD protocols was higher in those with hypertension (88% than diabetes mellitus (67% upon review. Only 17 (2% consultations were referred back to clinical officers.Nurses are able to adhere to protocols for managing stable NCD patients based on clear and standardized protocols and guidelines, thus paving the way towards task shifting of NCD care to nurses to help relieve the significant healthcare gap in developing countries.

  1. Distraction during learning with hypermedia: Difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eScheiter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In educational hypermedia environments, students are often confronted with potential sources of distraction arising from additional information that, albeit interesting, is unrelated to their current task goal. The paper investigates the conditions under which distraction occurs and hampers performance. Based on theories of volitional action control it was hypothesized that interesting information, especially if related to a pending goal, would interfere with task performance only when working on easy, but not on difficult tasks. In Experiment 1, 66 students learned about probability theory using worked examples and solved corresponding test problems, whose task difficulty was manipulated. As a second factor, the presence of interesting information unrelated to the primary task was varied. Results showed that students solved more easy than difficult probability problems correctly. However, the presence of interesting, but task-irrelevant information did not interfere with performance. In Experiment 2, 68 students again engaged in example-based learning and problem solving in the presence of task-irrelevant information. Problem-solving difficulty was varied as a first factor. Additionally, the presence of a pending goal related to the task-irrelevant information was manipulated. As expected, problem-solving performance declined when a pending goal was present during working on easy problems, whereas no interference was observed for difficult problems. Moreover, the presence of a pending goal reduced the time on task-relevant information and increased the time on task-irrelevant information while working on easy tasks. However, as revealed by mediation analyses these changes in overt information processing behavior did not explain the decline in problem-solving performance. As an alternative explanation it is suggested that goal conflicts resulting from pending goals claim cognitive resources, which are then no longer available for learning and

  2. Single-Task and Dual-Task Gait Among Collegiate Athletes of Different Sport Classifications: Implications for Concussion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Oldham, Jessie R; DiFabio, Melissa; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hall, Eric E; Ketcham, Caroline J; Meehan, William P; Buckley, Thomas A

    2017-02-01

    Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether preexisting gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (ie, walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and noncontact athletes. A group of collegiate athletes (n = 265) were tested before their season at 3 institutions (mean age= 19.1 ± 1.1 years). All participants stood still (single-task standing) and walked while simultaneously completing a cognitive test (dual-task gait), and completed walking trials without the cognitive test (single-task gait). Spatial-temporal gait parameters were compared between collision/contact and noncontact athletes using MANCOVAs; cognitive task performance was compared using ANCOVAs. No significant single-task or dual-task gait differences were found between collision/contact and noncontact athletes. Noncontact athletes demonstrated higher cognitive task accuracy during single-task standing (P = .001) and dual-task gait conditions (P = .02) than collision/contact athletes. These data demonstrate the utility of a dual-task gait assessment outside of a laboratory and suggest that preinjury cognitive task performance during dual-tasks may differ between athletes of different sport classifications.

  3. The relation between task characteristics, BI quality and task compatibility: An explorative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardboe, Rikke; Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Nyvang, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between task characteristics, business intelligence (BI) quality, and task compatibility. It is essential to investigate this relationship, as BI often builds up data from the organization's existing information systems, and thus......, is a supplement. In addition, there is a gap within existing research about task characteristics and BI. We conducted a survey of three companies, where 104 BI end users answered the questionnaire. Our findings reveal that BI users who experience high information quality solve difficult tasks, have a specified...

  4. "Smart inhibition": electrophysiological evidence for the suppression of conflict-generating task rules during task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Chang, Chi-Chih

    2011-09-01

    A major challenge for task switching is maintaining a balance between high task readiness and effectively ignoring irrelevant task rules. This calls for finely tuned inhibition that targets only the source of interference without adversely influencing other task-related representations. The authors show that irrelevant task rules generating response conflict are inhibited, causing their inefficient execution on the next trial (indicating the presence of competitor rule suppression[CRS];Meiran, Hsieh, & Dimov, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36, 992-1002, 2010). To determine whether CRS influences task rules, rather than target stimuli or responses, the authors focused on the processing of the task cue before the target stimulus was presented and before the response could be chosen. As was predicted, CRS was found in the event-related potentials in two time windows during task cue processing. It was also found in three time windows after target presentation. Source localization analyses suggest the involvement of the right dorsal prefrontal cortex in all five time windows.

  5. Molecular entomology: analyzing tiny molecules to answer big questions about disease vectors and their biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomologists at the Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit at USDA-Agricultural Research Service are tasked with protecting the nation’s livestock from domestic, foreign and emerging vector-borne diseases. To accomplish this task, a vast array of molecular techniques are being used in pr...

  6. Binding Task-Based Language Teaching and Task-Based Language Testing: A Survey into EFL Teachers and Learners' Views of Task-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In most settings, task-based language teaching and testing have been dissociated from each other. That is why this study came to rethink of the learners' views towards awareness and implementation of task-based language teaching through IELTS listening tasks. To these objectives, after sketching instrumentation, the learners were divided into…

  7. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA) Consensus Task Force recommendations for evaluation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groh, Matthieu; Pagnoux, Christian; Baldini, Chiara; Bel, Elisabeth; Bottero, Paolo; Cottin, Vincent; Dalhoff, Klaus; Dunogué, Bertrand; Gross, Wolfgang; Holle, Julia; Humbert, Marc; Jayne, David; Jennette, J. Charles; Lazor, Romain; Mahr, Alfred; Merkel, Peter A.; Mouthon, Luc; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Specks, Ulrich; Vaglio, Augusto; Wechsler, Michael E.; Cordier, Jean-François; Guillevin, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    To develop disease-specific recommendations for the diagnosis and management of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) (EGPA). The EGPA Consensus Task Force experts comprised 8 pulmonologists, 6 internists, 4 rheumatologists, 3 nephrologists, 1 pathologist and 1

  8. Impaired anticipatory control of grasp during obstacle crossing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Tara L; Diermayr, Gudrun; Albert, Frederic

    2012-05-16

    During self-paced walking, people with Parkinson's disease maintain anticipatory control during object grasping. However, common functional tasks often include carrying an object while changing step patterns mid-path and maneuvering over obstacles, increasing task complexity and attentional demands. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of Parkinson's disease on the modulation of grasping force changes as a function of gait-related inertial forces. Subjects with Parkinson's disease maintained the ability to scale and to couple over time their grip and inertial forces while walking at irregular step lengths, but were unable to maintain the temporal coupling of grasping forces compared to controls during obstacle crossing. We suggest that this deterioration in anticipatory control is associated with the increased demands of task complexity and attention during obstacle crossing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advantages and disadvantages of intraoperative language tasks in awake surgery: a three-task approach for prefrontal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, A; Spena, G; Miozzo, A; Fontanella, M M; Miceli, G

    2015-12-01

    Multidisciplinary efforts are being made to provide surgical teams with sensitive and specific tasks for language mapping in awake surgery. Researchers and clinicians have elaborated different tasks over time. A fair amount of work has been directed to study the neurofunctional correlates of some of these tasks, and there is recent interest in their standardization. However, little discussion exists on the advantages and disadvantages that each task poses from the perspective of the cognitive neuroscience of language. Such an approach may be a relevant step to assess task validity, to avoid using tasks that tap onto similar processes, and to provide patients with a surgical treatment that ensures maximal tumor resection while avoiding postoperative language deficits. An understanding of the language components that each task entails may also be relevant to improve the current assessments and the ways in which tasks are administered, and to disentangle neurofunctional questions. We reviewed 17 language mapping tasks that have been used in awake surgery. Overt production tasks have been a preferred choice over comprehension tasks. Tasks tapping lexico-semantic processes, particularly object-naming, maintain their role as gold standards. Automated speech tasks are used to detect speech errors and to set the amplitude of the stimulator. Comprehension tasks, reading and writing tasks, and tasks that assess grammatical aspects of language may be regularly administered in the near future. We provide examples of a three-task approach we are administering to patients with prefrontal lesions. We believe that future advances in this area are contingent upon reviewing gold standards and introducing new assessment tools.

  10. Yamaguchi Facial Expression-Making Task in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Novel and Enjoyable Make-a-Face Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoharu Yamaguchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the ability to make emotional facial expressions, we newly developed the Yamaguchi facial expression-making task (Y-FEMT. Method: We recruited 20 normal controls and 61 outpatients: 10 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, 34 with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and 17 with moderate AD. In the Y-FEMT, smile and anger expressions were made by arranging face parts. We examined the relationship between each Y-FEMT score and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score or overlapping figure identification test (Fig-test. Results: The Total score (0–20 was nearly achieved in controls (18.9 ± 1.4 and declined with AD progression (aMCI 17.2 ± 2.4, mild AD 15.7 ± 2.6, moderate AD 12.3 ± 2.7. The Anger score (0–10 was significantly lower than the Smile score (0–10 in mild and moderate AD (p = 0.007 and p = 0.006, respectively. The Structure score (0–6 each correlated well with both the MMSE score (r = 0.44, p Conclusion: The Y-FEMT pleasantly assessed the ability to make emotional facial expressions without special equipment. Furthermore, the Y-FEMT may provide helpful clues for caregivers to achieve good communication with AD patients for better care.

  11. Task-specific feature extraction and classification of fMRI volumes using a deep neural network initialized with a deep belief network: Evaluation using sensorimotor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hojin; Plis, Sergey M; Calhoun, Vince D; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2017-01-15

    extraction of hidden representations of fMRI volumes associated with tasks across multiple hidden layers. Our study may be beneficial to the automatic classification/diagnosis of neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases and prediction of disease severity and recovery in (pre-) clinical settings using fMRI volumes without requiring an estimation of activation patterns or ad hoc statistical evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Task Repetition Effects on L1 Use in EFL Child Task-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkarai, Agurtzane; García Mayo, María del Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that tasks provide second language (L2) learners with many opportunities to learn the L2. Task repetition has been claimed to benefit L2 learning since familiarity with procedure and/or content gives learners the chance to focus on more specific aspects of language. Most research on task repetition has focused on adult…

  13. Visual control improves the accuracy of hand positioning in Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia J. Sitek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study aimed at demonstrating dependence of visual feedback during hand and finger positioning task performance among Huntington’s disease patients in comparison to patients with Parkinson’s disease and cervical dystonia. Material and methods: Eighty-nine patients participated in the study (23 with Huntington’s disease, 25 with Parkinson’s disease with dyskinesias, 21 with Parkinson’s disease without dyskinesias, and 20 with cervical dystonia, scoring ≥20 points on Mini-Mental State Examination in order to assure comprehension of task instructions. Neurological examination comprised of the motor section from the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale for Huntington’s disease, the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part II–IV for Parkinson’s disease and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for cervical dystonia. In order to compare hand position accuracy under visually controlled and blindfolded conditions, the patient imitated each of the 10 examiner’s hand postures twice, once under the visual control condition and once with no visual feedback provided. Results: Huntington’s disease patients imitated examiner’s hand positions less accurately under blindfolded condition in comparison to Parkinson’s disease without dyskinesias and cervical dystonia participants. Under visually controlled condition there were no significant inter-group differences. Conclusions: Huntington’s disease patients exhibit higher dependence on visual feedback while performing motor tasks than Parkinson’s disease and cervical dystonia patients. Possible improvement of movement precision in Huntington’s disease with the use of visual cues could be potentially useful in the patients’ rehabilitation.

  14. Automatic detection of erythemato-squamous diseases using k-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya; Doğdu, Erdoğan

    2010-04-01

    A new approach based on the implementation of k-means clustering is presented for automated detection of erythemato-squamous diseases. The purpose of clustering techniques is to find a structure for the given data by finding similarities between data according to data characteristics. The studied domain contained records of patients with known diagnosis. The k-means clustering algorithm's task was to classify the data points, in this case the patients with attribute data, to one of the five clusters. The algorithm was used to detect the five erythemato-squamous diseases when 33 features defining five disease indications were used. The purpose is to determine an optimum classification scheme for this problem. The present research demonstrated that the features well represent the erythemato-squamous diseases and the k-means clustering algorithm's task achieved high classification accuracies for only five erythemato-squamous diseases.

  15. Brain processing of task-relevant and task-irrelevant emotional words: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Triñanes, Yolanda; Zurrón, Montserrat; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence for preferential perceptual processing of written emotional information, the effects of attentional manipulations and the time course of affective processing require further clarification. In this study, we attempted to investigate how the emotional content of words modulates cerebral functioning (event-related potentials, ERPs) and behavior (reaction times, RTs) when the content is task-irrelevant (emotional Stroop Task, EST) or task-relevant (emotional categorization task, ECT), in a sample of healthy middle-aged women. In the EST, the RTs were longer for emotional words than for neutral words, and in the ECT, they were longer for neutral and negative words than for positive words. A principal components analysis of the ERPs identified various temporospatial factors that were differentially modified by emotional content. P2 was the first emotion-sensitive component, with enhanced factor scores for negative nouns across tasks. The N2 and late positive complex had enhanced factor scores for emotional relative to neutral information only in the ECT. The results reinforce the idea that written emotional information has a preferential processing route, both when it is task-irrelevant (producing behavioral interference) and when it is task-relevant (facilitating the categorization). After early automatic processing of the emotional content, late ERPs become more emotionally modulated as the level of attention to the valence increases.

  16. Task-related modulation of visual neglect in cancellation tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Sarri, Margarita; Greenwood, Richard; Kalra, Lalit; Driver, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Unilateral neglect involves deficits of spatial exploration and awareness that do not always affect a fixed portion of extrapersonal space, but may vary with current stimulation and possibly with task demands. Here, we assessed any ‘top-down’, task-related influences on visual neglect, with novel experimental variants of the cancellation test. Many different versions of the cancellation test are used clinically, and can differ in the extent of neglect revealed, though the exact factors determ...

  17. Allocating time to future tasks: the effect of task segmentation on planning fallacy bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Darryl K; Burt, Christopher D B

    2008-06-01

    The scheduling component of the time management process was used as a "paradigm" to investigate the allocation of time to future tasks. In three experiments, we compared task time allocation for a single task with the summed time allocations given for each subtask that made up the single task. In all three, we found that allocated time for a single task was significantly smaller than the summed time allocated to the individual subtasks. We refer to this as the segmentation effect. In Experiment 3, we asked participants to give estimates by placing a mark on a time line, and found that giving time allocations in the form of rounded close approximations probably does not account for the segmentation effect. We discuss the results in relation to the basic processes used to allocate time to future tasks and the means by which planning fallacy bias might be reduced.

  18. Is Performance in Task-Cuing Experiments Mediated by Task Set Selection or Associative Compound Retrieval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Charlotte L. D.; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P. L.

    2014-01-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed,…

  19. Talking while walking: Cognitive loading and injurious falls in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Leonard L; Stierwalt, Julie A G; Maitland, Charles G

    2010-10-01

    Multitasking has become a way of life, from operating multiple software packages simultaneously on a computer, to carrying on a conversation on a cell phone while driving. Perhaps one of the most common dual tasks performed is talking while walking. In isolation, neither task would be considered difficult to perform, yet when coupled, the relative ease of each task may change. This paper details significant problems that result from injurious falls, and points out the vulnerability of those who have been diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. In addition, it provides an illustrative study that demonstrates the potential danger of talking while walking, especially when the cognitive-linguistic complexity of verbal tasks is manipulated. In this investigation, 25 participants with Parkinson's disease and 13 participants without neurological compromise completed gait tasks while conducting tasks of low (counting by ones), middle (serial subtraction of threes), and high load (alpha-numeric sequencing). The results indicated that cognitive-linguistic demand had an impact on gait, the effects of which were demonstrated in individuals without neurological compromise as well as those with Parkinson's disease. One finding, altered double-support time, distinguished the Parkinson group from the control participants. These results suggest that it might be prudent for healthcare professionals and caregivers to alter expectations and monitor the cognitive-linguistic demands placed on elderly individuals, particularly those with neurological compromise who might be at greater risk for injurious falls.

  20. Dividing attention between tasks : Testing whether explicit payoff functions elicit optimal dual-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmer, George D.; Janssen, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412781654; Nguyen, Anh T; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2018-01-01

    We test people's ability to optimize performance across two concurrent tasks. Participants performed a number entry task while controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. Participants received explicit feedback on their performance on these tasks in the form of a single combined score.

  1. Physical Education-in-CLIL tasks. Determining tasks characteristics through the analysis of the diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Coral Mateu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the characteristics of Physical Education-in-CLIL (PE-in-CLIL tasks. CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning is a teaching approach which uses foreign language as a tool to enhance the subject learning process. We connect PE-in-CLIL with key competences and we introduce the CLIL 4Cs framework. We establish the aims of the study, that is; to describe the features of tasks which are most suitable to PE-in-CLIL and identify integrated tasks which appeal most to learners. We use Action-Research and we collect data through diaries. The participants of the study were twenty-six learners of 5th grade of primary school. We described the strategies of rigour and quality applied and we analysed data using a qualitative data analysis software programme (NVivo. In the results, we identify both the tasks that appeal to students and the tasks that are developed successfully. In the conclusions, we provide teaching guidelines to plan successful PE-in-CLIL tasks that appeal to students. At this point, we emphasise tasks that combined both cooperative learning and oracy with motor activity and games. We also declare the necessity of incorporating scaffolding strategies in order to accommodate students’ linguistic needs and facilitate tasks development. Future CLIL research possibilities emerge in the Physical Education field of work.

  2. The stress of being chronically ill: from disease-specific to task-specific aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.; Foets, M.; Ridder, D. de; Schreurs, K.; Bensing, J.

    2004-01-01

    The assumption that disease-related stressors are exclusive for particular diagnoses characterizes many studies of chronically ill patients. In this study the perceptions of 1305 patients from 10 different chronic disease categories were compared with respect to a number of important stressors.

  3. The stress of being chronically ill: from disease-specific to task-specific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.; Foets, M.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Schreurs, K.; Bensing, J.

    The assumption that disease-related stressors are exclusive for particular diagnoses characterizes many studies of chronically ill patients. In this study the perceptions of 1305 patients from 10 different chronic disease categories were compared with respect to a number of important stressors.

  4. Succumbing to Bottom-Up Biases on Task Choice Predicts Increased Switch Costs in the Voluntary Task Switching Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M.; Weissman, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom-up biases are widely thought to influence task choice in the voluntary task switching paradigm. Definitive support for this hypothesis is lacking, however, because task choice and task performance are usually confounded. We therefore revisited this hypothesis using a paradigm in which task choice and task performance are temporally separated. As predicted, participants tended to choose the task that was primed by bottom-up biases. Moreover, such choices were linked to increased switch costs during subsequent task performance. These findings provide compelling evidence that bottom-up biases influence voluntary task choice. They also suggest that succumbing to such biases reflects a reduction of top-down control that persists to influence upcoming task performance. PMID:21713192

  5. Bimanual Gesture Imitation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, G Nter; Benke, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Unimanual gesture production or imitation has often been studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD) during apraxia testing. In the present study, it was hypothesized that bimanual motor tasks may be a sensitive method to detect impairments of motor cognition in AD due to increased demands on the cognitive system. We investigated bimanual, meaningless gesture imitation in 45 AD outpatients, 38 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 50 normal controls (NC) attending a memory clinic. Participants performed neuropsychological background testing and three tasks: the Interlocking Finger Test (ILF), Imitation of Alternating Hand Movements (AHM), and Bimanual Rhythm Tapping (BRT). The tasks were short and easy to administer. Inter-rater reliability was high across all three tests. AD patients performed significantly poorer than NC and MCI participants; a deficit to imitate bimanual gestures was rarely found in MCI and NC participants. Sensitivity to detect AD ranged from 0.5 and 0.7, specificity beyond 0.9. ROC analyses revealed good diagnostic accuracy (0.77 to 0.92). Impairment to imitate bimanual gestures was mainly predicted by diagnosis and disease severity. Our findings suggest that an impairment to imitate bimanual, meaningless gestures is a valid disease marker of mild to moderate AD and can easily be assessed in memory clinic settings. Based on our preliminary findings, it appears to be a separate impairment which can be distinguished from other cognitive deficits.

  6. Dual-Task Walking in Challenging Environments in People with Stroke: Cognitive-Motor Interference and Task Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Timmermans

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive-motor interference may contribute to the risk of falling in people with stroke, as may be the associated phenomenon of inappropriate task prioritization. Examining dual-task walking could provide valuable insights as to how to best evaluate and treat walking in people with stroke. This study aimed to examine the effect of different walking environments on cognitive-motor interference and task prioritization in dual-task walking in people with stroke. Using a repeated-measures design, cognitive-motor interference and task prioritization were assessed in 30 stroke survivors, while walking in a plain environment and in two challenging environments that were enriched with either stationary physical context or suddenly appearing projector-augmented context. All three walking environment conditions were performed with and without a concurrent serial-3 subtraction task. We found stronger cognitive-motor interference for the two challenging environments than for the plain walking environment. Cognitive-motor interference did not differ between challenging walking environments, but task prioritization did: motor performance was prioritized more in the environment with physical context than in the environment with projector-augmented context and vice versa for cognitive-task performance. In conclusion, walking environment strongly influenced cognitive-motor interference and task prioritization during dual-task walking in people with stroke.

  7. Quantitative motor performance and sleep benefit in Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gilst, Merel; van Mierlo, P.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Many people with Parkinson disease experience "sleep benefit": temporarily improved mobility upon awakening. Here we used quantitative motor tasks to assess the influence of sleep on motor functioning in Parkinson disease. DESIGN: Eighteen Parkinson patients with and 20 without

  8. Task Selection, Task Switching and Multitasking during Computer-Based Independent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Detailed logs of students' computer use, during independent study sessions, were captured in an open-access computer laboratory. Each log consisted of a chronological sequence of tasks representing either the application or the Internet domain displayed in the workstation's active window. Each task was classified using a three-tier schema…

  9. Dynamic, continuous multitasking training leads to task-specific improvements but does not transfer across action selection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Angela D.; Filmer, Hannah L.; Naughtin, Claire K.; Dux, Paul E.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to perform multiple tasks concurrently is an ever-increasing requirement in our information-rich world. Despite this, multitasking typically compromises performance due to the processing limitations associated with cognitive control and decision-making. While intensive dual-task training is known to improve multitasking performance, only limited evidence suggests that training-related performance benefits can transfer to untrained tasks that share overlapping processes. In the real world, however, coordinating and selecting several responses within close temporal proximity will often occur in high-interference environments. Over the last decade, there have been notable reports that training on video action games that require dynamic multitasking in a demanding environment can lead to transfer effects on aspects of cognition such as attention and working memory. Here, we asked whether continuous and dynamic multitasking training extends benefits to tasks that are theoretically related to the trained tasks. To examine this issue, we asked a group of participants to train on a combined continuous visuomotor tracking task and a perceptual discrimination task for six sessions, while an active control group practiced the component tasks in isolation. A battery of tests measuring response selection, response inhibition, and spatial attention was administered before and immediately after training to investigate transfer. Multitasking training resulted in substantial, task-specific gains in dual-task ability, but there was no evidence that these benefits generalized to other action control tasks. The findings suggest that training on a combined visuomotor tracking and discrimination task results in task-specific benefits but provides no additional value for untrained action selection tasks.

  10. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    by shared goals and knowledge as well as mutual respect and frequent, timely, accurate and problem-solving ways of communication with the purpose of dealing with the tasks at hand in an integrated way. We introduce and discuss relational coordination theory through a case-study within public healthcare....... Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  11. Impact of task design on task performance and injury risk: case study of a simulated drilling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkarim, Saad; Nussbaum, Maury A; Rashedi, Ehsan; Kim, Sunwook; Agnew, Michael; Gardner, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Existing evidence is limited regarding the influence of task design on performance and ergonomic risk, or the association between these two outcomes. In a controlled experiment, we constructed a mock fuselage to simulate a drilling task common in aircraft manufacturing, and examined the effect of three levels of workstation adjustability on performance as measured by productivity (e.g. fuselage completion time) and quality (e.g. fuselage defective holes), and ergonomic risk as quantified using two common methods (rapid upper limb assessment and the strain index). The primary finding was that both productivity and quality significantly improved with increased adjustability, yet this occurred only when that adjustability succeeded in reducing ergonomic risk. Supporting the inverse association between ergonomic risk and performance, the condition with highest adjustability created the lowest ergonomic risk and the best performance while there was not a substantial difference in ergonomic risk between the other two conditions, in which performance was also comparable. Practitioner Summary: Findings of this study supported a causal relationship between task design and both ergonomic risk and performance, and that ergonomic risk and performance are inversely associated. While future work is needed under more realistic conditions and a broader population, these results may be useful for task (re)design and to help cost-justify some ergonomic interventions.

  12. The location discrimination reversal task in mice is sensitive to deficits in performance caused by aging, pharmacological and other challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Radka; Longo, Jami L; Hughes, Zoë A

    2018-06-01

    Deficits in hippocampal-mediated pattern separation are one aspect of cognitive function affected in schizophrenia (SZ) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). To develop novel therapies, it is beneficial to explore this specific aspect of cognition preclinically. The location discrimination reversal (LDR) task is a hippocampal-dependent operant paradigm that evaluates spatial learning and cognitive flexibility using touchscreens. Here we assessed baseline performance as well as multimodal disease-relevant manipulations in mice. Mice were trained to discriminate between the locations of two images where the degree of separation impacted performance. Administration of putative pro-cognitive agents was unable to improve performance at narrow separation. Furthermore, a range of disease-relevant manipulations were characterized to assess whether performance could be impaired and restored. Pertinent to the cholinergic loss in AD, scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg) produced a disruption in LDR, which was attenuated by donepezil (1 mg/kg). Consistent with NMDA hypofunction in cognitive impairment associated with SZ, MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) also disrupted performance; however, this deficit was not modified by rolipram. Microdeletion of genes associated with SZ (22q11) resulted in impaired performance, which was restored by rolipram (0.032 mg/kg). Since aging and inflammation affect cognition and are risk factors for AD, these aspects were also evaluated. Aged mice were slower to acquire the task than young mice and did not reach the same level of performance. A systemic inflammatory challenge (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 mg/kg) produced prolonged (7 days) deficits in the LDR task. These data suggest that LDR task is a valuable platform for evaluating disease-relevant deficits in pattern separation and offers potential for identifying novel therapies.

  13. Efficient task assignment in spatial crowdsourcing with worker and task privacy protection

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, An

    2017-08-01

    Spatial crowdsourcing (SC) outsources tasks to a set of workers who are required to physically move to specified locations and accomplish tasks. Recently, it is emerging as a promising tool for emergency management, as it enables efficient and cost-effective collection of critical information in emergency such as earthquakes, when search and rescue survivors in potential ares are required. However in current SC systems, task locations and worker locations are all exposed in public without any privacy protection. SC systems if attacked thus have penitential risk of privacy leakage. In this paper, we propose a protocol for protecting the privacy for both workers and task requesters while maintaining the functionality of SC systems. The proposed protocol is built on partially homomorphic encryption schemes, and can efficiently realize complex operations required during task assignment over encrypted data through a well-designed computation strategy. We prove that the proposed protocol is privacy-preserving against semi-honest adversaries. Simulation on two real-world datasets shows that the proposed protocol is more effective than existing solutions and can achieve mutual privacy-preserving with acceptable computation and communication cost.

  14. Theory of mind deficit in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bianchino, Claudia; Brach-Prever, Silvia; Riggi, Chiara; Palumbo, Luigi; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2015-10-01

    This article provides the first assessment of theory of mind, that is, the ability to reason about mental states, in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital heart disease and matched healthy controls were administered classical theory of mind tasks and a semi-structured interview which provides a multidimensional evaluation of theory of mind (Theory of Mind Assessment Scale). The patients with congenital heart disease performed worse than the controls on the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale, whereas they did as well as the control group on the classical theory-of-mind tasks. These findings provide the first evidence that adults with congenital heart disease may display specific impairments in theory of mind. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Efficient task assignment in spatial crowdsourcing with worker and task privacy protection

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, An; Wang, Weiqi; Shang, Shuo; Li, Qing; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Spatial crowdsourcing (SC) outsources tasks to a set of workers who are required to physically move to specified locations and accomplish tasks. Recently, it is emerging as a promising tool for emergency management, as it enables efficient and cost

  16. Task-dependent changes of corticospinal excitability during observation and motor imagery of balance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, A; Ruffieux, J; Wälchli, M; Keller, M; Taube, W

    2015-09-10

    Non-physical balance training has demonstrated to be efficient to improve postural control in young people. However, little is known about the potential to increase corticospinal excitability by mental simulation in lower leg muscles. Mental simulation of isolated, voluntary contractions of limb muscles increase corticospinal excitability but more automated tasks like walking seem to have no or only minor effects on motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may be related to the way of performing the mental simulation or the task itself. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify how corticospinal excitability is modulated during AO+MI, MI and action observation (AO) of balance tasks. For this purpose, MEPs and H-reflexes were elicited during three different mental simulations (a) AO+MI, (b) MI and (c) passive AO. For each condition, two balance tasks were evaluated: (1) quiet upright stance (static) and (2) compensating a medio-lateral perturbation while standing on a free-swinging platform (dynamic). AO+MI resulted in the largest facilitation of MEPs followed by MI and passive AO. MEP facilitation was significantly larger in the dynamic perturbation than in the static standing task. Interestingly, passive observation resulted in hardly any facilitation independent of the task. H-reflex amplitudes were not modulated. The current results demonstrate that corticospinal excitability during mental simulation of balance tasks is influenced by both the type of mental simulation and the task difficulty. As H-reflexes and background EMG were not modulated, it may be argued that changes in excitability of the primary motor cortex were responsible for the MEP modulation. From a functional point of view, our findings suggest best training/rehabilitation effects when combining MI with AO during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The development of a task analysis method applicable to the tasks of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Chul; Park, Ji Soo; Baek, Dong Hyeon; Ham, Dong Han; Kim, Huhn [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    While task analysis is one of the essential processes for human factors studies, traditional methods reveal weaknesses in dealing with the cognitive aspects, which become more critical in modern complex system. This report proposes a cognitive task analysis (CTA) method for identifying cognitive requirements of operators' tasks in nuclear power plants. The proposed CTA method is characterized by the information-oriented concept and procedure-based approach. The task prescription identifies the information requirements and trace the information flow to reveal the cognitive organization of task procedure with emphasis to the relations among the information requirements. The cognitive requirements are then analyzed in terms of cognitive span of task information, cognitive envelope and working memory relief point of t procedures, and working memory load. The proposed method is relatively simple and, possibly being incorporated in a full task analysis scheme, directly applicable to the design/evaluation of human-machine interfaces and operating procedures. A prototype of a computerized support system is developed for supporting the practicality of the proposed method. (Author) 104 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. The development of a task analysis method applicable to the tasks of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Chul; Park, Ji Soo; Baek, Dong Hyeon; Ham, Dong Han; Kim, Huhn [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    While task analysis is one of the essential processes for human factors studies, traditional methods reveal weaknesses in dealing with the cognitive aspects, which become more critical in modern complex system. This report proposes a cognitive task analysis (CTA) method for identifying cognitive requirements of operators' tasks in nuclear power plants. The proposed CTA method is characterized by the information-oriented concept and procedure-based approach. The task prescription identifies the information requirements and trace the information flow to reveal the cognitive organization of task procedure with emphasis to the relations among the information requirements. The cognitive requirements are then analyzed in terms of cognitive span of task information, cognitive envelope and working memory relief point of t procedures, and working memory load. The proposed method is relatively simple and, possibly being incorporated in a full task analysis scheme, directly applicable to the design/evaluation of human-machine interfaces and operating procedures. A prototype of a computerized support system is developed for supporting the practicality of the proposed method. (Author) 104 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. Secondary task for full flight simulation incorporating tasks that commonly cause pilot error: Time estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, E.

    1975-01-01

    The task of time estimation, an activity occasionally performed by pilots during actual flight, was investigated with the objective of providing human factors investigators with an unobtrusive and minimally loading additional task that is sensitive to differences in flying conditions and flight instrumentation associated with the main task of piloting an aircraft simulator. Previous research indicated that the duration and consistency of time estimates is associated with the cognitive, perceptual, and motor loads imposed by concurrent simple tasks. The relationships between the length and variability of time estimates and concurrent task variables under a more complex situation involving simulated flight were clarified. The wrap-around effect with respect to baseline duration, a consequence of mode switching at intermediate levels of concurrent task distraction, should contribute substantially to estimate variability and have a complex effect on the shape of the resulting distribution of estimates.

  20. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  1. DISEASES: text mining and data integration of disease-gene associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Binder, Janos X; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-03-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases. The DISEASES resource is accessible through a web interface at http://diseases.jensenlab.org/, where the text-mining software and all associations are also freely available for download. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decision paths in complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  3. Multi-task Vector Field Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Binbin; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Chiyuan; Ye, Jieping; He, Xiaofei

    2012-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve generalization performance by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously and identifying the shared information among tasks. Most of existing MTL methods focus on learning linear models under the supervised setting. We propose a novel semi-supervised and nonlinear approach for MTL using vector fields. A vector field is a smooth mapping from the manifold to the tangent spaces which can be viewed as a directional derivative of functions on the manifold. We argue that vector fields provide a natural way to exploit the geometric structure of data as well as the shared differential structure of tasks, both of which are crucial for semi-supervised multi-task learning. In this paper, we develop multi-task vector field learning (MTVFL) which learns the predictor functions and the vector fields simultaneously. MTVFL has the following key properties. (1) The vector fields MTVFL learns are close to the gradient fields of the predictor functions. (2) Within each task, the vector field is required to be as parallel as possible which is expected to span a low dimensional subspace. (3) The vector fields from all tasks share a low dimensional subspace. We formalize our idea in a regularization framework and also provide a convex relaxation method to solve the original non-convex problem. The experimental results on synthetic and real data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  4. Six quantitative trait loci influence task thresholds for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Peter R; Spivak, Marla; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2010-04-01

    Honeybee hygienic behaviour provides colonies with protection from many pathogens and is an important model system of the genetics of a complex behaviour. It is a textbook example of complex behaviour under simple genetic control: hygienic behaviour consists of two components--uncapping a diseased brood cell, followed by removal of the contents--each of which are thought to be modulated independently by a few loci of medium to large effect. A worker's genetic propensity to engage in hygienic tasks affects the intensity of the stimulus required before she initiates the behaviour. Genetic diversity within colonies leads to task specialization among workers, with a minority of workers performing the majority of nest-cleaning tasks. We identify three quantitative trait loci that influence the likelihood that workers will engage in hygienic behaviour and account for up to 30% of the phenotypic variability in hygienic behaviour in our population. Furthermore, we identify two loci that influence the likelihood that a worker will perform uncapping behaviour only, and one locus that influences removal behaviour. We report the first candidate genes associated with engaging in hygienic behaviour, including four genes involved in olfaction, learning and social behaviour, and one gene involved in circadian locomotion. These candidates will allow molecular characterization of this distinctive behavioural mode of disease resistance, as well as providing the opportunity for marker-assisted selection for this commercially significant trait.

  5. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  6. Mild cognitive impairment: loss of linguistic task-induced changes in motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, L; Giovannelli, F; Bessi, V; Borgheresi, A; Di Tullio, A; Sorbi, S; Zaccara, G; Cincotta, M

    2009-03-10

    In amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), functional neuronal connectivity may be altered, as suggested by quantitative EEG and neuroimaging data. In young healthy humans, the execution of linguistic tasks modifies the excitability of the hand area of the dominant primary motor cortex (M1(hand)), as tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We used TMS to investigate functional connectivity between language-related cortical areas and M1(hand) in aMCI. Ten elderly women with aMCI and 10 age-matched women were recruited. All participants were right handed and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. In the first TMS experiment, participants performed three different tasks: reading aloud, viewing of non-letter strings (baseline), and nonverbal oral movements. The second experiment included the baseline condition and three visual searching/matching tasks using letters, geometric shapes, or digits as target stimuli. In controls, motor evoked potentials (MEP) elicited by suprathreshold TMS of the left M1(hand) were significantly larger during reading aloud (170% baseline) than during nonverbal oral movements, whereas no difference was seen for right M1(hand) stimulation. Similarly, MEP elicited by left M1(hand) stimulation during letter and shape searching/matching tasks were significantly larger compared to digit task. In contrast, linguistic task performance did not produce any significant MEP modulation in patients with aMCI, although neuropsychological evaluation showed normal language abilities. Findings suggest that functional connectivity between the language-related brain regions and the dominant M1(hand) may be altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Follow-up studies will reveal whether transcranial magnetic stimulation application during linguistic tasks may contribute to characterize the risk of conversion to Alzheimer disease.

  7. Exploring the role of task performance and learning style on prefrontal hemodynamics during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Afrouz A; Parsa, Kian; Geiger, Sydney; Zaragoza, Rachel; Kermanian, Riley; Miguel, Helga; Dashtestani, Hadis; Chowdhry, Fatima A; Smith, Elizabeth; Aram, Siamak; Gandjbakhche, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Existing literature outlines the quality and location of activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during working memory (WM) tasks. However, the effects of individual differences on the underlying neural process of WM tasks are still unclear. In this functional near infrared spectroscopy study, we administered a visual and auditory n-back task to examine activation in the PFC while considering the influences of task performance, and preferred learning strategy (VARK score). While controlling for age, results indicated that high performance (HP) subjects (accuracy > 90%) showed task dependent lower activation compared to normal performance subjects in PFC region Specifically HP groups showed lower activation in left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) region during performance of auditory task whereas during visual task they showed lower activation in the right DLPFC. After accounting for learning style, we found a correlation between visual and aural VARK score and level of activation in the PFC. Subjects with higher visual VARK scores displayed lower activation during auditory task in left DLPFC, while those with higher visual scores exhibited higher activation during visual task in bilateral DLPFC. During performance of auditory task, HP subjects had higher visual VARK scores compared to NP subjects indicating an effect of learning style on the task performance and activation. The results of this study show that learning style and task performance can influence PFC activation, with applications toward neurological implications of learning style and populations with deficits in auditory or visual processing.

  8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging exploration of combined hand and speech movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Serge; Mancini, Laura; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Thornton, John S; Tripoliti, Elina; Yousry, Tarek A; Limousin, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Among the repertoire of motor functions, although hand movement and speech production tasks have been investigated widely by functional neuroimaging, paradigms combining both movements have been studied less so. Such paradigms are of particular interest in Parkinson's disease, in which patients have specific difficulties performing two movements simultaneously. In 9 unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease and 15 healthy control subjects, externally cued tasks (i.e., hand movement, speech production, and combined hand movement and speech production) were performed twice in a random order and functional magnetic resonance imaging detected cerebral activations, compared to the rest. F-statistics tested within-group (significant activations at P values 10 voxels). For control subjects, the combined task activations comprised the sum of those obtained during hand movement and speech production performed separately, reflecting the neural correlates of performing movements sharing similar programming modalities. In patients with Parkinson's disease, only activations underlying hand movement were observed during the combined task. We interpreted this phenomenon as patients' potential inability to recruit facilitatory activations while performing two movements simultaneously. This lost capacity could be related to a functional prioritization of one movement (i.e., hand movement), in comparison with the other (i.e., speech production). Our observation could also reflect the inability of patients with Parkinson's disease to intrinsically engage the motor coordination necessary to perform a combined task. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Estimating the operator's performance time of emergency procedural tasks based on a task complexity measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dae; Park, Jink Yun

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the amount of time required to execute an emergency procedural task in a high-stress situation for managing human performance under emergencies in a nuclear power plant. However, the time to execute an emergency procedural task is highly dependent upon expert judgment due to the lack of actual data. This paper proposes an analytical method to estimate the operator's performance time (OPT) of a procedural task, which is based on a measure of the task complexity (TACOM). The proposed method for estimating an OPT is an equation that uses the TACOM as a variable, and the OPT of a procedural task can be calculated if its relevant TACOM score is available. The validity of the proposed equation is demonstrated by comparing the estimated OPTs with the observed OPTs for emergency procedural tasks in a steam generator tube rupture scenario.

  10. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  11. The task complexity experiment 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laumann, Karin; Braarud, Per Oeivind; Svengren, Haakan

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore how additional tasks added to base case scenarios affected the operators' performance of the main tasks. These additional tasks were in different scenario variants intended to cause high time pressure, high information load, and high masking. The experiment was run in Halden Man-Machine Laboratory's BWR simulator. Seven crews participated, each for one week. There were three operators in each crew. Five main types of scenarios and 20 scenario variants were run. The data from the experiment were analysed by completion time for important actions and by in-depth qualitative analyses of the crews' communications. The results showed that high time pressure decreased some of the crews' performance in the scenarios. When a crew had problems in solving a task for which the time pressure was high, they had even more problems in solving other important tasks. High information load did not affect the operators' performance much and in general the crews were very good at selecting the most important tasks in the scenarios. The scenarios that included both high time pressure and high information load resulted in more reduced performance for the crews compared to the scenarios that only included high time pressure. The total amount of tasks to do and information load to attend to seemed to affect the crews' performance. To solve the scenarios with high time pressure well, it was important to have good communication and good allocation of tasks within the crew. Furthermore, the results showed that scenarios with an added complex, masked task created problems for some crews when solving a relatively simple main task. Overall, the results confirmed that complicating, but secondary tasks, that are not normally taken into account when modelling the primary tasks in a PRA scenario can adversely affect the performance of the main tasks modelled in the PRA scenario. (Author)

  12. Damaged-self recognition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris shows taxonomic specificity and triggers signalling via reactive oxygen species (ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia eDuran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants require reliable mechanisms to detect injury. Danger signals or 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs are released from stressed host cells and allow injury detection independently of enemy-derived molecules. We studied the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to the application of leaf homogenate as a source of DAMPs and measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS as an early response and the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN as a jasmonic acid (JA–dependent late response. We observed a strong taxonomic signal in the response to different leaf homogenates. ROS formation and EFN secretion were highly correlated and responded most strongly to leaf homogenates produced using the same cultivar or closely related accessions, less to a distantly related cultivar of common bean or each of the two congeneric species, P. lunatus and P. coccineus, and not at all to homogenates prepared from species in different genera, not even when using other Fabaceae. Interestingly, leaf homogenates also reduced the infection by the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, when they were applied directly before challenging, although the same homogenates exhibited no direct in vitro inhibitory effect in the bacterium. We conclude that ROS signaling is associated to the induction of EFN secretion and that the specific blend of DAMPs that are released from damaged cells allows the plant to distinguish the 'damaged self' from the damaged 'non-self'. The very early responses of plants to DAMPs can trigger resistance to both, herbivores and pathogens, which should be adaptive because injury facilitates infection, independently of its causal reason.

  13. Motor-cognitive dual-task performance: effects of a concurrent motor task on distinct components of visual processing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künstler, E C S; Finke, K; Günther, A; Klingner, C; Witte, O; Bublak, P

    2018-01-01

    Dual tasking, or the simultaneous execution of two continuous tasks, is frequently associated with a performance decline that can be explained within a capacity sharing framework. In this study, we assessed the effects of a concurrent motor task on the efficiency of visual information uptake based on the 'theory of visual attention' (TVA). TVA provides parameter estimates reflecting distinct components of visual processing capacity: perceptual threshold, visual processing speed, and visual short-term memory (VSTM) storage capacity. Moreover, goodness-of-fit values and bootstrapping estimates were derived to test whether the TVA-model is validly applicable also under dual task conditions, and whether the robustness of parameter estimates is comparable in single- and dual-task conditions. 24 subjects of middle to higher age performed a continuous tapping task, and a visual processing task (whole report of briefly presented letter arrays) under both single- and dual-task conditions. Results suggest a decline of both visual processing capacity and VSTM storage capacity under dual-task conditions, while the perceptual threshold remained unaffected by a concurrent motor task. In addition, goodness-of-fit values and bootstrapping estimates support the notion that participants processed the visual task in a qualitatively comparable, although quantitatively less efficient way under dual-task conditions. The results support a capacity sharing account of motor-cognitive dual tasking and suggest that even performing a relatively simple motor task relies on central attentional capacity that is necessary for efficient visual information uptake.

  14. A design space of visualization tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Nocke, Thomas; Heitzler, Magnus; Schumann, Heidrun

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about visualization tasks plays an important role in choosing or building suitable visual representations to pursue them. Yet, tasks are a multi-faceted concept and it is thus not surprising that the many existing task taxonomies and models all describe different aspects of tasks, depending on what these task descriptions aim to capture. This results in a clear need to bring these different aspects together under the common hood of a general design space of visualization tasks, which we propose in this paper. Our design space consists of five design dimensions that characterize the main aspects of tasks and that have so far been distributed across different task descriptions. We exemplify its concrete use by applying our design space in the domain of climate impact research. To this end, we propose interfaces to our design space for different user roles (developers, authors, and end users) that allow users of different levels of expertise to work with it.

  15. Contextual control over task-set retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D

    2010-11-01

    Contextual cues signaling task likelihood or the likelihood of task repetition are known to modulate the size of switch costs. We follow up on the finding by Leboe, Wong, Crump, and Stobbe (2008) that location cues predictive of the proportion of switch or repeat trials modulate switch costs. Their design employed one cue per task, whereas our experiment employed two cues per task, which allowed separate assessment of modulations to the cue-repetition benefit, a measure of lower level cue-encoding processes, and to the task-alternation cost, a measure of higher level processes representing task-set information. We demonstrate that location information predictive of switch proportion modulates performance at the level of task-set representations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that contextual control occurs even when subjects are unaware of the associations between context and switch likelihood. We discuss the notion that contextual information provides rapid, unconscious control over the extent to which prior task-set representations are retrieved in the service of guiding online performance.

  16. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  17. Age-related decrements in dual-task performance: Comparison of different mobility and cognitive tasks. A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo Riccardo; Magistro, Daniele; Zecca, Massimiliano; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica Emma

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the age-related differences in dual-task performance both in mobility and cognitive tasks and the additive dual-task costs in a sample of older, middle-aged and young adults. 74 older adults (M = 72.63±5.57 years), 58 middle-aged adults (M = 46.69±4.68 years) and 63 young adults (M = 25.34±3.00 years) participated in the study. Participants performed different mobility and subtraction tasks under both single- and dual-task conditions. Linear regressions, repeated-measures and one-way analyses of covariance were used, The results showed: significant effects of the age on the dual and mobility tasks (ptask costs (pperformance under dual-task conditions in all groups (pperformance in the older group (ptask activity affected mobility and cognitive performance, especially in older adults who showed a higher dual-task cost, suggesting that dual-tasks activities are affected by the age and consequently also mobility and cognitive tasks are negatively influenced.

  18. Thoughts in flight: automation use and pilots' task-related and task-unrelated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to examine the relationship between cockpit automation use and task-related and task-unrelated thought among airline pilots. Studies find that cockpit automation can sometimes relieve pilots of tedious control tasks and afford them more time to think ahead. Paradoxically, automation has also been shown to lead to lesser awareness. These results prompt the question of what pilots think about while using automation. A total of 18 airline pilots flew a Boeing 747-400 simulator while we recorded which of two levels of automation they used. As they worked, pilots were verbally probed about what they were thinking. Pilots were asked to categorize their thoughts as pertaining to (a) a specific task at hand, (b) higher-level flight-related thoughts (e.g.,planning ahead), or (c) thoughts unrelated to the flight. Pilots' performance was also measured. Pilots reported a smaller percentage of task-at-hand thoughts (27% vs. 50%) and a greater percentage of higher-level flight-related thoughts (56% vs. 29%) when using the higher level of automation. However, when all was going according to plan, using either level of automation, pilots also reported a higher percentage of task-unrelated thoughts (21%) than they did when in the midst of an unsuccessful performance (7%). Task-unrelated thoughts peaked at 25% when pilots were not interacting with the automation. Although cockpit automation may provide pilots with more time to think, it may encourage pilots to reinvest only some of this mental free time in thinking flight-related thoughts. This research informs the design of human-automation systems that more meaningfully engage the human operator.

  19. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Overview of NTCIR-12 Lifelog Task

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin, Cathal; Joho, Hideo; Hopfgartner, Frank; Zhou, Liting; Albatal, Rami

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review the NTCIR12-Lifelog pilot task,\\ud which ran at NTCIR-12. We outline the test collection employed,\\ud along with the tasks, the eight submissions and the\\ud findings from this pilot task. We finish by suggesting future\\ud plans for the task.

  1. A Comparative Study of Task-based vs. Task- supported Teaching Approaches in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Shafipoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the numerous merits of task-based language instruction as claimed by its supporters in the last few decades, task-supported teaching approach as an alternative was introduced. Since then, there have been controversial debates over the superiority of each of these two approaches. Thus, in the current research project, the purpose was to consider these two teaching approaches in the scope of English language teaching, with the purpose of exploring the most efficient one in an Iranian EFL context. To this end, 120 sophomore students, majoring in English language translation course at Islamic Azad University, Shar-e-Qods branch were selected among 4 intact reading comprehension II classes. Next, they were divided into two experimental groups. The first experimental group received task-based instruction and for the second experimental group, task-trusted teaching approach was applied. The results of the data analyses turned out that task-trusted teaching approach was superior to task-based teaching in teaching reading to EFL learners.

  2. Survival Processing and the Stroop Task

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie A. Kazanas; Kendra M. Van Valkenburg; Jeanette Altarriba

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of survival processing with a novel task for this paradigm: the Stroop color-naming task. As the literature is mixed with regard to task generalizability, with survival processing promoting better memory for words, but not better memory for faces or paired associates, these types of task investigations are important to a growing field of research. Using the Stroop task provides a unique contribution, as identifying items by color is an importa...

  3. Task conflict in the Stroop task: When Stroop interference decreases as Stroop facilitation increases in a low task conflict context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study participants completed two blocks of the Stroop task, one in which the Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 3500ms and one in which RSI was 200ms. It was expected that, in line with previous research, the shorter RSI would induce a low Task Conflict context by increasing focus on the colour identification goal in the Stroop task. Based on previous research showing the role of Task Conflict in the presence or absence Stroop facilitation, this was expected to lead to the novel finding of an increase in facilitation and simultaneous decrease in interference. Such a finding would be problematic for models of Stroop effects that predict these indices of performance should be affected in tandem. A crossover interaction is reported supporting these predictions. As predicted, the shorter RSI resulted in incongruent and congruent trial RTs decreasing relative to a static neutral baseline condition; hence interference decreased as facilitation increased. An explanatory model (expanding on the work of Goldfarb, Henik and colleagues is presented that: 1 Shows how under certain conditions the predictions from single mechanism models hold true (i.e. when Task conflict is held constant; 2 Shows how it is possible that interference can be affected by an experimental manipulation that leaves facilitation apparently untouched and; 3 Predicts that facilitation cannot be independently affected by an experimental manipulation.

  4. Chemical-induced disease relation extraction with various linguistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinghang; Qian, Longhua; Zhou, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relations between chemicals and diseases is crucial in various biomedical tasks such as new drug discoveries and new therapy developments. While manually mining these relations from the biomedical literature is costly and time-consuming, such a procedure is often difficult to keep up-to-date. To address these issues, the BioCreative-V community proposed a challenging task of automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease (CID) relations in order to benefit biocuration. This article describes our work on the CID relation extraction task on the BioCreative-V tasks. We built a machine learning based system that utilized simple yet effective linguistic features to extract relations with maximum entropy models. In addition to leveraging various features, the hypernym relations between entity concepts derived from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)-controlled vocabulary were also employed during both training and testing stages to obtain more accurate classification models and better extraction performance, respectively. We demoted relation extraction between entities in documents to relation extraction between entity mentions. In our system, pairs of chemical and disease mentions at both intra- and inter-sentence levels were first constructed as relation instances for training and testing, then two classification models at both levels were trained from the training examples and applied to the testing examples. Finally, we merged the classification results from mention level to document level to acquire final relations between chemicals and diseases. Our system achieved promisingF-scores of 60.4% on the development dataset and 58.3% on the test dataset using gold-standard entity annotations, respectively. Database URL:https://github.com/JHnlp/BC5CIDTask. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Bingo! Externally-Supported Performance Intervention for Deficient Visual Search in Normal Aging, Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudate, Thomas M.; Neargarder, Sandy; Dunne, Tracy E.; Sullivan, Karen D.; Joshi, Pallavi; Gilmore, Grover C.; Riedel, Tatiana M.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2011-01-01

    External support may improve task performance regardless of an individual’s ability to compensate for cognitive deficits through internally-generated mechanisms. We investigated if performance of a complex, familiar visual search task (the game of bingo) could be enhanced in groups with suboptimal vision by providing external support through manipulation of task stimuli. Participants were 19 younger adults, 14 individuals with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 13 AD-matched healthy adults, 17 non-demented individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and 20 PD-matched healthy adults. We varied stimulus contrast, size, and visual complexity during game play. The externally-supported performance interventions of increased stimulus size and decreased complexity resulted in improvements in performance by all groups. Performance improvement through increased stimulus size and decreased complexity was demonstrated by all groups. AD also obtained benefit from increasing contrast, presumably by compensating for their contrast sensitivity deficit. The general finding of improved performance across healthy and afflicted groups suggests the value of visual support as an easy-to-apply intervention to enhance cognitive performance. PMID:22066941

  6. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  7. Partitioning the Metabolic Cost of Human Running: A Task-by-Task Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Christopher J.; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Compared with other species, humans can be very tractable and thus an ideal “model system” for investigating the metabolic cost of locomotion. Here, we review the biomechanical basis for the metabolic cost of running. Running has been historically modeled as a simple spring-mass system whereby the leg acts as a linear spring, storing, and returning elastic potential energy during stance. However, if running can be modeled as a simple spring-mass system with the underlying assumption of perfect elastic energy storage and return, why does running incur a metabolic cost at all? In 1980, Taylor et al. proposed the “cost of generating force” hypothesis, which was based on the idea that elastic structures allow the muscles to transform metabolic energy into force, and not necessarily mechanical work. In 1990, Kram and Taylor then provided a more explicit and quantitative explanation by demonstrating that the rate of metabolic energy consumption is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to the time of foot-ground contact for a variety of animals ranging in size and running speed. With a focus on humans, Kram and his colleagues then adopted a task-by-task approach and initially found that the metabolic cost of running could be “individually” partitioned into body weight support (74%), propulsion (37%), and leg-swing (20%). Summing all these biomechanical tasks leads to a paradoxical overestimation of 131%. To further elucidate the possible interactions between these tasks, later studies quantified the reductions in metabolic cost in response to synergistic combinations of body weight support, aiding horizontal forces, and leg-swing-assist forces. This synergistic approach revealed that the interactive nature of body weight support and forward propulsion comprises ∼80% of the net metabolic cost of running. The task of leg-swing at most comprises ∼7% of the net metabolic cost of running and is independent of body weight support and forward

  8. The Effect of "Massed" Task Repetitions on Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency: Does It Transfer to a New Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad

    2011-01-01

    To date, research results suggest that task repetition positively affects oral task performance. However, researchers have not yet shown the extension of the benefits of repeating the same task to performance of a new task. This article first provides an overview of the currently available research findings on task repetition and then presents the…

  9. Not all choices are created equal: Task-relevant choices enhance motor learning compared to task-irrelevant choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2017-12-01

    Lewthwaite et al. (2015) reported that the learning benefits of exercising choice (i.e., their self-controlled condition) are not restricted to task-relevant features (e.g., feedback). They found that choosing one's golf ball color (Exp. 1) or choosing which of two tasks to perform at a later time plus which of two artworks to hang (Exp. 2) resulted in better retention than did being denied these same choices (i.e., yoked condition). The researchers concluded that the learning benefits derived from choice, whether irrelevant or relevant to the to-be-learned task, are predominantly motivational because choice is intrinsically rewarding and satisfies basic psychological needs. However, the absence of a group that made task-relevant choices and the lack of psychological measures significantly weakened their conclusions. Here, we investigated how task-relevant and task-irrelevant choices affect motor-skill learning. Participants practiced a spatiotemporal motor task in either a task-relevant group (choice over feedback schedule), a task-irrelevant group (choice over the color of an arm-wrap plus game selection), or a no-choice group. The results showed significantly greater learning in the task-relevant group than in both the task-irrelevant and no-choice groups, who did not differ significantly. Critically, these learning differences were not attributed to differences in perceptions of competence or autonomy, but instead to superior error-estimation abilities. These results challenge the perspective that motivational influences are the root cause of self-controlled learning advantages. Instead, the findings add to the growing evidence highlighting that the informational value gained from task-relevant choices makes a greater relative contribution to these advantages than motivational influences do.

  10. The Role of Task Complexity, Modality, and Aptitude in Narrative Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Trebits, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the relationship between components of aptitude and the fluency, lexical variety, syntactic complexity, and accuracy of performance in two types of written and spoken narrative tasks. We also addressed the question of how narrative performance varies in tasks of different cognitive complexity in the…

  11. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: effects of task factors and RSA indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2014-05-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable results. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to a working memory task requiring varying levels of cognitive control and a perceptual attention task not requiring strong cognitive control. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean interbeat interval and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA indices. The two tasks were clearly differentiated by heart rate and facial EMG reference measures. Cognitive control induced inhibition of RSA whereas perceptual attention generally did not. However, the results show several differences between different RSA indices, emphasizing the importance of methodological variables. Age and sex did not influence the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Video game practice optimizes executive control skills in dual-task and task switching situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter A; Schubert, Torsten

    2012-05-01

    We examined the relation of action video game practice and the optimization of executive control skills that are needed to coordinate two different tasks. As action video games are similar to real life situations and complex in nature, and include numerous concurrent actions, they may generate an ideal environment for practicing these skills (Green & Bavelier, 2008). For two types of experimental paradigms, dual-task and task switching respectively; we obtained performance advantages for experienced video gamers compared to non-gamers in situations in which two different tasks were processed simultaneously or sequentially. This advantage was absent in single-task situations. These findings indicate optimized executive control skills in video gamers. Similar findings in non-gamers after 15 h of action video game practice when compared to non-gamers with practice on a puzzle game clarified the causal relation between video game practice and the optimization of executive control skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The OMERACT ultrasound task force -- Advances and priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Conaghan, Philip G; Naredo, Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most recent work of the OMERACT Ultrasound Task Force (post OMERACT 8) and highlights of future research priorities discussed at the OMERACT 9 meeting, Kananaskis, Canada, May 2008. Results of 3 studies were presented: (1) assessing intermachine reliability; (2) applying...... system for the hand on other joints (including shoulder). Study conclusions were discussed and a future research agenda was generated, notably the further development of a Global OMERACT Sonography Scoring (GLOSS) system in RA, emphasizing the importance of testing feasibility and added value over...... standard clinical variables. Future disease areas of importance to develop include a scoring system for enthesitis and osteoarthritis....

  14. Working memory in early Alzheimer's disease: a neuropsychological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J D; Howard, R J

    2010-02-01

    Reports of the extent of working memory (WM) impairment in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been inconsistent. Using the model of WM proposed by Baddeley, neuropsychological evidence for the impairment of WM in early AD is evaluated. Literature searches were performed using Medline, PsycINFO and Embase databases. Individual papers were then examined for additional references not revealed by computerised searches. Phonological loop function is intact at the preclinical and early stages of AD, becoming more impaired as the disease progresses. In mild AD, there is impairment on tasks assessing visuospatial sketchpad (VSS) function; however, these tasks also require executive processing by the central executive system (CES). There is evidence that the CES is impaired in mild AD and may be affected in the earlier preclinical stage of the disease. Episodic buffer function may be impaired but further research is required. Future research into central executive functioning at the earliest stages of the disease, combined with further longitudinal studies, needs to be carried out. Tasks to assess the proposed functions of the episodic buffer and specific tests of the VSS suitable for AD subjects need to be developed and validated. Learning more about these processes and how they are affected in AD is important in understanding and managing the cognitive deficits seen in the early stages of AD.

  15. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-08-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson's disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson's disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson's disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  17. Appraisal, Coping, Task Performance, and Cardiovascular Responses during the Evaluated Speaking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, H. Lane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Appraisal, coping, task performance, and cardiovascular responses were examined among men high and low in speech anxiety who prepared and performed a speech under evaluative conditions. Speech-anxious men saw the task as more threatening. They were more stressed, anxious, distracted, and aware of their emotions, focused on the passage of time, and…

  18. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  19. Cognitive and motor dual task gait training improve dual task gait performance after stroke - A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ci; Yang, Yea-Ru; Tsai, Yun-An; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2017-06-22

    This study investigated effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in stroke. Participants (n = 28) were randomly assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or conventional physical therapy (CPT) group. Participants in CDTT or MDTT group practiced the cognitive or motor tasks respectively during walking. Participants in CPT group received strengthening, balance, and gait training. The intervention was 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. Three test conditions to evaluate the training effects were single walking, walking while performing cognitive task (serial subtraction), and walking while performing motor task (tray-carrying). Parameters included gait speed, dual task cost of gait speed (DTC-speed), cadence, stride time, and stride length. After CDTT, cognitive-motor dual task gait performance (stride length and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.021; p = 0.015). After MDTT, motor dual task gait performance (gait speed, stride length, and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.008; p = 0.008; p = 0.008 respectively). It seems that CDTT improved cognitive dual task gait performance and MDTT improved motor dual task gait performance although such improvements did not reach significant group difference. Therefore, different types of dual task gait training can be adopted to enhance different dual task gait performance in stroke.

  20. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E. Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-01-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson’s disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson’s disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson’s disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson’s disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson’s disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson’s disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. PMID:25552569

  1. The Effect of Task Type and Pre-task Planning Condition on the Accuracy of Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeed Mohammad Alavi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Task-based language teaching, which requires learners to transact tasks resembling their real life language needs, demands language learners to perform planning at different stages of their learning. Since various types of tasks can be used in task-based instruction, the present study examined the effect of task types and various participatory structures during pre-task planning on the quality of learners' writing performance, (i.e., accuracy. Towards this end, 120 intermediate EFL students were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups and one control group. While the experimental groups were subjected to different pre-task planning conditions, (i.e., individual, pair, and group, the control group performed tasks without any planning. During the treatment, they experienced task modeling, presentation and completion. A factorial design was followed in the present study, and the collected data were analyzed through ANOVAs that revealed task type and pre-task planning condition influenced the writing accuracy of the participants in a way that resulted in greater accuracy in the decision-making task in the experimental groups, thereby ensuring the effectiveness of the treatment in mitigating the long-standing problem of EFL learners in achieving higher levels of accuracy when a specific task type is concerned.

  2. PRN 94-9: Announcing the Formation of Two Industry-Wide Task Forces: Agricultural Reentry Task Force and Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces two industry-wide Task Forces being formed in response to generic exposure data requirements. It contains EPA's policy on a registrant's options for, and responsibilities when joining Task Force as a way to satisfy data requirements.

  3. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  4. Visual search in Alzheimer's disease: a deficiency in processing conjunctions of features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tales, A; Butler, S R; Fossey, J; Gilchrist, I D; Jones, R W; Troscianko, T

    2002-01-01

    Human vision often needs to encode multiple characteristics of many elements of the visual field, for example their lightness and orientation. The paradigm of visual search allows a quantitative assessment of the function of the underlying mechanisms. It measures the ability to detect a target element among a set of distractor elements. We asked whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are particularly affected in one type of search, where the target is defined by a conjunction of features (orientation and lightness) and where performance depends on some shifting of attention. Two non-conjunction control conditions were employed. The first was a pre-attentive, single-feature, "pop-out" task, detecting a vertical target among horizontal distractors. The second was a single-feature, partly attentive task in which the target element was slightly larger than the distractors-a "size" task. This was chosen to have a similar level of attentional load as the conjunction task (for the control group), but lacked the conjunction of two features. In an experiment, 15 AD patients were compared to age-matched controls. The results suggested that AD patients have a particular impairment in the conjunction task but not in the single-feature size or pre-attentive tasks. This may imply that AD particularly affects those mechanisms which compare across more than one feature type, and spares the other systems and is not therefore simply an 'attention-related' impairment. Additionally, these findings show a double dissociation with previous data on visual search in Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting a different effect of these diseases on the visual pathway.

  5. Functional Disconnectivity during Inter-Task Resting State in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabran, Eléna; Roquet, Daniel; Gounot, Daniel; Sourty, Marion; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Blanc, Frédéric

    2018-05-03

    Limited research has been done on the functional connectivity in visuoperceptual regions in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients. This study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity differences between a task condition and an inter-task resting state condition within a visuoperceptual paradigm, in DLB patients compared with Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and healthy elderly control subjects. Twenty-six DLB, 29 AD, and 22 healthy subjects underwent a detailed clinical and neuropsychological examination along with a functional MRI during the different conditions of a visuoperceptual paradigm. Functional images were analyzed using group-level spatial independent component analysis and seed-based connectivity analyses. While the DLB patients scored well and did not differ from the control and AD groups in terms of functional activity and connectivity during the task conditions, they showed decreased functional connectivity in visuoperceptual regions during the resting state condition, along with a temporal impairment of the default-mode network activity. Functional connectivity disturbances were also found within two attentional-executive networks and between these networks and visuoperceptual regions. We found a specific functional profile in the switching between task and resting state conditions in DLB patients. This result could help better characterize functional impairments in DLB and their contribution to several core symptoms of this pathology such as visual hallucinations and cognitive fluctuations. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Cognitive performance on Piagetian tasks by Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornbury, J M

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive abilities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using Piaget's child developmental theory. Thirty elderly AD patients and 30 elderly control subjects were given two traditional Piagetian measures, the Infant Psychological Development Scale and the Concrete Operations Test. Half of the AD subjects (15) were in Piaget's sensorimotor or preoperational stages, while the remaining half of the AD subjects and all elderly control subjects were in Piaget's concrete operational stage, chi 2 [1, N = 60] = 17.42, p less than .001. If subsequent studies confirm that AD patients' cognitive characteristics are similar to Piaget's theoretical model, nursing care might be individualized based on mental competence, thus minimizing the commonly observed caregiver overestimation and underestimation of the AD patient's ability to understand and cooperate.

  7. Task dynamics in self-organising task groups : expertise, motivational, and performance differences of specialists and generalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, Kees; Jager, Wander; Molleman, Eric

    Multi-agent simulation is applied to explore how different types of task variety cause workgroups to change their task allocation accordingly. We studied two groups, generalists and specialists. We hypothesised that the performance of the specialists would decrease when task variety increases. The

  8. Diseases and pests in biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royle, D.J.; Hunter, Tom; McNabb, H.S. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of disease and pest problems in willow and poplar biomass systems for energy within Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States is described. The IEA Disease and Pest Activities within the recent Task XII (1995-1997), and previous Tasks since 1987, have provided outstanding opportunities for international co-operation which has served substantially to augment national research programmes. Work is described on recognizing different forms of an insect pest or pathogen and understanding the genetic basis of its variability, which is of fundamental importance in developing pest management strategies that exclude inputs of energy-rich materials such as pesticides. Options for more natural pest control are considered including breeding for resistance, plantation designs based on host genotype diversity and biological control 16 refs, 2 figs

  9. Multisensors Cooperative Detection Task Scheduling Algorithm Based on Hybrid Task Decomposition and MBPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multisensor scheduling algorithm based on the hybrid task decomposition and modified binary particle swarm optimization (MBPSO is proposed. Firstly, aiming at the complex relationship between sensor resources and tasks, a hybrid task decomposition method is presented, and the resource scheduling problem is decomposed into subtasks; then the sensor resource scheduling problem is changed into the match problem of sensors and subtasks. Secondly, the resource match optimization model based on the sensor resources and tasks is established, which considers several factors, such as the target priority, detecting benefit, handover times, and resource load. Finally, MBPSO algorithm is proposed to solve the match optimization model effectively, which is based on the improved updating means of particle’s velocity and position through the doubt factor and modified Sigmoid function. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is better in terms of convergence velocity, searching capability, solution accuracy, and efficiency.

  10. Task Complexity, Student Perceptions of Vocabulary Learning in EFL, and Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-ef?cacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a ?ne-tuned task-speci?c level. Aim: The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-ef?cacy beliefs, domain-related…

  11. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  12. Dopaminergic Therapy Increases Go Timeouts in the Go/No-Go Task in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue Q.; Lauzon, Brian; Seergobin, Ken N.; MacDonald, Penny A.

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. Dopaminergic medications such as L-dopa treat these motor symptoms, but can have complex effects on cognition. Impulse control is an essential cognitive function. Impulsivity is multifaceted in nature. Motor impulsivity involves the inability to withhold pre-potent, automatic, erroneous responses. In contrast, cognitive impulsivity refers to improper risk-reward assessment guiding behavior. Informed by our previous research, we anticipated that dopaminergic therapy would decrease motor impulsivity though it is well known to enhance cognitive impulsivity. We employed the Go/No-go paradigm to assess motor impulsivity in PD. Patients with PD were tested using a Go/No-go task on and off their normal dopaminergic medication. Participants completed cognitive, mood, and physiological measures. PD patients on medication had a significantly higher proportion of Go trial Timeouts (i.e., trials in which Go responses were not completed prior to a deadline of 750 ms) compared to off medication (p = 0.01). No significant ON-OFF differences were found for Go trial or No-go trial response times (RTs), or for number of No-go errors. We interpret that dopaminergic therapy induces a more conservative response set, reflected in Go trial Timeouts in PD patients. In this way, dopaminergic therapy decreased motor impulsivity in PD patients. This is in contrast to the widely recognized effects of dopaminergic therapy on cognitive impulsivity leading in some patients to impulse control disorders. Understanding the nuanced effects of dopaminergic treatment in PD on cognitive functions such as impulse control will clarify therapeutic decisions. PMID:29354045

  13. A training approach to improve stepping automaticity while dual-tasking in Parkinson's disease: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, Taylor; Watts, Alexander; Meyer, Nicole; Pereira, Fernando V; Hu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). This was a 4-week prospective intervention pilot study. The intervention uses a sensor system and algorithm that runs off the iPod Touch which calculates step height (SH) in real-time. These measurements were then used to trigger auditory (treatment group, music; control group, radio podcast) playback in real-time through wireless headphones upon maintenance of repeated large amplitude stepping. With small steps or shuffling, auditory playback stops, thus allowing participants to use anticipatory motor control to regain positive feedback. Eleven participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (Trial Number: ISRCTN06023392). Fear of falling (FES-I), general cognitive functioning (MoCA), self-reported freezing of gait (FOG-Q), and DT step automaticity were evaluated. While we found no significant effect of training on FES-I, MoCA, or FOG-Q, we did observe a significant group (music vs podcast) by training interaction in DT step automaticity (Ptraining to increase motor automaticity for people living with PD. The training approach described here can be implemented at home to meet the growing demand for self-management of symptoms by patients.

  14. Set-based Tasks within the Singularity-robust Multiple Task-priority Inverse Kinematics Framework: General Formulation, Stability Analysis and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eMoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inverse kinematics algorithms are commonly used in robotic systems to transform tasks to joint references, and several methods exist to ensure the achievement of several tasks simultaneously. The multiple task-priority inverse kinematicsframework allows tasks to be considered in a prioritized order by projecting task velocities through the nullspaces of higherpriority tasks. This paper extends this framework to handle setbased tasks, i.e. tasks with a range of valid values, in addition to equality tasks, which have a specific desired value. Examples of set-based tasks are joint limit and obstacle avoidance. The proposed method is proven to ensure asymptotic convergence of the equality task errors and the satisfaction of all high-priority set-based tasks. The practical implementation of the proposed algorithm is discussed, and experimental results are presented where a number of both set-based and equality tasks have been implemented on a 6 degree of freedom UR5 which is an industrial robotic arm from Universal Robots. The experiments validate thetheoretical results and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Dual-task during gait between elderly with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Santa Rosa Bragatto

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Studies report that mobility changes could be present in early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD or even in previous stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The use of motor tests, involving dual task, could facilitate screening and differentiation between elderly with AD and MCI. Objective: to verify if gait tests associated with secondary tasks could differentiate elderly with AD and MCI. Methods: We conducted a systematic review in Pubmed, Web of Science, Medline and Scielo databases. Of the articles included, we collected information about year of the study, characteristics of the sample and the dual task test studied. Results: The databases were accessed during November 2014 and August 2015 and a total of 198 scientific papers was obtained. After reading first the summaries and then the full texts, five studies were inserted in the review. Elderly with AD presented a reduction of gait speed and stride length, using executive functions and countdown as secondary cognitive tasks. The type of MCI appears to influence the differentiation with AD. Conclusion: The review showed that some gait tests associated with a secondary task differentiate elderly with AD and MCI. It emphasizes the need of new studies involving this issue in order to obtain cut-off points and facilitate prevention, early diagnosis and observation of cognitive impairment’s evolution in clinical practice of elderly.

  16. Promising high monetary rewards for future task performance increases intermediate task performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Zedelius

    Full Text Available In everyday life contexts and work settings, monetary rewards are often contingent on future performance. Based on research showing that the anticipation of rewards causes improved task performance through enhanced task preparation, the present study tested the hypothesis that the promise of monetary rewards for future performance would not only increase future performance, but also performance on an unrewarded intermediate task. Participants performed an auditory Simon task in which they responded to two consecutive tones. While participants could earn high vs. low monetary rewards for fast responses to every second tone, their responses to the first tone were not rewarded. Moreover, we compared performance under conditions in which reward information could prompt strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented for a relatively long duration to conditions preventing strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented very briefly. Results showed that high (vs. low rewards sped up both rewarded and intermediate, unrewarded responses, and the effect was independent of the duration of reward presentation. Moreover, long presentation led to a speed-accuracy trade-off for both rewarded and unrewarded tones, whereas short presentation sped up responses to rewarded and unrewarded tones without this trade-off. These results suggest that high rewards for future performance boost intermediate performance due to enhanced task preparation, and they do so regardless whether people respond to rewards in a strategic or non-strategic manner.

  17. Promising high monetary rewards for future task performance increases intermediate task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedelius, Claire M; Veling, Harm; Bijleveld, Erik; Aarts, Henk

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life contexts and work settings, monetary rewards are often contingent on future performance. Based on research showing that the anticipation of rewards causes improved task performance through enhanced task preparation, the present study tested the hypothesis that the promise of monetary rewards for future performance would not only increase future performance, but also performance on an unrewarded intermediate task. Participants performed an auditory Simon task in which they responded to two consecutive tones. While participants could earn high vs. low monetary rewards for fast responses to every second tone, their responses to the first tone were not rewarded. Moreover, we compared performance under conditions in which reward information could prompt strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented for a relatively long duration) to conditions preventing strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented very briefly). Results showed that high (vs. low) rewards sped up both rewarded and intermediate, unrewarded responses, and the effect was independent of the duration of reward presentation. Moreover, long presentation led to a speed-accuracy trade-off for both rewarded and unrewarded tones, whereas short presentation sped up responses to rewarded and unrewarded tones without this trade-off. These results suggest that high rewards for future performance boost intermediate performance due to enhanced task preparation, and they do so regardless whether people respond to rewards in a strategic or non-strategic manner.

  18. Tree-Dwelling Ants: Contrasting Two Brazilian Cerrado Plant Species without Extrafloral Nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Maravalhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants dominate vegetation stratum, exploiting resources like extrafloral nectaries (EFNs and insect honeydew. These interactions are frequent in Brazilian cerrado and are well known, but few studies compare ant fauna and explored resources between plant species. We surveyed two cerrado plants without EFNs, Roupala montana (found on preserved environments of our study area and Solanum lycocarpum (disturbed ones. Ants were collected and identified, and resources on each plant noted. Ant frequency and richness were higher on R. montana (67%; 35 spp than S. lycocarpum (52%; 26, the occurrence of the common ant species varied between them, and similarity was low. Resources were explored mainly by Camponotus crassus and consisted of scale insects, aphids, and floral nectaries on R. montana and two treehopper species on S. lycocarpum. Ants have a high diversity on cerrado plants, exploring liquid and prey-based resources that vary in time and space and affect their presence on plants.

  19. The Endogenous Feedback Network: a new approach to the comprehensive study of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-06-01

    The phenomenon of consciousness has received through the centuries a profusion of interpretations, engaging researchers across many disciplines. Nevertheless, consensus still floats at large. The aim of the present work is therefore twofold. Through the review of a selected number of existing proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, besides being able to accommodate the main tenets of the reviewed theories, appears able to compensate for the explanatory gaps they leave behind. The EFN proposes consciousness as the phenomenon emerging from a distinct neural network broadcasting the changes associated to mental activations across the brain. It additionally argues for the need to include a 5th element to Ned Block's taxonomy (i.e. phenomenal, monitoring, access, and self-consciousness) that is, non-cognitive consciousness. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  1. Unnecessary work tasks and mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...... with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association...... is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. METHODS: The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed...

  2. Distributed Task Rescheduling With Time Constraints for the Optimization of Total Task Allocations in a Multirobot System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joanna; Meng, Qinggang; Schaefer, Gerald; Whitbrook, Amanda; Soltoggio, Andrea

    2017-09-28

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing the number of task allocations in a distributed multirobot system under strict time constraints, where other optimization objectives need also be considered. It builds upon existing distributed task allocation algorithms, extending them with a novel method for maximizing the number of task assignments. The fundamental idea is that a task assignment to a robot has a high cost if its reassignment to another robot creates a feasible time slot for unallocated tasks. Multiple reassignments among networked robots may be required to create a feasible time slot and an upper limit to this number of reassignments can be adjusted according to performance requirements. A simulated rescue scenario with task deadlines and fuel limits is used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method compared with existing methods, the consensus-based bundle algorithm and the performance impact (PI) algorithm. Starting from existing (PI-generated) solutions, results show up to a 20% increase in task allocations using the proposed method.

  3. Rhythmic Firing of Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Neurons in Monkeys during Eye Movement Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Okada

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN has been thought to be involved in the control of behavioral state. Projections to the entire thalamus and reciprocal connections with the basal ganglia nuclei suggest a potential role for the PPTN in the control of various rhythmic behaviors, including waking/sleeping and locomotion. Recently, rhythmic activity in the local field potentials was recorded from the PPTN of patients with Parkinson's disease who were treated with levodopa, suggesting that rhythmic firing is a feature of the functioning PPTN and might change with the behaving conditions even within waking. However, it remains unclear whether and how single PPTN neurons exhibit rhythmic firing patterns during various behaving conditions, including executing conditioned eye movement behaviors, seeking reward, or during resting. We previously recorded from PPTN neurons in healthy monkeys during visually guided saccade tasks and reported task-related changes in firing rate, and in this paper, we reanalyzed these data and focused on their firing patterns. A population of PPTN neurons demonstrated a regular firing pattern in that the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals was lower than what would be expected of theoretical random and irregular spike trains. Furthermore, a group of PPTN neurons exhibited a clear periodic single spike firing that changed with the context of the behavioral task. Many of these neurons exhibited a periodic firing pattern during highly active conditions, either the fixation condition during the saccade task or the free-viewing condition during the intertrial interval. We speculate that these task context-related changes in rhythmic firing of PPTN neurons might regulate the monkey's attentional and vigilance state to perform the task.

  4. Ideational apraxia in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Mohammad; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-09-01

    : The objective of the study was to determine whether ideational apraxia (IA), a loss of ability to plan the sequence of actions needed to achieve a goal, is associated with Parkinson disease (PD). : The frontal lobes play an important role in planning and sequencing, and many patients with PD have frontal lobe dysfunction. : Ten right-handed patients with PD and 10 right-handed neurologically and psychiatrically healthy people participated. To assess for IA, participants were given sets of pictures that showed the steps in completing a task, but the steps were shown out of order. The participants were required to point to the pictures in the correct sequence to complete each task. The participants also performed a control task of sequencing randomly arranged printed single words to create a sentence that described an accompanying picture. : The patients with PD performed more poorly than the controls on the action-sequencing tasks (Pwords to make a sentence. : These results indicate that patients with PD do have IA, an action-sequence planning deficit. Further research is needed to better understand mechanisms, ecological implications, and potential treatments.

  5. Task-specific modulation of human auditory evoked responses in a delayed-match-to-sample task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eRong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus our investigation on task-specific cognitive modulation of early cortical auditory processing in human cerebral cortex. During the experiments, we acquired whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG data while participants were performing an auditory delayed-match-to-sample (DMS task and associated control tasks. Using a spatial filtering beamformer technique to simultaneously estimate multiple source activities inside the human brain, we observed a significant DMS-specific suppression of the auditory evoked response to the second stimulus in a sound pair, with the center of the effect being located in the vicinity of the left auditory cortex. For the right auditory cortex, a non-invariant suppression effect was observed in both DMS and control tasks. Furthermore, analysis of coherence revealed a beta band (12 ~ 20 Hz DMS-specific enhanced functional interaction between the sources in left auditory cortex and those in left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been shown to involve in short-term memory processing during the delay period of DMS task. Our findings support the view that early evoked cortical responses to incoming acoustic stimuli can be modulated by task-specific cognitive functions by means of frontal-temporal functional interactions.

  6. An open-source toolbox for automated phenotyping of mice in behavioral tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan P Patel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classifying behavior patterns in mouse models of neurological, psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders is critical for understanding disease causality and treatment. However, complete characterization of behavior is time-intensive, prone to subjective scoring, and often requires specialized equipment. Although several reports describe automated home-cage monitoring and individual task scoring methods, we report the first open source, comprehensive toolbox for automating the scoring of several common behavior tasks used by the neuroscience community. We show this new toolbox is robust and achieves equal or better consistency when compared to manual scoring methods. We use this toolbox to study the alterations in behavior that occur following blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI, and study if these behavior patterns are altered following genetic deletion of the transcription factor Ets-like kinase 1 (Elk-1. Due to the role of Elk-1 in neuronal survival and proposed role in synaptic plasticity, we hypothesized that Elk-1 deletion would improve some neurobehavioral deficits, while impairing others, following blast exposure. In Elk-1 knockout animals, deficits in open field, spatial object recognition and elevated zero maze performance after blast exposure disappeared, while new significant deficits appeared in spatial and associative memory. These are the first data suggesting a molecular mediator of anxiety deficits following blast-induced traumatic brain injury, and represent the utility of the broad screening tool we developed. More broadly, we envision this open-source toolbox will provide a more consistent and rapid analysis of behavior across many neurological diseases, promoting the rapid discovery of novel pathways mediating disease progression and treatment.

  7. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport

  8. Computer-Related Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee

    2016-01-01

    The existing information system (IS) literature has acknowledged computer self-efficacy (CSE) as an important factor contributing to enhancements in computer-related task performance. However, the empirical results of CSE on performance have not always been consistent, and increasing an individual......'s CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...... that SP and CSE interact to influence performance. Implications are then discussed in terms of organizations’ ability to increase performance....

  9. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  10. Effects of experimental muscle pain on force variability during task-related and three directional isometric force task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mista, Christian Ariel; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    was measured using sample entropy (SEn). Three-way repeated measures ANOVA with factors level of contraction, pain/control, and time were performed for the CV, the CoP, and the SEn of each component of the force. In the tangential forces, no significant effects were found for the 3D matching tasks. The ANOVA.......05). In the task-related force, no significant effects were found for the CV during the three-dimensional task or for the task-related task. Finally, the ANOVA analysis of sample entropy showed a significant interaction between pain/control and time (P

  11. The impact of Parkinson's disease and subthalamic deep brain stimulation on reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Ricarda; Stankevich, Yuliya; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Storch, Alexander; Wolz, Martin; Reichmann, Heinz; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Goschke, Thomas; Lueken, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Due to its position in cortico-subthalamic and cortico-striatal pathways, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is considered to play a crucial role not only in motor, but also in cognitive and motivational functions. In the present study we aimed to characterize how different aspects of reward processing are affected by disease and deep brain stimulation of the STN (DBS-STN) in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared 33 PD patients treated with DBS-STN under best medical treatment (DBS-on, medication-on) to 33 PD patients without DBS, but optimized pharmacological treatment and 34 age-matched healthy controls. We then investigated DBS-STN effects using a postoperative stimulation-on/ -off design. The task set included a delay discounting task, a task to assess changes in incentive salience attribution, and the Iowa Gambling Task. The presence of PD was associated with increased incentive salience attribution and devaluation of delayed rewards. Acute DBS-STN increased risky choices in the Iowa Gambling Task under DBS-on condition, but did not further affect incentive salience attribution or the evaluation of delayed rewards. Findings indicate that acute DBS-STN affects specific aspects of reward processing, including the weighting of gains and losses, while larger-scale effects of disease or medication are predominant in others reward-related functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hysteresis in Mental Workload and Task Performance: The Influence of Demand Transitions and Task Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Reinier J; Sawyer, Ben D; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib; Hancock, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    We examine how transitions in task demand are manifested in mental workload and performance in a dual-task setting. Hysteresis has been defined as the ongoing influence of demand levels prior to a demand transition. Authors of previous studies predominantly examined hysteretic effects in terms of performance. However, little is known about the temporal development of hysteresis in mental workload. A simulated driving task was combined with an auditory memory task. Participants were instructed to prioritize driving or to prioritize both tasks equally. Three experimental conditions with low, high, and low task demands were constructed by manipulating the frequency of lane changing. Multiple measures of subjective mental workload were taken during experimental conditions. Contrary to our prediction, no hysteretic effects were found after the high- to low-demand transition. However, a hysteretic effect in mental workload was found within the high-demand condition, which degraded toward the end of the high condition. Priority instructions were not reflected in performance. Online assessment of both performance and mental workload demonstrates the transient nature of hysteretic effects. An explanation for the observed hysteretic effect in mental workload is offered in terms of effort regulation. An informed arrival at the scene is important in safety operations, but peaks in mental workload should be avoided to prevent buildup of fatigue. Therefore, communication technologies should incorporate the historical profile of task demand. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, M E; Pilutti, L A; Crowell, J A; Kaczmarski, H; Motl, R W

    2017-01-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions (i.e., no distraction and phone conversation), and participants performed 20 trials per condition. Participants were instructed that the goal of the task was to cross the street successfully (i.e., without being hit be a vehicle). The primary outcome was task feasibility, assessed as completion and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were measures of street-crossing performance. Overall, the simulated street-crossing task was feasible (i.e., 90% completion, no adverse events) in participants with MS. Participants with MS waited longer and were less attentive to traffic before entering the street compared with controls (all P .05). A virtual street-crossing task is feasible for studying street-crossing behavior in persons with mild MS and most individuals with moderate MS. Virtual street-crossing performance is impaired in persons with MS compared to controls; however, persons with MS do not appear to be more vulnerable to a distracting condition. The virtual reality environment presents a safe and useful setting for understanding pedestrian behavior in persons with MS.

  14. Subclinical cognitive decline in middle-age is associated with reduced task-induced deactivation of the brain's default mode network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Naja Liv; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    range of neurodegenerative diseases involving cognitive symptoms, in conditions with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, and even in advanced but healthy aging. Here, we investigated brain activation and deactivation during a visual-motor task in 185 clinically healthy males from a Danish birth......Cognitive abilities decline with age, but with considerable individual variation. The neurobiological correlate of this variation is not well described. Functional brain imaging studies have demonstrated reduced task-induced deactivation (TID) of the brain's default mode network (DMN) in a wide...... cohort, whose cognitive function was assessed in youth and midlife. Using each individual as his own control, we defined a group with a large degree of cognitive decline, and a control group. When correcting for effects of total cerebral blood flow and hemoglobin level, we found reduced TID...

  15. Effects of cues in a binary categorization task on dual-task performance, mental workload, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2016-09-01

    Binary cues help operators perform binary categorization tasks, such as monitoring for system failures. They may also allow them to attend to other tasks they concurrently perform. If the time saved by using cues is allocated to other concurrent tasks, users' overall effort may remain unchanged. In 2 experiments, participants performed a simulated quality control task, together with a tracking task. In half the experimental blocks cues were available, and participants could use them in their decisions about the quality of products (intact or faulty). In Experiment 1, the difficulty of tracking was constant, while in Experiment 2, tracking difficulty differed in the 2 halves of the experiment. In both experiments, participants reported on the NASA Task Load Index that cues improved their performance and reduced their frustration. Consequently, their overall score on mental workload (MWL) was lower with cues. They also reported, however, that cues did not reduce their effort. We conclude that cues and other forms of automation may support task performance and reduce overall MWL, but this will not necessarily mean that users will work less hard. Thus, effort and overall MWL should be evaluated separately, if one wants to obtain a full picture of the effects of automation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Ability Beliefs, Task Value, and Performance as a Function of Race in a Dart-Throwing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Kosma, Maria; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines differences in self-efficacy, expectancy-related beliefs, task value, and performance in a dart-throwing task as a function of race among diverse college students using the expectancy-value model and self-efficacy theory. It also examines the predictive contributions of these beliefs on task performance within each racial…

  17. Patient-perceived self-management tasks and support needs of people with chronic illness: generic or disease specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, L. van; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Groenewegen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-management is widely accepted as an essential component of chronic care. Nevertheless, little is known about patients’ perceptions of self-management. Purpose: This study aims to explore which self-management tasks and support needs people with chronic illness perceive for

  18. San Joaquin River Up-Stream DO TMDL Project Task 4: MonitoringStudy Interim Task Report #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William; Borglin, Sharon; Dahlgren, Randy; Hanlon,Jeremy; Graham, Justin; Burks, Remie; Hutchinson, Kathleen

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of the Dissolved Oxygen Total Maximum Daily LoadProject (DO TMDLProject) is to provide a comprehensive understanding ofthe sources and fate of oxygen consuming materials in the San JoaquinRiver (SJR) watershed between Channel Point and Lander Avenue (upstreamSJR). When completed, this study will provide the stakeholders anunderstanding of the baseline conditions of the basin, provide input foran allocation decision, and provide the stakeholders with a tool formeasuring the impact of any waterquality management program that may beimplemented as part of the DO TMDL process. Previous studies haveidentified algal biomass as the most significant oxygen-demandingsubstance in the DO TMDL Project study-area between of Channel Point andLander Ave onthe SJR. Other oxygen-demanding substances found in theupstream SJR include ammonia and organic carbon from sources other thanalgae. The DO TMDL Project study-area contains municipalities, dairies,wetlands, cattle ranching, irrigated agriculture, and industries thatcould potentially contribute biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to the SJR.This study is designed to discriminate between algal BOD and othersources of BOD throughout the entire upstream SJR watershed. Algalbiomass is not a conserved substance, but grows and decays in the SJR;hence, characterization of oxygen-demanding substances in the SJR isinherently complicated and requires an integrated effort of extensivemonitoring, scientific study, and modeling. In order to achieve projectobjectives, project activities were divided into a number of Tasks withspecific goals and objectives. In this report, we present the results ofmonitoring and research conducted under Task 4 of the DO TMDL Project.The major objective of Task 4 is to collect sufficient hydrologic (flow)and water quality (WQ) data to characterize the loading of algae, otheroxygen-demanding materials, and nutrients fromindividual tributaries andsub-watersheds of the upstream SJR between Mossdale and

  19. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task…

  20. Drooling in Parkinson's Disease: Evidence of a Role for Divided Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Hannah; Miller, Nick; Walker, Richard

    2018-05-21

    Drooling is a frequently reported symptom in Parkinson's Disease (PD) with significant psychosocial impact and negative health consequences including silent aspiration of saliva with the associated risk of respiratory infections. It is suggested that in PD drooling is associated with inefficient oropharyngeal swallowing which reduces the effective clearance of saliva rather than hyper-salivation. This is compounded by unintended mouth opening and flexed posture increasing anterior loss of saliva. It is reported to occur most frequently during cognitively distracting concurrent tasks suggesting an impact from divided attention in a dual-task situation. However, this supposition has not been systematically examined. This study assessed whether frequency of saliva swallows reduced, and drooling severity and frequency increased, when people with PD engaged in a cognitively distracting task. 18 patients with idiopathic PD reporting daytime drooling on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were recruited. They completed the Radboud Oral Motor Inventory for PD saliva questionnaire and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. UPDRS drooling score, disease stage, duration, gender, and age were recorded. Swallow frequency and drooling severity and frequency were measured at rest and during a distracting computer-based language task. There was no significant difference between drooling severity at rest and during distraction (Wilcoxon signed rank test z = - 1.724, p = 0.085). There was a significant difference between at rest and distraction conditions for both drooling frequency (Wilcoxon signed rank test z = - 2.041, p = 0.041) and swallow frequency (Wilcoxon signed rank test z = - 3.054, p = 0.002). Participants swallowed less frequently and drooled more often during the distraction task. The frequency of saliva swallows and drooling are affected by divided attention in a dual-task paradigm. Further studies are needed to explore the

  1. Task-focused modeling in automated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesenga, Mark R.; Peleg, K.; Sklansky, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Machine vision systems analyze image data to carry out automation tasks. Our interest is in machine vision systems that rely on models to achieve their designed task. When the model is interrogated from an a priori menu of questions, the model need not be complete. Instead, the machine vision system can use a partial model that contains a large amount of information in regions of interest and less information elsewhere. We propose an adaptive modeling scheme for machine vision, called task-focused modeling, which constructs a model having just sufficient detail to carry out the specified task. The model is detailed in regions of interest to the task and is less detailed elsewhere. This focusing effect saves time and reduces the computational effort expended by the machine vision system. We illustrate task-focused modeling by an example involving real-time micropropagation of plants in automated agriculture.

  2. Intelligence is differentially related to neural effort in the task-positive and the task-negative brain network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, U.; Stelzel, C.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on individual differences in intelligence and brain activation during cognitive processing focused on brain regions where activation increases with task demands (task-positive network, TPN). Our study additionally considers brain regions where activation decreases with task demands

  3. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  4. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Oral Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…

  5. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  6. Optimising experimental research in respiratory diseases: an ERS statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonniaud, Philippe; Fabre, Aurélie; Frossard, Nelly; Guignabert, Christophe; Inman, Mark; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Maes, Tania; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin; Uhlig, Stefan; White, Eric; Witzenrath, Martin; Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Crestani, Bruno; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, Gisli; Joos, Guy; Magnan, Antoine; Maitre, Bernard; Maus, Ulrich A; Reinhold, Petra; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Richeldi, Luca; Kolb, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models. Focus was put on their specific benefits and limitations. This will result in more efficient use of resources and greater reduction in the numbers of animals employed, thereby enhancing the ethical standards and translational capacity of experimental research.The task force statement addresses general issues of experimental research (ethics, species, sex, age, ex vivo and in vitro models, gene editing). The statement also includes research recommendations on modelling asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung infections, acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension.The task force stressed the importance of using multiple models to strengthen validity of results, the need to increase the availability of human tissues and the importance of standard operating procedures and data quality. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  7. PBF task and training requirements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, H.S.; Gertman, D.I.; Petersen, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    Task analyses were used to assist in identifying improvements needed in the training curriculum for selected positions at the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Four positions were examined: Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Experiment (EPRO-Ex); Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Plant (EPRO-P); Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Console (EPRO-Co), and Shift Supervisor (SS). A complete position task listing and core of tasks defined in terms of (a) level of difficulty to perform, (b) severity of consequence if performed improperly, and (c) associated error probability were identified by each position. The systems, academic, and administrative knowledge needed by job incumbents to perform each task was noted. Strategies for teaching the knowledge associated with these tasks are presented

  8. Tasks of the Shipboard Independent Duty Hospital Corpsman. Task Training Adequacy and Performance Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Frequency List E-1 Appendix F - Submarine Quick Reference Task Frequency List . F-1 0 Appendix G - Mean Performance...j~~~~~~, -,,-p.r.. ... .0 -. %... h. • - III APPENDIX E I SURFACE SHIP QUICK REFERENCE TASK FREQUENCY LIST A Q N E Dl It T T E A E H HI K I L L L1 L...34. - - - ----------------------------------------- ---.--- ---------------------- - - E-4 APPENDIX F " SUBMARINE QUICK REFERENCE TASK FREQUENCY LIST (N 1l0) "% R 0 W 4. A Q N E D R T T

  9. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance : a prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijfeijken, van H.T.G.A.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, H.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  10. Quantum tasks in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental properties of quantum information and its applications to computing and cryptography have been greatly illuminated by considering information-theoretic tasks that are provably possible or impossible within non-relativistic quantum mechanics. I describe here a general framework for defining tasks within (special) relativistic quantum theory and illustrate it with examples from relativistic quantum cryptography and relativistic distributed quantum computation. The framework gives a unified description of all tasks previously considered and also defines a large class of new questions about the properties of quantum information in relation to Minkowski causality. It offers a way of exploring interesting new fundamental tasks and applications, and also highlights the scope for a more systematic understanding of the fundamental information-theoretic properties of relativistic quantum theory. (paper)

  11. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  12. Development of task analysis method for operator tasks in main control room of an advanced nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chiuhsiangloe; Hsieh Tsungling

    2016-01-01

    Task analysis methods provide an insight for quantitative and qualitative predictions of how people will use a proposed system, though the different versions have different emphases. Most of the methods can attest to the coverage of the functionality of a system and all provide estimates of task performance time. However, most of the tasks that operators deal with in a digital work environment in the main control room of an advanced nuclear power plant require high mental activity. Such mental tasks overlap and must be dealt with at the same time; most of them can be assumed to be highly parallel in nature. Therefore, the primary aim to be addressed in this paper was to develop a method that adopts CPM-GOMS (cognitive perceptual motor-goals operators methods selection rules) as the basic pattern of mental task analysis for the advanced main control room. A within-subjects experiment design was used to examine the validity of the modified CPM-GOMS. Thirty participants participated in two task types, which included high- and low-compatibility types. The results indicated that the performance was significantly higher on the high-compatibility task type than on the low-compatibility task type; that is, the modified CPM-GOMS could distinguish the difference between high- and low-compatibility mental tasks. (author)

  13. Are Judgments of Semantic Relatedness Systematically Impaired in Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, M.; Bell, B.; Graham, K. S.; Rogers, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    We employed a triadic comparison task in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls to contrast (a) multidimensional scaling (MDS) and accuracy-based assessments of semantic memory, and (b) degraded-store versus degraded-access accounts of semantic impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Similar to other studies using triadic…

  14. Manifold regularized multitask feature learning for multimodality disease classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Cheng, Bo; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-02-01

    Multimodality based methods have shown great advantages in classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, that is, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recently, multitask feature selection methods are typically used for joint selection of common features across multiple modalities. However, one disadvantage of existing multimodality based methods is that they ignore the useful data distribution information in each modality, which is essential for subsequent classification. Accordingly, in this paper we propose a manifold regularized multitask feature learning method to preserve both the intrinsic relatedness among multiple modalities of data and the data distribution information in each modality. Specifically, we denote the feature learning on each modality as a single task, and use group-sparsity regularizer to capture the intrinsic relatedness among multiple tasks (i.e., modalities) and jointly select the common features from multiple tasks. Furthermore, we introduce a new manifold-based Laplacian regularizer to preserve the data distribution information from each task. Finally, we use the multikernel support vector machine method to fuse multimodality data for eventual classification. Conversely, we also extend our method to the semisupervised setting, where only partial data are labeled. We evaluate our method using the baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data of subjects from AD neuroimaging initiative database. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can not only achieve improved classification performance, but also help to discover the disease-related brain regions useful for disease diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Implicit memory for music in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, A R; O'Connor, M G

    2000-07-01

    Short, unfamiliar melodies were presented to young and older adults and to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in an implicit and an explicit memory task. The explicit task was yes-no recognition, and the implicit task was pleasantness ratings, in which memory was shown by higher ratings for old versus new melodies (the mere exposure effect). Young adults showed retention of the melodies in both tasks. Older adults showed little explicit memory but did show the mere exposure effect. The AD patients showed neither. The authors considered and rejected several artifactual reasons for this null effect in the context of the many studies that have shown implicit memory among AD patients. As the previous studies have almost always used the visual modality for presentation, they speculate that auditory presentation, especially of nonverbal material, may be compromised in AD because of neural degeneration in auditory areas in the temporal lobes.

  16. Gait disorders in the elderly and dual task gait analysis: a new approach for identifying motor phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Touzard, Claude; Montestruc, François; Delafond, Arnaud; Goeb, Vincent

    2017-01-31

    Gait disorders and gait analysis under single and dual-task conditions are topics of great interest, but very few studies have looked for the relevance of gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly people on the basis of a clinical approach. An observational study including 103 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 7.2, women 56%) suffering from gait disorders or memory impairment was conducted. Gait analysis under dual-task conditions was carried out for all patients. Brain MRI was performed in the absence of contra-indications. Three main gait variables were measured: walking speed, stride frequency, and stride regularity. For each gait variable, the dual task cost was computed and a quartile analysis was obtained. Nonparametric tests were used for all the comparisons (Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher or Chi 2 tests). Four clinical subgroups were identified: gait instability (45%), recurrent falls (29%), memory impairment (18%), and cautious gait (8%). The biomechanical severity of these subgroups was ordered according to walking speed and stride regularity under both conditions, from least to most serious as follows: memory impairment, gait instability, recurrent falls, cautious gait (p < 0.01 for walking speed, p = 0.05 for stride regularity). According to the established diagnoses of gait disorders, 5 main pathological subgroups were identified (musculoskeletal diseases (n = 11), vestibular diseases (n = 6), mild cognitive impairment (n = 24), central nervous system pathologies, (n = 51), and without diagnosis (n = 8)). The dual task cost for walking speed, stride frequency and stride regularity were different among these subgroups (p < 0.01). The subgroups mild cognitive impairment and central nervous system pathologies both showed together a higher dual task cost for each variable compared to the other subgroups combined (p = 0.01). The quartile analysis of dual task cost for stride frequency and stride regularity

  17. An overview of task order 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    Task Order 10 formalizes a collaboration in high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments between LANL and VNIIEF. The focus is the VNIIEF disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) technology. The task order outlines a sequence of tasks and deliverables culminating in an experiment which takes place in the US utilizing US explosives and a Russian DEMG. This talk summarizes task order 10. It gives a brief history and present status in terms of the proposed high pressure EOS experiment (ALT-3).

  18. Control and Interference in Task Switching--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Steinhauser, Marco; Wendt, Mike; Falkenstein, Michael; Jost, Kerstin; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    The task-switching paradigm offers enormous possibilities to study cognitive control as well as task interference. The current review provides an overview of recent research on both topics. First, we review different experimental approaches to task switching, such as comparing mixed-task blocks with single-task blocks, predictable task-switching…

  19. Sonographic detection of basal ganglia abnormalities in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, U; Blitzer, A; Benecke, R; Grossmann, A; Dressler, D

    2014-02-01

    Abnormalities of the lenticular nucleus (LN) on transcranial sonography (TCS) are a characteristic finding in idiopathic segmental and generalized dystonia. Our intention was to study whether TCS detects basal ganglia abnormalities also in spasmodic dysphonia, an extremely focal form of dystonia. Transcranial sonography of basal ganglia, substantia nigra and ventricles was performed in 14 patients with spasmodic dysphonia (10 women, four men; disease duration 16.5 ± 6.1 years) and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in an investigator-blinded setting. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity was found in 12 spasmodic dysphonia patients but only in one healthy individual (Fisher's exact test, P spasmodic dysphonia severity (Spearman test, r = 0.82, P spasmodic dysphonia to that of more widespread forms of dystonia. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  20. Overview of job and task analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1984-01-01

    During the past few years the nuclear industry has become concerned with predicting human performance in nuclear power plants. One of the best means available at the present time to make sure that training, procedures, job performance aids and plant hardware match the capabilities and limitations of personnel is by performing a detailed analysis of the tasks required in each job position. The approved method for this type of analysis is referred to as job or task analysis. Job analysis is a broader type of analysis and is usually thought of in terms of establishing overall performance objectives, and in establishing a basis for position descriptions. Task analysis focuses on the building blocks of task performance, task elements, and places them within the context of specific performance requirements including time to perform, feedback required, special tools used, and required systems knowledge. The use of task analysis in the nuclear industry has included training validation, preliminary risk screening, and procedures development

  1. Treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis to target: recommendations of an international task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelli, Angelo; Consolaro, Alessandro; Horneff, Gerd; Laxer, Ronald M; Lovell, Daniel J; Wulffraat, Nico M; Akikusa, Jonathan D; Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman M; Antón, Jordi; Avcin, Tadej; Berard, Roberta A; Beresford, Michael W; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Cimaz, Rolando; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Demirkaya, Erkan; Foell, Dirk; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Lahdenne, Pekka; Morgan, Esi M; Quartier, Pierre; Ruperto, Nicolino; Russo, Ricardo; Saad-Magalhães, Claudia; Sawhney, Sujata; Scott, Christiaan; Shenoi, Susan; Swart, Joost F; Uziel, Yosef; Vastert, Sebastiaan J; Smolen, Josef S

    2018-06-01

    Recent therapeutic advances in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have made remission an achievable goal for most patients. Reaching this target leads to improved outcomes. The objective was to develop recommendations for treating JIA to target. A Steering Committee formulated a set of recommendations based on evidence derived from a systematic literature review. These were subsequently discussed, amended and voted on by an international Task Force of 30 paediatric rheumatologists in a consensus-based, Delphi-like procedure. Although the literature review did not reveal trials that compared a treat-to-target approach with another or no strategy, it provided indirect evidence regarding an optimised approach to therapy that facilitated development of recommendations. The group agreed on six overarching principles and eight recommendations. The main treatment target, which should be based on a shared decision with parents/patients, was defined as remission, with the alternative target of low disease activity. The frequency and timeline of follow-up evaluations to ensure achievement and maintenance of the target depend on JIA category and level of disease activity. Additional recommendations emphasise the importance of ensuring adequate growth and development and avoiding long-term systemic glucocorticoid administration to maintain the target. All items were agreed on by more than 80% of the members of the Task Force. A research agenda was formulated. The Task Force developed recommendations for treating JIA to target, being aware that the evidence is not strong and needs to be expanded by future research. These recommendations can inform various stakeholders about strategies to reach optimal outcomes for JIA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  3. The trickle-down effect of predictability: Secondary task performance benefits from predictability in the primary task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ewa Król

    Full Text Available Predictions optimize processing by reducing attentional resources allocation to expected or predictable sensory data. Our study demonstrates that these saved processing resources can be then used on concurrent stimuli, and in consequence improve their processing and encoding. We illustrate this "trickle-down" effect with a dual task, where the primary task varied in terms of predictability. The primary task involved detection of a pre-specified symbol that appeared at some point of a short video of a dot moving along a random, semi-predictable or predictable trajectory. The concurrent secondary task involved memorization of photographs representing either emotionally neutral or non-neutral (social or threatening content. Performance in the secondary task was measured by a memory test. We found that participants allocated more attention to unpredictable (random and semi-predictable stimuli than to predictable stimuli. Additionally, when the stimuli in the primary task were more predictable, participants performed better in the secondary task, as evidenced by higher sensitivity in the memory test. Finally, social or threatening stimuli were allocated more "looking time" and a larger number of saccades than neutral stimuli. This effect was stronger for the threatening stimuli than social stimuli. Thus, predictability of environmental input is used in optimizing the allocation of attentional resources, which trickles-down and benefits the processing of concurrent stimuli.

  4. The trickle-down effect of predictability: Secondary task performance benefits from predictability in the primary task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Magdalena Ewa; Król, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Predictions optimize processing by reducing attentional resources allocation to expected or predictable sensory data. Our study demonstrates that these saved processing resources can be then used on concurrent stimuli, and in consequence improve their processing and encoding. We illustrate this "trickle-down" effect with a dual task, where the primary task varied in terms of predictability. The primary task involved detection of a pre-specified symbol that appeared at some point of a short video of a dot moving along a random, semi-predictable or predictable trajectory. The concurrent secondary task involved memorization of photographs representing either emotionally neutral or non-neutral (social or threatening) content. Performance in the secondary task was measured by a memory test. We found that participants allocated more attention to unpredictable (random and semi-predictable) stimuli than to predictable stimuli. Additionally, when the stimuli in the primary task were more predictable, participants performed better in the secondary task, as evidenced by higher sensitivity in the memory test. Finally, social or threatening stimuli were allocated more "looking time" and a larger number of saccades than neutral stimuli. This effect was stronger for the threatening stimuli than social stimuli. Thus, predictability of environmental input is used in optimizing the allocation of attentional resources, which trickles-down and benefits the processing of concurrent stimuli.

  5. Measuring cognitive task demands using dual task methodology, subjective self-ratings, and expert judgments : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgements in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 ESL teachers. The students, 48 English

  6. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks : effects of task factors and RSA indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, T.; Boxtel, van Anton; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable

  7. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: Effects of task factors and RSA indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, T.J.M.; van Boxtel, A.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable

  8. Improving multi-tasking ability through action videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Dan; Conger, Mark; Liao, Janet; Caldwell, J Lynn; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined whether action videogames can improve multi-tasking in high workload environments. Two groups with no action videogame experience were pre-tested using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB). It consists of two primary tasks; tracking and fuel management, and two secondary tasks; systems monitoring and communication. One group served as a control group, while a second played action videogames a minimum of 5 h a week for 10 weeks. Both groups returned for a post-assessment on the MATB. We found the videogame treatment enhanced performance on secondary tasks, without interfering with the primary tasks. Our results demonstrate action videogames can increase people's ability to take on additional tasks by increasing attentional capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. The Attentional Boost Effect: Transient increases in attention to one task enhance performance in a second task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Khena M; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2010-04-01

    Recent work on event perception suggests that perceptual processing increases when events change. An important question is how such changes influence the way other information is processed, particularly during dual-task performance. In this study, participants monitored a long series of distractor items for an occasional target as they simultaneously encoded unrelated background scenes. The appearance of an occasional target could have two opposite effects on the secondary task: It could draw attention away from the second task, or, as a change in the ongoing event, it could improve secondary task performance. Results were consistent with the second possibility. Memory for scenes presented simultaneously with the targets was better than memory for scenes that preceded or followed the targets. This effect was observed when the primary detection task involved visual feature oddball detection, auditory oddball detection, and visual color-shape conjunction detection. It was eliminated when the detection task was omitted, and when it required an arbitrary response mapping. The appearance of occasional, task-relevant events appears to trigger a temporal orienting response that facilitates processing of concurrently attended information (Attentional Boost Effect). Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identical event-related potentials to target and frequent stimuli of visual oddball task recorded by intracerebral electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukleta, M.; Brázdil, M.; Roman, R.; Jurák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2003), s. 1292 - 1297 ISSN 1388-2457 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : event-related potential * intra-cerebral EEG recording in humans * oddball task Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.485, year: 2003

  11. Control processes through the suppression of the automatic response activation triggered by task-irrelevant information in the Simon-type tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanga; Lee, Sang Ho; Cho, Yang Seok

    2015-11-01

    The congruency sequence effect, one of the indices of cognitive control, refers to a smaller congruency effect after an incongruent than congruent trial. Although the effect has been found across a variety of conflict tasks, there is not yet agreement on the underlying mechanism. The present study investigated the mechanism underlying cognitive control by using a cross-task paradigm. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, participants performed a modified Simon task and a spatial Stroop task alternately in a trial-by-trial manner. The task-irrelevant dimension of the two tasks was perceptually and conceptually identical in Experiment 1, whereas it was perceptually different but conceptually identical in Experiment 2. The response sets for both tasks were different in Experiment 3. In Experiment 4, participants performed two Simon tasks with different task-relevant dimensions. In all experiments in which the task-irrelevant dimension and response mode were shared, significant congruency sequence effects were found between the two different congruencies, indicating that Simon-type conflicts were resolved by a control mechanism, which is specific to an abstract task-irrelevant stimulus spatial dimension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjective cognitive impairment: functional MRI during a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, J; Dannhauser, T; Cutinha, D J; Shergill, S S; Walker, Z

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) have persistent memory complaints but normal neurocognitive performance. For some, this may represent a pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that attentional deficits and associated brain activation changes are present early in the course of AD, we aimed to determine whether SCI is associated with brain activation changes during attentional processing. Eleven SCI subjects and 10 controls completed a divided attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. SCI and control groups did not differ in sociodemographic, neurocognitive or behavioural measures. When group activation during the divided attention task was compared, the SCI group demonstrated increased activation in left medial temporal lobe, bilateral thalamus, posterior cingulate and caudate. This pattern of increased activation is similar to the pattern of decreased activation reported during divided attention in AD and may indicate compensatory changes. These findings suggest the presence of early functional changes in SCI; longitudinal studies will help to further elucidate the relationship between SCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [The National Reference Centres and Reference Laboratories. Importance and tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, G; Ammon, A

    2005-09-01

    Since 1995, the German Federal Ministry for Health and Social Security funds National Reference Centres (NRC) for the laboratory surveillance of important pathogens and syndromes. Which pathogens or syndromes are selected to be covered by a NRC depends on their epidemiological relevance, the special diagnostic tools, problems with antimicrobial resistance and necessary infection control measures. Currently, there are 15 NRC, which are appointed for a period of 3 years (currently from January 2005 through December 2007). Towards the end of their appointment all NRC are evaluated by a group of specialists. The assessment of their achievements is guided by a catalogue of tasks for the NRC. In addition to the NRC, a total of 50 laboratories are appointed which provide specialist expertise for additional pathogens in order to have a broad range of pathogens for which specialist laboratories are available. Their predominant task is to give advice and support for special diagnostic problems. Both NRC and the specialist laboratories are important parts of the network for infectious disease epidemiology.

  14. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-03-01

    The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. The evaluation and quantification of respirable coal and silica dust concentrations: a task-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grové, T; Van Dyk, T; Franken, A; Du Plessis, J

    2014-01-01

    Silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis are serious occupational respiratory diseases associated with the coal mining industry and the inhalation of respirable dusts containing crystalline silica. The purpose of this study (funded by the Mine Health and Safety Council of South Africa) was to evaluate the individual contributions of underground coal mining tasks to the respirable dust and respirable silica dust concentrations in an underground section by sampling the respirable dust concentrations at the intake and return of each task. The identified tasks were continuous miner (CM) cutting, construction, transfer of coal, tipping, and roof bolting. The respirable dust-generating hierarchy of the tasks from highest to lowest was: transfer of coal > CM right cutting > CM left cutting > CM face cutting > construction > roof bolting > tipping; and for respirable silica dust: CM left cutting > construction > transfer of coal > CM right cutting. Personal exposure levels were determined by sampling the exposures of workers performing tasks in the section. Respirable dust concentrations and low concentrations of respirable silica dust were found at the intake air side of the section, indicating that air entering the section is already contaminated. The hierarchy for personal respirable dust exposures was as follows, from highest to lowest: CM operator > cable handler > miner > roof bolt operator > shuttle car operator, and for respirable silica dust: shuttle car operator > CM operator > cable handler > roof bolt operator > miner. Dust control methods to lower exposures should include revision of the position of workers with regard to the task performed, positioning of the tasks with regard to the CM cutting, and proper use of the line curtains to direct ventilation appropriately. The correct use of respiratory protection should also be encouraged.

  16. A cognitive task analysis of the SGTR scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, E.; Edland, A.; Svenson, O.

    1996-04-01

    This report constitutes a contribution to the NKS/RAK-1:3 project on Integrated Sequence Analysis. Following the meeting at Ringhals, the work was proposed to be performed by the following three steps: Task 1. Cognitive Task Analysis of the E-3 procedure. Task 2. Evaluation and revision of task analysis with Ringhals/KSU experts. Task 3. Integration with simulator data. The Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) of Task 1 uses the Goals-Means Task Analysis (GMTA) method to identify the sequence of tasks and task steps necessary to achieve the goals of the procedure. It is based on material supplied by Ringhals, which describes the E-3 procedure, including the relevant ES and ECA procedures. The analysis further outlines the cognitive demands profile associated with individual task steps as well as with the task as a whole, as an indication of the nominal task load. The outcome of the cognitive task analysis provides a basis for proposing an adequate event tree. This report describes the results from Task 1. The work has included a two-day meeting between the three contributors, as well as the exchange of intermediate results and comments throughout the period. After the initial draft of the report was prepared, an opportunity was given to observe the SGTR scenario in a full-scope training simulator, and to discuss the details with the instructors. This led to several improvements from the initial draft. (EG)

  17. Spatial memory tasks in rodents: what do they model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellini, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of spatial learning and memory in rodents is commonly used to investigate the mechanisms underlying certain forms of human cognition and to model their dysfunction in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Proper interpretation of rodent behavior in terms of spatial memory and as a model of human cognitive functions is only possible if various navigation strategies and factors controlling the performance of the animal in a spatial task are taken into consideration. The aim of this review is to describe the experimental approaches that are being used for the study of spatial memory in rats and mice and the way that they can be interpreted in terms of general memory functions. After an introduction to the classification of memory into various categories and respective underlying neuroanatomical substrates, I explain the concept of spatial memory and its measurement in rats and mice by analysis of their navigation strategies. Subsequently, I describe the most common paradigms for spatial memory assessment with specific focus on methodological issues relevant for the correct interpretation of the results in terms of cognitive function. Finally, I present recent advances in the use of spatial memory tasks to investigate episodic-like memory in mice.

  18. Uncovering beat deafness: detecting rhythm disorders with synchronized finger tapping and perceptual timing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-03-16

    A set of behavioral tasks for assessing perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) is presented here with the goal of uncovering rhythm disorders, such as beat deafness. Beat deafness is characterized by poor performance in perceiving durations in auditory rhythmic patterns or poor synchronization of movement with auditory rhythms (e.g., with musical beats). These tasks include the synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of simple and complex auditory stimuli and the detection of rhythmic irregularities (anisochrony detection task) embedded in the same stimuli. These tests, which are easy to administer, include an assessment of both perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities under different conditions (e.g., beat rates and types of auditory material) and are based on the same auditory stimuli, ranging from a simple metronome to a complex musical excerpt. The analysis of synchronized tapping data is performed with circular statistics, which provide reliable measures of synchronization accuracy (e.g., the difference between the timing of the taps and the timing of the pacing stimuli) and consistency. Circular statistics on tapping data are particularly well-suited for detecting individual differences in the general population. Synchronized tapping and anisochrony detection are sensitive measures for identifying profiles of rhythm disorders and have been used with success to uncover cases of poor synchronization with spared perceptual timing. This systematic assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing can be extended to populations of patients with brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease), and developmental disorders (e.g., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder).

  19. Specific deficit of colour-colour short-term memory binding in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Sala, Sergio Della; Abrahams, Sharon; Logie, Robert H; Méndez, Luis Guillermo; Lopera, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Short-term memory binding of visual features which are processed across different dimensions (shape-colour) is impaired in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, familial Alzheimer's disease, and in asymptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated whether Alzheimer's disease also impacts on within-dimension binding processes. The study specifically explored whether visual short-term memory binding of features of the same type (colour-colour) is sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. We used a neuropsychological battery and a short-term memory binding task to assess patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 1), familial Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 2) due to the mutation E280A of the Presenilin-1 gene and asymptomatic carriers of the mutation. The binding task assessed change detection within arrays of unicoloured objects (Colour Only) or bicoloured objects the colours of which had to be remembered separately (Unbound Colours) or together (Bound Colours). Performance on the Bound Colours condition (1) explained the largest proportion of variance between patients (sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease), (2) combined more sensitivity and specificity for the disease than other more traditional neuropsychological tasks, (3) identified asymptomatic carriers of the mutation even when traditional neuropsychological measures and other measures of short-term memory did not and, (4) contrary to shape-colour binding, correlated with measures of hippocampal functions. Colour-colour binding and shape-colour binding both appear to be sensitive to AD even though they seem to rely on different brain mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How do task characteristics affect learning and performance? The roles of variably mapped and dynamic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Frank, David J

    2018-05-01

    For well over a century, scientists have investigated individual differences in performance. The majority of studies have focused on either differences in practice, or differences in cognitive resources. However, the predictive ability of either practice or cognitive resources varies considerably across tasks. We are the first to examine task characteristics' impact on learning and performance in a complex task while controlling for other task characteristics. In 2 experiments we test key theoretical task characteristic thought to moderate the relationship between practice, cognitive resources, and performance. We devised a task where each of several key task characteristics can be manipulated independently. Participants played 5 rounds of a game similar to the popular tower defense videogame Plants vs. Zombies where both cognitive load and game characteristics were manipulated. In Experiment 1, participants either played a consistently mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties were constant across the 5 rounds-or played a variably mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties changed every few minutes. In Experiment 2, participants either played a static version-that is, turn taking with no time pressure-or played a dynamic version-that is, the stimuli moved regardless of participants' response rates. In Experiment 1, participants' accuracy and efficiency were substantially hindered in the variably mapped conditions. In Experiment 2, learning and performance accuracy were hindered in the dynamic conditions, especially when under cognitive load. Our results suggest that task characteristics impact the relative importance of cognitive resources and practice on predicting learning and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cancer caregiving tasks and consequences and their associations with caregiver status and the caregiver's relationship to the patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seriously ill patients often depend on their informal caregivers to help and support them through the disease course. This study investigated informal cancer caregivers' experiences of caregiving tasks and consequences and how caregiver status (primary vs. non-primary caregiver) and t...

  2. Embedded interruptions and task complexity influence schema-related cognitive load progression in an abstract learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirzberger, Maria; Esmaeili Bijarsari, Shirin; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  4. Teaching Task Sequencing via Verbal Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Frank R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Verbal sequence training was used to teach a moderately mentally retarded woman to sequence job-related tasks. Learning to say the tasks in the proper sequence resulted in the employee performing her tasks in that sequence, and the employee was capable of mediating her own work behavior when scheduled changes occurred. (Author/JDD)

  5. A chain-retrieval model for voluntary task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, André; Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    To account for the findings obtained in voluntary task switching, this article describes and tests the chain-retrieval model. This model postulates that voluntary task selection involves retrieval of task information from long-term memory, which is then used to guide task selection and task execution. The model assumes that the retrieved information consists of acquired sequences (or chains) of tasks, that selection may be biased towards chains containing more task repetitions and that bottom-up triggered repetitions may overrule the intended task. To test this model, four experiments are reported. In Studies 1 and 2, sequences of task choices and the corresponding transition sequences (task repetitions or switches) were analyzed with the help of dependency statistics. The free parameters of the chain-retrieval model were estimated on the observed task sequences and these estimates were used to predict autocorrelations of tasks and transitions. In Studies 3 and 4, sequences of hand choices and their transitions were analyzed similarly. In all studies, the chain-retrieval model yielded better fits and predictions than statistical models of event choice. In applications to voluntary task switching (Studies 1 and 2), all three parameters of the model were needed to account for the data. When no task switching was required (Studies 3 and 4), the chain-retrieval model could account for the data with one or two parameters clamped to a neutral value. Implications for our understanding of voluntary task selection and broader theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Computerized spatial delayed recognition span task: a specific tool to assess visuospatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Corina; Belham, Flávia Schechtman; Garcia, Ana; Tomaz, Carlos; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H

    2015-01-01

    A new tablet device version (IOS platform) of the Spatial Delayed Recognition Span Task (SDRST) was developed with the aim of investigating visuospatial Working Memory (WM) abilities based on touchscreen technology. This new WM testing application will be available to download for free in Apple Store app ("SDRST app"). In order to verify the feasibility of this computer-based task, we conducted three experiments with different manipulations and groups of participants. We were interested in investigating if (1) the SDRST is sensitive enough to tap into cognitive differences brought by aging and dementia; (2) different experimental manipulations work successfully; (3) cortical brain activations seen in other WM tasks are also demonstrated here; and (4) non-human primates are able to answer the task. Performance (scores and response time) was better for young than older adults and higher for the latter when compared to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. All groups performed better with facial stimuli than with images of scenes and with emotional than with neutral stimuli. Electrophysiology data showed activation on prefrontal and frontal areas of scalp, theta band activity on the midline area, and gamma activity in left temporal area. There are all scalp regions known to be related to attention and WM. Besides those data, our sample of adult captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) answered the task above chance level. Taken together, these results corroborate the reliability of this new computer-based SDRST as a measure of visuospatial WM in clinical and non-clinical populations as well as in non-human primates. Its tablet app allows the task to be administered in a wide range of settings, including hospitals, homes, schools, laboratories, universities, and research institutions.

  7. Exploring the repetition bias in voluntary task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Victor; Dignath, David; Schmidt-Ott, Magdalena; Kiesel, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    In the voluntary task-switching paradigm, participants are required to randomly select tasks. We reasoned that the consistent finding of a repetition bias (i.e., participants repeat tasks more often than expected by chance) reflects reasonable adaptive task selection behavior to balance the goal of random task selection with the goals to minimize the time and effort for task performance. We conducted two experiments in which participants were provided with variable amount of preview for the non-chosen task stimuli (i.e., potential switch stimuli). We assumed that switch stimuli would initiate some pre-processing resulting in improved performance in switch trials. Results showed that reduced switch costs due to extra-preview in advance of each trial were accompanied by more task switches. This finding is in line with the characteristics of rational adaptive behavior. However, participants were not biased to switch tasks more often than chance despite large switch benefits. We suggest that participants might avoid effortful additional control processes that modulate the effects of preview on task performance and task choice.

  8. Task-Driven Comparison of Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eric; Gleicher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Topic modeling, a method of statistically extracting thematic content from a large collection of texts, is used for a wide variety of tasks within text analysis. Though there are a growing number of tools and techniques for exploring single models, comparisons between models are generally reduced to a small set of numerical metrics. These metrics may or may not reflect a model's performance on the analyst's intended task, and can therefore be insufficient to diagnose what causes differences between models. In this paper, we explore task-centric topic model comparison, considering how we can both provide detail for a more nuanced understanding of differences and address the wealth of tasks for which topic models are used. We derive comparison tasks from single-model uses of topic models, which predominantly fall into the categories of understanding topics, understanding similarity, and understanding change. Finally, we provide several visualization techniques that facilitate these tasks, including buddy plots, which combine color and position encodings to allow analysts to readily view changes in document similarity.

  9. Heimdall System for MSSS Sensor Tasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, A.; Jones, B.; Herz, E.; George, D.; Axelrad, P.; Gehly, S.

    In Norse Mythology, Heimdall uses his foreknowledge and keen eyesight to keep watch for disaster from his home near the Rainbow Bridge. Orbit Logic and the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado (CU) have developed the Heimdall System to schedule observations of known and uncharacterized objects and search for new objects from the Maui Space Surveillance Site. Heimdall addresses the current need for automated and optimized SSA sensor tasking driven by factors associated with improved space object catalog maintenance. Orbit Logic and CU developed an initial baseline prototype SSA sensor tasking capability for select sensors at the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) using STK and STK Scheduler, and then added a new Track Prioritization Component for FiSST-inspired computations for predicted Information Gain and Probability of Detection, and a new SSA-specific Figure-of-Merit (FOM) for optimized SSA sensor tasking. While the baseline prototype addresses automation and some of the multi-sensor tasking optimization, the SSA-improved prototype addresses all of the key elements required for improved tasking leading to enhanced object catalog maintenance. The Heimdall proof-of-concept was demonstrated for MSSS SSA sensor tasking for a 24 hour period to attempt observations of all operational satellites in the unclassified NORAD catalog, observe a small set of high priority GEO targets every 30 minutes, make a sky survey of the GEO belt region accessible to MSSS sensors, and observe particular GEO regions that have a high probability of finding new objects with any excess sensor time. This Heimdall prototype software paves the way for further R&D that will integrate this technology into the MSSS systems for operational scheduling, improve the software's scalability, and further tune and enhance schedule optimization. The Heimdall software for SSA sensor tasking provides greatly improved performance over manual tasking, improved

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TASK AVERSIVENESS AND ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magvirasari Lestari Linra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination occurs when certain tasks are considered unpleasant, an unpleasant task and the usual delayed them is the task of writing, reading, studying for the exam, meetings, and administrative. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the task aversiveness with academic procrastination. Subject of the study were 100 students out of a population of 516 students of the Faculty of Psychology class of 2012-2014. The method used in this research is quantitative by using Spearman rho as data analysis techniques. The research instrument consists of academic procrastination scale and the scale of the task aversiveness. Based on the results of correlation is known that there is a positive relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination with a correlation coefficient r = 0.508; p = 0.000. The results showed that of the 100 students of the Faculty of Psychology University of Makassar has a degree of relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination is on the very low category (25, 8%. Area / types of tasks delayed is not necessarily an unpleasant task and otherwise unpleasant task may not be postponed. Area task the highest level of aversive and delays are areas the task of writing and reading. This study illustrates that academic procrastination can be lowered by a change in the mindset of an unpleasant task.

  11. Theory of mind and decision-making processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Mu, Yanfang; Chen, Bing; Dong, Bin; Cheng, Huaidong; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-02-15

    Prefrontal cortex plays a vital role in the theory of mind (ToM) and decision making, as shown in functional brain imaging and lesion studies. Considering the primary neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the frontal lobe system, patients with PD are expected to exhibit deficits in ToM and social decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate affective ToM and decision making in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) in a task assessing affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, RME) and two decision-making tasks (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Game of Dice Task, GDT). Consistent with previous findings, patients with PD were impaired in the affective ToM task, and when making decisions under ambiguity and in risk situations. The score of emotion recognition in the RME task was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease and positively correlated with the total number of advantageous cards chosen in the IGT. However, the final capital in the GDT was correlated with memory impairment. The present study implies that affective ToM and decision making under ambiguity may share similar neural mechanisms, while decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may involve processing within different neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring Cognitive Task Demands Using Dual-Task Methodology, Subjective Self-Ratings, and Expert Judgments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…

  13. Selective attention to task-irrelevant emotional distractors is unaffected by the perceptual load associated with a foreground task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi Attar, Catherine; Müller, Matthias M

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that emotionally arousing stimuli are preferentially processed in the human brain. Whether or not this preference persists under increased perceptual load associated with a task at hand remains an open question. Here we manipulated two possible determinants of the attentional selection process, perceptual load associated with a foreground task and the emotional valence of concurrently presented task-irrelevant distractors. As a direct measure of sustained attentional resource allocation in early visual cortex we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) elicited by distinct flicker frequencies of task and distractor stimuli. Subjects either performed a detection (low load) or discrimination (high load) task at a centrally presented symbol stream that flickered at 8.6 Hz while task-irrelevant neutral or unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) flickered at a frequency of 12 Hz in the background of the stream. As reflected in target detection rates and SSVEP amplitudes to both task and distractor stimuli, unpleasant relative to neutral background pictures more strongly withdrew processing resources from the foreground task. Importantly, this finding was unaffected by the factor 'load' which turned out to be a weak modulator of attentional processing in human visual cortex.

  14. Selective attention to task-irrelevant emotional distractors is unaffected by the perceptual load associated with a foreground task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hindi Attar

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that emotionally arousing stimuli are preferentially processed in the human brain. Whether or not this preference persists under increased perceptual load associated with a task at hand remains an open question. Here we manipulated two possible determinants of the attentional selection process, perceptual load associated with a foreground task and the emotional valence of concurrently presented task-irrelevant distractors. As a direct measure of sustained attentional resource allocation in early visual cortex we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs elicited by distinct flicker frequencies of task and distractor stimuli. Subjects either performed a detection (low load or discrimination (high load task at a centrally presented symbol stream that flickered at 8.6 Hz while task-irrelevant neutral or unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS flickered at a frequency of 12 Hz in the background of the stream. As reflected in target detection rates and SSVEP amplitudes to both task and distractor stimuli, unpleasant relative to neutral background pictures more strongly withdrew processing resources from the foreground task. Importantly, this finding was unaffected by the factor 'load' which turned out to be a weak modulator of attentional processing in human visual cortex.

  15. Objective threshold for distinguishing complicated tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the likelihood of human error in a reliable manner is really important for enhancing the safety of a large process control system such as Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). In this regard, from the point of view of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), various kinds of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods have been used for several decades in order to systematically evaluate the effect of human error on the safety of NPPs. However, one of the recurrence issues is to determine the level of an important Performance Shaping Factor (PSF) by using a clear and objective manner with respect to the context of a given task. Unfortunately, there is no such criterion for a certain PSF such as the complexity of a task. For this reason, in this study, an objective criterion that is helpful for identifying a complicated task is suggested based on the Task Complexity (TACOM) measure. To this end, subjective difficulty scores rated by high speed train drivers are collected. After that, subjective difficulty scores are compared with the associated TACOM scores being quantified based on tasks to be conducted by high speed train drivers. As a result, it is expected that high speed train drivers feel a significant difficulty when they are faced with tasks of which the TACOM scores are greater than 4.2. Since TACOM measure is a kind of general tool to quantify the complexity of tasks to be done by human operators, it is promising to conclude that this value can be regarded as a common threshold representing what a complicated task is.

  16. How asymmetrical task dependence and task interdependence interact:an individual level study into the effects on affective reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Simon B. De; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This study investigates whether research and practice on task design and work teams could benefit from a more nuanced perspective on task (inter)dependencies among team members. Prior research often overlooked that task interdependence captures the average exchange of resources, while asymmetrical task dependence captures the inequalities within an individual's work relationships. To date, no study on work teams has combined the two aspects. Design/methodology/approach – Data was ob...

  17. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  18. Annotating risk factors for heart disease in clinical narratives for diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Amber; Uzuner, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth natural language processing shared task featured a track focused on identifying risk factors for heart disease (specifically, Cardiac Artery Disease) in clinical narratives. For this track, we used a "light" annotation paradigm to annotate a set of 1304 longitudinal medical records describing 296 patients for risk factors and the times they were present. We designed the annotation task for this track with the goal of balancing annotation load and time with quality, so as to generate a gold standard corpus that can benefit a clinically-relevant task. We applied light annotation procedures and determined the gold standard using majority voting. On average, the agreement of annotators with the gold standard was above 0.95, indicating high reliability. The resulting document-level annotations generated for each record in each longitudinal EMR in this corpus provide information that can support studies of progression of heart disease risk factors in the included patients over time. These annotations were used in the Risk Factor track of the 2014 i2b2/UTHealth shared task. Participating systems achieved a mean micro-averaged F1 measure of 0.815 and a maximum F1 measure of 0.928 for identifying these risk factors in patient records. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Writing Task and Task Conditions on Colombian EFL Learners' Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Fuentes, César García

    2015-01-01

    This classroom study examines whether English L2 writers' language use differs depending on the writing task (operationalized as paragraph type), and task conditions (operationalized as individual or collaborative writing). The texts written by English L2 university students in Colombia (N = 26) in response to problem/solution and cause/effect…

  20. Using Goal Setting and Task Analysis to Enhance Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching has received sustained attention from teachers and researchers for over thirty years. It is a well-established pedagogy that includes the following characteristics: major focus on authentic and real-world tasks, choice of linguistic resources by learners, and a clearly defined non-linguistic outcome. This…

  1. Survival Processing and the Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of survival processing with a novel task for this paradigm: the Stroop color-naming task. As the literature is mixed with regard to task generalizability, with survival processing promoting better memory for words, but not better memory for faces or paired associates, these types of task investigations are important to a growing field of research. Using the Stroop task provides a unique contribution, as identifying items by color is an important evolutionary adaptation and not specific to humans as is the case with word recall. Our results indicate that survival processing, with its accompanying survival-relevance rating task, remains the best mnemonic strategy for word memory. However, our results also indicate that presenting the survival passage does not motivate better color-naming performance than color-naming alone. In addition, survival processing led to a larger amount of Stroop interference, though not significantly larger than the other conditions. Together, these findings suggest that considering one’s survival when performing memory and attention-based tasks does not enhance cognitive performance generally, although greater allocation of attentional resources to color-incongruent concrete objects could be considered adaptive. These findings support the notion that engaging in deeper processing via survival-relevance ratings may preserve these words across a variety of experimental manipulations.

  2. Theory of mind in Alzheimer disease: Evidence of authentic impairment during social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Noémie; Rauzy, Stéphane; Viallet, François; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate theory of mind (the ability to infer others' mental states) deficit in 20 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and 20 healthy controls, with 2 theory of mind tasks, 1 of them being a real interactive task. Previous results concerning preserved or altered theory of mind abilities in Alzheimer's disease have been inconsistent and relationships with other cognitive dysfunctions (notably episodic memory and executive functions) are still unclear. The first task we used was a false belief paradigm as frequently used in literature whereas the second task, a referential communication task, assessed theory of mind in a real situation of interaction. Participants also underwent neuropsychological evaluation to investigate potential relationships between theory of mind and memory deficits. The results showed that Alzheimer patients presented a genuine and significant theory of mind deficit compared to control participants characterized notably by difficulties to attribute knowledge to an interlocutor in a real social interaction. These results further confirm that theory of mind is altered in early stages of Alzheimer dementia which is consistent with previous works. More specifically, this study is the first to objectivize this impairment in social interaction. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Verbal monitoring in Parkinson’s disease: A comparison between internal and external monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jolien; Mariën, Peter; Santens, Patrick; Pickut, Barbara A.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) display a variety of impairments in motor and non-motor language processes; speech is decreased on motor aspects such as amplitude, prosody and speed and on linguistic aspects including grammar and fluency. Here we investigated whether verbal monitoring is impaired and what the relative contributions of the internal and external monitoring route are on verbal monitoring in patients with PD relative to controls. Furthermore, the data were used to investigate whether internal monitoring performance could be predicted by internal speech perception tasks, as perception based monitoring theories assume. Performance of 18 patients with Parkinson’s disease was measured on two cognitive performance tasks and a battery of 11 linguistic tasks, including tasks that measured performance on internal and external monitoring. Results were compared with those of 16 age-matched healthy controls. PD patients and controls generally performed similarly on the linguistic and monitoring measures. However, we observed qualitative differences in the effects of noise masking on monitoring and disfluencies and in the extent to which the linguistic tasks predicted monitoring behavior. We suggest that the patients differ from healthy subjects in their recruitment of monitoring channels. PMID:28832595

  4. Comparing the subjective task difficulty of human operators with task description levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Yang, Joon Eon

    2011-01-01

    Without the loss of generality, it is reasonable to say that an operating procedure consists of many steps including detailed descriptions that provide necessary information in conducting the required tasks safely and effectively. In this regard, since it is widely perceived that procedures are effective for reducing the occurrence of human performance related problems, the use of procedures is very popular in large process control systems including nuclear power plants (NPPs), commercial airplanes and railway systems. However, the secure of an operational safety by using an operating procedure can be accomplished only if human operators are able to effectively obtain necessary information from it. In other words, it is hard to expect the reduction of human performance related problems, if task descriptions are so ambiguous or incomplete that human operators feel an undue difficulty in identifying 'what have to be done' and 'how to do it' from procedures. Unfortunately, it seems that a systematic method that can be used to distinguish the proper level of task descriptions is rare. For this reason, Park et al. developed a decision chart that could be helpful for characterizing the level of task descriptions. In this study, in order to ensure the appropriateness of the suggested decision chart, more detailed investigations were conducted with the support of human operators who are working as the operating personnel of NPPs

  5. Search and Hyperlinking Task at MediaEval 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskevich, Maria; Jones, Gareth J.F.; Chen, Shu; Aly, Robin; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Larson, Martha

    2012-01-01

    The Search and Hyperlinking Task was one of the Brave New Tasks at MediaEval 2012. The Task consisted of two sub- tasks which focused on search and linking in retrieval from a collection of semi-professional video content. These tasks followed up on research carried out within the MediaEval 2011

  6. Limitations in dual-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Merel Mathilde

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the effect of information-processing overload on working-memory dependent information processing was examined using dual-task paradigms. The experiments described strengthen the importance of a functional explanation for dual-task limitations. First, it showed evidence for a unified

  7. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance management : A prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vijfeijken, H.; Kleingeld, A.; van Tuijl, H.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, Hk.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  8. Task Manager for the Motorola 6800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.

    1979-05-01

    A nucleus of multi-tasking operating systems has been implemented on a Motorola 6800 microprocessor. This control structure, called a Task Manager, is appropriate for those real-time systems which are required to handle several different asynchronous events. The general concept of a Task Manager is described. A specific implementation for a Motorola 6800 microprocessor is given and its usage defined

  9. What Makes a Mathematical Task Interesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Rimma

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the question of what makes a mathematical task interesting to the 9th year students. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 students of purposive selection of the 9th year. The students were asked to recall a task they found interesting and engaging during the past three years. An analysis of the tasks was made…

  10. 48 CFR 1852.216-80 - Task ordering procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual task order, accounting and appropriation data. (e) The Contractor shall provide acknowledgement of... conflict between the requirements of the task order and the Contractor's approved task plan, the task order...

  11. Real-time multi-task operators support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang He; Peng Minjun; Wang Hao; Cheng Shouyu

    2005-01-01

    The development in computer software and hardware technology and information processing as well as the accumulation in the design and feedback from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation created a good opportunity to develop an integrated Operator S