... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
Petrilla, Cassandra; Cheney, Marshall K
African American young adults have higher rates of smoking and chronic disease than Whites. Understanding the association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors could improve cessation strategies for young adult smokers. African American young adult smokers aged 18-29 years (n = 243) were administered surveys assessing smoking beliefs and behaviors. Participants indicated if they had physician-diagnosed asthma, diabetes, and/or hypertension. Responses were analyzed using logistic regression, comparing responses of those diagnosed with a chronic disease to those without that disease. Smokers with asthma were 2.20 times more likely to acknowledge smoking negatively affected their health yet were no more likely to make a quit attempt than those without asthma. Diabetic smokers were 4.10 times more likely than those without to have made a quit attempt, yet were 3.24 times more likely to disagree that they were in control of their smoking. Hypertensive smokers were more likely to be heavier smokers and were 3.12 times more likely to disagree that they would stop smoking if they knew it affected the health of others than those without hypertension. Smokers with chronic disease were less likely to be influenced to quit by their physician than smokers without. African American young adult smokers with a chronic disease often diverge from smokers without that chronic disease in smoking beliefs and behaviors. These may influence how young adults respond to cessation messages and programs.
White, Monique; Addison, Clifton; Jenkins, Brenda W Campbell; Henderson, Frances; McGill, Dorothy; Payton, Marinelle; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna
This study examined the practices, personal motivation, and barriers of African American communities in Mississippi regarding their dietary practices. We selected the Metro Jackson Area comprised of Hinds, Madison and Rankin Counties because it is a combination of urban and rural communities. The sample consisted of 70 participants from seven sites. A total of seven focus groups responded to six questions to assess practices, personal motivation, and barriers to dietary practices: (1) Where in your community can you access fresh fruits and vegetables? (2) How many meals a day should a person eat? (3) What would you consider to be a healthy breakfast, lunch and dinner? (4) What would you consider to be a healthy snack? (5) What do you consider to be your motivations for eating healthy? (6) What do you consider to be your barriers to eating healthy? Each of the seven focus groups consisted of 6 to 12 participants and provided details of their dietary practices. The focus group interviews were digitally-recorded. The recorded interviews were transcribed. The majority of the participants stated that there is a limited availability of fresh fruits/vegetables in rural areas because of a shortage of grocery stores. When they do find fruits, they are priced very high and are unaffordable. Even though health conditions dictate food frequency and portion size, community members feel that individuals should eat three good balanced meals per day with snacks, and they should adhere to small portion sizes. While the desire to attain overall good health and eliminate associative risks for heart disease (e.g., diabetes, obesity) are personal motivations, the cost of food, transportation, age, and time required for food preparation were seen as barriers to healthy eating. Decisions regarding meal choice and meal frequency can have an impact on long-term health outcomes. Health promotion programs should become an integral part of academic- community collaborative agreements.
Brawner, Bridgette M
Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively, primarily from an individual-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyperincarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. In this article I propose a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.
Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…
Merrills, J. Maria Sweeney
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how communication preferences, learning preferences, and perceptions about online learning affect nontraditional African American students' participation in online world literature courses at a historically Black university (HBCU) in the southeastern United States. An instrumental case study was…
Frisby, Cynthia M.
Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…
Grubbs, Vanessa; Vittinghoff, Eric; Beck, James D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Wang, Wei; Griswold, Michael E; Powe, Neil R; Correa, Adolfo; Young, Bessie
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a prevalent public health problem that disproportionately affects African Americans, despite intense efforts targeting traditional risk factors. Periodontal disease, a chronic bacterial infection of the oral cavity, is both common and modifiable and has been implicated as a novel potential CKD risk factor. The authors seek to examine to what extent periodontal disease is associated with kidney function decline. This retrospective cohort study examines 699 African American participants with preserved kidney function (defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) at baseline) who underwent complete dental examinations as part of the Dental-Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (1996 to 1998) and subsequently enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (2000 to 2004). Using multivariable Poisson regression, the authors examined the association of periodontal disease (severe versus non-severe) with incident CKD, defined as incident eGFR periodontal disease. There were 21 cases (3.0%) of incident CKD after a mean follow-up of 4.8 (± 0.6) years. Compared with participants with non-severe periodontal disease, those with severe periodontal disease had a four-fold greater rate of incident CKD (adjusted incidence rate ratio 4.18 [95% confidence interval 1.68 to 10.39], P = 0.002). Severe periodontal disease is prevalent among a population at high risk for CKD and is associated with clinically significant kidney function decline. Further research is needed to determine if periodontal disease treatment alters the trajectory of renal deterioration.
Brown, Cynthia Williams; Alexander, Dayna S.; Cummins, Kayla; Price, Amanda Alise; Anderson-Booker, Marian
Background: African American women have the highest risk of death from heart disease among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups due to sedentary behaviors. Purpose: This article describes an intervention among 2 groups--a program group and an information group (intervention and comparison)--that assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge among…
N. Franceschini (Nora); Hu, Y. (Yijuan); A. Reiner (Alexander); S. Buyske (Steven); M.A. Nalls (Michael); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Y. Li (Yun); L.A. Hindorff (Lucia A); Cole, S.A. (Shelley A.); Howard, B.V. (Barbara V.); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); C. Carty (Cara); P. Sethupathy (Praveen); Martin, L.W. (Lisa W.); D.Y. Lin (Dan); Johnson, K.C. (Karen C.); L.C. Becker (Lewis); K.E. North (Kari); A. Dehghan (Abbas); J.C. Bis (Joshua); Y. Liu (YongMei); P. Greenland (Philip); J.E. Manson (Joann); Maeda, N. (Nobuyo); M.E. Garcia (M.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D.M. Becker (Diane); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); G. Heiss (Gerardo); C. Kooperberg (Charles); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric)
textabstractBackground: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD,
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...
Hall, Alfred L., II
Previous research studies indicated that African Americans remain severely underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), making up only 3% of that workforce, while representing 11.1% of all professional and related workers and 12.6% of the general population. As this country moves towards a more culturally diverse population, then representation of African Americans in SMET-related fields must be addressed in order to ensure our nation's competitiveness in a global market. This research study analyzed characteristics of African American undergraduate SMET majors participating in the Alliance for Minority Participation (AMP) program in six different states located in the Southeast region of the United States. These states consisted of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. AMP program participants completed a survey questionnaire, which collected information about potential factors that could affect their matriculation in SMET programs of studies at their respective institutions. Follow-up interviews and focus group sessions were also conducted with AMP participants to provide supplemental information to the survey data. The results of student responses were analyzed according to the type of institution the students attended (Historically Black College or University and Majority White Institution) as well as by the statewide Alliance program in which the students were involved. The students responded to survey questions that asked for their reasons for majoring in their field of study, their level of satisfaction with their institution, their impressions of student support programs and persons, their impressions of faculty and advisors, their reasons for thinking of switching majors, and their level of high school preparation. Statistical analyses of the student responses found that African American AMP students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities differed from those
Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. The mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and men comprised 61% of participants. Forty-two percent reported a household income less than $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, whereas unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (P < 0.05). A significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was observed with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (P = 0.004) but not in the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (P = 0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL, and it highlights the need for longitudinal studies to examine this association in the future. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R
Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.
Horton, Amanda L; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Jared, Heather L; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven
Maternal periodontal disease is a chronic oral infection with local and systemic inflammatory responses and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study determined whether maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy is associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and whether maternal race influences the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and systemic inflammatory responses. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy study was conducted. Healthy women at Periodontal disease was categorized by clinical criteria, and maternal serum was analyzed for CRP levels using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. An elevated CRP level was defined as >75th percentile. Demographic and medical data were obtained from the women's charts. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine maternal factors associated with an elevated CRP. An adjusted odds ratio (OR) for elevated CRP levels was calculated and stratified by race and periodontal disease category. The median (interquartile) CRP level was 4.8 (0.6 to 15.7) microg/ml, and an elevated CRP level (>75th percentile) was 15.7 microg/ml. African American race and moderate/severe periodontal disease were significantly associated with elevated CRP levels. When stratified by race, moderate/severe periodontal disease remained associated with an elevated CRP level among African American women (adjusted OR: 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2 to 8.5) but not among white women (adjusted OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.2 to 3.6) after adjusting for age, smoking, parity, marital status, insurance status, and weight. Among African American women, moderate/severe periodontal disease is associated with elevated CRP levels early in pregnancy.
Doward, Jr, Oscar W
... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...
Cukier, Holly N.; Kunkle, Brian W.; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Rolati, Sophie; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Kohli, Martin A.; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Dombroski, Beth A.; Van Booven, Derek; Lang, Rosalyn; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Gilbert, John R.
Objective: To identify a causative variant(s) that may contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans (AA) in the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A (ABC1), member 7 (ABCA7) gene, a known risk factor for late-onset AD. Methods: Custom capture sequencing was performed on ?150 kb encompassing ABCA7 in 40 AA cases and 37 AA controls carrying the AA risk allele (rs115550680). Association testing was performed for an ABCA7 deletion identified in large AA data sets (discovery n = 1,068; r...
Criddle, Thalia-Rae; Gordon, Newton C; Blakey, George; Bell, R Bryan
There are few data available on the experience of minority surgeons in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to 1) explore factors that contribute to African Americans choosing OMS as a career, 2) examine satisfaction among minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons with the residency application and training process, 3) report on practice patterns among minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and 4) identify perceived bias for or against minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons in an attempt to aid the efforts of OMS residency organizations to foster diversity. A 19-item survey was sent to 80 OMS practitioners by use of information from the mailing list of the National Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, an American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons-affiliated organization. All surveys were sent by mail and were followed by a reminder mailing after 8 weeks. Responses returned within 16 weeks were accepted for analysis. Of the 80 mailed surveys, 41 were returned within the 16-week parameter, representing a return rate of 51%. Most of the minority surgeon respondents were married men with a mean age of 60 years who worked as private practitioners. Most respondents practiced on the eastern and western coasts of the United States. Exposure in dental school was the most important factor in selecting OMS as a specialty. Location and prestige were the most important factors in selecting a residency program. Most respondents reported that race did not affect the success of their application to a residency program and did not currently affect the success of their practice. However, 25 to 46% of participants experienced race-related harassment, and 48 to 55% of participants believed there was a bias against African Americans in OMS. Our data suggest that a substantial number of minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons subjectively perceive race-based bias in their career, although it does not
Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Liautaud, Madalyn M; Weinberger, Andrea H; Leventhal, Adam M
Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline session, adult daily smokers (10 cigarettes per day; women: n=297, 83.8% Non-Hispanic African American; men: n=492, 86.2% Non-Hispanic African American) attended two counterbalanced lab sessions (16 hours abstinent vs. non-abstinent) and completed self-report measures of negative affect followed by a laboratory analogue smoking reinstatement task. We found a gender race interaction for several negative affect states and composite negative affect (ßs=-.12 to -.16, psNon-Hispanic White women compared to Non-Hispanic White men exhibited greater abstinence-induced increases in anger, anxiety, and composite negative affect (ßs=-.20 to -.29, psNon-Hispanic African American smokers (ßs=.00 to -.04, ps>.05). These findings suggest that negative affect during acute tobacco abstinence may be a clinically important and intervenable factor that can inform cessation interventions specifically for Non-Hispanic White women smokers. Further empirical exploration of mechanisms underlying interactions of gender and race in tobacco addiction may benefit smoking cessation efforts in Non-Hispanic African American women smokers. The current study contributes to a scant body of research examining the intersectional influence of race and gender on abstinence-induced negative affect-a central, motivationally prepotent feature of tobacco withdrawal. Using a laboratory-based design to experimentally manipulate abstinence, we provide evidence
A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…
Henry-Okafor, Queen; Cowan, Patricia A; Wicks, Mona N; Rice, Muriel; Husch, Donna S; Khoo, Michelle S C
Obesity is a growing health care concern with implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity and CVD morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent among African American women. This pilot study examined the association between obesity and the traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in a sample of African American women. Participants comprised 48 women (27 obese, 21 normal weight) aged 18-45. with no known history of CVD. The women completed demographic and 7-day physical activity recall questionnaires. Height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI). Hypertension risk was assessed using the average of two resting blood pressure (BP) measurements. Lipid profile, blood glucose, fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and E-selectin (eSel) levels were assessed using fasting blood samples. Laboratory findings were interpreted using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III reference guidelines as well as manufacturers' reference ranges for the novel CVD risk factors. The most common traditional risk factors were physical inactivity (72.9%), positive family history of CVD (58.3%), and obesity (56.3%). Obese individuals had elevated systolic BP (p = .0002), diastolic BP (p = .0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01), triglyceride (p = .02), hs-CRP (p = .002), and fibrinogen (p = .01), when compared with normal-weight women. The findings suggest an association between obesity and higher prevalence of both traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in young African American women.
Stepanova, Maria; Hossain, Noreen; Afendy, Arian; Perry, Kellie; Goodman, Zachary D; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair
There is increasing data suggesting that African Americans with NAFLD tend to have less progressive liver disease. The aim of this study is to assess differences in the hepatic gene expression of African-American and Caucasian patients with NAFLD who had undergone bariatric surgery. A total of 94 patients (81 NAFLD and 13 weight-matched controls with normal liver biopsy) were included. Of the entire cohort, 73 were Caucasians and 21 were African Americans. All patients were undergoing bariatric surgery. Two liver biopsies were obtained at the time of surgery. One biopsy was snap-frozen for gene expression and the other biopsy was stained for pathologic assessment. Liver biopsy confirmed that 24 patients from our cohort had NASH while 57 had only simple steatosis. Snap-frozen liver biopsy specimens of these patients were then used for the RNA extraction. cDNA probes were hybridized with customized microarray gene chips containing 5,220 relevant genes. Gene expression profiles were compared between groups using significance analysis of microarrays algorithm. In comparison to all Caucasian patients, African-American patients had over-expression of EPB41L1, IGF2, FAH, ACSL4, FUT4, CYP3A (q values < 10(-4)). In comparison to Caucasian NAFLD patients, African-American NAFLD patients showed over-expression of EPB41L1 and ACSL4 genes. Finally, in comparison to Caucasian NASH patients, African-American NASH patients showed over-expression of GSTM 2, GSTM4 and GSTM5 as well as FH and ASCL4 genes. Some genes highlighted by this analysis, particularly cytochrome CYP3A and glutathione transferases GSTM2, 4, 5, were previously implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. African-American patients with biopsy-proven obesity-related NAFLD and NASH have a specific hepatic gene expression pattern that may explain their differences from Caucasian patients with NAFLD in developing progressive liver disease.
Ripich, Danielle N; Fritsch, Thomas; Ziol, Elaine
In this exploratory study, we compared the performance of 10 African American and 26 European American persons with early- to mid-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) to 20 nondemented elderly (NE), using a shortened version of the Test of Problem Solving (TOPS). The TOPS measures verbal reasoning to solve everyday problems in five areas: explaining inferences, determining causes, answering negative why questions, determining solutions, and avoiding problems. Six linguistic measures were also examined: total utterances, abandoned utterances, length of utterances, maze words, questions, and total words. NE performed better than AD subjects on all but one measure of verbal reasoning ability. AD subjects also showed a trend to use more total utterances and abandoned utterances than NE. For the AD group, no ethnic differences were found for verbal reasoning or linguistic measures. The findings from this preliminary investigation suggest that, compared to European Americans, African American persons with AD demonstrate similar everyday problem solving and linguistic skills. Thus, assessments such as TOPS that examine everyday problem solving may be a useful nonbiased evaluation tool for persons with AD in these two ethnic groups.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...
Yu, Sophia S K; Ramsey, Natalie L M; Castillo, Darleen C; Ricks, Madia; Sumner, Anne E
The prevalence of cardiometabolic disease in Africa now rivals that of Western nations. Therefore, screening programs that lead to effective prevention of cardiometabolic disease in Africans is imperative. Most screening tests for cardiometabolic disease use triglyceride (TG) levels as a criterion. However, the failure rate of TG-based screening tests in African Americans is high. In Africans, the efficacy of TG-based screening tests is unknown. Our goal was to determine the association between hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥150 mg/dL) and cardiometabolic disease in African and African-American men. This was a cross-sectional study of 155 men (80 African immigrants, 75 African Americans) [age, 35±9 years, mean±standard deviation (SD), body mass index (BMI) 28.5±5.2 kg/m(2)] who self-identified as healthy. Lipid profiles were performed. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was determined by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), respectively. Cardiometabolic disease was defined by four possible subtypes--prediabetes, diabetes, insulin resistance, or metabolic triad [hyperinsulinemia, hyperapolipoprotein B, small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles]. TG levels were higher in men with cardiometabolic disease than without (88±43 versus 61±26 mg/dL, Pfail to identify both African immigrants and African-American men with cardiometabolic disease. As a consequence, the opportunity for early intervention and prevention is lost.
Wells, Janie R
The purpose of this three-group quasi-experimental research study was to describe the relationship between hemodialysis knowledge and perceived medical adherence to a prescribed treatment regimen in African Americans diagnosed with end stage renal disease and to determine if an educational intervention improved hemodialysis knowledge and medical adherence. Eighty-five African Americans participated in this study using the Life Options Hemodialysis Knowledge Test and the Medical Outcomes Study Measures of Patient Adherence tools. No significant correlation was found between hemodialysis knowledge and medical adherence. Paired sample t-tests revealed significantly higher hemodialysis knowledge scores in the post-test group compared to the pre-test group, t(26) = -3.79, p adherence. This study suggests that more education is needed to improve the knowledge level of African-American patients on hemodialysis.
Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Chasson, Gregory S; Ray, Lara A; Leventhal, Adam M
The association between obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology and smoking is poorly understood, particularly in African Americans-a group subject to smoking- and OC-related health disparities. In a non-clinical sample of 253 African American smokers, we tested the negative reinforcement model of OC-smoking comorbidity, purporting that smokers with higher OC symptoms experience greater negative affect (NA) and urge to smoke for NA suppression upon acute tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline visit involving OC assessment, participants completed two counterbalanced experimental visits (non-abstinent vs. 16-h tobacco abstinence) involving affect, smoking urge, and nicotine withdrawal assessment. OC symptom severity predicted larger abstinence-provoked increases in overall NA, anger, anxiety, depression, fatigue, urge to smoke to suppress NA, and composite nicotine withdrawal symptom index. African American smokers with elevated OC symptoms appear to be vulnerable to negative reinforcement-mediated smoking motivation and may benefit from cessation treatments that diminish NA or the urge to quell NA via smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patel, Minal R; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Id-Deen, Effat; Clark, Noreen M
Despite economic hardship, compliance with self-management regimens is still evident among individuals and families managing chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to describe how women with asthma address cost-related challenges to management of their condition. In 2012 and 2013, four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview protocol was employed by trained facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding means to reduce the impact of the cost of asthma management. Major themes identified were acceptance of the status quo; stockpiling and sharing medicines; utilizing community assistance programs; reaching out to healthcare providers and social networks for help; foregoing self-management; and utilizing urgent care. Awareness of strategies that are helpful to patients in reducing out-of-pocket costs may better equip service providers and others to develop interventions to make useful strategies more widely available.
Olivo, Robert E; Davenport, Clemontina A; Diamantidis, Clarissa J; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Tyson, Crystal C; Hall, Rasheeda; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Young, Bessie; Mwasongwe, Stanford E; Pendergast, Jane; Boulware, L Ebony; Scialla, Julia J
African Americans are at high risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Obesity may increase the risk for CKD by exacerbating features of the metabolic syndrome and promoting glomerular hyperfiltration. Whether other factors also affecting these pathways may amplify or mitigate obesity-CKD associations has not been investigated. We studied interactions between obesity and these candidate factors in 2043 African Americans without baseline kidney disease enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study. We quantified obesity as body mass index (BMI), sex-normalized waist circumference and visceral adipose volume measured by abdominal computed tomography at an interim study visit. Interactions were hypothesized with (i) metabolic risk factors (dietary quality and physical activity, both quantified by concordance with American Heart Association guidelines) and (ii) factors exacerbating or mitigating hyperfiltration (dietary protein intake, APOL1 risk status and use of renin-angiotensin system blocking medications). Using multivariable regression, we evaluated associations between obesity measures and incident CKD over the follow-up period, as well as interactions with metabolic and hyperfiltration factors. Assessed after a median of 8 years (range 6-11 years), baseline BMI and waist circumference were not associated with incident CKD. Higher visceral adipose volume was independently associated with incident CKD (P = 0.008) in a nonlinear fashion, but this effect was limited to those with lower dietary quality (P = 0.001; P-interaction = 0.04). In additional interaction models, higher waist circumference was associated with greater risk of incident CKD among those with the low-risk APOL1 genotype (P = 0.04) but not those with a high-risk genotype (P-interaction = 0.02). Other proposed factors did not modify obesity-CKD associations. Higher risks associated with metabolically active visceral adipose volume and interactions with dietary quality suggest
Ghani, Mahdi; Reitz, Christiane; Cheng, Rong; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Jun, Gyungah; Sato, Christine; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick A.; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Lee, Joseph H.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Rogaeva, Ekaterina
IMPORTANCE Mutations in known causal Alzheimer disease (AD) genes account for only 1% to 3% of patients and almost all are dominantly inherited. Recessive inheritance of complex phenotypes can be linked to long (>1-megabase [Mb]) runs of homozygosity (ROHs) detectable by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between ROHs and AD in an African American population known to have a risk for AD up to 3 times higher than white individuals. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study of a large African American data set previously genotyped on different genome-wide SNP arrays conducted from December 2013 to January 2015. Global and locus-based ROH measurements were analyzed using raw or imputed genotype data. We studied the raw genotypes from 2 case-control subsets grouped based on SNP array: Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set (871 cases and 1620 control individuals) and Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set (279 cases and 1367 control individuals). We then examined the entire data set using imputed genotypes from 1917 cases and 3858 control individuals. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The ROHs larger than 1 Mb, 2 Mb, or 3 Mb were investigated separately for global burden evaluation, consensus regions, and gene-based analyses. RESULTS The African American cohort had a low degree of inbreeding (F ~ 0.006). In the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set, we detected a significantly higher proportion of cases with ROHs greater than 2 Mb (P = .004) or greater than 3 Mb (P = .02), as well as a significant 114-kilobase consensus region on chr4q31.3 (empirical P value 2 = .04; ROHs >2 Mb). In the Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set, we identified a significant 202-kilobase consensus region on Chr15q24.1 (empirical P value 2 = .02; ROHs >1 Mb) and a cluster of 13 significant genes on Chr3p21.31 (empirical P value 2 = .03
Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD, attempted to fine map these loci, and characterize novel variants influencing CHD risk in African Americans.Up to 8,201 African Americans (including 546 first CHD events were genotyped using the MetaboChip array in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and Women's Health Initiative (WHI. We tested associations using Cox proportional hazard models in sex- and study-stratified analyses and combined results using meta-analysis. Among 44 validated CHD loci available in the array, we replicated and fine-mapped the SORT1 locus, and showed same direction of effects as reported in studies of individuals of European ancestry for SNPs in 22 additional published loci. We also identified a SNP achieving array wide significance (MYC: rs2070583, allele frequency 0.02, P = 8.1 × 10(-8, but the association did not replicate in an additional 8,059 African Americans (577 events from the WHI, HealthABC and GeneSTAR studies, and in a meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies of European ancestry (24,024 individuals including 1,570 cases of MI and 2,406 cases of CHD from the CHARGE Consortium.Our findings suggest that some CHD loci previously identified in individuals of European ancestry may be relevant to incident CHD in African Americans.
McTigue, Kathleen M; Chang, Yue-Fang; Eaton, Charles; Garcia, Lorena; Johnson, Karen C; Lewis, Cora E; Liu, Simin; Mackey, Rachel H; Robinson, Jennifer; Rosal, Milagros C; Snetselaar, Linda; Valoski, Alice; Kuller, Lewis H
To compare mortality, nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD), and congestive heart failure (CHF) risk across BMI categories in white, African American, and Hispanic women, with a focus on severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40), and examine heterogeneity in weight-related CHD risk. Among 156,775 Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trial participants (September 1993-12 September 2005), multivariable Cox models estimated relative risk for mortality, CHD, and CHF. CHD incidence was calculated by anthropometry, race, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF incidence generally rose with BMI category. For severe obesity versus normal BMI, hazard ratios (HRs, 95% confidence interval) for mortality were 1.97 (1.77-2.20) in white, 1.55 (1.20-2.00) in African American, and 2.59 (1.55-4.31) in Hispanic women; for CHD, HRs were 2.05 (1.80-2.35), 2.24 (1.57-3.19), and 2.95 (1.60-5.41) respectively; for CHF, HRs were 5.01 (4.33-5.80), 3.60 (2.30-5.62), and 6.05 (2.49-14.69). CVRF variation resulted in substantial variation in CHD rates across BMI categories, even in severe obesity. CHD incidence was similar by race/ethnicity when differences in BMI or CVRF were accounted for. Severe obesity increases mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF risk in women of diverse race/ethnicity. CVRF heterogeneity contributes to variation in CHD incidence even in severe obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Hendrie, Hugh C; Hake, Ann; Lane, Kathleen; Purnell, Christianna; Unverzagt, Frederick; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Murrell, Jill; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Callahan, Chris; Saykin, Andrew; Taylor, Stanley; Hall, Kathleen; Gao, Su
To investigate the association between statin use, incident dementia, and Alzheimer disease (AD) in a prospective elderly African American cohort. Two stage design with a screening interview followed by a comprehensive in-home assessment conducted over an eight-year period. Diagnoses of incident AD and dementia were made by consensus. Statin use was collected at each evaluation. Measurements of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), C-reactive protein (CRP) and APOE genotype were obtained from baseline blood samples. Logistic regression models were used to test the association of statin use on incident dementia and AD and its possible association with lipid and CRP levels. Indianapolis, Indiana. From an original cohort of 2629 participants, a subsample of 974 African Americans aged >70 years with normal cognition, at least one follow up evaluation, complete statin information, and biomarker availability were included. Incident dementia and incident AD. After controlling for age at diagnosis, sex, education level, presence of the APOE ε4 allele and history of stroke for the incident dementia model, baseline use of statins was associated with a significantly decreased risk of incident dementia (OR=.44, P=.029) and incident AD (OR=.40, P=.029). The significant effect of statin use on reduced AD risk and trend for dementia risk was found only for those participants who reported consistent use over the observational period (incident AD: P=.034; incident dementia: P=.061). Additional models found no significant interaction between baseline statin use, baseline LDL, or CRP level and incident dementia/AD. Consistent use of statin medications during eight years of follow-up resulted in significantly reduced risk for incident AD and a trend toward reduced risk for incident dementia.
Anna Maria Santiago
Full Text Available Using data from a natural experiment in Denver, we investigate whether the initiation of running away from home, aggressive or violent behavior, and marijuana use during adolescence are statistically related to the neighborhood contexts in which low-income Latino and African American youth were raised. Our analysis is based on retrospective child, caregiver, household, and neighborhood data for a sample of approximately 850 Latino and African American youth whose families were quasi-randomly assigned to public housing operated by the Denver (CO Housing Authority during part of their childhood. We used Cox PH models and accelerated failure time models to estimate ethnic differentials in the hazards and timing of initiation of these risky behaviors during adolescence. We found that multiple dimensions of neighborhood context—especially safety, ethnic and nativity composition, and socioeconomic status—strongly and robustly predicted initiation of running away, aggressive or violence behavior, and marijuana use during adolescence.
Scialla, Julia J; Appel, Lawrence J; Astor, Brad C; Miller, Edgar R; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Woodward, Mark; Parekh, Rulan S; Anderson, Cheryl A M
Metabolic acidosis may contribute to morbidity and disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The ratio of dietary protein, the major source of nonvolatile acid, to dietary potassium, which is naturally bound to alkali precursors, can be used to estimate net endogenous acid production (NEAP). We tested the association between estimated NEAP and serum bicarbonate in patients with CKD. NEAP was estimated among 462 African American adults with hypertensive CKD using published equations: NEAP (mEq/d) = -10.2 + 54.5 (protein [g/d]/potassium [mEq/d]). Dietary protein and potassium intake were estimated from 24-hour urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and potassium, respectively. All of the eligible measurements during follow-up were modeled using generalized linear regression clustered by participant and adjusted for demographics, 24-hour urinary sodium, kidney function, and selected medications. Higher NEAP was associated with lower serum bicarbonate in a graded fashion (P trend patients with stage 4/5 CKD (-2.43 mEq/L, P disease (-0.77 mEq/L, P = 0.01; P-interaction = 0.02). Reducing NEAP, through reduction of dietary protein and increased intake of fruits and vegetables, may prevent metabolic acidosis in patients with CKD.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
McDonald, Evangeline L; Powell, C Lamonte; Perryman, Jennie P; Thompson, Nancy J; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob
Transplantation is the favored therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unfortunately, demand for available organs far outpaces the supply. African Americans are disproportionately affected by the ever-widening gap between organ supply and demand. Additionally, structural, biological, and social factors contribute to feelings of unease some African Americans may feel regarding living donor transplant (LDT). The present research examines the relationship between trust in health care and attitudes toward LDT among African American ESRD patients. We hypothesized that lower trust in health care would be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward LDT, and that this relationship would be moderated by patient attitudes toward dialysis. Data were collected from August 2011 to April 2012 as part of a larger study. Measures included trust (of doctors, racial equity of treatment, and hospitals) and attitudes toward both LDT and dialysis. Bivariate analysis revealed that trust in one's doctor, hospital, and in racial equity in health care was significantly correlated with attitudes toward LDT (r = 0.265; r = 0.131; and r = 0.202, respectively). Additionally, attitudes toward dialysis moderated the relationships between Trust in Doctors/Attitudes toward LDT and Trust in Racial equity of treatment/Attitudes toward LDT. Findings suggest a strong relationship between trust in health care and attitudes toward LDT. These findings also shed light on how dialysis experiences are related to the relationship between trust in health care and attitudes toward LDT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Coleman, C L; Holzemer, W L
The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to explore the contribution of spiritual well-being and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) symptoms to psychological well-being measured by depression, hope, and state-trait anxiety in a sample of 117 African-American men and women with a mean age of 38 years living with HIV disease. Of the respondents, 26% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 74% were HIV seropositive. Each participant completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Sign and Symptom Checklist for Persons with HIV Disease, the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Nowotny Hope Scale, State-Trait Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings suggest that existential well-being, a spiritual indicator of meaning and purpose, more than religious well-being, was significantly related to the participants' psychological well-being. In addition, HIV symptoms were found to be significant predictors of psychological well-being. These findings support the need for nurses to continue exploring ways to integrate and support spirituality within the domains of clinical practice.
Patel, Minal R.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Id-Deen, Effat; Clark, Noreen M.
Objective Despite economic hardship, compliance with self-management regimens is still evident among individuals and families managing chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to describe how women with asthma address cost-related challenges to management of their condition. Methods In 2012 and 2013, four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview protocol was employed by trained facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding means to reduce the impact of the cost of asthma management. Results Major themes identified were acceptance of the status quo; stockpiling and sharing medicines; utilizing community assistance programs; reaching out to healthcare providers and social networks for help; foregoing self-management; and utilizing urgent care. Conclusions Awareness of strategies that are helpful to patients in reducing out-of-pocket costs may better equip service providers and others to develop interventions to make useful strategies more widely available. PMID:24471517
Cukier, Holly N.; Kunkle, Brian W.; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Rolati, Sophie; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Kohli, Martin A.; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Dombroski, Beth A.; Van Booven, Derek; Lang, Rosalyn; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Gilbert, John R.; Beecham, Gary W.; Martin, Eden R.; Carney, Regina M.; Mayeux, Richard; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Haines, Jonathan L.
Objective: To identify a causative variant(s) that may contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans (AA) in the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A (ABC1), member 7 (ABCA7) gene, a known risk factor for late-onset AD. Methods: Custom capture sequencing was performed on ∼150 kb encompassing ABCA7 in 40 AA cases and 37 AA controls carrying the AA risk allele (rs115550680). Association testing was performed for an ABCA7 deletion identified in large AA data sets (discovery n = 1,068; replication n = 1,749) and whole exome sequencing of Caribbean Hispanic (CH) AD families. Results: A 44-base pair deletion (rs142076058) was identified in all 77 risk genotype carriers, which shows that the deletion is in high linkage disequilibrium with the risk allele. The deletion was assessed in a large data set (531 cases and 527 controls) and, after adjustments for age, sex, and APOE status, was significantly associated with disease (p = 0.0002, odds ratio [OR] = 2.13 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42–3.20]). An independent data set replicated the association (447 cases and 880 controls, p = 0.0117, OR = 1.65 [95% CI: 1.12–2.44]), and joint analysis increased the significance (p = 1.414 × 10−5, OR = 1.81 [95% CI: 1.38–2.37]). The deletion is common in AA cases (15.2%) and AA controls (9.74%), but in only 0.12% of our non-Hispanic white cohort. Whole exome sequencing of multiplex, CH families identified the deletion cosegregating with disease in a large sibship. The deleted allele produces a stable, detectable RNA strand and is predicted to result in a frameshift mutation (p.Arg578Alafs) that could interfere with protein function. Conclusions: This common ABCA7 deletion could represent an ethnic-specific pathogenic alteration in AD. PMID:27231719
Drabik-Clary, Kathryn; Reddy, Vishnu V B; Benjamin, William H; Boctor, Fouad N
Maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility is a common hematological problem affecting the newborn. In general, hemolysis is minimal and the clinical course is relatively benign, rarely causing the escalating levels of hyperbilirubinemia and significant anemia commonly associated with Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The incidence of HDN ranges from one in 150 births to 1:3000 births, depending on the degree of anemia and level of serum bilirubin. The etiology of ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (ABO-HDN) is complex because anti-A and anti-B antibodies are composed mainly of IgM. Since only IgG antibodies cross the placenta, those pregnant women with high levels of IgG anti-A,B, anti-A, or anti-B with an ABO incompatible fetus will be the ones to give birth to an infant with ABO-HDN. We describe a case of a B/Rh positive term newborn born to an O/Rh negative African-American mother demonstrating aggressive hemolysis and a robust response of the bone marrow. This case was successfully managed with phototherapy and simple RBC transfusion without the need for exchange transfusion.
300 of these men; have completed pathology review of 70 of the discovery sample tumors; macrodissected and performed DNA extraction from 50 tumors...block, and sections cut and tumor areas marked by histopathologist. Target completion September 1st 2017; Discovery sample 35% completed Pathology ...African American population. Target completion March 2017; 50% completed. What was accomplished under these goals? In the current reporting
Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Osaro Mgbere,1,2 Susan Abughosh,1 Hua Chen,1 Paula Cuccaro,3 Ekere James Essien1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Health Department, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social–interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents’ involvement in their children’s lives was reflected in the adolescents’ feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining
Merz, Erin L; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Roesch, Scott C; Ko, Celine M; Emerson, Marc; Roma, Vincenzo G; Sadler, Georgia Robins
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used as a self-report measure of affect in community and clinical contexts. However, evaluations of the psychometric properties of PANAS scores have been limited in diverse ethnic groups. Several short forms of the PANAS have also been proposed, but very little is known about the psychometric properties of these versions. The present study investigated the psychometric properties, including the factor structure of the original PANAS and two short forms in an African American community sample (N=239). Descriptive, internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, and measurement invariance analyses were conducted. All PANAS subscales from the original and short forms had adequate internal consistency. For the original PANAS, the model specifying three correlated factors (Positive Affect, Afraid, Upset) with correlated uniquenesses from redundant items provided the best fit to the data. However, the two-factor model (Positive Affect, Negative Affect) with correlated uniquenesses was also supported. For both short forms, the two-factor model with correlated uniquenesses fit the data best. Factors from all forms were generally invariant across age and gender, although there was some minor invariance at the item level. Participants were from a limited geographic area and one ethnic group. Indicators of anxiety, depression, and cultural characteristics were not measured. The factor structure was replicated, suggesting no immediate concerns regarding the valid interpretation of PANAS scores. The results support the reliability and validity of the PANAS and its short forms for use among African Americans. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Essien-Wood, Idara R.
Given the lack of literature on Undergraduate African American females in the sciences (UAAFS), this study sought to explicate their experiences at one large, predominantly White, Research I institution in the southwestern United States. In particular, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the academic success and persistence of Black females in the natural and physical sciences. Data was collected via in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 Black female science majors. Findings from this study identified several supportive mechanisms for academic success: family, religion, teaching assistants and friends. Also identified were seven barriers to academic success: employment, lack of diversity, cultural dissonance, unwelcoming Research I environment, faculty, advisors, classmates, and lab groups. Further, an analysis of students' responses revealed numerous instances of racial and gender micro-aggressions. Recommendations are provided to address factors identified as affecting student academic success and persistence as well as a culture of micro-aggressive behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 plays important roles in kidney disease susceptibility and atherogenesis in experimental models. Relationships between serum MCP-1 concentration and early nephropathy and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD were assessed in African Americans (AAs with type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods Serum MCP-1 concentration, urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and atherosclerotic calcified plaque (CP in the coronary and carotid arteries and infrarenal aorta were measured in 479 unrelated AAs with T2D. Generalized linear models were fitted to test for associations between MCP-1 and urine ACR, eGFR, and CP. Results Participants were 57% female, with mean ± SD (median age 55.6±9.5 (55.0 years, diabetes duration 10.3±8.2 (8.0 years, urine ACR 149.7±566.7 (14.0 mg/g, CKD-EPI eGFR 92.4±23.3 (92.0 ml/min/1.73m2, MCP-1 262.9±239.1 (224.4 pg/ml, coronary artery CP 280.1±633.8 (13.5, carotid artery CP 47.1±132.9 (0, and aorta CP 1616.0±2864.0 (319.0. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, HbA1c, BMI, and LDL, serum MCP-1 was positively associated with albuminuria (parameter estimate 0.0021, P=0.04 and negatively associated with eGFR (parameter estimate −0.0003, P=0.001. MCP-1 remained associated with eGFR after adjustment for urine ACR. MCP-1 levels did not correlate with the extent of CP in any vascular bed, HbA1c or diabetes duration, but were positively associated with BMI. No interaction between BMI and MCP-1 was detected on nephropathy outcomes. Conclusions Serum MCP-1 levels are associated with eGFR and albuminuria in AAs with T2D. MCP-1 was not associated with subclinical CVD in this population. Inflammation appears to play important roles in development and/or progression of kidney disease in AAs.
.... During Year 02, we conducted technical analyses of completed Phase 1 interviews that were obtained from African American women who were eligible to receive, but who chose to decline, free screening mammograms...
.... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
.... The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
.... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
Gebreab, Samson Y; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brenner, Allison B; Hickson, DeMarc A; Sims, Mario; Subramanyam, Malavika; Griswold, Michael E; Wyatt, Sharon B; James, Sherman A
Few studies have examined the impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. We used data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) to examine the associations of multiple measures of lifecourse SEP with CVD events in a large cohort of African Americans. During a median of 7.2-year follow-up, 362 new or recurrent CVD events occurred in a sample of 5301 participants aged 21 to 94. Childhood SEP was assessed by using mother's education, parental home ownership, and childhood amenities. Adult SEP was assessed by using education, income, wealth, and public assistance. Adult SEP was more consistently associated with CVD risk in women than in men: age-adjusted hazard ratios for low versus high income (95% CIs), 2.46 (1.19 to 5.09) in women and 1.50 (0.87 to 2.58) in men, P for interaction=0.1244, and hazard ratio for low versus high wealth, 2.14 (1.39 to 3.29) in women and 1.06 (0.62 to 1.81) in men, P for interaction=0.0224. After simultaneous adjustment for all adult SEP measures, wealth remained a significant predictor of CVD events in women (HR=1.73 [1.04, 2.85] for low versus high). Education and public assistance were less consistently associated with CVD. Adult SEP was a stronger predictor of CVD events in younger than in older participants (HR for high versus low summary adult SEP score 3.28 [1.43, 7.53] for participants ≤50 years, and 1.90 (1.36 to 2.66) for participants >50 years, P for interaction 0.0846). Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD risk in women or men. Adult SEP is an important predictor of CVD events in African American women and in younger African Americans. Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD events in this population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants
Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…
Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of mortality in African Americans. To identify common genetic polymorphisms associated with CHD and its risk factors (LDL- and HDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, hypertension, smoking, and type-2 diabetes in individuals of African ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 8,090 African Americans from five population-based cohorts. We replicated 17 loci previously associated with CHD or its risk factors in Caucasians. For five of these regions (CHD: CDKN2A/CDKN2B; HDL-C: FADS1-3, PLTP, LPL, and ABCA1, we could leverage the distinct linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans to identify DNA polymorphisms more strongly associated with the phenotypes than the previously reported index SNPs found in Caucasian populations. We also developed a new approach for association testing in admixed populations that uses allelic and local ancestry variation. Using this method, we discovered several loci that would have been missed using the basic allelic and global ancestry information only. Our conclusions suggest that no major loci uniquely explain the high prevalence of CHD in African Americans. Our project has developed resources and methods that address both admixture- and SNP-association to maximize power for genetic discovery in even larger African-American consortia.
Juraschek, Stephen P; Appel, Lawrence J; Miller, Edgar R
There is little evidence guiding selection of nondiuretic, antihypertensive agents with a goal of lowering uric acid (SUA) and minimizing gout risk. In the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial, African Americans with chronic kidney disease were randomly assigned to metoprolol (a beta-blocker), ramipril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEi]), or amlodipine (a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker). SUA was measured at baseline and 12 months. Gout-related hospitalizations were based on ICD9 codes. Gout-related medication use (GRMs) was based on active prescriptions of allopurinol, colchicine, or probenecid during the baseline visit of the AASK cohort phase. We examined the effect of drug assignment on 12-month SUA (linear regression), gout-related hospitalization (Cox regression), and GRM (logistic regression). Of the 630 participants, 40% were female with a mean age of 55 years (SD, 10), mean SUA of 8.2 mg/dl (2.0), and mean serum creatinine of 1.8 mg/dl (0.6). After 12 months, metoprolol increased SUA by 0.3 mg/dl, while ramipril or amlodipine had no effect on SUA. Compared to ramipril, metoprolol significantly increased 12-month SUA (0.40; 0.10, 0.70 mg/dl; P = 0.009), nonsignificantly increased risk of gout-related hospitalization (hazard ratio: 3.87; 0.82, 18.26; P = 0.09), and significantly increased the odds of GRM (odds ratio: 1.62; 1.03, 2.54; P = 0.04). While metoprolol was associated with a higher 12-month SUA compared with amlodipine (0.57; 0.18, 0.95; P = 0.004), there was no difference in gout-related hospitalizations or GRM. Metoprolol increased SUA and GRM in African American adults. Health professionals treating patients with kidney disease at risk for gout should avoid metoprolol and possibly consider an ACEi. Trial Number NCT00582777. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Muntner, Paul; Menke, Andy; Batuman, Vecihi; Rabito, Felicia A.; He Jiang; Todd, Andrew C.
The association between body lead burden and kidney disease remains controversial. Fifty-five African-American end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases and 53 age- and sex-matched African-American controls without known renal disease were recruited from Tulane University-affiliated dialysis clinics and out-patient clinics, respectively. Blood lead was measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry and tibia lead (a measure of body lead) was measured via 109 Cd-based K shell X-ray fluorescence. Median blood lead levels were significantly higher among ESRD cases (6 μg/dL) compared to their control counterparts (3 μg/dL; P<0.001). Although no participants had overt lead poisoning (blood lead ≥25 μg/dL), seven cases but no controls had blood lead levels above 10 μg/dL (P=0.006). The median tibia lead level was 17 micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral (μg/g) and 13 μg/g among ESRD cases and their control counterparts, respectively (P=0.134). Four ESRD cases (7%), but no controls, had a tibia lead level above 40 μg/g (P=0.115) while a similar proportion of cases and controls had tibia lead between 20 and 39 μg/g (33% and 32%, respectively; P=0.726). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios of ESRD associated with a tibia lead ≥20 μg/g and each four-fold higher tibia lead (e.g., 5-20 μg/g) were 1.55 (95% CI: 0.55, 4.41) and 1.88 (95% CI: 0.53, 6.68), respectively. These findings support the need for prospective cohort studies of body lead burden and renal disease progression
Buchsbaum, Anna; Gallo, Maria F; Whiteman, Maura K; Cwiak, Carrie; Goedken, Peggy; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J; Kottke, Melissa
To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among female, African-American adolescents. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. At baseline, most participants (85.1%) preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6%) had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4%) notified their partner about their infection. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.
Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.
Gkourogianni, Alexandra; Sinaii, Ninet; Jackson, Sharon H; Karageorgiadis, Alexander S; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Keil, Margaret F; Zilbermint, Mihail; Chittiboina, Prashant; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lodish, Maya B
BackgroundLittle is known about the contribution of racial and socioeconomic disparities to severity and outcomes in children with Cushing disease (CD).MethodsA total of 129 children with CD, 45 Hispanic/Latino or African-American (HI/AA) and 84 non-Hispanic White (non-HW), were included in this study. A 10-point index for rating severity (CD severity) incorporated the degree of hypercortisolemia, glucose tolerance, hypertension, anthropomorphic measurements, disease duration, and tumor characteristics. Race, ethnicity, age, gender, local obesity prevalence, estimated median income, and access to care were assessed in regression analyses of CD severity.ResultsThe mean CD severity in the HI/AA group was worse than that in the non-HW group (4.9±2.0 vs. 4.1±1.9, P=0.023); driving factors included higher cortisol levels and larger tumor size. Multiple regression models confirmed that race (P=0.027) and older age (P=0.014) were the most important predictors of worse CD severity. When followed up a median of 2.3 years after surgery, the relative risk for persistent CD combined with recurrence was 2.8 times higher in the HI/AA group compared with that in the non-HW group (95% confidence interval: 1.2-6.5).ConclusionOur data show that the driving forces for the discrepancy in severity of CD are older age and race/ethnicity. Importantly, the risk for persistent and recurrent CD was higher in minority children.
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...
Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Katz, Joanne; Giordano, Lydia; Ibironke, Josephine; Hawse, Patricia; Tielsch, James M.
Objective To determine the age-specific prevalence of strabismus in White and African-American children aged 6 through 71 months and of amblyopia in White and African-American children aged 30 through 71 months. Design Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants White and African-American children aged 6 through 71 months in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Among 4,132 children identified, 3,990 eligible children (97%) were enrolled and 2,546 children (62%) were examined. Methods Parents or guardians of eligible participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a detailed eye examination including optotype visual acuity and measurement of ocular deviations. Strabismus was defined as a heterotropia at near or distance fixation. Amblyopia was assessed in those children aged 30 through 71 months who were able to perform optotype testing at 3 meters. Main Outcome Measures The proportions of children aged 6 through 71 months with strabismus and of children aged 30 through 71 months with amblyopia. Results Manifest strabismus was found in 3.3% of White and 2.1% of African American children (relative prevalence (RP) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 2.66). Esotropia and exotropia each accounted for close to half of all strabismus in both groups. Only one case of strabismus was found among 84 White children 6 through 11 months of age. Rates were higher in children 60 through 71 months of age (5.8% for Whites and 2.9% for African Americans (RP: 2.05, 95% CI: 0.79, 5.27). Amblyopia was present in 12 (1.8%) White and 7 (0.8%) African American children (RP: 2.23, 95% CI: 0.88, 5.62). Only one child had bilateral amblyopia. Conclusions Manifest strabismus affected 1 in 30 White and 1 in 47 African-American preschool aged children. The prevalence of amblyopia was under 2% in both Whites and African-Americans. National population projections suggest that there are approximately 677,000 cases of manifest strabismus among children 6–71 months
Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women
Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett
The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…
Okhomina, Victoria I; Seals, Samantha R; Marshall, Gailen D
Randomized controlled trials (RCT) often employ multiple recruitment methods to attract participants, however, special care must be taken to be inclusive of under-represented populations. We examine how recruiting from an existing observational study affected the recruitment of African Americans into a RCT that included yoga-based interventions. In particular, we report the recruitment success of The Effects of Health Promoting Programs (HPP) on Cardiovascular Disease Risk (NCT02019953), the first yoga-based clinical trial to focus only on African Americans. To recruit participants, a multifaceted recruitment strategy was implemented exclusively in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) cohort. The HPP recruited from the JHS cohort using direct mailings, signs and flyers placed around JHS study facilities, and through JHS annual follow-up interviews. Enrollment into HPP was open to all active JHS participants that were eligible to return for the third clinic exam (n = 4644). The target sample size was 375 JHS participants over a 24 month recruitment and enrollment period. From the active members of the JHS cohort, 503 were pre-screened for eligibility in HPP. More than 90% of those pre-screened were provisionally eligible for the study. The enrollment goal of 375 was completed after a 16-month enrollment period with over 25% (n = 97) of the required sample size enrolling during the second month of recruitment. The findings show that participants in observational studies can be successfully recruited into RCT. Observational studies provide researchers with a well-defined population that may be of interest when designing clinical trials. This is particularly useful in the recruitment of a high-risk, traditionally underrepresented populations for non-pharmacological clinical trials where traditional recruitment methods may prolong enrollment periods and extend study budgets.
Chin, Alexander L; Negash, Selam; Xie, Sharon; Arnold, Steven E; Hamilton, Roy
The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n = 51) or WNHs (n = 193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD.
Subramanyam, Malavika A.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Williams, David R.; Wyatt, Sharon B
Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000–2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N = 5301), we quantified the associati...
Candace C. Johnson
Full Text Available Background. A major determinant in cardiometabolic health is metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of symptoms that portend the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. As mind-body therapies are thought to help in lowering physiological and environmental CVD risk factors including blood pressure and psychological stress, they may also be beneficial for the primary prevention of CVD. Objectives. To synthesize and summarize existing knowledge on the effectiveness of mind-body therapies on MetS outcomes in African-American (AA women, a US subpopulation at high risk for CVD. Search Methods. A systematic search of eight databases was conducted in order to identify published papers addressing the topic. We included trials involving AA adult women, ages 18–64, and we included RCTs that involved multifactorial interventions. Outcomes of interest were MetS, chronic disease, and CVD risk factors (blood pressure, blood lipids, blood glucose, BMI, waist circumference, and mental health domains. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. Main Results. We identified five trials for inclusion in this review. One study reported outcomes associated with the full MetS symptom cluster. The included trials were small, short term, and at high risk of bias. All interventions lasted at least 6 weeks.
... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...
Latini, DM; Elkin, EP; Cooperberg, MR; Sadetsky, N; DuChane, J; Carroll, PR
BACKGROUND. Few studies of ethnicity and prostate cancer have included Latino men in analyses of baseline clinical characteristics, treatment selection, and disease-free survival (DFS). The present study examines the impact of Latino ethnicity on these parameters in a large, multiinstitutional database of men with prostate cancer. METHODS. We compared baseline disease characteristics and clinical outcomes for Latino (N = 138), non-Latino White (NLW, N = 5619), and African-American (AA, N = 60...
Stanton, B F; Li, X; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L
To evaluate the success of efforts to educate youth not only to use prescription contraceptives to avoid pregnancy, but also to use condoms to avoid sexually transmitted diseases, including infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. Longitudinal study of 383 African-American youth aged 9 to 15 years enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction intervention. Data about contraceptive practices were obtained at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later using a culturally and developmentally appropriate risk assessment tool administered with "talking" computers (Macintosh, Apple Computer Inc, Cupertino, Calif). Approximately three fourths of sexually active youth used some form of contraception in each 6-month round, with almost half of the youth using combinations of contraceptives. Among all youth at baseline and among control youth throughout the study, more than half used condoms and more than two thirds who used oral contraceptives also used condoms. Receipt of an AIDS education intervention was associated with use of more effective contraceptive practices (eg, condoms and another prescription or nonprescription method of birth control). After receiving the intervention, more than 80% of the youth who used oral contraceptives also used condoms. Contraceptive practices showed considerable stability. Knowledge about AIDS was positively associated with use of more effective contraceptive methods. Many youth are using condoms and prescription birth control simultaneously, and these use rates can be increased through AIDS education interventions.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but itâs still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle. Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 5/2/2017.
Uzogara, Ekeoma E.; Lee, Hedwig; Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Jackson, James S.
This study investigated perceptions of skin tone discrimination among adult African American men. Research suggests that through negative African American stereotypes, out-group members (Whites) perceive light-skinned African Americans favorably and dark-skinned African Americans unfavorably. However, it is unclear how treatment by in-group members (other African Americans) uniquely affects men. Using data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the 2003 National Survey of America...
Lee, Sohye; Schorr, Erica; Hadidi, Niloufar Niakosari; Kelley, Robin; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Lindquist, Ruth
Peer support has powerful potential to improve outcomes in a program of health behavior change; yet, how peer support is perceived by participants, its role, and how it contributes to intervention efficacy is not known, especially among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to identify the subjectively perceived experience and potential contributions of peer support to the outcomes of a peer group behavioral intervention designed to change health behavior to reduce risks for heart disease and stroke in African American men in a faith-based community. A peer support group intervention was implemented to increase health knowledge and to improve health behaviors in line with the American Heart Association's Life Simple 7 domains (get active, control cholesterol, eat better, manage blood pressure, lose weight, reduce blood sugar, and stop smoking). Fourteen peer group sessions and eight follow-up interviews with program participants were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Seven key themes emerged, including (1) enhancing access to health behavior information and resources, (2) practicing and applying problem-solving skills with group feedback and support, (3) discussing health behavior challenges and barriers, (4) sharing health behavior changes, (5) sharing perceived health outcome improvements and benefits, (6) feelings of belonging and being cared for, and (7) addressing health of family and community. Qualitative findings revealed a positive perception of peer support and greater understanding of potential reasons why it may be an effective strategy for African American men.
... have insurance or can’t afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers or programs that charge you according to ... how he found healing in an African American community. Other Resources ... Institute of Mental Health Phone Number: 301-443-4513 Toll Free Number: ...
Freedman, Barry I; Sink, Kaycee M; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hughes, Timothy M; Williamson, Jeff D; Whitlow, Christopher T; Palmer, Nicholette D; Miller, Michael E; Lovato, Laura C; Xu, Jianzhao; Smith, S Carrie; Launer, Lenore J; Barzilay, Joshua I; Cohen, Robert M; Sullivan, Mark D; Bryan, R Nick; Wagner, Benjamin C; Bowden, Donald W; Maldjian, Joseph A; Divers, Jasmin
Relationships between early kidney disease, neurocognitive function, and brain anatomy are poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cross-sectional associations were assessed between cerebral anatomy and cognitive performance with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in African Americans with T2DM. African Americans with cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (AA-DHS MIND; n=512; 480 with MRI) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) MIND (n=484; 104 with MRI) studies. eGFR (CKD-EPI creatinine equation), spot UACR. MRI-based cerebral white matter volume (WMV), gray matter volume (GMV), and white matter lesion volume; cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Symbol Coding, Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, scanner, intracranial volume, education, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A 1c concentration, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, smoking, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were used to test for associations between kidney phenotypes and the brain in each study; a meta-analysis was performed. Mean participant age was 60.1±7.9 (SD) years; diabetes duration, 12.1±7.7 years; hemoglobin A 1c concentration, 8.3%±1.7%; eGFR, 88.7±21.6mL/min/1.73m 2 ; and UACR, 119.2±336.4mg/g. In the fully adjusted meta-analysis, higher GMV associated with lower UACR (Passociation with higher eGFR. Higher white matter lesion volume was associated with higher UACR (Passociated with either kidney parameter. Higher UACR was associated with lower Digit Symbol Coding performance (Passociation with higher Stroop interference; eGFR was not associated with cognitive tests. Cross-sectional; single UACR measurement. In African Americans with T2DM, mildly high UACR and mildly low e
Reitz, Christiane; Jun, Gyungah; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Mayeux, Richard
Importance Genetic variants associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer disease are known for individuals of European ancestry, but whether the same or different variants account for the genetic risk of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals is unknown. Identification of disease-associated variants helps identify targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment. Objective To identify genetic loci associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans. Design, Setting, and Participants The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) assembled multiple data sets representing a total of 5896 African Americans (1968 case participants, 3928 control participants) 60 years or older that were collected between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites. The association of Alzheimer disease with genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was assessed in case-control and in family-based data sets. Results from individual data sets were combined to perform an inverse variance–weighted meta-analysis, first with genome-wide analyses and subsequently with gene-based tests for previously reported loci. Main Outcomes and Measures Presence of Alzheimer disease according to standardized criteria. Results Genome-wide significance in fully adjusted models (sex, age, APOE genotype, population stratification) was observed for a SNP in ABCA7 (rs115550680, allele = G; frequency, 0.09 cases and 0.06 controls; odds ratio [OR], 1.79 [95% CI, 1.47-2.12]; P = 2.2 × 10–9), which is in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs previously associated with Alzheimer disease in Europeans (0.8
Smith, Felicia R.
This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…
Candia-Bailey, Antoinette Bonnie
Since the 1800s African-American women have been involved in educational processes in meaningful ways despite challenges to their efforts and advancements. African-American women have made significant strides in breaking the glass ceiling within higher education. This qualitative research study explores and compares the perceptions of challenges…
Davis, Delilah A.
The purpose of this study was to explore the tenacities, practices, and discourse of family-based literacy practices and their connection in African American families. It scrutinized the influence of the practices of African American families on the multiple contexts of literacy practices in their passageway across the school-community periphery.…
Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD
Crystal Y. Lumpkins
Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9 were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs inform strategic health care (media advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.
Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD).
Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Saint Onge, Jarron M
Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups ( n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.
Malat, Gregory E; Culkin, Christine; Palya, Aniruddha; Ranganna, Karthik; Kumar, Mysore S Anil
Among organ transplant recipients, the African American population historically has received special attention. This is because secondary to their disposition to certain disease states, for example hypertension, an African American patient has a propensity to reach end-stage renal disease and require renal replacement earlier than a Caucasian patient. Regardless of the initiative to replace dialysis therapy with organ transplantation, the African American patient has many barriers to kidney transplantation, thus extending their time on dialysis and waiting time on the organ transplant list. These factors are among the many negative causes of decreased kidney graft survival, realized before kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, once the African American recipient receives a kidney graft, the literature documents that many post-transplant barriers exist which limit successful outcomes. The primary post-transplant barrier relates to designing proper immunosuppression protocols. The difficulty in designing protocols revolves around (i) altered genetic metabolism/lower absorption, (ii) increased immuno-active cytokines and (iii) detrimental effects of noncompliance. Based on the literature, dosing of immunosuppression must be aggressive and requires a diligent practitioner. Research has indicated that, despite some success with proven levels of immunosuppression, the African American recipient usually requires a higher 'dose per weight' regimen. However, even with aggressive immunosuppressant dosing, African Americans still have worse outcomes than Caucasian recipients. Additionally, many of the targeted sites of action that immunosuppression exerts its effects on have been found to be amplified in the African American population. Finally, noncompliance is the most discouraging inhibitor of long-term success in organ transplantation. The consequences of noncompliance are biased by ethnicity and affect the African American population more severely. All of these factors
Broman, Clifford L.
Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…
"I Love Fruit But I Can't Afford It": Using Participatory Action Research to Develop Community-Based Initiatives to Mitigate Challenges to Chronic Disease Management in an African American Community Living in Public Housing.
Rogers, Courtney; Johnson, Joy; Nueslein, Brianne; Edmunds, David; Valdez, Rupa S
As chronic conditions are on the rise in the USA, management initiatives outside of the inpatient setting should be explored to reduce associated cost and access disparities. Chronic conditions disproportionately affect African American public housing residents due to the effects of historical marginalization on the manifestation of economic and social problems exacerbating health disparities and outcomes. Informed by participatory research action tenets, this study focused on identifying the challenges to management of chronic conditions and developing community-envisioned initiatives to address these challenges in a predominantly African American public housing community. Two focus groups were conducted with former and current public housing residents and were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Physical activity, the cost associated with healthy eating, and lack of information were noted as challenges to chronic disease management. Initiatives discussed were the formation of a walking partner's program to promote physical activity, a shopper's club to exchange coupons and learn how to prepare healthy meals, and a natural remedy's book to share information intergenerationally about management tactics. Challenges identified existed predominantly on the individual and the system level, while the initiatives generated target engaging interpersonal and community relationships. These community-envisioned approaches should be explored to facilitate chronic disease management in public housing neighborhoods.
Subramanyam, Malavika A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Hickson, Demarc A; Sarpong, Daniel F; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A; Williams, David R; Wyatt, Sharon B
Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000-2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N=5301), we quantified the association of subjective social status with selected cardiovascular risk factors: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, waist circumference, insulin resistance and prevalence of diabetes. We contrasted the strength of the associations of these outcomes with subjective versus objective social status and examined whether perceived discrimination confounded or modified these associations. Subjective social status was measured using two 10-rung "ladders," using the U.S. and the community as referent groups. Objective social status was measured using annual family income and years of schooling completed. Gender-specific multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to examine associations. Subjective and objective measures were weakly positively correlated. Independent of objective measures, subjective social status was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms (men and women) and insulin resistance (women). The associations of subjective social status with the outcomes were modest and generally similar to the objective measures. We did not find evidence that perceived racial discrimination strongly confounded or modified the association of subjective social status with the outcomes. Subjective social status was related to depressive symptoms but not consistently to stress or metabolic risk factors in African Americans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Janina M Jeff
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex metabolic disease that disproportionately affects African Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified several loci that contribute to T2D in European Americans, but few studies have been performed in admixed populations. We first performed a GWAS of 1,563 African Americans from the Vanderbilt Genome-Electronic Records Project and Northwestern University NUgene Project as part of the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE network. We successfully replicate an association in TCF7L2, previously identified by GWAS in this African American dataset. We were unable to identify novel associations at p5,000 African Americans. We identified 13 independent associations between TCIRG1, CHKA, and ALDH3B1 genes on chromosome 11 and T2D. Our results suggest a novel region on chromosome 11 identified by admixture mapping is associated with T2D in African Americans.
Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M
The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.
Reitz, Christiane; Jun, Gyungah; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L; Crane, Paul K; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Murrell, Jill R; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T; Green, Robert C; Barnes, Lisa L; Cantwell, Laura B; Fallin, M Daniele; Go, Rodney C P; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O; Manly, Jennifer J; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L; Bennett, David A; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S; Goate, Alison M; Byrd, Goldie S; Kukull, Walter A; Foroud, Tatiana M; Haines, Jonathan L; Farrer, Lindsay A; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Mayeux, Richard
Genetic variants associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer disease are known for individuals of European ancestry, but whether the same or different variants account for the genetic risk of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals is unknown. Identification of disease-associated variants helps identify targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment. To identify genetic loci associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans. The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) assembled multiple data sets representing a total of 5896 African Americans (1968 case participants, 3928 control participants) 60 years or older that were collected between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites. The association of Alzheimer disease with genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was assessed in case-control and in family-based data sets. Results from individual data sets were combined to perform an inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis, first with genome-wide analyses and subsequently with gene-based tests for previously reported loci. Presence of Alzheimer disease according to standardized criteria. Genome-wide significance in fully adjusted models (sex, age, APOE genotype, population stratification) was observed for a SNP in ABCA7 (rs115550680, allele = G; frequency, 0.09 cases and 0.06 controls; odds ratio [OR], 1.79 [95% CI, 1.47-2.12]; P = 2.2 × 10(-9)), which is in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs previously associated with Alzheimer disease in Europeans (0.8 Alzheimer disease but not reaching significance in genome-wide analyses were replicated in gene-based analyses accounting for linkage disequilibrium between markers and correcting for number of tests performed per gene (CR1, BIN1, EPHA1, CD33; 0.0005 Alzheimer disease was significantly associated with variants in ABCA7 and with other genes that have been associated with Alzheimer disease in individuals of European ancestry. Replication and functional
Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming
Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…
The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine health literacy and its association with diabetes knowledge, perceived self-efficacy and disease self-management among African Americans with diabetes mellitus. Fifty English-speaking, adult African American participants with diabetes mellitus were recruited from a community health center and a church located in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected at a single point in time utilizing the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT), Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale, and Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities (SDSCA) Questionnaire. Bivariate associations were identified for health literacy with diabetes knowledge level; diabetes knowledge level with dietary self-care activities; and self-efficacy with dietary, exercise, and foot care self-care activities. Diabetes knowledge level and self-efficacy were independent predictors for dietary self-care activities, while self efficacy was the sole independent predictor for foot self-care. Means for health literacy and diabetes self-care activities were influenced by demographic factors examined.
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide...... Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n¿=¿550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n¿=¿98 independent loci) were...... further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P...
Latini, David M; Elkin, Eric P; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Sadetsky, Natalia; Duchane, Janeen; Carroll, Peter R
Few studies of ethnicity and prostate cancer have included Latino men in analyses of baseline clinical characteristics, treatment selection, and disease-free survival (DFS). The present study examines the impact of Latino ethnicity on these parameters in a large, multiinstitutional database of men with prostate cancer. We compared baseline disease characteristics and clinical outcomes for Latino (N = 138), non-Latino White (NLW, N = 5619), and African-American (AA, N = 608) men with localized prostate cancer by using chi-square and ANOVA for baseline variables and survival analysis to examine differences in time to recurrence. Latino men resembled AA men more than NLW on sociodemographic characteristics. AA men had higher Gleason scores and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis than Latino or NLW men (both P Latino and AA men presented with advanced disease (T3b/T4/N+/M+) versus 4% of NLW (P Latino men did not receive different treatments than NLW or AA men after controlling for clinical and demographic factors; however, AA men were more likely to receive external beam radiation (OR = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-2.31) and hormone treatment (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.32) then NLW men. For prostatectomy patients, 3-year actuarial DFS rates were 83% for NLW men and 86% for Latino men versus 69% for AA men (P Latinos are more similar to African Americans on sociodemographic characteristics but more similar to NLW on clinical presentation, treatments received, and DFS. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
Panch, Sandhya R.; Yau, Yu Ying; Fitzhugh, Courtney D.; Hsieh, Matthew M.; Tisdale, John F.; Leitman, Susan F.
Background G-CSF-stimulated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) collected by apheresis have become the predominant graft source for HPC transplantation in adults. Among healthy allogeneic donors, demographic characteristics (age, sex, BMI) and baseline hematologic counts affect HPC mobilization, leading to variability in CD34+ apheresis yields. Racial differences in HPC mobilization are less well characterized. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 1,096 consecutive G-CSF-stimulated leukapheresis procedures in healthy allogeneic African American (AA) or Caucasian donors. Results In a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, baseline platelet and MNC counts, and daily G-CSF dose, peak CD34+ cell mobilization was significantly higher among AAs (n=215) than Caucasians (n=881) (123 ± 87 vs 75 ± 47 cells/uL; p<0.0001). A ceiling effect was observed with increasing G-CSF dose (10 vs 16 mcg/kg/day) in AAs (123 ± 88 vs 123 ± 87) but not in Caucasians (74 ± 46 vs 93 ± 53, p<0.001). In AA donors, presence of sickle cell trait (SCT, n=41) did not affect CD34+ mobilization (peak CD34+ 123 ± 91 vs 107 ±72 cells/uL, HbAS vs HbAA, p=0.34). Adverse events were minimal and similar across race. Conclusions AAs demonstrated significantly better CD34 mobilization responses to G-CSF than Caucasians. This was independent of other demographic and hematologic parameters. Studying race-associated pharmacogenomics in relation to G-CSF may improve dosing strategies. Adverse event profile and CD34 mobilization were similar in AA donors with and without SCT. Our findings suggest that it would be safe to include healthy AA donors with SCT in unrelated donor registries. PMID:27167356
Pointer, S D; Rickstrew, J; Slaughter, J C; Vaezi, M F; Silver, H J
Although obesity rates are higher in African-American than European-American women, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its comorbidities are more prevalent in European-American women. A common denominator for increased adiposity, and consequent insulin resistance, is excess dietary macronutrient intake - which may promote greater prevalence and severity of GERD in women. To investigate whether GERD is more robustly associated with dietary carbohydrate intake, particularly dietary simple carbohydrate intake, and insulin resistance in European-American women. About 144 obese women were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks after consuming a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet. GERD diagnosis and medication usage was confirmed in medical records with symptoms and medications assessed weekly. About 33.3% (N = 33) of European-American and 20.0% (N = 9) of African-American women had GERD at baseline. Total carbohydrate (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), sugars (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), glycaemic load (r = 0.34, P = 0.001) and HOMA IR (r = 0.30, P = 0.004) were associated with GERD, but only in European-American women. In response to high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet, reduced intake of sugars was associated with reduced insulin resistance. By the end of diet week 10, all GERD symptoms and medication usage had resolved in all women. GERD symptoms and medication usage was more prevalent in European-American women, for whom the relationships between dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and GERD were most significant. Nevertheless, high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet benefited all women with regard to reducing GERD symptoms and frequency of medication use. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan
Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be r...
The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…
Peprah, Emmanuel; Xu, Huichun; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Royal, Charmaine D.
Genomic research is one of the tools for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases of global health relevance, and paving the research dimension to clinical and public health translation. Recent advances in genomic research and technologies have increased our understanding of human diseases, genes associated with these disorders, and the relevant mechanisms. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proliferated since the first studies were published several years ago, and have become an important tool in helping researchers comprehend human variation and the role genetic variants play in disease. However, the need to expand the diversity of populations in GWAS has become increasingly apparent as new knowledge is gained about genetic variation. Inclusion of diverse populations in genomic studies is critical to a more complete understanding of human variation and elucidation of the underpinnings of complex diseases. In this review, we summarize the available data on GWAS in recent-African ancestry populations within the western hemisphere (i.e. African Americans and peoples of the Caribbean) and continental African populations. Furthermore, we highlight ways in which genomic studies in populations of recent African ancestry have led to advances in the areas of malaria, HIV, prostate cancer, and other diseases. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting GWAS in recent African ancestry populations in the context of addressing existing and emerging global health conditions. PMID:25427668
Peprah, Emmanuel; Xu, Huichun; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Royal, Charmaine D
Genomic research is one of the tools for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases of global health relevance and paving the research dimension to clinical and public health translation. Recent advances in genomic research and technologies have increased our understanding of human diseases, genes associated with these disorders, and the relevant mechanisms. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proliferated since the first studies were published several years ago and have become an important tool in helping researchers comprehend human variation and the role genetic variants play in disease. However, the need to expand the diversity of populations in GWAS has become increasingly apparent as new knowledge is gained about genetic variation. Inclusion of diverse populations in genomic studies is critical to a more complete understanding of human variation and elucidation of the underpinnings of complex diseases. In this review, we summarize the available data on GWAS in recent African ancestry populations within the western hemisphere (i.e. African Americans and peoples of the Caribbean) and continental African populations. Furthermore, we highlight ways in which genomic studies in populations of recent African ancestry have led to advances in the areas of malaria, HIV, prostate cancer, and other diseases. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting GWAS in recent African ancestry populations in the context of addressing existing and emerging global health conditions.
Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W
Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.; Arnold, Lauren D.; Notaro, Sheri R.
This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents’ intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vacc...
Steele, Sharon L; Lewis-Jack, Ometha
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. national figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. National figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
Sweat, M; O'Donnell, C; O'Donnell, L
Decisions about the dissemination of HIV interventions need to be informed by evidence of their cost-effectiveness in reducing negative health outcomes. Having previously shown the effectiveness of a single-session video-based group intervention (VOICES/VOCES) in reducing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among male African American and Latino clients attending an urban STD clinic, this study estimates its cost-effectiveness in terms of disease averted. Cost-effectiveness was calculated using data on effectiveness from a randomized clinical trial of the VOICES/VOCES intervention along with updated data on the costs of intervention from four replication sites. STD incidence and self-reported behavioral data were used to make estimates of reduction in HIV incidence among study participants. The average annual cost to provide the intervention to 10 000 STD clinic clients was estimated to be US$447 005, with a cost per client of US$43.30. This expenditure would result in an average of 27.69 HIV infections averted, with an average savings from averted medical costs of US$5 544 408. The number of quality adjusted life years saved averaged 387.61, with a cost per HIV infection averted of US$21 486. This brief behavioral intervention was found to be feasible and cost-saving when targeted to male STD clinic clients at high risk of contracting and transmitting infections, indicating that this strategy should be considered for inclusion in HIV prevention programming.
Randolph, Schenita; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey
Improving the health of black and minority ethnic (BME) men in the US continues to be a public health priority. Compared with men of other races and ethnicities, African-American men have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from chronic illness and diseases including cancer, heart disease, prostate cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS. One way to address these disparities is to include African-American men in health research, to elicit their perspectives on health risks and protective factors. These can then inform interventions aimed at reducing health disparities. However, challenges remain in recruiting and engaging African-American men in health research. To provide strategies for recruiting African-American men in health research, using as an exemplar a qualitative study of fathers' perspectives of sexual health promotion with young African-American males. Efforts are needed to increase the representation of African-American men in health research. Ensuring that researchers are aware of the cultural, social and environmental factors related to decisions to participate in research can lead to effective methods to recruit and engage them. There are several essential strategies for increasing African-American men's participation in health research: ensuring the research team is culturally and gender-sensitive; recruiting in trusted environments; using respected gatekeepers; developing trust with participants; and being transparent. Implementing strategies to include African-American men in health research has the potential to improve health disparities in the US. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Full Text Available Background. Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, coagulopathy and late-onset, progressive neurological dysfunction. It also has an “accelerated phase” characterized by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH. The disease is caused by mutations in the CHS1/LYST gene located on chromosome 1, which affects lysosome morphology and function. We report the case of an African-American child with CHS in Case. This 16-month old African-American girl presented with fever and lethargy. The proband had pale skin compared to her parents, with light brown eyes, silvery hair and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Her laboratory evaluation was remarkable for pancytopenia, high serum ferritin and an elevated LDH. Bone marrow aspirate revealed large inclusions in granulocytes and erythrophagocytosis consistent with HLH. Genetic evaluation revealed two novel nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene: c.3622C>T (p.Q1208X and c.11002G>T (p.E3668X. Conclusions. Our patient is one of the few cases of CHS reported in the African American population. We identified 2 nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene, the first mutation analysis published of an African-American child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. These two mutations predict a severe phenotype and thus identification of these mutations has an important clinical significance in CHS.
Moore-Greene, Gracie M; Gross, Susan M; Silver, Kristi D; Perrino, Carrol S
African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Cross-sectional study African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P = .004) and health compared to others (P = .006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r = .319) but was not correlated with BMI (r = .095). Decreased physical exercise (P = .02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population.
Jackson, Jonathan D; Rentz, Dorene M; Aghjayan, Sarah L; Buckley, Rachel F; Meneide, Tamy-Fee; Sperling, Reisa A; Amariglio, Rebecca E
subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) have been proposed as a means of identifying individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the utility of SCCs has not been well-explored for African-Americans, who are twice as likely to develop AD dementia as Caucasians. We investigated whether race affects the association between SCCs and objective memory performance. we used a composite of three SCC questionnaires, and three challenging episodic memory tests. We studied 289 (61% female; African-American n = 47) clinically normal older individuals. Two hierarchical linear regressions assessed the modifying role of race on the association between SCC and objective memory performance. The first regression was conducted on the full sample, while the second matched the racial groups on age, estimated verbal IQ and socioeconomic status. in the full sample, both groups reported similar levels of SCCs, P = 0.10, although African-Americans performed worse on the memory tasks, P memory among Caucasians, r = -0.401, the correlation was not found among African-Americans, r = -0.052. results suggest that the dissociation between SCCs and memory performance in African-Americans may indicate qualitative differences in how diverse groups endorse cognitive concerns, even after considering socioeconomic and educational factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com
Fowler, Barbara A
The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity.
Gregory, Anne; Mosely, Pharmicia M.
While the achievement gap between African American students and white and Asian students is discussed widely in the media (e.g. Schemo, 2003), the gap in discipline between African Americans and these groups has gained much less attention. Few studies have explored teacher processes that affect the over-representation of African American students…
Tate, Nutrena H; Dillaway, Heather E; Yarandi, Hossein N; Jones, Lenette M; Wilson, Feleta L
African American adolescents experience higher rates of obesity and have an increased risk of obesity-related diseases than do White American adolescents. Despite culturally sensitive obesity preventive interventions, obesity rates are increasing within the African American adolescent population. Current obesity interventions do not usually address the heterogeneity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], gender, and residential status differences) within the African American adolescent community that can affect the efficacy of these interventions. To examine the gender, SES, and residential status differences related to obesity and weight behaviors in African American adolescents. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 15- to 17-year-old African American adolescents (n = 145) from community clinics, youth organizations, churches, and social networks in metropolitan and inner-city Detroit. Data were collected through use of survey methods and analyzed with use of descriptive statistics, independent sample t tests, and multiple regression equations. Female adolescents consumed foods higher in fat and calories (t = -2.36, p = .019) and had more body fat (t = -9.37, p = .000) than did males. Adolescents of lower SES consumed food higher in fat and calories (t = -2.23, p = .027) and had higher body mass (t = -2.57, p = .011) than did adolescents of higher SES. Inner-city African American adolescents had higher levels of physical activity (t = -2.39, p = .018) and higher body mass (t = 2.24, p = .027) than did suburban African American adolescent counterparts. Gender, SES, and residential status were statistically significant predictors of eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index, and body fat. The initial findings from the study will assist in better understanding the obesity epidemic that affects African American adolescents in disparate proportions. Further examination of the study variables is essential to serve as a basis for
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it's still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.
Buchanan, Robert J; Zuniga, Miguel A; Carrillo-Zuniga, Genny; Chakravorty, Bonnie J; Tyry, Tuula; Moreau, Rachel L; Huang, Chunfeng; Vollmer, Timothy
Identify racial/ethnic differences among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and health services received. We analyzed enrollment data from the Registry of the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Project to compare 26,967 Caucasians, 715 Latinos, and 1,313 African Americans with MS. Racial/ethnic analyses of NARCOMS data focused on descriptive characteristics, using ANOVA and chi-square tests to identify significant differences in means and frequencies among Caucasians, Latinos, and African Americans. We identified significant racial/ethnic differences in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and treatments. Caucasians were older when first MS symptoms were experienced (30.1 years) and at MS diagnosis (37.4 years) than Latinos (28.6 years and 34.5 years) or African Americans (29.8 years and 35.8 years). Larger proportions of Latinos reported normal function for mobility and bladder/bowel function compared to Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos (44.2 percent) and African Americans (45.8 percent) reported at least mild depression compared to only 38.7 percent of Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos never received mental health care or care from rehabilitation specialists than Caucasians or African Americans. A larger proportion of African Americans had never been treated by a neurologist specializing in MS and a smaller proportion of African Americans received care at a MS clinic than Caucasians or Latinos. Our findings highlight the need for future analyses to determine if age, disease duration, MS symptoms, and disability levels provide additional insights into racial/ethic differences in the use of MS-related providers.
Littlejohn-Blake, Sheila M.; Darling, Carol Anderson
Focuses on strengths of African-American families and how they function, relevant conceptual approaches, and trends and issues in studying African-American families that can facilitate understanding. A shift from studying dysfunctional families to more positive aspects can help African-American families meet societal challenges. (SLD)
Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano
Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Hoffman, Robert P.
African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10–18 years old) were subdiv...
CAG repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor on disease progression after prostatectomy. Cancer 2005;103:528-37. 6. Haiman CA, Chen GK, Blot WJ...differences and functional effect of the CYP3A4 *1B5’-promoter region polymorphism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;68:82-91. 9. Shariat SF, Kattan MW, Vickers AJ...Friebel T, Walker AH, Wang Y, Spangler E, Panossian S, et al. CYP3A4 , CYP3A5, and CYP3A43 genotypes and haplotypes in the etiology and severity of
Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R
This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Peters Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and
Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.
Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…
Talleyrand, Regine M.
Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…
Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Madsen, Jean A.
Examined how intergroup differences within suburban schools affected African American teachers' experiences. Organizational culture strongly influenced how whites treated their minority counterparts. Because the majority established norms, minorities were expected to comply with uniform sets of rules and regulations. Intergroup conflict arose…
Nevedal, Andrea; Sankar, Andrea
Aging and HIV/AIDS research focuses primarily on standardized clinical, social, and behavioral measures, leaving unanswered questions about how this chronic and stigmatizing condition affects life course expectations and the meaning of aging with the disease. Utilizing Gaylene Becker's (1997) life course disruption theory, we explored older African Americans' experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. A purposive sample (N = 43) of seropositive African Americans aged 50 and older was selected from a parent study. Thirteen participants completed one semi-structured in-depth interview on life course expectations and experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Interview transcripts were analyzed using standard qualitative coding and thematic analysis. Responding to broad, open-ended questions about the impact of HIV on life course expectations, participants emphasized how HIV limited their ability to experience sexuality and intimacy. Two major themes emerged, damaged sexuality and constrained intimacy. Older African Americans' discussions of living with HIV focused on the importance of and the challenges to sexuality and intimacy. Researchers and clinicians should be attentive to significant and ongoing HIV-related challenges to sexuality and intimacy facing older African Americans living with HIV/AIDS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gothe, Neha P; Kendall, Bradley J
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults ( N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.
The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Neha P. Gothe PhD
Full Text Available According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults ( N = 20. Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.
Bartlett, Robin; Buck, Raymond; Shattell, Mona M
African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV infection is often acquired during adolescence, a time when risky sexual behaviors are at their peak. This study explored relationships among selected risk factors, protective factors, and risky sexual behaviors among African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents, from a sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. African-Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have sexual intercourse without the use of birth control than were Whites. African-Americans were more likely to have sexual behavior with multiple sexual partners than either Hispanics or Whites were, and African-Americans had higher self-esteem than did Hispanics and Whites. In order to develop culturally sensitive, effective interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS in adolescents, racial differences in risk and protective factors must be examined.
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Pate, David; Lazar, Katie; Paul, Nelly; Pritchard, Kathleen; Morris, George
Infant mortality is a major public health issue in the United States that disproportionally affects African Americans. Evidence suggests reducing stress on African American women and engaging African American fathers may improve health and social outcomes for families. This study sought to understand the experiences of African American fathers through a positivistic lens and to inform future interventions that support father engagement. A descriptive, qualitative study using the Person, Environment, Occupation-Performance (PEO-P) model as a framework for analysis was conducted involving 45 fathers participating in four focus groups and one member-checking group. An initial content analysis was followed by constant comparative methods to identify categories related to the PEO-P model. Transcripts revealed a range of factors that enable or inhibit fathers' occupational performance and engagement including environmental barriers such as societal expectations and perceptions. Occupational therapy practitioners may utilize population health approaches to support African American fathers' occupational engagement.
Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne
The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.
The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
Hinson, Tyonne D; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Spatz, Diane L
To examine cultural and socioenvironmental factors that affect breastfeeding initiation among African American women. Qualitative descriptive design and conventional content analysis. A large, inner-city, primary care center affiliated with a 500-bed children's hospital within a large, Northeastern U.S. city. Participants were 34 U.S.-born African American mothers of healthy term infants 0 to 3 months of age. Six focus groups were conducted using a 16-question, scripted interview guide. A number of complex factors that influenced breastfeeding initiation included certain cultural beliefs about sexuality, the influence of family and peer networks, information sources, intentions, and a variety of other barriers and facilitators. Our findings suggest that the decision to initiate breastfeeding is not solely determined by the woman within the African American community. Because this decision is contingent on multiple factors external to the woman, it is important to recognize the role that partners, grandmothers, communities, information sources, and health care providers/organizations play in women's decisions. Implementation of multilevel strategies is critical to increase breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur
This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie
Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities.
Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi
Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents��� perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, t...
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918
Nicholette D Palmer
Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
Pimpleton, Asher M.
Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…
Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober
Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.
Full Text Available Obesity prevalence in United States (US adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs. However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA.To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system.We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO with wide range of BMI.Functional residual capacity (FRC and expiratory reserve volume (ERV decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV. However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC and residual volume (RV were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients.We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases.
This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but itâs still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle. Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 5/2/2017.
Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.
Moskowitz, Gordon B; Stone, Jeff; Childs, Amanda
We investigated whether stereotypes unconsciously influence the thinking and behavior of physicians, as they have been shown to do in other professional settings, such as among law enforcement personnel and teachers. We conducted 2 studies to examine whether stereotypes are implicitly activated in physicians. Study 1 assessed what diseases and treatments doctors associate with African Americans. Study 2 presented these (and control terms) to doctors as part of a computerized task. Subliminal images of African American and White men appeared prior to each word, and reaction times to words were recorded. When primed with an African American face, doctors reacted more quickly for stereotypical diseases, indicating an implicit association of certain diseases with African Americans. These comprised not only diseases African Americans are genetically predisposed to, but also conditions and social behaviors with no biological association (e.g., obesity, drug abuse). We found implicit stereotyping among physicians; faces they never consciously saw altered performance. This suggests that diagnoses and treatment of African American patients may be biased, even in the absence of the practitioner's intent or awareness.
Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).
Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann
Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…
African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...
Shriner, Daniel; Bentley, Amy R; Doumatey, Ayo P; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N
We surveyed 26 quantitative traits and disease outcomes to understand the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by local ancestry in admixed African Americans. After inferring local ancestry as the number of African-ancestry chromosomes at hundreds of thousands of genotyped loci across all autosomes, we used a linear mixed effects model to estimate the variance explained by local ancestry in two large independent samples of unrelated African Americans. We found that local ancestry at major and polygenic effect genes can explain up to 20 and 8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. These findings provide evidence that most but not all additive genetic variance is explained by genetic markers undifferentiated by ancestry. These results also inform the proportion of health disparities due to genetic risk factors and the magnitude of error in association studies not controlling for local ancestry.
McBride, Chantee Earl
This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…
Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo
African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA. NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise
Samantha M. Bomotti
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.
Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K
Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results
Plowden, K O; Wenger, A F
African Americans are facing a serious health crisis. They are disproportionately affected by most chronic illnesses. The disparity among ethic groups as it relates to health and illness is related to psychosocial and biological factors within the African American culture. Many African Americans are sometimes reluctant to participate in studies. This article discusses the process of creating a caring community when conducting research within an African American community based on the experience of the authors with two faith communities in a southern metropolitan area in the United States. The process is identified as unknowing, reflection, presence, and knowing. The process is based on Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality and her stranger to friend enabler. When the theory and method are used, the investigator moves from a stranger within the community to a trusted friend and begins to collect rich and valuable data for analysis from the informants' point of view.
Best Al M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.
Magee, Michelle; Bowling, Andrea; Copeland, James; Fokar, Ali; Pasquale, Patricia; Youssef, Gretchen
The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a concise community-based program on diabetes self-management education (DSME), according to frequency of emergency department visits and knowledge of, prescriptions for, and control of A1C, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A free community-based DSME program was placed in a public library. Adults with diabetes (N, 360) consented to participate in this prospective nonrandomized cohort study with preintervention-postintervention design. The small-group interactive DSME (two 2.5-hour classes) focused on improving cardiovascular disease risk factors and facilitating communication with the primary care physician. An increase in knowledge of American Diabetes Association-recommended targets for A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol from baseline to postintervention was seen among participants. Significant clinical outcomes included reduction in self-reported emergency department visits and reduction in mean A1C. However, despite an increase in prescriptions written for lipid-lowering drugs, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol did not change. Participants who started on insulin were more likely to achieve or maintain A1C location for offering DSME programs.
Dreer, Laura E; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research.
Swift, Damon L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Lavie, Carl J.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.; Newton, Robert L.; Church, Timothy S.
Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a well-established risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease compared to their Caucasian counterparts. However, the extent to which lower CRF levels contribute to the excess risk in African Americans has not been fully explored. The purpose of this review is to: 1) explore the literature evaluating the relationship between CRF and mortality specifically in African American populations; and 2) critically evaluate the studies which have compared CRF between African American and Caucasians in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. We have further discussed several potential mechanisms that may contribute to the observation of lower CRF levels in African American compared to Caucasian adults including potential racial differences in physical activity levels, muscle fiber type distribution, and hemoglobin levels. If lower CRF is generally present in African Americans compared to Caucasians, and is of a clinically meaningful difference, this may represent an important public health concern. PMID:23982718
Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra
The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Ng, Derek K; Robertson, Catherine C; Woroniecki, Robert P; Limou, Sophie; Gillies, Christopher E; Reidy, Kimberly J; Winkler, Cheryl A; Hingorani, Sangeeta; Gibson, Keisha L; Hjorten, Rebecca; Sethna, Christine B; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Furth, Susan L; Warady, Bradley A; Kretzler, Matthias; Sedor, John R; Kaskel, Frederick J; Sampson, Matthew G
Individuals of African ancestry harboring two variant alleles within apolipoprotein L1 ( APOL1 ) are classified with a high-risk (HR) genotype. Adults with an HR genotype have increased risk of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and chronic kidney disease compared with those with a low-risk (LR) genotype (0 or 1 variants). The role of APOL1 risk genotypes in children with glomerular disease is less well known. This study characterized 104 African-American children with a glomerular disease by APOL1 genotype in two cohorts: the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) and Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE). Among these subjects, 46% had an HR genotype with a similar age at cohort enrollment. For APOL1 HR children, the median age of disease onset was older (CKiD: 4.5 versus 11.5 years for LR versus HR; NEPTUNE: 11 versus 14 years for LR versus HR, respectively) and preterm birth was more common [CKiD: 27 versus 4%; NEPTUNE: 26 versus 12%; combined odds ratio 4.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 15.5)]. Within studies, HR children had lower initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKiD: 53 versus 69 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; NEPTUNE: 74 versus 94 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). Longitudinal eGFR decline was faster among HR children versus LR (CKiD: -18 versus -8% per year; NEPTUNE: -13 versus -3% per year). Children with an HR genotype in CKiD and NEPTUNE seem to have a more aggressive form of glomerular disease, in part due to a higher prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. These consistent findings across independent cohorts suggest a common natural history for children with APOL1 -associated glomerular disease. Further study is needed to determine the generalizability of these findings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Black, Helen K
This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Plowden, Keith O; Young, Anthony E
African-American men are suffering disproportionately from most illnesses. Seemingly, action is needed if health disparities that disproportionately affect African-American men as compared to their White and female counterparts are to be reduced or eliminated. An important step in decreasing common health disparities evidenced among African-American men is to understand social factors that act as motivators and barriers to seeking care for most of this vulnerable population. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social structure factors that motivate urban African-American men to seek care. Leininger's Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory guided this study. Qualitative interviews were conducted with urban African-American men and other individuals in the community to explore understanding, attitudes, and beliefs about health. Critical issues examined included social factors associated with health seeking behaviors. Themes that emerged from these data indicated that critical social factors include: 1) Kinship/significant others; 2) accessibility of resources; 3) ethnohealth belief; and 4) accepting caring environment. The data also indicated a relationship between these social factors and health seeking behaviors of urban African-American men.
Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rana, Aadia; Rosengard, Cynthia
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women, or the social, structural and behavioural factors influencing concurrency. We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioural factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships, guided by grounded theory. Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors included social normalisation of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners' concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting partners. Lack of trust was the most commonly cited reason that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners' dependence on women for economic support and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioural factors included alcohol and cocaine use. Social, structural and behavioural factors strongly influenced these African American women's concurrent sexual partnerships. Many HIV interventions disseminated by the CDC focus largely on behavioural factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women's sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women's HIV risks are urgently needed.
D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Schroeder, Jane C.; North, Kari E.; Poole, Charles; West, Suzanne L.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Baird, Donna D.
Circulating insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels have been associated with common diseases. Although family-based studies suggest that genetic variation contributes to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, analyses of associations with multiple IGF-I and IGFBP-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been limited, especially among African Americans. We evaluated 30 IGF-I and 15 IGFBP-3 SNPs and estimated diplotypes in association with plasma IGF-I and IGFBP-3 among 984 premenopausal African American and Caucasian women. In both races, IGFBP-3 rs2854746 (Ala32Gly) was positively associated with plasma IGFBP-3 (CC versus GG mean difference among Caucasians = 631 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 398, 864; African Americans = 897 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 656, 1138), and IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the rs2854746 GG genotype had lower mean IGFBP-3 levels than referent diplotypes with the CG genotype, while IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the CC genotype had higher mean IGFBP-3 levels. IGFBP-3 rs2854744 (−202 A/C) was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2854746 in Caucasians only, but was associated with plasma IGFBP-3 in both races. Eight additional IGFBP-3 SNPs were associated with 5% or greater differences in mean IGFBP-3 levels, with generally consistent associations between races. Twelve IGF-I SNPs were associated with 10% or greater differences in mean IGF-I levels, but associations were generally discordant between races. Diplotype associations with plasma IGF-I did not parallel IGF-I SNP associations. Our study supports that common IGFBP-3 SNPs, especially rs2854746, influence plasma IGFBP-3 levels among African Americans and Caucasians, but provides less evidence that IGF-I SNPs affect plasma IGF-I levels. PMID:19240240
Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Maslowsky, Julie; Laudenslager, Mark L; Steinhardt, Mary A
African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the relationship of hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with HbA1c. Participants were 61 community-dwelling African American adults (85% female; mean age 54.30 years). The first 3cm of scalp-near hair were analyzed for cortisol and DHEA concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis. Glycated hemoglobin was assessed, and regression analyses predicting HbA1c from hair cortisol and DHEA were performed in the full sample and in a subsample of participants (n=20) meeting the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disease (NIDDK) criteria for type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥6.5%). In the full sample, HbA1c increased with hair cortisol level (β=0.22, p=0.04, f(2)=0.10), independent of age, sex, chronic health conditions, diabetes medication use, exercise, and depressive symptoms. In the subsample of participants with an HbA1c≥6.5%, hair cortisol was also positively related to HbA1c (β=0.45, p=0.04, f(2)=0.32), independent of diabetes medication use. Glycated hemoglobin was unrelated to hair DHEA in both the full sample and HbA1c≥6.5% subsample. Long-term HPA axis dysregulation in the form of elevated hair cortisol is associated with elevated HbA1c in African American adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Green, Lisa J.
How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…
Zulu, Itibari M.
Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…
This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it's still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.
Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips
The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
King, G; Polednak, A P; Bendel, R
The impact of geographic region and metropolitan residence on smoking prevalence among African Americans has not been adequately examined. This study analyzed 5 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey (1990-1994) on current smoking and regional variation among 16,738 African Americans. Results. Respondents in the West had the lowest unadjusted smoking prevalence rates and Midwest residents had the highest. Current smoking was lower among African Americans living in non-central cities than in central cities even after adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that black women in the South were significantly less likely to be smokers compared with any other gender/region group. These findings suggest the significance of gender and regional factors such as the social history of migration, social stress and racism, exposure to tobacco advertisement, variations in cultural influences, community structures, and coping strategies in under standing African American smoking behavior. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
in Military and Business Tuskegee Airman Shares History Soldier's Life Provides Example for West Department of Defense Submit Search During National African-American History Month, we celebrate the rich In honor of African-American History Month, Fred Moore, the first African-American Tomb Guard
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Pittman, Chavella T.
This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Fasules, Megan L.; Porter, Andrea; Landis-Santos Jennifer
Access to college for African Americans has increased, but African Americans are highly concentrated in lower-paying majors. The college major, which has critical economic consequences throughout life, reflects personal choices but also reflects the fact that African-American students are concentrated in open-access four-year institutions that…
Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.
Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…
Schenke, Katerina; Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W; Sarama, Julie H; Clements, Douglas H
We examined whether African American students differentially responded to dimensions of the observed classroom-learning environment compared with non-African American students. Further, we examined whether these dimensions of the classroom mediated treatment effects of a preschool mathematics intervention targeted at students from low-income families. Three observed dimensions of the classroom (teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness; teacher confidence and enthusiasm; and support for mathematical discourse) were evaluated in a sample of 1,238 preschool students in 101 classrooms. Using multigroup multilevel mediation where African American students were compared to non-African American students, we found that teachers in the intervention condition had higher ratings on the observed dimensions of the classroom compared with teachers in the control condition. Further, ratings on teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness had larger associations with the achievement of African American students than for non-African Americans. Findings suggest that students within the same classroom may react differently to that learning environment and that classroom learning environments could be structured in ways that are beneficial for students who need the most support.
Trice, Rodney Nathaniel
This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…
Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…
Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda
This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Schrauf, Robert W; Iris, Madelyn
To understand how people differentiate normal memory loss from Alzheimer's disease (AD) by investigating cultural models of these conditions. Ethnographic interviews followed by a survey. Cultural consensus analysis was used to test for the presence of group models, derive the "culturally correct" set of beliefs, and compare models of normal memory loss and AD. Chicago, Illinois. One hundred eight individuals from local neighborhoods: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Participants responded to yes-or-no questions about the nature and causes of normal memory loss and AD and provided information on ethnicity, age, sex, acculturation, and experience with AD. Groups held a common model of AD as a brain-based disease reflecting irreversible cognitive decline. Higher levels of acculturation predicted greater knowledge of AD. Russian speakers favored biological over psychological models of the disease. Groups also held a common model of normal memory loss, including the important belief that "normal" forgetting involves eventual recall of the forgotten material. Popular models of memory loss and AD confirm that patients and clinicians are speaking the same "language" in their discussions of memory loss and AD. Nevertheless, the presence of coherent models of memory loss and AD, and the unequal distribution of that knowledge across groups, suggests that clinicians should include wider circles of patients' families and friends in their consultations. These results frame knowledge as distributed across social groups rather than simply the possession of individual minds. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M
Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the
Holt, Yolanda Feimster
This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.
Melinda C Aldrich
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.
Gibbs, J T
African-American suicide rates have traditionally been lower than White rates despite a legacy of racial discrimination, persistent poverty, social isolation, and lack of community resources. This paper focuses on four issues: (1) patterns and trends of Black suicide across the lifespan; (2) risk and protective factors in subgroups of Blacks; (3) the influence of cultural factors on suicide patterns of Blacks; and (4) implications of these patterns for prevention and early intervention of suicidal behavior among African Americans. Risk factors for Black suicide include: male sex, early adulthood, substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, family or interpersonal conflict, antisocial behavior, and homosexuality. Protective factors that mitigate the risks of suicide include religiosity, older age, southern residence, and social support. Implications for preventive policies and programs are discussed to counter the recent trend of rising suicide rates among adolescents and very elderly Blacks.
Amankwaa, Linda Clark
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.
Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J
African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons. We conducted focus groups with 29 African-American fathers of sons ages 10-15 to explore perceived facilitators and barriers for father-son communication about sexual health. Participants were recruited from barbershops in metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities highly affected by STIs and HIV, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Three factors facilitated father-son communication: (a) fathers' acceptance of their roles and responsibilities; (b) a positive father-son relationship; and (c) fathers' ability to speak directly to their sons about sex. We also identified three barriers: (a) fathers' difficulty in initiating sexual health discussions with their sons; (b) sons' developmental readiness for sexual health information; and (c) fathers' lack of experience in talking with their own fathers about sex. These findings have implications for father-focused prevention interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviors in adolescent African-American males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Newallo, Domnique; Meinel, Felix G.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Baumann, Stefan; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Leddy, Rebecca J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Moellmann, Helge; Hamm, Christian W.; Morris, Pamela B.; Renker, Matthias
Objective: Accumulating data on predominantly Caucasian women suggests an association between breast arterial calcification (BAC) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to comprehensively examine the correlation between mammographic BAC and CAD endpoints detected by cardiac computed tomography
Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.
The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...
Marshall, Vanessa J; Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Scott, Denise M; Cain, Gloria E; Hill, Karen; Hesselbrock, Victor; Ferguson, Clifford L; Taylor, Robert E
Ethnic and cultural differences in patterns of alcohol use disorders must be understood in order to address improvement in prevention of such disorders and accessibility to health care services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the utilization of medical and mental health services among alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent African Americans. A cohort of 454 African Americans was evaluated. Alcohol-dependent participants were recruited from various inpatient treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area and through advertisement and word of mouth. Non-alcohol-dependent participants were recruited by advertisements. Each participant was administered the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism to assess alcohol dependency and the Family History Assessment module to access family history of alcoholism. Xl Test and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Alcohol dependence was more prevalent among men, those with lower income, those with less education, and they utilized mental health counseling as opposed to medical-based therapy. Increased reports of medical conditions such as migraine (p<.001), loss of consciousness (p=.001), and sexually transmitted diseases: (p<.001) were also associated with alcohol dependency. Other factors, including visits to inpatient treatment programs, were directly related to incidence of alcohol dependency regardless of gender status (p<.001). This study suggests an association exists among alcohol dependence, medical conditions, health care, and mental care utilization among African Americans. Future research may benefit from investigating if an association exists between alcohol use disorders and health care utilization for other ethnic groups.
Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C
African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.
Over one-third of all adults in the United States are obese and African Americans represent over 49.5% of these cases. Young adults with some college education show the most rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, with African Americans leading among all groups. The purpose of this paper is to consider why students gain weight in college and if racial and ethnic differences exist in the context of weight gain. Both physical environment and psychological factors affect the college students' weight-related behaviors. College students experience significant increases in their weight and African Americans are disproportionately affected. However, the role of race and ethnicity is under-examined. Future research should explore racial and ethnic differences in weight gain in college students.
Grekin, Emily R
Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Kind, Terry; Wallace, Jasmine; Moon, Rachel Y
We sought to assess the quality of health information on internet sites with missions to serve African Americans and to compare the quality to that of sites targeting a general audience. Sites were identified by entering "black Health," "African American health," and "health" into 2 search engines. Websites were assessed for quality and usability by 2 independent readers using published criteria. Disease-specific information was found on 64.7% of African-American sites and 86.2% of general sites. Among these sites, 73% of African-American sites listed authors' qualifications, compared to 96% of general sites (p=0.04). Sixty-four percent of African-American sites provided date last updated, compared with 100% of general sites (p=0.001). The mean literacy level for both types of sites was approximately 10th grade. The literacy level of African-American sites at governmental and educational domains was lower (NS). This is the first study to examine critically the quality of health information on Internet sites serving African-American audiences. Our study suggests methods to guide healthcare providers and health educators in counseling patients regarding internet-based health information. The "digital divide" is about quality as well as access.
Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E
African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.
Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community. PMID:24186304
Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.
Plowden, Keith O; Fletcher, Audwin; Miller, J Lawrence
Urban African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV, the virus associated with AIDS. Although incidence and mortality appear to be decreasing in some populations, they continue to remain steady among inner-city African Americans. A major concern is the number of HIV-positive individuals who continue to practice high-risk behaviors. Understanding factors that increase risks is essential for the development and implementation of effective prevention initiatives. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social and cultural factors that influence high-risk behaviors among inner-city HIV-positive African Americans. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory guided the study. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-positive African Americans in the community to explore social and cultural factors that increase HIV-risky behaviors. For this study, family/kinship, economic, and education factors played a significant role in risky behaviors. Reducing HIV disparity among African Americans is dependent on designing appropriate interventions that enhance protective factors. Clinicians providing care to HIV-positive individuals can play a key role in reducing transmission by recognizing and incorporating these factors when designing effective prevention interventions.
Kelly, Jennifer F; Greene, Beverly
Despite the presence of some literature that has addressed the characteristics of the African American female therapist, most psychotherapy training proceeds with the assumption that therapists are members of dominant groups, and most of the psychological and psychotherapy literature has been written by therapists and psychologists who come from dominant cultural perspectives. Not as much has been written about psychological paradigms or the process of psychotherapy from the perspective of the therapist who is not a dominant group member. This article explores both the common and divergent experiences that we, the authors, share as African American female therapists and the different reactions we frequently elicit in clients. We also explore how individual differences in our physical appearances, personal backgrounds, and different characteristics of our respective practices elicit distinct responses from clients that we believe are based on differences between us, despite the fact that we are both African American women. We believe that many of the stereotypes that affect perceptions of African American female clients also exist for African American female therapists. We will address how the intersection of gender, race, and sexual orientation of the client highlights the complexity of culturally competent practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J
With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they identified in the families and how they use those strengths in therapy. Themes emerging from data analysis confirmed the continued importance of the five strengths Hill noted. In addition, two new strengths were identified by the participants: a willingness of a greater number of families to seek therapy, and the importance of family structure. Strategies used in engaging the families in therapy and practice implications for family therapists are discussed.
Cottledge, Michael Christopher
American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H02: There will be no significant statistical association between the educational factors teacher certification type (composite or content specific) and teacher certification pathway and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H03: There will be no significant statistical association between a teachers' demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. The researcher employed the assistance of the human resource departments of participating districts to generate a demographic report identifying the sex, years of experience, certification types and pathways of the teachers of record for African American male students who took the 10th grade Science TAKS during the 2009-2010 school year. Data ascertained from the demographic report was entered in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (SPSS). A linear regression statistical analysis was used to establish the following: 1). the degree of association between demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS , 2) the degree of association between educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS, 3) the degree of association between demographic and educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS Conclusion: Constantine et al (2009) concluded that although individual teachers appear to have an effect on student achievement, their study could not identify what about a teacher affects student achievement. Similar to Constatine, the researcher did not find any association between the demographic and educational factors of teachers and the science academic achievement of African American males
Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Sims, Mario; Scarinci, Isabel; Whitfield, Keith E.; Gilbert, Keon; Crook, Errol D.
Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based primary care clinics in West Tennessee to estimate pooled and group-specific regression models of high blood pressure. The results from group-specific logistic regression models indicate that the factors associated with hypertension varied considerably by weight status. This study provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between weight status and high blood pressure status among African American men. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms through which excess weight affects the development and progression of high blood pressure. PMID:20937738
Collins, James W; David, Richard J; Rankin, Kristin M; Desireddi, Jennifer R
In perinatal epidemiology, transgenerational risk factors are defined as conditions experienced by one generation that affect the pregnancy outcomes of the next generation. The authors investigated the transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on infant birth weight among African Americans. Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational data set with appended US Census income information. Singleton African-American infants (n = 40,648) born in 1989-1991 were considered index births. The mothers of index infants had been born in 1956-1976. The maternal grandmothers of index infants were identified. Rates of infant low birth weight (birth weight for maternal grandmother's residence in a poor neighborhood (compared with an affluent neighborhood) equaled 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4). This study suggests that maternal grandmother's exposure to neighborhood poverty during her pregnancy is a risk factor for infant low birth weight among African Americans.
Bodt, Barry A.; Stave Shupe, Emily; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.
The study’s objective was to determine whether variations in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) were associated with differences in food consumption and diet quality. Findings from the baseline wave of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study 2004–2009, revealed participants consumed a Western diet. Diet quality measures, specifically the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), based on two 24-h recalls collected during follow-up HANDLS studies from 2009–2013, were used. Reported foods were assigned to 27 groups. In this cross-sectional analysis, the participants (n = 2140) were categorized into tertiles based on their 10-year ASCVD risk. Lower and upper tertiles were used to determine significantly different consumption rates among the food groups. Ten groups were used in hierarchical case clustering to generate four dietary patterns (DPs) based on group energy contribution. The DP with the highest HEI-2010 score included sandwiches along with vegetables and cheese/yogurt. This DP, along with the pizza/sandwiches DP, had significantly higher DASH and MAR scores and a lower 10-year ASCVD risk, compared to the remaining two DPs–meats/sandwiches and sandwiches/bakery products; thus, Western dietary patterns were associated with different levels of ASCVD 10-year risk. PMID:29385036
Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski
Full Text Available The study’s objective was to determine whether variations in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD were associated with differences in food consumption and diet quality. Findings from the baseline wave of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS study 2004–2009, revealed participants consumed a Western diet. Diet quality measures, specifically the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet and the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR, based on two 24-h recalls collected during follow-up HANDLS studies from 2009–2013, were used. Reported foods were assigned to 27 groups. In this cross-sectional analysis, the participants (n = 2140 were categorized into tertiles based on their 10-year ASCVD risk. Lower and upper tertiles were used to determine significantly different consumption rates among the food groups. Ten groups were used in hierarchical case clustering to generate four dietary patterns (DPs based on group energy contribution. The DP with the highest HEI-2010 score included sandwiches along with vegetables and cheese/yogurt. This DP, along with the pizza/sandwiches DP, had significantly higher DASH and MAR scores and a lower 10-year ASCVD risk, compared to the remaining two DPs–meats/sandwiches and sandwiches/bakery products; thus, Western dietary patterns were associated with different levels of ASCVD 10-year risk.
Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme
The objective of this study is to document the health profile of 252 African-American grandparents raising their grandchildren solo, compared with 1552 African-American single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System is used to compare the specific physical and mental health profiles of these two family groups. The findings suggest solo grandparents have prevalence of many health conditions, including arthritis (50.3 %), diabetes (20.1 %), heart attack (16.6 %) and coronary heart disease (16.6 %). Logistic regression analyses suggest that solo grandparents have much higher odds of several chronic health disorders in comparison with single parents, but this difference is largely explained by age. Although solo grandparents have good access to health care insurance and primary care providers, a substantial percentage (44 %) rate their health as fair or poor. Practice interventions to address African American solo grandparents' health needs are discussed.
Brooke C. Schneider
Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.
Banks, Angela D; Malone, Ruth E
Understand the meaning of delayed treatment seeking in African-American women with unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Phenomenologic analysis of in-depth interview data and field notes on 12 African-American women hospitalized with unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Women's interpretation of and response to symptoms were informed by experiences of marginalization and their self-understanding as people who were strong and who had endured life's hardships. When hospitalized, some women experienced trivialization of their complaints by clinicians and a focus on technological procedures over respectfully attending to their concerns, which provided further disincentives to seeking care. Three major themes emerged: misrecognition and discounting of symptoms, enduring, and influence of faith. Experiences of marginalization shape responses to symptoms, care-seeking behavior, and interpretation of subsequent care experiences for African-American women with cardiac disease, who may experience different symptoms as well as interpret them differently than members of other groups.
Mason, Tyler B; Maduro, Ralitsa S; Derlega, Valerian J; Hacker, Desi S; Winstead, Barbara A; Haywood, Jacqueline E
This research focused on how race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-Race) and components of racial identity intensify negative psychological reactions to an incident of vicarious racism. We examined how these individual difference variables directly and/or indirectly predicted African American students' reactions to the trial of George Zimmerman in the killing of the African American teenager, Trayvon Martin. In Study 1, 471 African American students completed measures of RS-Race, thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, and outcome variables (negative affect about the Zimmerman trial and forgiveness for Mr. Zimmerman). In Study 2, 304 African American students completed measures of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard), thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, negative affect, and forgiveness. In Study 1, higher RS-Race was either directly and/or indirectly (via thought intrusions) related to more negative affect and lower forgiveness. In Study 2, high racial centrality and low public regard either directly and/or indirectly (via thought intrusions) predicted more negative affect and lower forgiveness. RS-Race and specific components of racial identity are likely to sensitize African Americans to incidents of racism that happen to other African Americans, leading to negative psychological reactions when these events occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell
African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi
Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics...
Brett M Hoffecker
Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects African American females. The causes of SLE are unknown but postulated to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the possible environmental triggers. In this study we evaluated relationships between vitamin D status, cellular aging (telomere length and anti-telomere antibodies among African American Gullah women with SLE. The study population included African American female SLE patients and unaffected controls from the Sea Island region of South Carolina. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using a nonchromatographic radioimmunoassay. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR. Anti-telomere antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Patients with SLE had significantly shorter telomeres and higher anti-telomere antibody titers compared to age- and gender-matched unaffected controls. There was a positive correlation between anti-telomere antibody levels and disease activity among patients and a significant correlation of shorter telomeres with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both patients and controls. In follow-up examination of a subset of the patients, the patients who remained vitamin D deficient tended to have shorter telomeres than those patients whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were repleted. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in African American patients with SLE may be beneficial in maintaining telomere length and preventing cellular aging. Moreover, anti-telomere antibody levels may be a promising biomarker of SLE status and disease activity.
Presley, G; Smith, C; Hilsenroth, M; Exner, J
In this study we sought to identify Rorschach differences between African Americans and White Americans and to understand these differences within a social and cultural framework. Data from the Exner (1993) Comprehensive System normative sample (N = 700) was used to form a group of 44 African Americans and 44 White Americans matched for age, sex, education, and socioeconomic status. Twenty-three Rorschach variables were chosen a priori and group differences were analyzed. The only clinically significant difference found was that African Americans offered significantly less cooperative movement. This lower frequency of cooperative movement may suggest African Americans do not anticipate cooperative interactions with others as a routine event. This may reflect a shared feeling among African Americans that most members of our society are less likely to be sensitive to or responsive to their needs relative to others. However, the study demonstrates a striking similarity between the groups, supporting the clinical use of the Rorschach with African Americans.
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.
Parham, Groesbeck P; Scarinci, Isabel C
Low-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1) their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2) their attitudes toward CDC's suggested physical activity strategies, and 3) their suggestions on how to achieve CDC's strategies within their own environment. A qualitative method (focus groups) was used to conduct the study during 2005. Prestudy meetings were held with African American lay health workers to formulate a focus group topic guide, establish inclusion criteria for focus group participants, select meeting sites and times, and determine group segmentation guidelines. Focus groups were divided into two phases. All discussions and focus group meetings were held in community centers within African American neighborhoods in the Mississippi Delta and were led by trained African American moderators. Phase I focus groups identified the following themes: overeating, low self-esteem, low income, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy methods of food preparation, a poor working definition of healthy energy balance, and superficial knowledge of strategies for achieving healthy energy balance. Phase 2 focus groups identified a preference for social support-based strategies for increasing physical activity levels. Energy balance strategies targeting low-income, rural African Americans in the Deep South may be more effective if they emphasize social interaction at the community and family levels and incorporate the concept of community volunteerism.
Association between African American race and outcomes in patients with nonmetastatic triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective analysis by using results from the Georgia Cancer Specialist Database.
Christiansen, Neal; Chen, Lei; Gilmore, James; Pechar, David; Szabo, Stephen
The objective of this study was to evaluate, in a real-world context, the impact of race on disease recurrence and survival in patients with nonmetastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. The study selected patients from the 2003-2008 Georgia Cancer Specialist Database with stage I-III confirmed TNBC who had received adjuvant chemotherapy. These patients were followed-up from initial diagnosis to death, cancer recurrence, or loss to follow-up. The primary outcome was disease-free survival (DFS). Kaplan-Meier curves compared DFS and recurrence between African American and non-African American groups. The impact of African American status was examined further through multivariate Cox models by adjusting for age, comorbidity, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, initial TNBC stage, surgery, and radiation therapy. Among 209 patients with TNBC, 89 (42.6%) were African American. The 2 groups (African American vs. non-African American) were similar in mean age at diagnosis (53.2 vs. 54.4 years; P =.487) and with surgery and radiation rates (98.9% vs. 100%; P = .244; 68.5% vs. 62.5%; P = .365, respectively). Compared with non-African Americans, African American patients had a higher BMI (30.4 vs. 28.6 kg/m(2); P = .0477) and were less likely to be diagnosed at stage I (31.5% vs. 51.7%; P = .0107). The African American patients had a lower 5-year DFS rate (45.2% vs. 79.7%; P = .0005) and a higher 5-year recurrence rate (42.5% vs. 7.0%; P = .0005) compared with the non-African American patients. Among patients with TNBC treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, African American race was associated with a worse outcome irrespective of later stage at presentation or higher BMI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The term ‘black music’ has long been a cause for contention. What do we mean by music being ‘black’, or more specifically in the case of this chapter, African American? The music industry has typically marketed products via the categorization of specific genres: for example, jazz, blues, soul, funk and rap. These generic types are often classified as ‘black music’. Philip Tagg vehemently debates the suitability of such an essentializing label, as he correctly argues that aesthetic practice is...
Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L
Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.
Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
SNPs from the African American breast cancer scan to COGs , a European collaborative study which is has designed a SNP array with that will be genotyped...Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0383 TITLE: A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher A...SUBTITLE A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0383 5c. PROGRAM
Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi
Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J
Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.
... Research for Heart.org Educator for Heart.org CPR & ECC for Heart.org Shop for Heart.org ... controlled diabetes and suffered preventable complications such as blindness, amputations, or renal failure. For diabetes and other ...
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Mason, Sally; Berger, Barbara; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Sultzman, Vickey; Fendrich, Michael
Objectives: African American urban adolescents are one of the fastest growing groups of children affected by their mother's HIV status. These children experience HIV stigma by association with their HIV-positive mothers. Stigma may contribute to adverse outcomes for these teens. Methods: The authors describe a multistage process of scale…
Smith, Megan L.; Roysircar, Gargi
Interviews with 5 African American male past presidents of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development provided insights into minority leadership. Among observed themes, a communal worldview permeated actions, historical events affected development, personal traits and external resources promoted resilience, and skin color…
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Purnell, Joseph; Rogers, Rodney; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C.
Obesity and excess weight are significant clinical and public health issues that disproportionately affect African Americans because of physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. We compared the effects of alternate behavioral interventions on obesity-related health behaviors. We conducted a comparative effectiveness education trial in a…
African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...
Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Liburd, Leandris
Since the release of former Secretary Margaret Heckler's "Secretary's Task Force Report on Black and Minority Health" more than two decades ago, excess death from chronic diseases and other conditions between African Americans and Whites have increased. The conclusion of that report emphasized excess death and thus clinical care, paying…
M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); M. Li (Mingyao); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); K.F. Kerr (Kathleen); A. Reiner (Alexander); N.D. Wong (Nathan); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); L. Qu (Liming); C.C. White (Charles); L.A. Lange (Leslie); J.F. Ferguson (Jane); J. He (Jing); T. Young (Taylor); T.H. Mosley (Thomas); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); B.G. Kral (Brian); X. Guo (Xiuqing); Q. Wong (Quenna); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); M.D. Griswold (Michael); D.H. O'Leary (Daniel H.); M.J. Budoff (Matthew); J. Carr (Jeffrey); H.A. Taylor (Herman); D.A. Bluemke (David); S. Demissie (Serkalem); S.-J. Hwang (Shih-Jen); D.N. Paltoo (Dina); J.F. Polak (Joseph F.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); D.M. Becker (Diane); M.A. Province (Mike); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); J.G. Wilson (James); T.B. Harris (Tamara); M. Kavousi (Maryam); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); M. Fornage (Myriam); L.C. Becker (Lewis); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); M.P. Reilly (Muredach)
textabstractBackground: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the major cause of death in the United States. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores are independent predictors of CHD. African Americans (AA) have higher rates of CHD but are less well-studied in genomic studies. We assembled the largest
Pedraza, Otto; Clark, Joy Humphreys; O'Bryant, Sid E; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Lucas, John A
To investigate whether demographic (age and education) adjustments for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) attenuate mean score discrepancies between African-American and Caucasian adults and whether demographically adjusted MMSE scores improve the diagnostic classification accuracy of dementia in African-American adults over unadjusted MMSE scores. Cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry and Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Three thousand two hundred fifty-four adults (2,819 Caucasian, 435 African American) aged 60 and older. MMSE score at study entry. African-American adults had significantly lower unadjusted MMSE scores (23.0 ± 7.4) than Caucasian adults (25.3 ± 5.4). This discrepancy persisted despite adjustment of MMSE scores for age and years of education using established regression weights or newly derived weights. Controlling for dementia severity at baseline and adjusting MMSE scores for age and quality of education attenuated this discrepancy. In African-American adults, an age- and education-adjusted MMSE cut score of 23/24 provided optimal dementia classification accuracy, but this represented only a modest improvement over an unadjusted MMSE cut score of 22/23. The posterior probability of dementia in African-American adults is presented for various unadjusted MMSE cut scores and prevalence rates of dementia. Age, dementia severity at study entry, and quality of educational experience are important explanatory factors in understanding the existing discrepancies in MMSE performance between Caucasian and African-American adults. These findings support the use of unadjusted MMSE scores when screening older African Americans for dementia, with an unadjusted MMSE cut score of 22/23 yielding optimal classification accuracy. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.
Purpose The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African Americans. Methods Data were collected from N=9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13–31 among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year-college graduates, and 4-year-college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African Americans. Results There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20, although differences between the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20–31 than the non-college group. Instead, African American participants who withdrew from college without an associate’s, bachelor’s, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26–31. Conclusions The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African Americans. Conversely, African Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than Caucasians by college withdrawal. PMID:23707401
Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C
The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African-Americans. We analyzed data from 9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13 to 31 years among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year college graduates, and 4-year college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African-Americans. There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African-Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20 years, although differences among the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African-Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20 to 31 years than the non-college group. Instead, African-American participants who withdrew from college without an associate's, bachelor's, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26 to 31 years. The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African-Americans. Conversely, African-Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than are Caucasians by college withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng
Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.
The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
Avent Harris, Janeé R.; Wong, Christine D.
African American undergraduate students face numerous challenges during college; however, they are less likely to seek help from college counseling services. Often, African Americans seek support from spiritual resources. In the current phenomenological study, participants shared in a focus group interview. Overall, participants seemed to value…
Fikes, Robert Jr.
A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith
Background: There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic.…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Rory Fraser; Viniece Jennings; Amadou Diop
The Sustainable Forestry and African American Land Retention Program is a comprehensive effort to address theÂ long-standing problem of underparticipation of African Americans in forest management. We conducted rapidÂ appraisal baseline research for pilot projects in this program in three Southern states using a carefully selectedÂ purposive sample to enhance our...
Ervin, Kelly S.
Hypothesized that African American college students with higher racial self-esteem would be more open to diversity and multiculturalism than students with lower racial self-esteem. Surveys indicated that most students valued diversity-oriented courses, though most also believed that diversity courses were biased against African Americans. Students…
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A.; Flack, John M.; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan
Objective According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. Method A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. Results The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Conclusions Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. PMID:27018728
Bridges, S. Louis; Causey, Zenoria L.; Burgos, Paula I.; Huynh, B. Quynh N.; Hughes, Laura B.; Danila, Maria I.; van Everdingen, Amalia; Ledbetter, Stephanie; Conn, Doyt L.; Tamhane, Ashutosh; Westfall, Andrew O.; Jonas, Beth L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Smith, Edwin A.; Brasington, Richard; Moreland, Larry W.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; van der Heijde, Désirée M.
Objective To describe radiographic changes in African-Americans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the CLEAR (Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African-Americans with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis) Registry, a multicenter observational study. Methods Self-declared African-American patients, were enrolled in CLEAR I, a longitudinal cohort of early RA (disease duration <2 years) from 2000 to 2005; or in CLEAR II, a cross-sectional cohort (any disease duration), from 2006 to the present. Demographic and clinical data were obtained, and sets of hand/wrist and foot radiographs were scored using the modified Sharp/van der Heijde scoring system. Results A total of 357 and 418 patients, respectively, have been enrolled into CLEAR I and CLEAR II. We report here an interim analysis of radiographic severity in these patients. For the CLEAR I cohort, 294 patients had a mean radiographic score of 2.89 at the baseline visit; 32.0% showed either erosions (25.9%) or joint space narrowing (JSN) (19.4%). At the 36-month visit the mean score was 5.65; 44.2% had erosions, 41.5% JSN and 55.4% had either. Among those patients without radiographic damage at baseline, 18.9% had progressed at the 36-month visit, compared to 57.1% of those with baseline damage (p<0.0001). For the CLEAR II cohort, 167 patients with RA of any duration, 65.3% exhibited joint erosions, 65.3% JSN and 74.8% exhibited either. The mean radiographic score was 33.42. Conclusion This is the largest radiographic study of African American RA patients. Damage occurs early in the disease and is associated with radiographic progression at 3 years of disease duration. The CLEAR Registry will provide a valuable resource for future analyses of genetic, clinical, and environmental factors associated with radiographic severity of RA in African-Americans. PMID:20461784
Singleton, Ashley; Spratling, Regena
Historically, African Americans (AAs) have been underrepresented as blood donors. Having a lack of racially diverse blood donors contributes to transfusion complications, particularly in patients with sickle cell disease, who are both disproportionately AA and the recipients of frequent transfusions. Increasing AA blood donation is a complex public health issue. This review article serves to fill a gap in translating research regarding known hindrances and facilitators of AA blood donation to improve real-world donation practice and ultimately, patient outcomes. We incorporate findings from a literature review to develop a tool that blood centers, provider organizations, and patient advocacy groups can use to aid strategic planning efforts aimed at increasing AA blood donation.
Arriola, Kimberly Jacob
There are clear and compelling racial disparities in access to renal transplant, which is the therapy of choice for many patients with end stage renal disease. This paper conceptualizes the role of racism (i.e., internalized, personally-mediated, and institutionalized) in creating and perpetuating these disparities at multiple levels of the social ecology by integrating two often-cited theories in the literature. Internalized racism is manifested at the intrapersonal level when, for example, African American patients devalue their self-worth, thereby not pursuing the most aggressive treatment available. Personally-mediated racism is manifested at the interpersonal level when, for example, physicians exhibit unconscious race bias that impacts their treatment decisions. One example of institutionalized racism being manifested at the institutional, community, and public policy levels is the longstanding existence of racial residential segregation and empirically established links between neighborhood racial composition and dialysis facility-level transplantation rates. This paper concludes with clinical, research, and policy recommendations.
Model, S; Fisher, G
In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Kim Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary
The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…
Nelson, Kesha Marie
African-American baccalaureate nursing students have a limited persistence to graduation. This constructivist grounded theory study was designed to generate a substantive theory, emerged from these data, that explained and provided insight the African-American academic nurse leader's role in the persistence to graduation of African-American…
Stolley, Melinda; Sheean, Patricia; Gerber, Ben; Arroyo, Claudia; Schiffer, Linda; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Visotcky, Alexis; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Strahan, Desmona; Matthews, Lauren; Dakers, Roxanne; Carridine-Andrews, Cynthia; Seligman, Katya; Springfield, Sparkle; Odoms-Young, Angela; Hong, Susan; Hoskins, Kent; Kaklamani, Virginia; Sharp, Lisa
Purpose African American women with breast cancer have higher cancer-specific and overall mortality rates. Obesity is common among African American women and contributes to breast cancer progression and numerous chronic conditions. Weight loss interventions among breast cancer survivors positively affect weight, behavior, biomarkers, and psychosocial outcomes, yet few target African Americans. This article examines the effects of Moving Forward, a weight loss intervention for African American breast cancer survivors (AABCS) on weight, body composition, and behavior. Patients and Methods Early-stage (I-III) AABCS were randomly assigned to a 6-month interventionist-guided (n = 125) or self-guided (n = 121) weight loss program supporting behavioral changes to promote a 5% weight loss. Anthropometric, body composition, and behavioral data were collected at baseline, postintervention (6 months), and follow-up (12 months). Descriptive statistics and mixed models analyses assessed differences between groups over time. Results Mean (± standard deviation) age, and body mass index were 57.5 (± 10.1) years and 36.1 (± 6.2) kg/m 2 , respectively, and 82% had stage I or II breast cancer. Both groups lost weight. Mean and percentage of weight loss were greater in the guided versus self-guided group (at 6 months: 3.5 kg v 1.3kg; P 3% at 6 months is associated with improved health outcomes. Affordable, accessible health promotion programs represent a critical resource for AABCS.
Knezevic, Alexander; Munk, Marion R; Pappas, Frankie; Merrill, Pauline T; Goldstein, Debra A
To report the first documented case of HLA-A29-positive birdshot chorioretinopathy in an African American patient. A 51-year-old African American woman presented with a 10-year history of photopsia, progressive decrease in visual acuity, metamorphopsia, and new nyctalopia. Both fundi showed evidence of periphlebitis, arterial attenuation, macular edema, and diffuse chorioretinal atrophy. Fluorescein angiography revealed diffuse vascular leakage, and indocyanine green showed evenly distributed and symmetrical hypofluorescent spots, which were difficult to appreciate on fundoscopy. Workup revealed a positive HLA-A29 and was negative for sarcoid, tuberculosis, and syphilis. Birdshot chorioretinopathy overwhelmingly affects non-Hispanic Caucasians, but there have been rare reported cases in other ethnicities including Hispanics and African Americans. This patient's ethnicity may have contributed to the 10-year delay in diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first documented HLA-A29 positive case of birdshot chorioretinopathy in an African American. HLA-A29 may be a useful supportive test in cases with classic clinical presentation in non-Caucasian patients to enable the correct diagnose in a timely manner.
Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.
Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition. PMID:18942281
Wang, Zhenghe; Li, Li; Guda, Kishore; Chen, Zhengyi; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Park, Young Soo; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph
African Americans have the highest incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) of any US racial group. We recently described a panel of 15 genes that are statistically significantly more likely to be mutated in CRCs from African Americans than in Caucasians (AA-CRC genes). The current study investigated the outcomes associated with these mutations in African American CRCs (AA-CRCs). In a cohort of 66 patients with stage I-III CRCs, eight of 27 CRCs with AA-CRC gene mutations (Mut+) developed metastatic disease vs only four of 39 mutation-negative (Mut-) cases (P = .03, Cox regression model with two-sided Wald test). Moreover, among stage III cases (n = 33), Mut+ cancers were nearly three times more likely to relapse as Mut- cases (7 of 15 Mut+ vs 3 of 18 Mut-; P = .03, Cox regression model with two-sided Wald test). AA-CRC mutations may thus define a high-risk subset of CRCs that contributes to the overall disparity in CRC outcomes observed in African Americans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wilks, Scott E; Spurlock, Wanda R; Brown, Sandra C; Teegen, Bettina C; Geiger, Jennifer R
Research shows African Americans at greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the Caucasian population, suggesting African American AD caregivers are rising in numbers at a greater rate than Caucasian counterparts. Over a decade ago, an article in Geriatric Nursing revealed spiritual well-being differences among these caregiver groups. The purpose of this study was a quasi-follow-up, utilizing a larger caregiver sample to test spiritual support as a moderator via a risk-and-resilience framework. Secondary data analysis from a sample of 691 AD caregivers examined data on demographics and standardized measures of spiritual support, caregiver burden, and psychological resilience. One-third of the sample reported as African American. Resilience negatively regressed, though not significantly, on caregiving burden among both groups. Spiritual support positively, significantly impacted resilience among both groups, slightly stronger among African Americans. Spiritual support did not significantly moderate risk with either group. Implications for professional healthcare practice are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barsevick, Andrea M; Leader, Amy; Bradley, Patricia K; Avery, Tiffany; Dean, Lorraine T; DiCarlo, Melissa; Hegarty, Sarah E
African American breast cancer survivors (AABCS) have a lower survival rate across all disease stages (79 %) compared with White survivors (92 %) and often have more aggressive forms of breast cancer requiring multimodality treatment, so they could experience a larger burden of post-treatment quality of life (QOL) problems. This paper reports a comprehensive assessment of the number, severity, and domains of problems faced by AABCS within 5 years after treatment completion and identifies subgroups at risk for these problems. A population-based random sample was obtained from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry of African American females over 18 years of age who completed primary treatment for breast cancer in the past 5 years. A mailed survey was used to document survivorship problems. Two hundred ninety-seven AABCS completed the survey. The median number of survivor problems reported was 15. Exploratory factor analysis of the problem scale revealed four domains: emotional problems, physical problems, lack of resources, and sexuality problems. Across problem domains, younger age, more comorbid conditions, and greater medical mistrust were risk factors for more severe problems. The results demonstrated that AABCS experienced significant problem burden in the early years after diagnosis and treatment. In addition to emotional and physical problem domains that were documented in previous research, two problem domains unique to AABCS included lack of resources and sexuality concerns. At risk groups should be targeted for intervention. The study results reported in this manuscript will inform future research to address problems of AABCS as they make the transition from cancer patient to cancer survivor.
Nevedal, Andrea; Sankar, Andrea
Purpose of the Study: Aging and HIV/AIDS research focuses primarily on standardized clinical, social, and behavioral measures, leaving unanswered questions about how this chronic and stigmatizing condition affects life course expectations and the meaning of aging with the disease. Utilizing Gaylene Becker’s (1997) life course disruption theory, we explored older African Americans’ experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Design and Methods: A purposive sample (N = 43) of seropositive African Americans aged 50 and older was selected from a parent study. Thirteen participants completed one semi-structured in-depth interview on life course expectations and experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Interview transcripts were analyzed using standard qualitative coding and thematic analysis. Results: Responding to broad, open-ended questions about the impact of HIV on life course expectations, participants emphasized how HIV limited their ability to experience sexuality and intimacy. Two major themes emerged, damaged sexuality and constrained intimacy. Implications: Older African Americans’ discussions of living with HIV focused on the importance of and the challenges to sexuality and intimacy. Researchers and clinicians should be attentive to significant and ongoing HIV-related challenges to sexuality and intimacy facing older African Americans living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26035889
Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.
Walker, Janiece L; Thorpe, Roland J; Harrison, Tracie C; Baker, Tamara A; Cary, Michael; Szanton, Sarah L; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E
Older African Americans consistently report diminished capacities to perform activities of daily living (ADL) compared with other racial groups. The extent to which bodily pain is related to declining abilities to perform ADL/ADL disability in African Americans remains unclear, as does whether this relationship exists to the same degree in African American men and women. For nurses to provide optimal care for older African Americans, a better understanding of the relationship between bodily pain and ADL disability and how it may differ by sex is needed. The aim of this study was to examine whether pain, age, education, income, marital status and/or comorbid conditions were associated with ADL disabilities in older African American women and men. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample included 598 participants (446 women, 152 men) from the first wave of the Baltimore Study on Black Aging. African American women (odds ratio [OR] = 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.63-6.26) and African American men (OR = 6.44; 95% CI = 2.84-14.57) who reported bodily pain had greater ADL disability than those who did not report bodily pain. Having two or more comorbid conditions also was significantly associated with ADL disability in African American women (OR = 3.95; 95% CI: 2.09-7.47). Further work is needed to understand pain differences between older African American women and men to develop interventions that can be tailored to meet the individual pain needs of both groups. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Gaston, Robert; Segev, Dorry L.; Mannon, Elinor C.; Martin, Michelle Y.
Background and objectives African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. Results In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants’ reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). Conclusions These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one’s death
López, Ivette A; Boston, Patricia Q; Dutton, Matthew; Jones, Chauneva Glenn; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Vilme, Helene
To explore causal explanations of obesity among African-American women of diverse weight across the life spectrum. In-depth interviews were conducted with adult African-American women of healthy weight (N = 10), overweight (N = 10), and obese weight (N = 20) to evaluate the relationship between causal explanations of obesity and weight. Generally overlooked dimensions of health definitions were discovered. Differences in weight definitions were detected between women of different weights. Terminology, symptoms, and solutions to obesity were detected between the women of different weights and public health recommendations. Identified causal discrepancies will help bridge the disconnection between public health recommendations and African-American women's perceptions with tailored interventions.
Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi
Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents’ perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial. PMID:27186064
Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi
Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents' perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial.
Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun
African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218
Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Kaur Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Baskin, Monica L
According to recent research studies, the built and socioeconomic contexts of neighborhoods are associated with African American adolescents' participation in physical activity and obesity status. However, few research efforts have been devoted to understand how African American adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhood environments may affect physical activity behaviors and obesity status. The objective of the current study was to use a perceived neighborhood disorder conceptual framework to examine whether physical activity mediated the relationship between perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity status among African American adolescents. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that examined social and cultural barriers and facilitators of physical activity among African American adolescents. The study included a sample of 101 African American adolescents age 12 to 16 years and their parents who were recruited from the Birmingham, Alabama metropolitan area. The primary outcome measure was obesity status which was classified using the International Obesity Task Force cut off points. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Perceived neighborhood disorder was assessed using the Perceived Neighborhood Disorder Scale. Mediation models were used to examine whether the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status was mediated by physical activity. Perceived neighborhood disorder was significantly and positively related to obesity status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with obesity status. However, there was no evidence to support a significant mediating effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status. Future studies should longitudinally assess perceived neighborhood disorder characteristics and childhood adiposity to examine the timing, extent, and the mechanisms by which perceived neighborhood
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Savage, Stephen; Prasad, Sandip M.; Kittles, Rick; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J.; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C.
Since prostate cancer continues to disproportionately affect African American men in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening plays an important role in early detection, especially when men engage in informed decision making to accept or decline this test. The authors evaluated utilization of PSA testing among African American men based on factors that are important components of making informed decisions. Utilization of PSA testing was evaluated based on whether men had ever had PSA testing and PSA testing during the past year in a community-based sample of African American men ages 50 to 75 (n = 132). Overall, 64% of men (n = 85) reported that they had ever had a PSA test; the mean (SD) age for first use of PSA testing was 47.7 (SD = 7.4). The likelihood of ever having a PSA test increased significantly with physician communication (odds ratio [OR] = 14.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.20, 48.10; p = .0001) and with having an annual household income that was greater than $20,000 (OR = 9.80; 95% CI = 3.15, 30.51; p = .0001). The odds of ever having a PSA test were also decreased with each unit increase in future temporal orientation (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.93; p = .02). Of the men who had ever had PSA testing, 57% were screened during the past year. Only health insurance status had a significant independent association with having annual PSA testing (OR = 5.10; 95% CI = 1.67, 15.60; p = .004). Different factors were associated significantly with ever having PSA testing and annual testing among African American men. African American men may not be making an informed decision about prostate cancer screening. PMID:26240090
K R Brown
Full Text Available African Americans have higher rates of asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality in comparison with other racial groups. We sought to characterize endotypes of childhood asthma severity in African American patients in an inner-city pediatric asthma population. Baseline blood neutrophils, blood eosinophils, and 38 serum cytokine levels were measured in a sample of 235 asthmatic children (6-17 years enrolled in the NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Asthma Phenotypes in the Inner City (APIC study (ICAC (Inner City Asthma Consortium-19. Cytokines were quantified using a MILLIPLEX panel and analyzed on a Luminex analyzer. Patients were classified as Easy-to-Control or Difficult-to-Control based on the required dose of controller medications over one year of prospective management. A multivariate variable selection procedure was used to select cytokines associated with Difficult-to-Control versus Easy-to-Control asthma, adjusting for age, sex, blood eosinophils, and blood neutrophils. In inner-city African American children, 12 cytokines were significant predictors of Difficult-to-Control asthma (n = 235. CXCL-1, IL-5, IL-8, and IL-17A were positively associated with Difficult-to-Control asthma, while IL-4 and IL-13 were positively associated with Easy-to-Control asthma. Using likelihood ratio testing, it was observed that in addition to blood eosinophils and neutrophils, serum cytokines improved the fit of the model. In an inner-city pediatric population, serum cytokines significantly contributed to the definition of Difficult-to-Control asthma endotypes in African American children. Mixed responses characterized by TH2 (IL-5 and TH17-associated cytokines were associated with Difficult-to-Control asthma. Collectively, these data may contribute to risk stratification of Difficult-to-Control asthma in the African American population.
Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Clark, Jack A; Bauchner, Howard; Walsh, Jared P; Mercilus, Glory; Figaro, Jean; Bibbo, Caroline; Perkins, Rebecca B
Black women have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of HPV vaccination than White women in the United States, and Haitians may be an especially vulnerable subgroup of Black women. To reduce these disparities, understanding differences among subgroups of Black women is crucial. The objective of our study was to assess similarities and differences in the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices toward HPV vaccination and actual vaccination rates among African-American and Haitian immigrant women and their daughters. We used validated surveys of HPV knowledge, trust in physicians, acculturation, and constructs of the health belief model: Perceived susceptibility, severity, and barriers. We probed women's thought processes about vaccination using open-ended questions. We then reviewed medical records to determine vaccination rates. Nineteen African Americans and 51 Haitians participated. Although 75% of Haitians and 63% of African Americans intended to vaccinate their daughters, only 47% of African-American and 31% of Haitian daughters were vaccinated. African Americans were more knowledgeable than Haitians and had more prior experience with HPV disease. Most African Americans felt that vaccination fell within the parental role, whereas many Haitians felt uncomfortable vaccinating against sexually transmitted infections because they felt children should not be having sex. Both ethnic groups wanted more information about HPV vaccines. Cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant mothers revealed distinct barriers for vaccine acceptance. Improving HPV vaccine rates in Black women may require culturally competent and sensitive approaches that address ethnic-specific barriers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
.... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCAl/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...
Marie N Fongwa
Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors
socially significant. While the glass ceiling for African Americans appears to have been shattered for society as a whole, the fact that only eight of more...Chief of Staff, and there has yet to be an African American Chief of Staff of the Army all suggest that the glass ceiling still exists in the Army.34...whole of society had even accepted these individuals as more than three-fifths of a person.1 In the twentieth century, women integrated into the
Friedman, Daniela B.; Hooker, Steven P.; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Rheaume, Carol E.
African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men’s recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from. 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45–64 years) and older (65–84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited; middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914
Spears, Erica C.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.; Harvey, Idethia S.
There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often…
Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia
OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663
Senteio, Charles; Veinot, Tiffany
Adherence to treatment recommendations for chronic diseases is notoriously low across all patient populations. But African American patients, who are more likely to live in low-income neighborhoods and to have multiple chronic conditions, are even less likely to follow medical recommendations. Yet we know little about their contextually embedded, adherence-related experiences. We interviewed individuals (n = 37) with at least two of the following conditions: hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Using an "invisible work" theoretical framework, we outline the adherence work that arose in patients' common life circumstances. We found five types: constantly searching for better care, stretching medications, eating what I know, keeping myself alive, and trying to make it right. Adherence work was effortful, challenging, and addressed external contingencies present in high-poverty African American neighborhoods. This work was invisible within the health care system because participants lacked ongoing, trusting relationships with providers and rarely discussed challenges with them. © The Author(s) 2014.
Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G
Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.
Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise
Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.
Grier, Leslie K.
The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…
Whiteman, Shawn D.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants ...
Leapman, Michael S; Freedland, Stephen J; Aronson, William J; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Walker, Kelly; Amling, Christopher L; Carroll, Peter R; Cooperberg, Matthew R
Racial disparities in the incidence and risk profile of prostate cancer at diagnosis among African-American men are well reported. However, it remains unclear whether African-American race is independently associated with adverse outcomes in men with clinical low risk disease. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 895 men in the SEARCH (Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital) database in whom clinical low risk prostate cancer was treated with radical prostatectomy. Associations of African-American and Caucasian race with pathological biochemical recurrence outcomes were examined using chi-square, logistic regression, log rank and Cox proportional hazards analyses. We identified 355 African-American and 540 Caucasian men with low risk tumors in the SEARCH cohort who were followed a median of 6.3 years. Following adjustment for relevant covariates African-American race was not significantly associated with pathological upgrading (OR 1.33, p = 0.12), major upgrading (OR 0.58, p = 0.10), up-staging (OR 1.09, p = 0.73) or positive surgical margins (OR 1.04, p = 0.81). Five-year recurrence-free survival rates were 73.4% in African-American men and 78.4% in Caucasian men (log rank p = 0.18). In a Cox proportional hazards analysis model African-American race was not significantly associated with biochemical recurrence (HR 1.11, p = 0.52). In a cohort of patients at clinical low risk who were treated with prostatectomy in an equal access health system with a high representation of African-American men we observed no significant differences in the rates of pathological upgrading, up-staging or biochemical recurrence. These data support continued use of active surveillance in African-American men. Upgrading and up-staging remain concerning possibilities for all men regardless of race. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lauver, D. (1994). Care-seeking behavior with breast cancer symptoms in Caucasian and African-American women. Research in Nursing and Health, 17, 421...Disorders the Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4, 47-5 8. 181. Waller, G. & Hodgson, S. (1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia ...1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: the role of perceived and actual control. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184
Miller, Byron; Rote, Sunshine M.; Keith, Verna M.
Research demonstrates that the mental health of African Americans is negatively affected by discrimination, but few studies have investigated the effects of racial discrimination specifically and whether these effects vary by poverty and education levels. Using a sample of 3,372 African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), we find a positive relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, with both lifetime and daily racial discrimination being more salient for depressive symptoms among impoverished African Americans than those living above 200% of the poverty line. Evaluating mediated moderation models, we also find that the conditional effects of socioeconomic status are mediated by poor African Americans’ having fewer psychosocial resources. Namely, lower levels of mastery are influential in accounting for poor African Americans’ greater vulnerability to both daily and lifetime discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of examining specific reasons for discrimination as well as mediated moderation in future research. PMID:25419483
In May 2002 there was a backpage article published in American Physical Society Newsletter by the President of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). This article showed that of the 3372 professional physicists employed at the DOE national labs, only 11 are African American, which on a percentage basis is 4 times less than the total availability of Ph.D. African American physicists in the labor force. NSBP want to provide an update of the interaction between National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and the department of Energy in particular the Office of Science on the issue of employment of African American Physicists in scientific and technical. You might ask the following question: Why should the current generation of African American Physicists be concerned about their underepresentation on the scientific staffs of the DOE National Laboratories? The answer to this question may vary from person to person, but I would like to propose the following: The National Laboratories are the largest providers of career opportunities in Physics in the United States. There is a general view in the community; African Americans are not getting a return on their national investment in the DOE National Labs. Failure to engage with HBCU’s through their user facilities causes a training or skills deficit when it comes to preparing students to participate at the forefront of physics research. By rebuffing interactions with HBCU¹s, as many the laboratories have done, the national laboratories are in effect refusing to transfer scientific knowledge to the stakeholders in the African American community. The update will contain some additional information about NSBP proposals to solve the problem of underepresentation of African American and Hispanic physicists within the National Laboratories and how the Office of Science has response these proposals.
Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.
Stewart, Endya Bentley
Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), path analytic procedures were performed to test an ecological model of the effects of family, individual and school characteristics on the academic African American students. A distinctive study is the inclusion of school computer use in the model. The study results show that several of the variables directly or indirectly affected 12th grade academic achievement. Furthermore, most of the individual influence variables were directly related to 12 th grade achievement. Two surprising findings from this study were the insignificant effects of family income and school computer use on 12 th grade achievement. Overall, the findings support the notion that family, individual, and school characteristics are important predictors of academic success among African American students.
Williamson, Wanda; Kautz, Donald D
This paper reports on the perceived effectiveness of a program to increase awareness of the health risks of obesity among African-American students. Thirty (n = 30) senior level Bachelor of Science in Nursing students attending a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) took a knowledge test, then participated in an hour-long educational session on obesity. Following the session, the students completed a 10-item post-test to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in increasing awareness of obesity as a risk for heart disease and diabetes. The findings suggested a need to further educate African-American students on the consequences of obesity as well as recommendations to advance the science of personal and family risk awareness in nursing students.
Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.
African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821
Venkata K Mukku
Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Vetta L. Sanders Thompson
Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.
Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K
Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A; Flack, John M; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan
According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol, and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Adriana C. Vidal
Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Keith, Verna M; Nicklett, Emily J; Chatters, Linda M
This study examined the impact of everyday discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans. This analysis is based on the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) (n = 773). We examined the associations between everyday discrimination and both general distress and psychiatric disorders as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Six dependent variables were examined: lifetime mood disorders, lifetime anxiety disorders, any lifetime disorder, number of lifetime disorders, depressive symptoms as measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Scale of Depression (CES-D), and serious psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6). Overall, racial and non-racial everyday discrimination were consistently associated with worse mental health for older African Americans. Older African Americans who experienced higher levels of overall everyday discrimination had higher odds of any psychiatric disorder, any lifetime mood disorder, any lifetime anxiety disorder, and more lifetime DSM-IV disorders, in addition to elevated levels of depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress. These findings were similar for both racial discrimination and non-racial discrimination. This study documents the harmful association of not only racial discrimination, but also non-racial (and overall) discrimination with the mental health of older African Americans. Specifically, discrimination is negatively associated with mood and anxiety disorders as well as depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.
Dana L. Carthron
Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.
Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....
Long, Everett; Ponder, Monica; Bernard, Stephanie
Perceptions of illness affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) self-management. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding hypertension and hyperlipidemia management among 34 African-American men with hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia, age 40-65, living in the Southeastern United States. In-person focus groups were conducted using semi-structured interview questions informed by the Health Belief Model (HBM). Participants had a high level of knowledge about hypertension self-management, but less about cholesterol self-management. Perceived severity of both conditions was acknowledged, though participants perceived hypertension as more severe. Barriers to self-management included medication side effects and unhealthy dietary patterns. Facilitators included social support, positive healthcare experiences, and the value placed on family. Cultural implications highlighted the importance of food in daily life and social settings. Participants expressed how notions of masculinity affected self-management-noting the impact of feelings of vulnerability and perceived lack of control stemming from diagnosis and treatment expectations. The findings highlight gaps in knowledge of hyperlipidemia versus hypertension, and the impact of cultural context and perceptions on engagement in self-management behaviors. Public health practitioners and healthcare providers serving African-American men should address cultural factors and notions of masculinity which can hinder effective disease management among this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Davis, Boyd H; Pope, Charlene; Mason, Peyton R; Magwood, Gayenell; Jenkins, Carolyn M
This mixed methods study uses a unique approach from social science and linguistics methodologies, a combination of positioning theory and stance analysis, to examine how 20 African Americans with type 2 diabetes make sense of the practices that led to recurrent emergency department visits to identify needs for more effective intervention. In a purposive sample of postemergency department visit interviews with a same-race interviewer, people responded to open-ended questions reflecting on the decision to seek emergency department care. As applied to diabetes education, positioning theory explains that people use their language to position themselves toward their disease, their medications, and the changes in their lives. Transcriptions were coded using discourse analysis to categorize themes. As a form of triangulation, stance analysis measured language patterns using factor analysis to see when and how speakers revealed affect, attitude, and agentive choices for action. Final analysis revealed that one third of the sample exhibited high scores for positive agency or capacity for decision-making and self-management, while the rest expressed less control and more negative emotions and fears that may preclude self-management. This approach suggests a means to tailor diabetes education considering alternative approaches focused on communication for those facing barriers.
Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai
The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.
Serben, Dion F.
The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for various business technology uses within the organizational system. However, in the context of African American small businesses (AASB), there was very little evidence of research to determine factors affecting the intention to use…
Stroud, George H.
Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…
Farkas, George; And Others
Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…
Mizell, C. Andre
Examines factors over the life course that affect levels of depression in Black men using samples of 892 African-American and 1,454 White men from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Parental educational attainment is a significant negative predictor of depression. Its role and that of other identified predictors of depression are…
Parker, DeJuan Dennis
In this twenty-first century there is a disproportionate amount of African American males in special education in the U.S. This is a factor happening day by day affecting the achievement gap between Black and White students, especially males. The purpose of this study is to point out factors that contribute to the overrepresentation of African…
O'Connor, Michelle Y.; Thoreson, Caroline K.; Ricks, Madia; Courville, Amber B.; Thomas, Francine; Yao, Jianhua; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Sumner, Anne E.
Background: The healthy immigrant effect is a phrase that has been used for decades to describe better cardiometabolic health in African immigrants than African Americans. The recent global increase in cardiometabolic diseases raises the possibility that immigrant health may be changing. Therefore, a new assessment of cardiometabolic health in African immigrants is warranted.
Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…
Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj
The HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken a tremendous toll on the population of the United States. College students, including African-Americans aged 13-24 years, across the nation are susceptible to contracting sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS as they participate in unsafe sex practices. The purpose of this article is to provide teaching…
Zellner Lawrence, Tiffany; Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia; Archie-Booker, Elaine; Johnson, Tarita; Evans, Donoria
African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE) Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12-18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008-2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention ( n = 651) and comparison ( n = 112) groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent ( p = 0.0005). Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60). Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions.
Thompson, Tess; Pérez, Maria; Kreuter, Matthew; Margenthaler, Julie; Colditz, Graham; Jeffe, Donna B
Social support plays an important role in quality of life and health outcomes after breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. To examine changes in perceived social support in African American women during the two years following a new breast cancer diagnosis. This secondary analysis uses data collected from 2009 to 2015 from 227 newly diagnosed, African American women with breast cancer (mean age 56 [SD = 10], 59% household income social support (measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey) as well as correlates of baseline levels of social support and predictors of change in individuals' social support. Additional analyses examined whether change in social support over the first year affected depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and general health perceptions (RAND SF-36 subscale) at two years. Being married, reporting greater spirituality, and reporting fewer depressive symptoms at baseline were significantly associated with higher initial levels of perceived social support. Women whose social support declined during the first year after diagnosis reported more severe depressive symptoms and worse general health perceptions at two years. Clinicians should periodically assess perceived social support among African American women with breast cancer to help find support resources for those who have low initial social support and for those whose support declines in the first year after diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate African American fathers’ perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health.Methods: This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n=3 and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included African American fathers (n=20 with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79, with at least one child between 6-18 years old.Results: Four major themes were revealed: (1 appropriate health education for participants’ children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents; (2 participants’ paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive; (3 participants’ perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints; and (4 paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet.Conclusion: Understanding African American fathers’ perceived and desired role in their children’s health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities.
Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm
Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tiffany Zellner Lawrence
Full Text Available African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12–18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008–2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention (n = 651 and comparison (n = 112 groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent (p = 0.0005. Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60. Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions.
Bryant-Bedell, Keneshia; Waite, Roberta
This paper is a report of a study of how a cohort of African American men recognized and expressed symptoms of depression, and how depression affected their lives. Major depressive disorder has had global financial consequences in the form of healthcare visits, lost work hours, and disruption of family lives. Early recognition of depression and engagement of depressed individuals to promote management and treatment of this disorder is crucial in controlling its impact. African American men are often not included in research exploring factors that limit their engagement in mental health care. A descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in 2008 with ten African American men between the ages of 40 and 59 years. All participants self-reported a history of depression. Three central themes were identified: life events, the funk, and the breakdown. Life events were identified as stressors which led the men to experience what they described as the funk, which was later identified as depression. Due to lack of resolution of the funk, a breakdown was experienced. Over time study participants became informed about their condition, and their responses to managing depression varied depending on individual and contextual factors. It is important to approach depression diagnoses from a broad perspective rather than as a limited list of symptoms. Healthcare providers would benefit from taking into account cultural factors, gender and age, examining them carefully in relation to the development of depressive symptoms.
Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M
Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.
Goodson, Patricia; Foster, Margaret J.
Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer killer among African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African American men have incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher from CRC. Despite the benefits of early detection and the availability of effective screening, most adults over age 50 have not undergone testing, and disparities in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) persist. Owing to CRC’s high incidence and younger age at presentation among African American men, CRCS is warranted at age 45 rather than 50. However, the factors influencing young adult (i.e., age methodological quality. Utilizing Garrard’s Matrix Method, a total of 28 manuscripts met our inclusion/exclusion criteria: 20 studies followed a non-experimental research design, 4 comprised a quasi-experimental design, and 4, an experimental design. Studies were published between 2002 and 2012; the majority, between 2007 and 2011. The factors most frequently assessed were behaviors (79%), beliefs (68%), and knowledge (61%) of CRC and CRCS. Six factors associated with CRC and CRCS emerged: previous CRCS, CRC test preference, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, CRC/CRCS knowledge, and physician support/recommendation. Studies were assigned a methodological quality score (MQS – ranging from 0 to 21). The mean MQS of 10.9 indicated these studies were, overall, of medium quality and suffered from specific flaws. Alongside a call for more rigorous research, this review provides important suggestions for practice and culturally relevant interventions. PMID:26435888
O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.
Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227
Sharon K. Davis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent emphasis has been placed on elucidating the biologic mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Positive associations of inflammatory biomarkers provide evidence suggestive of a biologic pathway by which SES may predispose to CVD. African Americans have disproportionately lower SES and have a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors compared to most ethnic/racial groups. Adiponectin (an anti-inflammatory marker is also lower. The objective of this study was to assess the association of adiponectin with SES among African American men and women using the Jackson Heart Study. Methods Study sample included 4340 participants. Linear regression was performed separately by SES and stratified by sex. Annual household income and level of education was used as proxies for SES. Crude, age, health behavior and health status adjusted models were analyzed. The main outcome was log-transformed adiponectin. Results Men in the lowest income group had significantly higher adiponectin than those in the highest income group in the fully adjusted model (ß/standard error [se], p value = .16/.08, p = .0008. Men with < high school level of education had significantly higher adiponectin in the crude and age adjusted models than those with ≥ college degree (.25/.05, p < .0001; .14/.05/ p = .005, respectively. Women with some college or vocational training in the crude and age adjusted models had lower adiponectin compared to women with ≥ college degree (−.09/.03, p = .004; −.06/.03, p = .04, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest a potential inverse biologic pathway between annual household income and adiponectin among African American men. There was no such finding among women. Findings suggest interventions should be targeted for higher SES African American men to improve adiponectin levels.
Booker, Staja Q
The purpose of this systematic review is to explore the perceptions of acute, persistent, and disease-specific pain and treatment options held by adult African Americans. Underassessment and undermanagement of pain in African Americans has been well documented; however, the cultural continuum of pain perceptions and their influence on pain assessment and management has not been synthesized. Electronic database searches of the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed, Web-based searches of the pain-specific journals plus a manual search of reference lists identified 41 relevant articles addressing perceptions of pain and/or pain management. Analysis of the literature revealed six themes: (a) meaning of pain, (b) description of pain, (c) coping with pain, (d) impact of pain, (e) patient-provider relationship, and (f) treatment approaches. These findings warrant further research and indicate the need for more precise evaluation of pain in African Americans, highlighting an imperative to incorporate cultural patterns into pain management practice and education. © The Author(s) 2014.
Beech, Bettina M; Bruce, Marino A; Crump, Mary E; Hamilton, Gina E
Recruitment for large cohort studies is typically challenging, particularly when the pool of potential participants is limited to the descendants of individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal "parent" study. The increasing complexity of family structures and dynamics can present challenges for recruitment in offspring. Few best practices exist to guide effective and efficient empirical approaches to participant recruitment. Social and behavioral theories can provide insight into social and cultural contexts influencing individual decision-making and facilitate the development strategies for effective diffusion and marketing of an offspring cohort study. The purpose of this study was to describe the theory-informed recruitment approaches employed by the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study (JHKS), a prospective offspring feasibility study of 200 African American children and grandchildren of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)-the largest prospective cohort study examining cardiovascular disease among African American adults. Participant recruitment in the JHKS was founded on concepts from three theoretical perspectives-the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Strength of Weak Ties, and Marketing Theory. Tailored recruitment strategies grounded in participatory strategies allowed us to exceed enrollment goals for JHKS Pilot Study and develop a framework for a statewide study of African American adolescents.
Babbitt, Dianne M; Diaz, Keith M; Feairheller, Deborah L; Sturgeon, Kathleen M; Perkins, Amanda M; Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Williamson, Sheara T; Kretzschmar, Jan; Ling, Chenyi; Lee, Hojun; Grimm, Heather; Thakkar, Sunny R; Crabbe, Deborah L; Kashem, Mohammed A; Brown, Michael D
African Americans have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world which may emanate from their predisposition to heightened endothelial inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 6-month aerobic exercise training (AEXT) intervention on the inflammatory biomarkers interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endothelial microparticle (EMP) CD62E+ and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in African Americans. A secondary purpose was to evaluate whether changes in IL-10, IL-6, or CD62E+ EMPs predicted the change in FMD following the 6-month AEXT intervention. A pre-post design was employed with baseline evaluation including office blood pressure, FMD, fasting blood sampling, and graded exercise testing. Participants engaged in 6 months of AEXT. Following the AEXT intervention, all baseline tests were repeated. FMD significantly increased, CD62E+ EMPs and IL-6 significantly decreased, and IL-10 increased but not significantly following AEXT. Changes in inflammatory biomarkers did not significantly predict the change in FMD. The change in VO2 max significantly predicted the change in IL-10. Based on these results, AEXT may be a viable, nonpharmacological method to improve inflammation status and endothelial function and thereby contribute to risk reduction for cardiovascular disease in African Americans.
Dianne M. Babbitt
Full Text Available African Americans have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world which may emanate from their predisposition to heightened endothelial inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 6-month aerobic exercise training (AEXT intervention on the inflammatory biomarkers interleukin-10 (IL-10, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and endothelial microparticle (EMP CD62E+ and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD in African Americans. A secondary purpose was to evaluate whether changes in IL-10, IL-6, or CD62E+ EMPs predicted the change in FMD following the 6-month AEXT intervention. A pre-post design was employed with baseline evaluation including office blood pressure, FMD, fasting blood sampling, and graded exercise testing. Participants engaged in 6 months of AEXT. Following the AEXT intervention, all baseline tests were repeated. FMD significantly increased, CD62E+ EMPs and IL-6 significantly decreased, and IL-10 increased but not significantly following AEXT. Changes in inflammatory biomarkers did not significantly predict the change in FMD. The change in VO2 max significantly predicted the change in IL-10. Based on these results, AEXT may be a viable, nonpharmacological method to improve inflammation status and endothelial function and thereby contribute to risk reduction for cardiovascular disease in African Americans.
Gerald V Denis
Full Text Available Obesity-driven Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a systemic inflammatory condition associated with cardiovascular disease. However, plasma cytokines and tissue inflammation that discriminate T2D risk in African American women with obese phenotypes are not well understood. We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities. We then used hierarchical clustering to generate inflammation signatures by combining the effects of identified cytokines and chemokines and summarized the signatures using an inflammation score. The analyses revealed six distinct signatures of sixteen cytokines/chemokines (P = 0.05 that differed significantly by prevalence of T2D (P = 0.004, obesity (P = 0.0231 and overall inflammation score (P < E-12. Signatures were validated in two independent cohorts of African American women with obesity: thirty nine subjects with no metabolic complications or with T2D and hypertension; and thirteen breast reduction surgical patients. The signatures in the validation cohorts closely resembled the distributions in the discovery cohort. We find that blood-based cytokine profiles usefully associate inflammation with T2D risks in vulnerable subjects, and should be combined with metabolism and obesity counselling for personalized risk assessment.
Campbell, Cathy L.; Williams, Ishan C.; Orr, Tamara
Significance African Americans with cancer are less likely to use hospice services and more likely to die in the hospital than white patients with the same diagnosis. However, there is much that is not understood about the factors that lead African Americans to choose options for end-of-life care. Design A qualitative, descriptive design was used in this pilot study. Methods Interviews were conducted with two groups of African Americans with advanced-stage cancer (people enrolled in hospice and those who were not under hospice care). Findings End-of-life decisions were primarily guided by clinical factors, the patient-related physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms that are sequelae of the underlying disease or medical treatments. The physician was the healthcare provider most likely to be involved in decision making with patients, family members, and caregivers. Individual factors, such as personal beliefs, influenced end-of-life decision making. Religion and spirituality were a topic in many interviews, but they did not consistently influence decision making. Discussion Future studies should include interviews with family members, caregivers, and healthcare professionals so that factors that impact end-of-life decision making can be fully described. Strategies to facilitate recruitment will need to be added to future protocols. PMID:23645999
O’Neal, Catherine Walker
Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Results: Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans’ intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Implications: Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans’ eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints. PMID:23241919
Holden, Kisha B; Hall, Stephanie P; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L DiAnne
African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic (n = 23), a small private academic institution (n = 25), and an urban community setting (n = 15). Self-report data concerning selected psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results indicated several similarities and differences among the 3 groups of women concerning levels of depressive symptoms and their correlates. Among the total sample, symptoms of depression were mild among 65% of the women. Depressive symptoms were significant and positively associated with negative and ruminative thinking (r = 0.79, p indication of chronic diseases (r = 0.34, p data concerning contributors to depressive symptoms for African American women.
Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.
Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144
Benjamin, Ludy T; Henry, Keisha D; McMahon, Lance R
Inez Beverly Prosser (ca. 1895-1934) was arguably the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in psychology. Her dissertation, completed in 1933, examined personality differences in black children attending either voluntarily segregated or integrated schools and concluded that black children were better served in segregated schools. This research was one of several studies in the 1920s and 1930s that was part of the debate on segregated schools as maintained in the United States under the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This article examines the life and career of Prosser in the context of educational barriers and opportunities for African Americans in the early part of the twentieth century and explores the arguments that pitted African Americans against one another in determining how best to educate black children, arguments that eventually led to the desegregation decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gorlova, Olga Y; Li, Yafang; Gorlov, Ivan; Ying, Jun; Chen, Wei V; Assassi, Shervin; Reveille, John D; Arnett, Frank C; Zhou, Xiaodong; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Lopez-Isac, Elena; Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Gregersen, Peter K; Lee, Annette T; Steen, Virginia D; Fessler, Barri J; Khanna, Dinesh; Schiopu, Elena; Silver, Richard M; Molitor, Jerry A; Furst, Daniel E; Kafaja, Suzanne; Simms, Robert W; Lafyatis, Robert A; Carreira, Patricia; Simeon, Carmen Pilar; Castellvi, Ivan; Beltran, Emma; Ortego, Norberto; Amos, Christopher I; Martin, Javier; Mayes, Maureen D
Gene-level analysis of ImmunoChip or genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data has not been previously reported for systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). The objective of this study was to analyze genetic susceptibility loci in SSc at the gene level and to determine if the detected associations were shared in African-American and White populations, using data from ImmunoChip and GWAS genotyping studies. The White sample included 1833 cases and 3466 controls (956 cases and 2741 controls from the US and 877 cases and 725 controls from Spain) and the African American sample, 291 cases and 260 controls. In both Whites and African Americans, we performed a gene-level analysis that integrates association statistics in a gene possibly harboring multiple SNPs with weak effect on disease risk, using Versatile Gene-based Association Study (VEGAS) software. The SNP-level analysis was performed using PLINK v.1.07. We identified 4 novel candidate genes (STAT1, FCGR2C, NIPSNAP3B, and SCT) significantly associated and 4 genes (SERBP1, PINX1, TMEM175 and EXOC2) suggestively associated with SSc in the gene level analysis in White patients. As an exploratory analysis we compared the results on Whites with those from African Americans. Of previously established susceptibility genes identified in Whites, only TNFAIP3 was significant at the nominal level (p = 6.13x10-3) in African Americans in the gene-level analysis of the ImmunoChip data. Among the top suggestive novel genes identified in Whites based on the ImmunoChip data, FCGR2C and PINX1 were only nominally significant in African Americans (p = 0.016 and p = 0.028, respectively), while among the top novel genes identified in the gene-level analysis in African Americans, UNC5C (p = 5.57x10-4) and CLEC16A (p = 0.0463) were also nominally significant in Whites. We also present the gene-level analysis of SSc clinical and autoantibody phenotypes among Whites. Our findings need to be validated by independent studies, particularly
Sampson, Kristin Morgan
As the U.S. becomes more diverse, school leaders, major corporations, and areas of national defense continue to investigate science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education issues. African-American female students have historically been underrepresented in STEM fields, yet educational leadership research, examining this population is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how principals support African-American female students in schools with a STEM program. The Critical Race Theory (CRT)was used as a theoretical framework to highlight the inadequacies to support educational inequalities. The application of the CRT in this study is due to the embedded inequality practices within the educational system, that have resulted in the underrepresentation of African-American female students in STEM. To complement CRT, the transformative leadership model was also utilized to examine the emancipatory leadership practices principals utilized. These theories framed the context of this study by recognizing the need to address how support is actualized to African-American female students in STEM by their principals. A case study approach was an appropriate method to answer the two research questions, 1) How do principals feel they support African-American female students in their STEM programs? and 2) What practices do principals engage in that support underrepresented students in STEM? This approach intended to uncover how a principal leads a multifaceted population of underrepresented students in STEM programs. Two principals of STEM schools, where more than 50% of the population were African-American, were interviewed and observed completing daily operations at community-wide events. The STEM Coordinators and a teacher were also interviewed, and test scores were examined to provide further information about the STEM program, and public records were obtained to analyze the principals' means of communication. I found that principals supported
McDougall, Graham J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat
A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...
Rodgers, Laura S
In spite of the increase in research on spousal bereavement, researchers have not specifically addressed the impact that ethnicity may have on the bereavement experience. The results of this descriptive phenomenological study increase the understanding of spousal bereavement among older African American widows. Storytelling was at the heart of every participant's description of her bereavement experience. Six themes were identified: awareness of death, care giving, getting through, moving on, changing feelings, and financial security. For nurses to effectively intervene in the lives of bereaved older African American widows, they must consider each widow's culture, heritage, and lived experiences, which can be ascertained through eliciting and listening to the widow's life stories.
Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Balise, Raymond; Soodana Prakash, Nachiketh; Epstein, Jonathan I
We assess the difference in prostate specific antigen production between African-American and Caucasian men with Gleason score 3+3=6 prostate cancer. We measured tumor volume in 414 consecutive radical prostatectomies from men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network(®) low risk prostate cancer (348 Caucasian, 66 African-American) who had Gleason score 3+3=6 disease at radical prostatectomy. We then compared clinical presentation, pathological findings, prostate specific antigen, prostate specific antigen density and prostate specific antigen mass (an absolute amount of prostate specific antigen in patient's circulation) between African-American and Caucasian men. The t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum were used for comparison of means. African-American and Caucasian men had similar clinical findings based on age, body mass index and prostate specific antigen. There were no statistically significant differences between the dominant tumor nodule volume and total tumor volume (mean 0.712 vs 0.665 cm(3), p=0.695) between African-American and Caucasian men. Prostates were heavier in African-American men (mean 55.4 vs 46.3 gm, p prostate tissue contributing to prostate specific antigen in African-American men, prostate specific antigen mass was not different from that of Caucasian men (mean 0.55 vs 0.558 μg, p=0.95). Prostate specific antigen density was significantly less in African-American men due to larger prostates (mean 0.09 vs 0.105, p prostate cancer produce less prostate specific antigen than Caucasian men. African-American and Caucasian men had equal serum prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen mass despite significantly larger prostates in African-American men with all other parameters, particularly total tumor volume, being the same. This finding has practical implications in T1c cases diagnosed with prostate cancer due to prostate specific antigen screening. Lowering the prostate specific antigen density threshold in African-American men may
Full Text Available Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period.Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15-21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV.Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At six- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008, higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005, more inconsistent condom use (p=.008, less condom use at last sex (p=.017, and more sex partners (p=.0001 than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame.Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for
Kamoun, Camilia; Spatz, Diane
Little is known regarding the influence of religion on breastfeeding in African American communities. In particular, whether Islamic traditions influence breastfeeding beliefs and practices among African American Muslims has not been studied. Research aim: This study sought to gain understanding of breastfeeding attitudes, rates, and education among African American Muslims in West Philadelphia and to examine if engaging Islamic teachings in breastfeeding education can positively influence breastfeeding attitudes. Open-ended, in-person, digitally recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 community leaders and analyzed by conventional content analysis. A study tool distributed to a convenience sample of 44 community members and 11 leaders was used to gather information about education received from community leaders, breastfeeding attitudes and practices, and the potential for Islamic teachings to positively affect breastfeeding attitudes and practices. To obtain further data on this last topic, preliminary data analysis guided the creation of an education pamphlet, about which feedback was gathered through another study tool. Education surrounding Islamic perspectives on breastfeeding was not prevalent. African American Muslims in West Philadelphia view breastfeeding favorably and have higher rates of breastfeeding than African Americans as a whole. Community education about breastfeeding that engaged Islamic teachings improved respondents' breastfeeding attitudes. Increasing education among providers and African American Muslims about Islamic perspectives on breastfeeding may improve breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. Healthcare providers who care for Muslim women should be aware of Islam's tradition of positive attitudes toward breastfeeding and partner with Muslim leaders to improve breastfeeding rates and duration among such women.
Goodin, Burel R; Pham, Quyen T; Glover, Toni L; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D; Sibille, Kimberly T; Herbert, Matthew S; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B
Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. One-hundred and 30 (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic White) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group. These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli.
Halasa, Katrina Bassam
The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition
Blockus, Linda Helen
The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models
Topping, Kecia C.
This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science
Crim, Sharan R.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as
This report is a program users manual for the Cycling in the African American Community (CAAC) safety training intervention. The CAAC safety training intervention was designed to nudge more African Americans, who are often beginning cyclists...
Traces the long and varied history of interaction and collective action by African Americans and Latinos, focusing on common culture and political cooperation. Outlines issues related to the continued cooperation of African Americans and Latinos, and common political projects. (SLD)
Doward, Jr, Oscar W
.... The monograph examines the African American Army officer's service during each period of major conflict over the last 100 years to explain why modern-day African American Army officers are prone...
This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…
McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman
This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…
... improvisational innovations of jazz, the simple truth of the blues, the rhythms of rock and roll, and the urban themes of hip-hop all blend into a refrain of song and narrative that traces our Nation's history. These... and our world. Throughout our history, African-American music has conveyed the hopes and hardships of...
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
Excerpts writings of past African American intellectuals on the issue of presumptions of innate black mental inferiority, and applies their analyses to the scientific racism found in "The Bell Curve" (Herrnstein and Murray, 1994). Ideas for incorporating this critical tradition into current efforts, to prevent the resurgence of white…
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
Tatum, Alfred; Gue, Valerie
Historically speaking, reading and writing among African Americans were collaborative acts involving a wide range of texts that held social, economic, political, or spiritual significance. One of the constants of literacy collaboratives was being regularly and purposefully engaged with print within a meaningful social context. During the summer of…
Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Street, Darlene J
To explore issues related to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. Qualitative design using focus groups, guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality. Three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. Fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. Three focus groups were conducted with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were fully explored in the group and included as a guiding question for the next group. Categories identified from the data were reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding that was useful or not useful, and cultural issues related to breastfeeding that were perceived to be unique among African Americans. Three overall themes were identified that cut across categories: perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a support system for continued breastfeeding. Women need to be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding and offered continuing support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Peer support groups for breastfeeding African American women should be established. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Byrd, Marquita L.
One of the main problems with higher education is that curriculums, both past and present, objectify and marginalize the experiences of people of color and thus reduce diversity in the graduate and professional school populations. African American, Asians, Hispanics, and other minorities are studied in many college-level classes only as an…
Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.
The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…
Whitfield, Keith E.; Wiggins, Sebrina A.
Examined the influence of educational desegregation on cognitive performance. Data from African American adults who had attended desegregated (DS) versus segregated (SS) schools indicated that DS adults had significantly higher mean cognitive scores than SS adults. After controlling for age, gender, years of education, and years in desegregated…
... community and reminding us of our shared values. During African-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor..., and brought hope to slaves toiling in fields. The soulfulness of jazz and storytelling in the blues... musicians continue to create new musical genres and transform the scope of traditional musical formats. The...
Describes the Amistad Research Center housed at Tulane University which is a repository of primary documents on African-American history. Topics addressed include the development and growth of the collection; inclusion of the American Missionary Association archives; sources of support; civil rights; and collecting for the future. (LRW)
Nasser, Samar A; Ferdinand, Keith C
The purpose of this review is to examine the impact and effectiveness of community interventions for controlling hypertension in African-Americans. The questions addressed are as follows: Which salient prior and current community efforts focus on African-Americans and are most effective in controlling hypertension and patient-related outcomes? How are these efforts implemented and possibly sustained? The integration of out-of-office blood pressure measurements, novel hypertension control centers (i.e., barbershops), and community health workers improve hypertension control and may reduce the excess hypertension-related complications in African-Americans. Several community-based interventions may assist effectiveness of clinical care teams, decrease care barriers, and improve adherence. A multifaceted, tailored, multidisciplinary community-based approach may effectively reduce barriers to blood pressure control among African-Americans. Future research should evaluate the long-term benefits of community health workers, barbershops as control centers, and out-of-office blood pressure monitoring upon control and eventually on morbidity and mortality.
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.
This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…
Gibson, Priscilla A.
Grandmothers primarily responsible for caring for their grandchildren possess strengths and confront challenges. To gain insight into intergenerational parenting, 17 African American grandmothers were interviewed. Based on a qualitative content analysis, seven strategies emerged: maintaining effective communication, taking a strong role in the…
Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence
Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Farber, Naomi B
Trends in social welfare policy and programs place increasing expectations on families to provide members with various forms of material and socioemotional support. The historic ability of kin networks of many African Americans to provide such support has been compromised by long-term community and family poverty. The potential mismatch between the expectations of social welfare systems for kin support and the actual functional capacities of kin networks places African Americans living in poverty at great risk of chronic poverty and its long-term multiple consequences. This article reviews historical and contemporary research on the structure and function of African American kin networks. On the basis of evidence of functional decline, the authors argue that social workers must re-examine the a priori assumption of viable kin networks as a reliable source of resilience among African Americans living in poverty. Social workers must focus assessment at all levels of practice on a variety of aspects of kin networks to make accurate judgments about not only the availability of resources, but also the perceived costs and benefits of participation in exchange for resources.
James, Delores C. S.; Efunbumi, Orisatalabi; Harville, Cedric; Sears, Cynthia
The goals of the study were to identify the barriers and motivators for physical activity (PA) and to assess whether these factors vary by weight status. A self-administered survey was completed by 413 African American women. Each woman provided verbal informed consent and was weighed and measured by a research team member. The participants' mean…
Wagner, Julie A; Abbott, Gina L; Heapy, Alicia; Yong, Lynne
This study of African Americans with diabetes investigated: (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; (2) the relationship between depressive symptoms and long-term diabetes complications; (3) the relationship between depressive symptoms and medication usage; and (4) the effects of demographic and diabetes variables on these relationships. One-hundred twenty five African American diabetic adults who were attending health fairs reported demographic and medical history and provided blood samples for A1c assessment of glycemic control. They also completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire, and the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory. After controlling for confounders, higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher A1c, more long-term diabetes complications, and more diabetes medications. Diabetes self-care did not fully account for these relationships. The relationship between depression and poor diabetes control exists in African Americans as it does in Whites. Providers are encouraged to attend to depression in their African American patients with diabetes.
... character of our Nation--often in the face of both racial and gender discrimination. As courageous... women who took extraordinary risks to change our Nation for the better. During National African American... they have made to perfecting our Union. This year's theme, ``Black Women in American Culture and...
Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia
A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…
Craft, Eleanor; Howley, Aimee
Background/Context: Disproportionate placement of African American students into special education programs is likely to be a form of institutional racism, especially when such placement stigmatizes students. If placement also fails to lead to educational benefits, the practice becomes even more suspect. Some studies have explored disproportionate…
Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas
Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…
Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl
The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…
Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…
.... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
Danielle Taana Smith
This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS), and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I us...
Garrett, Bridgette E; Gardiner, Phillip S; Wright, La Tanisha C; Pechacek, Terry F
Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the
Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.
Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Liu, Na
Although family-focused, evidence-based programs (EBPs) have the potential to reduce disparities in health and behavioral outcomes for youth, access to such programs is severely limited in the most affected areas, including African American communities in the rural South. As expanding the reach of EBPs is the primary goal of translational research, interest is growing in the potential of technology as a viable platform to disseminate services to areas with limited resources. To test whether African American families in the rural South would be willing to engage in a technology-based family-focused EBP to prevent adolescent risk behavior, we examined attendance using data from two arms of a three-arm community-based trial of the Pathways for African American Success (PAAS) program. In the overall study, sixth graders (N = 412) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to the following conditions: (a) in-person, small group sessions led by facilitators; (b) self-directed, technology-based sessions; or (c) a literature control with home-mailed educational materials. Results indicated that attendance was higher in the technology condition than in the small group condition. Parental age, education, and socioeconomic status did not limit attendance in the technology condition. We conclude from these results that the use of technology can be an acceptable strategy for disseminating parenting EBPs to African American families in the rural South.
Tsang, Siny; Sperling, Scott A; Park, Moon Ho; Helenius, Ira M; Williams, Ishan C; Manning, Carol
Although blood pressure (BP) variability has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment, whether this relationship affects African Americans has been unclear. We sought correlations between systolic and diastolic BP variability and cognitive function in community-dwelling older African Americans, and introduced a new BP variability measure that can be applied to BP data collected in clinical practice. We assessed cognitive function in 94 cognitively normal older African Americans using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI). We used BP measurements taken at the patients' three most recent primary care clinic visits to generate three traditional BP variability indices, range, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation, plus a new index, random slope, which accounts for unequal BP measurement intervals within and across patients. MMSE scores did not correlate with any of the BP variability indices. Patients with greater diastolic BP variability were less accurate on the CAMCI verbal memory and incidental memory tasks. Results were similar across the four BP variability indices. In a sample of cognitively intact older African American adults, BP variability did not correlate with global cognitive function, as measured by the MMSE. However, higher diastolic BP variability correlated with poorer verbal and incidental memory. By accounting for differences in BP measurement intervals, our new BP variability index may help alert primary care physicians to patients at particular risk for cognitive decline.
Ard, Jamy D; Cox, Tiffany L; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C; Jefferson, Wendy K; Brakhage, Cora
The workplace may be an ideal venue for engaging African American women in behavioral interventions for weight reduction. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention among a group of predominately African American women in a workplace setting. Crossover design study. Workplace. A total of 39 women volunteered for this study, of whom 27 completed it. The control period involved observation of participants for 22 weeks after receiving standard counseling on lifestyle methods to achieve a healthy weight; following the control period, participants crossed over to the 22-week intervention period. The intervention was culturally enhanced using feedback derived from formative assessment and delivered as 15 group sessions. The primary outcome measure was the difference in weight change between the control and intervention periods; changes in waist circumference and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Most participants were obese, with a mean baseline body mass index of 36 kg/m², weight of 97.9 kg, and waist circumference of 111 cm. Weight increased during the control period by 0.7 kg but decreased by 2.6 kg during the intervention (net difference = -3.4 kg, P culturally enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention in a predominately African American workplace setting. The workplace may be conducive for targeting African American women who are disproportionately affected by obesity.
Tayyari, Fariba; Gowda, G A Nagana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo F; Berg, Richard; Yang, Howard H; Lee, Maxwell P; Ngwa, Wilfred F; Mittal, Suresh K; Raftery, Daniel; Mohammed, Sulma I
Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease with variable pathophysiology and biology, is classified into four major subtypes. While hormonal- and antibody-targeted therapies are effective in the patients with luminal and HER-2 subtypes, the patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype do not benefit from these therapies. The incidence rates of TNBC subtype are higher in African-American women, and the evidence indicates that these women have worse prognosis compared to women of European descent. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear but are often attributed to TNBC biology. In this study, we performed metabolic analysis of breast tissues to identify how TNBC differs from luminal A breast cancer (LABC) subtypes within the African-American and Caucasian breast cancer patients, respectively. We used High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to perform the metabolomic analysis of breast cancer and adjacent normal tissues (total n=82 samples). TNBC and LABC subtypes in African American women exhibited different metabolic profiles. Metabolic profiles of these subtypes were also distinct from those revealed in Caucasian women. TNBC in African-American women expressed higher levels of glutathione, choline, and glutamine as well as profound metabolic alterations characterized by decreased mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis concomitant with decreased levels of ATP. TNBC in Caucasian women was associated with increased pyrimidine synthesis. These metabolic alterations could potentially be exploited as novel treatment targets for TNBC.
Potter, Guy G; Plassman, Brenda L; Burke, James R; Kabeto, Mohammed U; Langa, Kenneth M; Llewellyn, David J; Rogers, Mary A M; Steffens, David C
The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia must reflect an increasingly diverse and aging United States population. This study compared direct testing and informant reports of cognition with clinical diagnoses of cognitive impairment and dementia between African Americans and whites. Participants in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study completed in-person dementia evaluations, and were assigned clinical diagnoses (by a consensus panel of dementia experts) of normal; cognitive impairment, not demented (CIND); and dementia. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) total score and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) were used to assess cognitive performance and reported cognitive decline. A higher CERAD total score was associated with lower odds of CIND and dementia, at comparable ratios between African Americans and whites. Higher IQCODE scores were associated with increased odds of dementia in both African Americans and whites. Higher IQCODE scores were associated with increased odds of CIND among whites, but not among African Americans. Cultural differences may influence informant reports of prevalent CIND and dementia. Our findings also highlight the need for more comparative research to establish the cultural validity of measures used to diagnose these conditions.
Yancey, A K; Miles, O L; McCarthy, W J; Sandoval, G; Hill, J; Leslie, J J; Harrison, G G
To assess patterns of recruitment into a community-based NCI-funded physical activity and dietary lifestyle change program targeting African-American women. Acquisition of a convenience sample to be screened for participation in a randomized, controlled prevention intervention. African-American-owned and -operated health club located in an area of Los Angeles in which African Americans are concentrated. 893 African-American women. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES: Social networking/word-of-mouth, staff presentations, mass and targeted media, and physician referral. Completion of screening questionnaire indicating a desire to enroll in the study. Screening questionnaire domains included self-reported height and weight, recent participation in organized weight loss programs, ability to walk one mile unassisted, current medication use, smoking status, personal medical history of cancer, sociodemographic variables, and recruitment source. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics distinguished between respondents obtained through different recruitment strategies. In particular, women with a higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely than those with lower BMIs (P = .014) to be recruited through more personalized methods (eg, social networking). Culturally tailored recruitment strategies are critical in securing the participation of members of "hard-to-reach" populations, who are both under-represented in health promotion research and at high risk for chronic diseases.
Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…
Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.
Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…
Being an African-American parent in White America is an issue that becomes complicated simply by the difference in cultural values and traditions passed down to African-American families that are generally contradictory to contemporary White American culture. This guide addresses a number of issues for African-American parents in the following…
This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…
Hall, Ronald E.
Discusses the impact of racial stereotyping on the performance of African American and European American athletes, providing an alternative to race-based intelligence differentials. Focuses on stereotypes of African American men; the Bell Curve; the high proportion of African Americans in U.S. athletics; and masculinity and the stereotype of the…
Cerezo, Alison; Lyda, James; Enriquez, Alma; Beristianos, Matthew; Connor, Michael
The purpose of this study was to share findings from semistructured qualitative interviews with 9 African American and 12 Latino men about their ideas on how university personnel could better support their needs. Stressing the need for African American men to learn self-reliance to counter microaggressions, African American participants offered…
Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge
Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…
Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.
Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…
Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.
Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.
A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…
Juergensen, Miyoshi B.
This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…
Brooks Greaux, Lisa
Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…
Brown, Bryan A.
This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…
Waters, Sharon Campbell
A variety of previous studies have suggested that inaccurate, stereotypical or missing media depictions of science, engineering, and technology (SET) workers and fields have contributed to a growing shortage of youth interested in pursuing careers within the scientific endeavor. However, studies on the perceptions of African American youth have not usually been the focus of such research. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 fifth grade African American students to determine the relative influence television and film portrayals of SET workers had on these children's perceptions of roles in SET fields and careers and school coursework related to them. Framed within the theoretical perspectives of cultivation analysis and the construction of social reality, results indicated the majority of participants perceived scientists as ambiguous, possessing either mythic characteristics of the fantastic persona or they saw them as altruistically inclined figures that saved the world from disease, destruction, and decay. Television and film portrayals of SET workers were found in varying degrees and ways to shape these African American children's perceptions toward SET careers. While children exhibited self-concepts about SET workers that were sometimes idealistic, distorted, or unrealistic, most had favorable perceptions toward math and science courses in school. However, it was the absence of television and film portrayals of African Americans in SET roles that was problematic for the majority of students. Recommendations for media producers, educators, scientific research foundations, and parents were suggested to dispel some of these commonly found media stereotypes of SET workers and African Americans in these roles and their effects.
Jacobson, Ira M; Brown, Robert S; McCone, Jonathan; Black, Martin; Albert, Clive; Dragutsky, Michael S; Siddiqui, Firdous A; Hargrave, Thomas; Kwo, Paul Y; Lambiase, Louis; Galler, Greg W; Araya, Victor; Freilich, Bradley; Harvey, Joann; Griffel, Louis H; Brass, Clifford A
WIN-R (Weight-based dosing of pegINterferon alfa-2b and Ribavirin) was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, investigator-initiated trial involving 236 community and academic sites in the United States, comparing response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2b plus a flat or weight-based dose of ribavirin (RBV) in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C and compensated liver disease. Patients were randomized to receive PEG-IFN alfa-2b at 1.5 microg/kg/week plus flat-dose (800 mg/day) or weight-based-dose RBV (800 mg/day for weight 85-105 kg, or 1400 mg/day for >105- or =65 kg was the primary end point. Low SVR rates have been reported among African American individuals, in whom there is a preponderance of HCV genotype 1. This subanalysis of WIN-R was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of weight-based dosing among African American individuals with genotype 1 infection enrolled in the trial. Of 362 African American patients in the primary efficacy analysis, 188 received RBV flat dosing and 174 received weight-based dosing. SVR rates were higher (21% versus 10%; P = 0.0006) and relapse rates were lower (22% versus 30%) in the weight-based-dose group than in the flat-dose group. Safety and rates of drug discontinuation were similar between the 2 groups. Weight-based dosing of RBV is more effective than flat dosing in combination with PEG-IFN alfa-2b in African American individuals with HCV genotype 1. Even with weight-based dosing, response rates in African American individuals are lower than reported in other ethnic groups.
Singh, Jasvinder A; Herbey, Ivan; Bharat, Aseem; Dinnella, Janet E; Pullman-Mooar, Sally; Eisen, Seth; Ivankova, Nataliya
To explore gout self-management and associated challenges and solutions in African Americans. We conducted semistructured interviews with 35 African American veterans with gout, who received health care at Birmingham or Philadelphia Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers, had filled urate-lowering therapy (ULT; most commonly allopurinol) for at least 6 months, and had a ULT medication possession ratio ≥80%. The interview protocol was constructed to explore key concepts related to gout self-management, including initial diagnosis of gout, beginning medical care for gout, the course of the gout, ULT medication adherence, dietary strategies, comorbidity and side effects, and social support. Thirty-five African American male veterans with gout who had ≥80% ULT adherence (most commonly, allopurinol) were interviewed at Birmingham (n = 18) or Philadelphia (n = 17) VA medical centers. Mean age was 65 years, mean body mass index was 31.9 kg/m 2 , 97% had hypertension, 23% had coronary artery disease, and 31% had renal failure. The main themes motivating African American veterans to better gout self-management were fear of pain, adherence to medications, self-discipline, lifestyle changes, information gathering, and developing a positive outlook. Birmingham participants more frequently revealed skipping gout medications. More Philadelphia participants discussed lifestyle/diet changes to prevent gout flares, indicated limiting social activities that involved drinking, and sought more information about gout self-management from health care providers and internet sources. Identified themes, including cultural differences by site, led to the development of a patient-centered intervention to improve gout self-management in African American men with gout. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O
Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.
Scholars in African American religion engage the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as the focal point of the African American experience in institutional medicine. Seeking a way forward from this history and its intentional evil, the author proposes to position Tuskegee as a form of Lynch's culturally contextual sacred rhetoric to make use of its metaphoric value in the emerging field of African American religion and health. In this broader meaning-making frame, Tuskegee serves as a reminder that African American religious sensibility has long been an agential resource that counters abuse of the Black body. It also acknowledges the complex decisions facing African American clinical trial participants.
Poludasu, Shyam; Cavusoglu, Erdal; Khan, Waqas; Marmur, Jonathan D
Recent studies have questioned the safety of drug-eluting stents because of a higher incidence of late stent thrombosis, raising the possibility that drug-eluting stents may be associated with an increased mortality. The effect of drug-eluting stents on mortality in African-Americans is unknown. We evaluated 628 African-American patients (354 patients treated with drug-eluting stents and 274 patients treated with bare metal stents) between January 2003 and August 2005, using data from our bolus-only platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor database. The primary end point was all-cause mortality obtained using social security death index. After a mean follow-up of 3+/-0.9 years, the mortality rate in the bare metal stents group was 12.8% compared with 7.1% in the drug-eluting stents group [adjusted P value=0.19; hazard ratio (HR) for bare metal stents group compared with drug-eluting stents group for death=1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4]. In a subgroup analysis, patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome had a higher mortality when treated with bare metal stents compared with drug-eluting stents (17.1 vs. 6.3%, P=0.022; HR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4). Patients with chronic kidney disease (all patients with creatinine >1.5 mg/dl) also had a higher mortality with bare metal stents compared with drug-eluting stents (36.7 vs. 20.4%, P=0.044; HR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.02-5.2). Drug-eluting stents seem to be safe in African-Americans and may improve survival in certain subgroups such as patients with acute coronary syndromes and chronic kidney disease.
Sumner, Anne E; Harman, Jane L; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Miller, Bernard V; Tambay, Anita V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Taylor, Herman A; Rotimi, Charles N; Sarpong, Daniel F
Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ≥2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. In 1,903 African Americans [895 men, 1,008 women, age 55 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation (SD), range 35-80 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), range 18.5-55 kg/m(2)] participating in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, Jackson, Mississippi tricounty region, insulin resistance was defined by the upper quartile (≥4.43) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of >0.70 was required for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C. The optimal test cutoff was determined by the Youden index. HOMA-IR was similar in men and women (3.40 ± 2.03 vs. 3.80 ± 2.46, P = 0.60). Women had lower TG (94 ± 49 vs. 109 ± 65 mg/dL P Heart Study can help determine the efficacy of screening programs in African-Americans.
Antony, Angela K; Baaklini, Walid A
To evaluate the extent of diabetes unawareness in rural North Carolina. Randomly administered an eight-question survey to African Americans age 15-74 living in Halifax County North Carolina. Ninety-five out of 116 eligible participants completed the survey (82% response rate). Most (67%) of the participants reported having two or more major risk factors for Type II diabetes (diabetes mellitus). More than half (51.6%) of the participants were obese. Most (96.8%) of the participants reported having been tested for diabetes at some point in their lives (10% testedpositive, only 8.4% of the remaining 9o% reported ever having a second test). Diabetes mellitus is a very prevalentproblem among the African American population of Halifax County North Carolina. Our study underscores the fact that patients are not systematically screened and followed-up for diabetes melitus. More healthcare and commnity programs need to be adapted to fight this serious public health problem.
Metzl, Jonathan M
This commentary describes ways in which notions of African American men's "health" attained by individual choice-embedded in the notion that African American men should visit doctors or engage in fewer risky behaviors-are at times in tension with larger cultural, economic, and political notions of "health." It argues that efforts to improve the health of Black men must take structural factors into account, and failure to do so circumvents even well-intentioned efforts to improve health outcomes. Using historical examples, the article shows how attempts to identify and intervene into what are now called social determinants of health are strengthened by addressing on-the-ground diagnostic disparities and also the structural violence and racism embedded within definitions of illness and health. And, that, as such, we need to monitor structural barriers to health that exist in institutions ostensibly set up to incarcerate or contain Black men and in institutions ostensibly set up to help them.
Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A
This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.
Hawthorne, Dorothy J
This study was conducted to identify and describe symbolic themes of menarche. The qualitative case study design was used with a purposive sample of 30 participants (15 mothers and their 15 daughters) in answering 2 questions: (a) How do 9- and 10-year-old African American girls view the meaning of their menarcheal flow?, and (b) How do African American mothers view the meaning of menarche? Data were collected through interviews 2 to 5 days after completion of menarche. A cross-case comparison analysis of the interviews revealed 4 themes: (a) vaginal bleeding, (b) sexual maturation, (c) premenarcheal sexual activity, and (d) sexual payback to fathers. With the exception of the latter all themes were supported in earlier studies of Euro-American girls. These findings indicate the need for further research addressing self-concept at menarche, impact of menarche on family relationships, and views of fathers about sexual payback as a symbol of menarche.
Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded. These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development. This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices. 51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated. The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes. Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices. Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.
August 16,20 10 APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: "Eahng Behaviors and Obesity in Afncan Amelican and Caucasian Women " Name of Candidate: Elena A...AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN WOMEN " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright...Caucasian Women Elena A. Spieker1,2,3, Robyn Osborn1,2, and Tracy Sbrocco1,2 1 Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services
Bullard Black Expatriate in Jazz -Age Paris, 151. 13 of influential white Americans that no Black man could ever do, and that was to fly. Flight was a... BLACK AIR: AFRICAN AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO AIRPOWER BEFORE INTEGRATION BY MAJOR DAMONE GARNER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE...contributions to the overall victory. When Black Americans went into combat on the beaches of Normandy, in the hills of Italy, and in the jungles of the
Mohammed, Alana; Harrell, Jules P; Makambi, Kepher H; Campbell, Alfonso L; Sloan, Lloyd Ren; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Taylor, Teletia R
The primary aims of this study were to: (1) characterize exercise stages of change among a sample of African-American men, (2) determine if exercise motivation was associated with self-reported exercise behavior, and (3) examine if groups of personal (i.e., age, BMI, income, educational attainment, and perceived health), psycho-social (i.e., exercise self-efficacy, personality type, social influence), and environmental factors (i.e., neighborhood safety) predicted stages of change for physical exercise among African-American men. One hundred seventy African-American male participants were recruited for this study (age: 47.63(10.23) years). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing study variables. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of exercise stages of change with an array of personal, psychosocial, and environmental factors. BMI, exercise self-efficacy, and nighttime neighborhood safety were entered as independent variables in the full model. BMI and exercise self-efficacy continued to be significant predictors of exercise stages of change in the full model. Obese men had a 9.24 greater odds of being in the action stage of change than in the maintenance stage. Also, men reporting greater exercise self-efficacy had lower odds of being in the lower stages of change categories (pre-preparation, preparation, and action) than in the maintenance stage. Our results confirmed that using an ecological framework explained more of the variance in exercise stages of change than any of the individual components alone. Information gleaned from this study could inform interventionists of the best ways to create tailored exercise programs for African-American men.
Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Whitaker, Damiya; Smart, Mieka; Leaf, Philip; Cooley-Strickland, Michele
This study examines gender differences in the association between environment and internalizing problems in a sample of predominately African American schoolchildren. Internalizing problems was assessed using the Youth Self Report. Violence and alcohol and other drug (AOD) exposure subscales were created using observational assessments of neighborhood blocks. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood environment and internalizing problems. For each A...
Mitchell, Jamie A; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Williams, Ed-Dee G; Thorpe, Roland
This study represents an effort to contribute to the limited body of research on biopsychosocial contextual factors that influence or contribute to mobility limitations for older African American men. Specifically, we were interested in examining associations between socio-demographic, physical and emotional health experiences with mobility limitations. A secondary analysis of 1666 older African American men was performed to investigate socio-demographic, mental and physical health correlates to a specific measures of mobility limitation. In the final model, difficulty with self-care, severe pain interference, and problems with usual activities were most strongly associated with mobility limitations. Men who were married were significantly less likely to experience mobility limitations. Findings highlighted the relationship between mobility limitations and difficulty performing activities of daily living. Additional research should examine the impact of poor emotional health and the buffering effects of marriage on mobility for older African American men, a population at high risk of experiencing disparate health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lavner, Justin A; Barton, Allen W; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H
Racial discrimination is a common stressor for African Americans, with negative consequences for mental and physical well-being. It is likely that these effects extend into the family, but little research has examined the association between racial discrimination and couple functioning. This study used dyadic data from 344 rural, predominantly low-income heterosexual African American couples with an early adolescent child to examine associations between self-reported racial discrimination, psychological and physical aggression, and relationship satisfaction and instability. Experiences of discrimination were common among men and women and were negatively associated with relationship functioning. Specifically, men reported higher levels of psychological aggression and relationship instability if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination, and women reported higher levels of physical aggression if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination. All results replicated when controlling for financial hardship, indicating unique effects for discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination may be negatively associated with relationship functioning among African Americans and call for further research on the processes underlying these associations and their long-term consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Anderson, Lorraine Ballard
Little is known about how African American men with schizophrenia experience their every day existence. Through applying interpretive phenomenology and using a methodological structure designed by van Manen (1990, 1997), this research aimed to enrich the current understanding of what it is like for these African American males to live with schizophrenia. In this study, five men ranging in age from 21 to 57 described their lives within the context of existing with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lived experiences across the interviews revealed four overarching themes: They know that they are mentally ill; they make a special effort to test reality; they assert their autonomy and; they experience reality differently, which they see as a gift. To provide appropriate treatment support to African American males diagnosed with schizophrenia, it is important to recognize the clients' ability to assert their autonomy and appreciate each man's view of himself as unique and special. Moreover, in terms of symptom management, it is pivotal to understand that although the client may not be free of hallucinations and delusions, he nevertheless may be at his optimum state of wellness. The realization that these men have transcended their diagnosis of schizophrenia rather than being crushed by their condition is evident in their stories.
McDonald, Jasmine A; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Guerra, Carmen E; Troxel, Andrea B; Domchek, Susan; Bowen, Deborah; Shea, Judy A; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Understanding genetic factors that contribute to racial differences in cancer outcomes may reduce racial disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality. Achieving this goal will be limited by low rates of African American participation in cancer genetics research. We conducted a qualitative study with African American adults (n = 91) to understand attitudes about participating in cancer genetics research and to identify factors that are considered when making a decision about participating in this type of research. Participants would consider the potential benefits to themselves, family members, and their community when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. However, concerns about exploitation, distrust of researchers, and investigators' motives were also important to participation decisions. Individuals would also consider who has access to their personal information and what would happen to these data. Side effects, logistical issues, and the potential to gain knowledge about health issues were also described as important factors in decision making. African Americans may consider a number of ethical, legal, and social issues when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. These issues should be addressed as part of recruitment efforts.
Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine
To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males ( N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A
To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Moskovitz, Martin J; Baxt, Sherwood A; Jain, Aridaman K; Hausman, Robert E
Recently published case reports and outcome studies support the use of liposuction alone as an effective technique for ameliorating symptoms of breast hypertrophy. This study is the first prospective trial to examine the effectiveness of liposuction breast reduction as a primary modality of breast reduction. In addition, this study examines the role that liposuction breast reduction can play in the treatment of African American women, given the known scarring difficulties that darker skinned patients can encounter with traditional breast reduction surgery. Twenty African American women were recruited through newspaper and Internet advertisements. Patients aged 20 to 60 years were serially accepted to the study. Patients with a chief complaint of breast ptosis were excluded. No other exclusion criteria were used. Previously validated questionnaire instruments were used preoperatively and postoperatively to measure breast-related symptoms, general patient health perception, bodily pain, and self-esteem. Comorbid conditions, demographics, financial status, prior treatments, and smoking history were also documented. Seventeen patients completed the preoperative and postoperative questionnaires. An average of 1075 cc of tissue was removed per breast during liposuction breast reduction surgery. Postoperative assessment showed a significant decrease in breast-related symptoms, a significant decrease in patient pain, and a significant improvement in overall patient health perception. Liposuction breast reduction is a useful breast reduction modality in the properly selected patient. African American women, who may traditionally forego breast reduction surgery because of scarring, are excellent candidates for this type of reduction procedure.
Achter, Paul; Parrott, Roxanne; Silk, Kami
Research on attitudes toward genetics and medicine registers skepticism among minority communities, but the reasons for this skepticism are not well known. In the past, studies linked mistrust of the medical system to historical ethics violations involving minority groups and to suspicions about ideological premise and political intent. To assess public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding human-genetics research, we surveyed 858 Americans onsite in four community settings or online in a geographically nonspecific manner. Compared to participants as a whole, African Americans were significantly more likely to believe that clinical trials might be dangerous and that the federal government knowingly conducted unethical research, including studies in which risky vaccines were administered to prison populations. However, African Americans were also significantly more likely to believe that the federal government worked to prevent environmental exposure to toxicants harmful to people with genetic vulnerabilities. Our data suggest that most Americans trust government to act ethically in sponsoring and conducting research, including genetics research, but that African Americans are particularly likely to see government as powerfully protective in some settings yet selectively disingenuous in others.
McClelland, Molly L; Weekes, Carmon V N; Bazzi, Hussein; Warwinsky, Joshua; Abouarabi, Wassim; Snell, Felicia; Salamey, Tarick
Effectiveness of health education programs and interventions, designed to improve obesity rates, may vary according to perceptions of health within cultural groups. A qualitative approach was used. Two minority cultural groups (Arab-American and African-American) living in the same county were studied to compare perceptions of health, nutrition, and obesity and subsequent health behaviors. Control, expectations, bias, acceptance, and access were the five themes identified. Arab-Americans that had lower weights, lower prevalence of chronic diseases, expected healthy weights, reported age and gender bias related to being overweight were not as accepting of being overweight and did not report difficulties in accessing healthy food choices compared to their African-American counterparts. Health interventions aimed at reducing obesity rates and related chronic diseases should be culturally specific and aimed at changing expected and accepted cultural norms. Cultural group's void of certain disease states should be studied and used as models to ameliorate the problem in other cultures. Changing health behaviors within a certain cultural group may produce better outcomes when initiated from a member of that same group. The impact of economic and environmental factors on health behaviors must also be considered.
Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M
Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.
Kim, Yonsu; Bruckner, Tim A
During the 1970s and 1980s in the U.S., population movement, urban sprawl and urban governance reform led to a proliferation of local, autonomous jurisdictions. Prior literature examines how this creation of local governments, also referred to as political fragmentation, contributes to economic growth and social inequality. We examine the impact of political fragmentation on health equity by testing the hypothesis that the mortality disparity between whites and African-Americans varies positively with political fragmentation. We retrieved mortality data from the multiple cause-of-death file and calculated total number of local governments per 1000 residents in a county to measure the degree of political fragmentation. We focused on 226 U.S. counties with population size greater than 200,000 and restricted the analysis to four distinct periods with overlapping government and mortality data (1972-73, 1977-78, 1982-83, and 1987-88). We applied generalized estimating equation methods that permit analysis of clustered data over time. Methods also controlled for the age structure of the population, reductions in mortality over time, and confounding by county-level sociodemographic variables. Adjusted coefficients of fragmentation are positive and statistically significant for both whites (coef: 2.60, SE: 0.60, p politically fragmented urban counties and/or time periods. From 1972 to 1988, political fragmentation in large urban counties moves positively with the racial/ethnic gap in mortality between whites and African-Americans. We discuss intervening mechanisms through which political fragmentation may disproportionately affect mortality among African-Americans.
Duffrin, Christopher; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Briley, Alexis; Christiano, Cynthia
This study analysed the validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire designed for African-American patients with low literacy. This instrument was designed specifically to meet the need for a tool that was short, easy to understand, and met clinical reliability and validity standards. Assessing patient nutritional status and dietary intake is crucial to the care of patients in end stage kidney disease. The development of a quick and reliable nutritional assessment tool for patients with low literacy could increase nutritional counselling effectiveness and improve patient outcomes. The renal food frequency questionnaire (RFF) and a standard 24-hour recall were administered to a general population of African-American patients undergoing dialysis. Registered Dieticians and statistical analyses were used to validate the content and structural validity and reliability of the RFF to adequately measure dietary intake. The study sample consisted of 30 African-American patients who received dialysis treatment at a regional teaching hospital facility. The RFF was found to be a simple, easy to understand instrument with low reading complexity (grade level 4.4). Inter-rater reliability was found to be high (.81-1.00), and statistical analysis determined a high level of clinical validity. The RFF was found to be a valid dietary recall tool that is appropriate for patients with limited literacy. It was found to have acceptable reliability and validity when compared with a standard 24-hour recall and has potential for use as a dietary intake and monitoring tool in patients undergoing dialysis. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Jones, Allison R; Moser, Debra K; Hatcher, Jennifer
African-Americans are vulnerable to both cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to intricately connected risk factors. Use of text messages is an innovative method to provide health information to reduce these risks. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging intervention to reduce CVD and cancer risk factors in African-Americans. We developed an intervention using text messages culturally tailored for African-Americans over age 50 who were at risk (one or more modifiable risk factors) for CVD and/or cancer. Sociodemographic data, biologic measures, cancer screening practices, and general health status were assessed. Group interviews were conducted to assess feasibility and acceptability. Participants were primarily female (69%), aged 58 ± 5 years, who were married (59%) and worked full time (56%). In terms of feasibility and acceptability, themes of encouragement through text messages received and a desire for a longer study period emerged from group interviews with participants. Participants experienced significant decreases in waist circumference (41 ± 5 vs 40 ± 5, p = .002), systolic blood pressure (147 ± 25 mmHg vs 138 ± 20 mmHg, p = .009), diastolic blood pressure (87 ± 16 mmHg vs 82 ± 10 mmHg, p = .02), total cholesterol (194 ± 35 mg/dL vs 173 ± 32 mg/dL, p text messages was widely accepted among participants. Significant CVD risk reductions and increased cancer screenings were noted. Future studies should incorporate innovative strategies such as text messaging in promoting health in vulnerable populations.
Porter, Lauren; Shriver, Lenka H; Ramsay, Samantha
Objectives Health disparities are prevalent in the U.S., with low-income African American children suffering from high rates of obesity and related conditions. Better understanding of parental attitudes and barriers related to healthy eating and obesity risk is needed to suggest more effective intervention foci for this at-risk population. Methods African American caregivers of 3-5 year old children were recruited for focus groups and a questionnaire completion from two Head Start programs in a southeastern state of the U.S. The Social Cognitive Theory was utilized to develop a focus group guide. Focus group recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the comparative content analysis. Results Eight focus groups (all participants were mothers) yielded the following main themes: (1) general nutrition knowledge but common misconceptions about foods/beverages; (2) beliefs that meals have to include meat and starch and be home-cooked to be healthy; (3) desire to feed children better than their own parents; (4) lack of family support and child pickiness perceived as the greatest barriers to healthy eating; (5) awareness of family history of diseases; and (6) low concern about children's current diet and weight status. Over 25 % of mothers underestimated their child weight status. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of understanding maternal perspectives related to food, eating, and weight among low-income African American mothers of preschoolers. Nutrition educators should be aware of misconceptions and recognize that mothers might not perceive diet quality in early childhood as having strong impact on the child's future health and/or obesity risks.
Galbraith-Gyan, Kayoll V; Lechuga, Julia; Jenerette, Coretta M; Palmer, Mary H; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B
Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance. However, these studies were limited in their use of theoretical approaches necessary to conceptualize and operationalize culture. To explore the influence of culture on African-American mothers' and daughters' HPV vaccine acceptance using the PEN-3, a culturally-centered conceptual framework. Grounded theory techniques were used to explore cultural factors that influenced the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among African-American mothers (n = 28) and their daughters (n = 34). Positive attitudes towards vaccination stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine has cancer prevention benefits and that vaccinations in general protected against infectious diseases. Negative attitudes stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine was too new, not effective, daughters were too young, and that vaccines were not a one-size-fits-all intervention. Majority of mothers and daughters indicated that their religious doctrine did not impede their HPV vaccination decisions. For a few mothers, religious beliefs could not be separated from their HPV vaccination decisions and ultimately deterred HPV vaccine acceptance. HCP recommendations were valued however mothers were often dissatisfied with the detail of information communicated. Support networks provided both positive and negative types of social support to mothers and daughters. The media highlighted the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and unintentionally communicated negative information of the HPV vaccine
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have long been an intellectual resource for the African American community. HBCUs have provided and continue to provide an educational pathway for many Black students, particularly women who seek graduate and advanced degrees. However, despite the overwhelmingly positive presence of HBCU in the African American community, the academic training of students who graduate from HBCUs may be perceived as insufficient by predominantly White graduate institutions (PWIs). As a result, African American students who are not well integrated into their respective departmental communities and cultures at PW/is are likely to leave graduate school. Thus the continuing loss of talented people, potential research, role models for society, and the next generation of African American students in the fields of math, engineering, and the sciences (STEM) create a segregated and limited university environment. Studies in the field that attempt to provide insight in to experiences of underrepresented students are ultimately beneficial. However, often such studies do not address the process of adapting to the culture of a predominantly white institution (PWI), particularly within white and male dominated fields such as mathematics and the sciences. Research has also indicated that the first two years at a predominantly white graduate institution is the crucial transitional period for students of color, and it is this transitional moment in time that is the focus of this study. I consider how students make the transition from HBCU to majority institutions, and what impact this transition has on their persistence and commitment to their discipline. The limited amount of research that does address the experiences of minority doctoral students in math and science is usually coupled with the experiences of women. However, race and gender are not linear or additive. It cannot be assumed that the same factors that effect the under representation
Schademan, Alfred R.
Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear
Cooper, Denise C; Thayer, Julian F; Waldstein, Shari R
Prayer is often used to cope with racism-related stress. Little is known about its impact on cardiovascular function. This study examined how prayer coping relates to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), post-stress recovery, and affective reactivity in response to racism-related stress. African American women (n =81; mean age=20 years) reported their use of prayer coping on the Perceived Racism Scale and completed anger recall and racism recall tasks while undergoing monitoring of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and hemodynamic measures. Prayer coping was examined for associations with CVR, recovery, and affective change scores using general linear models with repeated measures. Higher prayer coping was associated with decreased state stress and DBP reactivity during racism recall (p'sracism recall recovery(p'sracism by utilizing prayer may have cardiovascular benefits for African American women.
Stansbury, Kim L.
African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…
Lockwood, Mark B; Saunders, Milda R; Lee, Christopher S; Becker, Yolanda T; Josephson, Michelle A; Chon, W James
Barriers to kidney transplant for African Americans are well documented in the literature. Little information on ownership of information and communication technology and use of such technology in transplant populations has been published. To characterize racial differences related to ownership and use of information and communication technology in kidney transplant patients. A single-center, cross-sectional survey study. An urban Midwestern transplant center. 78 pretransplant patients and 177 transplant recipients. The survey consisted of 6 demographic questions, 3 disease-related questions, and 9 technology-related questions. Dichotomous (yes/no) and Likert-scale items were the basis for the survey. Cell phone use was high and comparable between groups (94% in African Americans, 90% in whites, P= .22). A vast majority (75% of African Americans and 74% of whites) reported being "comfortable" sending and receiving text messages. Computer ownership (94.3% vs 79.3%) and Internet access (97.7% vs 80.7%) were greater among whites than African Americans (both PInternet (27.1% vs 56.3%) and e-mail (61.6% vs 79.3%) than whites (both Ptechnology and text messaging was ubiquitous and comparable between groups, but computer and Internet access and frequency of use were not. Reaching out to the African American community may best be accomplished by using cell phone/text messaging as opposed to Internet-based platforms.
Tarca, Adi L.; Romero, Roberto; Gudicha, Dereje W.; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Bhatti, Gaurav; Pacora, Percy; Maymon, Eli; Hassan, Sonia S.
, height, and parity had a positive effect on birthweight.Second, analysis of longitudinal EFW revealed the following features of fetal growth: (1) all weight centiles were about 2% higher for male than for female fetuses; (2) maternal height had a positive effect on EFW, with larger fetuses being affected more (2% increase in the 95th centile of weight for each 10-cm increase in height); and (3) maternal weight and parity had a positive effect on EFW that increased with gestation and varied among the weight centiles. Third, the screen-positive rate for SGA was 7.2% for the NICHD African American standard, 12.3% for the GROW standard, 13% for the WHO standard customized by fetal sex, and 14.4% for the PRB/NICHD customized standard. For all standards, the screen-positive rate for SGA was at least two-fold higher among fetuses delivered preterm than at term.Fourth, the screen-positive rate for LGA was 8.7% for the GROW standard, 9.2% for the PRB/NICHD customized standard, 10.8% for the WHO standard customized by fetal sex, and 12.3% for the NICHD African American standard. Finally, the highest overall agreement among standards was between the GROW and PRB/NICHD customized standards (Cohen’s inter-rater agreement, kappa=0.85). Conclusions We developed a novel customized PRB/NICHD fetal growth standard from fetal data in an African American population without assuming proportionality of the effects of covariates and also without assuming that these effects are equal on all centiles of weight; we also provide an easy-to-use centile calculator. This standard classified more fetuses as being at risk for SGA compared to existing standards, especially among fetuses delivered preterm, but classified about the same number of LGA fetuses. The comparison among the four growth standards also revealed that the most important factor determining agreement among standards is whether they account for the same factors known to affect fetal growth. PMID:29422207
Whittington, David H.
This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…
Holford, Theodore R; Levy, David T; Meza, Rafael
suggest that some of the existing disparities in smoking-related disease may be due to the lower cessation rates in African Americans compared to whites. However, the number of cigarettes smoked is also lower among African Americans. Further work is needed to determine mechanisms by which smoking duration and intensity can account for racial disparities in smoking-related diseases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Thomas B Richards,1 Sun Hee Rim,1 Ingrid J Hall,1 Lisa C Richardson,1 Louie E Ross21Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, USAPurpose: We explored whether African-American (AA primary care physicians (PCPs have different prostate cancer screening practices compared to non-AA PCPs, after adjustment for potential confounding factors such as the proportion of AA patients in PCP practices.Methods: We used SAS/SUDAAN to compare weighted responses from AA PCPs (n = 604 with those from non-AA PCPs (n = 647 in the 2007–2008 National Survey of Primary Care Physician Practices Regarding Prostate Cancer Screening. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the weighted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI.Results: We found that AA PCPs had higher odds of working in practices with above-the-median (≥21% proportions of AA male patients (OR, 9.02; 95% CI: 5.85–13.91. A higher proportion of AA PCPs (53.5%; 95% CI: 49.5–57.4 reported an above-the-median proportion (≥91% of PSA testing during health maintenance exams as compared to non-AA PCPs (39.4%; 95% CI: 35.5–43.4; P < 0.0002. After adjusting for the proportion of AA patients and other factors, we found that AA PCPs had higher odds of using PSA tests to screen men (OR, 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11–2.73.Conclusion: This study quantifies the magnitude of the differences reported in previous focus group studies. Our results may be helpful in hypothesis generation and in planning future research studies.Keywords: African-American, physician practice patterns, prostate-specific antigen, screening tests
Hardaway, Cecily R.; Mcloyd, Vonnie C.
This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research. PMID:19636721
Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V
Obesity is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Modifying life styles that reduce obesity offers the potential for prevention and improved outcomes from cancer. The effects of obesity and breast cancer among African-American women and Hispanic women have been explored in a limited number of studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity with breast cancer in a minority cohort. This was a cross-sectional study of 471 African-American and Hispanic women with and without breast cancer in South Los Angeles. Data regarding body mass index (BMI) and clinical factors were obtained by medical record abstraction. Data were assessed using logistic regression with multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess disease-free survival. Women with breast cancer were more likely to be obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) than women without breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P = .01). There was a significant association of being overweight or obese and breast cancer among postmenopausal women (OR, 2.3 [P = .03] and 2.9 [P obesity and breast cancer was significant only among African-American women (OR, 2.70; P American women (OR, 4.8; P obesity and later disease stage at diagnosis (P = .06). An association also was observed between higher BMI (for cutoff points of both 30 kg/m(2) and 28 kg/m(2)) and poorer disease-free survival (P = .045 and P = .019, respectively). The current data suggested an association between obesity and breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and most significantly in the African-American cohort. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
Simpson, Jamila Rashida
The purposes of this study were to determine what program characteristics African American parents consider when they enroll their children into an informal science education enrichment program, the parents' evaluation of a program called Jordan Academy in which they enrolled their children, and the alignment of the parents' perspectives with Black Cultural Ethos (BCE). BCE refers to nine dimensions posited by Wade Boykin, a psychologist, as comprising African American culture. Participants were parents of students that attended Jordan Academy, an informal science enrichment program designed for third through sixth grade students from underserved populations. Qualitative methodologies were utilized to perform a thorough assessment of parents' perspectives. Data sources included classroom observations, student surveys, academy curriculum, photos and video-taped class sessions. Data included teachers and parents' responses to semi-structured, audio recorded interviews and students' written responses to open-ended items on the program's evaluation instrument. The data were analyzed for themes and the findings compared to Black Cultural Ethos. Findings revealed that the participants believed that informal science education offered their children opportunities not realized in the formal school setting - a means of impacting their children holistically. The parents expressed the academic, cultural, and personal development of their children in their characterizations of the ideal informal science education experience and in their evaluations of Jordan Academy. Overall, the parents' views emphasized the BCE values of harmony, affect, verve, movement, orality and communalism. The study has important implications for practices within and research on informal science education.
K. B. Holden
Full Text Available There is a great need to carefully examine issues that may elevate one’s risk for mental illness and develop strategies to mitigate risk and cultivate resilience. African Americans, specifically African American women (AAW, are disproportionately affected by mental illness, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Higher rates of PTSD among AAW may be explained by significant rates of trauma exposure. Higher resiliency in individuals with mental illnesses is associated with better treatment response/outcomes. An examination of two (2 promising psycho-educational curricula for AAW at risk for depression and PTSD supports consideration of resilience as a protective factor among this population. Strengthening psychological resilience among diverse AAW at risk for depression and/or PTSD may serve as a protective factor for symptom severity. Multidimensional prevention and intervention strategies should incorporate culturally-centered, gender-specific, and strengths-based (resilience models of care to help encourage mental health help-seeking and promotion of wellness for AAW.
Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M
This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nyarko, Kwame A; Wehby, George L
Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; birth (PTB; rates due to interactions with area differences in risks and resources. We assess whether the effects of residential segregation on county-level LBW and PTB rates for African-American infants vary by the prevalence of these conditions. The study sample includes 368 counties of 100,000 or more residents and at least 50 African-American live births in 2000. Residentially segregated counties are identified alternatively by county-level dissimilarity and isolation indices. Quantile regression is used to assess how residential segregation affects the entire distributions of county-level LBW and PTB rates (i.e. by prevalence). Residential segregation increases LBW and PTB rates significantly in areas of low prevalence, but has no such effects for areas of high prevalence. As a sensitivity analysis, we use metropolitan statistical area level data and obtain similar results. Our findings suggest that residential segregation has adverse effects mainly in areas of low prevalence of LBW and preterm birth, which are expected overall to have fewer risk factors and more resources for infant health, but not in high prevalence areas, which are expected to have more risk factors and fewer resources. Residential policies aimed at area resource improvements may be more effective.
Kleier, Jo Ann; Dittman, Patricia Welch
Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of end stage renal disease among African Americans. The complications associated with diabetes can largely be reduced with effective diabetes self-management. Selected variables were tested as predictors of self-reported self-care, and self-reported self-care was tested as a predictor of A1C among 100 African-American individuals with diabetes. Participants scored high on their understanding of diabetes, its treatment, and engagement in self-care activities, but this was not reflected in their body mass index levels or A IC values.
Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Prostate cancer incidence and associated mortality are highest in African American men in comparison to other races. The observed differences in incidence and disease aggressiveness at presentation support a potential role for different pathways of prostate carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian men. This review focuses on some of the recent molecular biology discoveries, which have been investigated in prostate carcinogenesis and their likely contribution to the known discrepancies across race and ethnicity. Key discussion points include the androgen receptor gene structure and function, genome-wide association studies and epigenetics. The new observations of the ethnic differences of the ERG oncogene, the most common prostate cancer gene, are providing new insights into ERG based stratification of prostate cancers in the context of ethnically diverse patient populations. This rapidly advancing knowledge has the likely potential to benefit clinical practice. Current and future work will improve the ability to sub-type prostate cancers by molecular alterations and lead to targeted therapy against this common malignancy.
Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Norris, Keith C; Griffith, Derek M; Sims, Mario; Thorpe, Roland J
This study examined the degree to which sex, weight status, and the presence of hypertension and obesity in parents/grandparents were associated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (BP) among African American youth in a pilot offspring study examining obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks among adolescents. Fully adjusted linear regression models of the total sample produced results indicating that obesity was associated with BP (SBP: β = 7.08, P obesity were associated with SBP (overweight: β = 6.77, P obese: β = 11.65, P obesity was correlated with DBP (β = 9.86, P obesity was associated with DBP (β = 6.98, P obesity was significantly associated with SBP among adolescent females but not males. The relationship between weight status, familial hypertension and obesity status, and BP among adolescents vary by sex. This study underscores the need for additional research investigating the relationship between individual sex, weight status, BP and familial BP, and obesity status on risk among African American adolescents. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Denis, Gerald V; Sebastiani, Paola; Andrieu, Guillaume; Tran, Anna H; Strissel, Katherine J; Lombardi, Frank L; Palmer, Julie R
The principal objective of this investigation was to identify novel cytokine associations with BMI and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cytokines were profiled from African American women with obesity who donated plasma to the Komen Tissue Bank. Multiplex bead arrays of analytes were used to quantify 88 cytokines and chemokines in association with clinical diagnoses of metabolic health. Regression models were generated after elimination of outliers. Among women with obesity, T2D was associated with breast adipocyte hypertrophy and with six plasma analytes, including four chemokines (chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 2, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 16, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 1, and chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 16) and two growth factors (interleukin 2 and epidermal growth factor). In addition, three analytes were associated with obesity independently of diabetes: interleukin 4, soluble CD40 ligand, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3. Profiling of inflammatory cytokines combined with measures of BMI may produce a more personalized risk assessment for obesity-associated disease in African American women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Okoro, Olihe; Odedina, Folakemi
African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV disease. Socioeconomic and psycho-social factors while adding to the vulnerability of this population also contribute to non-adherence and consequently poor outcomes. The provider-patient relationship has the potential to enhance HIV medication adherence in this population. Using in-depth interviews, patient and provider perspectives are explored to identify specific elements of the provider-patient interaction that enhance patient satisfaction with care and consequently improve HIV medication adherence. Themes associated with provider attitudes and actions perceived as positively impacting care in this patient group include (1) physical touch, (2) treating (the patient) "as a person", (3) actively listening to the patient, (4) showing empathy, (5) being non-judgmental, and (6) being readily accessible. These findings suggest that the demonstration of care and commitment from the provider as perceived by the patient is important to African American women living with HIV and may significantly influence adherence behavior and enhance treatment outcomes in this population.
Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lewis, Linwood J; Kertzner, Robert M
This paper examined five challenges to clear understanding of African American male sexualities: incorrect assumptions of African American homogeneity; an underemphasis on developmental change, the contexts and the meanings of sexual behaviors; and a lack of compelling theoretical grounding for African American sexualities. Critical elements for effective theorizing and research about African American sexualities (i.e. multiple levels of analysis, examination of phenomenological meaning of sexuality, measurement of dynamic/developmental change) were outlined and candidate theories within sexual science (social exchange theories, symbolic interactionism, sexual scripting theory) were analyzed in light of these elements. It is suggested that a re-orientation of sex research about African American men using these elements will result in improved understanding of African American sexualities in multiple contexts.
Hockley, Andrew; Weinstein, Martin; Borislow, Alan J; Braitman, Leonard E
Patient photos and silhouettes are commonly used in clinical evaluations and orthodontic research to evaluate profile esthetics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of photos or silhouettes is a more appropriate method of evaluating African American profile esthetics and whether there are different profile esthetic preferences among clinicians when using photos compared with silhouettes. Pretreatment records of 20 adolescent African American patients were selected (10 male, 10 female) from the orthodontic clinic at the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia. Each patient's profile photo was digitally changed with imaging software (Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif) to fabricate a series of 7 photos and 7 silhouettes with lip positions at uniform distances relative to Ricketts' E-line standard. Fifteen raters consisting of orthodontic faculty and residents were asked to select the most esthetically pleasing profile from each patient's photo series and silhouette series. More rater preferences for the photographs (86%) were within the acceptable esthetic range (within 2 mm of the E-line in either direction) than were their preferences for silhouettes (66%) (P esthetic norm were more often preferred in the silhouettes than in the photos. Thirty-one percent of the silhouettes preferred by the raters were flatter than the norm compared with 9% of the photos (P = 0.003). Fuller profiles were preferred in only 3% of the silhouettes and 5% of the photos (P = 0.6). Esthetic attractiveness of faces of African American orthodontic patients is rated differently in photos and silhouettes. When evaluating soft-tissue esthetic profile preferences, rater preferences in the photographs were closer to the established esthetic norm than were their preferences in the silhouettes. Using silhouettes to evaluate patient esthetics could influence clinicians or researchers to select profiles that are flatter than the established
Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H
In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anne M. Weaver
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS: left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans.
Yan V Sun
Full Text Available A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications.
Dasmahapatra, A; Bale, A; Raghuwanshi, M P; Reddi, A; Byrne, W; Suarez, S; Nash, F; Varagiannis, E; Skurnick, J H
OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of incipient and overt nephropathy in African-American subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) attending a hospital clinic. Contributory factors, such as blood pressure (BP), duration and age at onset of diabetes, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index (BMI) also were evaluated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--We recruited 116 African-American subjects with NIDDM for this cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study. BP, BMI, 24-h urine albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, lipids, and GHb levels were measured. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was calculated, and subjects were divided into three groups: no nephropathy (AER 200 micrograms/min). Frequency of hypertension and nephropathy was analyzed by chi 2 testing, group means were compared using analysis of variance, and linear correlations were performed between AER and other variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of these variables while controlling for the effects of other variables. RESULTS--Increased AER was present in 50% of our subjects; 31% had incipient and 19% had overt nephropathy. Hypertension was present in 72.4%; nephropathy, particularly overt nephropathy, was significantly more prevalent in the hypertensive group. Mean BP and diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were higher in the groups with incipient and overt nephropathy, and systolic blood pressure (sBP) was increased in overt nephropathy. Men with either form of nephropathy had higher sBP, dBP, and mean BP, whereas only women with overt nephropathy had increased sBP and mean BP. Subjects with incipient or overt nephropathy had a longer duration of diabetes, and those with overt nephropathy had a younger age at onset of diabetes. By multiple regression analysis, AER correlated with younger age at diabetes onset, but not with diabetes duration. No correlation with age, lipid levels, or GHb was noted. BMI correlated with AER
This project examines the oral accounts of former slaves, as recorded in the WPA narratives in the 1930s, to study the development of African American medical culture in the Antebellum South. Through an examination of these transcribed memories, my research investigates how African American praxes with medicinal flora, healing techniques, and spiritual harmony, reflected their ethnomedical and cosmological ideologies. The duality of these ideologies represents an African American medical iden...
Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine
Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...
Hudson, Darrell L.; Eaton, Jake; Banks, Andrae; Sewell, Whitney; Neighbors, Harold
Depression is one of the most common, costly, and debilitating psychiatric disorders in the United States. One of the most persistent mental health disparities is the underutilization of treatment services among African American men with depression. Little is known about appropriateness or acceptability of depression care among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of depression and determine barriers to depression treatment among African American men. A s...
McDaniel, Tyler C; Wilson, Dawn K; Coulon, Sandra M; Hand, Gregory A; Siceloff, E Rebekah
African Americans have the highest rate of obesity in the United States relative to other ethnic minority groups. Bioecological factors including neighborhood social and physical environmental variables may be important predictors of weight-related measures specifically body mass index (BMI) in African American adults. Baseline data from the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial were collected from 417 African American adults. Overall a multiple regression model for BMI was significant, showing positive associations with average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (B =-.21, Psocial interaction (B =-.13, Psocial interaction was associated with healthier BMI, highlighting it as a potential critical factor for future interventions in underserved, African American communities.
Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...
Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A
Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.
THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.
Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are recognized as important regulators of cardiac development, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic variations which cause alterations in miRNA:target interactions can lead to disease. We hypothesized that genetic variations in miRNAs that regulate cardiac hypertrophy/fibrosis might be involved in generation of the cardiac phenotype in patients diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. To investigate this question, we Sanger sequenced 18 miRNA genes previously implicated in myocyte hypertrophy/fibrosis and apoptosis, using genomic DNA isolated from the leukocytes of 199 HCM patients. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6971711, C57T SNP at the 17th position of mature miR-590-3p (= 57th position of pre-miR-590 that is common in individuals of African ancestry. SNP frequency was higher in African American HCM patients (n = 55 than ethnically-matched controls (n = 100, but the difference was not statistically significant (8.2% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.5. Using a cell culture system, we discovered that presence of this SNP resulted in markedly lower levels of mature miR-590-5p (39 ± 16%, p<0.003 and miR-590-3p (20 ± 2%, p<0.003, when compared with wild-type (WT miR-590, without affecting levels of pri-miR-590 and pre-miR-590. Consistent with this finding, the SNP resulted in reduced target suppression when compared to WT miR-590 (71% suppression by WT vs 60% suppression by SNP, p<0.03. Since miR-590 can regulate TGF-β, Activin A and Akt signaling, SNP-induced reduction in miR-590 biogenesis could influence cardiac phenotype by de-repression of these signaling pathways. Since the SNP is only present in African Americans, population studies in this patient population would be valuable to investigate effects of this SNP on myocyte function and cardiac physiology.
Córdova, David; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Ovadje, Lauretta; Hong, Ethan; Castillo, Berenice; Salas-Wright, Christopher P
HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug abuse remain significant public health concerns in the United States, and African American and Hispanic youth are disproportionately affected. Although technology-based interventions are efficacious in preventing and reducing HIV/STI and licit/illicit drug use behaviors, relatively little is known regarding the state of the science of these interventions among African American and Hispanic youth. The aim of this review is to identify and examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of technology-based HIV/STI and/or drug abuse preventive interventions for African American and Hispanic youth. We searched electronic databases (ie, PubMed, Proquest, PsycINFO, Ebscohost, Google Scholar) to identify studies between January 2006 and October 2016. RCTs of technology-based interventions targeting African American and Hispanic youth HIV/STI risk behaviors, including sexual risk, licit and illicit drug use, and HIV/STI testing were included. Our search revealed a total of three studies that used an RCT design and included samples comprised of >50% African American and/or Hispanic youth. The follow-up assessments ranged from two weeks to six months and the number of participants in each trial ranged from 72 to 141. The three interventions were theory-driven, interactive, and tailored. The long-term effects of the interventions were mixed, and outcomes included reductions in sex partners, licit drug use, and condomless anal sex acts. Although technology-based interventions seem promising in the prevention of HIV/STI and drug abuse among African American and Hispanic youth, more research is needed. ©David Córdova, Frania Mendoza Lua, Lauretta Ovadje, Ethan Hong, Berenice Castillo, Christopher P Salas-Wright. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 13.12.2017.
McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda L.; Lashley, Maudry-Beverley; Marshall, Vanessa J.
Background: Young African American women are disproportionately affected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintentional pregnancies. Despite adequate knowledge, assertiveness, and negotiation skills, consistent condom use remains low. Aims: We sought to assess the role of pregnancy and STI risk perception in condom decision making…
Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility…
Coleman, Jo Evans
The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…
Kizzie, Karmen Tamika
The purpose of this dissertation project was to examine the extent to which the special education context, riddled with labeling and teasing, affected the motivation, academic self-concept, grades, and academic achievement of African American adolescents with learning-related disabilities. This dissertation research is situated within two…
Polymorphisms in GST isozymes have implications in heavy metal accumulation, neurodegeneration, and immune-mediated disease. Blood cell DNA and sera from 131 African-American children were used to determine GST Pi [rs947895 (C>A), rs17593068 (G>T), rs6591256 (A>G), rs187...
Griffith, Derek M.; Cornish, Emily K.; McKissic, Sydika A.; Dean, Donnatesa A. L.
African American men have high rates of chronic disease morbidity and mortality associated with their low rates of fruit and vegetable consumption. In an effort to inform tailored behavioral interventions for this demographic, we sought to assess if men with healthier eating practices viewed their environment differently than those who ate less…
Hawkins, B. Denise
Young African Americans don't appear to perceive obesity in the way the medical community does, putting them at greater risk for developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer, says a first-ever study led by researchers at the Morgan State University Prevention Sciences Research Center. The pilot study, which provides a rare…
Holt-Hill, Shirley Ann
The purpose of this descriptive correlation was to examine the relationship between the amount of psychological stress experienced and the methods of coping with stress among elderly African-Americans. Demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, education, and occupation), personal resources (health, religion, and social support), and the effects of perception of racial discrimination were included to determine the relationship among the variables and to predict the perceived amount ofpsychological stress and the methods of coping. Subjects were males and females, who were community dwellers, between 65 to 88 years of age. Each subject completed four questionnaires: a Demographic Personal Data Questionnaire, the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, the Stokes/Gordon Stress Scale, and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by computing measures of central tendency, frequency, percentile, and measures of variability. Correlation and stepwise regression were used for predictions and to test null hypotheses. The findings indicated that elderly African-Americans experienced psychologically stressful events in their lives such as concerns for the world, slowing down, physical limitation, financial concerns, and not enough time with their children and grandchildren.
Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.
Wang, Wei; Cui, Yujie; Shen, Jianzhong; Jiang, Jingjing; Chen, Shenghan; Peng, Jianhao; Wu, Qingyu
African Americans represent a high risk population for salt-sensitive hypertension and heart disease but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Corin is a cardiac protease that regulates blood pressure by activating natriuretic peptides. A corin gene variant (T555I/Q568P) was identified in African Americans with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the corin variant contributes to the hypertensive and cardiac hypertrophic phenotype in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated to express wild-type or T555I/Q568P variant corin in the heart under the control of α-myosin heavy chain promoter. The mice were crossed into a corin knockout background to create KO/TgWT and KO/TgV mice that expressed WT or variant corin, respectively, in the heart. Functional studies showed that KO/TgV mice had significantly higher levels of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in the heart compared with that in control KO/TgWT mice, indicating that the corin variant was defective in processing natriuretic peptides in vivo. By radiotelemetry, corin KO/TgV mice were found to have hypertension that was sensitive to dietary salt loading. The mice also developed cardiac hypertrophy at 12–14 months of age when fed a normal salt diet or at a younger age when fed a high salt diet. The phenotype of salt-sensitive hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in KO/TgV mice closely resembles the pathological findings in African Americans who carry the corin variant. The results indicate that corin defects may represent an important mechanism in salt-sensitive hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in African Americans. PMID:22987923
K. Bryant Smalley
Full Text Available Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions.
Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A.; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl LeMay; Ellison, Calvin
Churches serve a vital role in African American communities and may be effective vehicles for health promotion in rural areas where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited than other communities. Endorsement by church leadership is often necessary for the approval of programs and activities within churches; however, little is known about how church leaders perceive their respective churches as health promotion organizations. The purpose of this exploratory pilot was to report perceptions of church capacity to promote health among African American clergy leaders of predominantly African American rural churches. The analysis sample included 27 pastors of churches in Eastern NC who completed a survey on church health promotion capacity and perceived impact on their own health. Capacities assessed included perceived need and impact of health promotion activities, church preparedness to promote health, health promotion actions to take, and the existence and importance of health ministry attributes. The results from this pilot study indicated a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Conducting health programs, displaying health information, collaborations within the church (i.e., kitchen committee working with the health ministry), partnerships outside of the church, and funding were most commonly reported needed capacities. Findings from this exploratory work lay the foundation for the development of future, larger observational studies that can specify some of the key factors associated with organizational change and ultimately health promotion in these rural church settings. PMID:22694157