WorldWideScience

Sample records for disease viruses isolated

  1. Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from live poultry markets and chickens from commercial poultry farms in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Primus, Alexander; Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect and characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in raptors. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 60 casualty raptors during January to March 2009 in Minnesota. Inoculation of all these samples (n=120) in 9-day-old embryonated hens' eggs resulted in isolation of haemagglutinating viruses in three samples from two bald eagles and one great horned owl. These three haemagglutinating viruses were confirmed as NDV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fusion gene-specific primers, and were negative for avian influenza virus by RT-PCR. Further characterization revealed that all three possessed (112)GKQGRL(117) at the fusion gene cleavage site, indicating that they were lentogenic strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all three isolates clustered with published class II genotype II NDVs. The nucleotide sequence homology of the three NDV isolates among themselves was 98.4 to 99.6% and the sequence homology with lentogenic strains from wild birds used for comparison varied between 94.5 and 100%. Detection of NDV strains from raptors merits further epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence of different NDV strains in raptors and their impact in relation to transmission to domestic poultry.

  3. Genetic characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus strains isolated from cattle in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an Orbivirus not previously reported in Israel, was isolated from Israeli cattle during a “bluetongue like” disease outbreak in 2006. To ascertain the origin of this new virus, three isolates from the outbreak were fully sequenced and compared with availab...

  4. Pathotyping of a Newcastle disease virus isolated from peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarani, K; Muthusamy, S; Tirumurugaan, K G; Sakthivelan, S M; Kumanan, K

    2010-03-01

    This report describes Newcastle disease in peacock and the isolation and characterization of the virus. The virus had an intracerbral pathogenicity index of 1.71 and mean death time of 47 h. The isolate had multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site sequence ((110)GGRRQRRFIG(119)) with a phenylalanine at residue 117. Biological and molecular characterization revealed that the virus is velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype VI Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Pigeons in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Sharma, Poonam; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes and complete genomes classified the isolates as members of NDV class II, genotype VI.

  7. Genomic 3' terminal sequence comparison of three isolates of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, I D; Vlasak, R; Nowotny, N; Rodak, L; Carter, M J

    1992-05-15

    Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. Rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in which isolation was made. This supports the rapid spread of a new virus across Europe. The capsid protein sequences of these rabbit viruses differ markedly from those determined for feline calicivirus, but a hypothetical 3' open reading frame is relatively well conserved between the caliciviruses of these two different hosts and argues for a functional role.

  8. Characterization of pigeon paramyxoviruses (Newcastle disease virus) isolated in South Africa from 2001 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolnik, C; Gerdes, G H; Kitching, J; Swanepoel, S; Romito, M; Bisschop, S P R

    2008-06-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1), a variant of Newcastle disease virus that primarily affects doves and pigeons has been isolated in South Africa since the mid-1980s. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses were introduced into South Africa on multiple occasions, based on the presence of two separate lineages, 4bi and 4bii, that have been circulating in Europe and the Far East since the early 1990s. During 2006, a PPMV-1 virus was isolated from an African ground hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) which became acutely infected with PPMV-1 and died, probably after scavenging off infected dove carcasses in the region, since a closely-related PPMV-1 strain was also isolated from doves collected nearby. The hornbill isolate had ICPI and MDT values characteristic of PPMV-1 strains. The threat of PPMV-1 to poultry production and biodiversity in southern Africa highlights the importance of monitoring the spread of this strain.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype VI Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Pigeons in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Sharma, Poonam; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes and complete genomes classified the isolates as members of NDV class II, genotype VI. PMID:27540069

  10. Characterization of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Serbia during 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanović, Dejan; Sekler, Milanko; Asanin, Ruzica; Milić, Nenad; Nisavić, Jakov; Petrović, Tamas; Savić, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses type 1 or Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are frequently recovered from wild birds and such isolates are most frequently of low virulence. Velogenic NDV are usually recovered from poultry and only occasionally from wild birds. Five NDV isolates were obtained from carcasses of four wild bird species during 2007 in Serbia: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), and Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). All the isolates have a typical fusion protein cleavage site motif of velogenic viruses ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The highest homology (99%) for the nucleotide sequences spanning the M and F gene of the studied isolates was with the genotype VII NDV isolate Muscovy duck/China(Fujian)/FP1/02. Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial F gene sequence showed that the isolates from wild birds cluster together with concurrent isolates from poultry in Serbia within the subgenotype VIId, which is the predominant pathogen involved currently in Newcastle disease outbreaks in poultry worldwide. It is unlikely that the wild birds played an important role in primary introduction or consequent spread of the velogenic NDV to domestic poultry in Serbia, and they probably contracted the virus from locally infected poultry.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Wild Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

    2014-06-05

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a wild peacock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to genotype II, class II of NDV strains. This study helps to understand the ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host of this geographical region during the outbreak of 2012 in northwest India. Copyright © 2014 Khulape et al.

  12. Pathogenicity and molecular analysis of an infectious bursal disease virus isolated from Malaysian village chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D Y; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Aini, I

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of the pathogenic infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that infected avian species other than commercial chickens were largely unknown. In this study, by using in vivo and molecular methods, we had characterized an IBDV isolate (named 94268) isolated from an infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreak in Malaysian village chickens--the adulterated descendant of the Southeast Asian jungle fowl (Gallus bankiva) that were commonly reared in the backyard. The 94268 isolate was grouped as the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strain because it caused severe lesions and a high mortality rate in village chickens (>88%) and experimentally infected specific-pathogen-free chickens (>66%). In addition, it possessed all of the vvIBDV molecular markers in its VP2 gene. Phylogenetic analysis using distance, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods revealed that 94268 was monophyletic with other vvIBDV isolates and closely related to the Malaysian vvIBDV isolates. Given that the VP2 gene of 94268 isolate was almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to other field IBDV isolates that affected the commercial chickens, we therefore concluded that IBD infections had spread across the farm boundary. IBD infection in the village chicken may represent an important part of the IBD epidemiology because these birds could harbor the vvIBDV strain and should not be overlooked in the control and prevention of the disease.

  13. Molecular and antigenic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus isolates from domestic ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Huairan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Jiang, Yanyu; Xu, Qianqian; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating diseases to the poultry industry. The causative agents of ND are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which are members of the genus Avulavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Waterfowl, such as ducks and geese, are generally considered potential reservoirs of NDV and may show few or no clinical signs when infected with viruses that are obviously virulent in chickens. However, ND outbreaks in domestic waterfowl have been frequently reported in many countries in the past decade. In this study, 18 NDV strains isolated from domestic ducks in southern and eastern China, between 2005 and 2013, were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and they exhibited genome sizes of 15,186 nucleotides (nt), 15,192 nt, and 15,198 nt, which follow the "rule of six" that is required for the replication of NDV strains. Based on the cleavage site of the F protein and pathogenicity tests in chickens, 17 of our NDV isolates were categorized as lentogenic viruses, and one was characterized as a velogenic virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences of the F gene and the complete genome sequences showed that there are at least four genotypes of NDV circulating in domestic ducks; GD1, AH224, and AH209 belong to genotypes VIId, Ib, and II of class II NDVs, respectively, and the remaining 15 isolates belong to genotype 1b of class I NDVs. Cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition tests demonstrated that the antigenic relatedness between NDV strains may be associated with their genotypes, rather than their hosts. These results suggest that though those NDV isolates were from duck, they still don't form a phylogenetic group because they came from the same species; however, they may play an important role in promoting the evolution of NDVs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Grossele, Barbara; Bertoli, Elena; Tisato, Ernesto; Capua, Ilaria

    2003-02-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (Columba livia) during the same period. All isolates could be classified as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV1) and belonged to the pigeon variant group (PPMV1), as their haemagglutinating activity was inhibited by mAb 161/617 which is specific for PPMV1. The intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranged from 0.68 to 1.38 and all isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicate that 18/20 of these form a separate cluster from the isolates obtained from pigeons in the same period. These findings suggest that different lineages are circulating in feral pigeon populations, and that a separate lineage affects Eurasian collared doves.

  15. Genomic and biological characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from migratory mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Momena; Yaqub, Tahir; Nazir, Jawad; Shehzad, Wasim; Aziz-Ul-Rahman; Sohail, Tayyebah; Mukhtar, Nadia; Mehboob, Arsalan; Munir, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair

    2018-04-30

    Given the global evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), it is imperative to continue extensive surveillance, routine monitoring and characterization of isolates originating from natural reservoirs (waterfowls). In this report, we isolated and characterized two virulent NDV strains from clinically healthy mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Both isolates had a genome of 15,192 nucleotides encoding six genes in an order of 3´-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5´. The biological characteristics (mean death time: 49.5-50 hr, EID 50 10 8.5  ml -1 ) and presence of a typical cleavage site in the fusion (F) protein (112R-R-Q-K-R↓F117) confirmed the velogenic nature of these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis classified both isolates as members of genotype VII within class-II. Furthermore, based upon the hypervariable region of the F gene (375 nt), isolates showed clustering within sub-genotype VIIi. Similarity index and parallel comparison revealed a higher nucleotide divergence from commonly used vaccine strains; LaSota (21%) and Mukteswar (17%). A comparative residues analysis with representative strains of different genotypes, including vaccine strains, revealed a number of substitutions at important structural and functional domains within the F and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins. Together, the results highlight consistent evolution among circulating NDVs supporting extensive surveillance of the virus in waterfowl to better elucidate epidemiology, evolutionary relationships and their impacts on commercial and backyard poultry.

  16. Characterization of pigeon paramyxoviruses (Newcastle disease virus isolated in South Africa from 2001 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abolnik

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1, a variant of Newcastle disease virus that primarily affects doves and pigeons has been isolated in South Africa since the mid-1980s. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses were introduced in to South Africa on multiple occasions, based on the presence of two separate lineages, 4bi and 4bii, that have been circulating in Europe and the Far East since the early 1990s. During 2006, a PPMV-1 virus was isolated from an African ground hornbil(l Bucorvus leadbeateri which becamea cutely infected with PPMV-1 and died, probably after scavenging off infected dove carcasses in the region, since a closely-related PPMV-1 strain was also isolated from doves collected nearby. The hornbill isolate had lCPl and MDT values characteristic of PPMV-1s trains. The threat of PPMV-1 to poultry production and biodiversity in southern Africa highlights the importance of monitoring the spread of this strain.

  17. Newcastle Disease Viruses Causing Recent Outbreaks Worldwide Show Unexpectedly High Genetic Similarity to Historical Virulent Isolates from the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Lee, Dong-Hun; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Olivier, Timothy L.; Miller, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII through XVIII. Here, partial and complete genomic sequences of recent virulent isolates of genotypes II and IX from China, Egypt, and India were found to be nearly identical to those of historical viruses isolated in the 1940s. Phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide distances, and rates of change demonstrate that these recent isolates have not evolved significantly from the most closely related ancestors from the 1940s. The low rates of change for these virulent viruses (7.05 × 10−5 and 2.05 × 10−5 per year, respectively) and the minimal genetic distances existing between these and historical viruses (0.3 to 1.2%) of the same genotypes indicate an unnatural origin. As with any other RNA virus, Newcastle disease virus is expected to evolve naturally; thus, these findings suggest that some recent field isolates should be excluded from evolutionary studies. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses show that these recent virulent isolates are more closely related to virulent strains isolated during the 1940s, which have been and continue to be used in laboratory and experimental challenge studies. Since the preservation of viable viruses in the environment for over 6 decades is highly unlikely, it is possible that the source of some of the recent virulent viruses isolated from poultry and wild birds might be laboratory viruses. PMID:26888902

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates from the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Elmardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90 and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1. Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb. TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains were observed to be genetically unrelated to the earlier Sudanese isolates of 1970/80s and the late of 2000s suggesting a different origin. The close genetic relationship to the European and African pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 suggests a common ancestor. Dongola, GD.S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan are needed in order to improve the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease virus from vaccinated commercial layer chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balachandran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease (ND is an infectious, highly contagious and destructive viral disease of poultry and controlled by vaccination. In spite of vaccination, incidence of ND was reported in commercial layers with gastrointestinal lesions. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV involved in gastrointestinal tract abnormalities of vaccinated commercial layer chicken of Namakkal region for a period of three years from 2008 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Pooled tissue (trachea, lung, spleen, proventriculus, intestine and caecal tonsils samples collected from dead birds on postmortem examination from 100 layer flocks above 20 weeks of age with gastrointestinal lesions were subjected to isolation of NDV in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs. Mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index of the isolates were characterized. Flock details were collected from NDV positive flocks to assess the prevalence and impact of NDV on vaccinated commercial layer chicken. Results: Among the 100 flocks examined Newcastle disease virus was detected in 14 flocks as a single infection and 10 flocks as combined infections with worm infestation, necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis. Chicken embryo mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI values ranged from 50.4 to 96.0 hrs and from 0.650 to 1.675 respectively. Affected birds showed anorexia, diarrohea and drop in egg production. Macropathologically, matting of vent feathers, petechial haemorrhage on the tip of proventricular papilla, caecal tonsils and degeneration of ovarian follicles were noticed. The incidence of ND was most commonly noticed in 20-50 wk of age and between the months of September to November. Morbidity rate varied from 5% to 10% in the NDV alone affected flocks and 5 to 15% in NDV with other concurrent infections. Egg production drop from the expected level ranged between 3 to 7 % in ND and

  20. Characterization and Sequencing of a Genotype XII Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbe, Ana; Izquierdo-Lara, Ray; Tataje-Lavanda, Luis; Figueroa, Aling; Segovia, Karen; Gonzalez, Rosa; Cribillero, Giovana; Montalvan, Angela; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Icochea, Eliana

    2015-07-30

    Here, we report the first complete sequence and biological characterization of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a peacock in South America (NDV/peacock/Peru/2011). This isolate, classified as genotype XII in class II, highlights the need for increased surveillance of noncommercial avian species. Copyright © 2015 Chumbe et al.

  1. Characterization of field isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Medveczky, I.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1992-01-01

    Field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) from Poland and Hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. The Polish isolates were found to be related to the BUK-TK-900 strain (Suivac A) which is widely used...

  2. Phylogeographic distribution of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus isolates in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortey, Martí; Bertran, Kateri; Toskano, Jennifer; Majó, Natàlia; Dolz, Roser

    2012-01-01

    Viral population dynamics of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) field strains isolated in the Iberian Peninsula since the first outbreak in the 1990s have been analysed. Low levels of genetic variability and a global purification selection pattern were reported in 480 base pairs of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene, indicating a lack of a selection-driven immune escape in the evolutive pathway of the virus. The viral population structure of vvIBDV strains in the Iberian Peninsula showed a strong relationship between geography and phylogeny, with two main groups observed. A global comparison among vvIBDV strains also showed an association with sequences from the same country. The low variability, the strong purifying selection and the geographical pattern observed point to a picture where the virus evolves slowly, occupying the same geographical niche for a long time. The scenario depicted fits well with the biological features of the virus: being able to remain viable for long periods of time due to a strong environmental resistance, and as an immunosuppressive agent, capable per se of annihilating temporally the immune system of the host.

  3. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) surveillance in commercial breeding farm in China and the characterization of Class I NDV isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beixia; Huang, Yanyan; He, Yefeng; Xu, Chuantian; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Bin; Yan, Shigan; Zhang, Xiumei

    2010-07-29

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in ducks in Shandong province of China, extensive surveillance studies were carried out in the breeding ducks of an intensive farm from July 2007 to September 2008. Each month cloacal and tracheal swabs were taken from 30 randomly selected birds that appeared healthy. All of the swabs were negative for influenza A virus recovery, whereas 87.5% of tracheal swabs and 100% cloacal swabs collected in September 2007, were positive for Newcastle disease virus isolation. Several NDV isolates were recovered from tracheal and cloacal swabs of apparently healthy ducks. All of the isolates were apathogenic as determined by the MDT and ICPI. The HN gene and the variable region of F gene (nt 47-420) of four isolates selected at random were sequenced. A 374 bp region of F gene and the full length of HN gene were used for phylogenetic analysis. Four isolates were identified as the same isolate based on nucleotide sequences identities of 99.2-100%, displaying a closer phylogenetic relationship to lentogenic Class I viruses. There were 1.9-9.9% nucleotide differences between the isolates and other Class I virus in the variable region of F gene (nt 47-420), whereas there were 38.5-41.2% nucleotide difference between the isolates and Class II viruses. The amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage sites in these isolates were 112-ERQERL-117. The full length of HN gene of these isolates was 1851 bp, coding 585 amino acids. The homology analysis of the nucleotide sequence of HN gene indicated that there were 2.0-4.2% nucleotide differences between the isolates and other Class I viruses, whereas there were 29.5-40.9% differences between the isolates and Class II viruses. The results shows that these isolates are not phylogenetically related to the vaccine strain (LaSota). This study adds to the understanding of the ecology of influenza viruses and Newcastle disease viruses in

  4. Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Dwi Desmiyeni; Handharyani, Ekowati; Soejoedono, Retno Damajanti; Setiyono, Agus; Mayasari, Ni Luh Putu Ika; Poetri, Okti Nadia

    2017-04-01

    This research was conducted to differentiate and characterize eight Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected from vaccinated chicken at commercial flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014 and 2015 by pathotype specific primers. A total of eight NDV isolates collected from clinical outbreaks among commercial vaccinated flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014, and 2015 were used in this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and differentiate virulence of NDV strains, using three sets of primers targeting their M and F gene. First primers were universal primers to detect NDV targeting matrix (M) gene. Other two sets of primers were specific for the fusion (F) gene cleavage site sequence of virulent and avirulent NDV strains. Our results showed that three isolates belong to NDV virulent strains, and other five isolates belong to NDV avirulent strains. The nucleotide sequence of the F protein cleavage site showed 112 K/R-R-Q/R-K-R/G-F 117 on NDV virulent strains and 112 G-K/R-Q-G-R-L 117 on NDV avirulent strain. Result from the current study suggested that NDV virulent strain were circulating among vaccinated chickens in West Java, Indonesia; this might possess a risk of causing ND outbreaks and causing economic losses within the poultry industry.

  5. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses and a Newcastle disease virus from wild birds in Barbados: 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kirk O; Lavoie, Marc C; Kim, L Mia; Afonso, Claudio L; Suarez, David L

    2007-09-01

    Zoonotic transmission of an H5N1 avian influenza A virus to humans in 2003-present has generated increased public health and scientific interest in the prevalence and variability of influenza A viruses in wild birds and their potential threat to human health. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are regarded as the primordial reservoir of all influenza A viral subtypes and have been repeatedly implicated in avian influenza outbreaks in domestic poultry and swine. All of the 16 hemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase influenza subtypes have been isolated from wild birds, but waterfowl of the order Anseriformes are the most commonly infected. Using 9-to-11-day-old embryonating chicken egg culture, virus isolation attempts were conducted on 168 cloacal swabs from various resident, imported, and migratory bird species in Barbados during the months of July to October of 2003 and 2004. Hemagglutination assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to screen all allantoic fluids for the presence of hemagglutinating agents and influenza A virus. Hemagglutination positive-influenza negative samples were also tested for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is also found in waterfowl. Two influenza A viruses and one NDV were isolated from Anseriformes (40/168), with isolation rates of 5.0% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40), respectively, for influenza A and NDV. Sequence analysis of the influenza A virus isolates showed them to be H4N3 viruses that clustered with other North American avian influenza viruses. This is the first report of the presence of influenza A virus and NDV in wild birds in the English-speaking Caribbean.

  6. Pathotyping and Phylogenetic Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated in Peru: Defining Two Novel Subgenotypes Within Genotype XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbe, Ana; Izquierdo-Lara, Ray; Tataje, Luis; Gonzalez, Rosa; Cribillero, Giovana; González, Armando E; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Icochea, Eliana

    2017-03-01

    Infections of poultry with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), also known as Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), cause Newcastle disease (ND). This highly contagious disease affects poultry and many other species of birds worldwide. In countries where the disease is prevalent, constant monitoring and characterization of isolates causing outbreaks are necessary. In this study, we report the results of pathogenicity testing and phylogenetic analyses of seven NDVs isolated from several regions of Peru between 2004 and 2015. Six viruses had intracerebral pathogenicity indices (ICPIs) of between 1.75 and 1.88, corresponding to a velogenic pathotype. The remaining virus had an ICPI of 0.00, corresponding to a lentogenic pathotype. These results were consistent with amino acid sequences at the fusion protein (F) cleavage site. All velogenic isolates had the polybasic amino acid sequence 112 RRQKR↓F 117 at the F cleavage site. Phylogenetic analyses of complete F gene sequences showed that all isolates are classified in class II of APMV-1. The velogenic viruses are classified in genotype XII, while the lentogenic virus is classified in genotype II, closely related to the LaSota vaccine strain. Moreover, tree topology, bootstrap values, and genetic distances observed within genotype XII resulted in the identification of novel subgenotypes XIIa (in South America) and XIIb (in China) and possibly two clades within genotype XIIa. All velogenic Peruvian viruses belonged to subgenotype XIIa. Overall, our results confirm the presence of genotype XII in Peru and suggest that it is the prevalent genotype currently circulating in our country. The phylogenetic characterization of these isolates helps to characterize the evolution of NDV and may help with the development of vaccines specific to our regional necessities.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genotype XVII Newcastle Disease Virus, Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Domestic Duck in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Joannis, Tony M.; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Odaibo, Georgina N.; Olaleye, David O.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Solomon, Ponman; Abolnik, Celia; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene and complete genome classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, genotype XVII.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genotype XVII Newcastle Disease Virus, Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Domestic Duck in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Joannis, Tony M.; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Odaibo, Georgina N.; Olaleye, David O.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Solomon, Ponman; Abolnik, Celia; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene and complete genome classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, genotype XVII. PMID:26847901

  9. Isolation of lumpy skin disease virus from cattle in and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Lumpy Skin Disease was found to be a serious disease in the study area. So, further investigation is needed on identification of the causative agents and Molecular characterization of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus and risk factors of the disease in South Wollo Zone. Keywords: Cattle, Dessie and Kombolcha, LSD, LSDV, ...

  10. Genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from Afghanistan in 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Kate R; Knowles, Nick J; Davies, Paul R; Midgley, Rebecca J; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Raoufi, Abdul Quader; McKenna, Thomas S; Hurtle, William; Burans, James P; Martin, Barbara M; Rodriguez, Luis L; Beckham, Tammy R

    2008-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolates collected from various geographic locations in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete VP1 coding region. Three serotypes of FMDV (types A, O, and Asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in Afghanistan during this period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type A viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in Iran during 2002-2004. This is the first published report of serotype A in Afghanistan since 1975, therefore indicating the need for inclusion of serotype A in vaccine formulations that will be used to control disease outbreaks in this country. Serotype O virus isolates were closely related to PanAsia strains, including those that originated from Bhutan and Nepal during 2003-2004. The Asia 1 viruses, collected along the northern and eastern borders of Afghanistan, were most closely related to FMDV isolates collected in Pakistan during 2003 and 2004. Data obtained from this study provide valuable information on the FMDV serotypes circulating in Afghanistan and their genetic relationship with strains causing FMD in neighboring countries.

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus: A first inter-laboratory comparison trial to evaluate virus isolation and RT-PCR detection methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferris, N.P.; King, D.P.; Reid, S.M.; Hutchings, G.H.; Shawa, A.E.; Paton, D.J.; Goris, N.; Haas, B.; Hoffmann, B.; Brocchi, E.; Bugnetti, M.; Dekker, A.; Clerq, De K.

    2006-01-01

    Five European reference laboratories participated in an exercise to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of their routinely employed RT-PCR tests and cell cultures for the detection and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Five identical sets of 20 coded samples were prepared from 10

  12. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of infectious bursal disease viruses isolated from chicken in South China in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Chen, Feng; Ji, Jun; Qin, Jian-Ping; Li, Hai-Yan; Lu, Jun-Peng; Xue, Yu; Liu, Jia-Jia; Xie, Qing-Mei; Ma, Jing-Yun; Xue, Chun-Yi; Bee, Ying-Zuo

    2013-06-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double-stranded RNA virus that causes immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. Thousands of cases of IBDV infection are reported each year in South China, and these infections can result in considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. To monitor variations of the virus during the outbreaks, 30 IBDVs were identified from vaccinated chicken flocks from nine provinces in South China in 2011. VP2 fragments from different virus strains were sequenced and analyzed by comparison with the published sequences of IBDV strains from China and around the world. Phylogenetic analysis of hypervariable regions of the VP2 (vVP2) gene showed that 29 of the isolates were very virulent (vv) IBDVs, and were closely related to vvIBDV strains from Europe and Asia. Alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of vVP2 showed the 29 vv isolates had high uniformity, indicated low variability and slow evolution of the virus. The non-vvIBDV isolate JX2-11 was associated with higher than expected mortality, and had high deduced aa sequence similarity (99.2 %) with the attenuated vaccine strain B87 (BJ). The present study has demonstrated the continued circulation of IBDV strains in South China, and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing IBDV surveillance.

  13. Molecular characterization, isolation, pathology and pathotyping of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) origin Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from disease outbreaks in three states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desingu, Perumal Arumugam; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Dhama, Kuldeep; Vinodhkumar, Obli Rajendran; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized. They were found to be of virulent pathotype (velogenic NDV) based on both pathogenicity assays (MDT, ICPI and IVPI) and partial F gene sequence analysis. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the genotype VIIi and XIII of class II avian Paramyxovirus serotype1 (APMV-1) and related closely to new emerging sub-genotypes. This is the first report regarding the presence of the fifth panzootic vNDV genotype VIIi from India. In this scenario, extensive epidemiological studies are suggested for surveillance of NDV genotypes in wild birds and poultry flocks of the country along with adopting suitable prevention and control measures.

  14. Molecular characterization of field infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma O. Nwagbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV from outbreaks in nine states in Nigeria through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and sequence analysis of portions of the VP2 and VP1 genes and to determine the presence or absence of reassortant viruses. Materials and Methods: A total of 377 bursa samples were collected from 201 suspected IBD outbreaks during 2009 to 2014 from nine states in Nigeria. Samples were subjected to RT-PCR using VP2 and VP1 gene specific primers, and the resulting PCR products were sequenced. Results: A total of 143 samples were positive for IBDV by RT-PCR. These assays amplified a 743 bp fragment from nt 701 to 1444 in the IBDV VP2 hypervariable region (hvVP2 of segment A and a 722 bp fragment from nt 168 to 889 in the VP1 gene of segment B. RT-PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared with reference IBDV sequences obtained from GenBank. All but one hvVP2 sequence showed similarity to very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV reference strains, yet only 3 of the VP1 67 VP1 sequences showed similarity to the VP1 gene of vvIBDV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new lineage of Nigerian reassortant IBDV strains. Conclusion: Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of genome segment A and B of IBDV in Nigeria confirmed the existence of vvIBDV in Nigeria. In addition, we noted the existence of reassortant IBDV strains with novel triplet amino acid motifs at positions 145, 146 and 147 in the reassorted Nigerian IBDV.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity variation of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Li, Yanling; Yuan, Runyu; Li, Xianwei; Sun, Minhua; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Feng, Minsha; Jiao, Peirong; Ren, Tao

    2014-08-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  16. Investigation of the antigenic evolution of field isolates using the reverse genetics system of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Vijay; Sellers, Holly S; Linnemann, Erich G; Icard, Alan H; Mundt, Egbert

    2011-10-01

    The antigenic profiles of over 300 infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates were analyzed using a panel of monoclonal antibodies in a reverse genetics system. In addition, the sequences of a large portion of the neutralizing-antibody-inducing VP2 of IBDV were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences in combination with the antigenic profiles obtained using the monoclonal antibody panel, revealed a lack of correlation between antigenicity and isolate's placement within the phylogenetic tree. In-depth analysis of amino acid exchanges revealed that changes within a certain region of the VP2 molecule resulted in differences in the antigenicity of the virus. This comprehensive analysis of VP2 sequences indicated a high selective pressure in the field that was likely due to vaccination programs, which increase the rate of evolution of the virus.

  17. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  18. Molecular characterization of partial fusion gene and C-terminus extension length of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of recently isolated Newcastle disease virus isolates in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Ayalew

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle disease (ND, caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV, is a highly contagious disease of birds and has been one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. Despite routine vaccination programs, sporadic cases have occasionally occurred in the country and remain a constant threat to commercial poultry. Hence, the present study was aimed to characterize NDV isolates obtained from clinical cases in various locations of Malaysia between 2004 and 2007 based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial F gene and C-terminus extension length of HN gene. Results The coding region of eleven NDV isolates fusion (F gene and carboxyl terminal region of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene including extensions were amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR and directly sequenced. All the isolates have shown to have non-synonymous to synonymous base substitution rate ranging between 0.081 - 0.264 demonstrating presence of negative selection. Analysis based on F gene showed the characterized isolates possess three different types of protease cleavage site motifs; namely 112RRQKRF117, 112RRRKRF117 and 112GRQGRL117 and appear to show maximum identities with isolates in the region such as cockatoo/14698/90 (Indonesia, Ch/2000 (China, local isolate AF2240 indicating the high similarity of isolates circulating in the South East Asian countries. Meanwhile, one of the isolates resembles commonly used lentogenic vaccine strains. On further characterization of the HN gene, Malaysian isolates had C-terminus extensions of 0, 6 and 11 amino acids. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree revealed that the existence of three genetic groups; namely, genotype II, VII and VIII. Conclusions The study concluded that the occurrence of three types of NDV genotypes and presence of varied carboxyl terminus extension lengths among Malaysian isolates incriminated for sporadic cases.

  19. Molecular characterization of partial fusion gene and C-terminus extension length of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of recently isolated Newcastle disease virus isolates in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Ayalew; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul R; Bejo, Mohd Hair

    2010-08-08

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a highly contagious disease of birds and has been one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. Despite routine vaccination programs, sporadic cases have occasionally occurred in the country and remain a constant threat to commercial poultry. Hence, the present study was aimed to characterize NDV isolates obtained from clinical cases in various locations of Malaysia between 2004 and 2007 based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial F gene and C-terminus extension length of HN gene. The coding region of eleven NDV isolates fusion (F) gene and carboxyl terminal region of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene including extensions were amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR and directly sequenced. All the isolates have shown to have non-synonymous to synonymous base substitution rate ranging between 0.081 - 0.264 demonstrating presence of negative selection. Analysis based on F gene showed the characterized isolates possess three different types of protease cleavage site motifs; namely 112RRQKRF117, 112RRRKRF117 and 112GRQGRL117 and appear to show maximum identities with isolates in the region such as cockatoo/14698/90 (Indonesia), Ch/2000 (China), local isolate AF2240 indicating the high similarity of isolates circulating in the South East Asian countries. Meanwhile, one of the isolates resembles commonly used lentogenic vaccine strains. On further characterization of the HN gene, Malaysian isolates had C-terminus extensions of 0, 6 and 11 amino acids. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree revealed that the existence of three genetic groups; namely, genotype II, VII and VIII. The study concluded that the occurrence of three types of NDV genotypes and presence of varied carboxyl terminus extension lengths among Malaysian isolates incriminated for sporadic cases.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II. PMID:27469959

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II.

  2. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nepal based on hypervariable region of VP2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Aini, I

    2005-01-01

    Two Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates, NP1SSH and NP2K were obtained from a severe infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreak in Nepal in 2002. The hypervariable (HV) region of VP2 gene (1326 bp) of the isolates was generated by RT-PCR and sequenced. The obtained nucleotide sequences were compared with those of twenty other IBDV isolates/strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on this comparison revealed that NP1SSH and NP2K clustered with very virulent (vv) IBDV strains of serotype 1. In contrast, classical, Australian classical and attenuated strains of serotype 1 and avirulent IBDV strains of serotype 2 formed a different cluster. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two isolates showed a 98.3% identity with each other and 97.1% and 98.3% identities, respectively with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) isolates/strains. Three amino acids substitutions at positions 300 (E-->A), 308 (I-->F) and 334 (A-->P) within the HV region were common for both the isolates. The amino acids substitutions at positions 27 (S-->T), 28 (I-->T), 31 (D-->A), 36 (H-->Y), 135 (E-->G), 223 (G-->S), 225 (V-->I), 351 (L-->I), 352 (V-->E) and 399 (I-->S) for NP1SSH and at position 438 (I-->S) for NP2K were unique and differed from other IBDV isolates/strains. NP1SSH and NP2K showed highest similarity (97.8%) with the BD399 strain from Bangladesh as compared with other vvIBDV isolates/strains. We conclude that the NP1SSH and NP2K isolates of IBDV from Nepal represent vvIBDV of serotype 1.

  3. A sheeppox outbreak in Morocco: isolation and identification of virus responsible for the new clinical form of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zro, Khalil; Zakham, Fathiah; Melloul, Marouane; El Fahime, Elmostafa; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2014-01-27

    Sheeppoxvirus (SPPV) is a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, which causes significant economic losses in Morocco. The resurgence of the sheeppox disease during 2010 was characterized by an emergence of a classical nodular form for the first time in Morocco. However, little is known about the virus strain responsible for nodular form. In this study, thirty three sheep, from the eastern region of Morocco, clinically infected were examined and dead animals were autopsied.A rapid diagnostic assay for SPPV using different type of clinical samples would be useful for outbreak management. The aim of this work was to isolate the virus strain responsible for nodular form and we identified and compared by phylogenetic analysis the field strain with Moroccan vaccine strain targeting the thymidine kinase (TK) gene and the chemokine analogue receptor of interleukin (IL8) gene. Further, it was important to investigate and validate a real-time PCR using different clinical and post-mortem samples to manage epidemic sheeppox disease. The nodular form of sheeppox disease observed in Morocco was clinically characterized by fever, depression, lacrimation, diarrhea in lambs and nodule. At necropsy, the most affected organ was the lung. The etiological strain was successfully isolated from lung nodule in a dead lamb and was identified by using real-time PCR that has been tested and validated on different types of clinical and post mortem samples from naturally infected animals. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of TK and IL8 gene showed that there was a very close relationship between field and vaccine strain. They were clustered within other SPPV strains. In the current study, we show for the first time the nodular form of sheeppox in Morocco. We demonstrate a robust real-time PCR-based diagnostic assay to detect the sheeppox virus in multiple sample that can be implemented to efficiently manage the disease outbreak. Our study also offers the prospect for

  4. Lack of detection of host associated differences in Newcastle disease viruses of genotype VIId isolated from chickens and geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuyang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goose is usually considered to be resistant even to strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV that are markedly virulent for chickens. However, ND outbreaks have been frequently reported in goose flocks in China since the late 1990s with the concurrent emergence of genotype VIId NDV in chickens. Although the NDVs isolated from both chickens and geese in the past 15 years have been predominantly VIId viruses, published data comparing goose- and chicken-originated ND viruses are scarce and controversial. Results In this paper, we compared genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens genetically and pathologically. Ten entire genomic sequences and 329 complete coding sequences of individual genes from genotype VIId NDVs of both goose- and chicken-origin were analyzed. We then randomly selected two goose-originated and two chicken-originated VIId NDVs and compared their pathobiology in both geese and chickens in vivo and in vitro with genotype IV virus Herts/33 as a reference. The results showed that all the VIId NDVs either from geese or from chickens shared high sequence homology and characteristic amino acid substitutions and clustered together in phylogenetic trees. In addition, geese and chickens infected by goose or chicken VIId viruses manifested very similar pathological features distinct from those of birds infected with Herts/33. Conclusions There is no genetic or phenotypic difference between genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens. Therefore, no species-preference exists for either goose or chicken viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VIId NDVs between geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  5. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  6. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xue; Liu, Dongxu; Li, Jianming; Shi, Kun; Zeng, Fanli; Zong, Ying; Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhibo; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Yadong; Du, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene. All eight isolates included the caspase-recognition sequence NS1:285 (DQTD↓S), but not the caspase recognition sequence NS1:227 (INTD↓S). The LN1 and LN2 strains had a new 10-amino-acid deletion in-between amino acids 28-37, while the JL3 strain had a one-amino-acid deletion at position 28 in the VP2 protein, compared with the AMDV-G strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on most of NS1 (1755 bp) and complete VP2 showed that the AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their pathogenicity or geographic origin. Local and imported ADMV species are all prevalent in mink-farming populations in the north-east of China. This is the first study to report the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in north-east China based on most of NS1 and the complete VP2, and further provides information about polyG deletions and new variations in the amino acid sequences of NS1 and VP2 proteins. This report is a good foundation for further study of AMDV in China.

  7. Genetic, antigenic and pathogenic characterization of four infectious bursal disease virus isolates from China suggests continued evolution of very virulent viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Courtillon, Céline; Guionie, Olivier; Allée, Chantal; Amelot, Michel; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically significant disease of young chickens worldwide. The emergence of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains has brought more challenges for effective prevention and control of this disease. The aim of the present study was to characterize four IBDV isolates from various regions of China between late 1990s and recent years and to compare them with previously isolated European IBDV strains. In this study, one Chinese vvIBDV strain isolated in 1999 and three strains isolated between 2005 and 2011 were analyzed at the genetic, antigenic and pathogenic levels. Strain SH99 was closely related and clustered in the same genetic lineage as the typical vvIBDV based on the genomic sequences of segments A and B. However, the three more recent Chinese vvIBDV (HLJ0504, HeB10 and HuN11) showed several genetic changes in both segments and clustered in a distinct lineage from the typical vvIBDV and the previously known Chinese vvIBDV. Based on the binding to a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, all Chinese vvIBDVs exhibited similar antigenicity with the European typical vvIBDV strains. Nonetheless, the pathogenicity caused by the recent Chinese vvIBDV was higher than that induced by the European typical vvIBDV. This study calls for a sustained surveillance of IBD situation in China in order to support a better prevention and control of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 isolates from east africa suggests two independent introductions from southern africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangula, Abraham K.; Belsham, Graham; Muwanika, Vincent B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In East Africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. Little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. To enhance our...... 1 FMD viruses from East Africa has been determined and compared with known sequences derived from other SAT 1 viruses from sub-Saharan Africa. Purifying (negative) selection and low substitution rates characterized the SAT 1 virus isolates in East Africa. Two virus groups with probable independent...... appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype SAT 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 VP1 coding sequences covering a sampling period from 1948-2007. Results: The VP1 coding sequence of 11 serotype SAT...

  9. The application of gene-based technologies in the study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otim, M.O.; Bisgaard, M.; Christensen, H.; Jorgensen, P.; Handberg, K.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular techniques were used to characterize 16 Newcastle disease (ND) Virus (NDV) isolates from ND outbreaks in chickens in eastern Uganda in 2001, and evaluate ND epidemiology, with emphasis on molecular aspects. F and HN genes, which are the major determinants of virulence, were studied. Strain pathogenicity was derived from genetic analysis of the F gene sequence and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Comparative genetic and phylogenetic tree analyses were performed on the HN genes of the isolates and some strains selected from GenBank. ClustalX 1.81 and Phylip were used for gene alignment analysis and the final phylogeny was produced by the neighbour-joining method. F gene cleavage site sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis and biological characterization showed that the strains were very virulent and closely related, being of common ancestry. All the Ugandan NDV isolates formed separate clades from the currently known genotypes, suggesting that they are a novel genotype, unrelated to those that have caused previous pandemics. (author)

  10. Distinctive receptor binding properties of the surface glycoprotein of a natural Feline Leukemia Virus isolate with unusual disease spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albritton Lorraine M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV-945, a member of the FeLV-A subgroup, was previously isolated from a cohort of naturally infected cats. An unusual multicentric lymphoma of non-T-cell origin was observed in natural and experimental infection with FeLV-945. Previous studies implicated the FeLV-945 surface glycoprotein (SU as a determinant of disease outcome by an as yet unknown mechanism. The present studies demonstrate that FeLV-945 SU confers distinctive properties of binding to the cell surface receptor. Results Virions bearing the FeLV-945 Env protein were observed to bind the cell surface receptor with significantly increased efficiency, as was soluble FeLV-945 SU protein, as compared to the corresponding virions or soluble protein from a prototype FeLV-A isolate. SU proteins cloned from other cohort isolates exhibited increased binding efficiency comparable to or greater than FeLV-945 SU. Mutational analysis implicated a domain containing variable region B (VRB to be the major determinant of increased receptor binding, and identified a single residue, valine 186, to be responsible for the effect. Conclusions The FeLV-945 SU protein binds its cell surface receptor, feTHTR1, with significantly greater efficiency than does that of prototype FeLV-A (FeLV-A/61E when present on the surface of virus particles or in soluble form, demonstrating a 2-fold difference in the relative dissociation constant. The results implicate a single residue, valine 186, as the major determinant of increased binding affinity. Computational modeling suggests a molecular mechanism by which residue 186 interacts with the receptor-binding domain through residue glutamine 110 to effect increased binding affinity. Through its increased receptor binding affinity, FeLV-945 SU might function in pathogenesis by increasing the rate of virus entry and spread in vivo, or by facilitating entry into a novel target cell with a low receptor density.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Andrzej; Niedbalski, Wieslaw

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of complete genomes (7.5 kb) from RHDV strains isolated in Poland and estimate the genetic variability in different elements of the viral RNA. In addition, the sequence of Polish RHDV isolates isolated from 1988-2015 was compared with the sequences of other European RHDV, including the RHDVa and RHDV2/RHDVb subtypes. The complete sequence was developed by the compilation of partial nucleotide sequences. This sequence consisted of approximately 7428 nucleotides. For comparison of nucleotide sequences and the development of phylogenetic trees of Polish RHDV isolates and reference RHDV strains representing the main phylogenetic groups of classical RHDV, RHDVa and RHDV2 as well as the non-pathogenic rabbit lagovirus RCV, the BLAST software with blastn and MEGA6 with neighbour-joining method was applied. The complete nucleotide sequence of Polish isolates of RHDV has also been entered into GenBank. For comparative analysis, nineteen complete sequences representing the main RHDV genetic types available in GenBank were used. The results of phylogenetic analysis of Polish RHDV strains reveals the presence of three classical RHDV genogroups (G2, G4 and G5) and an RHDVa variant (G6). The oldest RHDV isolates (KGM 1988, PD 1989 and MAL 1994) belong to genogroup G2. It can be assumed that the elimination of these strains from the environment probably occurred at the turn of 1994 and 1995. Genogroup G2 was replaced by the phylogenetically younger BLA 1994 and OPO 2004 strains from genogroup G4, which probably originated from the G3 lineage, represented by the Italian strains BS89. The last representatives of classical RHDV in Poland are isolates GSK 1988 and ZD0 2000 from genogroup G5. A single clade contains the Polish RHDV strains from 2004-2015 (GRZ 2004, KRY 2004, L145 2004, W147 2005, SKO 2013, GLE 2013, RED1 2013, STR 2012, STR2 2013, STR 2014, BIE 2015) identified as RHDVa, which clustered

  12. Genetic and antigenic relationship of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates with the vaccine strain O1/BFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanhong; Zhang, Zhidong; Nfon, Charles; Yang, Ming

    2018-05-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease serotype O viruses (FMDV/O) are responsible for the most outbreaks in FMD endemic countries. O1/BFS is one of the recommended FMD/O vaccine strains by World Reference Laboratory for FMD. In the current study, FMDV/O1 BFS vaccine strain and serotype O field isolates (45) were analyzed phylogenetically and antigenically to gain more insight into the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the vaccine strain and field isolates. O1/BFS showed similarity with 89% of the field isolates using a virus neutralization test (VNT). The P1 region encoding the FMDV capsid was sequenced and analysed for 46 strains of FMDV/O. Phylogenetic analysis showed these viruses originated from five continents and covered eight of 11 reported topotypes. Five isolates that demonstrated low antigenic similarities with O1/BFS were analyzed for their antigenic variation at the known neutralizing antigenic sites. Three of the five isolates demonstrated unique amino acid substitutions at various antigenic sites. No unique amino acid substitutions were observed for the other two unmatched isolates. Positively selected residues were identified on the surface of the FMD virus capsid supporting that it is important to continuously monitor field isolates for their antigenic and phenotypic changes. In conclusion, the vaccine strain O1/BFS is likely to confer protection against 89% of the 45 FMDV/O isolates based on VNT. Thus O1/BFS vaccine strain is still suitable for use in global FMD serotype O outbreak control. Combining data from phylogenetic, molecular and antigenic analysis can provide improvements in the process of vaccine selection. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  14. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  15. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  16. A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Promoter Isolated from Multiple Tissues from a Sheep with Multisystemic Lentivirus-Associated Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV. Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium, all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease; the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed.

  17. Isolation of a highly pathogenic influenza virus from turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, M S; Allan, G M; McCracken, R M; McParland, P J

    1985-01-01

    An influenza virus was isolated from turkeys with an acute disease causing 30% mortality. The virus was subtyped as H5 N8. The nomenclature A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5 N8) is proposed for this isolate. The virus had an ICPI of 1.80 to 1.85 for 1-day-old chicks and an IVPI of 2.74 for 6-week-old chickens. Following oronasal inoculation of juvenile and adult turkeys, chickens and ducks with the isolate, 100% mortality occurred in turkeys and chickens. No clinical signs were observed in inoculated ducks, but all developed serum antibody titres against the virus.

  18. Analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene and promoter in Hodgkin's disease isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Andresen, B S; Zhou, X G

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To study the distribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) variants containing mutations in the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) oncogene and promoter in EBV associated Hodgkin's disease and infectious mononucleosis compared with previous findings in asymptomatic EBV carriers. METHODS: Sequence...... analysis of the EBV LMP-1 promoter and gene in isolates from Danish patients with Hodgkin's disease (n = 61) and infectious mononucleosis (n = 10). RESULTS: Viruses (previously designated group D) that contain two mutations in the activating transcription factor/cAMP response element (ATF/CRE) in the LMP-1...... promoter, which are known to decrease promoter activity greatly, were significantly less frequent in Hodgkin's disease than in both infectious mononucleosis (p = 0.0081) and asymptomatic EBV carriers (p = 0.0084). In some cases, the LMP-1 gene contained mutations in a recently identified cytotoxic T cell...

  19. Aerial medical evacuation of health workers with suspected Ebola virus disease in Guinea Conakry-interest of a negative pressure isolation pod-a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindart, Jean-Michel; Peyrouset, Olivier; Palich, Romain; Bing, Abdoul; Kojan, Richard; Barbe, Solenne; Harouna, Souley; Blackwell, Nikki

    2017-03-11

    We report 4 cases of Health Workers (HW) suspected of having contracted Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), transported from the Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) in N'Zerekore, Guinea to the Treatment Centre for Carers run by the medical corps of the French army in Conakry, the capital of Guinea, which was established on 17 January 2015 and closed on 7 July 2015. In total more than 500 HWs have died from EVD since the epidemic began. This mortality has had significant effects on the ability of local services to respond appropriately to the disaster. The HWs were transported by air in the "Human Stretcher Transit Isolator-Total Containment (Oxford) Limited" (HSTI-TCOL) negative pressure isolation pod. Medical evacuation of patients with suspected, potentially fatal, infectious diseases is feasible with the use of a light isolator for patients without critical dysfunctions.

  20. Isolation, identification and retrospective study of foot-and-mouth disease virus from affected Mithun (Bos frontalis) in north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, B; Deka, P; Sharma, K; Baro, S; Hazarika, A K; Das, C; Garam, G B; Boro, P; Ltu, K

    2018-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes substantial and perpetual economic loss. Apart from the contagious nature of the disease, the FMD virus can establish in a "carrier state" among all cloven-hoofed animals. The Mithun (Bos frontalis), popularly called the "Cattle of Mountain," is found in the geographically isolated, hilly region of north-east India: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Despite the geographical inaccessibility, infection by FMD virus has emerged as the single most devastating disease among Mithun after the eradication of rinderpest from this region. Samples from outbreaks of FMD in Mithun were analysed by sandwich ELISA, multiplex RT-PCR (MRT-PCR) and liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and isolated in the BHK-21 cell line. The results indicate the presence of FMDV serotype "O." The sequencing and molecular phylogenies have revealed close relationships in the lineage of type "O" isolates from Bangladesh. The findings will provide useful information for further research and development of a sustainable programme for the progressive control of FMD in the Mithun population. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  2. Restriction Fragment Pattern (RFP) analysis of genomes from Danish isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Sørensen, K. J.; Lei, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Purified DNA from 42 isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected during 1985 from clinical outbreaks of Aujezsky's disease on Danish farms was compared by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis. The BamHI generated RFPs were found to be distinguishable, thus confirming RFP analysis...

  3. Phylogenetic and Pathotypic Characterization of a Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from Ducks and Pigeons in Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Wang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease responsible for major outbreaks and considerable economic losses in the poultry industry in China. There is still little information available regarding gene characterization of the NDV, especially in ducks and pigeons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate NDV isolated from ducks and pigeons in Hubei, China. In this study, three NDVs from ducks and pigeons were isolated between 2013 and 2015.The fusion protein (F gene of the NDV isolates was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The clinical signs and gross histopathological lesions were examined. Phylogenetic analysis of these strains indicated that all the sequences are classified as genotype II. The isolates shared a 112 G-R-Q-G-R-L 117motif at the F protein cleavage site, indicating that these three isolates strains are lentogenic. Necropsy and histopathology showed the typical pathological changes. It was concluded that commercial ducks and pigeons in Hubei province carry lentogenic NDV strains with regular genetic divergence, indicating that these species may act as the main reservoirs of NDV in poultry. Therefore, strategies and surveillance should be undertaken to reduce the risk of ND outbreaks.

  4. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic 112 GRQGRL 117 and velogenic 112 RRQKRF 117 along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks

  5. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission. Over 500 CHIK virus isolations were made. 4 from male Ae. Aegypti (?TOT). 6 from CSF (neurological involvement). 1 from a 4-day old child (transplacental transmission.

  6. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.

  7. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  9. Construction and characterization of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain O/JPN/2010 isolated in Japan in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Onozato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Seiichi; Fukai, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Manabu; Morioka, Kazuki; Kanno, Toru

    2016-06-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genome of a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan was constructed and designated pSVL-f02. Transfection of Cos-7 or IBRS-2 cells with this clone allowed the recovery of infectious virus. The recovered virus had the same in vitro characterization as the parental virus with regard to antigenicity in neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests, plaque size and one-step growth. Pigs were experimentally infected with the parental virus or the recombinant virus recovered from pSVL-f02 transfected cells. There were no significant differences in clinical signs or antibody responses between the two groups, and virus isolation and viral RNA detection from clinical samples were similar. Virus recovered from transfected cells therefore retained the in vitro characteristics and the in vivo pathogenicity of their parental strain. This cDNA clone should be a valuable tool to analyze determinants of pathogenicity and mechanisms of virus replication, and to develop genetically engineered vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  11. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  12. The positive expression of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (Malaysian isolate in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizma Felisha Mazlan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV is the most predominant NDV strains that circulating in Malaysia; thus, this study was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Japanese quails toward genotype VII NDV. Clinical signs, gross pathological lesions of organs, positive detection of virus in organs and cloacal swabs, as well as the expression of the antibody titer, were used as parameters to assess the susceptibility of Japanese quails following infection of genotype VII NDV. Materials and Methods: About 20 quails were divided into three groups (n=8 for Groups A and B; n=4 for the control group. The quails in the Groups A and B were infected via intraocular route with 0.03 ml of 103.5 ELD50 and 107.0 ELD50 of NDV strain IBS 002, respectively, while the control group received 1x phosphate-buffered saline. Cloacal swabs and necropsy were taken on day 7 post-infection for all quails were subjected to one-step reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR for detection of virus and examination for gross pathological lesion, respectively. Blood serums of infected quails were taken on day 10, 14, and 21 post-day infections and were subjected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. Results: Depression and ruffled feathers, trachea rales, leg paralysis, and torticollis were shown in some of the quails in both infected groups. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in clinical signs between the infected groups. The results for RT-qPCR were found to be negative for all groups, and no gross pathological lesions of organs observed for quails in both infected groups. Trachea, proventriculus, and cecal tonsil were taken for the detection of NDV by RT-qPCR, and some of the organ samples showed positive detection of virus in both infected groups. HI assay showed an increase in mean titers of antibody across time and between infected groups. Conclusion: In summary, Japanese quails

  13. Comparative performance of fetal goat tongue cell line ZZ-R 127 and fetal porcine kidney cell line LFBK-αvβ6 for Foot-and-mouth disease virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Katsuhiko; Morioka, Kazuki; Yamada, Manabu; Nishi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kitano, Rie; Yamazoe, Reiko; Kanno, Toru

    2015-07-01

    The fetal goat tongue cell line ZZ-R 127 and the fetal porcine kidney cell line LFBK-α(v)β(6) have been reported to have high sensitivity to various Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains. The suitability of ZZ-R 127 cells for FMDV isolation not only from epithelial suspensions but also from other clinical samples has already been confirmed in a previous study. However, to our knowledge, the suitability of LFBK-α(v)β(6) cells has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epithelial materials. In addition, both cell lines have never been compared, in terms of use for FMDV isolation, under the same conditions. Therefore, in the current study, the virus isolation rates of both cell lines were compared using clinical samples collected from animals infected experimentally with FMDV. Viruses were successfully isolated from clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions for both cell lines. The virus isolation rates for the 2 cell lines were not significantly different. The Cohen kappa coefficients between the virus isolation results for both cell lines were significantly high. Taken together, these results confirmed the suitability of LFBK-α(v)β(6) cells for FMDV isolation from clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions. The levels of susceptibility of both cell lines to FMDV isolation were also confirmed to be almost the same. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  15. Isolation of Single-Domain Antibody Fragments That Preferentially Detect Intact (146S Particles of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus for Use in Vaccine Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. Harmsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intact (146S foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDVs can dissociate into specific (12S viral capsid degradation products. FMD vaccines normally consist of inactivated virions. Vaccine quality is dependent on 146S virus particles rather than 12S particles. We earlier isolated two llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs that specifically recognize 146S particles of FMDV strain O1 Manisa and shown their potential use in quality control of FMD vaccines during manufacturing. These 146S-specific VHHs were specific for particular O serotype strains and did not bind strains from other FMDV serotypes. Here, we describe the isolation of 146S-specific VHHs against FMDV SAT2 and Asia 1 strains by phage display selection from llama immune libraries. VHHs that bind both 12S and 146S particles were readily isolated but VHHs that bind specifically to 146S particles could only be isolated by phage display selection using prior depletion for 12S particles. We obtained one 146S-specific VHH—M332F—that binds to strain Asia 1 Shamir and several VHHs that preferentially bind 146S particles of SAT2 strain SAU/2/00, from which we selected VHH M379F for further characterization. Both M332F and M379F did not bind FMDV strains from other serotypes. In a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA employing unlabeled and biotinylated versions of the same VHH M332F showed high specificity for 146S particles but M379F showed lower 146S-specificity with some cross-reaction with 12S particles. These ELISAs could detect 146S particle concentrations as low as 2.3–4.6 µg/l. They can be used for FMD vaccine quality control and research and development, for example, to identify virion stabilizing excipients.

  16. A deletion within glycoprotein L of Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates correlates with a decrease in bivalent MDV vaccine efficacy in contact-exposed chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavlarides-Hontz, Phaedra; Kumar, Pankaj M; Amortegui, Juliana Rojas; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Parcells, Mark S

    2009-06-01

    We examined the functional role of a naturally occurring deletion within the glycoprotein L (gL) gene of Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates. We previously showed that this mutation incrementally increased the virulence of an MDV in contact-exposed SPF leghorn chickens, when chickens shedding this virus were co-infected with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT). In our present study, we examined this mutation using two stocks of the very virulent plus (vv+)MDV strain TK, one of which harbored this deletion (TK1a) while the other did not (TK2a). We report that TK1a replicating in vaccinated chickens overcame bivalent (HVT/SB1) vaccine protection in contact-exposed chickens. Treatment groups exposed to vaccinated chickens inoculated with a 1:1 mix of TK1a and TK2a showed decreased bivalent vaccine efficacy, and this decrease correlated with the prevalence of the gL deletion indicative of TK1a. These results were also found using quadruplicate treatment groups and bivalently vaccinated chickens obtained from a commercial hatchery. As this deletion was found in 25 out of 25 recent field isolates from Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, we concluded that there is a strong selection for this mutation, which appears to have evolved in HVT or bivalently vaccinated chickens. This is the first report of a mutation in a vv+MDV field strain for which a putative biological phenotype has been discerned. Moreover, this mutation in gL has apparently been selected in MDV field isolates through Marek's disease vaccination.

  17. Genome sequences of seven foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates collected from serial samples from one persistently infected carrier cow in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several FMDV carrier cattle were identified in Vietnam by recovery of infectious virus from oropharyngeal fluid. This report contains the first near-complete genome sequences of seven viruses isolated from a single carrier animal over the course of one year. Understanding within-host viral evolution...

  18. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Naila, E-mail: naila.nrlpd@gmail.com [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-09-15

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic {sup 112}GRQGRL{sup 117} and velogenic {sup 112}RRQKRF{sup 117} along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks.

  19. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  20. Inhibition of Interferon Induction and Action by the Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type ...

  1. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  2. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  3. Isolation, identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia1 from pigs in southwest of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1 generally infects cattle and sheep, while its infection of pigs is rarely reported. In 2005-2007, FMD outbreaks caused by Asia1 type occurred in many regions of China, as well as some parts of East Asia countries. During the outbreaks, there was not any report that pigs were found to be clinically infected. Results In this study, a strain of FMDV that isolated from pigs was identified as serotype Asia1, and designated as "Asia1/WHN/CHA/06". To investigate the genomic feature of the strain, complete genome of Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 was sequenced and compared with sequences of other FMDVs by phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The complete genome of Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 was 8161 nucleotides (nt in length, and was closer to JS/CHA/05 than to all other strains. Potential recombination events associated with Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 were found between JS/CHA/05 and HNK/CHA/05 strains with partial 3B and 3C fragments. Conclusion This is the first report of the isolation and identification of a strain of FMDV type Asia1 from naturally infected pigs. The Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 strain may evolve from the recombination of JS/CHA/05 and HNK/CHA/05 strains.

  4. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of camelpox viruses isolated in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, M; Meyer, H; Wernery, U; Kaaden, O R

    1996-03-01

    Between October 1993 and March 1994, outbreaks of pox-like exanthemas were observed in several camel raising farms in Dubai. Scabs from twenty camels with either local or generalized lesions were examined, seven of them had previously been vaccinated with a modified live camelpox virus vaccine. Inspection of scabs by electron microscopy confirmed an infection with orthopox viruses (OPV) in 10 animals and with parapox virus in one camel. Investigation of the scabs by polymerase chain reaction and dot blot assay revealed the presence of OPV in 15 or 13 samples, respectively. OPV could be isolated in cell culture in 14 cases. Restriction enzyme profiles characterized all isolates as camelpox virus. Their DNA patterns were virtually identical displaying only slight variations in the terminal fragments. In contrast, the vaccine strain showed a distinct restriction enzyme profile, indicating that it was not involved in the infections.

  6. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, D.; Göbels, K.; Niedrig, M.; Sim-Brandenburg, J.-W.; Làge-Stehr, J.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period

  7. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  8. Isolation of H13N2 influenza A virus from turkeys and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandan, V; Halvorson, D A; Laudert, E; Senne, D A; Kumar, M C

    1991-01-01

    This is the first report of the isolation of H13N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype from domestic turkeys. This subtype was also isolated from nearby surface water. The observation of large numbers of gulls in close association with turkeys on range before the virus isolations suggests that this virus subtype was transmitted from gulls to range turkeys. Turkey flocks infected by this virus subtype did not show any clinical signs of the disease, although seroconversion did occur. The H13N2 isolates were found to be non-pathogenic in chickens.

  9. Isolation of Ancestral Sylvatic Dengue Virus Type 1, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Abd-Jamil, Juraina

    2010-01-01

    Ancestral sylvatic dengue virus type 1, which was isolated from a monkey in 1972, was isolated from a patient with dengue fever in Malaysia. The virus is neutralized by serum of patients with endemic DENV-1 infection. Rare isolation of this virus suggests a limited spillover infection from an otherwise restricted sylvatic cycle. PMID:21029545

  10. A Novel A(H7N2) Influenza Virus Isolated from a Veterinarian Caring for Cats in a New York City Animal Shelter Causes Mild Disease and Transmits Poorly in the Ferret Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Sun, Xiangjie; Brock, Nicole; Pappas, Claudia; Creager, Hannah M; Zeng, Hui; Tumpey, Terrence M; Maines, Taronna R

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, a low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) virus was identified to be the causative source of an outbreak in a cat shelter in New York City, which subsequently spread to multiple shelters in the states of New York and Pennsylvania. One person with occupational exposure to infected cats became infected with the virus, representing the first LPAI H7N2 virus infection in a human in North America since 2003. Considering the close contact that frequently occurs between companion animals and humans, it was critical to assess the relative risk of this novel virus to public health. The virus isolated from the human case, A/New York/108/2016 (NY/108), caused mild and transient illness in ferrets and mice but did not transmit to naive cohoused ferrets following traditional or aerosol-based inoculation methods. The environmental persistence of NY/108 virus was generally comparable to that of other LPAI H7N2 viruses. However, NY/108 virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells with an increased efficiency compared with that of previously isolated H7N2 viruses. Furthermore, the novel H7N2 virus was found to utilize a relatively lower pH for hemagglutinin activation, similar to human influenza viruses. Our data suggest that the LPAI H7N2 virus requires further adaptation before representing a substantial threat to public health. However, the reemergence of an LPAI H7N2 virus in the northeastern United States underscores the need for continuous surveillance of emerging zoonotic influenza viruses inclusive of mammalian species, such as domestic felines, that are not commonly considered intermediate hosts for avian influenza viruses. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses are capable of crossing the species barrier to infect mammals, an event of public health concern due to the potential acquisition of a pandemic phenotype. In December 2016, an H7N2 virus caused an outbreak in cats in multiple animal shelters in New York State. This was the first

  11. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  12. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  13. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane mosaic disease caused by sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane worldwide. Field survey was conducted to assess the presence of the viruses involve in ...

  14. Virus fitness differences observed between two naturally occurring isolates of Ebola virus Makona variant using a reverse genetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albariño, César G; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Kainulainen, Markus H; Whitmer, Shannon L M; Welch, Stephen R; Nichol, Stuart T

    2016-09-01

    During the large outbreak of Ebola virus disease that occurred in Western Africa from late 2013 to early 2016, several hundred Ebola virus (EBOV) genomes have been sequenced and the virus genetic drift analyzed. In a previous report, we described an efficient reverse genetics system designed to generate recombinant EBOV based on a Makona variant isolate obtained in 2014. Using this system, we characterized the replication and fitness of 2 isolates of the Makona variant. These virus isolates are nearly identical at the genetic level, but have single amino acid differences in the VP30 and L proteins. The potential effects of these differences were tested using minigenomes and recombinant viruses. The results obtained with this approach are consistent with the role of VP30 and L as components of the EBOV RNA replication machinery. Moreover, the 2 isolates exhibited clear fitness differences in competitive growth assays. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Isolation of herpesvirus and Newcastle disease virus from White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) maintained at four rehabilitation centres in northern Germany during 1983 to 2001 and failure to detect antibodies against avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 in these birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Erhard F; Kummerfeld, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Herpesvirus isolations from peripheral white blood cells of 253 White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) were obtained during a long-term study (1983 to 2001). The storks lived for a few months to 20 years at four rehabilitation centres. Isolates were obtained from 83 of 253 storks. This herpesvirus is indigenous for storks and unrelated to any other avian herpesvirus. Significantly more herpesvirus isolates were obtained during spring than in autumn samplings. The intervals between the first and last virus isolation ranged from 1 to 15 years. Herpesvirus isolates were simultaneously obtained from white blood cells and from pharyngeal swabs of four of 34 storks but not from cloacal swabs. Neutralizing antibodies to stork herpesvirus were detected in 178 of 191 examined blood plasma samples. Neutralizing antibodies against stork herpesvirus did not correlate with herpesvirus viraemia. The results further substantiate the persistence of herpesvirus in White Storks and underline the previously unrecorded long periods of virus and antibody presence. Virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1; Newcastle disease virus) was isolated from white blood cells during 1992 and 1993 from four healthy migrating storks, and possessed virulence markers on the cleavage site of the H and F genes. These properties resemble the NE type of APMV-1. Haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against APMV-1 were detected in 16 of 191 blood plasma samples. Avian influenza A virus was not isolated and antibodies against subtypes H5 and H7 were not detected.

  16. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Tarif Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  17. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  18. Deep sequencing as a method of typing bluetongue virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pavuluri Panduranga; Reddy, Yella Narasimha; Ganesh, Kapila; Nair, Shreeja G; Niranjan, Vidya; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2013-11-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an economically important endemic disease of livestock in tropics and subtropics. In addition, its recent spread to temperate regions like North America and Northern Europe is of serious concern. Rapid serotyping and characterization of BT virus (BTV) is an essential step in the identification of origin of the virus and for controlling the disease. Serotyping of BTV is typically performed by serum neutralization, and of late by nucleotide sequencing. This report describes the near complete genome sequencing and typing of two isolates of BTV using Illumina next generation sequencing platform. Two of the BTV RNAs were multiplexed with ten other unknown samples. Viral RNA was isolated and fragmented, reverse transcribed, the cDNA ends were repaired and ligated with a multiplex oligo. The genome library was amplified using primers complementary to the ligated oligo and subjected to single and paired end sequencing. The raw reads were assembled using a de novo method and reference-based assembly was performed based on the contig data. Near complete sequences of all segments of BTV were obtained with more than 20× coverage, and single read sequencing method was sufficient to identify the genotype and serotype of the virus. The two viruses used in this study were typed as BTV-1 and BTV-9E. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genotyping of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four of these viruses were isolated directly from serum samples. All the viruses were classified within the domesticpig cycle-associated p72 and p54 genotype IX which also includes viruses responsible for ASF outbreaks in Kenya in 2006 and 2007 and Uganda in 2003. To define virus relationships at higher resolution, ...

  20. An inactivated vaccine made from a U.S. field isolate of porcine epidemic disease virus is immunogenic in pigs as demonstrated by a dose-titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Emily A; Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Okda, Faten; Batman, Ron; Nelson, Eric; Hause, Ben M

    2015-03-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a highly pathogenic and transmissible virus in swine, was first detected in the U.S. in May, 2013, and has caused tremendous losses to the swine industry. Due to the difficulty in isolating and growing this virus in cell culture, few vaccine studies using cell culture propagated PEDV have been performed on U.S. strains in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the humoral immune response to the selected inactivated PEDV vaccine candidate in a dose-titration manner. PEDV was isolated from a pig with diarrhea and complete genome sequencing found >99% nucleotide identity to other U.S. PEDV. Inactivated adjuvanted monovalent vaccines were administered intramuscularly to five week old pigs in a dose titration experimental design, ranging from 6.0-8.0 log10 tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/mL), to evaluate immunogenicity using a fluorescent foci neutralization assay (FFN), fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on sera. Pigs vaccinated with 8.0 log10 TCID50/mL inactivated virus showed significantly higher FFN titers as well as FMIA and ELISA values than 6.0 log10 TCID50/mL vaccinates and the negative controls. These results demonstrate the immunogenicity of a PEDV inactivated viral vaccine with a U.S. strain via dose-titration. A future vaccination-challenge study would illustrate the efficacy of an inactivated vaccine and help evaluate protective FFN titers and ELISA and FMIA responses.

  1. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  2. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R; Lash, R Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M; Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  3. Zika and Spondweni Viruses: Historic Evidence of Misidentification, Misdiagnosis and Serious Clinical Disease Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    isolations of 153 Zika virus from Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus (Theobald) taken in and above a Uganda Forest. 154 Bulletin of the World Health...1 Zika and Spondweni viruses : Historic evidence of misidentification, misdiagnosis, and serious clinical disease manifestations Andrew D...serogroup (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) consists of two members: Zika 3 and Spondweni viruses . Both viruses have been historically misidentified

  4. Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

  5. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  6. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A Marsh

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV, which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2 for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-β response than HeV.

  7. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    C C Azodo; P Erhabor

    2015-01-01

    The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understandin...

  8. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA. PMID:19013331

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Encephalomyocarditis Virus from Dogs in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Ya-Kun; Liang, Lin; Tang, Qing-Hai; Zhou, Ling; Shi, Li-Jun; Cong, Ying-Ying; Lin, Wen-Cheng; Cui, Shang-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is as a potential zoonotic agent with a wide host range. Here, we describe an EMC virus isolate, identified as EMCV C15, which was successfully obtained from the serum of dogs from animal hospitals. Virus production in cell culture was confirmed by EMCV-specific

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Getah Virus Strains Isolated from Horses in 2016 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Ochi, Akihiro; Niwa, Hidekazu; Murakami, Satoshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kokado, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-08-03

    Getah virus is mosquito-borne and causes disease in horses and pigs. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of three strains isolated from horses in Ibaraki Prefecture, eastern Japan, in 2016. They were almost identical to the genomes of strains recently isolated from horses, pigs, and mosquitoes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Nemoto et al.

  11. Atypical myxomatosis--virus isolation, experimental infection of rabbits and restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Valícek, L; Bendová, J

    2003-08-01

    Atypical form of myxomatosis, which caused non-lethal and clinically mild disease in domestic rabbits 1 month after immunization with a commercially available vaccine MXT, is described. The isolated myxoma virus designated as Litovel 2 (Li-2) did not induce systemic disease following subcutaneous and intradermal applications in susceptible experimental rabbits but led to the immune response demonstrated by ELISA. No severe disease was induced in those Li-2 inoculated rabbits by challenge with the virulent strains Lausanne (Lu) or Sanar (SA), while the control animals showed nodular form of myxomatosis with lethal course of the illness. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of genomic DNA with KpnI and BamHI endonucleases was used for genetic characterization of the Li-2 isolate, the vaccine strain MXT and both virulent strains Lu and SA, respectively. In general, RFLP analysis has shown to be informative for inferring genetic relatedness between myxoma viruses. Based on restriction endonuclease DNA fragment size distribution, it was evident that the pathogenic strain SA is genetically related to the reference strain Lu and the isolate Li-2 is more related, but not identical, to the vaccination strain MXT.

  12. Newcastle disease virus surveillance in Hong Kong on local and imported poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, K F; Alexander, D J

    1978-09-01

    Surveillance of apparently healthy ducks, geese and fowl originating in Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China at a poultry dressing plant in Hong Kong yielded 67 isolates of Newcastle disease virus. More than twice as many viruses were isolated from the cloaca than from the trachea. Twelve representative isolates were examined in virulence tests--all six of the fowl isolates and two of five duck isolates behaved as velogenic strains, the other four were lentogenic.

  13. Development of Protective Immunity against Inactivated Iranian Isolate of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Type O/IRN/2007 Using Gamma Ray-Irradiated Vaccine on BALB/c Mice and Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi-Sedeh, Farahnaz; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Mahravani, Homayoon; Shafaee, Kamalodin; Sotoodeh, Masood; Taherkarami, Hamdolah; Jairani, Faramarz

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and is the most damaging disease of livestock worldwide, leading to great economic losses. The aim of this research was the inactivation of FMDV type O/IRN/1/2007 to produce a gamma ray-irradiated (GRI) vaccine in order to immunize mice and guinea pigs. In this research, the Iranian isolated FMDV type O/IRN/1/2007 was irradiated by gamma ray to prepare an inactivated whole virus antigen and formulated as a GRI vaccine with unaltered antigenic characteristics. Immune responses against this vaccine were evaluated on mice and guinea pigs. The comparison of the immune responses between the GRI vaccine and conventional vaccine did not show any significant difference in neutralizing antibody titer, memory spleen T lymphocytes or IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2 and IL-10 concentrations (p > 0.05). In contrast, there were significant differences in all of the evaluated immune factors between the two vaccinated groups of mice and negative control mice (p GRI vaccines obtained were 6.28 and 7.07, respectively, which indicated the high potency of both vaccines. GRI vaccine is suitable for both routine vaccination and control of FMDV in emergency outbreaks.

  14. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of Canine distemper virus from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swati; Deka, Dipak; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Verma, Ramneek

    2015-09-01

    Canine distemper (CD), caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious disease that infects a variety of carnivores. Sequence analysis of CDVs from different geographical areas has shown a lot of variation in the genome of the virus especially in haemagglutinin gene which might be one of the causes of vaccine failure. In this study, we isolated the virus (place: Ludhiana, Punjab; year: 2014) and further cloned, sequenced and analyzed partial haemagglutinin (H) gene and full length genes for fusion protein (F), phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M) from an Indian wild-type CDV. Higher sequence homology was observed with the strains from Switzerland, Hungary, Germany; and lower with the vaccine strains like Ondersteport, CDV3, Convac for all the genes. The multiple sequence alignment showed more variation in partial H (45 nucleotide and 5 amino acid substitutions) and complete F (79 nucleotide and 30 amino acid substitutions) than in complete P (44 nucleotide and 22 amino acid substitutions) and complete M (22 nucleotide and 4 amino acid substitutions) gene/protein. Predicted potential N-linked glycosylation sites in H, F, M and P proteins were similar to the previously known wild-type CDVs but different from the vaccine strains. The Indian CDV formed a distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree clearly separated from the previously known wild-type and vaccine strains.

  15. Genetic variation and recombination of RdRp and HSP 70h genes of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from orange trees showing symptoms of citrus sudden death disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappas Georgios J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus sudden death (CSD, a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV. CTV genetic variation was therefore assessed in two Brazilian orange trees displaying CSD symptoms and a third with more conventional CTV symptoms. Results A total of 286 RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp and 284 heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h gene fragments were determined for CTV variants infecting the three trees. It was discovered that, despite differences in symptomatology, the trees were all apparently coinfected with similar populations of divergent CTV variants. While mixed CTV infections are common, the genetic distance between the most divergent population members observed (24.1% for RdRp and 11.0% for HSP70h was far greater than that in previously described mixed infections. Recombinants of five distinct RdRp lineages and three distinct HSP70h lineages were easily detectable but respectively accounted for only 5.9 and 11.9% of the RdRp and HSP70h gene fragments analysed and there was no evidence of an association between particular recombinant mosaics and CSD. Also, comparisons of CTV population structures indicated that the two most similar CTV populations were those of one of the trees with CSD and the tree without CSD. Conclusion We suggest that if CTV is the causal agent of CSD, it is most likely a subtle feature of population structures within mixed infections and not merely the presence (or absence of a single CTV variant within these populations that triggers the disease.

  16. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Human Adenovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Infections in Tonsillar Lymphocytes Isolated from Patients Diagnosed with Tonsillar Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, Farzaneh; Sandström, Karl; Bondeson, Kåre; Laurell, Göran; Lidian, Adnan; Svensson, Catharina; Akusjärvi, Göran; Bergqvist, Anders; Punga, Tanel

    2016-01-01

    Surgically removed palatine tonsils provide a conveniently accessible source of T and B lymphocytes to study the interplay between foreign pathogens and the host immune system. In this study we have characterised the distribution of human adenovirus (HAdV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in purified tonsillar T and B cell-enriched fractions isolated from three patient age groups diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy and chronic/recurrent tonsillitis. HAdV DNA was detected in 93 out of 111 patients (84%), while EBV DNA was detected in 58 patients (52%). The most abundant adenovirus type was HAdV-5 (68%). None of the patients were positive for HCMV. Furthermore, 43 patients (39%) showed a co-infection of HAdV and EBV. The majority of young patients diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy were positive for HAdV, whereas all adult patients diagnosed with chronic/recurrent tonsillitis were positive for either HAdV or EBV. Most of the tonsils from patients diagnosed with either tonsillar hypertrophy or chronic/recurrent tonsillitis showed a higher HAdV DNA copy number in T compared to B cell-enriched fraction. Interestingly, in the majority of the tonsils from patients with chronic/recurrent tonsillitis HAdV DNA was detected in T cells only, whereas hypertrophic tonsils demonstrated HAdV DNA in both T and B cell-enriched fractions. In contrast, the majority of EBV positive tonsils revealed a preference for EBV DNA accumulation in the B cell-enriched fraction compared to T cell fraction irrespective of the patients' age.

  17. Characterization of a Zika Virus Isolate from Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anismrita Lahon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (Flavivirus genus is the first mosquito-borne virus known to cause high rates of microcephaly and abortion in humans. Typically, Zika virus causes a self-limiting, systemic illness; however, the current outbreak of Zika virus in the Americas has been associated with increased rates of fetal malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Very few Zika virus isolates have been described in the literature, and live viruses are needed to perform studies of pathogenesis and to develop vaccines and treatments.We isolated Zika virus, strain FLR, directly from the serum of an individual infected in Barranquilla, Colombia (December, 2015. Here, we describe the patient's clinical course and characterize strain FLR by its growth characteristics in mosquito and mammalian cells and its partial resistance to UV-inactivation. The full genome sequence of FLR was also analyzed (including the 3' un-translated region, to determine its probable geographic origin, and to pinpoint structural differences from other Zika virus strains.We anticipate that the study of this low passage, clinical isolate of Zika virus, which is available for worldwide distribution, will help uncover the mechanisms of viral replication and host immune responses contributing to the varied and sometimes severe clinical presentations seen during the current epidemic in the Americas.

  18. Detection of banana streak virus (BSV) Tamil Nadu isolate (India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    641 003, Tamil Nadu, India. 2Department of Fruit Crops, ... Hence, attempts were made for diagnosis of BSV and to study the serological relationship with ... Among the five virus diseases of banana, disease caused by banana ...

  19. Bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  20. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  1. An improved method for isolating viruses from asymptomatic carrier fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.; Pietsch, John P.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a method using elevated levels of penicillin, streptomycin, and nystatin instead of filters to control bacteria and mold contaminants in specimens processed for virus isolation. Filters were shown to significantly reduce the virus concentration. Virus and tissue cultures were not affected by this procedure. In field tests nearly three times more specimens were positive for virus with this method than with the widely used filter technique. Moreover, the cost of materials was less. This method is recommended for inspection and certification purposes.

  2. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  5. Loss of aphid transmissibility of plum pox virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenova, I.; Lohuis, H.; Peters, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aphid transmissibility of seven Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates and the amino acid sequences of their coat proteins were analysed Two aphid transmissible isolates PPV-A and PPV-P contained the DAG amino triplet, while DAL or NAG replaced this triplet in the coat proteins of non-aphid transmissible

  6. Variability in alternanthera mosaic virus isolates from different hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have determined the complete genome sequences of Alternanthera mosaic virus phlox isolate PA (AltMV-PA) and four infectious clone variants derived from AltMV-SP, as well as partial sequences of other isolates from various types of phlox, and from portulaca, nandina, and cineraria. Phylogenetic co...

  7. Isolation of Dobrava Virus from Apodemus flavicollis in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Nemirov, Kirill; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Antoniadis, Antonis; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander; Vapalahti, Olli

    2001-01-01

    Dobrava virus (DOBV) carried by Apodemus flavicollis is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). DOBV was isolated from an A. flavicollis mouse trapped in northeastern Greece. This is the third DOBV cell culture isolate in the world, clustering together with other Greek DOBV sequences from HFRS patients and rodents. PMID:11376073

  8. Pepino mosaic virus isolates and differential symptomatology in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Paeleman, A.; Vandewoestijne, E.; Bergen, Van L.; Bragard, C.; Lievens, B.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey conducted in commercial tomato production in Belgium in 2006, four Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) isolates that differed in symptom expression in the crop of origin were selected for greenhouse trials. The selected isolates were inoculated onto tomato plants grown in four separate

  9. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Tove; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Batts, William

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11...

  10. Diagnostic efficacy of molecular assays for the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Pojezdal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic properties of the one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus detection were compared to methods currently in use in the Czech Republic, namely, virus isolation using the cell culture and conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by the nested polymerase chain reaction. The assays were tested on a panel of 25 archived viral haemorrhagic septicaemia isolates and 8 archived infectious haematopoietic necrosis isolates obtained from monitoring and/or outbreaks of the diseases among farmed salmonids in the Czech Republic. The ability to detect the presence of the virus in the tissues of fish was tested on additional 32 field samples collected from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout (Salmo trutta and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis. The real-time assay showed the highest analytic sensitivity by detecting the presence of viral nucleic acid in samples with 10-7 dilution, whereas the sensitivity of the conventional polymerase chain reaction peaked at 10-5. Diagnostic specificity of both molecular assays was confirmed by absence of cross-reactivity with the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus isolates. This, along with consistent results in the detection of the virus in the fish tissues, confirms that the one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction is currently an optimal stand-alone diagnostic method for the detection of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

  11. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area.

  12. Molecular characterisation of lumpy skin disease virus and sheeppox virus based on P32 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.A.Rashid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV and sheeppox virus (SPV have a considerable economic impact on the cattle and small ruminant industry. They are listed in group A of contagious disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. This study addressed molecular characterisation of first LSDV outbreak and an endemic SPV in Kurdistan region of Iraq based on P32 gene. The results indicated that P32 gene can be successfully used for diagnosis of LSDV. The phylogenic and molecular analysis showed that there may be a new LSDV isolate circulating in Kurdistan which uniquely shared the same characteristic amino acid sequence with SPV and GPV, leucine at amino acid position 51 in P32 gene as well as few genetically distinct SPV causing pox disease in Kurdistan sheep. This study provided sequence information of P32 gene for several LSDV isolates, which positively affects the epidemiological study of Capripoxvirus

  13. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane ... race (“Bahausa”) and the least infected was the white land race (“fararkwama”). ... stripes symptoms on leaf blade and white stripe on stem in infected sugarcane and are ...

  14. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid ...

  15. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    and laboratories, but also between lineages of the same cell line. To minimise the occurrence of false negatives in a cell culture based surveillance system, we have investigated methods, to select cell lineages that are relatively superior in their susceptibility to a panel of virus isolates. The procedures...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...... sensitivity for surveillance purposes within a cell line and between laboratories.In terms of economic and practical considerations as well as attempting to approach a realistic test system, we suggest the optimal procedure for susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation to be a combination...

  16. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  17. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    include careful screening of the people coming back home from Ebola affected countries and also giving adequate safety training on the threat of Ebola exposure to the people going to those countries.11 It is a matter of relief and contentment that the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR laboratory of Bangladesh has the capacity to primarily identify an Ebola patient but the identified samples need to be sent to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC headquarters in Atlanta for a confirmed result which could take a couple of days.11 Moreover the WHO has promised all necessary technical support to Bangladesh and requested the government to increase vigilance and screening at ports. As part of an ongoing countrywide 90 day Ebola alert from October 2014, screening centres and health desks have been set up at 25 ports, including three international airports and two seaports of the country. Health directorate officials said 15 isolation wards at district hospitals near the ports have been kept ready to provide treatment if any suspected Ebola patient was found. A 20 bed specialized ward is also set to be opened soon at the Kurmitola General Hospital in Dhaka. Officials said 3,167 personnel - doctors, nurses and sanitary inspectors who work at the health desks at the ports - have been provided specialized training on Ebola detection, management and handling.12 Till date there is no effective treatment or no vaccine could be invented to fight against this lethal virus. Rather we have to surrender to the old dictum - ‘prevention is better than cure’. The only tools at our hands are public awareness and strict maintenance of universal precaution and avoiding handling of remains of infected animals or persons.

  18. Full Genomic Characterization of a Saffold Virus Isolated in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Leguia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While studying respiratory infections of unknown etiology we detected Saffold virus in an oropharyngeal swab collected from a two-year-old female suffering from diarrhea and respiratory illness. The full viral genome recovered by deep sequencing showed 98% identity to a previously described Saffold strain isolated in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the Peruvian Saffold strain belongs to genotype 3 and is most closely related to strains that have circulated in Asia. This is the first documented case report of Saffold virus in Peru and the only complete genomic characterization of a Saffold-3 isolate from the Americas.

  19. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus types 1 and 3 isolated in Jakarta, Indonesia in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjatha, Fithriyah; Takizawa, Yamato; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Konishi, Eiji

    2012-12-01

    Dengue viruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, both of which are globally important diseases. These viruses have evolved in a transmission cycle between human hosts and mosquito vectors in various tropical and subtropical environments. We previously isolated three strains of dengue type 1 virus (DENV1) and 14 strains of dengue type 3 virus (DENV3) during an outbreak of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Jakarta, Indonesia in 1988. Here, we compared the nucleotide sequences of the entire envelope protein-coding region among these strains. The isolates were 97.6-100% identical for DENV1 and 98.8-100% identical for DENV3. All DENV1 isolates were included in two different clades of genotype IV and all DENV3 isolates were included in a single clade of genotype I. For DENV1, three Yap Island strains isolated in 2004 were the only strains closely related to the present isolates; the recently circulated Indonesian strains were in different clades. Molecular clock analyses estimated that ancestors of the genotype IV strains of DENV1 have been indigenous in Indonesia since 1948. We predict that they diverged frequently around 1967 and that their offspring distributed to Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and Africa. For DENV3, the clade containing all the present isolates also contained strains isolated from other Indonesian regions and other countries including Malaysia, Singapore, China, and East Timor from 1985-2010. Molecular clock analyses estimated that the common ancestor of the genotype I strains of DENV3 emerged in Indonesia around 1967 and diverged frequently until 1980, and that their offspring distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. The first dengue outbreak in 1968 and subsequent outbreaks in Indonesia might have influenced the divergence and distribution of the DENV1 genotype IV strains and the DENV3 genotype I strains in many countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

    2009-12-01

    Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field

  2. First isolation and genotyping of viruses from recent outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Slovenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toplak, Ivan; Hostnik, Peter; Rihtaric, Danijela

    2010-01-01

    and clinical signs of VHS were observed among the diseased fish. VHSV was confirmed by virus isolation, immunoperoxidase test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 1 complete (1524 nucleotides [nt]) and 9 partial (600 nt) glycoprotein gene nucleotide...... sequences, 9 VHSV isolates from the 6 VHS outbreaks were genetically closely related (99 to 100% identity), and were classified into the Subgroup I-a of Genotype I, most closely related to the German isolates Dstg21-07, Dstg36-06, and Dstg54-1-07 (99 to 100% identity). Phylogenetic analysis...

  3. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  4. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus Induced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the generic name for treatment modalities aiming to reinforce the immune system against diseases in which the immune system plays a role. The design of an optimal immunotherapeutic treatment against chronic viruses and associated diseases requires a detailed understanding of the interactions between the target virus and its host, in order to define the specific strategies that may have the best chance to deliver success at each stage of disease. Recently, a first series of successes was reported for the immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-induced premalignant diseases but there is definitely room for improvement. Here I discuss a number of topics that in my opinion require more study as the answers to these questions allows us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and as such to tailor treatment. PMID:23341861

  6. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be

  7. Isolation of Ganjam virus from ticks collected off domestic animals around Pune, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M V; Geevarghese, G; Joshi, G D; Ghodke, Y S; Mourya, D T; Mishra, A C

    2005-03-01

    Studies on viruses of zoonotic importance in certain villages around Pune were undertaken between December 2000 and January 2002. A total of 1,138 adult ticks belonging to six different species were collected off domestic animals and processed for virus isolation. Six virus isolates were obtained. All six isolates were identified as Ganjam virus by Quick Complement Fixation test and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using RNA nucleocapsid gene amplification. Five isolates were from the pools of adult Hemaphysalis intermedia ticks, and one isolate was from a pool of adult Rhipecephalus hemaphysaloides. This is the first report of isolation of Ganjam virus from Maharashtra state of India.

  8. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine...

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced RNA polymerase is associated with Golgi apparatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J; Wool, S H

    1985-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the Golgi apparatus isolated by differential centrifugation from radiolabeled cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus showed about 10 protein bands. The virus-induced RNA polymerase was identified by immunoprecipitation and electron microscope staining procedures. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the polymerase passed through the Golgi apparatus in less than 1 h.

  11. Phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus inactivates dengue virus and other enveloped viruses by disrupting the viral envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Danielle Muller

    Full Text Available The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

    2010-10-01

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group.

  13. Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) disease is a rare disorder in which persons are unable to control infection with the virus. The disease is progressive with markedly elevated levels of EBV DNA in the blood and infiltration of organs by EBV-positive lymphocytes. Patients often present with fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, EBV hepatitis, or pancytopenia. Over time, these patients develop progressive immunodeficiency and if not treated, succumb to opportunistic infections, hemophagocytosis, multiorgan failure, or EBV-positive lymphomas. Patients with CAEBV in the United States most often present with disease involving B or T cells, while in Asia, the disease usually involves T or NK cells. The only proven effective treatment for the disease is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current studies to find a cause of this disease focus on immune defects and genetic abnormalities associated with the disease.

  14. Chronic Active Epstein–Barr Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kimura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (CAEBV disease is a rare disorder in which persons are unable to control infection with the virus. The disease is progressive with markedly elevated levels of EBV DNA in the blood and infiltration of organs by EBV-positive lymphocytes. Patients often present with fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, EBV hepatitis, or pancytopenia. Over time, these patients develop progressive immunodeficiency and if not treated, succumb to opportunistic infections, hemophagocytosis, multiorgan failure, or EBV-positive lymphomas. Patients with CAEBV in the United States most often present with disease involving B or T cells, while in Asia, the disease usually involves T or NK cells. The only proven effective treatment for the disease is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current studies to find a cause of this disease focus on immune defects and genetic abnormalities associated with the disease.

  15. Iguana Virus, a Herpes-Like Virus Isolated from Cultured Cells of a Lizard, Iguana iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, H. Fred; Karzon, David T.

    1972-01-01

    An agent cytopathic for Terrapene and Iguana cell cultures was isolated from spontaneously degenerating cell cultures prepared from a green iguana (Iguana iguana). The agent, designated iguana virus, caused a cytopathic effect (CPE) of a giant cell type, with eosinophilic inclusions commonly observed within giant cell nuclei. Incubation temperature had a marked effect on CPE and on virus release from infected cells. Within the range of 23 to 36 C, low temperatures favored CPE characterized by cytolysis and small giant cell formation, and significant virus release was observed. At warmer temperatures, a purely syncytial type of CPE and total absence of released virus were noted. A unique type of hexagonal eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion was observed within syncytia of infected Terrapene cell cultures incubated at 36 C. In vivo studies revealed no evidence of pathogenicity of iguana virus for suckling mice, embryonated hen's eggs, or several species of reptiles and amphibians. Inoculation of iguana virus into young iguanas consistently caused infection that was “unmasked” only when cell cultures were prepared directly from the infected animal. Filtration studies revealed a virion size of >100 nm and Iguana virus is ether-sensitive and, as presumptively indicated by studies of inhibition by bromodeoxyuridine, possesses a deoxyribonucleic type of nucleic acid. The virus characteristics described, as well as electron microscopy observations described in a separate report, indicate that iguana virus is a member of the herpesvirus group. Images PMID:4344303

  16. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  17. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.

    1998-01-01

    of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry ire Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative...

  18. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Rajak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  19. Inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU) found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU.

  20. Inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Holzer

    Full Text Available The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV. NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus. We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease – An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is a severe, haemorrhagic febrile disease, often fatal in humans, caused by a non segmented, negative sense RNA virus of the family Filoviridae and genus Ebolavirus. It is also known as Ebola Haemorrhagic fever. There are five species of Ebolavirus, namely Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus and Tai Forest ebolavirus. The Zaire species has caused multiple large outbreaks with mortality rates of 55 to 88 percent since first appearance of the disease whereas the Sudan virus has been associated with an approximate 50 percent case-fatality rate in four known epidemics: two in Sudan in the 1970s, one in Uganda in 2000, and another in Sudan in 2004 [1-5].

  2. Molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for disease control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, L; Osmani, M G; Kalam, M A; Chakraborty, R K; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; Hammond, J M; Benigno, C

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh, and to implement an effective FMD control programme, it is essential to understand the complex epidemiology of the disease. Here, we report on the characterization of FMD virus (FMDV) recovered from FMD outbreaks in Bangladesh in late 2009. All isolated viruses belonged to the FMDV serotype O. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all isolates belonged to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype, but fell into two distinct sublineages, one named Ind-2001 (the other has not been named). Within both sublineages, the 2009 Bangladesh isolates were most closely related to viruses from Nepal collected during 2008 and 2009. Additionally, both sublineages contained older viruses from India collected in 2000 and 2001. In South Asia, there is extensive cross-border cattle movement from Nepal and India to Bangladesh. Both these findings have implications for the control of FMD in Bangladesh. Because of the porous borders, a regional FMD control strategy should be developed. Further, animal identification and monitoring animal movements are necessary to identify the cross-border movements and market chain interactions of ruminants, leading to improved border and movement controls. Additionally, a vaccination strategy should be developed with the initial objective of protecting small-scale dairy herds from disease. For any successful FMD control programme, long-term Government commitment and adequate resources are necessary. A sustainable programme will also need farmer education, commitment and financial contributions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Aphid Transmission of the Ontario Isolate of Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, D Thomas; Vickers, Patricia M; Bittner, Lori A; Stobbs, Lorne W; Foottit, Robert G

    2015-10-01

    Utilization of timed virus acquisition access probes in studies of plum pox virus (PPV) transmission by aphids demonstrated that endemic species transmitted the virus readily from plum, Prunus domestica (L.) Batsch; peach, P. persica (L.); or dwarf flowering almond, P. glandulosa Thunberg., to peach seedlings. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), was shown to be the most efficient vector. Acquisition of virus by green peach aphids from infected peach leaves resulted in 18-28% infected peach seedlings, while aphids previously fed on infected leaves of plum transferred virus to 36% of peach seedlings. Although the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Patch), was a less efficient vector than M. persicae it is perhaps more important for the spread of PPV due to its greater abundance and occurrence earlier in the season when peach trees are thought to be more susceptible to infection. Virus transmission rates varied depending on the virus source and healthy test plant species. In contrast to many previous studies, aphid inoculation of the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana Domin occurred at a low rate, never exceeding 4%. Acquisition of PPV by M. persicae from infected peach fruit was greatly reduced compared with acquisition from leaves. The results of this research indicate that the Ontario isolate of PPV-D is readily transmissible by aphids to peach and natural spread of the virus needs to be considered in future management or eradication programs. © Her Majesty in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Isolation and characterization of virus of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype of chicken from outbreaks in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the isolation and characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza of chicken from outbreaks in Indonesia was conducted at Indonesian Research Institute for Veterinary Science. Outbreaks of avian disease had been reported in Indonesia since August 2003 affecting commercial layer, broiler, quail, and ostrich and also native chicken with showing clinical signs such as cyanosis of wattle and comb, nasal discharges and hypersalivation, subcutaneous ptechiae on foot and leg, diarre and sudden high mortality. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the causal agent of the disease. Samples of serum, feather follicle, tracheal swab, as well as organs of proventriculus, intestine, caecal tonsil, trachea and lungs were collected from infected animals. Serum samples were tested haemaglutination/haemaglutination inhibition to Newcastle Disease and Egg Drop Syndrome viruses. Isolation of virus of the causal agent of the outbreak was conducted from samples of feather follicle, tracheal swab, and organs using 11 days old specific pathogen free (SPF embryonated eggs. The isolated viruses were then characterised by agar gel precipitation test using swine influenza reference antisera, by haemaglutination inhibition using H1 to H15 reference antisera, and by electron microscope examination. The pathogenicity of the viruses was confirmed by intravenous pathogenicity index test and its culture in Chicken Embryo Fibroblast primary cell culture without addition of trypsin. The study revealed that the causative agent of the outbreaks of avian disease in Indonesia was avian influenza H5 subtype virus based upon serological tests, virus isolation and characterization using swine influenza reference antisera, and electron microscope examination. While subtyping of the viruses using H1 to H15 reference antisera suggested that the virus is very likely to be an avian influenza H5N1 subtype virus. The pathogenicity test confirmed that the viruses

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus Sequence Variation—Biology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzellos, Stelios; Farrell, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Some key questions in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) biology center on whether naturally occurring sequence differences in the virus affect infection or EBV associated diseases. Understanding the pattern of EBV sequence variation is also important for possible development of EBV vaccines. At present EBV isolates worldwide can be grouped into Type 1 and Type 2, a classification based on the EBNA2 gene sequence. Type 1 EBV is the most prevalent worldwide but Type 2 is common in parts of Africa. Type 1 transforms human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines much more efficiently than Type 2 EBV. Molecular mechanisms that may account for this difference in cell transformation are now becoming clearer. Advances in sequencing technology will greatly increase the amount of whole EBV genome data for EBV isolated from different parts of the world. Study of regional variation of EBV strains independent of the Type 1/Type 2 classification and systematic investigation of the relationship between viral strains, infection and disease will become possible. The recent discovery that specific mutation of the EBV EBNA3B gene may be linked to development of diffuse large B cell lymphoma illustrates the importance that mutations in the virus genome may have in infection and human disease. PMID:25436768

  6. Virulence and molecular polymorphism of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M

    1998-07-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) occurs as numerous strains or isolates that vary widely in their pathogenic, biophysical and serological properties. Prior attempts to distinguish pathotypes based upon physical properties have not been successful; our approach was to examine the molecular properties that may distinguish these isolates. The nucleic acid sequence was determined from 1.65 kbp RT-PCR products derived from RNA 3 of seven distinct isolates of PNRSV that differ serologically and in pathology on sweet cherry. Sequence comparisons of ORF 3a (putative movement protein) and ORF 3b (coat protein) revealed single nucleotide and amino acid differences with strong correlations to serology and symptom types (pathotypes). Sequence differences between serotypes and pathotypes were also reflected in the overall phylogenetic relationships between the isolates.

  7. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  8. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and t...

  9. Hobi-like pestivirus: both biotypes isolated from a diseased animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Cirone, Francesco; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-09-01

    A Hobi-like pestivirus pair consisting of cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cytopathogenic (noncp) strains, Italy 83/10cp and Italy 83/10ncp, was isolated from the lung of a heifer that died of respiratory disease. The noncp and cp viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells and separated by plaque purification and end point dilution. Analysis of the nearly full-length genomes revealed that the two viruses were very closely related to each other and to the noncp Hobi-like strain Italy 1/10-1, which had been isolated a few weeks earlier from the same herd. One major difference between noncp and cp viruses concerned the presence of a cellular Jiv sequence in the 3' domain of the NS2-encoding region of the cp strain. This is the first study, to our knowledge, reporting the isolation and molecular characterization of a Hobi-like virus pair.

  10. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  11. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine...

  12. Coinfecting viruses as determinants of HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    The human body constitutes a balanced ecosystem of its own cells together with various microbes ("host-microbe ecosystem"). The transmission of HIV-1 and the progression of HIV disease in such an ecosystem are accompanied by de novo infection by other microbes or by activation of microbes that were present in the host in homeostatic equilibrium before HIV-1 infection. In recent years, data have accumulated on the interactions of these coinfecting microbes-viruses in particular-with HIV. Coinfecting viruses generate negative and positive signals that suppress or upregulate HIV-1. We suggest that the signals generated by these viruses may largely affect HIV transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. The study of the mechanisms of HIV interaction with coinfecting viruses may indicate strategies to suppress positive signals, enhance negative signals, and lead to the development of new and original anti-HIV therapies.

  13. Viruses and kidney disease: beyond HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2008-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they also may experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections owing to immunodeficiency or risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA.

  14. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  15. Different Babesia canis isolates, different diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T P; Moubri, K; Précigout, E; Kleuskens, J; Scholtes, N C; Gorenflot, A

    1997-11-01

    Using surface immunofluorescence isolate-specific antigens were detected on the membrane of erythrocytes infected with Babesia parasites. In addition, the strains reacted differently with Plasmagel in that the European isolate (B.c. canis) could be purified on Plasmagel effectively, whereas infected erythrocytes of the South-African isolate (B.c. rossi) could not. Experimental infection of dogs with Babesia canis isolates from geographically different areas revealed different pathology. The European isolate obtained from France exhibited transient parasitaemia, usually below 1%, associated with low PCV values and congestion of internal organs. Clinical disease was correlated with an effect on the coagulation system, and not with peripheral parasitaemia. Infection of dogs with South-African-derived isolate induced high parasitaemia usually much higher than 1%, which required chemotherapeutic treatment. In these animals clinical disease was correlated with peripheral parasitaemia and not with parameters of the coagulation system. The results show that the etiology of disease caused by these isolates of B.c. canis and B.c. rossi is different. This might have implications for the development of vaccines against these infections.

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, San-Ji; Lin, Yi-Hua; Pan, Yong-Bao; Damaj, Mona B; Wang, Qin-Nan; Mirkov, T Erik; Chen, Ru-Kai

    2012-10-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae), the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease (YLD), was first detected in China in 2006. To assess the distribution of SCYLV in the major sugarcane-growing Chinese provinces, leaf samples from 22 sugarcane clones (Saccharum spp. hybrid) showing YLD symptoms were collected and analyzed for infection by the virus using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and immunological assays. A complete genomic sequence (5,879 nt) of the Chinese SCYLV isolate CHN-FJ1 and partial genomic sequences (2,915 nt) of 13 other Chinese SCYLV isolates from this study were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The genomic sequence of the CHN-FJ1 isolate was found to share a high identity (98.4-99.1 %) with those of the Brazilian (BRA) genotype isolates and a low identity (86.5-86.9 %) with those of the CHN1 and Cuban (CUB) genotype isolates. The genetic diversity of these 14 Chinese SCYLV isolates was assessed along with that of 29 SCYLV isolates of worldwide origin reported in the GenBank database, based on the full or partial genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all the 14 Chinese SCYLV isolates clustered into one large group with the BRA genotype and 12 other reported SCYLV isolates. In addition, five reported Chinese SCYLV isolates were grouped with the Peruvian (PER), CHN1 and CUB genotypes. We therefore speculated that at least four SCYLV genotypes, BRA, PER, CHN1, and CUB, are associated with YLD in China. Interestingly, a 39-nt deletion was detected in the sequence of the CHN-GD3 isolate, in the middle of the ORF1 region adjacent to the overlap between ORF1 and ORF2. This location is known to be one of the recombination breakpoints in the Luteoviridae family.

  17. Xiburema Virus, a Hitherto Undescribed Virus within the Family Rhabdoviridae Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Wanzeller, Ana Lucia M.; Martins, Lívia C.; Diniz Júnior, José Antonio P.; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa; Cardoso, Jedson F.; da Silva, Daisy E. A.; de Oliveira, Layanna F.; de Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Nunes, Márcio R. T.; Vianez Júnior, João Lídio da S. G.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first complete open reading frame (ORF) genome sequence of Xiburema virus (XIBV), that of strain BE AR362159, isolated from mosquitoes (Sabethes intermedius) in Sena Madureira, Acre state, northern Brazil. All genes showed similarities with those belonging to members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

  18. Xiburema Virus, a Hitherto Undescribed Virus within the Family Rhabdoviridae Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzeller, Ana Lucia M; Martins, Lívia C; Diniz Júnior, José Antonio P; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa; Cardoso, Jedson F; da Silva, Daisy E A; de Oliveira, Layanna F; de Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vianez Júnior, João Lídio da S G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2014-06-19

    We report here the first complete open reading frame (ORF) genome sequence of Xiburema virus (XIBV), that of strain BE AR362159, isolated from mosquitoes (Sabethes intermedius) in Sena Madureira, Acre state, northern Brazil. All genes showed similarities with those belonging to members of the family Rhabdoviridae. Copyright © 2014 Wanzeller et al.

  19. Xiburema Virus, a Hitherto Undescribed Virus within the Family Rhabdoviridae Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lívia C.; Diniz Júnior, José Antonio P.; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa; Cardoso, Jedson F.; da Silva, Daisy E. A.; de Oliveira, Layanna F.; de Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Vianez Júnior, João Lídio da S. G.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first complete open reading frame (ORF) genome sequence of Xiburema virus (XIBV), that of strain BE AR362159, isolated from mosquitoes (Sabethes intermedius) in Sena Madureira, Acre state, northern Brazil. All genes showed similarities with those belonging to members of the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24948755

  20. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2016-10-15

    Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such a model for BDBV is

  1. Isolation and whole-genome sequencing of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Pappa, Styliani; Melidou, Ageliki; Giadinis, Nektarios D

    2018-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was isolated from a pool of two adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks removed from a goat in 2015 in Greece. The strain clusters into lineage Europe 2 representing the second available whole-genome sequenced isolate of this lineage. CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 19 goats of the farm. Currently CCHFV is not associated with disease in mammals other than humans. Studies in animal models are needed to investigate the pathogenicity level of lineage Europe 2 and compare it with that of other lineages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the .... DNA was cloned in p-GEM Teasy vector (Promega, USA) as per the ... M. persicae and A. gossypii transmitted the virus in non persistent manner ...

  3. First isolation of dengue virus from the 2010 epidemic in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Basu D; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Pandey, Kishor; Rajendra, Saroj P; Shah, Yogendra; Adhikari, Bal R; Gupta, Govinda; Gautam, Ishan; Tun, Mya M N; Uchida, Reo; Shrestha, Mahendra; Kurane, Ichiro; Morita, Kouichi

    2013-09-01

    Dengue is an emerging disease in Nepal and was first observed as an outbreak in nine lowland districts in 2006. In 2010, however, a large epidemic of dengue occurred with 4,529 suspected and 917 serologically-confirmed cases and five deaths reported in government hospitals in Nepal. The collection of demographic information was performed along with an entomological survey and clinical evaluation of the patients. A total of 280 serum samples were collected from suspected dengue patients. These samples were subjected to routine laboratory investigations and IgM-capture ELISA for dengue serological identification, and 160 acute serum samples were used for virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that affected patients were predominately adults, and that 10% of the cases were classified as dengue haemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome. The genetic characterization of dengue viruses isolated from patients in four major outbreak areas of Nepal suggests that the DENV-1 strain was responsible for the 2010 epidemic. Entomological studies identified Aedes aegypti in all epidemic areas. All viruses belonged to a monophyletic single clade which is phylogenetically close to Indian viruses. The dengue epidemic started in the lowlands and expanded to the highland areas. To our knowledge, this is the first dengue isolation and genetic characterization reported from Nepal.

  4. Optimization of Newcastle disease virus production in T-flask

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... In the present study, the production of lentogenic Asplin F strain of Newcastle disease virus by ... future live Newcastle disease vaccine production in larger ..... Production of yellow fever virus in microcarrier-based Vero cell ...

  5. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yugang; Wang, Shijie; Du, Rui; Wang, Quankai; Sun, Changjiang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Pengju; Zhang, Lianxue

    2011-02-25

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

  6. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

  7. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  8. Genomic characterization of Zika virus isolated from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhaputri, Frilasita A; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Perkasa, Aditya; Yohan, Benediktus; Haryanto, Sotianingsih; Wiyatno, Ageng; Soebandrio, Amin; Myint, Khin Saw; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Rosenberg, Ronald; Powers, Ann M; Sasmono, R Tedjo

    2017-10-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) JMB-185 strain was isolated from a febrile patient in Jambi, Indonesia in 2014. To understand its genetic characteristics, we performed whole genome sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the supernatant of the first passage. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was not closely related to the Brazilian ZIKV associated with microcephaly or isolates from the recent Singapore Zika outbreak. Molecular evolution analysis indicated that JMB-185 strain may have been circulating in the Southeast Asia region, including Indonesia since 2000. We observed high nucleotide sequence identity between Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, and American strains although unique amino acid substitutions were also observed. This report provides information on the genomic characteristics of Indonesian ZIKV which may be used for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  10. Genetic diversity of tomato-infecting Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) isolates in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sue Hoon; Oh, Sung; Oh, Tae-Kyun; Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Sei Chang; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Sim, Sang-Yun; Park, Kwon Seo; Lee, Hwan Gu; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Chang Won

    2011-02-01

    Epidemic outbreaks of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) diseases occurred in greenhouse grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants of Busan (TYLCV-Bus), Boseong (TYLCV-Bos), Hwaseong (TYLCV-Hwas), Jeju Island (TYLCV-Jeju), and Nonsan (TYLCV-Nons) in Korea during 2008-2009. Tomato disease by TYLCV has never occurred in Korea before. We synthesized the full-length genomes of each TYLCV isolate from the tomato plants collected at each area and determined their nucleotides (nt) sequences and deduced the amino acids of six open reading frames in the genomes. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos genomes shared higher nt identities with four Japanese isolates -Ng, -Omu, -Mis, and -Miy. On the other hand, TYLCV-Hwas, -Jeju, and -Nons genomes shared higher nt identities with five Chinese isolates TYLCV-AH1, -ZJ3, -ZJHZ12, -SH2, -Sh10, and two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa. On the basis of a neighbor-joining tree, five Korean TYLCV isolates were separated into three clades. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos formed the first clade, clustering with four Japanese isolates TYLCV-Mis, -Omu, -Ng, and -Miy. TYLCV-Jeju and -Nons formed the second clade, clustering with two Chinese isolates -ZJHZ212 and -Sh10. TYLCV-Hwas was clustered with two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa and three Chinese isolates -AH1, -ZJ3, and -SH2. Two fragments that had a potentially recombinant origin were identified using the RDP, GENECONV, BootScan, MaxChi, Chimaera, SiScan, and 3Seq methods implemented in RDP3.41. On the basis of RDP analysis, all TYLCV isolates could originated from the interspecies recombination between TYLCV-Mld[PT] isolated from Portugal as a major parent and TYLCTHV-MM isolated from Myanmar as a minor parent.

  11. Development, characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against Brazilian Dengue virus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Zanluca

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent human arboviral disease. The morbidity related to dengue infection supports the need for an early, quick and effective diagnostic test. Brazil is a hotspot for dengue, but no serological diagnostic test has been produced using Brazilian dengue virus isolates. This study aims to improve the development of immunodiagnostic methods for dengue virus (DENV detection through the production and characterization of 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against Brazilian isolates of DENV-1, -2 and -3. The mAbs include IgG2bκ, IgG2aκ and IgG1κ isotypes, and most were raised against the envelope or the pre-membrane proteins of DENV. When the antibodies were tested against the four DENV serotypes, different reactivity patterns were identified: group-specific, subcomplex specific (DENV-1, -3 and -4 and DENV-2 and -3 and dengue serotype-specific (DENV-2 or -3. Additionally, some mAbs cross-reacted with yellow fever virus (YFV, West Nile virus (WNV and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV. None of the mAbs recognized the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV. Furthermore, mAbs D3 424/8G, D1 606/A12/B9 and D1 695/12C/2H were used to develop a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for anti-dengue IgM detection in sera from patients with acute dengue. To our knowledge, these are the first monoclonal antibodies raised against Brazilian DENV isolates, and they may be of special interest in the development of diagnostic assays, as well as for basic research.

  12. Report of isolations of unusual lyssaviruses (rabies and Mokola virus identified retrospectively from Zimbabwe : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bingham

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rabies isolates that had been stored between 1983 and 1997 were examined with a panel of anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Out of 56 isolates from cats and various wild carnivore species, 1 isolate of Mokola virus and 5 other non-typical rabies viruses were identified. The Mokola virus isolate was diagnosed as rabies in 1993 from a cat. Genetic analysis of this isolate suggests that it falls in a distinct subgroup of the Mokola virus genotype. The 5 non-typical rabies viruses were isolated from honey badgers (Mellivora capensis, African civets (Civettictis civetta and an unidentified mongoose (Herpestidae. These isolates are representatives of rarely-reported wildlife-associated strains of rabies, probably maintained by the slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea. These findings indicate that both Mokola virus and the mongoose-associated variant may be more common in Zimbabwe than is apparent from routine surveillance.

  13. Isolation of a virus with rhabdovirus morphology from a white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.W.J. Broeders; K.S. Teppema; T. Kuiken (Thijs); J.A. House; H.W. Vos (Helma); I.K.G. Visser (Ilona)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractA virus with rhabdovirus morphology which proved to be antigenically distinct from rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated from a dolphin that had beached on the Dutch coast. Neutralizing antibodies to this virus were found in several European marine mammal species.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Paiva Drumond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1–4 are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population.

  16. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of dengue type 1 virus isolated from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Esam I; Hashem, Anwar M; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abol-Ela, Said; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Norah A; Ben-Helaby, Huda G; Ashshi, Ahmed; Madani, Tariq A; Jamjoom, Ghazi

    2015-01-16

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are mosquito-borne viruses which can cause disease ranging from mild fever to severe dengue infection. These viruses are endemic in several tropical and subtropical regions. Multiple outbreaks of DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 (DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3) have been reported from the western region in Saudi Arabia since 1994. Strains from at least two genotypes of DENV-1 (Asia and America/Africa genotypes) have been circulating in western Saudi Arabia until 2006. However, all previous studies reported from Saudi Arabia were based on partial sequencing data of the envelope (E) gene without any reports of full genome sequences for any DENV serotypes circulating in Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the isolation and the first complete genome sequence of a DENV-1 strain (DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011) isolated from a patient from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2011. Whole genome sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed high similarity between DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011 strain and D1/H/IMTSSA/98/606 isolate (Asian genotype) reported from Djibouti in 1998. Further analysis of the full envelope gene revealed a close relationship between DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011 strain and isolates reported between 2004-2006 from Jeddah as well as recent isolates from Somalia, suggesting the widespread of the Asian genotype in this region. These data suggest that strains belonging to the Asian genotype might have been introduced into Saudi Arabia long before 2004 most probably by African pilgrims and continued to circulate in western Saudi Arabia at least until 2011. Most importantly, these results indicate that pilgrims from dengue endemic regions can play an important role in the spread of new DENVs in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the world. Therefore, availability of complete genome sequences would serve as a reference for future epidemiological studies of DENV-1 viruses.

  17. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

  18. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Watermelon Mosaic Virus Isolated from Watermelon in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rajbanshi, Naveen; Ali, Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic virus was first reported in 1965 from the Rio Grande Valley, TX. We report here the first complete genome sequence of a watermelon mosaic virus isolate from watermelon collected from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

  19. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R

    2011-01-01

    gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...

  20. Characterization of a siberian virus isolated from a patient with progressive chronic tick-borne encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, T S; Frolova, T V; Zhankov, A I; Armesto, M; Turner, S L; Frolova, M P; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    A strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus designated Zausaev (Za) was isolated in Siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. The complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus belongs to the Siberian subtype of Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Comparison of Za virus with two related viruses, a Far Eastern isolate, Sofjin, and a Siberian isolate, Vasilchenko, revealed differences among the three viruses in pathogenicity for Syrian hamsters, cytopathogenicity for PS cells, plaque morphology, and the electrophoretic profiles of virus-specific nonstructural proteins. Comparative amino acid alignments revealed 10 individual amino acid substitutions in the Za virus polyprotein sequence that were different from those of other tick-borne flaviviruses. Notably, the dimeric form of the Za virus NS1 protein migrated in polyacrylamide gels as a heterogeneous group of molecules with a significantly higher electrophoretic mobility than those of the Sofjin and Vasilchenko viruses. Two amino acid substitutions, T(277)-->V and E(279)-->G, within the NS1 dimerization domain are probably responsible for the altered oligomerization of Za virus NS1. These studies suggest that the patient from whom Za virus was isolated died due to increased pathogenicity of the latent virus following spontaneous mutagenesis.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease: A Review of Its Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus, the virus responsible for Ebola virus disease, has spawned several epidemics during the past 38 years. In 2014, an Ebola epidemic spread from Africa to other continents, becoming a pandemic. The virus's relatively unique structure, its infectivity and lethality, the difficulty in stopping its spread, and the lack of an effective treatment captured the world's attention. This article provides a brief review of the known history of Ebola virus disease, its etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology and a review of the limited information on managing patients with Ebola virus disease.

  2. Isolation and partial characterization of Brazilian samples of feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, B M; Logan, N; Samman, A; Miyashiro, S I; Brandão, P E; Willett, B J; Hosie, M J; Hagiwara, M K

    2011-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes a slow progressive degeneration of the immune system which eventually leads to a disease comparable to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. FIV has extensive sequence variation, a typical feature of lentiviruses. Sequence analysis showed that diversity was not evenly distributed throughout the genome, but was greatest in the envelope gene, env. The virus enters host cells via a sequential interaction, initiated by the envelope glycoprotein (env) binding the primary receptor molecule CD134 and followed by a subsequent interaction with chemokine co-receptor CXCR4. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize isolates of FIV from an open shelter in São Paulo, Brazil. The separated PBMC from 11 positive cats were co-cultured with MYA-1 cells. Full-length viral env glycoprotein genes were amplified and determined. Chimeric feline × human CD134 receptors were used to investigate the receptor utilization of 17 clones from Brazilian isolates of FIV. Analyses of the sequence present of molecular clones showed that all clones grouped within subtype B. In contrast to the virulent primary isolate FIV-GL8, expression of the first cysteine-rich domain (CRD1) of feline CD134 in the context of human CD134 was sufficient for optimal receptor function for all Brazilian FIV isolates tested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  4. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  5. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  6. Humanized Mouse Model of Ebola Virus Disease Mimics the Immune Responses in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Spengler, Jessica R; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Khristova, Marina L; Sealy, Tara K; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Dodd, Kimberly A; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Sanders, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-03-01

    Animal models recapitulating human Ebola virus disease (EVD) are critical for insights into virus pathogenesis. Ebola virus (EBOV) isolates derived directly from human specimens do not, without adaptation, cause disease in immunocompetent adult rodents. Here, we describe EVD in mice engrafted with human immune cells (hu-BLT). hu-BLT mice developed EVD following wild-type EBOV infection. Infection with high-dose EBOV resulted in rapid, lethal EVD with high viral loads, alterations in key human antiviral immune cytokines and chemokines, and severe histopathologic findings similar to those shown in the limited human postmortem data available. A dose- and donor-dependent clinical course was observed in hu-BLT mice infected with lower doses of either Mayinga (1976) or Makona (2014) isolates derived from human EBOV cases. Engraftment of the human cellular immune system appeared to be essential for the observed virulence, as nonengrafted mice did not support productive EBOV replication or develop lethal disease. hu-BLT mice offer a unique model for investigating the human immune response in EVD and an alternative animal model for EVD pathogenesis studies and therapeutic screening. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Isolation, preliminary characterization, and full-genome analyses of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Stefan; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Altantuul, Damdin; Battsetseg, Jigjav; Davaadorj, Rendoo; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Buyanjargal, Tsoodol; Otgonbaatar, Dashdavaa; Zöller, Lothar; Speck, Stephanie; Wölfel, Roman; Dobler, Gerhard; Essbauer, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, namely severe encephalitis in Europe and Asia. Since the 1980s tick-borne encephalitis is known in Mongolia with increasing numbers of human cases reported during the last years. So far, however, data on TBEV strains are still sparse. We herein report the isolation of a TBEV strain from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Mongolia in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the E-gene classified this isolate as Siberian subtype of TBEV. The Mongolian TBEV strain showed differences in virus titers, plaque sizes, and growth properties in two human neuronal cell-lines. In addition, the 10,242 nucleotide long open-reading frame and the corresponding polyprotein sequence were revealed. The isolate grouped in the genetic subclade of the Siberian subtype. The strain Zausaev (AF527415) and Vasilchenko (AF069066) had 97 and 94 % identity on the nucleotide level. In summary, we herein describe first detailed data regarding TBEV from Mongolia. Further investigations of TBEV in Mongolia and adjacent areas are needed to understand the intricate dispersal of this virus.

  8. Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelaye, E.; Belay, A.; Melesse, A.G.; Jenberie, S.; Yami, M.; Loitsch, A.; Tuppurainen, E.; Grabherr, R.; Diallo, A.; Lamien, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Mexico and the potential spillover of viruses from poultry into wild bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A; Marquez, Miguel A; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-08-01

    Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissimilar in genotype to the virulent Newcastle disease viruses that had been circulating in Mexico until 2008. Here, 28 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 from different regions of Mexico from free-living wild birds, captive wild birds, and poultry were phylogenetically and biologically characterized in order to study the recent epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Mexico. Here we demonstrate that, until recently, virulent viruses from genotype V continued to circulate and evolve in the country. All of the Newcastle disease viruses of low virulence, mostly isolated from nonvaccinated free-living wild birds and captive wild birds, were highly similar to LaSota (genotype II) and PHY-LMV42 (genotype I) vaccine strains. These findings, together with the discovery of two virulent viruses at the Mexican zoo, suggest that Newcastle disease viruses may be escaping from poultry into the environment.

  10. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  11. Description of an as yet unclassified DNA virus from diseased Cyprinus carpio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutoran, Marina; Ronen, Ariel; Perelberg, Ayana; Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Bejerano, Izhak; Chen, Nissim; Kotler, Moshe

    2005-02-01

    Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may

  12. Overview of Ebola virus disease in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Peng Tseng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In late December 2013, a deadly infectious epidemic, Ebola virus disease (EVD, emerged from West Africa and resulted in a formidable outbreak in areas including Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. EVD is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission occurs through blood or body fluid exposure, which can jeopardize first-line healthcare workers if there is a lack of stringent infection control or no proper personal protective equipment available. Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of travel or contact history for patients with constitutional symptoms.

  13. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Sambungai (Gynura procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Kwon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In March 2016, an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (named Gyp-CMV was isolated from the Sambungai (Gynura procumbens showing the symptoms of mosaic and chlorosis. The isolate Gyp-CMV was characterized by disease reactions in several indicator plants, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequence analysis of movement protein (3a and coat protein (CP genes. Tobacco, tomato, pepper, ground cherry, and lambsquarters (Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor appeared typical CMV symptoms, but zucchini and cucumber were not infected. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3a and CP gene indicated that Gyp-CMV belongs to the CMV subgroup II. Sequence identities of the Gyp-CMV 3a and CP genes showed 99.3% and 100% to that of Hnt-CMV at amino acid level. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CMV infection in Gynura procumbens.

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  15. Field investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a non-enveloped, single stranded RNA virus ... continents of Asia, Africa, and some regions in the South America. .... FCT = Federal Capital Territory; NE = North East, NC = North Central; NW =.

  16. Ebola virus disease: preparedness in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Yugo; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Egawa, Shinichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is due to a lack of resources, untrained medical personnel, and the specific contact-mediated type of infection of this virus. In Japan's history, education and mass vaccination of the native Ainu people successfully eradicated epidemics of smallpox. Even though a zoonotic virus is hard to control, appropriate precautions and personal protection, as well as anti-symptomatic treatment, will control the outbreak of EVD. Ebola virus utilizes the antibody-dependent enhancement of infection to seed the cells of various organs. The pathogenesis of EVD is due to the cytokine storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the lack of antiviral interferon-α2. Matricellular proteins of galectin-9 and osteopontin might also be involved in the edema and abnormality of the coagulation system in EVD. Anti-fibrinolytic treatment will be effective. In the era of globalization, interviews of travelers with fever within 3 weeks of departure from the affected areas will be necessary. Not only the hospitals designated for specific biohazards but every hospital should be aware of the biology of biohazards and establish measures to protect both patients and the community.

  17. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, Retno; SahBandar, Ivo N.; Theelen, Bart; Hagen, Ferry; Poot, Ge; Meis, Jacques F.; Rozalyani, Anna; Sjam, Ridhawati; Widodo, Djoko; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Boekhout, Teun

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavueonazole and

  18. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, R.; SahBandar, IN; Theelen, B.; Hagen, F.; Poot, G.; Meis, J.F.; Rozalyani, A.; Sjam, R.; Widodo, D.; Djauzi, S.; Boekhout, T.

    2008-01-01

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavuconazole and

  19. Molecular characterization of double-stranded RNA virus in Trichomonas vaginalis Egyptian isolates and its association with pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gayar, Eman K; Mokhtar, Amira B; Hassan, Wael A

    2016-10-01

    Trichomoniasis is a common human sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. The parasite can be infected with double-stranded RNA viruses (TVV). This viral infection may have important implications on trichomonal virulence and disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis virus among isolates obtained from infected (symptomatic and asymptomatic) women in Ismailia City, Egypt, and to correlate the virus-infected isolates with the clinical manifestations of patients. In addition, the pathogenicity of TVV infected isolates on mice was also evaluated. T. vaginalis isolates were obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic female patients followed by axenic cultivation in Diamond's TYM medium. The presence of T. vaginalis virus was determined from total extraction of nucleic acids (DNA-RNA) followed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Representative samples were inoculated intraperitoneally in female albino/BALB mice to assess the pathogenicity of different isolates. A total of 110 women were examined; 40 (36.3 %) samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Of these 40 isolates, 8 (20 %) were infected by TVV. Five isolates contained TVV-2 virus species, and the remaining three isolates were infected withTVV-4 variant. A significant association was found between the presence of TVV and particular clinical manifestations of trichomoniasis. Experimental mice infection showed varying degrees of pathogenicity. This is the first report on T. vaginalis infection by TVV in Egypt. The strong association detected between TVV and particular clinical features of trichomoniasis and also the degree of pathogenicity in experimentally infected mice may indicate a possible clinical significance of TVV infection of T. vaginalis isolates.

  20. Identification of a New Cotton Disease Caused by an Atypical Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Delfosse, Verónica C; Casse, María F; Hopp, Horacio E; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Distéfano, Ana J

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%. The virus was subsequently transmitted to a CBD-resistant cotton variety using Aphis gossypii and symptoms were successfully reproduced. To study the persistence of the virus, we analyzed symptomatic plants from CBD-resistant varieties from different cotton-growing fields between 2013 and 2015 and showed the presence of the same virus strain. In addition, a constructed full-length infectious cDNA clone from the virus caused disease symptoms in systemic leaves of CBD-resistant cotton plants. Altogether, the new leafroll disease in CBD-resistant cotton plants is caused by an atypical cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

  1. Isolation and identification of citrus psorosis virus Egyptian isolate (CPsV-EG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S A; El-Dougdoug, Kh A; Mousa, A A; Fahmy, H; Sofy, A R

    2008-01-01

    Citrus psorosis ophiovirus (CPsV), is considered to be of the most serious and deter mental virus pathogen's citrus species trees in Egypt. CPsV-EG was isolated from infected citrus grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) at Agric. Res. Centre (ARC). The grapefruit which used for CPsV-EG isolate was found to be free from CTV, CEVd and Spiroplasma citri where as gave -ve results with DTBIA, tissue print hybridization and Diene's stain respectively. CPsV-EG was detected on the basis of biological indexing by graft inoculation which gave oak leaf pattern (OLP) on Dweet tangor and serological assay by DAS-ELISA using Mab specific CPsV. CPsV-EG was reacted with variable responses on 16 host plants belonging to 6 families. Only 8 host plants are susceptible and showed visible external symptoms which appeared as local, systemic and local followed by systemic infections. CPsV-EG isolate was transmitted from infected citrus to citrus by syringe and grafting and herbaceous plants by forefinger inoculation and syringe. The woody indicators and rootstocks were differed in response to CPsV-EG isolate which appeared as no-response, response, sensitivity and hypersensitivity. The serological characters represented as the antigenic determinants of CPsV-EG isolate related to monoclonal antibodies specific CPsV strain where as appeared precipitation reaction by DAS-ELISA and DTBIA. The partial fragment of RNA3 (coat protein gene) of CPsV-EG (-1140bp and -571bp) was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from grapefruit tissues using two sets primers specific CPsV (CPV3 and CPV4) and (PS66 and PS65) respectively. The virus under study was identified as CPsV-EG isolate according to biological, serological and molecular characters.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  4. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Ayala

    Full Text Available Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23, followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13. Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47 and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7. The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28 and Hitchner B1 (n = 19. Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife.

  6. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  7. Fitness and virulence of an ancestral White Spot Syndrome Virus isolate from shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.; Duijse, J.J.A.; Zuidema, D.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus, the type species of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. Genomic analysis of three completely sequenced WSSV isolates identified two major polymorphic loci, ¿variable region ORF14/15¿ and ¿variable region ORF23/24¿.

  8. Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international flight passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, A; Hiono, T; Fukuhara, H; Sumiyoshi, R; Ohkawara, A; Matsuno, K; Okamatsu, M; Osaka, H; Sakoda, Y

    2018-04-01

    The transportation of poultry and related products for international trade contributes to transboundary pathogen spread and disease outbreaks worldwide. To prevent pathogen incursion through poultry products, many countries have regulations about animal health and poultry product quarantine. However, in Japan, animal products have been illegally introduced into the country in baggage and confiscated at the airport. Lately, the number of illegally imported poultry and the incursion risk of transboundary pathogens through poultry products have been increasing. In this study, we isolated avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international passengers. Highly (H5N1 and H5N6) and low (H9N2 and H1N2) pathogenic AIVs were isolated from raw chicken and duck products carried by flight passengers. H5 and H9 isolates were phylogenetically closely related to viruses isolated from poultry in China, and haemagglutinin genes of H5N1 and H5N6 isolates belonged to clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.4.4, respectively. Experimental infections of H5 and H9 isolates in chickens and ducks demonstrated pathogenicity and tissue tropism to skeletal muscles. To prevent virus incursion by poultry products, it is important to encourage the phased cleaning based on the disease control and eradication and promote the reduction in contamination risk in animal products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Studies on antigenic and genomic properties of Brazilian rabies virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, R.; Batista, H.B.; Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Roehe, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. This work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in Brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any

  10. Extensive sequence divergence among bovine respiratory syncytial viruses isolated during recurrent outbreaks in closed herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    and veal calf production units) in different years and from all confirmed outbreaks in Denmark within a short period. The results showed that identical viruses were isolated within a herd during outbreaks and that viruses from recurrent infections varied by up to 11% in sequence even in closed herds......The nucleotides coding for the extracellular part of the G glycoprotein and the full SH protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were sequenced from viruses isolated from numerous outbreaks of BRSV infection. The isolates included viruses isolated from the same herd (closed dairy farms....... It is possible that a quasispecies variant swarm of BRSV persisted in some of the calves in each herd and that a new and different highly fit virus type (master and consensus sequence) became dominant and spread from a single animal in connection with each new outbreak. Based on the high level of diversity...

  11. Ebola virus disease: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kimura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30% to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.

  12. Molecular and Biological Characterization of Chinese Sacbrood Virus LN Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Mingxiao, Ma; Ming, Li; Jian, Cheng; Song, Yang; Shude, Wang; Pengfei, Li

    2011-01-01

    Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) was purified from diseased insects, and its genome was cloned and sequenced. The genomic RNA of CSBV is 8863 nucleotides in length and contains a single large open reading frame encoding a 319.614 kDa polyprotein. The coding sequence is flanked by a 178-nucleotide 5′ nontranslated leader sequence and a 142-nucleotide 3′ nontranslated region, followed a poly(A) tail. Four major structural proteins, VP1,VP2, VP3 and VP4, were predicted in the N-teminal of the poly...

  13. Differential Persistence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in African Buffalo Is Related to Virus Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Gubbins, Simon; Zhang, Fuquan; Seago, Julian; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Reid, Liz; Scott, Katherine; van Schalkwyk, Louis; Bengis, Roy; Charleston, Bryan; Juleff, Nicholas

    2016-05-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) circulates as multiple serotypes and strains in many regions of endemicity. In particular, the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes are maintained effectively in their wildlife reservoir, the African buffalo, and individuals may harbor multiple SAT serotypes for extended periods in the pharyngeal region. However, the exact site and mechanism for persistence remain unclear. FMD in buffaloes offers a unique opportunity to study FMDV persistence, as transmission from carrier ruminants has convincingly been demonstrated for only this species. Following coinfection of naive African buffaloes with isolates of three SAT serotypes from field buffaloes, palatine tonsil swabs were the sample of choice for recovering infectious FMDV up to 400 days postinfection (dpi). Postmortem examination identified infectious virus for up to 185 dpi and viral genomes for up to 400 dpi in lymphoid tissues of the head and neck, focused mainly in germinal centers. Interestingly, viral persistence in vivo was not homogenous, and the SAT-1 isolate persisted longer than the SAT-2 and SAT-3 isolates. Coinfection and passage of these SAT isolates in goat and buffalo cell lines demonstrated a direct correlation between persistence and cell-killing capacity. These data suggest that FMDV persistence occurs in the germinal centers of lymphoid tissue but that the duration of persistence is related to virus replication and cell-killing capacity. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease in domestic livestock and wildlife species. African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the primary carrier hosts of FMDV in African savannah ecosystems, where the disease is endemic. We have shown that the virus persists for up to 400 days in buffaloes and that there is competition between viruses during mixed infections. There was similar competition in cell culture: viruses that killed cells quickly persisted more

  14. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    evidence that oral vaccines fail in populations with disturbed microbiota, poor nutrition , and high intestinal inflammation [102-104]. Additionally...countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public- health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate...members of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae) cause two diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO): Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be

  15. Genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 isolates in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Miagostovich, M.P.; Santos, F.B. dos; Simone, T.S. de; Costa, E.V.; Filippis, A.M.B.; Schatzmayr, H.G.; Nogueira, R.M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3) strains isolated from autochthonous cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2001 is presented. Restriction site-specific (RSS)-PCR performed on 22 strains classified the Brazilian DEN-3 viruses as subtype C, a subtype that contains viruses from Sri Lanka, India, Africa and recent isolates from Central America. Nucleic acid sequencing (positions 278 to 2550) of one DEN-3 strain confirmed the origin of these strains, since gen...

  16. Isolation and molecular identification of Sunshine virus, a novel paramyxovirus found in Australian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Marschang, Rachel E; Wellehan, James F X; Nicholls, Philip K

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the isolation and molecular identification of a novel paramyxovirus found during an investigation of an outbreak of neurorespiratory disease in a collection of Australian pythons. Using Illumina® high-throughput sequencing, a 17,187 nucleotide sequence was assembled from RNA extracts from infected viper heart cells (VH2) displaying widespread cytopathic effects in the form of multinucleate giant cells. The sequence appears to contain all the coding regions of the genome, including the following predicted paramyxoviral open reading frames (ORFs): 3'--Nucleocapsid (N)--putative Phosphoprotein (P)--Matrix (M)--Fusion (F)--putative attachment protein--Polymerase (L)--5'. There is also a 540 nucleotide ORF between the N and putative P genes that may be an additional coding region. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete N, M, F and L genes support the clustering of this virus within the family Paramyxoviridae but outside both of the current subfamilies: Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae. We propose to name this new virus, Sunshine virus, after the geographic origin of the first isolate--the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  18. Isolation of viruses from drinking water at the Point-Viau water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payment, P.

    1981-04-01

    Viruses were isolated from every sample of raw (100 L) and treated (1000 L) water collected at a water treatment plant drawing sewage-contaminated river water. Few plaque-forming isolates were formed but cytopathogenic viruses were isolated as frequently in drinking water as in raw water. In drinking water some samples contained more than 1 cytopathogenic unit per litre, but most contained 1-10/100 L. These viruses had not been inactivated or removed by prechlorination, flocculation, filtration, ozonation, and postchlorination. There were no coliforms present and a residual chlorine level had been maintained. Poliovirus type 1 was a frequent isolate but many isolates were nonpoliovirus. The presence of these viruses in drinking water raises questions about the efficacy of some water treatment processes to remove viruses from polluted water.

  19. Virus diseases in lettuce in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce is frequently attacked by several viruses causing disease epidemics and considerable yield losses along the Mediterranean basin. Aphids are key pests and the major vectors of plant viruses in lettuce fields. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is probably the most important because it is seed-transmitted in addition to be transmissible by many aphid species that alight on the crop. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. In regions with heavy and humid soils, Lettuce Mirafiori big-vein virus (LMBVV) can also produce major yield losses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Complexities in Isolation and Purification of Multiple Viruses from Mixed Viral Infections: Viral Interference, Persistence and Exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    Full Text Available Successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV mixed infection in goats. Rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (CPE of the virus was observed in cocultured Vero/BHK-21 cells at 6th blind passage (BP. PPRV, but not FMDV could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. Viral RNA (mixture transfection in BHK-21 cells produced FMDV but not PPRV virions, a strategy which we have successfully employed for the first time to eliminate the negative-stranded RNA virus from the virus mixture. FMDV phenotypes, such as replication competent but noncytolytic, cytolytic but defective in plaque formation and, cytolytic but defective in both plaque formation and standard FMDV genome were observed respectively, at passage level BP8, BP15 and BP19 and hence complicated virus isolation in the cell culture system. Mixed infection was not found to induce any significant antigenic and genetic diversity in both PPRV and FMDV. Further, we for the first time demonstrated the viral interference between PPRV and FMDV. Prior transfection of PPRV RNA, but not Newcastle disease virus (NDV and rotavirus RNA resulted in reduced FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells suggesting that the PPRV RNA-induced interference was specifically directed against FMDV. On long-term coinfection of some acute pathogenic viruses (all possible combinations of PPRV, FMDV, NDV and buffalopox virus in Vero cells, in most cases, one of the coinfecting viruses was excluded at passage level 5 suggesting that the long-term coinfection may modify viral persistence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented evidence describing a natural mixed infection of FMDV and PPRV. The study not only provides simple and reliable methodologies for isolation and purification of two epidemiologically and economically important groups of

  1. Identification and Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Genotype XIV Newcastle Disease Virus from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Solomon, Ponman; Sulaiman, Lanre K.; Joannis, Tony M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from genotype XIV is reported here. Strain duck/Nigeria/NG-695/KG.LOM.11-16/2009 was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck from a live bird market in Kogi State, Nigeria, in 2009. This strain is classified as a member of subgenotype XIVb of class II.

  2. Fight Ebola virus disease in Africa: a question related to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repetitive outbreaks of Ebola virus disease is a major public health problem in Africa. Indeed, since September 1976, date of its isolation and its first description in the north of the ex-Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and in the south Sudan, many African countries continue to live recurring episodes of epidemics ...

  3. Pathogenesis of new strains of Newcastle disease virus from Israel and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past few years, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics belonging to subgenotypes VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asia. In this study, 2 NDV strains—1 representative of subgenotype VIIi isolated in Israel (Kvuzat/13) and 1 representative of subgenoty...

  4. Complete genome sequence of a recent panzootic virulent Newcastle disease virus from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete genome sequence of a new strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (chicken/Pak/Lahore-611/2013) is reported. The strain was isolated from a vaccinated chicken flock in Pakistan in 2013 and has panzootic features. The genome is 15192 nucleotides in length and is classified as sub-genotype V...

  5. Molecular characterization of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses isolated from turkeys and pathogenicity of a human pH1N1 isolate in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Yohannes; Ojkic, Davor; Neufeld, James; Leith, Marsha; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Kehler, Helen; Ferencz, Arpad; Wojcinski, Helen; Cottam-Birt, Colleen; Suderman, Matthew; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren; Pasick, John

    2010-12-01

    Suspected human-to-animal transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus has been reported in several animal species, including pigs, dogs, cats, ferrets, and turkeys. In this study we describe the genetic characterization of pH1N1 viruses isolated from breeder turkeys that was associated with a progressive drop in egg production. Sequence analysis of all eight gene segments from three viruses isolated from this outbreak demonstrated homology with other human and swine pH1N1 isolates. The susceptibility of turkeys to a human pH1N1 isolate was further evaluated experimentally. The 50% turkey infectious dose (TID50) for the human isolate A/Mexico/LnDRE/4487/2009 was determined by inoculating groups of 8-10-week-old turkeys with serial 10-fold dilutions of virus by oronasal and cloacal routes. We estimated the TID50 to be between 1 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(6) TCID50. The pathogenesis of pH1N1 in oronasally or cloacally inoculated juvenile turkeys was also examined. None of the turkeys exhibited clinical signs, and no significant difference in virus shedding or seroconversion was observed between the two inoculation groups. More than 50% of the turkeys in both oronasal and cloacal groups shed virus beginning at 2 days postinoculation (dpi). All birds that actively shed virus seroconverted by 14 dpi. Virus antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the cecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius in two of the birds that were infected by the cloacal route. Virus transmission to naive contact turkeys was at best doubtful. This report provides additional evidence that pH1N1 can cross the species barrier and cause disease outbreaks in domestic turkeys. However, it appears that the reproductive status of the host as well as environmental factors such as concurrent infections, stress, the presence or absence of litter, and stocking density may also contribute to efficient infection and transmission of this agent.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with t...

  7. A comparison of virulence of influenza A virus isolates from mallards in experimentally inoculated turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shankar; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol

    2013-12-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) from wild waterfowl can and do cross species barriers, infecting and sometimes becoming established in domestic poultry. Turkeys are naturally highly susceptible to LPAIV infections, especially with viruses from ducks. In this study, we describe clinical signs and lesions in experimentally inoculated commercial turkeys produced by a LPAIV, A/mallard/MN/1714/09 (H7N1), isolated from a mallard duck. Our results demonstrate that this H7N1 isolate produced clinical signs, including severe edema of the head and face because of an early inflammatory response in both inoculated and contact turkeys. In comparison, an isolate, A/mallard/MN/2749/09 (H6N8) from the same mallard population, infected and was transmitted between naive turkeys but did not cause clinical disease or lesions. Our data indicate that proinflammatory (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) and antiviral (IFN-gamma and IL-2) cytokines are expressed at different levels in H7N1- and H6N8-infected turkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These differences correlate inversely with clinical lesions, suggesting that differences in host responses result in variances in viral pathogenesis and in virulence of LPAIV in commercial turkeys. Based on these results, we can conclude that turkeys may exhibit variable immunologic responses to infection with different AIV strains.

  8. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle) disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaygude, V S; Sawale, G K; Chawak, M M; Bulbule, N R; Moregaonkar, S D; Gavhane, D S

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015). After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated eggs. Mean death time (MDT) of embryos after inoculation and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were used to judge velogenic nature of the virus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from six cases and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the partial fusion protein gene of the viral genome. A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of desi chicken were presented for postmortem examination to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai during 2014-2015. The gross and histopathological examination revealed lesions suggestive of viscerotropic velogenic form of the Newcastle disease (ND). The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old embryonated eggs from SPF chicken. NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene. MDT of all the isolates was <60 h which indicated velogenic nature of the virus. ICPI of the isolates ranged between the 1.63 and 1.78. In four out of six outbreaks concurrent moderate to heavy infection of Ascardii galli in one flock and Railetina spp. in three flocks was also noted. In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all six outbreaks by gross and microscopic

  9. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Dhaygude

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015. After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF embryonated eggs. Mean death time (MDT of embryos after inoculation and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI were used to judge velogenic nature of the virus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene of the viral genome. Results: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock of six different flocks of desi chicken were presented for postmortem examination to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai during 2014-2015. The gross and histopathological examination revealed lesions suggestive of viscerotropic velogenic form of the Newcastle disease (ND. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old embryonated eggs from SPF chicken. NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene. MDT of all the isolates was <60 h which indicated velogenic nature of the virus. ICPI of the isolates ranged between the 1.63 and 1.78. In four out of six outbreaks concurrent moderate to heavy infection of Ascardii galli in one flock and Railetina spp. in three flocks was also noted. In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all

  10. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  11. Biological characterization and variability of the nucleocapsid protein gene of Groundnut bud necrosis virus isolates infecting pea from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AKRAM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A disease of pea characterized by browning in veins, leaves and stems, mostly in growing tips, and brown circular spots on pods, was recorded in four districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The causal agent of this disease was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers pair HRP 26/HRP 28 and identified as Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV on the basis of nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. Virus isolates from Bareilly (BRY, Kanpur (KNP, Udham Singh Nagar (USN and Shahjahanpur (SJP were designated as GBNV-[Pea_BRY], GBNV-[Pea_KNP], GBNV-[Pea_USN] and GBNV-[Pea_SJP] and their NP genes sequenced. The sequence data of each isolate were deposited at NCBI database (JF281101-JF281104. The complete nucleotide sequence of the NP genes of all the GBNV isolates had a single open reading frame of 831 nucleotides and 276 amino acids. The isolates had among them 2% variability at amino acid level and 2‒3 variability at nucleotide level, but had variability with other GBNV isolates of fabaceous hosts in the range of 0‒6% at amino acid level and 1‒8% at nucleotide level. Though this variation in nucleotide sequences of GBNV isolates from fabaceous hosts is within the limits of species demarcation for tospoviruses, formation of a separate cluster within the GBNV isolates indicates the possibility of distinct variants in GBNV.

  12. Characterization of viruses infecting potato plants from a single location in Shetland, an isolated scottish archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, R.J.; Shen, Xinyi; Reid, Alex

    2010-01-01

    , as were 29 Scottish mainland isolates of the same four potato virus species, and these 58 isolates were compared to previously published sequence data. This has allowed the characterization of viruses from a relatively isolated location, where there is little production of ware potatoes and no seed potato...... production. Phylogenetic homogeneity of the Shetland isolates of PVS and PVV was apparent. PVX was more heterogeneous, and Shetland isolates cluster with the Scottish isolates in a group which includes Asian and European isolates. For PVA, the majority of the Shetland and Scottish mainland isolates formed...... a predominantly Scottish grouping, with the remaining Shetland and Scottish mainland isolates clustering with a previously characterized Scottish isolate. There were three main groups of PVA, of which the Scottish grouping was the only one which did not have a fully characterized representative. To extend...

  13. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  14. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotype Variation in Human Immunodeficiency virus Type 1 Transmission and Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Cavarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  16. Phenotype variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  17. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M.; June, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4 + T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date

  18. Genotypic lineages and restriction fragment length polymorphism of canine distemper virus isolates in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtanakatikanon, Araya; Keawcharoen, Juthatip; Charoenvisal, Na Taya; Poovorawan, Yong; Prompetchara, Eakachai; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Techangamsuwan, Somporn

    2013-09-27

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is known to cause multisystemic disease in all families of terrestrial carnivores. Attenuated live vaccines have been used to control CDV in a variety of species for many decades, yet a number of CDV infections in vaccinated dogs are still observed. The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic diversity of CDV lineages based on phosphoprotein (P), hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein (F) genes and to develop the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique for effective differentiation among individual wild-type and vaccine lineages in Thailand. Four commercial vaccine products, thirteen conjunctival swabs and various tissues from 9 necropsied dogs suspected of having CDV infections were included. Virus isolation was performed using Vero cell expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (Vero-DST cells). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on 3 gene regions from the dog derived specimens and the vaccines were carried out, then RFLP analysis upon F-gene amplified fragments was developed. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis were compared with other CDV lineages in Genbank. Phylogenetic relationships revealed that CDV field isolates were separated from the vaccine lineage and could be divided into two clusters; one of which belonged to the Asia-1 lineage and another, not related to any previous recognized lineages was proposed as 'Asia-4'. RFLP patterns demonstrating concordance with phylogenetic trees of the distemper virus allowed for differentiation between the Asia-1, Asia-4 and vaccine lineages. Thus, RFLP technique is able to effectively distinguish individual wild-type canine distemper virus from vaccine lineages in Thailand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (Thai isolates in weanling pigs: an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitikoon Pravina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (SIV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 (Thai isolates in 22-day-old SPF pigs. Results The study found that all pigs in the infected groups developed typical signs of flu-like symptoms on 1–4 days post- infection (dpi. The H1N1-infected pigs had greater lung lesion scores than those of the H3N2-infected pigs. Histopathological lesions related to swine influenza-induced lesions consisting of epithelial cells damage, airway plugging and peribronchial and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were present in both infected groups. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using nucleoprotein specific monoclonal antibodies revealed positive staining cells in lung sections of both infected groups at 2 and 4 dpi. Virus shedding was detected at 2 dpi from both infected groups as demonstrated by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Conclusion The results demonstrated that both SIV subtypes were able to induce flu-like symptoms and lung lesions in weanling pigs. However the severity of the diseases with regards to lung lesions both gross and microscopic lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s.

  20. Seroprevalence of Marek's Disease Virus antibody in some poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports a survey of Marek's disease virus (MDV) antibody done in 21 selected poultry flocks in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states of southwestern Nigeria. A total of 315 serum samples were examined using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Marek's disease virus antibody was present in ...

  1. hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... INTRODUCTION. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an infectious viral disease characterized by a high case-fatality rate which may be as high as 90%.1,2 Ebola virus may be acquired during contact with blood or body fluids of an infected animal, commonly monkeys or fruit bats.2 Once human infection occurs ...

  2. Ancient ancestry of KFDV and AHFV revealed by complete genome analyses of viruses isolated from ticks and mammalian hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Dodd

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV and Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV cause significant human disease and mortality in Saudi Arabia and India, respectively. Despite their distinct geographic ranges, AHFV and KFDV share a remarkably high sequence identity. Given its emergence decades after KFDV, AHFV has since been considered a variant of KFDV and thought to have arisen from an introduction of KFDV to Saudi Arabia from India. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary history of AHFV and KFDV, we analyzed the full length genomes of 16 AHFV and 3 KFDV isolates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viral genomes were sequenced and compared to two AHFV sequences available in GenBank. Sequence analyses revealed higher genetic diversity within AHFVs isolated from ticks than human AHFV isolates. A Bayesian coalescent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated an ancient divergence of AHFV and KFDV of approximately 700 years ago. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high sequence diversity within tick populations and the presence of competent tick vectors in the surrounding regions, coupled with the recent identification of AHFV in Egypt, indicate possible viral range expansion or a larger geographic range than previously thought. The divergence of AHFV from KFDV nearly 700 years ago suggests other AHFV/KFDV-like viruses might exist in the regions between Saudi Arabia and India. Given the human morbidity and mortality associated with these viruses, these results emphasize the importance of more focused study of these significant public health threats.

  3. Genomic analysis reveals Nairobi sheep disease virus to be highly diverse and present in both Africa, and in India in the form of the Ganjam virus variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya D; Vincent, Martin J; Khristova, Marina; Kale, Charuta; Nichol, Stuart T; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T

    2011-07-01

    Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) virus, the prototype tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae is associated with acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats in East and Central Africa. The closely related Ganjam virus found in India is associated with febrile illness in humans and disease in livestock. The complete S, M and L segment sequences of Ganjam and NSD virus and partial sequence analysis of Ganjam viral RNA genome S, M and L segments encoding regions (396 bp, 701 bp and 425 bp) of the viral nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and L polymerase (L) proteins, respectively, was carried out for multiple Ganjam virus isolates obtained from 1954 to 2002 and from various regions of India. M segments of NSD and Ganjam virus encode a large ORF for the glycoprotein precursor (GPC), (1627 and 1624 amino acids in length, respectively) and their L segments encode a very large L polymerase (3991 amino acids). The complete S, M and L segments of NSD and Ganjam viruses were more closely related to one another than to other characterized nairoviruses, and no evidence of reassortment was found. However, the NSD and Ganjam virus complete M segment differed by 22.90% and 14.70%, for nucleotide and amino acid respectively, and the complete L segment nucleotide and protein differing by 9.90% and 2.70%, respectively among themselves. Ganjam and NSD virus, complete S segment differed by 9.40-10.40% and 3.2-4.10 for nucleotide and proteins while among Ganjam viruses 0.0-6.20% and 0.0-1.4%, variation was found for nucleotide and amino acids. Ganjam virus isolates differed by up to 17% and 11% at the nucleotide level for the partial S and L gene fragments, respectively, with less variation observed at the deduced amino acid level (10.5 and 2%, S and L, respectively). However, the virus partial M gene fragment (which encodes the hypervariable mucin-like domain) of these viruses differed by as much as 56% at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic

  4. Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

  5. Isolation, propagation, and titration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from peripheral blood of infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2005-01-01

    HIV-1 can be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is easily propagated on primary cells in vitro. Here we describe the method for bulk isolation of the HIV-1 quasispecies and a limiting dilution virus isolation protocol by which single coexisting clones can be obtained. In addition,

  6. High similarity between isolates of pepino mosaic virus suggests a common origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J.Th.J.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; Roenhorst, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The almost simultaneous outbreaks of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato crops in different European and non-European countries, was reason to have a closer look at the relationship between these isolates and the original isolate from pepino. Fifteen isolates from tomato from different locations and the

  7. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  8. A simple and rapid characterization of influenza virus isolates by monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostolansky, F.; Styk, B.; Russ, G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay is described with infectious allantoic fluid directly bound to solid phase, suitable for the detection and further characterization of influenza virus isolates. This simple and rapid method was applied for the description of isolates obtained from different regions of Czechoslovakia during the influenza epidemic in 1983. The results confirmed that all 13 examined isolates represented influenza A viruses possessing H3 subtype haemagglutinin very similar to haemagglutinin of influenza viruses A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2), A/Belgium/2/81 (H3N2) and A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2). (author)

  9. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  10. Highly leukemogenic radiation leukemia virus isolate is a thymotropic, immunosuppressive retrovirus with a unique RNA structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben David, Y.; Kotler, M.; Yefenof, E.

    1987-04-15

    Clones of N-, B- and NB-fibrotropic viruses were isolated from weakly (D-RadLV) and strongly (A-RadLV) leukomogenic RadLV preparations. A highly leukemogenic, thymotropic virus (TV) was isolated by ex-vivo infection of thymocytes with A-RadLV. This virus could not be isolated from D-RadLV. Two-dimensional fingerprint analysis suggested that TV recombines unique RNA sequences with RNA genomic material derived from a B-tropic endogenous virus. C57BL/6 (B6) mice injected with B- or NB-fibrotropic clones, but not with TV or N-tropic viral clones, developed reactive T lymphocytes (Tr), capable of differentiating into anti-tumor cytotoxic cells. The N-tropic virus isolates were non-immunogenic in B6 mice whereas the TV isolate induced suppressor T lymphocytes (Ts) that abrogated a potential Tr response. These results suggest that emergence of highly leukemogenic RadLV involves activation of endogenous fibrotropic virus which is immunogenic in its natural host strain (B6). This virus can further recombine with other retroviral genetic sequences, resulting in a suppressogenic and thymotropic, highly leukemogenic virus.

  11. The nucleotide sequence of a Polish isolate of Tomato torrado virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budziszewska, Marta; Obrepalska-Steplowska, Aleksandra; Wieczorek, Przemysław; Pospieszny, Henryk

    2008-12-01

    A new virus was isolated from greenhouse tomato plants showing symptoms of leaf and apex necrosis in Wielkopolska province in Poland in 2003. The observed symptoms and the virus morphology resembled viruses previously reported in Spain called Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and that in Mexico called Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV). The complete genome of a Polish isolate Wal'03 was determined using RT-PCR amplification using oligonucleotide primers developed against the ToTV sequences deposited in Genbank, followed by cloning, sequencing, and comparison with the sequence of the type isolate. Phylogenetic analyses, performed on the basis of fragments of polyproteins sequences, established the relationship of Polish isolate Wal'03 with Spanish ToTV and Mexican ToMarV, as well as with other viruses from Sequivirus, Sadwavirus, and Cheravirus genera, reported to be the most similar to the new tomato viruses. Wal'03 genome strands has the same organization and very high homology with the ToTV type isolate, showing only some nucleotide and deduced amino acid changes, in contrast to ToMarV, which was significantly different. The phylogenetic tree clustered aforementioned viruses to the same group, indicating that they have a common origin.

  12. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predajňa, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates.

  13. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle) disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaygude, V. S.; Sawale, G. K.; Chawak, M. M.; Bulbule, N. R.; Moregaonkar, S. D.; Gavhane, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015). After thorough gross examination,...

  14. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Zika Virus Patients in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Male to female sexual transmission has been reported and there is potential for transmission via blood transfusions. After an incubation period of 2-7 days, symptomatic patients develop rapid onset fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, often associated with headache and myalgias. Emergency department (ED personnel must be prepared to address concerns from patients presenting with symptoms consistent with acute Zika virus infection, especially those who are pregnant or planning travel to Zika-endemic regions, as well as those women planning to become pregnant and their partners. The identify-isolate-inform (3I tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED, and later adjusted for measles and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for initial detection and management of patients under investigation for Zika virus. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk, including travel to countries with mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, patients are further investigated if clinically indicated. If after a rapid evaluation, Zika or other

  15. [Fungi isolated from diseased medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Matsuhashi, M; Iida, O

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four fungal isolates were obtained from diseased Paeonia albiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa Bung., Astragalus membranaceus Bung., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., Ledebouriella seseloides Wolff and Bupleurum falcatum L. which were collected in the test field of Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences. Most of them were identified into 15 genera containing 8 species. Fungal species presumed to be pathogens of the host plants were as follows: Cladosporium paeoniae, Pestalotia paeoniicola, Glomerella cingulata, Hainesia lythri, Guignardia sp. and Alternaria sp. from P. albiflora, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. and Neocosmospora vasinfecta from A. membranaceus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from L. erythrorhizon, Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium spp., Phoma sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp. from L. seseloides, and Fusarium sp., Alternaria alternata, Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp. and C. gloeosporioides from B. falcatum. Roots of B. falcatum were found to be parasitized by Meloidogyne sp.

  16. Molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of the Egyptian foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shehawy, Laila I; Abu-Elnaga, Hany I; Rizk, Sonia A; Abd El-Kreem, Ahmed S; Mohamed, A A; Fawzy, Hossam G

    2014-03-01

    In February 2012, a massive new foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak struck Egypt. In this work, one-step RT-PCR assays were used for in-house detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Egypt in this year using pan-serotypic and serotype-targeting sequence primers. FMDV SAT2 was the dominant virus in the examined isolates from the epidemic. The complete VP1 coding regions of two isolates were sequenced. The two isolates had 99.2 % sequence identity to most contemporary Egyptian SAT2 reference viruses, whereas they had 89.7-90.1 % identity to the SAT2/EGY/2/2012 isolate, which was collected from Alexandria, Egypt, and previously sequenced by WRLFMD. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Egypt had one topotype and two lineage of FMDV SAT2 in 2012. The Egyptian and the Palestinian 2012 strains were associated mainly with topotype VII, lineage SAT2/VII/Ghb-12, while the virus isolated from Alexandria Governorate belonged to the SAT2/VII/Alx-12 lineage. Topotype VII also comprised lineages that included strains isolated from Libya in 2012 and 2003. Furthermore, within the same topotype, the Egyptian SAT2/2012 isolates were related to strains from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon and Nigeria. Nevertheless, more epidemiological work with neighboring countries is needed to prevent cross-border spread of disease and to reach a precise conclusion about the origin of the 2012 FMDV SAT2 emergency in the Middle East.

  17. Molecular characterization of Banana streak virus isolate from Musa Acuminata in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of genus Badnavirus, is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world. The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated, but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated) BSV genomes isolated from China. Here, the complete genome, a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436), of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan, China was determined. The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses. The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop, which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs). The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs, ORF1 with a non-AUG start codon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein. Besides the complete genome, a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants. Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vietnam (BSAcVNV). The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and -95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  18. [Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2011-05-01

    Molecular epidemiological analysis of 96 rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s involves Japanese fixed virus, Komatsugawa, Takamen, and Nishigahara strains. Strains isolated in Tokyo were divided into Tokyo 1 and Tokyo 2, and grouped into a worldwide distribution cluster differing from Takamen and Nishigahara. Tokyo 1 was grouped into the same cluster as viruses isolated from United States west coast dogs in the 1930s and 1940s. Tokyo 2 was grouped into the same cluster as the Komatsugawa strain, also known as a cluster of viruses from the Khabarovsk raccoon dog, and the Lake Baikal stepped fox in Russia. These findings suggest that 1950s Tokyo rabies viruses were related to those in Russia and the USA.

  19. Newcastle Disease Virus infection study on duck and chicken in Subang district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprizal Panus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV infection in Subang area and to examine the diversity of the circulating NDV. Swabs of cloacal and oropharynx, and serum were sampled from total of 393 chickens and 149 ducks in backyard farms and live bird markets located in 10 subdistricts. Screening of NDV in pool of 5-7 samples by real-time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR matrix (M showed 19/67 (28.3% cloacal and 8/67 (11.9% pharyngeal pools of chicken samples; 18/67 (26.9% of the pools excreted virus via cloaca and oropharynx, while the duck pools of 8/30 (26.7% shed virus from cloaca. Virus isolation attempted on individual sample from positive pools yielded 18 isolates which the majority of the isolates showed homogeneous antigenic character, only some of these showed variations up to 2 Log2 with Lasota and 4 Log2 with Komarov antisera. Majority of isolates had a higher affinity to Komarov indicating their propencity to virulent strains. Pathogenicity examination using elution test showed 3 isolates virus were grouped to mesogenic strains and 15 isolates to velogenic strain, in agreement with rRT-PCR fusion results. HI test on 408 sera showed that NDV antibody was detected in 48 (12% birds with titres ranging from 1 to 8 Log2; only about 13% of vaccinated chickens demonstrated protective antibody titre (≥3 Log2. Newcastle disease is still endemic in Subang with relatively low antigenic variation among circulating strains.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  1. Full-Genome Sequence of a Novel Varicella-Zoster Virus Clade Isolated in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Castillo, Araceli; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Gonzalez-Durán, Elizabeth; Segura-Candelas, José Miguel; Pérez-Agüeros, Sandra Ivette; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Diaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Ramirez-González, José Ernesto

    2015-07-09

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus, isolated from a vesicular fluid sample, revealing the circulation of VZV clade VIII in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Garcés-Ayala et al.

  2. Full-Genome Sequence of a Novel Varicella-Zoster Virus Clade Isolated in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?s-Ayala, Fabiola; Rodr?guez-Castillo, Araceli; Ortiz-Alc?ntara, Joanna Mar?a; Gonzalez-Dur?n, Elizabeth; Segura-Candelas, Jos? Miguel; P?rez-Ag?eros, Sandra Ivette; Escobar-Escamilla, No?; M?ndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Diaz-Qui?onez, Jos? Alberto; Ramirez-Gonz?lez, Jos? Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus, isolated from a vesicular fluid sample, revealing the circulation of VZV clade VIII in Mexico.

  3. Full-Genome Sequence of a Novel Varicella-Zoster Virus Clade Isolated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castillo, Araceli; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Gonzalez-Durán, Elizabeth; Segura-Candelas, José Miguel; Pérez-Agüeros, Sandra Ivette; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Diaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus, isolated from a vesicular fluid sample, revealing the circulation of VZV clade VIII in Mexico. PMID:26159533

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of an Atypical Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Lineage Isolated in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Felipe Scassi; Amorim, Jaime Henrique; Alves, Rubens Prince Santos; Pereira, Sara A.; Ferreira, Luis Carlos Souza

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete polyprotein sequence of a dengue virus 2 strain isolated in Brazil. This virus belongs to the American genotype and has the ability to cause neurovirulence in immunocompetent adult mice. The data presented here may help understand the genetic determinants responsible for neurovirulence. PMID:26184939

  5. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain A59: Isolation, Characterization and Neuropathogenic Properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Koolen (Marck); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. van Steenis (Bert); M.C. Horzinek; B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractTwenty 5-fluorouracil-induced temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 were isolated from 1284 virus clones. Mutants were preselected on the basis of their inability to induce syncytia in infected cells at the restrictive temperature (40 degrees) vs the

  6. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P.; Castón, José R.; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particl...

  7. Comparison of some storage and isolation methods to recover bluetongue virus from bovine blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, F C

    1984-01-01

    Bovine blood containing bluetongue virus was stored as whole blood with EDTA (4 degrees C), as washed cellular components (4 degrees C), and as washed cellular components with 10% DMSO (-70 degrees C). Periodic isolation attempts were made over a period of 330 days in four cell lines and embryonating chicken eggs (intravenous inoculation). Bluetongue virus was successfully isolated in all systems from most samples throughout the test period. There appeared to be more variation amongst days of...

  8. Genetic analysis of influenza B viruses isolated in Uganda during the 2009–2010 seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byarugaba Denis K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and mortality in humans but due to the lack of an animal reservoir are not associated with pandemics. Because of this, there is relatively limited genetic sequences available for influenza B viruses, especially from developing countries. Complete genome analysis of one influenza B virus and several gene segments of other influenza B viruses isolated from Uganda from May 2009 through December 2010 was therefore undertaken in this study. Methods Samples were collected from patients showing influenza like illness and screened for influenza A and B by PCR. Influenza B viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells and selected isolates were subsequently sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Findings Of the 2,089 samples collected during the period, 292 were positive by PCR for influenza A or B; 12.3% of the PCR positives were influenza B. Thirty influenza B viruses were recovered and of these 25 that grew well consistently on subculture were subjected to further analysis. All the isolates belonged to the B/Victoria-lineage as identified by hemagglutination inhibition assay and genetic analysis except one isolate that grouped with the B-Yamagata-lineage. The Ugandan B/Victoria-lineage isolates grouped in clade 1 which was defined by the N75K, N165K and S172P substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA protein clustered together with the B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine strain. The Yamagata-like Ugandan strain, B/Uganda/MUWRP-053/2009, clustered with clade 3 Yamagata viruses such as B/Bangladesh/3333/2007 which is characterized by S150I and N166Y substitutions in HA. Conclusion In general there was limited variation among the Ugandan isolates but they were interestingly closer to viruses from West and North Africa than from neighboring Kenya. Our isolates closely matched the World Health Organization recommended vaccines for the seasons.

  9. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline.

  10. Novel serotype of bluetongue virus in South America and first report of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdezoto, J; Breard, E; Viarouge, C; Quenault, H; Lucas, P; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Augot, D; Zapata, S

    2018-02-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are closely related Orbiviruses that affect domestic and wild ruminants. In Ecuador previous serological studies reported the presence of BTV; however, no data are available about the presence of EHDV. In this study, 295 cattle without symptoms of infection were sampled from two farms located in Andean and Amazonian regions and from a slaughterhouse in the coastal region. ELISA analyses showed high prevalence of BTV (98.9%) and EHDV (81.3%) antibodies, and RT-qPCRs revealed the presence of EHDV (24.1%) and BTV (10.2%) genomes in cattle blood samples. Viral isolation allowed to identify EHDV serotype 1 (EHDV1) and BTV serotypes 9 (BTV9), 13 and 18. These findings suggest that BTV and EHDV are enzootic diseases in Ecuador. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Isolation and identification of fungi responsible for leaf spots disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diseased plant leaves were taken to the laboratory for culture, isolation, and ... These included; Alternaria longipes, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, ... Phomopsis mangiferae, Pseudofusicoccum spp. and Rhizopus oryzae.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting the freshwater algae Chrysochromulina parva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, S.F.; Staniewski, M.A.; Short, C.M.; Long, A.M.; Chaban, Y.V.; Short, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from Lake Ontario, Canada were tested for lytic activity against the freshwater haptophyte algae Chrysochromulina parva. A filterable lytic agent was isolated and identified as a virus via transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. The virus, CpV-BQ1, is icosahedral, ca. 145 nm in diameter, assembled within the cytoplasm, and has a genome size of ca. 485 kb. Sequences obtained through PCR-amplification of DNA polymerase (polB) genes clustered among sequences from the family Phycodnaviridae, whereas major capsid protein (MCP) sequences clustered among sequences from either the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae. Based on quantitative molecular assays, C. parva's abundance in Lake Ontario was relatively stable, yet CpV-BQ1's abundance was variable suggesting complex virus-host dynamics. This study demonstrates that CpV-BQ1 is a member of the proposed order Megavirales with characteristics of both phycodnaviruses and mimiviruses indicating that, in addition to its complex ecological dynamics, it also has a complex evolutionary history. - Highlights: • A virus infecting the algae C. parva was isolated from Lake Ontario. • Virus characteristics demonstrated that this novel virus is an NCLDV. • The virus's polB sequence suggests taxonomic affiliation with the Phycodnaviridae. • The virus's capsid protein sequences also suggest Mimiviridae ancestry. • Surveys of host and virus natural abundances revealed complex host–virus dynamics.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting the freshwater algae Chrysochromulina parva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, S.F. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Staniewski, M.A. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada); Short, C.M. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Long, A.M. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada); Chaban, Y.V. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Short, S.M., E-mail: steven.short@utoronto.ca [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Water samples from Lake Ontario, Canada were tested for lytic activity against the freshwater haptophyte algae Chrysochromulina parva. A filterable lytic agent was isolated and identified as a virus via transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. The virus, CpV-BQ1, is icosahedral, ca. 145 nm in diameter, assembled within the cytoplasm, and has a genome size of ca. 485 kb. Sequences obtained through PCR-amplification of DNA polymerase (polB) genes clustered among sequences from the family Phycodnaviridae, whereas major capsid protein (MCP) sequences clustered among sequences from either the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae. Based on quantitative molecular assays, C. parva's abundance in Lake Ontario was relatively stable, yet CpV-BQ1's abundance was variable suggesting complex virus-host dynamics. This study demonstrates that CpV-BQ1 is a member of the proposed order Megavirales with characteristics of both phycodnaviruses and mimiviruses indicating that, in addition to its complex ecological dynamics, it also has a complex evolutionary history. - Highlights: • A virus infecting the algae C. parva was isolated from Lake Ontario. • Virus characteristics demonstrated that this novel virus is an NCLDV. • The virus's polB sequence suggests taxonomic affiliation with the Phycodnaviridae. • The virus's capsid protein sequences also suggest Mimiviridae ancestry. • Surveys of host and virus natural abundances revealed complex host–virus dynamics.

  14. CPm gene diversity in field isolates of Citrus tristeza virus from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros-Garay, Oscar Arturo; Martinez-Salazar, Natalhie; Torres-Ruiz, Yanneth; Acosta, Orlando

    2009-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence diversity of the CPm gene from 28 field isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was assessed by SSCP and sequence analyses. These isolates showed two major shared haplotypes, which differed in distribution: A1 was the major haplotype in 23 isolates from different geographic regions, whereas R1 was found in isolates from a discrete region. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered A1 within an independent group, while R1 was grouped with mild isolates T30 from Florida and T385 from Spain. Some isolates contained several minor haplotypes, which were very similar to, and associated with, the major haplotype.

  15. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  16. Potential for Low-Pathogenic Avian H7 Influenza A Viruses To Replicate and Cause Disease in a Mammalian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Mark; Koçer, Zeynep A.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Friedman, Kimberly; Seiler, Jon; Danner, Angela; Kercher, Lisa; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Wentworth, David E.; Krauss, Scott; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT H7 subtype influenza A viruses are widely distributed and have been responsible for human infections and numerous outbreaks in poultry with significant impact. Despite this, the disease-causing potential of the precursor low-pathogenic (LP) H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. Our objective was to assess the disease-causing potential of 30 LP H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the United States and Canada using the DBA/2J mouse model. Without prior mammalian adaptation, the majority of viruses, 27 (90%), caused mortality in mice. Of these, 17 (56.7%) caused 100% mortality and 24 were of pathogenicity similar to that of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), which is highly pathogenic in mice. Viruses of duck origin were more pathogenic than those of shorebird origin, as 13 of 18 (72.2%) duck origin viruses caused 100% mortality while 4 of 12 (33.3%) shorebird origin viruses caused 100% mortality, despite there being no difference in mean lung viral titers between the groups. Replication beyond the respiratory tract was also evident, particularly in the heart and brain. Of the 16 viruses studied for fecal shedding, 11 were detected in fecal samples. These viruses exhibited a strong preference for avian-type α2,3-linked sialic acids; however, binding to mammalian-type α2,6-linked sialic acids was also detected. These findings indicate that LP avian H7 influenza A viruses are able to infect and cause disease in mammals without prior adaptation and therefore pose a potential public health risk. IMPORTANCE Low-pathogenic (LP) avian H7 influenza A viruses are widely distributed in the avian reservoir and are the precursors of numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in commercial poultry farms. However, unlike highly pathogenic H7 viruses, the disease-causing potential of LP H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. To address this, we studied 30 LP avian H7 viruses isolated from wild

  17. Interference of Infectious Bursal Diseases (IBD) Virus and Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar gel ...

  18. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  19. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus | Zhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...

  20. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human influenza A viruses isolated in Iran during the 2014-2015 season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moasser, Elham; Behzadian, Farida; Moattari, Afagh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Amir; Zaraket, Hassan; Hosseini, Seyed Younes

    2017-07-01

    Influenza A viruses are an important cause of severe infectious diseases in humans and are characterized by their fast evolution rate. Global monitoring of these viruses is critical to detect newly emerging variants during annual epidemics. Here, we sought to genetically characterize influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses collected in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season. A total of 200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with influenza-like illnesses. Swabs were screened for influenza A and B using real-time PCR. Furthermore, positive specimens with high virus load underwent virus isolation and genetic characterization of their hemagglutinin (HA) and M genes. Of the 200 specimens, 80 were influenza A-positive, including 44 A/H1N1pdm09 and 36 A/H3N2, while 18 were influenza B-positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the A/H1N1pdm09 viruses revealed the circulation of clade 6C, characterized by amino acid substitutions D97N, V234I and K283E. Analysis of the A/H3N2 viruses showed a genetic drift from the vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 with 5 mutations (T128A, R142G, N145S, P198S and S219F) belonging to the antigenic sites A, B, and D of the HA protein. The A/H3N2 viruses belonged to phylogenetic clades 3C.2 and 3C.3. The M gene trees of the Iranian A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 mirrored the clustering patterns of their corresponding HA trees. Our results reveal co-circulation of several influenza A virus strains in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season.

  1. Isolation and characterization of H3N2 influenza A virus from turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Lee, C W; Zhang, Y; Senne, D A; Dearth, R; Byrum, B; Perez, D R; Suarez, D L; Saif, Y M

    2005-06-01

    Five 34-wk-old turkey breeder layer flocks in separate houses of 2550 birds each in a single farm in Ohio experienced a drop in egg production from late January to early February 2004. Tracheal swabs (n = 60), cloacal swabs (n = 50), and convalescent sera (n = 110) from the flocks were submitted to the laboratory for diagnostics. Virus isolation was attempted in specific-pathogen free embryonating chicken eggs and Vero and MDCK cells. Virus characterization was performed using agar gel immunodiffusion, the hemagglutination test, the hemagglutination inhibition test, the virus neutralization test, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. A presumptive influenza virus was successfully propagated and isolated on the first passage in MDCK cells, but initially not in Vero cells or specific-pathogen free chicken embryos. After two passages in MDCK cells, it was possible to propagate the isolate in specific-pathogen free chicken embryos. Preliminary sequence analysis of the isolated virus confirmed that it was influenza A virus with almost 100% (235/236) identity with the matrix gene of a swine influenza A virus, A/Swine/Illinois/100084/01 (H1N2). However, it was not possible to subtype the virus using conventional serotyping methods. The results of genetic characterization of the isolated virus showed that it was the H3N2 subtype and was designated as A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2). Phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments of the virus showed that A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) isolate was most closely related to the triple-reassortant H3N2 swine viruses [A/Swine/WI/14094/99 (H3N2)] that have been circulating among pigs in the United States since 1998, which contains gene segments from avian, swine, and human viruses. The A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) isolated from turkeys in this study was classified as a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus because it only caused a drop in egg production with minor other clinical

  2. A new subtype of hepatitis C virus genotype 1: complete genome and phylogenetic relationships of an Equatorial Guinea isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria Alma; Carrillo-Cruz, Francy Yolima; Ortega, Enrique; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there have been few studies on the distribution and genetic diversity of HCV isolates in non-developed countries. Here, the complete genome sequence of an HCV genotype 1 isolate from Equatorial Guinea is reported, the first complete HCV-1 genome of African origin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this sequence always grouped with sequences of genotype 1, but did not group clearly with any subtype described so far. An analysis of partial NS5B gene sequences with additional sequences of African origin also failed to find close similarities between the new sequence and any previously known isolate. Genetic divergence of the coding region of this new sequence with respect to the recognized subtypes of HCV-1 ranged from 20 to 22%. It is proposed that this isolate is a representative of a new, distinct variant of HCV subtype 1.

  3. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of Potato virus X (PVX) infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Pablo A; Alzate, Juan F; Montoya, Mauricio Marín

    2015-06-01

    Transcriptome analysis of a Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) plant with leaf symptoms of a mild yellow mosaic typical of a viral disease revealed an infection with Potato virus X (PVX). The genome sequence of the PVX-Physalis isolate comprises 6435 nt and exhibits higher sequence similarity to members of the Eurasian group of PVX (~95 %) than to the American group (~77 %). Genome organization is similar to other PVX isolates with five open reading frames coding for proteins RdRp, TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and CP. 5' and 3' untranslated regions revealed all regulatory motifs typically found in PVX isolates. The PVX-Physalis genome is the only complete sequence available for a Potexvirus in Colombia and is a new addition to the restricted number of available sequences of PVX isolates infecting plant species different to potato.

  4. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-09-24

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus.

  5. RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Perse da; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. DNA-A of a highly pathogenic Indian cassava mosaic virus isolated from Jatropha curcas causes symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Sun, Yanwei; Xu, Ruirui; Qu, Jing; Tee, Chuansia; Jiang, Xiyuan; Ye, Jian

    2014-04-01

    Jatropha curcas mosaic disease (JcMD) is a newly emerging disease that has been reported in Africa and India. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a new Indian cassava mosaic virus isolate (ICMV-SG) from Singapore. Infection of ICMV-SG showed more severe JcMD in Jatropha curcas and Nicotiana benthamiana than the other ICMV isolates reported previously, though ICMV-SG shares high sequence identity with the other ICMV isolates. Agroinfectious DNA-A alone sufficiently induced systemic symptoms in N. benthamiana, but not in J. curcas. Results from agroinfection assays showed that systemic infection of ICMV-SG in J. curcas required both DNA-A and DNA-B components.

  7. Susceptibility of various Japanese freshwater fish species to an isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Genotype IVb of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated for the first time in the Great Lakes basin in 2003, where it spread and caused mass mortalities in several wild fish species throughout the basin. In order to prevent further spreading of the disease and to assess risks...... mortalities in bluegill Lepomis macrochirus used as positive controls, Japanese fluvial sculpin Cottus pollux, and iwana Salvelinus leucomaenis pluvius were 50, 80 and 0%, respectively. In Expt 2, cumulative mortalities of 100, 100 and 10% were observed in Japanese fluvial sculpin C. pollux, Japanese rice......-isolation by cell culture was successful from all dead fish. We detected the virus in the brain from a few surviving bluegill 50 d post exposure by both cell culture and RT-PCR. These results revealed that VHSV IVb could become a serious threat to wild freshwater fish species in Japan, and that some surviving fish...

  8. Serological characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease type 'O' field isolates from Peru: 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Nineteen field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) recovered from bovine epithelial samples corresponding to outbreaks present in different regions of Peru, between 1992-1994 were studied. The relationship of the virus isolates to the O/Urubamba vaccine strain of Peru was determined by the calculation of the 'r' values obtained by the liquid-phase blocking ELISA. All the isolates showed 'r' values higher than 0.66 indicating that the vaccine strain should protect against the field strains. Characterization of the field isolates by a trapping ELISA using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against FMDV O/Switzerland and O/Caseros, showed slight differences in the profiles of the field isolates when compared with the O/Urubamba vaccine strain, but no differences were found among all the isolates. (author)

  9. First complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 isolated from lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Lin, Tao; Liu, Jian-Kui; Wang, He-Xing; Li, Bing; Zhang, He; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Zhou, Xia; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas. In this study, a PIV5 variant (named ZJQ-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in Guangzhou zoo in Guangdong province, southern China. The full-length genome of ZJQ-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., NP, V, P, M, F, SH, HN and L). Sequence alignment and genetic analysis revealed that ZJQ-221 shared a close relationship with a PIV5 strain of canine-origin (1168-1) from South Korea. The findings of this study confirm the presence of PIV5 in lesser panda and indicate this mammal as a possible natural reservoir. Furthermore they highlight the urgent need to strengthen viral surveillance and control of PIV5 in zoo animals.

  10. Characterization of a 2016 Clinical Isolate of Zika Virus in Non-human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV. Here we report a non-human primate model using a 2016 contemporary clinical isolate of ZIKV. Upon subcutaneous inoculation, rhesus macaques developed fever and viremia, with robust excretion of ZIKV RNA in urine, saliva, and lacrimal fluid. Necropsy of two infected animals revealed that systematic infections involving central nervous system and visceral organs were established at the acute phrase. ZIKV initially targeted the intestinal tracts, spleen, and parotid glands, and retained in spleen and lymph nodes till 10 days post infection. ZIKV-specific immune responses were readily induced in all inoculated animals. The non-human primate model described here provides a valuable platform to study ZIKV pathogenesis and to evaluate vaccine and therapeutics.

  11. The antigenic property of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Wei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three influenza pandemics outbroke in the last century accompanied the viral antigen shift and drift, resulting in the change of antigenic property and the low cross protective ability of the existed antibody to the newly emerged pandemic virus, and eventually the death of millions of people. The antigenic characterizations of the viruses isolated in central China in 2004 and 2006–2007 were investigated in the present study. Results Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and neutralization assay displayed differential antigenic characteristics of the viruses isolated in central China in two periods (2004 and 2006–2007. HA genes of the viruses mainly located in two branches in phylogeny analysis. 53 mutations of the deduced amino acids of the HA genes were divided into 4 patterns. Mutations in pattern 2 and 3 showed the main difference between viruses isolated in 2004 and 2006–2007. Meanwhile, most amino acids in pattern 2 and 3 located in the globular head of the HA protein, and some of the mutations evenly distributed at the epitope sites. Conclusions The study demonstrated that a major antigenic drift had occurred in the viruses isolated in central China. And monitoring the antigenic property should be the priority in preventing the potential pandemic of H5N1 avian influenza virus.

  12. Antigenic and genetic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75 against currently circulating viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mana; Yuvaraj, S; Madhanmohan, M; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B; Paton, D J; Srinivasan, V A; Parida, Satya

    2015-01-29

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O is the most common cause of FMD outbreaks in India and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely Ind2001, PanAsia and PanAsia 2. We report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype O viruses isolated from India between 2002 and 2012. All these viruses belong to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. The serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75,was tested by virus neutralisation test with the 23 Indian field isolates, revealing a good match between the vaccine and the field isolates. The cross reactivity of the O/IND/R2/75 vaccine with 19 field isolates from other countries (mainly from Asia and Africa) revealed a good match to 79% of the viruses indicating that the vaccine strain is broadly cross-reactive and could be used to control FMD in other countries. Comparison of the capsid sequences of the serologically non-matching isolates with the vaccine strain sequence identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites 1 and 2, which could explain the observed serological differences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Generation of representative primary virus isolates from blood plasma after isolation of HIV-1 with CD44 MicroBeads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, M; Heeregrave, E.J.; Zorgdrager, F.; Pollakis, G.; Paxton, W.A.; van der Kuyl, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Infection of cell cultures with cell-free virus isolated from HIV-infected patients is notoriously difficult and results in a loss of viral variation. Here, we describe viral sequences from PBMC, U87.CD4.CCR5 and U87.CD4.CXCR4 cell cultures and compare them to those from blood plasma from 12

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: antigenic and molecular diversity of British isolates and implications for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Fearnley, Catherine; Naidu, Brindha; Errington, Jane; Westcott, David G; Drew, Trevor W

    2012-08-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease of pigs, caused by PRRS virus, a member of the Arteriviridae family. First seen in Britain in 1991, the disease continues to be a significant economic and welfare problem for pig producers. To date, only PRRSV genotype 1 has been found in Britain. At the genetic level, a considerable increase has been reported in the diversity of PRRS viruses isolated in Britain between 2003 and 2007, versus the early 1990 s. In this study, the diversity has been shown to extend to the antigenic level too, with potential consequences for diagnostic methods. Antigenic diversity was assessed using a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies, only one of which reacted with all isolates tested. Nine diverse viruses were compared as potential antigens in immunoperoxidase monolayer assays, where each one produced quite different results for a common panel of sera. As a single virus is used in each diagnostic assay, results must therefore be interpreted cautiously. For a real-time RT-PCR assay, published oligonucleotide primer and probe sequences were evaluated against available genetic sequences of British and European viruses, and were re-designed where considerable mismatches were found. The multiplex assay incorporating these modified primers to detect genotype 1 and 2 PRRS viruses was then validated for use with diagnostic sera and tissues. As the increasing degree of diversity exhibited by British strains is mirrored in other countries, PRRSV will continue to provide an ongoing challenge to diagnosis at a global, as well as national level. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory effect of aromatic geranyl derivatives isolated from Heliotropium filifolium on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Sandino, Ana María; Arata, Loredana; Cárdenas-Jirón, Gloria; Torres, René

    2010-02-24

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis is a disease caused by a birnavirus affecting several wild and commercial aquatic organisms. This infectious disease results in significant losses in the farming industry and therefore effective therapeutic agents are needed to control outbreaks caused by this pathogen. Our goal was to evaluate in vitro antiviral effect of a group of natural compounds (geranyl aromatic derivatives) isolated from the resinous exudate of the plant Heliotropium filifolium (Heliotropiaceae), semi-synthetics compounds obtained from them, and the resinous exudate, on CHSE-214 cell line infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using a virus plaque inhibition assay at various concentrations. The compound ester filifolinyl senecionate was the best antiviral with EC(50) 160 microg/mL and a cytotoxic concentration required to reduce cell viability by 50% up to 400 microg/mL. In order to obtain information about the mechanism of the antiviral action, was evaluated the influence of ester filifolinyl senecionate on the viral RNA synthesis. This compound produced inhibition of the synthesis of viral genomic RNA, suggesting that the ester could be interacting with the viral RNA during the viral cycle. Additionally, a preliminary study of the interaction between ester and a sample of single-stranded RNA was studied at the level of theory Restricted Hartree Fock PM3 method. The results showed that the ester formed hydrogen bonds mainly with nitrogenous bases but not with ribose and phosphate. These results allow propose that the ester filifolinyl senecionate is a good candidate for used as antiviral therapy for IPN virus in salmon fry. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Swine influenza viruses isolated in 1983, 2002 and 2009 in Sweden exemplify different lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metreveli Giorgi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Swine influenza virus isolates originating from outbreaks in Sweden from 1983, 2002 and 2009 were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The aim of the studies was to obtain an overview on their potential relatedness as well as to provide data for broader scale studies on swine influenza epidemiology. Nonetheless, analyzing archive isolates is justified by the efforts directed to the comprehension of the appearance of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Interestingly, this study illustrates the evolution of swine influenza viruses in Europe, because the earliest isolate belonged to 'classical' swine H1N1, the subsequent ones to Eurasian 'avian-like' swine H1N1 and reassortant 'avian-like' swine H1N2 lineages, respectively. The latter two showed close genetic relatedness regarding their PB2, HA, NP, and NS genes, suggesting common ancestry. The study substantiates the importance of molecular surveillance for swine influenza viruses.

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  18. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) isolated from whooper swans, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Mase, Masaji; Yoneda, Kumiko; Kimura, Atsumu; Obara, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Seikou; Saito, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

    2008-09-01

    On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.

  19. Biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a Tunisian isolate of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, S; Desbiez, C; Fakhfakh, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Marrakchi, M; Lecoq, H

    2008-01-01

    During a survey conducted in October 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. DAS-ELISA showed the presence of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV, Potyvirus), detected for the first time in Tunisia, in samples from the region of Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia). MWMV isolate TN05-76 (MWMV-Tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. MWMV-Tn was found to have biological properties similar to those reported for the MWMV type strain from Morocco. Phylogenetic analysis including the comparison of complete amino-acid sequences of 42 potyviruses confirmed that MWMV-Tn is related (65% amino-acid sequence identity) to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates but is a member of a distinct virus species. Sequence analysis on parts of the CP gene of MWMV isolates from different geographical origins revealed some geographic structure of MWMV variability, with three different clusters: one cluster including isolates from the Mediterranean region, a second including isolates from western and central Africa, and a third one including isolates from the southern part of Africa. A significant correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances between isolates. Isolates from countries in the Mediterranean region where MWMV has recently emerged (France, Spain, Portugal) have highly conserved sequences, suggesting that they may have a common and recent origin. MWMV from Sudan, a highly divergent variant, may be considered an evolutionary intermediate between MWMV and PRSV.

  20. African and Asian Zika virus isolates display phenotypic differences both in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has emerged since 2007 to cause outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and most recently in the Americas. Here we utilized isolate history, as well as genetic and phylogenetic analyses to characterize three low-passage isolates representing African ...

  1. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  2. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  3. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  4. Production of recombinant dengue non-structural 1 (NS1) proteins from clinical virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohan, Benediktus; Wardhani, Puspa; Aryati; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Sasmono, R Tedjo

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is a febrile disease caused by infection of dengue virus (DENV). Early diagnosis of dengue infection is important for better management of the disease. The DENV Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) antigen has been routinely used for the early dengue detection. In dengue epidemic countries such as Indonesia, clinicians are increasingly relying on the NS1 detection for confirmation of dengue infection. Various NS1 diagnostic tests are commercially available, however different sensitivities and specificities were observed in various settings. This study was aimed to generate dengue NS1 recombinant protein for the development of dengue diagnostic tests. Four Indonesian DENV isolates were used as the source of the NS1 gene cloning, expression, and purification in bacterial expression system. Recombinant NS1 proteins were successfully purified and their antigenicities were assessed. Immunization of mice with recombinant proteins observed the immunogenicity of the NS1 protein. The generated recombinant proteins can be potentially used in the development of NS1 diagnostic test. With minimal modifications, this method can be used for producing NS1 recombinant proteins from isolates obtained from other geographical regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation among isolates of prunus necrotic ringspot virus by transcript conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, A; Maslenin, L; Spiegel, S

    1998-09-01

    A method based on differences in electrophoretic mobility of RNA transcripts made from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was used for differentiation among virus isolates. A T7 RNA polymerase promoter was attached to amplified prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) sequences by PCR. The PCR products then served as a template for transcription. Single-stranded transcripts originated from different PNRSV isolates varied in electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gels, presumably because of transcript conformation polymorphism (TCP). This procedure was applied for the differentiation of PNRSV isolates.

  6. Assay for Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, lymphocidal disease that has been a threat to poultry production in Nigeria and a major disease problem of poultry producing areas of the world. A serological detection of antibodies to the virus was conducted on 300 sera samples derived from local chickens slaughtered at Sheik ...

  7. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. ... could be used for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian livestock. Keyword: Foot and Mouth Disease ... 2 blended with Incomplete. Seepic Adjuvant (ISA) montanide 206, which.

  8. A combination in-ovo vaccine for avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, John; Burmakina, Svetlana V; Thomas, Colleen; Spackman, Erica; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Swayne, David E; Palese, Peter

    2008-01-24

    The protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be achieved through vaccination, as part of a broader disease control strategy. We have previously generated a recombinant influenza virus expressing, (i) an H5 hemagglutinin protein, modified by the removal of the polybasic cleavage peptide and (ii) the ectodomain of the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein in the place of the ectodomain of influenza neuraminidase (Park MS, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(21):8203-8). Here we show this virus is attenuated in primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell culture, and demonstrate protection of C57BL/6 mice from lethal challenge with an H5 HA-containing influenza virus through immunisation with the recombinant virus. In addition, in-ovo vaccination of 18-day-old embryonated chicken eggs provided 90% and 80% protection against highly stringent lethal challenge by NDV and H5N1 virus, respectively. We propose that this virus has potential as a safe in-ovo live, attenuated, bivalent avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus vaccine.

  9. Relationship Between Ebola Virus Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Threshold Cycle Value and Virus Isolation From Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Jessica R; McElroy, Anita K; Harmon, Jessica R; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2015-10-01

    We performed a longitudinal analysis of plasma samples obtained from 4 patients with Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) to determine the relationship between the real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)-based threshold cycle (Ct) value and the presence of infectious EBOV. EBOV was not isolated from plasma samples with a Ct value of >35.5 or >12 days after onset of symptoms. EBOV was not isolated from plasma samples in which anti-EBOV nucleoprotein immunoglobulin G was detected. These data demonstrate the utility of interpreting qRT-PCR results in the context of the course of EBOV infection and associated serological responses for patient-management decisions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Modeling the transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Shi-Fu; Li, Shen-Long; Huang, Liu-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Sun, Gui-Quan; Gai, Zhong-Tao; Jin, Zhen

    2015-09-08

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) has erupted many times in some zones since it was first found in 1976. The 2014 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest ever, which has caused a large number of deaths and the most serious country is Liberia during the outbreak period. Based on the data released by World Health Organization and the actual transmission situations, we investigate the impact of different transmission routes on the EVD outbreak in Liberia and estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.012 in the absence of effective control measures. Through sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, we reveal that the transmission coefficients of suspected and probable cases have stronger correlations on the basic reproduction number. Furthermore, we study the influence of control measures (isolation and safe burial measures) on EVD outbreak. It is found that if combined control measures are taken, the basic reproduction number will be less than one and thus EVD in Liberia may be well contained. The obtained results may provide new guidance to prevent and control the spread of disease.

  11. Hepatitis C virus in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Hasan, Syed; Giday, Samuel; Alamgir, Laila; Banks, Alpha; Frederick, Winston; Smoot, Duane; Castro, Oswaldo

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV) in patients with sickle cell disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1983 and 2001, 150 patients from the Howard University Hospital Center for Sickle Cell Disease were screened for HCV antibody (52% women, 48% men, mean age 34 years). Frozen serum samples from 56 adult sickle cell patients who had participated in previous surveys (1983-92) of HIV and HTLV-1 serology and who were tested in 1992 for anti-HCV antibody--when commercial ELISA test (Ortho) became available--were included in this paper. Of the 150 patients in the study, 132 had sickle cell anemia genotype (SS), 15 had sickle cell hemoglobin-C disease (SC) and three had sickle beta thalassemia. Clinical charts were reviewed for history of blood transfusion, IV drug abuse, homosexuality, tattooing, iron overload, and alcohol abuse. RESULTS: Antibodies to HCV were detected in 53 patients (35.3%). Of the 55 patients who had frozen serum samples tested in 1992, 32 (58%) were reactive for anti-HCV, while only 21 of the 95 patients (22%) tested after 1992 were positive for HCV antibodies (P<0.001). Thirty-nine of 77 patients (51%) who received more than 10 units of packed red blood cells were positive for HCV antibody, and only 14 of 61 patients (23%) who received less than 10 units of packed red blood cells transfusion were positive for HCV antibodies (P<0.001). None of the 12 patients who never received transfusion were positive for HCV antibody. In the 53 anti-HCV positive patients, the mean alanine amino-transferase (ALT) value was 98- and 81 U/L, respectively, for males and females. These values were normal for the HCV-antibody negative patients. The aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and the total bilirubin were also higher in the anti-HCV positive patients compared to patients in the anti-HCV negative group. Forty-four patients (57.1%) who were transfused more than 10 units developed iron overload defined by a serum ferritin

  12. Molecular characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolated from rose in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    FAJARDO, T. V. M.; NASCIMENTO, M. B.; EIRAS, M.; NICKEL, O.; PIO-RIBEIRO, G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: There is no molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), except for those infecting peach. In this research, the causal agent of rose mosaic was determined and the movement (MP) and coat (CP) protein genes of a PNRSV isolate from rose were molecularly characterized for the first time in Brazil. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of MP and CP complete genes were aligned and compared with other isolates. Molecular analysis of...

  13. Molecular characterization of an Akabane virus isolate from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo Edi, Suryo; Ibrahim, Afif; Sukoco, Rinto; Bunali, Lukman; Taguchi, Masaji; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru; Shirafuji, Hiroaki

    2017-04-08

    We isolated an arbovirus from bovine blood in Indonesia. The arbovirus was obtained from the plasma of a cow showing no clinical symptoms in West Java in February 2014, and was identified as Akabane virus (AKAV) by AKAV-specific RT-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial S segment indicated the AKAV isolate, WJ-1SA/P/2014, was most closely related with two isolates from Israel and Turkey reported in 2001 and 2015, respectively, and that WJ-1SA/P/2014 isolate belongs to AKAV genogroup Ib. This is the first isolation of AKAV from Indonesia.

  14. Identification and Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Genotype XIV Newcastle Disease Virus from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Solomon, Ponman; Sulaiman, Lanre K.; Joannis, Tony M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from genotype XIV is reported here. Strain duck/Nigeria/NG-695/KG.LOM.11-16/2009 was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck from a live bird market in Kogi State, Nigeria, in 2009. This strain is classified as a member of subgenotype XIVb of class II. PMID:26823576

  15. Identification of Turnip mosaic virus isolated from canola in northeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic analyses based on ClustalW multiple alignments with previously reported 33 isolates indicated 88 to 98% similarity in nucleotide and 94 to 99% in amino acid levels among isolates. TuMV-IRN GSK represented the highest identity to another Iranian isolate (IRN TRa6). Phylogenetic tree clustered all sequences ...

  16. Travel to tropical areas: Zika virus disease

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2016-01-01

    Transmitted by the bite of a certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes), the Zika virus is spreading quickly in tropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America.   Although no specific treatment nor vaccine is currently available, the most effective preventive measures are those focused on avoiding mosquito bites. There are no travel restrictions in place at present. However it is recommended that pregnant women defer travel plans to countries affected by the Zika virus. For further information on symptoms and prevention measures, please click on the Zika virus link or contact the Medical Service.

  17. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  18. Genetic Characterization of Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic 2009 Virus Isolates from Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Devanshi; Kothari, Sweta; Shinde, Pramod; Meharunkar, Rhuta; Warke, Rajas; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2017-08-01

    Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was first detected in India in May 2009 which subsequently became endemic in many parts of the country. Influenza A viruses have the ability to evade the immune response through its ability of antigenic variations. The study aims to characterize influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 viruses circulating in Mumbai during the pandemic and post-pandemic period. Nasopharyngeal swabs positive for influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 viruses were inoculated on Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line for virus isolation. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 isolates was conducted to understand the evolution and genetic diversity of the strains. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the HA gene of Mumbai isolates when compared to A/California/07/2009-vaccine strain revealed 14 specific amino acid differences located at the antigenic sites. Amino acid variations in HA and NA gene resulted in changes in the N-linked glycosylation motif which may lead to immune evasion. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates revealed their evolutionary position with vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 but had undergone changes gradually. The findings in the present study confirm genetic variability of influenza viruses and highlight the importance of continuous surveillance during influenza outbreaks.

  19. Genetic characterization of H1N2 influenza a virus isolated from sick pigs in Southern China in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei Li; Huang, Liang Zong; Qi, Hai Tao; Cao, Nan; Zhang, Liang Quan; Wang, Heng; Guan, Shang Song; Qi, Wen Bao; Jiao, Pei Rong; Liao, Ming; Zhang, Gui Hong

    2011-10-13

    In China H3N2 and H1N1 swine influenza viruses have been circulating for many years. In January 2010, before swine were infected with foot and mouth disease in Guangdong, some pigs have shown flu-like symptoms: cough, sneeze, runny nose and fever. We collected the nasopharyngeal swab of all sick pigs as much as possible. One subtype H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from the pig population. The complete genome of one isolate, designated A/swine/Guangdong/1/2010(H1N2), was sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank. The nucleotide sequences of all eight viral RNA segments were determined, and then phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method. HA, NP, M and NS were shown to be closely to swine origin. PB2 and PA were close to avian origin, but NA and PB1were close to human origin. It is a result of a multiple reassortment event. In conclusion, our finding provides further evidence about the interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses to pigs and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance, especially before the emergence of highly pathogenic FMDs in pigs in Guangdong.

  20. Genetic characterization of H1N2 influenza a virus isolated from sick pigs in Southern China in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In China H3N2 and H1N1 swine influenza viruses have been circulating for many years. In January 2010, before swine were infected with foot and mouth disease in Guangdong, some pigs have shown flu-like symptoms: cough, sneeze, runny nose and fever. We collected the nasopharyngeal swab of all sick pigs as much as possible. One subtype H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from the pig population. The complete genome of one isolate, designated A/swine/Guangdong/1/2010(H1N2, was sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank. The nucleotide sequences of all eight viral RNA segments were determined, and then phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method. HA, NP, M and NS were shown to be closely to swine origin. PB2 and PA were close to avian origin, but NA and PB1were close to human origin. It is a result of a multiple reassortment event. In conclusion, our finding provides further evidence about the interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses to pigs and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus (SIV surveillance, especially before the emergence of highly pathogenic FMDs in pigs in Guangdong.

  1. Effects of introduced and indigenous viruses on native plants: exploring their disease causing potential at the agro-ecological interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J; Coutts, Brenda A; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (viruses readily. To establish their potential to cause severe or mild systemic symptoms in different native plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host-virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface.

  2. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure Communication Resources Videos Audio Infographics & Illustrations Factsheets Posters Virus Ecology Graphic Signs and Symptoms Recommend on ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  3. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate.

  4. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruku Bande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus (ALV belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate.

  5. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kabongo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312 collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 % cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15, followed by diarrhoea (5/15. Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.

  6. Vertical transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): Isolation of virus from dead eggs and fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The control of epizootics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus in salmonid fishes is presently based on examination and certification of adult brood fish to prevent the introduction of virus-infected eggs into hatcheries (Canadian Fisheries and Marine Service 1976; McDaniel 1979). This strategy is based on the assumption that the virus is vertically transmitted in association with the gametes. However, evidence for vertical transmission of IHN virus is circumstantial, based mostly on the appearance of the disease outside the enzootic area (the west coast of North America) in fish hatched from eggs obtained from within that area (Plumb 1972; Holway & Smith 1973; Wolf, Quimby, Pettijohn & Landolt 1973; Sano, Nishimura, Okamoto, Yamazaki, Hanada & Watanabe1977; Carlisle, Schat & Elston 1979). An indirect demonstration of vertical transmission was made by placing known virus-free fish in the water above and below raceways containing fish that suffered an IHN epizootic in an effort to eliminate waterborne virus as a source of infection (Wingfield & Chan 1970). The fish placed below the raceway developed IHN, due to waterborne virus released from the affected fish in the raceway, but the fish placed above the raceway failed to develop IHN. These results suggested that the source of infection of the fish in the raceway was not the water supply, although it is possible that the virus was no longer present in the water supply at the time the sentinel fish were exposed to the water.

  7. Detection of rainbow trout antibodies against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) by neutralisation test is highly dependent on the virus isolate used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fregeneda-Grandes, J.M.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    with VHS but with no clinical signs of infection. When the sera were examined by 50%PNT using the VHSV reference isolate DK-F1 or the heat attenuated DK-F25 mutant strain, no neutralizing antibodies were found. In contrast, when one of the virus isolates from the farm (homologous virus) was used in the 50...

  8. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families.

  9. Genetic stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during long-term infections in natural hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Pauszek, Steven J; Ahmed, Zaheer; Farooq, Umer; Naeem, Khalid; Shabman, Reed S; Stockwell, Timothy B; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2018-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe infection caused by a picornavirus that affects livestock and wildlife. Persistence in ruminants is a well-documented feature of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pathogenesis and a major concern for disease control. Persistently infected animals harbor virus for extended periods, providing a unique opportunity to study within-host virus evolution. This study investigated the genetic dynamics of FMDV during persistent infections of naturally infected Asian buffalo. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) we obtained 21 near complete FMDV genome sequences from 12 sub-clinically infected buffalo over a period of one year. Four animals yielded only one virus isolate and one yielded two isolates of different serotype suggesting a serial infection. Seven persistently infected animals yielded more than one virus of the same serotype showing a long-term intra-host viral genetic divergence at the consensus level of less than 2.5%. Quasi-species analysis showed few nucleotide variants and non-synonymous substitutions of progeny virus despite intra-host persistence of up to 152 days. Phylogenetic analyses of serotype Asia-1 VP1 sequences clustered all viruses from persistent animals with Group VII viruses circulating in Pakistan in 2011, but distinct from those circulating on 2008-2009. Furthermore, signature amino acid (aa) substitutions were found in the antigenically relevant VP1 of persistent viruses compared with viruses from 2008-2009. Intra-host purifying selective pressure was observed, with few codons in structural proteins undergoing positive selection. However, FMD persistent viruses did not show a clear pattern of antigenic selection. Our findings provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of FMDV populations within naturally occurring subclinical and persistent infections that may have implications to vaccination strategies in the region.

  10. Genetic stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during long-term infections in natural hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Ramirez-Carvajal

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a severe infection caused by a picornavirus that affects livestock and wildlife. Persistence in ruminants is a well-documented feature of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV pathogenesis and a major concern for disease control. Persistently infected animals harbor virus for extended periods, providing a unique opportunity to study within-host virus evolution. This study investigated the genetic dynamics of FMDV during persistent infections of naturally infected Asian buffalo. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS we obtained 21 near complete FMDV genome sequences from 12 sub-clinically infected buffalo over a period of one year. Four animals yielded only one virus isolate and one yielded two isolates of different serotype suggesting a serial infection. Seven persistently infected animals yielded more than one virus of the same serotype showing a long-term intra-host viral genetic divergence at the consensus level of less than 2.5%. Quasi-species analysis showed few nucleotide variants and non-synonymous substitutions of progeny virus despite intra-host persistence of up to 152 days. Phylogenetic analyses of serotype Asia-1 VP1 sequences clustered all viruses from persistent animals with Group VII viruses circulating in Pakistan in 2011, but distinct from those circulating on 2008-2009. Furthermore, signature amino acid (aa substitutions were found in the antigenically relevant VP1 of persistent viruses compared with viruses from 2008-2009. Intra-host purifying selective pressure was observed, with few codons in structural proteins undergoing positive selection. However, FMD persistent viruses did not show a clear pattern of antigenic selection. Our findings provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of FMDV populations within naturally occurring subclinical and persistent infections that may have implications to vaccination strategies in the region.

  11. Sunguru virus: a novel virus in the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from a chicken in north-western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Zeidner, Nord; Borland, Erin M; Mutebi, John-Paul; Lanciotti, Robert S; Miller, Barry R; Lutwama, Julius J; Tendo, Joseph M; Andama, Vincent; Powers, Ann M

    2014-07-01

    Sunguru virus (SUNV), a novel virus belonging to the highly diverse Rhabdoviridae family, was isolated from a domestic chicken in the district of Arua, Uganda, in 2011. This is the first documented isolation of a rhabdovirus from a chicken. SUNV is related to, but distinct from, Boteke virus and other members of the unclassified Sandjimba group. The genome is 11056 nt in length and contains the five core rhabdovirus genes plus an additional C gene (within the ORF of a phosphoprotein gene) and a small hydrophobic protein (between the matrix and glycoprotein genes). Inoculation of vertebrate cells with SUNV resulted in significant viral growth, with a peak titre of 7.8 log10 p.f.u. ml(-1) observed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Little to no growth was observed in invertebrate cells and in live mosquitoes, with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes having a 47.4% infection rate in the body but no dissemination of the virus to the salivary glands; this suggests that this novel virus is not arthropod borne as some other members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

  12. Sunguru virus: a novel virus in the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from a chicken in north-western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Zeidner, Nord; Borland, Erin M.; Mutebi, John-Paul; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Miller, Barry R.; Lutwama, Julius J.; Tendo, Joseph M.; Andama, Vincent; Powers, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    Sunguru virus (SUNV), a novel virus belonging to the highly diverse Rhabdoviridae family, was isolated from a domestic chicken in the district of Arua, Uganda, in 2011. This is the first documented isolation of a rhabdovirus from a chicken. SUNV is related to, but distinct from, Boteke virus and other members of the unclassified Sandjimba group. The genome is 11 056 nt in length and contains the five core rhabdovirus genes plus an additional C gene (within the ORF of a phosphoprotein gene) and a small hydrophobic protein (between the matrix and glycoprotein genes). Inoculation of vertebrate cells with SUNV resulted in significant viral growth, with a peak titre of 7.8 log10 p.f.u. ml−1 observed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Little to no growth was observed in invertebrate cells and in live mosquitoes, with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes having a 47.4 % infection rate in the body but no dissemination of the virus to the salivary glands; this suggests that this novel virus is not arthropod borne as some other members of the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24718834

  13. Characteristics of respiratory tract disease in horses inoculated with equine rhinitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hewson, Joanne; Shewen, Patricia; Nagy, Eva; Viel, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    To develop a method for experimental induction of equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) infection in equids and to determine the clinical characteristics of such infection. 8 ponies (age, 8 to 12 months) seronegative for antibodies against ERAV. PROCEDURES-Nebulization was used to administer ERAV (strain ERAV/ON/05; n = 4 ponies) or cell culture medium (control ponies; 4) into airways of ponies; 4 previously ERAV-inoculated ponies were reinoculated 1 year later. Physical examinations and pulmonary function testing were performed at various times for 21 days after ERAV or mock inoculation. Various types of samples were obtained for virus isolation, blood samples were obtained for serologic testing, and clinical scores were determined for various variables. ERAV-inoculated ponies developed respiratory tract disease characterized by pyrexia, nasal discharge, adventitious lung sounds, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Additionally, these animals had purulent mucus in lower airways up to the last evaluation time 21 days after inoculation (detected endoscopically). The virus was isolated from various samples obtained from lower and upper airways of ERAV-inoculated ponies up to 7 days after exposure; this time corresponded with an increase in serum titers of neutralizing antibodies against ERAV. None of the ponies developed clinical signs of disease after reinoculation 1 year later. Results of this study indicated ERAV induced respiratory tract disease in seronegative ponies. However, ponies with neutralizing antibodies against ERAV did not develop clinical signs of disease when reinoculated with the virus. Therefore, immunization of ponies against ERAV could prevent respiratory tract disease attributable to that virus in such animals.

  14. Sequence-based comparative study of classical swine fever virus genogroup 2.2 isolate with pestivirus reference strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Chandra, Tribhuwan; Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; Saxena, Arpit; Chaudhary, Dheeraj; Kumar, Ajay; Pandey, Awadh Bihari

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim to compare and establish the genetic relatedness between classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genogroup 2.2 isolate and pestivirus reference strains. The available complete genome sequences of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 strain and other pestivirus reference strains were retrieved from GenBank. The complete genome sequence, complete open reading frame, 5' and 3' non-coding region (NCR) sequences were analyzed and compared with reference pestiviruses strains. Clustal W model in MegAlign program of Lasergene 6.0 software was used for analysis of genetic heterogeneity. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA 6.06 software package. The complete genome sequence alignment of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate and reference pestivirus strains showed 58.9-72% identities at the nucleotide level and 50.3-76.9% at amino acid level. Sequence homology of 5' and 3' NCRs was found to be 64.1-82.3% and 22.9-71.4%, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, overall tree topology was found similar irrespective of sequences used in this study; however, whole genome phylogeny of pestivirus formed two main clusters, which further distinguished into the monophyletic clade of each pestivirus species. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate placed with the CSFV Eystrup strain in the same clade with close proximity to border disease virus and Aydin strains. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 exhibited the analogous genomic organization to those of all reference pestivirus strains. Based on sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis, the isolate showed close homology to Aydin/04-TR virus and distantly related to Bungowannah virus.

  15. Variability of geographically distinct isolates of maize rayado fino virus in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Kogel, R; Ramirez, P

    1997-12-01

    We have examined the molecular epidemiology of the leafhopper-borne maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) in Latin America. The coat protein gene and 3' non-translated region of 14 isolates of MRFV collected from Latin America and the United States were sequenced and phylogenetic relationships examined. The nucleotide sequence revealed remarkable conservation, with a sequence similarity of 88-99%. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data obtained from a 633 bp fragment showed that MRFV has diverged into three main clusters, i.e. the geographically distinct northern and southern isolates and the Colombian isolates. Significant differences between the isolates collected from Colombia, previously named maize rayado colombiana virus, based upon differences in symptomatology and serological relationships to MRFV, and the other MRFV isolates, provides additional evidence supporting its designation as a unique strain of MRFV.

  16. Interplay of foot-and-mouth disease virus, antibodies and plasmacytoid dendritic cells: virus opsonization under non-neutralizing conditions results in enhanced interferon-alpha responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannes Nils

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is a highly infectious member of the Picornaviridae inducing an acute disease of cloven-hoofed species. Vaccine-induced immune protection correlates with the presence of high levels of neutralizing antibodies but also opsonising antibodies have been proposed as an important mechanism of the immune response contributing to virus clearance by macrophages and leading to the production of type-I interferon (IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC. The present study demonstrates that the opsonising antibody titres mediating enhanced IFN-α responses in pDC were similar to neutralizing titres, when antigenically related viruses from the same serotype were employed. However, sera cross-reacted also with non-neutralized isolates of multiple serotypes, when tested in this assay. Both uncomplexed virus and immune complexed virus stimulated pDC via Toll-like receptor 7. An additional finding of potential importance for strain-specific differences in virulence and/or immunogenicity was that pDC activation by FMDV strongly differed between viral isolates. Altogether, our results indicate that opsonising antibodies can have a broader reactivity than neutralizing antibodies and may contribute to antiviral responses induced against antigenically distant viruses.

  17. Newcastle disease virus in penguins from King George Island on the Antarctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomazelli, Luciano M; Araujo, Jansen; Oliveira, Danielle B; Sanfilippo, Luiz; Ferreira, Carolina S; Brentano, Liana; Pelizari, Vivian H; Nakayama, Cristiane; Duarte, Rubens; Hurtado, Renata; Branco, Joaquim O; Walker, David; Durigon, Edison L

    2010-11-20

    Here we report the isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from cloacal swabs obtained from penguins in the South Atlantic Antarctic region (62°08S, 58°25W). Samples of 100 penguins from King George Island were tested by real-time PCR, of which 2 (2%) were positive for NDV. The positive samples were isolated in embryonated chicken eggs and their matrix and fusion proteins genes were partially sequenced. This was complemented by the serological study performed on the blood of the same specimens, which resulted in a 33.3% rate of positivity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of three new isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus from different hosts in China: molecular diversity, phylogenetic and recombination analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenjia; Wang, Deya; Yu, Chengming; Wang, Zenghui; Dong, Jiahong; Shi, Kerong; Yuan, Xuefeng

    2016-01-14

    Destructive diseases caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) have been reported associated with many important plants worldwide. Recently, TSWV was reported to infect different hosts in China. It is of value to clone TSWV isolates from different hosts and examine diversity and evolution among different TSWV isolates in China as well as worldwide. RT-PCR was used to clone the full-length genome (L, M and S segments) of three new isolates of TSWV that infected different hosts (tobacco, red pepper and green pepper) in China. Identity of nucleotide and amino acid sequences among TSWV isolates were analyzed by DNAMAN. MEGA 5.0 was used to construct phylogenetic trees. RDP4 was used to detect recombination events during evolution of these isolates. Whole-genome sequences of three new TSWV isolates in China were determined. Together with other available isolates, 29 RNA L, 62 RNA M and 66 RNA S of TSWV isolates were analyzed for molecular diversity, phylogenetic and recombination events. This analysis revealed that the entire TSWV genome, especially the M and S RNAs, had major variations in genomic size that mainly involve the A-U rich intergenic region (IGR). Phylogenetic analyses on TSWV isolates worldwide revealed evidence for frequent reassortments in the evolution of tripartite negative-sense RNA genome. Significant numbers of recombination events with apparent 5' regional preference were detected among TSWV isolates worldwide. Moreover, TSWV isolates with similar recombination events usually had closer relationships in phylogenetic trees. All five Chinese TSWV isolates including three TSWV isolates of this study and previously reported two isolates can be divided into two groups with different origins based on molecular diversity and phylogenetic analysis. During their evolution, both reassortment and recombination played roles. These results suggest that recombination could be an important mechanism in the evolution of multipartite RNA viruses, even negative

  19. Isolation of Chandipura virus (Vesiculovirus: Rhabdoviridae from Sergentomyia species of sandflies from Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Sudeep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: An outbreak of acute encephalitis syndrome was reported from Vidarbha region of Maharashtra s0 tate, India, during July 2012. Anti-IgM antibodies against Chandipura virus (CHPV were detected in clinical samples. Sandfly collections were done to determine their role in CHPV transmission. Methods: Twenty nine pools of Sergentomyia spp. comprising 625 specimens were processed for virus isolation in Vero E6 cell line. Diagnostic RT-PCR targeting N-gene was carried out with the sample that showed cytopathic effects (CPE. The PCR product was sequenced, analysed and the sequences were deposited in Genbank database. Results: CPE in Vero E6 cell line infected with three pools was detected at 48 h post infection. However, virus could be isolated only from one pool. RT-PCR studies demonstrated 527 nucleotide product that confirmed the agent as CHPV. Sequence analysis of the new isolate showed difference in 10-12 nucleotides in comparison to earlier isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first isolation of CHPV from Sergentomyia spp. in India and virus isolation during transmission season suggests their probable role in CHPV transmission. Further studies need to be done to confirm the precise role of Sargentomyia spp. in CHPV transmission.

  20. Isolation of Chandipura virus (Vesiculovirus: Rhabdoviridae) from Sergentomyia species of sandflies from Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Bondre, V P; Gurav, Y K; Gokhale, M D; Sapkal, G N; Mavale, M S; George, R P; Mishra, A C

    2014-05-01

    An outbreak of acute encephalitis syndrome was reported from Vidarbha region of Maharashtra s0 tate, India, during July 2012. Anti-IgM antibodies against Chandipura virus (CHPV) were detected in clinical samples. Sandfly collections were done to determine their role in CHPV transmission. Twenty nine pools of Sergentomyia spp. comprising 625 specimens were processed for virus isolation in Vero E6 cell line. Diagnostic RT-PCR targeting N-gene was carried out with the sample that showed cytopathic effects (CPE). The PCR product was sequenced, analysed and the sequences were deposited in Genbank database. CPE in Vero E6 cell line infected with three pools was detected at 48 h post infection. However, virus could be isolated only from one pool. RT-PCR studies demonstrated 527 nucleotide product that confirmed the agent as CHPV. Sequence analysis of the new isolate showed difference in 10-12 nucleotides in comparison to earlier isolates. This is perhaps the first isolation of CHPV from Sergentomyia spp. in India and virus isolation during transmission season suggests their probable role in CHPV transmission. Further studies need to be done to confirm the precise role of Sargentomyia spp. in CHPV transmission.

  1. Low diversity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype C virus in Kenya: evidence for probable vaccine strain re-introductions in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangula, Abraham; Siegismund, Hans; Belsham, Graham

    2011-01-01

    Most viruses are maintained by complex processes of evolution that enable them to survive but also complicate efforts to achieve their control. In this paper, we study patterns of evolution in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype C virus isolates from Kenya, one of the few places in the world wh...

  2. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vania López Rodríguez; Emilio Carpio Muñoz; Vicente Fardales Macías; Iralys Benítez Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determi...

  3. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epide...

  4. Detection of potato leafroll virus isolated from potato fields in Tehran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... Due to the important roll of aphids in transmission of the virus, immunocapture ... management of PLRV is the control of aphid vectors by systemic .... and time consuming and as such virus diseases tend to increase with each ...

  5. Molecular characterization of dengue viruses isolated from patients in Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmintarsih, Endang S; Hayati, Rahma F; Turnip, Oktaviani N; Yohan, Benediktus; Suryaningsih, Suhestri; Pratiknyo, Hery; Denis, Dionisius; Sasmono, R Tedjo

    2017-10-19

    Dengue is hyper-endemic in Indonesia. Purwokerto city in Central Java province is routinely ravaged by the disease. Despite the endemicity of dengue in this city, there is still no data on the virological aspects of dengue in the city. We conducted a molecular surveillance study of the circulating dengue viruses (DENV) in Purwokerto city to gain information on the virus origin, serotype and genotype distribution, and phylogenetic characteristics of DENV. A cross-sectional dengue molecular surveillance study was conducted in Purwokerto. Sera were collected from dengue-suspected patients attending three hospitals in the city. Diagnosis was performed using dengue NS1 antigen and IgG/IgM antibodies detection. DENV serotyping was performed using Simplexa Dengue real-time RT-PCR. Sequencing was conducted to obtain full-length DENV Envelope (E) gene sequences, which were then used in phylogenetic and genotypic analyses. Patients' clinical and demographic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 105 dengue-suspected patients' sera were collected, in which 80 (76.2%) were positive for IgM and/or IgG, and 57 (54.2%) were confirmed as dengue by NS1 antigen and/or DENV RNA detection using RT-PCR. Serotyping was successful for 47 isolates. All four serotypes circulated in the area with DENV-3 as the predominant serotype. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the isolates into Genotype I for DENV-1, Cosmopolitan genotype for DENV-2, and Genotype I and II for DENV-3 and -4, respectively. The analyses also revealed the close relatedness of Purwokerto isolates to other DENV strains from Indonesia and neighboring countries. We reveal the molecular and virological characteristics of DENV in Purwokerto, Banyumas regency, Central Java. The genotype and phylogenetic analyses indicate the endemicity of the circulating DENV in the city. Our serotype and genotype data provide references for future dengue molecular epidemiology studies and disease management in the region. Copyright © 2017 The

  6. Molecular characterization of the Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV isolate from USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakharia Vikram N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is a highly contagious viral disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. VHSV caused several large scale fish kills in the Great Lakes area and has been found in 28 different host species. The emergence of VHS in the Great Lakes began with the isolation of VHSV from a diseased muskellunge (Esox masquinongy caught from Lake St. Clair in 2003. VHSV is a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae. It has a linear single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 11 kbp, with six genes. VHSV replicates in the cytoplasm and produces six monocistronic mRNAs. The gene order of VHSV is 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. This study describes molecular characterization of the Great Lakes VHSV strain (MI03GL, and its phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates. Results The complete genomic sequences of VHSV-MI03GL strain was determined from cloned cDNA of six overlapping fragments, obtained by RT-PCR amplification of genomic RNA. The complete genome sequence of MI03GL comprises 11,184 nucleotides (GenBank GQ385941 with the gene order of 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. These genes are separated by conserved gene junctions, with di-nucleotide gene spacers. The first 4 nucleotides at the termini of the VHSV genome are complementary and identical to other novirhadoviruses genomic termini. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis show that the Great Lakes virus is closely related to the Japanese strains JF00Ehi1 (96% and KRRV9822 (95%. Among other novirhabdoviruses, VHSV shares highest sequence homology (62% with snakehead rhabdovirus. Conclusion Phylogenetic tree obtained by comparing 48 glycoprotein gene sequences of different VHSV strains demonstrate that the Great Lakes VHSV is closely related to the North American and Japanese genotype IVa, but forms a distinct genotype IVb, which is clearly different from the three European genotypes. Molecular

  7. Isolation and life cycle characterization of lytic viruses infecting heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Chan, Amy; Bertelsen, Sif Koldborg

    2010-01-01

    Basic knowledge on viruses infecting heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria is key to future progress in understanding the role of viruses in aquatic systems and the influence of virus–host interactions on microbial mortality, biogeochemical cycles, and genetic exchange. Such studies require......, and discusses the applications and limitations of different isolation procedures. Most work on phage isolation has been carried out with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria, culturable both on agar plates and in enriched liquid cultures. The procedures presented here are limited to lytic viruses...... infecting such hosts. In addition to the isolation procedures, methods for life cycle characterization (one-step growth experiments) of bacteriophages and cyanophages are described. Finally, limitations and drawbacks of the proposed methods are assessed and discussed...

  8. Isolation and characterization of acyclovir-resistant mutants of herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H J; Darby, G; Wildy, P

    1980-07-01

    Mutants of HSV which are resistant to acyclovir (acycloguanosine) have been isolated following serial passages of several herpes simplex virus (HSV) strains in the presence of the drug. The majority of the mutants isolated are defective in induction of thymidine kinase (TK) and this is consistent with the observation that independently isolated TK- viruses are naturally resistant to ACV. One mutant is described (SC16 R9C2) which is resistant in biochemically transformed cells which express HSV TK. This suggests that its resistance resides at a level other than TK. It is also resistant to phosphonoacetic acid, suggesting that the DNA polymerase locus may be involved. A further mutant is described [Cl (101) P2C5] which induces normal levels of TK, although the nature of resistance of this virus is not yet elucidated.

  9. Molecular, ultrastructural, and biological characterization of Pennsylvania isolates of Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William L; Damsteegt, Vernon D; Gildow, Fred E; Stone, Andrew L; Sherman, Diana J; Levy, Laurene E; Mavrodieva, Vessela; Richwine, Nancy; Welliver, Ruth; Luster, Douglas G

    2011-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) was identified in Pennsylvania in 1999. The outbreak was limited to a four-county region in southern Pennsylvania. Initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in Pennsylvania belong to the D strain of PPV. The Pennsylvania isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, electron microscopy, host range, and vector transmission to determine how these isolates related to their previously studied European counterparts. Genetically, Pennsylvania (PPV-Penn) isolates were more closely related to each other than to any other PPV-D strains, and isolates from the United States, Canada, and Chile were more closely related to each other than to European isolates. The PPV-Penn isolates exist as two clades, suggesting the possibility of multiple introductions. Electron microscopy analysis of PPV-Penn isolates, including cytopathological studies, indicated that the virions were similar to other Potyvirus spp. PPV-Penn isolates had a herbaceous host range similar to that of European D isolates. There were distinct differences in the transmission efficiencies of the two PPV-Penn isolates using Myzus persicae and Aphis spiraecola as vectors; however, both PPV-Penn isolates were transmitted by M. persicae more efficiently than a European D isolate but less efficiently than a European M isolate.

  10. Effects of Introduced and Indigenous Viruses on Native Plants: Exploring Their Disease Causing Potential at the Agro-Ecological Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J.; Coutts, Brenda A.; Jones, Roger A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host–virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface. PMID:24621926

  11. Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...

  12. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in sera and eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-03-07

    Mar 7, 2016 ... The seroprevalence and maternal antibody profiles to Newcastle disease virus infection of guinea fowls were studied using ..... gallisepticum. Avian diseases, 28 (4): 877-883. Sa'idu L, Tekdek LB & Abdu PA (2004). Prevalence of ND antibodies in domestic and semi domestic birds in Zaria, Nigeria.

  13. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  14. Full-Genome Characterization and Genetic Evolution of West African Isolates of Bagaza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Faye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bagaza virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first isolated in 1966 in Central African Republic. It has currently been identified in mosquito pools collected in the field in West and Central Africa. Emergence in wild birds in Europe and serological evidence in encephalitis patients in India raise questions on its genetic evolution and the diversity of isolates circulating in Africa. To better understand genetic diversity and evolution of Bagaza virus, we describe the full-genome characterization of 11 West African isolates, sampled from 1988 to 2014. Parameters such as genetic distances, N-glycosylation patterns, recombination events, selective pressures, and its codon adaptation to human genes are assessed. Our study is noteworthy for the observation of N-glycosylation and recombination in Bagaza virus and provides insight into its Indian origin from the 13th century. Interestingly, evidence of Bagaza virus codon adaptation to human house-keeping genes is also observed to be higher than those of other flaviviruses well known in human infections. Genetic variations on genome of West African Bagaza virus could play an important role in generating diversity and may promote Bagaza virus adaptation to other vertebrates and become an important threat in human health.

  15. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus stability in environmental and clinical substrates: implications for virus detection and isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P Dornas

    Full Text Available Viruses are extremely diverse and abundant and are present in countless environments. Giant viruses of the Megavirales order have emerged as a fascinating research topic for virologists around the world. As evidence of their ubiquity and ecological impact, mimiviruses have been found in multiple environmental samples. However, isolation of these viruses from environmental samples is inefficient, mainly due to methodological limitations and lack of information regarding the interactions between viruses and substrates. In this work, we demonstrate the long-lasting stability of mimivirus in environmental (freshwater and saline water and hospital (ventilator plastic device tube substrates, showing the detection of infectious particles after more than 9 months. In addition, an enrichment protocol was implemented that remarkably increased mimivirus detection from all tested substrates, including field tests. Moreover, biological, morphological and genetic tests revealed that the enrichment protocol maintained mimivirus particle integrity. In conclusion, our work demonstrated the stability of APMV in samples of environmental and health interest and proposed a reliable and easy protocol to improve giant virus isolation. The data presented here can guide future giant virus detection and isolation studies.

  16. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1996-01-01

    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presenc...

  17. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Ituri isolated from diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Ituri is an uncommon serotype associated with poultry disease. One of the serotype isolated from a poultry disease in Nigeria was characterized by serotyping and screening for the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1(SGI1) as a possible factor responsible for its involvement in a poultry disease ...

  18. Characterization of Sri Lanka rabies virus isolates using nucleotide sequence analysis of nucleoprotein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y T; Takahashi, H; Kameoka, Y; Shiino, T; Wimalaratne, O; Lodmell, D L

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-four suspected rabid brain samples from 2 humans, 24 dogs, 4 cats, 2 mongooses, I jackal and I water buffalo were collected in 1995-1996 in Sri Lanka. Total RNA was extracted directly from brain suspensions and examined using a one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the rabies virus nucleoprotein (N) gene. Twenty-eight samples were found positive for the virus N gene by RT-PCR and also for the virus antigens by fluorescent antibody (FA) test. Rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in different regions of Sri Lanka were genetically homogenous. Sequences of 203 nucleotides (nt)-long RT-PCR products obtained from 16 of 27 samples were found identical. Sequences of 1350 nt of N genes of 14 RT-PCR products were determined. The Sri Lanka isolates under study formed a specific cluster that included also an earlier isolate from India but did not include the known isolates from China, Thailand, Malaysia, Israel, Iran, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Nepal, Philippines, Japan and from several other countries. These results suggest that one type of rabies virus is circulating among human, dog, cat, mongoose, jackal and water buffalo living near Colombo City and in other five remote regions in Sri Lanka.

  19. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  20. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Mark G; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Stallknecht, David E; Allison, Andrew B; Carter, Deborah L; Drolet, Barbara S; Klement, Eyal; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-17

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4-16 days post feeding (dpf). Midges with a virus titer of ≥ 10(2.7) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50))/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14-16 dpf midges. From 4-16 dpf, 45% (156/350) of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>10(7) TCID(50)/ml) were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10-16 dpf, 32% (35/109) of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥ 10(2.7) TCID(50)/midge). Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14-16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates that North America has a susceptible ruminant and

  1. Recombination between vaccine and field strains of canine parvovirus is revealed by isolation of virus in canine and feline cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masami; Ohshima, Takahisa; Une, Yumi; Yachi, Akiko

    2008-12-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV) is a pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with a high fatality rate in pups worldwide. Since CPV emerged in the late 1970s, its origin has been explored with the conclusion that CPV originated from feline panleukopenia virus or a closely related virus. Both high mutation rate and recombination are assumed to be key factors in the evolution of parvoviruses. Here we provide evidence for natural recombination in CPV isolated from dogs in cell culture. Antigenic and genetic properties of isolates from 10 diseased pups were elucidated. Six pups had been vaccinated beforehand with live combined vaccine containing original antigenic type CPV (CPV-2). Six isolates recovered from 4 vaccinated pups in cell cultures were found to contain either CPV-2 or CPV-2-like viruses. The other isolates, including all those from non-vaccinated pups, were CPV-2b viruses. Antigenic typing of two CPV-2-like isolates, 03-029/M and 1887/f, with a monoclonal antibody panel suggested they were a mixture of CPV-2 and CPV-2a (03-029/M) and a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2b (1887/f). Genetic analysis of the VP1 gene indicated that isolate 03-029/M was a mixture of CPV-2, CPV-2a and a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2a viruses, while isolate 1887/f was composed of a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2b viruses. This is the first demonstration of natural CPV recombination in the field and suggests that recombination in the evolution of CPV is a more frequent and important process than previously believed.

  2. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  3. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    crop is reported to be infecetd by a number of pests and dis- eases (Rao et al 2000) including a ... Plant Virus Lab, Floriculture Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176 061, India. *Corresponding author (Fax ..... ELISA test used in testing the plants (either mechanical- ly inoculated or naturally ...

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Haryana State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aman; Maan, Sushila; Mahajan, Nand Kishore; Rana, Virender Pratap; Jindal, Naresh; Batra, Kanisht; Ghosh, Arnab; Mishra, Shiv Kumar; Kapoor, Sanjay; Maan, Narender Singh

    2013-12-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the cause of deaths of peafowls in Haryana State. In total, 145 birds were sick and 28 birds were reported dead during July to September 2012. Some of the sick birds were showing signs of shaking of heads, torticollis and paresis. Blood and cloacal swab samples from sick birds along with brain and intestinal tissues from dead birds were collected for further investigation. Although post-mortem examination showed no typical lesions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yet raised HI tires against NDV in some serum samples and clinical signs indicated the presence of NDV. One of the brain tissues (NDV/IND2012/01) from the field case was processed and adapted to Vero cell line for virus isolation. The fusion (F) gene based nested RT-PCR (RT-nPCR) confirmed the presence of NDV in all field samples and cell culture isolate. Sequencing of the partial F gene amplicons (216 bp) using the PCR primers as sequencing primers confirmed the PCR results. The deduced amino acid sequences of partial F gene were found to have the amino acid motif (111)GRRQKR/F(117) in the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS). This amino acid motif is indicative of the velogenic nature of these NDVs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the virus belonged to class II genotype VII very closely related to virus isolates originated from outbreaks in Western Europe, Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan and India. Phylogenetic grouping of the virus and sequence of FPCS is indicative of pathogenic potential of virus strain circulating in peacocks in Haryana.

  5. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found...... among the 31 seronegative high-risk subjects, either by virus isolation of by PCR (97.5% confidence limits, 0-11). Our results indicate that ongoing HIV infection in seronegative persons at high risk of infection is a rare event....

  6. On the origin and diversity of Newcastle disease virus in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmeta G. Yongolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free-range rural chickens (FRCs dominate the poultry industry in developing countries and chickens are exposed to multi-host infections, including Newcastle disease virus (NDV. The knowledge about the characteristics of NDV from FRCs is limited. This study investigated the persistence, spread and risks of NDV from FRCs. NDV isolates (n = 21 from unvaccinated FRCs in Tanzania were characterised by conventional intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI and sequence analysis of a partial region of the deduced fusion protein encompassing the cleavage site. Results showed that five isolates were screened as lentogenic, nine as mesogenic and six as velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis of the 21 isolates compared to reference sequences revealed three, four, nine and five isolates in genotypes 1, 2, 3c and 4a, respectively. Genotype 3c also included published sequences of Tanzanian isolates obtained from exotic birds and chicken isolates from Uganda. The analysis showed that NDV were persistently present among chicken populations and possibly spread through live chicken markets or migration of wild birds. Differences in amino acid sequences detected around the cleavage site separated the isolates in six types. However, cleavage site pattern could not fully differentiate mesogenic isolates from velogenic isolates.

  7. Genetic characterization of the influenza A pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus isolates from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha A Potdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Influenza A pandemic H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus appeared in India in May 2009 and thereafter outbreaks with considerable morbidity and mortality have been reported from many parts of the country. Continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of the virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country in relation to global diversification and to track the mutations that may affect the behavior of the virus. METHODS: H1N1pdm viruses were isolated from both recovered and fatal cases representing major cities and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of six concatenated whole genomes and the hemagglutinin (HA gene of seven more isolates from May-September 2009 was performed with reference to 685 whole genomes of global isolates available as of November 24, 2009. Molecular characterization of all the 8 segments was carried out for known pathogenic markers. RESULTS: The first isolate of May 2009 belonged to clade 5. Although clade 7 was the dominant H1N1pdm lineage in India, both clades 6 and 7 were found to be co-circulating. The neuraminidase of all the Indian isolates possessed H275, the marker for sensitivity to the neuraminidase inhibitor Oseltamivir. Some of the mutations in HA are at or in the vicinity of antigenic sites and may therefore be of possible antigenic significance. Among these a D222G mutation in the HA receptor binding domain was found in two of the eight Indian isolates obtained from fatal cases. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the 13 Indian isolates grouped in the globally most widely circulating H1N1pdm clade 7. Further, correlations of the mutations specific to clade 7 Indian isolates to viral fitness and adaptability in the country remains to be understood. The D222G mutation in HA from isolates of fatal cases needs to be studied for pathogenicity.

  8. Simultaneous Detection of Barley Virus Diseases in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Choon Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV, Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV have been identified as an important causative agents for an economically important disease of winter barley in Korea. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR method was used for the simultaneous detection. Three sets of virus-specific primers targeted to the capsid protein coding genes of BaMMV, BaYMV and BYDV were used to amplify fragments that were 594 bp, 461 bp, and 290 bp, respectively. Several sets of primers for each target virus were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity by multiplex RT-PCR. The optimum primer concentrations and RT-PCR conditions were determined for the multiplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR assay was found to be a better and rapid virus diagnostic tool of specific barley diseases and potential for investigating the epidemiology of these viral diseases.

  9. Stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus, its genome and proteins at 37 grad C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razdan, R.; Sen, A.K.; Rao, B.V.; Suryanarayana, V.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Infectivity titers of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) types Asia 1 and 0 were reduced by 4 and 2 log units, respectively, after incubation at 37 grad C for 12 hours. The stability of the FMDV RNA genome at 37 grad C was studied using 32 P-labelled virus. The RNA of FMDV type 0 was found to be more stable than that of type Asia 1. Oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography showed that 21 % and 31 % of the labelled RNA were bound to the column in the case of types Asia 1 and 0, respectively. Possible correlation between the poly(A) tail length, accessibility of the genome to nucleases and thermo-stability of the infective virus is discussed. A possible correlation between the thermo-stability of the genome and general distribution of a particular virus type seems to exist. A stable genome associated with poor virus immunogenicity may be responsible for the prevalence of FMDV type 0 in the nature. The isoelectric focussing of structural proteins isolated from the virus samples incubated at 37 grad C revealed charge differences in the major immuno-gen between the two FMDV types. A rapid proteolytic degradation of the viral immuno-gen and stability of the genome may be responsible for frequent outbreaks of FMDV, at least, in the endemic countries. (author)

  10. [Genetic characterisation of Powassan virus (POWV) isolated from Haemophysalis longicornis ticks in Primorye and two strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus): Alma-Arasan virus (AAV) isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan and Malyshevo virus isolated from Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes in Khabarovsk kray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G; Aristova, V A

    2014-01-01

    The complete genomes of the three tick-borne flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, fam. Bunyaviridae) were sequenced: Povassan virus (POWV, strain LEIV-3070Prm, isolated from Haemophysalis logicornis in Primorsky Krai, Russia in 1977), Alma-Arasan virus (AAV, strain LEIV-1380Kaz, isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan in 1977) and Malyshevo virus (isolated from a pool of Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes, in the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia in 1978). It is shown that AAV and Malyshevo virus are the strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and belong to Sibirian and Far-Eastern genotypes, respectively (GenBank ID: AAV KJ744033; strain Malyshevo KJ744034). Phylogenetically AAV is closest related (94,6% nt and 98,3% aa identity) to TBEV strains, isolated in Sibiria (Vasilchenko, Aino, Chita-653, Irkutsk-12). Malyshevo virus is closest related (96,4% nt and 98,3% nt identity) to strains of TBEV, isolated in Far Eastern part of Russia (1230, Spassk-72, Primorye-89). POWV LEIV-3070Prm has 99.7% identity with the prototype strain POWV LB, isolated in Canada and 99.5% of isolates with Far-Eastern strains of POWV (Spassk-9 and Nadezdinsk-1991).

  11. The detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S.M. Tuppurainen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumpy skin disease (LSD is a disease of cattle, primarily in Africa and Madagascar and rarely in the Middle East. It is caused by a capripoxvirus that belongs to the family Poxviridae. The disease is of economic importance in endemic areas. Effective control of LSD requires accurate and rapid laboratory techniques to confirm a tentative clinical diagnosis. Comparative studies on different diagnostic tests used at different stages of the disease have not been done. The aim of this study was to compare several of these tests. Six seronegative bulls, between 11 and 20 months of age, were infected intravenously and kept in an insect-free facility. The course of the infection was monitored. During a 3-month period blood samples and skin biopsies were collected for virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Skin biopsies were also examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The incubation period in infected animals varied from 4-5 days. The length of the viraemic period did not correlate with the severity of clinical disease. Viraemia was detected from 1-12 days using virus isolation and from 4-11 days using the PCR, which is longer than has previously been reported. Virus was isolated from skin biopsies until Day 39 post infection (p.i. and PCR could demonstrate viral DNA until Day 92 p.i. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained skin biopsies detected LSD virus only in one of the four bulls that developed skin lesions until Day 33 p.i. The PCR was a fast and sensitive method to demonstrate viral DNA in blood and skin samples. It could detect viral nucleic acid in skin lesions 53 days longer than virus isolation. Virus isolation from blood and skin samples was sensitive and reliable, but as a single test it may be too time-consuming to use although this depends on how rapidly the diagnosis must be confirmed. In conclusion, this study showed the PCR to be superior in detecting LSD virus from blood and skin samples

  12. Citrus leprosis virus N: A New Dichorhavirus Causing Citrus Leprosis Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-González, Pedro Luis; Chabi-Jesus, Camila; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene; Tassi, Aline Daniele; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Harakava, Ricardo; Salaroli, Renato Barbosa; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2017-08-01

    Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local necrotic and chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches, and fruit and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in noncommercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013 to 2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells. However, every attempt to identify these particles by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests failed, even though all described primers for the detection of known CL-causing cileviruses and dichorhaviruses were used. Next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracts from three symptomatic samples revealed the genome of distinct, although highly related (>92% nucleotide sequence identity), viruses whose genetic organization is similar to that of dichorhaviruses. The genome sequence of these viruses showed trees and those used for the transmission of one of the characterized isolates to Arabidopsis plants were anatomically recognized as Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto. Molecular and biological features indicate that the identified viruses belong to a new species of CL-associated dichorhavirus, which we propose to call Citrus leprosis N dichorhavirus. Our results, while emphasizing the increasing diversity of viruses causing CL disease, lead to a reevaluation of the nomenclature of those viruses assigned to the genus Dichorhavirus. In this regard, a comprehensive discussion is presented.

  13. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renström Lena HM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority of the European H1N2 swine influenza viruses described so far possess haemagglutinin (HA of the human-like H1N2 SIV viruses and the neuraminidase (NA of either the European H1N2 or H3N2 SIV-like viruses. The Swedish isolate has an avian-like SIV HA and a H3N2 SIV-like NA, which is phylogenetically more closely related to H3N2 SIV NAs from isolates collected in the early '80s than to the NA of H3N2 origin of the H1N2 viruses isolated during the last decade, as depicted by some German strains, indicative of independent acquisition of the NA genes for these two types of reassortants. The internal genes proved to be entirely of avian-like SIV H1N1 origin. The prevalence of this SIV variant in pig populations needs to be determined, as well as the suitability of the routinely used laboratory reagents to analyze this strain. The description of this H1N2 SIV adds further information to influenza epidemiology and supports the necessity of surveillance for influenza viruses in pigs.

  14. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Adám; Metreveli, Giorgi; Widén, Frederik; Zohari, Siamak; Berg, Mikael; Isaksson, Mats; Renström, Lena Hm; Wallgren, Per; Belák, Sándor; Segall, Thomas; Kiss, István

    2009-10-28

    The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority of the European H1N2 swine influenza viruses described so far possess haemagglutinin (HA) of the human-like H1N2 SIV viruses and the neuraminidase (NA) of either the European H1N2 or H3N2 SIV-like viruses. The Swedish isolate has an avian-like SIV HA and a H3N2 SIV-like NA, which is phylogenetically more closely related to H3N2 SIV NAs from isolates collected in the early '80s than to the NA of H3N2 origin of the H1N2 viruses isolated during the last decade, as depicted by some German strains, indicative of independent acquisition of the NA genes for these two types of reassortants. The internal genes proved to be entirely of avian-like SIV H1N1 origin. The prevalence of this SIV variant in pig populations needs to be determined, as well as the suitability of the routinely used laboratory reagents to analyze this strain.The description of this H1N2 SIV adds further information to influenza epidemiology and supports the necessity of surveillance for influenza viruses in pigs.

  15. Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating that the l......The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating...... than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection......, foetal death, and preweaning pig mortality. As such, the present study showed that vaccine-derived PRRSV can cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS....

  16. Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Trevor; Roy-Burman, Arup; Tuholske, Cascade; Busch, Michael P; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Gao, Kui; Coleman, Jayleen; Bloch, Evan M

    2017-08-01

    A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015-July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus.

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Strains Isolated from the Blood of Patients in Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    Complete genome sequences of Zika Virus strains isolated from the blood of patients in 1 Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012). 2 Ellison,D.W.1...Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 20 21 Running Head: Zika Virus Genomes 22 23 ABSTRACT 24 ZIKV is an arbovirus and member of the family...genome sequences of two Zika Virus (ZIKV) strains, Zika virus /H.sapiens-27 tc/THA/2014/SV0127-14 and Zika virus /H.sapiens-tc/PHL/2012/CPC-0740, isolated

  18. Genetic Characterization of H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Pigs throughout the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Karasin, Alexander I.; Landgraf, John; Swenson, Sabrina; Erickson, Gene; Goyal, Sagar; Woodruff, Mary; Scherba, Gail; Anderson, Gary; Olsen, Christopher W.

    2002-01-01

    An H1N2 influenza A virus was isolated from a pig in the United States for the first time in 1999 (A. I. Karasin, G. A. Anderson, and C. W. Olsen, J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:2453-2456, 2000). H1N2 viruses have been isolated subsequently from pigs in many states. Phylogenetic analyses of eight such viruses isolated from pigs in Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, and North Carolina during 2000 to 2001 showed that these viruses are all of the same reassortant genotype as that of the initial H...

  19. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yugang; Wang, Shijie; Du, Rui; Wang, Quankai; Sun, Changjiang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Pengju; Zhang, Lianxue

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical...

  20. Characteristics of primary infection of a European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B isolate in chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, W. M.; Koornstra, W. H.; Dubbes, R. H.; ten Haaft, P. J.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Jhagjhoorsingh, S. S.; Haaksma, A. G.; Niphuis, H.; Laman, J. D.; Norley, S.; Schuitemaker, H.; Goudsmit, J.; Hunsmann, G.; Heeney, J. L.; Wigzell, H.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to select, from a panel of candidate European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade B primary virus isolates, one isolate based on replication properties in chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Secondly, to evaluate the in vivo kinetics of

  1. Caracterization of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated from South Brazil in the last twenty years by restriction enzyme analysis Caracterização de amostras do vírus de Aujeszky isoladas na região Sul do Brasil nos últimos vinte anos através de análise de restrição enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Schaefer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV belongs to Herpesviridae family and is an important etiological agent which infects pigs causing economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide and international trade restrictions to products of swine origin. An eradication program for ADV was established in Santa Catarina State since 2001. The last outbreak was reported in July 2004 and since then none has been reported. The disease has been controlled with the use of a genetic modified vaccine and elimination of seropositives. Aiming the characterization of ADV isolated in the South of Brazil in the last twenty years (1983-2003, a retrospective study based on the genomic analysis of the isolates through a digestion of viral genomic DNA with restriction enzyme Bam HI was done. Thirty-seven ADV samples isolated from swine from the States of Santa Catarina, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. These isolates were compared to the reference strains NIA-4, Bartha and Begonia. The most predominant genomic arrangement was type II found in 33 samples isolated in Santa Catarina State and in one isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State. Genomic arrangement type I, characteristic of vaccine strains was identified in 2 isolates from Parana State and in 1 isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State.O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA pertencente à família Herpesviridae é um importante agente etiológico que infecta suínos causando perdas na produção de suínos no mundo inteiro e restrições para o comércio internacional de suínos ou de seus subprodutos. No estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foi instituído em 2001 um programa de erradicação da doença de Aujeszky (DA. O último surto da DA foi reportado em julho de 2004 e desde então não foram notificados mais casos. A doença tem sido controlada com o uso de uma vacina geneticamente modificada e eliminação de animais soropositivos para o VDA. Visando caracterizar amostras do VDA isoladas nos últimos vinte

  2. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  4. Isolated Crohn's disease of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traxler, M.; Weiss, W.; Rohrmoser, G.

    1988-01-01

    The spectrum of this disease has undergone major changes since 1932 when Crohn, Ginzberg and Oppenheimer differentiated Ileitis terminalis from nonspecific inflammations of the bowels. Initially, Crohn assumed an inflammation restricted to the terminal ileum. Today, Crohn's disease has been verified to affect the total gastro-intestinal tract from the cavity of the mouth to the anus. In 1949 Ross et al. were the first to report Crohn's disease in the region of the stomach and duodenum. Its localization in the upper intestinal tract, however, is a rare occurrence on the whole. (orig.) [de

  5. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zika virus disease: a new look at a well-known disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shestakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the domestic medical literature presents a deep review about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory knowledge of Zika virus disease, based mainly on the publications of foreign authors and leading international organizations from 1947 to March 2016. Analyzed the essence of the problem, treatment of patients with Zika virus disease and infected pregnant women, indicated the unresolved question. For the first time were systematic sources of contemporary information about Zika virus disease for professionals and patients.

  7. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of dengue viruses isolated in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, C S Whinie; Yohan, Benediktus; Yunita, Anisa; Meutiawati, Febrina; Hayati, Rahma Fitri; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Sasmono, R Tedjo

    2017-12-01

    Dengue has affected Indonesia for the last five decades and become a major health problem in many cities in the country. Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, reports dengue cases annually, with several outbreaks documented. To gain information on the dynamic and evolutionary history of dengue virus (DENV) in Jakarta, we conducted phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of DENV isolated in 2009. Three hundred thirty-three dengue-suspected patients were recruited. Our data revealed that dengue predominantly affected young adults, and the majority of cases were due to secondary infection. A total of 171 virus isolates were successfully serotyped. All four DENV serotypes were circulating in the city, and DENV-1 was the predominant serotype. The DENV genotyping of 17 isolates revealed the presence of Genotypes I and IV in DENV-1, while DENV-2 isolates were grouped into the Cosmopolitan genotype. The grouping of isolates into Genotype I and II was seen for DENV-3 and DENV-4, respectively. Evolutionary analysis revealed the relatedness of Jakarta isolates with other isolates from other cities in Indonesia and isolates from imported cases in other countries. We revealed the endemicity of DENV and the role of Jakarta as the potential source of imported dengue cases in other countries. Our study provides genetic information regarding DENV from Jakarta, which will be useful for upstream applications, such as the study of DENV epidemiology and evolution and transmission dynamics.

  8. Genomic Variability of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV Isolates Introduced into Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabid Lbida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomic variability of the coat protein gene of Citrus tristeza virus isolates obtained from old Meyer lemon introductions in Morocco and more recent budwood introductions from Spain were studied. The coat protein gene of the virus was amplified directly from infected tissue by immunocapture RT-PCR and analysed by single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP and sequencing. Each isolate consisted of several related genomic variants, typical of a quasi-species. Although SSCP analysis has only limited typing ability it could be used in an initial screening to discriminate between isolates of different origin and to analyse the genomic structure of each isolate. Sequence analysis showed that the isolates of Spanish origin were closely related to mild isolates characterised in Florida and in Portugal. The Meyer lemon isolate on the other hand was related to severe strains of Meyer lemon characterised in Florida some years ago and to other severe strains from Brasil. A knowledge of the coat protein gene sequence is useful to trace the origin of the isolates.

  9. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica B Graham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection with West Nile virus (WNV leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans.

  10. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  11. Characterisation of influenza A viruses isolated from turkeys in England during March-May 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D J; Spackman, D

    1981-07-01

    During the early spring of 1979 turkeys on at least twelve sites in England became infected with influenza A viruses. On five of these sites no virus was isolated but birds were shown to have antibodies to Havl (four sites) and Hav2 antigenic subtypes of influenza A viruses. The eight viruses isolated were typed: A/turkey/England/192-328/79 (Havl Nav2/3), A/turkey/England/192-329/79 (Hav1 N2), A/turkey/England/199/79 (Hav1 Neq1), A/turkey/ England/214/79 (Hav1 Neq1), A/turkey/England/250/79 (Hsw1 N1), A/turkey/England/262/79 (Hav1 Nav2/3), A/turkey/England/272/79 (Havl Neq1), A/turkey/England/384/79 (Hav2 Nav4). Pathogenicity index tests in 6-week-old chickens agreed with the clinical signs seen in turkeys in the field. Three of the isolates: 199, 214 and 272 were of extremely high virulence, 384 showed intermediate virulence, while the other isolates were of low virulence.

  12. Kolente virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedin, Elodie; Rogers, Matthew B; Widen, Steven G; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Wood, Thomas G; Fitch, Adam; Popov, Vsevolod; Holmes, Edward C; Walker, Peter J; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-12-01

    Kolente virus (KOLEV) is a rhabdovirus originally isolated from ticks and a bat in Guinea, West Africa, in 1985. Although tests at the time of isolation suggested that KOLEV is a novel rhabdovirus, it has remained largely uncharacterized. We assembled the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain DakAr K7292, which was found to encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (>180 nt) in the P and L genes. Serologically, KOLEV exhibited a weak antigenic relationship with Barur and Fukuoka viruses in the Kern Canyon group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KOLEV represents a distinct and divergent lineage that shows no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except Oita virus, although with limited phylogenetic resolution. In summary, KOLEV represents a novel species in the family Rhabdoviridae.

  13. Kolente virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedin, Elodie; Rogers, Matthew B.; Widen, Steven G.; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Wood, Thomas G.; Fitch, Adam; Popov, Vsevolod; Holmes, Edward C.; Walker, Peter J.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Kolente virus (KOLEV) is a rhabdovirus originally isolated from ticks and a bat in Guinea, West Africa, in 1985. Although tests at the time of isolation suggested that KOLEV is a novel rhabdovirus, it has remained largely uncharacterized. We assembled the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain DakAr K7292, which was found to encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (>180 nt) in the P and L genes. Serologically, KOLEV exhibited a weak antigenic relationship with Barur and Fukuoka viruses in the Kern Canyon group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KOLEV represents a distinct and divergent lineage that shows no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except Oita virus, although with limited phylogenetic resolution. In summary, KOLEV represents a novel species in the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24062532

  14. Genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 isolates in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Miagostovich

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3 strains isolated from autochthonous cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2001 is presented. Restriction site-specific (RSS-PCR performed on 22 strains classified the Brazilian DEN-3 viruses as subtype C, a subtype that contains viruses from Sri Lanka, India, Africa and recent isolates from Central America. Nucleic acid sequencing (positions 278 to 2550 of one DEN-3 strain confirmed the origin of these strains, since genotype III - classified by sequencing - and RSS-PCR subtype C are correlated. This genetic subtype has been associated with hemorrhagic dengue epidemics and the information provided here could be useful to implement appropriate prevention and control measures.

  15. Phylogeny of isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus from the Ilarvirus Ringtest and identification of group-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W

    2003-06-01

    Isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were examined to establish the level of naturally occurring sequence variation in the coat protein (CP) gene and to identify group-specific genome features that may prove valuable for the generation of diagnostic reagents. Phylogenetic analysis of a 452 bp sequence of 68 virus isolates, 20 obtained from the European Union Ilarvirus Ringtest held in October 1998, confirmed the clustering of the isolates into three distinct groups. Although no correlation was found between the sequence and host or geographic origin, there was a general trend for severe isolates to cluster into one group. Group-specific features have been identified for discrimination between virus strains.

  16. A two-plasmid strategy for engineering a dengue virus type 3 infectious clone from primary Brazilian isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jefferson J S; Cordeiro, Marli T; Bertani, Giovani R; Marques, Ernesto T A; Gil, Laura H V G

    2014-12-01

    Dengue infections represent one of the most prevalent arthropod-borne diseases worldwide, causing a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. Engineered infectious clone is an important tool to study Dengue virus (DENV) biology. Functional full-length cDNA clones have been constructed for many positive-strand RNA viruses and have provided valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in viral genome replication, virion assembly, virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. We report herein the successful development of an infectious clone from a primary Brazilian isolate of dengue virus 3 (DENV3) of the genotype III. Using a two-plasmid strategy, DENV3 genome was divided in two parts and cloned separately into a yeast-bacteria shuttle vector. All plasmids were assembled in yeast by homologous recombination technique and a full-length template for transcription was obtained by in vitro ligation of the two parts of the genome. Transcript-derived DENV3 is infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells and in vitro characterization confirmed its identity. Growth kinetics of transcript-derived DENV3 was indistinguishable from wild type DENV3. This system is a powerful tool that will help shed light on molecular features of DENV biology, as the relationship of specific mutations and DENV pathogenesis.

  17. Detection of Marek's disease virus DNA in Japanese quail susceptible to atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrzak, R.; Shih, J.C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) was demonstrated as an etiological agent which causes atherosclerosis in the chicken. Since herpes viruses are ubiquitous, incidences of viral atherogenesis in humans and other animals were speculated. In this laboratory, the atherosclerosis susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) Japanese quail were developed as the animal model for atherosclerosis research. The susceptibility of the animal might be due to an infection of MDV or a related quail herpes virus (QHV). An initial attempt to isolate viruses from quail and an agar gel precipitin test for MDC were not positive. A DNA hybridization technique was used to determine whether the MDC-DNA existed in the quail cell. The gene library of MDV EcoRl DNA fragments was used to prepare the DNA probe, labeled with [ 32 P] by nick translation. Dot hybridizations were carried out by mixing the MDV-DNA probe with DNAs isolated from quail tissues. A high stringent condition was used. From this experiment it was found that the tissues from the SUS quail were hybridization positive, but most of them from RES quail were negative. When aortas were compared, the severe atherosclerotic had a strong hybridization (3-4 cop. of genome/cell) whereas the others hybridized moderately (1 cop./cell). It was concluded that genes from MDV or a QHV indeed existed in Japanese quail

  18. Use of FTA filter paper for the molecular detection of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozo, Francisco; Villegas, Pedro; Estevez, Carlos; Alvarado, Iván; Purvis, Linda B

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using Flinders Technology Associates filter papers (FTA cards) to collect allantoic fluid and chicken tissue samples for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) molecular detection was evaluated. Trizol RNA extraction and one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used. FTA cards allowed NDV identification from allantoic fluid with a titre of 10(5.8) median embryo lethal doses/ml. The inactivated virus remained stable on the cards for 15 days. NDV was detected from FTA imprints of the trachea, lung, caecal tonsil and cloacal faeces of experimentally infected birds. RT-PCR detection from FTA cards was confirmed by homologous frozen-tissue RT-PCR and virus isolation. Direct nucleotide sequence of the amplified F gene allowed prediction of NDV virulence. No virus isolation was possible from the FTA inactivated samples, indicating viral inactivation upon contact. The FTA cards are suitable for collecting and transporting NDV-positive samples, providing a reliable source of RNA for molecular characterization and a hazard-free sample.

  19. A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Ditkovskaya, L

    A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism.......A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism....

  20. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Ituri isolated from diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Salmonella enterica Ituri is an uncommon serotype associated with poultry disease. One of the serotype isolated from a poultry disease in Nigeria was characterized by serotyping and screening for the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1(SGI1) as a possible factor responsible for its involvement.

  1. Arboretum and Puerto Almendras viruses: two novel rhabdoviruses isolated from mosquitoes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Widen, Steven G; Aguilar, Patricia V; Guzman, Hilda; Guevara, Carolina; Fernandez, Roberto; Auguste, Albert J; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod; Mundal, Kirk; Ghedin, Elodie; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Holmes, Edward C; Walker, Peter J; Tesh, Robert B

    2014-04-01

    Arboretum virus (ABTV) and Puerto Almendras virus (PTAMV) are two mosquito-associated rhabdoviruses isolated from pools of Psorophora albigenu and Ochlerotattus fulvus mosquitoes, respectively, collected in the Department of Loreto, Peru, in 2009. Initial tests suggested that both viruses were novel rhabdoviruses and this was confirmed by complete genome sequencing. Analysis of their 11 482 nt (ABTV) and 11 876 (PTAMV) genomes indicates that they encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with an additional gene (U1) encoding a small hydrophobic protein. Evolutionary analysis of the L protein indicates that ABTV and PTAMV are novel and phylogenetically distinct rhabdoviruses that cannot be classified as members of any of the eight currently recognized genera within the family Rhabdoviridae, highlighting the vast diversity of this virus family.

  2. Arboretum and Puerto Almendras viruses: two novel rhabdoviruses isolated from mosquitoes in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Widen, Steven G.; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Guzman, Hilda; Guevara, Carolina; Fernandez, Roberto; Auguste, Albert J.; Wood, Thomas G.; Popov, Vsevolod; Mundal, Kirk; Ghedin, Elodie; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Holmes, Edward C.; Walker, Peter J.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Arboretum virus (ABTV) and Puerto Almendras virus (PTAMV) are two mosquito-associated rhabdoviruses isolated from pools of Psorophora albigenu and Ochlerotattus fulvus mosquitoes, respectively, collected in the Department of Loreto, Peru, in 2009. Initial tests suggested that both viruses were novel rhabdoviruses and this was confirmed by complete genome sequencing. Analysis of their 11 482 nt (ABTV) and 11 876 (PTAMV) genomes indicates that they encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with an additional gene (U1) encoding a small hydrophobic protein. Evolutionary analysis of the L protein indicates that ABTV and PTAMV are novel and phylogenetically distinct rhabdoviruses that cannot be classified as members of any of the eight currently recognized genera within the family Rhabdoviridae, highlighting the vast diversity of this virus family. PMID:24421116

  3. A noda-like virus isolated from the sweetpotato pest spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lep.; noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddam; Rodriguez; Ravallec; Lagnaoui

    1999-11-01

    A small isometric virus has been isolated from larvae of the sweetpotato pest Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) collected near Pariacoto, Ancash province, Peru. It is designated the Pariacoto virus (PaV). In addition to its high pathogenicity on its natural host Spodoptera eridania, PaV was found to replicate in Spodoptera ochrea (Hampson) larvae but not in Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) larvae. The size of the viral particle was estimated to be about 30 nm in diameter. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a protein of approximately 40.5 kDa. After agarose gel electrophoresis, the viral genome appeared to be bipartite RNA. Gel immunodiffusion tests showed no serological relationship between PaV and Nodamura virus, the type species for insect nodaviruses. Electron microscopy confirmed that viral replication occurs in the cytoplasm. These properties are similar to those of other members of family Nodaviridae, to which the virus is currently assigned. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-06-08

    The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epidemic. Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes displayed lower viral prevalence and intensity and decreased disseminated infection and, critically, did not carry infectious virus in the saliva, suggesting that viral transmission was blocked. Our data indicate that the use of Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes could represent an effective mechanism to reduce Zika virus transmission and should be included as part of Zika control strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of six potato virus Y isolates from Saudi Arabia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sherif

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... PAGE) indicated the 34 kDa viral coat protein and agarose gel of the immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) products indicated the 800 bp cp gene. The sequences were aligned together, narrowed to six (one PVY-N and five PVY-O isolates) and then aligned.

  6. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S M; Pearson, Caroline R; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R; Lamien, Charles E; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S.M.; Pearson, Caroline R.; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J.; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R.; Lamien, Charles E.; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. PMID:24973760

  8. Ebola Virus Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; de la Rosa Vázquez, Olimpia; Bausch, Daniel G; Schafer, Ilana J; Paddock, Christopher D; Nyakio, Jean Paul; Lame, Papys; Bergeron, Eric; McCollum, Andrea M; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Bollweg, Brigid C; Prieto, Miriam Alía; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nichol, Stuart T; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs. In the Gulu case, ebolavirus antigen localized to malarial parasite pigment-laden macrophages. These data suggest that trophoblast infection may be a mechanism of transplacental ebolavirus transmission. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  10. Present status of some virus diseases affecting legume crops in Tunisia, and partial characterization of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma NAJAR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted in Tunisia during the 2005‒2006, 2006‒2007 and 2009‒2010 growing seasons to identify viruses which produce yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms of chickpea, faba bean and pea crops. Tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA results showed that Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV was the most common virus, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Bean leafroll virus and Beet western yellows virus. The coat protein (CP gene nucleotide sequence of seven CpCSV isolates collected from different regions of Tunisia was compared with sequences of five other isolates in the NCBI database. A homology tree of the CP nucleotide sequences was prepared and CpCSV isolates were grouped into two clusters. The first group contained two Tunisian CpCSV chickpea isolates collected from Bizerte and Kef; sequenced regions showed a high nucleotiode homology (95% to that of the Ethiopian and Sudanese CpCSV isolates. The second group included five Tunisian isolates: two from chickpea, two from pea and one from faba bean, which showed a high homology (96% when compared with the Moroccan, Egyptian and Syrian CpCSV isolates.

  11. A low pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus isolated in Taiwan acquired high pathogenicity by consecutive passages in chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Soda, Kosuke; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Yoshida, Hiromi; Endo, Mayumi; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Wang, Ching-Ho; Kida, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    H5N2 viruses were isolated from cloacal swab samples of apparently healthy chickens in Taiwan in 2003 and 2008 during surveillance of avian influenza. Each of the viruses was eradicated by stamping out. The official diagnosis report indicated that the Intravenous Pathogenicity Indexes (IVPIs) of the isolates were 0.00 and 0.89, respectively, indicating that these were low pathogenic strains, although the hemagglutinin of the strain isolated in 2008 (Taiwan08) had multibasic amino acid residue...

  12. Caracterização antigênica e molecular de oito amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky isoladas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul em 2003 Antigenic and molecular characterization of eight samples of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D'Ávila da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Aujeszky ou pseudoraiva (DA, causada pelo vírus da pseudoraiva (PRV é a maior preocupação na produção de suínos. No estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, a DA foi somente detectada em 1954, em bovino. Em 2003, ocorreram dois surtos de encefalite em granjas na região norte do estado, fronteira com o estado de Santa Catarina. O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA foi isolado a partir de animais coletados em oito granjas distintas da região e submetido a análises antigênicas e moleculares. As amostras de VDA isoladas foram comparadas com as amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP. A caracterização antigênica dos mesmos foi realizada com testes de imunoperoxidase frente a um painel de anticorpos mono-clonais (Mabs preparado contra epitopos de glicoproteinas virais (gB, gC, gD e gE. A caracterização genômica foi realizada através da análise restrição enzimática (REA sobre o genoma total das amostras, com a enzima de restrição (REA Bam HI. O perfil antigênico das oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul, bem como os apresentados pelas amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP, foram similares. A REA revelou que todos as oito amostras do Rio Grande do Sul apresentaram um arranjo genômico do tipo II, genótipo frequentemente encontrado em surtos prévios de DA em outros estados do Brasil. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que as oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul são similares.Pseudorabies or Aujeszky's disease (AD, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV is a major concern in swine production. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, AD was only detected in 1954, in cattle. In 2003 two outbreaks of encephalitis occurred on the northern region of the state, close to the border with the state of Santa Catarina. Pseudorabies virus (PRV was isolated from distinct farms within the region and subjected to antigenic and genomic analyses. These isolates were compared with prototype strains NIA-3 and NP. Antigenic characterization with a

  13. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  14. Expression of VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) YL strain in Northeast of China, under control of the ats1A promoter from Rubisco small subunit genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, was introduced into the transfer deoxyribonucleic acid (T-DNA) region of plant transfer vector pCAMBIA1300 and transferred to ...

  15. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  16. Detection of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in naturally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The technique was applied on bursa of Fabricius of infected chicken. Some of these bursae have been kept in the freezer for 16years under conditions of regular electric power ...

  17. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A serological survey to detect the presence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in village poultry was conducted in 17 villages of Yobe State, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of NDV using haemaggluttination inhibition test. Ten households were sampled from each village.

  18. West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic: The Africa Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe acute viral illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, myalgia, malaise, and severe headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea and, in some instances, bleeding. The 2014 West Africa outbreak is the largest in history, affecting ...

  19. Hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly contagious viral infection that requires a high risk perception and practice of good hand hygiene by regular hand washing or use of hand sanitizers for infection control at all time. The declaration of Nigeria as an Ebola-free country by the World Health Organization on the ...

  20. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  1. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...

  2. Social vulnerability and Ebola virus disease in rural Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Melvin L. Warren; Susan Charnley; Christie M. Stegall

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate...

  3. Histopathology of Marine and Freshwater Fish Lymphocytosis Disease Virus (LCDV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.; Myung-Joo, Oh

    2011-01-01

    Lymphocytosis disease (LCD) in fishes is caused by the agent called lymphocytosis disease virus (LCDV). LCDV is a chronic and benign virus. The disease affects 96 species of marine and fresh water fishes ranged among 34 families in the world. Affected fish with LCD has a typical external symptom with clusters consisted of enormously hypertrophied dermal cells on the skin and fins. The hypertrophied cells, generally named lymphocytosis cells, have a thick hyaline capsule, an enlarged nucleus and prominent basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Among the four species of fishes, olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and rockfish Sebastes schlegeli were marine cultured fish, and gourami Trichogaster leeri and painted glass fish Channa baculis were freshwater ornamental fish. Although LCD causes low mortality, the disfigurement of infected fish can make them unsellable. Thus LCD has resulted in an important economic loss in the aquaculture industry. This study of histopathology may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocytosis diseases both in marine and freshwater fish species. (author)

  4. A Single Amino Acid Change in the Marburg Virus Glycoprotein Arises during Serial Cell Culture Passages and Attenuates the Virus in a Macaque Model of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfson, Kendra J; Avena, Laura E; Delgado, Jenny; Beadles, Michael W; Patterson, Jean L; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes disease with high case fatality rates, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Licensing of MARV countermeasures will likely require approval via the FDA's Animal Efficacy Rule, which requires well-characterized animal models that recapitulate human disease. This includes selection of the virus used for exposure and ensuring that it retains the properties of the original isolate. The consequences of amplification of MARV for challenge studies are unknown. Here, we serially passaged and characterized MARV through 13 passes from the original isolate. Surprisingly, the viral genome was very stable, except for a single nucleotide change that resulted in an amino acid substitution in the hydrophobic region of the signal peptide of the glycoprotein (GP). The particle/PFU ratio also decreased following passages, suggesting a role for the amino acid in viral infectivity. To determine if amplification introduces a phenotype in an animal model, cynomolgus macaques were exposed to either 100 or 0.01 PFU of low- and high-passage-number MARV. All animals succumbed when exposed to 100 PFU of either passage 3 or 13 viruses, although animals exposed to the high-passage-number virus survived longer. However, none of the passage 13 MARV-exposed animals succumbed to 0.01-PFU exposure compared to 75% of passage 3-exposed animals. This is consistent with other filovirus studies that show some particles that are unable to yield a plaque in cell culture can cause lethal disease in vivo . These results have important consequences for the design of experiments that investigate MARV pathogenesis and that test the efficacy of MARV countermeasures. IMPORTANCE Marburg virus (MARV) causes disease with a high case fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Serial amplification of viruses in cell culture often results in accumulation of mutations, but the effect of such cell culture passage on MARV is unclear. Serial passages of MARV

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT1 in cattle, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) dynamics and epidemiology in Nigeria and the West Africa subregion is important to support local and regional control plans and international risk assessment. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype South African territories (SAT)1 was isolated, identified and characterized from an FMD outbreak in cattle in Nigeria in 2015, 35 years after the last report of FMDV SAT1 in West Africa. The VP1 coding sequence of the Nigerian 2015 SAT1 isolates diverges from reported SAT1 topotypes resulting in a separate topotype. The reporting of a novel FMDV SAT1 strain in the virus pool 5 (West and Central Africa) highlights the dynamic and complex nature of FMDV in this region of Africa. Sustained surveillance is needed to understand the origin, the extent and distribution of this novel SAT1 topotype in the region as well as to detect and monitor the occurrence of (re-)emerging FMDV strains. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Isolation of Irkut virus from a Murina leucogaster bat in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bats are recognized as a major reservoir of lyssaviruses; however, no bat lyssavirus has been isolated in Asia except for Aravan and Khujand virus in Central Asia. All Chinese lyssavirus isolates in previous reports have been of species rabies virus, mainly from dogs. Following at least two recent bat-associated human rabies-like cases in northeast China, we have initiated a study of the prevalence of lyssaviruses in bats in Jilin province and their public health implications. A bat lyssavirus has been isolated and its pathogenicity in mice and genomic alignment have been determined. RESULTS: We report the first isolation of a bat lyssavirus in China, from the brain of a northeastern bat, Murina leucogaster. Its nucleoprotein gene shared 92.4%/98.9% (nucleotide and 92.2%/98.8% (amino acid identity with the two known Irkut virus isolates from Russia, and was designated IRKV-THChina12. Following intracranial and intramuscular injection, IRKV-THChina12 produced rabies-like symptoms in adult mice with a short inoculation period and high mortality. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that IRKV-THChina12 has the same genomic organization as other lyssaviruses and its isolation provides an independent origin for the species IRKV. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the existence of a bat lyssavirus in a common Chinese bat species. Its high pathogenicity in adult mice suggests that public warnings and medical education regarding bat bites in China should be increased, and that surveillance be extended to provide a better understanding of Irkut virus ecology and its significance for public health.

  7. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and ...

  8. Comparison of sequences of hypervariable region (HVR subunit S-1 gene of field isolate I-37 infectious bronchitis virus with Connecticut serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bronchitis is a contagious and acute respiratory disease in chickens caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV.Antigenic differences in IBV are associated with changes in the sequence of the spike glycoprotein (S. The subunit S1 which demonstrates more sequence variability than S-2 have been identified as hypervariable region (HVR-1 and 2. There were several IB virus field isolates included I-37 have been identified in Indonesia by serum neutralization method. However, gene sequence variation in HVR subunit S-1 had not yet been identified. Isolate I-37 was close to the serotype Connecticut 46 (Conn 46. The aim of this study is to identify sequence variation of HVR subunit S-1 gene of isolate I-37 produced by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR and sequencing. Several procedures were carried out in the study including virus titration, propagation and was concentrated from the allantoic fluid infected with IBV. Then, RNA was extracted for RTPCR. urther the product was sequnced and its homology with IBV references from GenBank was compared by GenMac version 8.0. Result showed that isolate I-37 produced 515 bp of amplification product. Isolate I-37 and Conn 46 are same serotype, yet their HVR subunit S-1 nucleotides and amino acids (protein differ by 6.9% and 15.6% respectively. It might be concluded that isolate I-37 was variant of Conn 46.

  9. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  10. Molecular characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolated from rose in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Vinícius Martins Fajardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is no molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, except for those infecting peach. In this research, the causal agent of rose mosaic was determined and the movement (MP and coat (CP protein genes of a PNRSV isolate from rose were molecularly characterized for the first time in Brazil. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of MP and CP complete genes were aligned and compared with other isolates. Molecular analysis of the MP and CP nucleotide sequences of a Brazilian PNRSV isolate from rose and others from this same host showed highest identities of 96.7% and 98.6%, respectively, and Rose-Br isolate was classified in PV32 group.

  11. Molecular characterization of two prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Aiming

    2012-05-01

    We determined the entire RNA1, 2 and 3 sequences of two prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) isolates, Chr3 from cherry and Pch12 from peach, obtained from an orchard in the Niagara Fruit Belt, Canada. The RNA1, 2 and 3 of the two isolates share nucleotide sequence identities of 98.6%, 98.4% and 94.5%, respectively. Their RNA1- and 2-encoded amino acid sequences are about 98% identical to the corresponding sequences of a cherry isolate, CH57, the only other PNRSV isolate with complete RNA1 and 2 sequences available. Phylogenetic analysis of the coat protein and movement protein encoded by RNA3 of Pch12 and Chr3 and published PNRSV isolates indicated that Chr3 belongs to the PV96 group and Pch12 belongs to the PV32 group.

  12. Biological and molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marques de Almeida Spadotti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV causes substantial economic losses in cucurbit crops. Although ZYMV has been present in Brazil for more than 20 years, there is little information about the biological and molecular characteristics of the isolates found in the country. This study aimed to characterize the experimental hosts, pathotypes and genetic diversity of a collection of eleven Brazilian ZYMV isolates within the coat protein gene. For biological analysis, plant species from Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Pedaliaceae were mechanically inoculated and pathotypes were identified based on the reaction of a resistant Cucumis melo, accession PI414723. All of the cucurbit species/varieties and Sesamum indicum were systemically infected with all isolates. The nucleotide sequence variability of the coat protein gene ranged from 82 % to 99 % compared to the corresponding sequences of ZYMV isolates from different geographical locations. No recombination event was detected in the coat protein gene of the isolates.

  13. Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

    1997-10-01

    Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control.

  14. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  15. High rates of double-stranded RNA viruses and Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Becker, Débora; dos Santos, Odelta; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in world, with 276.4 million new cases each year. T. vaginalis can be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonasvirus species. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. vaginalis infected with four distinct T. vaginalis viruses (TVVs) and M. hominis among isolates from patients in Porto Alegre city, South Brazil. An additional goal of this study was to investigate whether there is association between metronidazole resistance and the presence of M. hominis during TVV infection. The RNA expression level of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) gene was also evaluated among metronidazole-resistant and metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis isolates. A total of 530 urine samples were evaluated, and 5.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Among them, 4.51% were isolated from female patients and 1.12% were from male patients. Remarkably, the prevalence rates of M. hominis and TVV-positive T. vaginalis isolates were 56.7% and 90%, respectively. Most of the T. vaginalis isolates were metronidazole-sensitive (86.7%), and only four isolates (13.3%) were resistant. There is no statistically significant association between infection by M. hominis and infection by TVVs. Our results refute the hypothesis that the presence of the M. hominis and TVVs is enough to confer metronidazole resistance to T. vaginalis isolates. Additionally, the role of PFOR RNA expression levels in metronidazole resistance as the main mechanism of resistance to metronidazole could not be established. This study is the first report of the T. vaginalis infection by M. hominis and TVVs in a large collection of isolates from South Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of Ebola virus disease - firestone district, liberia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Erik J; Mabande, Lyndon G; Thoroughman, Douglas A; Arwady, M Allison; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-10-24

    On March 30, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia alerted health officials at Firestone Liberia, Inc. (Firestone) of the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) inside the Firestone rubber tree plantation of Liberia. The patient, who was the wife of a Firestone employee, had cared for a family member with confirmed Ebola in Lofa County, the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak in Liberia during March-April 2014. To prevent a large outbreak among Firestone's 8,500 employees, their dependents, and the surrounding population, the company responded by 1) establishing an incident management system, 2) instituting procedures for the early recognition and isolation of Ebola patients, 3) enforcing adherence to standard Ebola infection control guidelines, and 4) providing differing levels of management for contacts depending on their exposure, including options for voluntary quarantine in the home or in dedicated facilities. In addition, Firestone created multidisciplinary teams to oversee the outbreak response, address case detection, manage cases in a dedicated unit, and reintegrate convalescent patients into the community. The company also created a robust risk communication, prevention, and social mobilization campaign to boost community awareness of Ebola and how to prevent transmission. During August 1-September 23, a period of intense Ebola transmission in the surrounding areas, 71 cases of Ebola were diagnosed among the approximately 80,000 Liberians for whom Firestone provides health care (cumulative incidence = 0.09%). Fifty-seven (80%) of the cases were laboratory confirmed; 39 (68%) of these cases were fatal. Aspects of Firestone's response appear to have minimized the spread of Ebola in the local population and might be successfully implemented elsewhere to limit the spread of Ebola and prevent transmission to health care workers (HCWs).

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; Silveira, Nelson José Freitas da; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1–4) are antigenically and genetically...

  18. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  19. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a coat protein of an Ukrainian isolate of Potato virus Y: comparison with homologous sequences of other isolates and phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzanivska I. G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Identification of the widespread Ukrainian isolate(s of PVY (Potato virus Y in different potato cultivars and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of detected PVY isolates based on NA and AA sequences of coat protein. Methods. ELISA, RT-PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results. PVY has been identified serologically in potato cultivars of Ukrainian selection. In this work we have optimized a method for total RNA extraction from potato samples and offered a sensitive and specific PCR-based test system of own design for diagnostics of the Ukrainian PVY isolates. Part of the CP gene of the Ukrainian PVY isolate has been sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. It is demonstrated that the Ukrainian isolate of Potato virus Y (CP gene has a higher percentage of homology with the recombinant isolates (strains of this pathogen (approx. 98.8– 99.8 % of homology for both nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of the CP gene. The Ukrainian isolate of PVY is positioned in the separate cluster together with the isolates found in Syria, Japan and Iran; these isolates possibly have common origin. The Ukrainian PVY isolate is confirmed to be recombinant. Conclusions. This work underlines the need and provides the means for accurate monitoring of Potato virus Y in the agroecosystems of Ukraine. Most importantly, the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the recombinant nature of this PVY isolate which has been attributed to the strain group O, subclade N:O.

  20. Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Virus Type and Subtypes Isolated from Influenza Like Illness Cases of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    Background Seasonal influenza is one of the increasing public health burdens in Nepal. Objective The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal. Method A total of 1536 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December 2012. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted using Qiagen viral nucleic acid extraction kit and polymerase chain reaction assay was performed following the US; CDC Real-time PCR protocol. Ten percent of positive specimens were inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Isolates were characterized by using reference ferret antisera. Result Of the total specimens (n=1536), influenza virus type A was detected in 196 (22%) cases; of which 194 (99%) were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and 2 (1 %) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B was detected in 684 (76.9%) cases. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B virus were antigenically similar to the recommended influenza virus vaccine candidate of the year 2012. Although sporadic cases of influenza were observed throughout the year, peak was observed during July to November. Conclusion Similar to other tropical countries, A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B viruses were co-circulated in Nepal.

  1. Characterization of Brugmansia mosaic virus Isolated from Brugmansia spp. in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Youl Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In May 2013, an angel’s trumpet leaves showing mosaic and malformation symptoms were collected from Suwon city, Gyeonggi-do. An analysis of the collected sample by transmission electron microscopy observation showed filamentous rod particles of 720-800 nm in length. On the basis of the these observations, we performed PCR against three reported Potyviruses (Brugmansia mosaic virus, Colombian datura virus and Brugmansia suaveolens mottle virus, and the sample was positive for BruMV. Pathogenicity and host range test of BruMV was determined by mechanical inoculation. Solanaceae (tobacco, tomato and eggplant and Amaranthaceae (ground cherry appeared typical virus symptoms. To determine coat protein of this virus, we designed specific primer pairs, and performed PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BruMV-SW was most closely related to BruMV isolate SK. Comparison of the BruMV-SW coat protein nucleotide sequences showed 92% to 99% identities to the other BruMV isolates.

  2. Isolation and characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from donkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that crosses species barriers and seriously affects humans as well as some mammals. It mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences. Methods Nasal swabs were collected from donkeys suffered from respiratory distress. The virus was isolated from the pooled nasal swabs in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing of both haemagglutingin and neuraminidase were performed. H5 seroconversion was screened using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay on 105 donkey serum samples. Results We demonstrated that H5N1 jumped from poultry to another mammalian host; donkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus clustered within the lineage of H5N1 from Egypt, closely related to 2009 isolates. It harboured few genetic changes compared to the closely related viruses from avian and humans. The neuraminidase lacks oseltamivir resistant mutations. Interestingly, HI screening for antibodies to H5 haemagglutinins in donkeys revealed high exposure rate. Conclusions These findings extend the host range of the H5N1 influenza virus, possess implications for influenza virus epidemiology and highlight the need for the systematic surveillance of H5N1 in animals in the vicinity of backyard poultry units especially in endemic areas. PMID:20398268

  3. Isolation and characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Ghany Ahmad E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that crosses species barriers and seriously affects humans as well as some mammals. It mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences. Methods Nasal swabs were collected from donkeys suffered from respiratory distress. The virus was isolated from the pooled nasal swabs in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and sequencing of both haemagglutingin and neuraminidase were performed. H5 seroconversion was screened using haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay on 105 donkey serum samples. Results We demonstrated that H5N1 jumped from poultry to another mammalian host; donkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus clustered within the lineage of H5N1 from Egypt, closely related to 2009 isolates. It harboured few genetic changes compared to the closely related viruses from avian and humans. The neuraminidase lacks oseltamivir resistant mutations. Interestingly, HI screening for antibodies to H5 haemagglutinins in donkeys revealed high exposure rate. Conclusions These findings extend the host range of the H5N1 influenza virus, possess implications for influenza virus epidemiology and highlight the need for the systematic surveillance of H5N1 in animals in the vicinity of backyard poultry units especially in endemic areas.

  4. Fluorescent antibody test, quantitative polymerase chain reaction pattern and clinical aspects of rabies virus strains isolated from main reservoirs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Appolinário

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV isolated from different mammals seems to have unique characteristics that influence the outcome of infection. RABV circulates in nature and is maintained by reservoirs that are responsible for the persistence of the disease for almost 4000 years. Considering the different pattern of pathogenicity of RABV strains in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of RABV variants isolated from the main Brazilian reservoirs, being related to a dog (variant 2, Desmodus rotundus (variant 3, crab eating fox, marmoset, and Myotis spp. Viral replication in brain tissue of experimentally infected mouse was evaluated by two laboratory techniques and the results were compared to clinical evolution from five RABV variants. The presence of the RABV was investigated in brain samples by fluorescent antibody test (FAT and real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR for quantification of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene (N gene. Virus replication is not correlated with clinical signs and evolution. The pattern of FAT is associated with RABV replication levels. Virus isolates from crab eating fox and marmoset had a longer evolution period and higher survival rate suggesting that the evolution period may contribute to the outcome. RABV virus variants had independent characteristics that determine the clinical evolution and survival of the infected mice.

  5. Novel reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolated from swine, Japan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miho; Takayama, Ikuyo; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mika; Ishioka, Taisei; Yokota, Yoko; Kimura, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Masato; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-12-01

    We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time.

  6. Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zoghby Elham F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment of two main genetic clusters. The 2.2.1/C group where all recent human and majority of backyard origin viruses clustered together, meanwhile the majority of viruses derived from vaccinated poultry in commercial farms grouped in 2.2.1.1 clade. Findings In the present investigation, an HPAIV H5N1 was isolated from twenty weeks old layers chickens that were vaccinated with a homologous H5N1 vaccine at 1, 7 and 16 weeks old. At twenty weeks of age, birds showed cyanosis of comb and wattle, decrease in egg production and up to 27% mortality. Examined serum samples showed low antibody titer in HI test (Log2 3.2± 4.2. The hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the isolated virus were closely related to viruses in 2.2.1/C group isolated from poultry in live bird market (LBM and backyards or from infected people. Conspicuous mutations in the HA and NA genes including a deletion within the receptor binding domain in the HA globular head region were observed. Conclusions Despite repeated vaccination of layer chickens using a homologous H5N1 vaccine, infection with HPAIV H5N1 resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. In endemic countries like Egypt, rigorous control measures including enforcement of biosecurity, culling of infected birds and constant update of vaccine virus strains are highly required to prevent circulation of HPAIV H5N1 between backyard birds, commercial poultry, LBM and humans.

  7. Different regions of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein modulate pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Heiden

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV, also designated as Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1, is the causative agent of a notifiable disease of poultry but it exhibits different pathogenicity dependent on the virus strain. The molecular basis for this variability is not fully understood. The efficiency of activation of the fusion protein (F is determined by presence or absence of a polybasic amino acid sequence at an internal proteolytic cleavage site which is a major determinant of NDV virulence. However, other determinants of pathogenicity must exist since APMV-1 of high (velogenic, intermediate (mesogenic and low (lentogenic virulence specify a polybasic F cleavage site. We aimed at elucidation of additional virulence determinants by constructing a recombinant virus that consists of a lentogenic NDV Clone 30 backbone and the F protein gene from a mesogenic pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1 isolate with an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI of 1.1 specifying the polybasic sequence R-R-K-K-R*F motif at the cleavage site. The resulting virus was characterized by an ICPI of 0.6, indicating a lentogenic pathotype. In contrast, alteration of the cleavage site G-R-Q-G-R*L of the lentogenic Clone 30 to R-R-K-K-R*F resulted in a recombinant virus with an ICPI of 1.36 which was higher than that of parental PPMV-1. Substitution of different regions of the F protein of Clone 30 by those of PPMV-1, while maintaining the polybasic amino acid sequence at the F cleavage site, resulted in recombinant viruses with ICPIs ranging from 0.59 to 1.36 suggesting that virulence is modulated by regions of the F protein other than the polybasic cleavage site.

  8. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant

    OpenAIRE

    Renström Lena HM; Isaksson Mats; Berg Mikael; Zohari Siamak; Widén Frederik; Metreveli Giorgi; Bálint Ádám; Wallgren Per; Belák Sándor; Segall Thomas; Kiss István

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority o...

  9. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a sheep pox virus isolated from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X L; Yang, F; Li, H X; Dou, Y X; Meng, X L; Li, H; Luo, X N; Cai, X P

    2013-05-14

    An outbreak of sheep pox was investigated in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. Through immunofluorescence testing, isolated viruses, polymerase chain reaction identification, and electron microscopic examination, the isolated strain was identified as a sheep pox virus. The virus was identified through sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, open reading frame (ORF) 095, and ORF 103 genes. This study is the first to use the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes as candidate genes for the analysis of sheep pox. The results showed that the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes could be used for the genotyping of the sheep pox virus.

  10. Genetic variation of coat protein gene among the isolates of Rice tungro spherical virus from tungro-endemic states of the India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Malathi, P; Agarwal, Surekha; Ramkumar, G; Krishnaveni, D; Neeraja, C N; Madhav, M Sheshu; Ladhalakshmi, D; Balachandran, S M; Viraktamath, B C

    2012-06-01

    Rice tungro disease, one of the major constraints to rice production in South and Southeast Asia, is caused by a combination of two viruses: Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic variation of RTSV population present in tungro endemic states of Indian subcontinent. Phylogenetic analysis based on coat protein sequences showed distinct divergence of Indian RTSV isolates into two groups; one consisted isolates from Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), Cuttack (Orissa), and Puducherry and another from West Bengal, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu). The results obtained from phylogenetic study were further supported with the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), INDELs (insertion and deletion) and evolutionary distance analysis. In addition, sequence difference count matrix revealed 2-68 nucleotides differences among all the Indian RTSV isolates taken in this study. However, at the protein level these differences were not significant as revealed by Ka/Ks ratio calculation. Sequence identity at nucleotide and amino acid level was 92-100% and 97-100%, respectively, among Indian isolates of RTSV. Understanding of the population structure of RTSV from tungro endemic regions of India would potentially provide insights into the molecular diversification of this virus.

  11. Whole genomes of Chandipura virus isolates and comparative analysis with other rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Sarah S; Gunjikar, Rashmi S; Banerjee, Arpita; Kumar, Satyendra; Arankalle, Vidya A

    2012-01-01

    The Chandipura virus (CHPV) belonging to the Vesiculovirus genus and Rhabdoviridae family, has recently been associated with a number of encephalitis epidemics, with high mortality in children, in different parts of India. No full length genome sequences of CHPV isolates were available in GenBank and little is known about the molecular markers for pathogenesis. In the present study, we provide the complete genomic sequences of four isolates from epidemics during 2003-2007. These sequences along with the deduced sequence of the prototype isolate of 1965 were analysed using phylogeny, motif search, homology modeling and epitope prediction methods. Comparison with other rhaboviruses was also done for functional extrapolations. All CHPV isolates clustered with the Isfahan virus and maintained several functional motifs of other rhabdoviruses. A notable difference with the prototype vesiculovirus, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus was in the L-domain flanking sequences of the M protein that are known to be crucial for interaction with host proteins. With respect to the prototype isolate, significant additional mutations were acquired in the 2003-2007 isolates. Several mutations in G mapped onto probable antigenic sites. A mutation in N mapped onto regions crucial for N-N interaction and a putative T-cell epitope. A mutation in the Casein kinase II phosphorylation site in P may attribute to increased rates of phosphorylation. Gene junction comparison revealed changes in the M-G junction of all the epidemic isolates that may have implications on read-through and gene transcription levels. The study can form the basis for further experimental verification and provide additional insights into the virulence determinants of the CHPV.

  12. Whole genomes of Chandipura virus isolates and comparative analysis with other rhabdoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Cherian

    Full Text Available The Chandipura virus (CHPV belonging to the Vesiculovirus genus and Rhabdoviridae family, has recently been associated with a number of encephalitis epidemics, with high mortality in children, in different parts of India. No full length genome sequences of CHPV isolates were available in GenBank and little is known about the molecular markers for pathogenesis. In the present study, we provide the complete genomic sequences of four isolates from epidemics during 2003-2007. These sequences along with the deduced sequence of the prototype isolate of 1965 were analysed using phylogeny, motif search, homology modeling and epitope prediction methods. Comparison with other rhaboviruses was also done for functional extrapolations. All CHPV isolates clustered with the Isfahan virus and maintained several functional motifs of other rhabdoviruses. A notable difference with the prototype vesiculovirus, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus was in the L-domain flanking sequences of the M protein that are known to be crucial for interaction with host proteins. With respect to the prototype isolate, significant additional mutations were acquired in the 2003-2007 isolates. Several mutations in G mapped onto probable antigenic sites. A mutation in N mapped onto regions crucial for N-N interaction and a putative T-cell epitope. A mutation in the Casein kinase II phosphorylation site in P may attribute to increased rates of phosphorylation. Gene junction comparison revealed changes in the M-G junction of all the epidemic isolates that may have implications on read-through and gene transcription levels. The study can form the basis for further experimental verification and provide additional insights into the virulence determinants of the CHPV.

  13. Whole Genomes of Chandipura Virus Isolates and Comparative Analysis with Other Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Sarah S.; Kumar, Satyendra; Arankalle, Vidya A.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandipura virus (CHPV) belonging to the Vesiculovirus genus and Rhabdoviridae family, has recently been associated with a number of encephalitis epidemics, with high mortality in children, in different parts of India. No full length genome sequences of CHPV isolates were available in GenBank and little is known about the molecular markers for pathogenesis. In the present study, we provide the complete genomic sequences of four isolates from epidemics during 2003–2007. These sequences along with the deduced sequence of the prototype isolate of 1965 were analysed using phylogeny, motif search, homology modeling and epitope prediction methods. Comparison with other rhaboviruses was also done for functional extrapolations. All CHPV isolates clustered with the Isfahan virus and maintained several functional motifs of other rhabdoviruses. A notable difference with the prototype vesiculovirus, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus was in the L-domain flanking sequences of the M protein that are known to be crucial for interaction with host proteins. With respect to the prototype isolate, significant additional mutations were acquired in the 2003–2007 isolates. Several mutations in G mapped onto probable antigenic sites. A mutation in N mapped onto regions crucial for N-N interaction and a putative T-cell epitope. A mutation in the Casein kinase II phosphorylation site in P may attribute to increased rates of phosphorylation. Gene junction comparison revealed changes in the M-G junction of all the epidemic isolates that may have implications on read-through and gene transcription levels. The study can form the basis for further experimental verification and provide additional insights into the virulence determinants of the CHPV. PMID:22272333

  14. Molecular Variability Among Isolates of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus from Different Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, F; Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Pallás, V

    1999-11-01

    ABSTRACT Viral sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction from 25 isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), varying in the symptomatology they cause in six different Prunus spp., were analyzed for restriction fragment polymorphisms. Most of the isolates could be discriminated by using a combination of three different restriction enzymes. The nucleotide sequences of the RNA 4 of 15 of these isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of the RNA 4 and coat proteins (CPs) revealed that all of the isolates clustered into three different groups, represented by three previously sequenced PNRSV isolates: PV32, PE5, and PV96. The PE5-type group was characterized by a 5' untranslated region that was clearly different from that of the other two groups. The PV32-type group was characterized by an extra hexanucleotide consisting of a duplication of the six immediately preceding nucleotides. Although most of the variability was observed in the first third of the CP, the amino acid residues in this region, which were previously thought to be functionally important in the replication cycle of the virus, were strictly conserved. No clear correlation with the type of symptom or host specificity could be observed. The validity of this grouping was confirmed when other isolates recently characterized by other authors were included in these analyses.

  15. Widespread distribution and a new recombinant species of Brazilian virus associated with cotton blue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton blue disease (CBD, an important global cotton crop pathology responsible for major economic losses, is prevalent in the major cotton-producing states of Brazil. Typical CBD symptoms include stunting due to internodal shortening, leaf rolling, intense green foliage, and yellowing veins. Atypical CBD symptoms, including reddish and withered leaves, were also observed in Brazilian cotton fields in 2007. Recently, a Polerovirus named Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV was shown to be associated with CBD. Results To understand the distribution and genetic diversity of CLRDV in Brazil, we analyzed 23 CBD-symptomatic plants from susceptible cotton varieties originating from five of the six most important cotton-growing states, from 2004–2007. Here, we report on CLRDV diversity in plants with typical or atypical CBD symptoms by comparing viral coat protein, RNA polymerase (RdRp, and intergenic region genomic sequences. Conclusion The virus had a widespread distribution with a low genetic diversity; however, three divergent isolates were associated with atypical CBD symptoms. These divergent isolates had a CLRDV-related coat protein but a distinct RdRp sequence, and probably arose from recombination events. Based on the taxonomic rules for the family Luteoviridae, we propose that these three isolates represent isolates of a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

  16. Widespread distribution and a new recombinant species of Brazilian virus associated with cotton blue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T F; Corrêa, R L; Castilho, Y; Silvie, P; Bélot, J-L; Vaslin, M F S

    2008-10-20

    Cotton blue disease (CBD), an important global cotton crop pathology responsible for major economic losses, is prevalent in the major cotton-producing states of Brazil. Typical CBD symptoms include stunting due to internodal shortening, leaf rolling, intense green foliage, and yellowing veins. Atypical CBD symptoms, including reddish and withered leaves, were also observed in Brazilian cotton fields in 2007. Recently, a Polerovirus named Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) was shown to be associated with CBD. To understand the distribution and genetic diversity of CLRDV in Brazil, we analyzed 23 CBD-symptomatic plants from susceptible cotton varieties originating from five of the six most important cotton-growing states, from 2004-2007. Here, we report on CLRDV diversity in plants with typical or atypical CBD symptoms by comparing viral coat protein, RNA polymerase (RdRp), and intergenic region genomic sequences. The virus had a widespread distribution with a low genetic diversity; however, three divergent isolates were associated with atypical CBD symptoms. These divergent isolates had a CLRDV-related coat protein but a distinct RdRp sequence, and probably arose from recombination events. Based on the taxonomic rules for the family Luteoviridae, we propose that these three isolates represent isolates of a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

  17. Nurses leading the fight against Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Priscilla L

    2015-05-01

    The current Ebola crisis has sparked worldwide reaction of panic and disbelief in its wake as it decimated communities in West Africa, particularly in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, including its health care workers. This article affirms the crucial role nurses play in maintaining health and preventing diseases, connects the devastating havoc of the Ebola virus disease to another issue of nursing shortage in underdeveloped countries, and asserts the key leadership nurses play in protecting the communities they serve while maintaining their safety and those of other health care workers. Nurses must actively seek a place at the table, as echoed by the American Academy of Nursing and American Nurses Association and the American Nurses Association, when decisions are being made regarding Ebola virus disease: at care settings, in the board room, and at federal, state, and local levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Characterization of sida golden mottle virus isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, H A; Iqbal, Zafar; Polston, J E

    2018-06-21

    The genome of sida golden mottle virus (SiGMoV) (GU997691 and GU997692) isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Manatee County, Florida, was sequenced and characterized. SiGMoV was determined to be a bipartite virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus with a genome organization typical of the New World viruses in the genus. SiGMoV DNA-A had the highest identity scores (89%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationships to sida golden mosaic Buckup virus (SiGMBuV) (JX162591 and HQ008338). However, SiGMoV DNA-B had the highest identity scores (93%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationship to corchorus yellow spot virus (DQ875869), SiGMBuV (JX162592) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFlV) (HE806443). There was extensive recombination in the SiGMoV DNA-A and much less in DNA-B. Full-length clones of SiGMoV were infectious and were able to infect and cause symptoms in several plant species.

  19. Endogenous New World primate type C viruses isolated from owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) kidney cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, G J; Sherr, C J; Sen, A; King, N; Daniel, M D; Fleckenstein, B

    1978-01-01

    A type C virus (OMC-1) detected in a culture of owl monkey kidney cells resembled typical type C viruses morphologically, but was slightly larger than previously characterized mammalian type C viruses. OMC-1 can be transmitted to bat lung cells and cat embryo fibroblasts. The virions band at a density of 1.16 g/ml in isopycnic sucrose density gradients and contain reverse transcriptase and a 60-65S RNA genome composed of approximately 32S subunits. The reverse transcriptase is immunologically and biochemically distinct from the polymerases of othe retroviruses. Radioimmunoassays directed to the interspecies antigenic determinants of the major structure proteins of other type C viruses do not detect a related antigen in OMC-1. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments using labeled viral genomic RNA or proviral cDNA transcripts to normal cellular DNA of different species show that OMC-1 is an endogenous virus with multiple virogene copies (20-50 per haploid genome) present in normal owl monkey cells and is distinct from previously isolated type C and D viruses. Sequences related to the OMC-1 genome can be detected in other New World monkeys. Thus, similar to the Old World primates (e.g., baboons as a prototype), the New World monkeys contain endogenous type C viral genes that appear to have been transmitted in the primate germ line. Images PMID:76312

  20. Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Kristen; Lokesh, G.L.; Sherman, Michael; Watowich, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to the mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses.

  1. Genome characterization, antigenicity and pathogenicity of a novel infectious bronchitis virus type isolated from south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Wenjun; Han, Zongxi; Chen, Yuqiu; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Junfeng; Li, Huixin; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Liangliang; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-10-01

    In 2014, three infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, designated as γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14, γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14 and γCoV/ck/China/I0118/14, were isolated and identified from chickens suspected to be infected with IBV in Guangxi province, China. Based upon data arising from S1 sequence and phylogenetic analyses, the three IBV isolates were genetically different from other known IBV types, which represented a novel genotype (GI-29). Virus cross-neutralization tests, using γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 as a representative, showed that genotype GI-29 was antigenically different from all other known IBV types, thus representing a novel serotype. Complete genomic analysis showed that GI-29 type viruses were closely related to and might originate from a GX-YL5-like virus by accumulation of substitutions in multiple genes. These GI-29 viral genomes are still evolving and diverging, particularly in the 3' region, although we cannot rule out the possibility of recombination events occurring. For isolate γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14, we found that recombination events had occurred between nsps 2 and 3 in gene 1 which led to the introduction of a 4/91 gene fragment into the γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14 viral genome. In addition, we found that the GI-29 type γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 isolate was a nephropathogenic strain and high pathogenic to 1-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens although cystic oviducts were not observed in the surviving layer chickens challenged with γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 isolate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ISOLATION OF VIRUS IN PRODUCTS OF CONCEPTION IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMYAB S.D. AZARI S.D. NATEGH R

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred pa t ient s o f t he l ow socioe conomic g roup wi th an aborti on o f the f i r s t t r i mest e r were stud 1ed . The s ter i l e produc ts o f concept ion were c ul t ured on Gr e e n Monke y Kidney ti s sue cul t ure f or v i r a l de t e c - tion. Four po s i t i ve Herpe s virus, two positive Rubella"nv~ru s and t hree pos i tive unidentifie d Entero v irus l ike Vlrus were obtained The sera of 192 of these patients were titrated for Rubella antibody. The sera of a control group of 150 normal pregnant women were titrated for Rubella antibody and 8.8 per cent of these patients had a negative titre and 21.3 per cent , 1 had a tltre over 40

  3. Diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in East Africa: Implications for vaccination policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila; Sangula, Abraham; Heller, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in East Africa. A sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control FMD mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success....... We investigated the genetic relationships among serotype O strains in eastern Africa using complete VP1 coding region sequences obtained from 46 FMD virus isolates collected in Kenya in the years 1964–2008 and 8 Ugandan isolates collected between 1999 and 2006. In addition, 21 selected FMDV sequences...... the dominant evolutionary force. Cross-border disease transmission within the region has been suggested with probable incursions of topotypes EA-3 and EA-4 into Kenya and Uganda from neighboring Ethiopia and Sudan. We conclude that the vaccines have probably been effective in controlling EA-1, but less so...

  4. Molecular and biological characterization of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV, Pomovirus) isolates from potato-growing regions in Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, José; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) causes necrotic flecks inside and on tubers in temperate countries. In South America, these symptoms have not been observed, although the presence of the virus has been confirmed in the Andes and in Central America. To characterize PMTV isolates from the Andes, soil...... samples were taken from the main potato-producing regions in Colombia and virus was recovered by planting Nicotiana benthamiana as bait plants. The complete genomes of five isolates were sequenced and three of the isolates were inoculated to four different indicator plants. Based on sequence comparisons...

  5. OUTBREAK OF ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Tsankova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus from Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Like most of the viruses which belong to the Flavivirus genus, it replicates in and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Unlike other arbovirus infections including dengue and chikungunya, Zika virus causes a relatively mild disease. The most common symptoms of ZIKV are mild fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous maculopapular rash, which last for several days to a week. Although 80% of the cases with ZIKV are asymptomatic, severe complications such as microcephalia and GBS may be observed. This explains why ZIKV is more dangerous that it was thought to be and why it rapidly evolves in unexpected challenge for the international and national public health authorities.

  6. A molecular method for typing Herpes simplex virus isolates as an alternative to immunofluorescence methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typing of Herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates is required to identify the virus isolated in culture. The methods available for this include antigen detection by immunofluorescence (IF assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. This study was undertaken to standardize a molecular method for typing of HSV and compare it with a commercial IF reagent for typing. Objectives: To compare a molecular method for typing HSV isolates with a monoclonal antibody (MAb based IF test. Study design : This cross-sectional study utilized four reference strains and 42 HSV isolates obtained from patients between September 1998 and September 2004. These were subjected to testing using an MAb-based IF test and a PCR that detects the polymerase ( pol gene of HSV isolates. Results: The observed agreement of the MAb IF assay with the pol PCR was 95.7%. Fifty four point eight percent (23/42 of isolates tested by IF typing were found to be HSV-1, 40.5% (17/42 were HSV-2, and two (4.8% were untypable using the MAb IF assay. The two untypable isolates were found to be HSV-2 using the pol PCR. In addition, the cost per PCR test for typing is estimated to be around Rs 1,300 (USD 30, whereas the cost per MAb IF test is about Rs 1,500 (USD 35 including all overheads (reagents, instruments, personnel time, and consumables. Conclusion: The pol PCR is a cheaper and more easily reproducible method for typing HSV isolates as compared to the IF test. It could replace the IF-based method for routine typing of HSV isolates as availability of PCR machines (thermal cyclers is now more widespread than fluorescence microscopes in a country like India.

  7. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

  8. Zika virus infection: The resurgence of a neglected disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kambale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available "Zika virus" (ZIKV is an enveloped, icosahedral virus and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome approximately 11 kb in length. Genetic studies have revealed three ZIKV lineages: East African, West African, and Asian. Serologic studies and virus isolations have demonstrated that the virus has a wide geographic distribution, spanning East and West Africa, the Americas, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. ZIKV can cause complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis. During pregnancy ZIKV infection can lead to miscarriages and microcephaly, cerebral calcifications, macular neuroretinal atrophy, and loss of foveal reflex in the fetus. A clinically suspected case of infection with dengue negative result should be further tested for Flavivirus, including Zika. Immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is used to detect specific IgM or IgG antibodies against ZIKV. In cases of positive ZIKV infection, symptomatic treatment should be given after excluding other condition such as dengue, malaria, and bacterial infections.

  9. Ebola virus disease. Short history, long impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7% and 527 of these publications (53.5% to the years 2014-2015. The earliest publication dates back to 1977, attaching no listed authors either reference abstract, and the most recent to January of current year 2015. This means Ebola infection is a global problem and that concern the international scientific community. A review of some of the studies published in this matter, considered of interest and discussed by the authors, is performed in this work.

  10. Genetic characterization of an isolate of canine distemper virus from a Tibetan Mastiff in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weike; Li, Tiansong; Liu, Yuxiu; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Feng, Na; Sun, Heting; Wang, Shengle; Wang, Lei; Bu, Zhigao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2014-08-01

    Canine distemper (CD) is a highly contagious, often fatal, multisystemic, and incurable disease in dogs and other carnivores, which is caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). Although vaccines have been used as the principal means of controlling the disease, CD has been reported in vaccinated animals. The hemoagglutinin (H) protein is one of the most important antigens for inducing protective immunity against CD, and antigenic variation of recent CDV strains may explain vaccination failure. In this study, a new CDV isolate (TM-CC) was obtained from a Tibetan Mastiff that died of distemper, and its genome was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the H gene revealed that the CDV-TM-CC strain is unique among 20 other CDV strains and can be classified into the Asia-1 group with the Chinese strains, Hebei and HLJ1-06, and the Japanese strain, CYN07-hV. The H gene of CDV-TM-CC shows low identity (90.4 % nt and 88.9 % aa) with the H gene of the classical Onderstepoort vaccine strain, which may explain the inability of the Tibetan Mastiff to mount a protective immune response. We also performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the N, P, and F protein sequences, as well as potential N-glycosylation sites and cysteine residues. This analysis shows that an N-glycosylation site at aa 108-110 within the F protein of CDV-TM-CC is specific for the wild-type strains (5804P, A75/17, and 164071) and the Asia-1 group strains, and may be another important factor for the poor immune response. These results provide important information for the design of CD vaccines in the China region and elsewhere.

  11. High-throughput isolation of giant viruses in liquid medium using automated flow cytometry and fluorescence staining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Yaacoub Bou Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of giant viruses using amoeba co-culture is tedious and fastidious. Recently, the procedure was successfully associated with a method that detects amoebal lysis on agar plates. However, the procedure remains time-consuming and is limited to protozoa growing on agar. We present here advances for the isolation of giant viruses. A high-throughput automated method based on flow cytometry and fluorescent staining was used to detect the presence of giant viruses in liquid medium. Development was carried out with the Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain widely used in past and current co-culture experiments. The proof of concept was validated with virus suspensions: artificially contaminated samples but also environmental samples from which viruses were previously isolated. After validating the technique, and fortuitously isolating a new Mimivirus, we automated the technique on 96-well plates and tested it on clinical and environmental samples using other protozoa. This allowed us to detect more than ten strains of previously known species of giant viruses and 7 new strains of a new virus lineage. This automated high-throughput method demonstrated significant time saving, and higher sensitivity than older techniques. It thus creates the means to isolate giant viruses at high speed.

  12. Isolation and identification of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; Khan, Owais Ahmed; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lu, Huaguang

    2010-03-01

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first diagnosed in a "backyard" flock of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) raised on palace premises in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in December 3, 2007. The flock consisted of 40 peafowl, and their ages ranged from 3 to 5 years old. Affected birds suffered from depression, anorexia, and white diarrhea. Four dead birds were submitted for HPAI diagnosis at the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Riyadh. Brain and liver tissues and tracheal and cloacal swabs were taken from the dead birds and processed for a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test and virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs. The H5N1 subtype of avian influenza virus was isolated from the four dead birds and identified by a real-time RT-PCR before and after egg inoculation. The virus isolates were characterized as HPAI H5N1 virus by sequencing analysis. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed that the H5N1 viruses isolated from peafowl belong to the genetic clade 2.2 according to the World Health Organization nomenclature. The peafowl H5N1 virus falls into 2.2.2 sublineage II and clusters with the H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in Saudi Arabia in 2007-08.

  13. Bowen's Disease Associated With Two Human Papilloma Virus Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hojat; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh; Azimi, Seyyede Zeinab; Rafiei, Rana; Mesbah, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Bowen's disease (BD) is an epidermal in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV)-positive lesions in Bowen's disease are localized to the genital region or distal extremities (periungual sites) in which HPV type-16 is frequently detected. Patient was a 64-year-old construction worker for whom we detected 2 erythematous psoriasiform reticular scaly plaques on peri-umbilical and medial knee. Biopsy established the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and polymerase chain reaction assay showed HPV-6, -18 co-infection. Patient was referred for surgical excision.

  14. [Zika virus infection or the future of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Fernández Rivas, Gema

    2016-10-07

    Zika virus belongs to the Flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus originally came from Central African simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the Pacific to South America. The disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. Mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary Guillain-Barré or fetal microcephaly cases. Diagnostic confirmation requires a RT-PCR in blood up to the 5th day from the onset or in urine up to the 10-14th day. Specific IgM are identifiable from the 5th symptomatic day. Clinically, a suspected case should comply with: a) a journey to epidemic areas; b) a clinically compatible appearance with fever and skin rash, and c) a generally normal blood count/basic biochemistry. There is some evidence that causally relates Zika virus infection with fetal microcephaly. While waiting for definitive data, all pregnant women coming from Central or South America should be tested for Zika virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the structures of three circoviruses: chicken anemia virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and beak and feather disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, R A; Berriman, J A; Curran, W L; Allan, G M; Todd, D

    2003-12-01

    Circoviruses are small, nonenveloped icosahedral animal viruses characterized by circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Their genomes are the smallest possessed by animal viruses. Infections with circoviruses, which can lead to economically important diseases, frequently result in virus-induced damage to lymphoid tissue and immunosuppression. Within the family Circoviridae, different genera are distinguished by differences in genomic organization. Thus, Chicken anemia virus is in the genus Gyrovirus, while porcine circoviruses and Beak and feather disease virus belong to the genus CIRCOVIRUS: Little is known about the structures of circoviruses. Accordingly, we investigated the structures of these three viruses with a view to determining whether they are related. Three-dimensional maps computed from electron micrographs showed that all three viruses have a T=1 organization with capsids formed from 60 subunits. Porcine circovirus type 2 and beak and feather disease virus show similar capsid structures with flat pentameric morphological units, whereas chicken anemia virus has stikingly different protruding pentagonal trumpet-shaped units. It thus appears that the structures of viruses in the same genus are related but that those of viruses in different genera are unrelated.

  16. Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Sangula, Abraham Kiprotich; Belsham, Graham J; Tjornehoj, Kirsten; Muwanika, Vincent B; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2015-02-03

    Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly intermingle with livestock in Kenya, yet earlier studies have focused on FMD in the domestic livestock, hence the contribution of buffalo to disease in livestock is largely unknown. This study analysed 47 epithelia collected from FMD outbreaks in Kenyan cattle between 2008 and 2012, and 102 probang and serum samples collected from buffalo in three different Kenyan ecosystems; Maasai-Mara (MME) (n = 40), Tsavo (TSE) (n = 33), and Meru (ME) (n = 29). Antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins were found in 65 of 102 (64%) sera from buffalo with 44/102 and 53/102 also having neutralising antibodies directed against FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2, respectively. FMDV RNA was detected in 42% of the buffalo probang samples by RT-qPCR (Cycle Threshold (Ct) ≤32). Two buffalo probang samples were positive by VI and were identified as FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2 by Ag-ELISA, while the latter assay detected serotypes O (1), A (20), SAT 1 (7) and SAT 2 (19) in the 47 cattle epithelia. VP1 coding sequences were generated for two buffalo and 21 cattle samples. Phylogenetic analyses revealed SAT 1 and SAT 2 virus lineages within buffalo that were distinct from those detected in cattle. We found that FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 were circulating among cattle in Kenya and cause disease, but only SAT 1 and SAT 2 viruses were successfully isolated from clinically normal buffalo. The buffalo isolates were genetically distinct from isolates obtained from cattle. Control efforts should focus primarily on reducing FMDV circulation among livestock and limiting interaction with buffalo. Comprehensive studies incorporating additional buffalo viruses are recommended.

  17. Comparison of the usefulness of the CACO-2 cell line with standard substrates for isolation of swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Zanni, Irene; Garbarino, Chiara; Barigazzi, Giuseppe; Foni, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus isolation is undertaken routinely in embryonated chicken eggs, but to improve virus detection various cell lines can be used. The CACO-2 cell line was compared to the MDCK cell line and embryonated chicken eggs for the isolation of H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 swine influenza A virus subtypes from clinical specimens. From 2006 to 2008, 104 influenza A samples found positive by PCR from 42 respiratory outbreaks in Italian swine farms were examined by virus isolation. Sixty swine influenza A viruses were isolated (16 H1N1, 28 H1N2 and 16 H3N2) and their growth behaviour on the different substrates was examined. 16/16 H1N1, 28/28 H1N2 and 8/16 of H3N2 viruses were isolated from the CACO-2 cell line, while 7/16 H1N1, 3/28 H1N2 and 16/16 H3N2 viruses were isolated using embryonated chicken eggs. Only 9/16 H1N1, 1/28 H1N2 and 6/16 H3N2 viruses replicated in MDCK cells. A link was found between viral hemagglutinin and the isolation rate on the various substrates. The CACO-2 line was statistically more sensitive (Fisher's exact test, pH1N2 subtypes. In contrast influenza A H3N2 virus was isolated more readily in embryonated chicken eggs than in cultured cells (Fisher's exact test, p<0.01).

  18. Identification and Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates Breaking Resistance in Trifoliate Orange in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomi, Raymond K; Selvaraj, Vijayanandraj; Maheshwari, Yogita; Saponari, Maria; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Chiumenti, Michela; Hajeri, Subhas

    2017-07-01

    Most Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in California are biologically mild and symptomless in commercial cultivars on CTV tolerant rootstocks. However, to better define California CTV isolates showing divergent serological and genetic profiles, selected isolates were subjected to deep sequencing of small RNAs. Full-length sequences were assembled, annotated and trifoliate orange resistance-breaking (RB) isolates of CTV were identified. Phylogenetic relationships based on their full genomes placed three isolates in the RB clade: CA-RB-115, CA-RB-AT25, and CA-RB-AT35. The latter two isolates were obtained by aphid transmission from Murcott and Dekopon trees, respectively, containing CTV mixtures. The California RB isolates were further distinguished into two subclades. Group I included CA-RB-115 and CA-RB-AT25 with 99% nucleotide sequence identity with RB type strain NZRB-G90; and group II included CA-RB-AT35 with 99 and 96% sequence identity with Taiwan Pumelo/SP/T1 and HA18-9, respectively. The RB phenotype was confirmed by detecting CTV replication in graft-inoculated Poncirus trifoliata and transmission from P. trifoliata to sweet orange. The California RB isolates induced mild symptoms compared with severe isolates in greenhouse indexing tests. Further examination of 570 CTV accessions, acquired from approximately 1960 and maintained in planta at the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency, revealed 16 RB positive isolates based on partial p65 sequences. Six isolates collected from 1992 to 2011 from Tulare and Kern counties were CA-RB-115-like; and 10 isolates collected from 1968 to 2010 from Riverside, Fresno, and Kern counties were CA-RB-AT35-like. The presence of the RB genotype is relevant because P. trifoliata and its hybrids are the most popular rootstocks in California.

  19. Mathematical modeling of zika virus disease with nonlinear incidence and optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Naba Kumar; Srivastav, Akhil Kumar; Ghosh, Mini; Shanmukha, B.

    2018-04-01

    The Zika virus was first discovered in a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947, and it was isolated from humans in Nigeria in 1952. Zika virus disease is primarily a mosquito-borne disease, which is transmitted to human primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. However, there is documented evidence of sexual transmission of this disease too. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model for Zika virus by considering nonlinear incidence is formulated and analyzed. The equilibria and the basic reproduction number (R0) of the model are found. The stability of the different equilibria of the model is discussed in detail. When the basic reproduction number R0 1, we have endemic equilibrium which is locally stable under some restriction on parameters. Further this model is extended to optimal control model and is analyzed by using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. It has been observed that optimal control plays a significant role in reducing the number of zika infectives. Finally, numerical simulation is performed to illustrate the analytical findings.

  20. [Sequencing and analysis of the complete genome of a rabies virus isolate from Sika deer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Jiao; Guo, Li; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Shi; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2008-05-01

    One DRV strain was isolated from Sika Deer brain and sequenced. Nine overlapped gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR through 3'-RACE and 5'-RACE method, and the complete DRV genome sequence was assembled. The length of the complete genome is 11863bp. The DRV genome organization was similar to other rabies viruses which were composed of five genes and the initiation sites and termination sites were highly conservative. There were mutated amino acids in important antigen sites of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein. The nucleotide and amino acid homologies of gene N, P, M, G, L in strains with completed genomie sequencing were compared. Compared with N gene sequence of other typical rabies viruses, a phylogenetic tree was established . These results indicated that DRV belonged to gene type 1. The highest homology compared with Chinese vaccine strain 3aG was 94%, and the lowest was 71% compared with WCBV. These findings provided theoretical reference for further research in rabies virus.