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  1. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  2. Immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus Induced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the generic name for treatment modalities aiming to reinforce the immune system against diseases in which the immune system plays a role. The design of an optimal immunotherapeutic treatment against chronic viruses and associated diseases requires a detailed understanding of the interactions between the target virus and its host, in order to define the specific strategies that may have the best chance to deliver success at each stage of disease. Recently, a first series of successes was reported for the immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-induced premalignant diseases but there is definitely room for improvement. Here I discuss a number of topics that in my opinion require more study as the answers to these questions allows us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and as such to tailor treatment. PMID:23341861

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced RNA polymerase is associated with Golgi apparatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J; Wool, S H

    1985-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the Golgi apparatus isolated by differential centrifugation from radiolabeled cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus showed about 10 protein bands. The virus-induced RNA polymerase was identified by immunoprecipitation and electron microscope staining procedures. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the polymerase passed through the Golgi apparatus in less than 1 h.

  4. Bioinformatics analysis of the factors controlling type I IFN gene expression in autoimmune disease and virus-induced immunity

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    Di eFeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS display increased levels of type I IFN-induced genes. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs are natural interferon producing cells and considered to be a primary source of IFN-α in these two diseases. Differential expression patterns of type I IFN inducible transcripts can be found in different immune cell subsets and in patients with both active and inactive autoimmune disease. A type I IFN gene signature generally consists of three groups of IFN-induced genes - those regulated in response to virus-induced type I IFN, those regulated by the IFN-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK pathway, and those by the IFN-induced phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K pathway. These three groups of type I IFN-regulated genes control important cellular processes such as apoptosis, survival, adhesion, and chemotaxis, that when dysregulated, contribute to autoimmunity. With the recent generation of large datasets in the public domain from next-generation sequencing and DNA microarray experiments, one can perform detailed analyses of cell type-specific gene signatures as well as identify distinct transcription factors that differentially regulate these gene signatures. We have performed bioinformatics analysis of data in the public domain and experimental data from our lab to gain insight into the regulation of type I IFN gene expression. We have found that the genetic landscape of the IFNA and IFNB genes are occupied by transcription factors, such as insulators CTCF and cohesin, that negatively regulate transcription, as well as IRF5 and IRF7, that positively and distinctly regulate IFNA subtypes. A detailed understanding of the factors controlling type I IFN gene transcription will significantly aid in the identification and development of new therapeutic strategies targeting the IFN pathway in autoimmune disease.

  5. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  6. IL-1 signal affects both protection and pathogenesis of virus-induced chronic CNS demyelinating disease

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    Kim Byung S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theiler’s virus infection induces chronic demyelinating disease in mice and has been investigated as an infectious model for multiple sclerosis (MS. IL-1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both the autoimmune disease model (EAE and this viral model for MS. However, IL-1 is known to play an important protective role against certain viral infections. Therefore, it is unclear whether IL-1-mediated signaling plays a protective or pathogenic role in the development of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. Methods Female C57BL/6 mice and B6.129S7-Il1r1tm1Imx/J mice (IL-1R KO were infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (1 x 106 PFU. Differences in the development of demyelinating disease and changes in the histopathology were compared. Viral persistence, cytokine production, and immune responses in the CNS of infected mice were analyzed using quantitative PCR, ELISA, and flow cytometry. Results Administration of IL-1β, thereby rending resistant B6 mice susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelinating disease, induced a high level of Th17 response. Interestingly, infection of TMEV into IL-1R-deficient resistant C57BL/6 (B6 mice also induced TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. High viral persistence was found in the late stage of viral infection in IL-1R-deficient mice, although there were few differences in the initial anti-viral immune responses and viral persistent levels between the WT B6 and IL-1R-deficiecent mice. The initial type I IFN responses and the expression of PDL-1 and Tim-3 were higher in the CNS of TMEV-infected IL-1R-deficient mice, leading to deficiencies in T cell function that permit viral persistence. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of high IL-1 level exerts the pathogenic role by elevating pathogenic Th17 responses, whereas the lack of IL-1 signals promotes viral persistence in the spinal cord due to insufficient T cell activation by elevating the production of

  7. Epstein-Barr virus induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

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    Senthilkumar Sankararaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a rare, often fatal genetic disorder characterized by extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. EBV-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a known presentation in XLP. In EBV-induced HLH in XLP, the brain imaging findings in the acute phase include a non specific pattern. In this report, we highlight the magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in a child with EBV induced HLH in XLP.

  8. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Tarif Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  9. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  10. Plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/ metronidazole ratio in hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease

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    M.A.M. Marchioretto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the measurement of metronidazole clearance is a sensitive method for evaluating liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratios as indicators of dynamic liver function to detect changes resulting from the various forms of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. A total of 139 individuals were studied: 14 healthy volunteers, 22 healthy, asymptomatic, consecutive anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA negative subjects, 81 patients with chronic hepatitis C (49 with moderate/severe chronic hepatitis and 34 with mild hepatitis, and 20 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. HCV status was determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy-metabolite were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in a blood sample collected 10 min after the end of a metronidazole infusion. Anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA-negative individuals demonstrated a significantly reduced capacity to metabolize intravenously infused metronidazole compared to healthy individuals (0.0478 ± 0.0044 vs 0.0742 ± 0.0232. Liver cirrhosis patients also had a reduced plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratio when compared to the other groups of anti-HCV-positive individuals (0.0300 ± 0.0032 vs 0.0438 ± 0.0027 (moderate/severe chronic hepatitis vs 0.0455 ± 0.0026 (mild chronic hepatitis and vs 0.0478 ± 0.0044 (anti-HCV-positive, HCV-RNA-negative individuals. These results suggest an impairment of the metronidazole metabolizing system induced by HCV infection that lasts after viral clearance. In those patients with chronic hepatitis C, this impairment is paralleled by progression of the disease to liver cirrhosis.

  11. Derivation of chicken induced pluripotent stem cells tolerant to Newcastle disease virus-induced lysis through multiple rounds of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV...

  12. Safety evaluation of a recombinant myxoma-RHDV virus inducing horizontal transmissible protection against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

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    Torres, J M; Ramírez, M A; Morales, M; Bárcena, J; Vázquez, B; Espuña, E; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2000-09-15

    We have recently developed a transmissible vaccine to immunize rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease based on a recombinant myxoma virus (MV) expressing the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) capsid protein [Bárcena et al. Horizontal transmissible protection against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorragic disease using a recombinant myxoma virus. J. Virol. 2000;74:1114-23]. Administration of the recombinant virus protects rabbits against lethal RHDV and MV challenges. Furthermore, the recombinant virus is capable of horizontal spreading promoting protection of contact animals, thus providing the opportunity to immunize wild rabbit populations. However, potential risks must be extensively evaluated before considering its field use. In this study several safety issues concerning the proposed vaccine have been evaluated under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that vaccine administration is safe even at a 100-fold overdose. No undesirable effects were detected upon administration to immunosuppressed or pregnant rabbits. The recombinant virus maintained its attenuated phenotype after 10 passages in vivo.

  13. Human NF-κB1 Haploinsufficiency and Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Disease-Molecular Mechanisms and Consequences.

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    Hoeger, Birgit; Serwas, Nina Kathrin; Boztug, Kaan

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells 1 (NF-κB1)-related human primary immune deficiencies have initially been characterized as defining a subgroup of common variable immunodeficiencies (CVIDs), representing intrinsic B-cell disorders with antibody deficiency and recurrent infections of various kind. Recent evidence indicates that NF-κB1 haploinsufficiency underlies a variable type of combined immunodeficiency (CID) affecting both B and T lymphocyte compartments, with a broadened spectrum of disease manifestations, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced lymphoproliferative disease and immediate life-threatening consequences. As part of this review series focused on EBV-related primary immunodeficiencies, we discuss the current clinical and molecular understanding of monoallelic NFKB1 germline mutations with special focus on the emerging context of EBV-associated disease. We outline mechanistic implications of dysfunctional NF-κB1 in B and T cells and discuss the fatal relation of impaired T-cell function with the inability to clear EBV infections. Finally, we compare common and suggested treatment angles in the context of this complex disease.

  14. Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies. A spectrum of herpes virus-induced diseases determined by the immune state of the host.

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    Guex-Crosier, Y; Rochat, C; Herbort, C P

    1997-12-01

    Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies (NHR), a new spectrum of diseases induced by viruses of the herpes family (herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus), includes acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurring in apparently immunocompetent patients and progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) described in severely immuno-compromised patients. Signs of impaired cellular immunity were seen in 16% of ARN patients in a review of 216 reported cases, indicating that immune dysfunction is not only at the origin of PORN but might also be at the origin of ARN. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical findings in NHR patients with their immunologic parameters. Charts from patients with the diagnosis of ARN or PORN seen from 1990 to 1995 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and disease patterns were correlated with immunological parameters taking into account CD4 lymphocyte rate in AIDS patients and blood-lymphocyte subpopulation determination by flow cytometry, cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity testing and lymphocytic proliferation rate to seven antigens in HIV-negative patients. During the period considered, 11 patients and 7 patients fulfilled the criteria of ARN and PORN respectively. Immune dysfunctions were identified in most patients. Mild type of ARN and classical ARN were associated with discrete immune dysfunctions, ARN with features of PORN was seen in more immunodepressed patients and classical PORN was always seen in severely immunodepressed HIV patients. Our findings suggest that NHR is a continuous spectrum of diseases induced by herpes viruses, whose clinical expression depends on the immune state of the host going from mild or classical ARN at one end in patients with non-detectable or slight immune dysfunction to PORN in severely immunodepressed patients at the other end and with intermediary forms between these extremes.

  15. Virus-induced dysfunction of CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated neuroimmunological disease.

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    Yamano, Yoshihisa; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Li, Hong-Chuan; Tomaru, Utano; Yao, Karen; Grant, Christian W; Maric, Dragan A; Jacobson, Steven

    2005-05-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs are important in the maintenance of immunological self tolerance and in the prevention of autoimmune diseases. As the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated (HTLV-I-associated) myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) has been shown to be a major reservoir for this virus, it was of interest to determine whether the frequency and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs in HAM/TSP patients might be affected. In these cells, both mRNA and protein expression of the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3, a specific marker of Tregs, were lower than those in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from healthy individuals. The virus-encoded transactivating HTLV-I tax gene was demonstrated to have a direct inhibitory effect on Foxp3 expression and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. This is the first report to our knowledge demonstrating the role of a specific viral gene product (HTLV-I Tax) on the expression of genes associated with Tregs (in particular, foxp3) resulting in inhibition of Treg function. These results suggest that direct human retroviral infection of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells may be associated with the pathogenesis of HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease.

  16. Immunotherapy of murine leukemia. Efficacy of passive serum therapy of Friend leukemia virus-induced disease in immunocompromised mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovesi, E.V.; Livnat, D.; Collins, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the passive therapy of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced disease with chimpanzee anti-F-MuLV serum is accompanied by the development of host antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, the latter measurable in adoptive transfer protocols and by the ability of serum-protected mice to resist virus rechallenge. The present study was designed to further examine the contribution of various compartments of the host immune system to serum therapy itself, as well as to the acquired antiviral immunity that develops in serum-protected mice, through the use of naturally immunocompromised animals [e.g., nude athymic mice and natural killer (NK)-deficient beige mutant mice] or mice treated with immunoabrogating agents such as sublethal irradiation, cyclophosphamide [Cytoxan (Cy)], cortisone, and 89 Sr. The studies in nude mice indicate that while mature T-cells are not needed for effective serum therapy, they do appear to be necessary for the long-term resistance of serum-protected mice to virus rechallenge and for the generation of the cell population(s) responsible for adoptive transfer of antiviral immunity. Furthermore, this acquired resistance is not due to virus neutralization by serum antibodies since antibody-negative, Cy-treated, serum-protected mice still reject the secondary virus infection. Lastly, while the immunocompromise systems examined did effect various host antiviral immune responses, none of them, including the NK-deficient beige mutation, significantly diminished the efficacy of the passive serum therapy of F-MuLV-induced disease

  17. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Canine distemper virus-induced disease in vaccinated dogs.

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    Jensen, Wayne A; Totten, Janet S; Lappin, Michael R; Schultz, Ronald D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether detection of Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific serum antibodies correlates with resistance to challenge with virulent virus. Virus neutralization (VN) assay results were compared with resistance to viral challenge in 2 unvaccinated Beagle puppies, 9 unvaccinated Beagle dogs (4.4-7.2 years of age), and 9 vaccinated Beagle dogs (3.7-4.7 years of age). Eight of 9 (89%) unvaccinated adult dogs exhibited clinical signs after virus challenge, and 1 (13%) dog died. As compared to adult dogs, the 2 unvaccinated puppies developed more severe clinical signs and either died or were euthanized after challenge. In contrast, no clinical signs were detected after challenge of the 9 adult vaccinated dogs with post-vaccination intervals of up to 4.4 years. In vaccinated dogs, the positive and negative predictive values of VN assay results for resistance to challenge were 100% and 0%, respectively. Results indicate that dogs vaccinated with modified live CDV can be protected from challenge for ≤4.4 years postvaccination and that detection of virus-specific antibodies is predictive of whether dogs are resistant to challenge with virulent virus. Results also indicate that CDV infection in unvaccinated dogs results in age-dependent morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of age-dependent morbidity and mortality, duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the positive and negative predictive values of detection of virus-specific serum antibodies are useful in development of rational booster vaccination intervals for the prevention of CDV-mediated disease in adult dogs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Transient hypothyroidism after 131I treatment of Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Fang Yi; Zhang Xiuli; Ye Genyao; Xing Jialiu; Zhang Youren

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of the transient hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment of Graves disease. Methods: A total of 32 transient hypothyroidism patients treated with 131 I for Graves disease were studied and followed up. Results: Transient hypothyroidism occurred within 2-6 months after 131 I treatment and 19 patients were symptomatic. At diagnosis of transient hypothyroidism, T 3 and T 4 levels were decreased had normal, TSH levels were increased, normal or low. Follow-up examination found that 20 patients were normal and 12 patients had relapse of hyperthyroidism. Conclusions: Therapy of Graves disease with low doses of 131 I causes a high incidence of transient hypothyroidism. After recovery of transient hypothyroidism, some patients have relapse of hyperthyroidism

  19. Severe necrotic dermatitis in the combs of line 6-3 chickens is associated with Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disorder of domestic chickens is characterized by bursal–thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T-cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves. Marek’s disease virus (MDV), the etiological agent of MD, is a highly cel...

  20. TLR3 signaling is either protective or pathogenic for the development of Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease depending on the time of viral infection

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    Jin Young-Hee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3-mediated signaling plays an important role in the induction of innate cytokine responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV infection. In addition, cytokine levels produced after TMEV infection are significantly higher in the glial cells of susceptible SJL mice compared to those of resistant C57BL/6 mice. However, it is not known whether TLR3-mediated signaling plays a protective or pathogenic role in the development of demyelinating disease. Methods SJL/J and B6;129S-Tlr3tm1Flv/J (TLR3KO-B6 mice, and TLR3KO-SJL mice that TLR3KO-B6 mice were backcrossed to SJL/J mice for 6 generations were infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (2 × 105 PFU with or without treatment with 50 μg of poly IC. Cytokine production and immune responses in the CNS and periphery of infected mice were analyzed. Results We investigated the role of TLR3-mediated signaling in the protection and pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. TLR3KO-B6 mice did not develop demyelinating disease although they displayed elevated viral loads in the CNS. However, TLR3KO-SJL mice displayed increased viral loads and cellular infiltration in the CNS, accompanied by exacerbated development of demyelinating disease, compared to the normal littermate mice. Late, but not early, anti-viral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in the CNS were compromised in TLR3KO-SJL mice. However, activation of TLR3 with poly IC prior to viral infection also exacerbated disease development, whereas such activation after viral infection restrained disease development. Activation of TLR3 signaling prior to viral infection hindered the induction of protective IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. In contrast, activation of these signals after viral infection improved the induction of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, poly IC-pretreated mice displayed elevated PDL-1 and

  1. A canine distemper model of virus-induced anergy.

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    Mangi, R J; Munyer, T P; Krakowka, S; Jacoby, R O; Kantor, F S

    1976-05-01

    For development of an animal model of virus-induced anergy, the effect of canine distemper virus (CDV) upon cell-mediated immunity in dogs was investigated. First, canine cutaneous reactions and in vitro lymphocyte responses to soluble protein antigens were characterized. Dogs immunized with picryl guinea pig albumin and with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (both in complete Freund's adjuvant) responded reproducibly to intracutaneous challenge with these antigens. Reactivity peaked in 20-40 days (maximal induration, 6-50 mm). Lymphocytes from these animals responded in vitro to stimulation with keyhole limpet hemocyanin or purified protein derivative. This stimulation was antigen-specific and was maximal on day 6 of culture. Infection with CDV depressed cutaneous reactivity and lymphocyte response in vitro to antigens and mitogens. This effect was transient in animals previously vaccinated with attenuated CDV; however, gnotobiotic puppies (susceptible to CDV) had prolonged depression of cell-mediated immunity and lymphopenia. Some of these animals developed neurologic symptoms and died. The findings indicate that CDV infection is a potentially useful model for study of virus-induced depression of T (thymus)-cell responses and support the hypothesis that there is more than one mechanism responsible for this phenomenon.

  2. Health policy model: long-term predictive results associated with the management of hepatitis C virus-induced diseases in Italy.

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    Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Marcellusi, Andrea; Andreoni, Massimo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Salomone, Salvatore; Craxì, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    At present, there are no specific nationwide epidemiological studies representing the whole Italian population. This study is aimed at describing the epidemiological and economic burden that HCV will generate in the next few years in Italy. Furthermore, the impact that future anti-HCV treatments may have on the burden of disease was considered. This analysis was developed for the period 2012-2030 from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (NHS). A published system dynamic model was adapted for Italy in order to quantify the HCV-infected population in terms of disease progression and the associated costs from 1950 to 2030. The model structure was based on transition probabilities reflecting the natural history of the disease. In order to estimate the efficacy of current anti-HCV treatment strategies for genotypes 1 and 4, the sustained virological response (SVR) rate in registration clinical trials for both boceprevir and telaprevir was estimated. It was assumed that the efficacy for patients treated with peginterferon + ribavirin was equal to the placebo arm of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) relating to boceprevir and telaprevir. For genotypes 2/3 patients it was assumed that treatment efficacy with dual therapy was equal to a SVR rate from the literature. According to the aim of this study, only direct health care costs (hospital admissions, drugs, treatment, and care of patients) incurred by the Italian NHS have been included in the model. Costs have been extrapolated using the published scientific literature available in Italy and actualized with the 2012 ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica) Price Index system for monetary revaluation. Three different scenarios were assumed in order to evaluate the impact of future anti-HCV treatments on the burden of disease. Overall, in Italy, 1.2 million infected subjects were estimated in 2012. Of these, about 211,000 patients were diagnosed, while only about 11,800 subjects were actually being

  3. Interleukin-18, Interferon-γ, IP-10, and Mig Expression in Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Infectious Mononucleosis and Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuda, Joyce; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Harris, Nancy L.; Ferry, Judith A.; Sorbara, Lynn; Gupta, Ghanshyam; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Tosato, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    T cell immunodeficiency plays an important role in the pathogenesis of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) by permitting the unbridled expansion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B lymphocytes. However, factors other than T cell function may contribute to PTLD pathogenesis because PTLD infrequently develops even in the context of severe T cell immunodeficiency, and athymic mice that are T-cell-immunodeficient can reject EBV-immortalized cells. Here we report that PTLD tissues express significantly lower levels of IL-18, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Mig, and RANTES compared to lymphoid tissues diagnosed with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis, as assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. Other cytokines and chemokines are expressed at similar levels. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that PTLD tissues contain less IL-18 and Mig protein than tissues with infectious mononucleosis. IL-18, primarily a monocyte product, promotes the secretion of IFN-γ, which stimulates Mig and RANTES expression. Both IL-18 and Mig display antitumor activity in mice involving inhibition of angiogenesis. These results document greater expression of IL-18, IFN-γ, Mig, and RANTES in lymphoid tissues with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis compared to tissues with PTLD and raise the possibility that these mediators participate in critical host responses to EBV infection. PMID:10393857

  4. Health policy model: long-term predictive results associated with the management of hepatitis C virus-induced diseases in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennini FS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Saverio Mennini,1,2 Andrea Marcellusi,1,3 Massimo Andreoni,4 Antonio Gasbarrini,5 Salvatore Salomone,6 Antonio Craxì71Centre for Economic and International Studies (CEIS – Economic Evaluation and HTA (EEHTA Faculty of Economics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 2Institute of Leadership and Management in Health, Kingston University, London, UK; 3Department of Demography, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 5Gastroenterology Division, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome, School of Medicine, Rome, Italy; 6Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 7Gastroenterology Division, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: At present, there are no specific nationwide epidemiological studies representing the whole Italian population. This study is aimed at describing the epidemiological and economic burden that HCV will generate in the next few years in Italy. Furthermore, the impact that future anti-HCV treatments may have on the burden of disease was considered. This analysis was developed for the period 2012–2030 from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (NHS. Methods: A published system dynamic model was adapted for Italy in order to quantify the HCV-infected population in terms of disease progression and the associated costs from 1950 to 2030. The model structure was based on transition probabilities reflecting the natural history of the disease. In order to estimate the efficacy of current anti-HCV treatment strategies for genotypes 1 and 4, the sustained virological response (SVR rate in registration clinical trials for both boceprevir and telaprevir was estimated. It was assumed that the efficacy for patients treated with peginterferon + ribavirin was equal to the placebo arm of a

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus induces autophagosomes during cell entry via a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Stephen; Brooks, Elizabeth; Burman, Alison; Hawes, Philippa; Roberts, Rebecca; Netherton, Christopher; Monaghan, Paul; Whelband, Matthew; Cottam, Eleanor; Elazar, Zvulun; Jackson, Terry; Wileman, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular pathway that can contribute to innate antiviral immunity by delivering viruses to lysosomes for degradation or can be beneficial for viruses by providing specialized membranes for virus replication. Here, we show that the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces the formation of autophagosomes. Induction was dependent on Atg5, involved processing of LC3 to LC3II, and led to a redistribution of LC3 from the cytosol to punctate vesicles indicative of authentic autophagosomes. Furthermore, FMDV yields were reduced in cells lacking Atg5, suggesting that autophagy may facilitate FMDV infection. However, induction of autophagosomes by FMDV appeared to differ from starvation, as the generation of LC3 punctae was not inhibited by wortmannin, implying that FMDV-induced autophagosome formation does not require the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity of vps34. Unlike other picornaviruses, for which there is strong evidence that autophagosome formation is linked to expression of viral nonstructural proteins, FMDV induced autophagosomes very early during infection. Furthermore, autophagosomes could be triggered by either UV-inactivated virus or empty FMDV capsids, suggesting that autophagosome formation was activated during cell entry. Unlike other picornaviruses, FMDV-induced autophagosomes did not colocalize with the viral 3A or 3D protein. In contrast, ∼50% of the autophagosomes induced by FMDV colocalized with VP1. LC3 and VP1 also colocalized with the cellular adaptor protein p62, which normally targets ubiquitinated proteins to autophagosomes. These results suggest that FMDV induces autophagosomes during cell entry to facilitate infection, but not to provide membranes for replication.

  6. Virus-induced Gene Silencing-based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g. salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4 or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7 or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7 and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato.

  7. The role of transient receptor potential channels in joint diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupkova, O; Zvick, J; Wuertz-Kozak, K

    2017-10-10

    Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are cation selective transmembrane receptors with diverse structures, activation mechanisms and physiological functions. TRP channels act as cellular sensors for a plethora of stimuli, including temperature, membrane voltage, oxidative stress, mechanical stimuli, pH and endogenous, as well as, exogenous ligands, thereby illustrating their versatility. As such, TRP channels regulate various functions in both excitable and non-excitable cells, mainly by mediating Ca2+ homeostasis. Dysregulation of TRP channels is implicated in many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, muscular dystrophies and hyperalgesia. However, the importance of TRP channel expression, physiological function and regulation in chondrocytes and intervertebral disc (IVD) cells is largely unexplored. Osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative disc disease (DDD) are chronic age-related disorders that significantly affect the quality of life by causing pain, activity limitation and disability. Furthermore, currently available therapies cannot effectively slow-down or stop progression of these diseases. Both OA and DDD are characterised by reduced tissue cellularity, enhanced inflammatory responses and molecular, structural and mechanical alterations of the extracellular matrix, hence affecting load distribution and reducing joint flexibility. However, knowledge on how chondrocytes and IVD cells sense their microenvironment and respond to its changes is still limited. In this review, we introduced six families of mammalian TRP channels, their mechanisms of activation, as well as, activation-driven cellular consequences. We summarised the current knowledge on TRP channel expression and activity in chondrocytes and IVD cells, as well as, the significance of TRP channels as therapeutic targets for the treatment of OA and DDD.

  8. An Ultrasensitive Mechanism Regulates Influenza Virus-Induced Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Shoemaker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses present major challenges to public health, evident by the 2009 influenza pandemic. Highly pathogenic influenza virus infections generally coincide with early, high levels of inflammatory cytokines that some studies have suggested may be regulated in a strain-dependent manner. However, a comprehensive characterization of the complex dynamics of the inflammatory response induced by virulent influenza strains is lacking. Here, we applied gene co-expression and nonlinear regression analysis to time-course, microarray data developed from influenza-infected mouse lung to create mathematical models of the host inflammatory response. We found that the dynamics of inflammation-associated gene expression are regulated by an ultrasensitive-like mechanism in which low levels of virus induce minimal gene expression but expression is strongly induced once a threshold virus titer is exceeded. Cytokine assays confirmed that the production of several key inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, exhibit ultrasensitive behavior. A systematic exploration of the pathways regulating the inflammatory-associated gene response suggests that the molecular origins of this ultrasensitive response mechanism lie within the branch of the Toll-like receptor pathway that regulates STAT1 phosphorylation. This study provides the first evidence of an ultrasensitive mechanism regulating influenza virus-induced inflammation in whole lungs and provides insight into how different virus strains can induce distinct temporal inflammation response profiles. The approach developed here should facilitate the construction of gene regulatory models of other infectious diseases.

  9. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eKurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respiratory viruses.COPD and asthma have different underlying pathophysiological processes and thus require individual therapies. Exacerbation of both COPD and asthma, which are basically defined and diagnosed by clinical symptoms, is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and increased mortality. Similar pathogens, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus, are also frequently detected during exacerbation of asthma and/or COPD. Immune response to respiratory viral infections, which may be related to the severity of exacerbation in each disease, varies in patients with both COPD and asthma. In this regard, it is crucial to recognize and understand both the similarities and differences of clinical features in patients with COPD and/or asthma associated with respiratory viral infections, especially in the exacerbative stage.In relation to definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, this review aims to summarize current knowledge concerning exacerbation of both COPD and asthma by focusing on the clinical significance of associated respiratory virus infections.

  10. The role of transient receptor potential channels in joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Krupkova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ransient receptor potential channels (TRP channels are cation selective transmembrane receptors with diverse structures, activation mechanisms and physiological functions. TRP channels act as cellular sensors for a plethora of stimuli, including temperature, membrane voltage, oxidative stress, mechanical stimuli, pH and endogenous, as well as, exogenous ligands, thereby illustrating their versatility. As such, TRP channels regulate various functions in both excitable and non-excitable cells, mainly by mediating Ca2+ homeostasis. Dysregulation of TRP channels is implicated in many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, muscular dystrophies and hyperalgesia. However, the importance of TRP channel expression, physiological function and regulation in chondrocytes and intervertebral disc (IVD cells is largely unexplored. Osteoarthritis (OA and degenerative disc disease (DDD are chronic age-related disorders that significantly affect the quality of life by causing pain, activity limitation and disability. Furthermore, currently available therapies cannot effectively slow-down or stop progression of these diseases. Both OA and DDD are characterised by reduced tissue cellularity, enhanced inflammatory responses and molecular, structural and mechanical alterations of the extracellular matrix, hence affecting load distribution and reducing joint flexibility. However, knowledge on how chondrocytes and IVD cells sense their microenvironment and respond to its changes is still limited. In this review, we introduced six families of mammalian TRP channels, their mechanisms of activation, as well as, activation-driven cellular consequences. We summarised the current knowledge on TRP channel expression and activity in chondrocytes and IVD cells, as well as, the significance of TRP channels as therapeutic targets for the treatment of OA and DDD.

  11. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm

  12. Transient Hypothyroidism after Radioiodine for Graves' Disease: Challenges in Interpreting Thyroid Function Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael T; Doi, Suhail A R

    2016-03-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is often managed with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. With current dosing schemes, the vast majority of patients develop permanent post-RAI hypothyroidism and are placed on life-long levothyroxine therapy. This hypothyroidism typically occurs within the first 3 to 6 months after RAI therapy is administered. Indeed, patients are typically told to expect life-long thyroid hormone replacement therapy to be required within this timeframe and many providers expect this post-RAI hypothyroidism to be complete and permanent. There is, however, a small subset of patients in whom a transient post-RAI hypothyroidism develops which, initially, presents exactly as the typical permanent hypothyroidism. In some cases the transient hypothyroidism leads to a period of euthyroidism of variable duration eventually progressing to permanent hypothyroidism. In others, persistent hyperthyroidism requires a second dose of RAI. Failure to appreciate and recognize the possibility of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism can delay optimal and appropriate treatment of the patient. We herein describe five cases of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism which highlight this unusual sequence of events. Increased awareness of this possible outcome after RAI for Graves' disease will help in the timely management of patients. © 2016 Marshfield Clinic.

  13. Transient Hypothyroidism after Radioiodine for Graves’ Disease: Challenges in Interpreting Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael T.; Doi, Suhail A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is often managed with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. With current dosing schemes, the vast majority of patients develop permanent post-RAI hypothyroidism and are placed on life-long levothyroxine therapy. This hypothyroidism typically occurs within the first 3 to 6 months after RAI therapy is administered. Indeed, patients are typically told to expect life-long thyroid hormone replacement therapy to be required within this timeframe and many providers expect this post-RAI hypothyroidism to be complete and permanent. There is, however, a small subset of patients in whom a transient post-RAI hypothyroidism develops which, initially, presents exactly as the typical permanent hypothyroidism. In some cases the transient hypothyroidism leads to a period of euthyroidism of variable duration eventually progressing to permanent hypothyroidism. In others, persistent hyperthyroidism requires a second dose of RAI. Failure to appreciate and recognize the possibility of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism can delay optimal and appropriate treatment of the patient. We herein describe five cases of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism which highlight this unusual sequence of events. Increased awareness of this possible outcome after RAI for Graves’ disease will help in the timely management of patients. PMID:26864507

  14. The early development of transient and permanent hypothyroidism following radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, N.R.; Hart, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The outcome in 110 patients first treated with radioiodine (mean dose 6.56 mCi) for hyperthyroid Graves' disease in 1980 was reviewed. In 23 percent of the patients the disease had not been controlled by the initial dose after 3 months, and 17 percent were given one or two more doses. Within 2 years 65 percent of the patients required replacement thyroxine therapy. Although about half of the patients were biochemically hypothyroid 3 months after the last dose of iodine 131, this condition was transient in a third of them; five of these patients even became hyperthyroid again. Patients with transient, as opposed to permanent, hypothyroidism at 3 months tended to be clinically euthyroid but to have residual palpable thyroid tissue and only a modest reduction in the serum thyroxine level. It is therefore recommended that patients not overtly hypothyroid 3 months after treatment with 131 I be observed still longer before thyroxine replacement therapy is instituted

  15. Are transient and shear wave elastography useful tools in Gaucher disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Muriel; Zimran, Ari; Dinur, Tama; Shibolet, Oren; Levit, Stella; Steinberg, David M; Salomon, Ophira

    2018-02-01

    Up to now, there are no reliable biochemical markers or imaging that could reveal early tissue damage in Gaucher disease. Therefore, we addressed whether elastography technique can serve as a tool for evaluating patients with Gaucher disease. The study included 42 patients with Gaucher disease type I and 33 patients with liver cirrhosis as well as 22 healthy volunteers. Ultrasound and Doppler examination was performed on each participant prior to apply transient and 2D shear wave elastography. In Gaucher disease the median stiffness of the spleen as assessed by transient elastography (TE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) was 35KPa and 22KPa respectively in contrast to the median stiffness of healthy controls (16.95 and 17.5KPa, p=0.0028 and p=0.0002, respectively) and of patients with cirrhosis (45KPa and 34.5KPa, p=0.015 and pGaucher disease from healthy controls and among those with splenomegaly from cirrhotic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging and transient elastography in the management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Saouaf, Rola; Ayoub, Walid; Todo, Tsuyoshi; Mena, Edward; Noureddin, Mazen

    2017-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis worldwide and the second most common cause of liver transplantation in major medical centers. Because liver steatosis and fibrosis severity are related to disease morbidity and mortality, the extent of disease, and disease progression, they need to be assessed and monitored. In addition, innovation with new drug developments requires disease staging and monitoring in both phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Currently, disease assessment in both clinical practice and research is mostly performed by liver biopsy, an invasive, procedure with risks. Noninvasive, highly accurate tests are needed that could be used in clinical trials as surrogate endpoints and in clinical practice for monitoring patients. Area Covered: We discuss noninvasive tests, transient elastography (TE) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MR elastography (MRE), summarize the available evidence of their usefulness for assessing steatosis and fibrosis. Therefore they could be used as clinical trials outcomes and in disease monitoring in clinical practice. Expert Commentary: TE with CAP, MRI and MRE are highly accurate noninvasive diagnostic tools for quantifying hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Therefore they could be used as clinical trials outcomes and in disease monitoring in clinical practice.

  17. Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.

  18. The nairovirus nairobi sheep disease virus/ganjam virus induces the translocation of protein disulphide isomerase-like oxidoreductases from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface and the extracellular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasecka, Lidia; Baron, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of the genus Nairovirus causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%; the virus is found in East and Central Africa, and in India, where the virus is called Ganjam virus. NSDV is closely related to the human pathogen Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, which also causes a haemorrhagic disease. As with other nairoviruses, replication of NSDV takes place in the cytoplasm and the new virus particles bud into the Golgi apparatus; however, the effect of viral replication on cellular compartments has not been studied extensively. We have found that the overall structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi were unaffected by infection with NSDV. However, we observed that NSDV infection led to the loss of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), an oxidoreductase present in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and which assists during protein folding, from the ER. Further investigation showed that NSDV-infected cells have high levels of PDI at their surface, and PDI is also secreted into the culture medium of infected cells. Another chaperone from the PDI family, ERp57, was found to be similarly affected. Analysis of infected cells and expression of individual viral glycoproteins indicated that the NSDV PreGn glycoprotein is involved in redistribution of these soluble ER oxidoreductases. It has been suggested that extracellular PDI can activate integrins and tissue factor, which are involved respectively in pro-inflammatory responses and disseminated intravascular coagulation, both of which manifest in many viral haemorrhagic fevers. The discovery of enhanced PDI secretion from NSDV-infected cells may be an important finding for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic nairoviruses.

  19. The nairovirus nairobi sheep disease virus/ganjam virus induces the translocation of protein disulphide isomerase-like oxidoreductases from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface and the extracellular space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lasecka

    Full Text Available Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV of the genus Nairovirus causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%; the virus is found in East and Central Africa, and in India, where the virus is called Ganjam virus. NSDV is closely related to the human pathogen Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, which also causes a haemorrhagic disease. As with other nairoviruses, replication of NSDV takes place in the cytoplasm and the new virus particles bud into the Golgi apparatus; however, the effect of viral replication on cellular compartments has not been studied extensively. We have found that the overall structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi were unaffected by infection with NSDV. However, we observed that NSDV infection led to the loss of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI, an oxidoreductase present in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and which assists during protein folding, from the ER. Further investigation showed that NSDV-infected cells have high levels of PDI at their surface, and PDI is also secreted into the culture medium of infected cells. Another chaperone from the PDI family, ERp57, was found to be similarly affected. Analysis of infected cells and expression of individual viral glycoproteins indicated that the NSDV PreGn glycoprotein is involved in redistribution of these soluble ER oxidoreductases. It has been suggested that extracellular PDI can activate integrins and tissue factor, which are involved respectively in pro-inflammatory responses and disseminated intravascular coagulation, both of which manifest in many viral haemorrhagic fevers. The discovery of enhanced PDI secretion from NSDV-infected cells may be an important finding for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic nairoviruses.

  20. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Their Link with Cardio/Cerebro-Vascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiong; Liu, Hui-Xia; Shen, Kuo; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) constitute a series of nonselective cation channels with variable degrees of Ca 2+ selectivity. TRPCs consist of seven mammalian members, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7, which are further divided into four subtypes, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC4/5, and TRPC3/6/7. These channels take charge of various essential cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, and dysfunction. This review, organized into seven main sections, will provide an overview of current knowledge about the underlying pathogenesis of TRPCs in cardio/cerebrovascular diseases, including hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular ischemia reperfusion injury. Collectively, TRPCs could become a group of drug targets with important physiological functions for the therapy of human cardio/cerebro-vascular diseases.

  1. High fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophils are associated with an increased risk of future virus-induced exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, A; Laing, I A; Backer, V

    2017-01-01

    the follow-up period. Of these, 15 (68%) had a respiratory virus detected at exacerbation. Sputum eosinophils >1% at baseline increased the risk of having a subsequent virus-induced exacerbation (HR 7.6 95% CI: 1.6-35.2, P=.010) as did having FeNO >25 ppb (HR 3.4 95% CI: 1.1-10.4, P=.033). CONCLUSION...... AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Established type 2 inflammation during stable disease is a risk factor for virus-induced exacerbations in a real-life setting. Measures of type 2 inflammation, such as sputum eosinophils and FeNO, could be included in the risk assessment of patients with asthma in future studies....

  2. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or β-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjin; Chen Weizao; Yan Weiyao; Zhao Kai; Liu Mingqiu; Zhang Jun; Fei Liang; Xu Quanxing; Sheng Zutian; Lu Yonggan; Zheng Zhaoxin

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine

  3. A Mechanism of Virus-Induced Demyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri Das Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin forms an insulating sheath surrounding axons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is essential for rapid propagation of neuronal action potentials. Demyelination is an acquired disorder in which normally formed myelin degenerates, exposing axons to the extracellular environment. The result is dysfunction of normal neuron-to-neuron communication and in many cases, varying degrees of axonal degeneration. Numerous central nervous system demyelinating disorders exist, including multiple sclerosis. Although demyelination is the major manifestation of most of the demyelinating diseases, recent studies have clearly documented concomitant axonal loss to varying degrees resulting in long-term disability. Axonal injury may occur secondary to myelin damage (outside-in model or myelin damage may occur secondary to axonal injury (inside-out model. Viral induced demyelination models, has provided unique imminent into the cellular mechanisms of myelin destruction. They illustrate mechanisms of viral persistence, including latent infections, virus reactivation and viral-induced tissue damage. These studies have also provided excellent paradigms to study the interactions between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS. In this review we will discuss potential cellular and molecular mechanism of central nervous system axonal loss and demyelination in a viral induced mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

  4. Transient HEXA expression in a transformed human fetal Tay-Sachs disease neuroglial cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.J.; Hechtman, P.; Kaplan, F. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of GM{sub 2} ganglioside in the neurons of the central cortex. The recessively inherited disorder results from deficiency of hexosaminidase A (Hex A), a heterodimer of an {alpha} and {beta} subunit encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes. Expression of HEXA mutations in COS cells has several disadvantages including high endogenous hexosaminidase activity. We report a new transient expression system with very low endogenous Hex A activity. An SV40-transformed fetal TSD neuroglial cell line was assessed for transient expression of the HEXA gene. pCMV{alpha}, a vector incorporating the cytomegalovirus promoter with the human {alpha}-subunit cDNA insert, proved to be the most efficient expression vector. Transfection of 4x10{sup 6} cells with 5-20 {mu}g of plasmid resulted in 100 to 500-fold Hex A activity (4MUGS hydrolysis) relative to mock-transfected cells. Use of pCMV{beta}-Gal as a control for transfection efficiency indicated that 10-20% of cells were transfected. Hex A specific activity increased for at least 72 h post-transfection. This new transient expression system should greatly improve the characterization of mutations in which low levels of HEXA expression result in milder clinical phenotypes and permit studies on enzymatic properties of mutant forms of Hex A. Since the cells used are of CNS origin and synthesize gangliosides, it should also be possible to study, in culture, the metabolic phenotype associated with TSD.

  5. Vaccine Mediated Protection Against Zika Virus-Induced Congenital Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richner, Justin M; Jagger, Brett W; Shan, Chao; Fontes, Camila R; Dowd, Kimberly A; Cao, Bin; Himansu, Sunny; Caine, Elizabeth A; Nunes, Bruno T D; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Muruato, Antonio E; Foreman, Bryant M; Luo, Huanle; Wang, Tian; Barrett, Alan D; Weaver, Scott C; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Rossi, Shannan L; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Mysorekar, Indira U; Pierson, Theodore C; Shi, Pei-Yong; Diamond, Michael S

    2017-07-13

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with congenital malformations has prompted the rapid development of vaccines. Although efficacy with multiple viral vaccine platforms has been established in animals, no study has addressed protection during pregnancy. We tested in mice two vaccine platforms, a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding ZIKV prM and E genes and a live-attenuated ZIKV strain encoding an NS1 protein without glycosylation, for their ability to protect against transmission to the fetus. Vaccinated dams challenged with a heterologous ZIKV strain at embryo day 6 (E6) and evaluated at E13 showed markedly diminished levels of viral RNA in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues, which resulted in protection against placental damage and fetal demise. As modified mRNA and live-attenuated vaccine platforms can restrict in utero transmission of ZIKV in mice, their further development in humans to prevent congenital ZIKV syndrome is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transient Elastography Role in the Diagnosis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease includes hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis. In view of the prevalence of this disease, the deterioration of the quality of life of patients, mortality from complications, the development of methods for accurate and timely assessment of the severity of fatty liver and progression of fibrosis are becoming of greater interest. Purpose. The study of diagnostic potential of transient elastography in patients with idiopathic transaminase elevations. Methods. In 52 patients (20 men and 32 women with idiopathic increased transaminases without signs of hepatic steatosis according to sonographic study, controlled attenuation parameter (CAP and liver stiffness measurements (LSM were performed using FibroScan with M probe. Exclusion criteria from the study were the presence of chronic viral, autoimmune hepatitis and alcohol abuse. Results. Forty one patients (78.8 % had fatty liver disease according to CAP. The analysis of the data of transient elastography demonstrated that 63.4 % had fibrosis F0–F1, 29.3 % — F1–F2 and in 7.3 % — F3. In terms of the CAP there were significant differences between the group with severe fibrosis (F3 and groups with minimal fibrosis (F0–F1 ((203.0 ± 5.1 vs. (243.0 ± 10.1, p < 0.05. The analysis of biochemical parameters demonstrated significant differences in terms of gamma-glutamyltransferase in the groups with severe fibrosis (F3 and minimal fibrosis ((40.2 ± 5.7 vs. (26.4 ± 3.7, p < 0.05. Thus, the results obtained in the study indicate that a significant proportion of patients with idiopathic transaminase elevations inflammation factor is fatty liver disease, which is not detected at routine ultrasound examination. In the group with more expressed fibrosis reduction of fat in the liver and increased activity gamma glutamyltransferase were determined, that indicated the cholestasis deterioration in the liver in these patients

  7. Production of the main celiac disease autoantigen by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Soledad Marin Viegas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is a gluten sensitive enteropathy that remains widely undiagnosed and implementation of massive screening tests is needed to reduce the long term complications associated to untreated CD. The main CD autoantigen, human tissue transglutaminase (TG2, is a challenge for the different expression systems available since its cross-linking activity affects cellular processes. Plant-based transient expression systems can be an alternative for the production of this protein. In this work, a transient expression system for the production of human TG2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves was optimized and reactivity of plant-produced TG2 in CD screening test was evaluated. First, a subcellular targeting strategy was tested. Cytosolic, secretory, endoplasmic reticulum (C-terminal SEKDEL fusion and vacuolar (C-terminal KISIA fusion TG2 versions were transiently expressed in leaves and recombinant protein yields were measured. ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 levels were 9 to 16 fold higher than their cytosolic and secretory counterparts. As second strategy, TG2 variants were co-expressed with a hydrophobic elastin-like polymer (ELP construct encoding for 36 repeats of the pentapeptide VPGXG in which the guest residue X were V and F in ratio 8:1. Protein bodies (PB were induced by the ELP, with a consequent 2 fold-increase in accumulation of both ER-TG2 and vac-TG2. Subsequently, ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were produced and purified using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were recognized by three anti-TG2 monoclonal antibodies that bind different epitopes proving that plant-produced antigen has immunochemical characteristics similar to those of human TG2. Lastly, an ELISA was performed with sera of CD patients and healthy controls. Both vac-TG2 and ER-TG2 were positively recognized by IgA of CD patients while they were not recognized by serum from non-celiac controls. These results confirmed the usefulness of plant

  8. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

  9. Dolichoectasia and Small Vessel Disease in Young Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Fazekas, Franz; McCabe, Dominick J H; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt; Enzinger, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated whether basilar dolichoectasia is associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease in younger transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients. We used data from the SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients), a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young (ischemic attack/stroke patients in whom detailed clinical data and brain MRI were obtained, and stroke subtyping with TOAST classification (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) was performed. Dolichoectasia was found in 508 of 3850 (13.2%) of patients. Dolichoectasia was associated with older age (odds ratio per decade, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.44), male sex (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.42), and hypertension (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.70). Dolichoectasia was more common in patients with small infarctions (33.9% versus 29.8% for acute lesions, P =0.065; 29.1% versus 16.5% for old lesions, P ischemic attack and ischemic stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Transient elastography for diagnosis of stages of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Chavdar S; Casazza, Giovanni; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence and progression of hepatic (liver) fibrosis into cirrhosis is a prognostic variable having impact on survival in people with alcoholic liver disease. Liver biopsy, although an invasive method, is the recommended 'reference standard' for diagnosis and staging of hepatic...... fibrosis in people with liver diseases. Transient elastography is a non-invasive method for assessing and staging hepatic fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography for diagnosis and staging hepatic fibrosis in people with alcoholic liver disease when compared...... participants could be of any sex and ethnic origin, above 16 years old, hospitalised or managed as outpatients. We excluded participants with viral hepatitis, autoimmunity, metabolic diseases, and toxins. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the guidelines in the draft Cochrane Handbook for Systematic...

  11. Assessment of Liver Viscoelasticity for the Diagnosis of Early Stage Fatty Liver Disease Using Transient Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenieras, Jean-Pierre; Dejobert, Maelle; Bastard, Cécile; Miette, Véronique; Perarnau, Jean-Marc; Patat, Frédéric

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of fat within the Liver. The main objective of this work is (1) to evaluate the feasibility of measuring in vivo in the liver the shear wave phase velocity dispersion cs(ω) between 20 Hz and 90 Hz using vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE); (2) to estimate through the rheological Kelvin-Voigt model the shear elastic μ and shear viscosity η modulus; (3) to correlate the evolution of these viscoelastic parameters on two patients at Tours Hospital with the hepatic fat percentage measured with T1-weighted gradient-echo in-and out-phase MRI sequence. For the first volunteer who has 2% of fat in the liver, we obtained μ = 1233 ± 133 Pa and η = 0.5 ± 0.4 Pa.s. For the patient with 22% of fat, we measure μ = 964 ± 91 Pa and η = 1.77 ± 0.3 Pa.s. In conclusion, this novel method showed to be sensitive in characterizing the visco-elastic properties of fatty liver.

  12. Rapid appearance of transient secondary adrenocortical insufficiency after alpha-particle radiation therapy for Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.M.; Jordan, R.M.; Kendall, J.W.; Linfoot, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A 17-year-old woman received 12,000 rads of alpha-particle radiation for the treatment of Cushing's disease. One day after the completion of therapy, the patient developed nausea, vomiting, headache, and postural hypotension. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated a marked fall of the previously elevated urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS) and undetectable plasma cortisols. The urinary 17-OHCS transiently returned to supranormal levels but over a 2 1 / 2 -week period decreased and then remained low. The patient also demonstrated a subnormal urinary aldosterone excretion in relation to plasma renin activity (PRA) during 10 mEq/24 h sodium restriction. The remainder of the endocrine evaluation was normal, suggesting that pituitary function otherwise remained intact. One and one-half years after alpha-particle therapy, the patient's urinary 17-OHCS were normal and responded normally to metyrapone. The relationship between urinary aldosterone excretion and PRA also was normal. It is postulated that there was an infarction of an ACTH secreting pituitary tumor leaving the remainder of the pituitary intact. A chronically elevated circulating level of ACTH with sudden loss of ACTH secretion appeared to have been responsible for the initial low urinary aldosterone as well as the low urinary 17-OHCS. This is the first reported case of a presumed pituitary tumor infarction in association with alpha-particle pituitary radiation

  13. Awareness of disease state without explicit knowledge of memory failure in transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainselin, Mathieu; Quinette, Peggy; Desgranges, Béatrice; Martinaud, Olivier; de La Sayette, Vincent; Hannequin, Didier; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis

    2012-09-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a syndrome characterised by the rapid onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia, accompanied by temporal disorientation and iterative questioning. It is now established that the acute phase is associated with a raised level of anxiety and a depressed mood. We conducted a thorough investigation of patients' perceptions of their disease state, focusing on the links between their lack of explicit knowledge of amnesia during the acute phase and their emotional experience. Explicit knowledge of memory deficits was assessed during TGA by means of an original scale inspired by Bisiach et al. (1986) and self-reported scales measuring patients' perceptions of their current memory and their cognitive and behavioural functioning. At the same time, we probed the patients' emotional experience (sources of worry, and levels of worry, anxiety and depression) via questionnaires. Data were collected from 20 patients in the acute phase, 16 in the peri-acute phase, 16 who were assessed the day after the episode and 14 healthy controls. Each patient underwent a follow-up examination 2 months later. Patients in the acute phase displayed a lack of explicit knowledge of their amnesia and overestimated their memory performances. They also expressed higher levels of worry and anxiety than controls, and a more depressed mood. Although they were aware of their disease state, the TGA patients were unable to identify the nature of their memory deficits and overestimated their memory performances. These memory misperceptions and the inability to acknowledge memory failure occurred concomitantly with changes in the patients' emotional state. This particular pattern of awareness could be regarded as a reaction to the suddenness and massiveness of the amnesia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  14. Utility of transient elastography in the non-invasive evaluation of cystic fibrosis liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Matthew T; Kemp, William W; Iser, David M; Paul, Eldho; Wilson, John W; Roberts, Stuart K

    2013-05-01

    Liver disease frequently complicates cystic fibrosis (CF), with CF liver disease (CFLD) a leading cause of death. Liver biopsy is rarely performed because of the patchy nature of the disease. Transient elastography can reliably stage liver fibrosis via liver stiffness measurement (LSM). To evaluate LSM as a diagnostic tool in adults with CFLD. Fifty adult patients with CF were prospectively studied: 25 with CFLD and 25 without CFLD. The presence of CFLD and portal hypertension (PHT) was assessed according to strict established criteria based on serial biochemistry and imaging. All patients underwent LSM; APRI, Hepascore(®) and Forns score were calculated. Median LSM was higher in those with CFLD [8.1 kPa (IQR 6.8-9.5) vs. 5.0 kPa (IQR 4.1-5.6); P < 0.001]. On multivariate analysis, LSM was the only variable associated with CFLD (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.53-4.89; P = 0.001). AUROC for LSM predicting CFLD was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77-0.98) and an LSM ≥ 6.8 kPa predicted CFLD with 76.0% sensitivity and 92.0% specificity. Median LSM was higher in those with PHT [15.7 kPa (IQR 9.2-17.2) vs. 5.4 kPa (IQR 4.3-6.8); P < 0.001]. The AUROC for LSM predicting the presence of PHT was 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-1.00). An LSM cut-off of ≥ 8.9 kPa predicted the presence of PHT with 87.5% sensitivity, 90.5% specificity, 63.6% positive predictive value and 92.9% negative predictive value. LSM is an accurate and reliable non-invasive tool in assessing CFLD and PHT. An LSM ≥ 6.8 kPa is highly suggestive of CFLD and an LSM <8.9 kPa reliably excludes PHT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  16. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hsien Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001 were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001 prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001. Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045. These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase.

  17. Periodontal Disease Associated with Aortic Arch Atheroma in Patients with Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Chung, Matthew; Duda, Viktoriya; Giamberardino, Lauren; Hinderliter, Alan; Offenbacher, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is associated with recurrent vascular event in stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). In this study, we investigated whether PD is independently associated with aortic arch atheroma (AA). We also explored the relationship PD has with AA plaque thickness and other characteristics associated with atheroembolic risk among patients with stroke or TIA. Finally, we confirmed the association between AA and recurrent vascular event in patients with stroke or TIA. In this prospective longitudinal hospital-based cohort study, PD was assessed in patients with stroke and TIA. Patients with confirmed stroke and TIA (n = 106) were assessed by calibrated dental examiners to determine periodontal status and were followed over a median of 24 months for recurrent vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, and death). The extent of AA and other plaque characteristics was assessed by transesophageal echocardiography. Within our patient cohort, 27 of the 106 participants had recurrent vascular events (including 16 with stroke or TIA) over the median of 24-month follow-up. Severe PD was associated with increased AA plaque thickness and calcification. The results suggest that PD may be a risk factor for AA. In this cohort, we confirm the association of severe AA with recurrent vascular events. In patients with stroke or TIA, severe PD is associated with increased AA plaque thickness, a risk factor for recurrent events. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and to determine whether treatment of PD can reduce the rate of AA plaque progression and recurrent vascular events. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease in Adults with ARFI, Transient Elastography and Different Fibrosis Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Karlas, Thomas; Neuschulz, Marie; Oltmanns, Annett; Güttler, Andrea; Petroff, David; Wirtz, Hubert; Mainz, Jochen G.; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Tröltzsch, Michael; Keim, Volker; Wiegand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. AIM: We evaluated transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. METHODS: TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patient...

  19. Distinct cellular responses differentiating alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-induced liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix Loreto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known at the molecular level concerning the differences and/or similarities between alcohol and hepatitis C virus induced liver disease. Global transcriptional profiling using oligonucleotide microarrays was therefore performed on liver biopsies from patients with cirrhosis caused by either chronic alcohol consumption or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV. Results Global gene expression patterns varied significantly depending upon etiology of liver disease, with a greater number of differentially regulated genes seen in HCV-infected patients. Many of the gene expression changes specifically observed in HCV-infected cirrhotic livers were expectedly associated with activation of the innate antiviral immune response. We also compared severity (CTP class of cirrhosis for each etiology and identified gene expression patterns that differentiated ethanol-induced cirrhosis by class. CTP class A ethanol-cirrhotic livers showed unique expression patterns for genes implicated in the inflammatory response, including those related to macrophage activation and migration, as well as lipid metabolism and oxidative stress genes. Conclusion Stages of liver cirrhosis could be differentiated based on gene expression patterns in ethanol-induced, but not HCV-induced, disease. In addition to genes specifically regulating the innate antiviral immune response, mechanisms responsible for differentiating chronic liver damage due to HCV or ethanol may be closely related to regulation of lipid metabolism and to effects of macrophage activation on deposition of extracellular matrix components.

  20. Performance of transient elastography in diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHUANG Xiaofang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the value of transient elastography (TE in the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. MethodsA total of 21 patients without fatty liver disease and 92 patients with NAFLD, who visited Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from June to December, 2016, were enrolled. Their general information was collected and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Routine blood test, liver function evaluation, and measurement of blood lipid, serum insulin, and alpha-fetoprotein were performed, and liver CT and FibroTouch were performed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was plotted with liver/spleen CT ratio as diagnostic criteria, and the ROC curve was used to evaluate the ability of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP to diagnose NAFLD. The area under the ROC curve (AUC was calculated, the Z test was used to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness, and Youden index was used to determine the optimal cut-off value. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between multiple groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThere were significant differences in age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, serum insulin, fat attenuation, and liver stiffness measurement (LSM between the patients without fatty liver disease and those with varying degrees of NAFLD (all P<0.05. The severe NAFLD group had a significantly lower mean age than the non-fatty liver disease group (P<0.001. There was a significant difference in CAP

  1. Significance of dipyridamole-induced transient dilation of the left ventricle during thallium-201 scintigraphy in suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouraqui, P.; Rodrigues, E.A.; Berman, D.S.; Maddahi, J.

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence and significance of transient dilation of the left ventricle during dipyridamole stress-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy was studied in 73 patients who underwent both dipyridamole thallium-201 study and coronary angiography. Transient dilation ratio was calculated from planar anterior images by dividing the computer-derived left ventricular area on the initial image by that of the 4-hour image. In 11 patients with normal coronary arteriograms or less than 50% coronary stenosis, the transient dilation ratio was 0.98 +/- 0.046. An abnormal transient dilation ratio was defined as greater than or equal to 1.12, representing greater than or equal to 3 standard deviations above the mean normal value. When the 15 patients with an abnormal ratio were compared with the 58 with a normal ratio, the former group had a significantly higher frequency of 3 critical (greater than or equal to 90%) coronary stenoses (33 vs 5%), higher prevalence of collaterals (67 vs 24%), more extensive myocardial reversible defects by planar (71 vs 10%) or by single-photon emission computed tomography (87.5 vs 35%) imaging and a higher incidence of dipyridamole-induced anginal chest pain (53 vs 22%). No significant difference between the 2 groups was noted with respect to age, gender, prior myocardial infarction, single or double critical coronary stenosis, dipyridamole-induced ischemic electrocardiographic response and increased lung uptake. An abnormal transient dilation ratio of greater than or equal to 1.12 was a specific marker of multivessel (87%) or 3-vessel (85%) critical coronary artery disease

  2. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound and transient arterial occlusion for quantification of arterial perfusion reserve in peripheral arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarteifio, E.; Wormsbecher, S.; Krix, M.; Demirel, S.; Braun, S.; Delorme, S.; Böckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Weber, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify muscular micro-perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and transient arterial occlusion. Materials and methods: This study had local institutional review board approval and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. We examined the dominant lower leg of 40 PAD Fontaine stage IIb patients (mean age, 65 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (mean age, 54 years) with CEUS (7 MHz; MI, 0.28) during continuous intravenous infusion of 4.8 mL microbubbles. Transient arterial occlusion at mid-thigh level simulated physical exercise. With time–CEUS–intensity curves obtained from regions of interest within calf muscles, we derived the maximum CEUS signal after occlusion (max) and its time (t max ), slope to maximum (m), vascular response after occlusion (AUC post ), and analysed accuracy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and correlations with ankle-brachial index (ABI) and walking distance. Results: All parameters differed in PAD and volunteers (p max was delayed (31.2 ± 13.6 vs. 16.7 ± 8.5 s, p post as optimal parameter combination for diagnosing PAD and therefore impaired arterial perfusion reserve. Conclusions: Dynamic CEUS with transient arterial occlusion quantifies muscular micro-perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve. The technique is accurate to diagnose PAD.

  3. Doppler ultrasonography combined with transient elastography improves the non-invasive assessment of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Tamara; Zec, Simon; Nikolic, Vladimir; Veljkovic, Aleksandar; Stojanovic, Zoran; Matovic, Vera; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2017-01-31

    Accurate clinical assessment of liver fibrosis is essential and the aim of our study was to compare and combine hemodynamic Doppler ultrasonography, liver stiffness by transient elastography, and non-invasive serum biomarkers with the degree of fibrosis confirmed by liver biopsy, and thereby to determine the value of combining non-invasive method in the prediction significant liver fibrosis. We included 102 patients with chronic liver disease of various etiology. Each patient was evaluated using Doppler ultrasonography measurements of the velocity and flow pattern at portal trunk, hepatic and splenic artery, serum fibrosis biomarkers, and transient elastography. These parameters were then input into a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network with two hidden layers, and used to create models for predicting significant fibrosis. According to METAVIR score, clinically significant fibrosis (≥F2) was detected in 57.8% of patients. A model based only on Doppler parameters (hepatic artery diameter, hepatic artery systolic and diastolic velocity, splenic artery systolic velocity and splenic artery Resistance Index), predicted significant liver fibrosis with a sensitivity and specificity of75.0% and 60.0%. The addition of unrelated non-invasive tests improved the diagnostic accuracy of Doppler examination. The best model for prediction of significant fibrosis was obtained by combining Doppler parameters, non-invasive markers (APRI, ASPRI, and FIB-4) and transient elastography, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% and 100%. Doppler parameters alone predict the presence of ≥F2 fibrosis with fair accuracy. Better prediction rates are achieved by combining Doppler variables with non-invasive markers and liver stiffness by transient elastography.

  4. High fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophils are associated with an increased risk of future virus-induced exacerbations: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, A; Laing, I A; Backer, V; Sverrild, A; Khoo, S-K; Chidlow, G; Sikazwe, C; Smith, D W; Le Souëf, P; Porsbjerg, C

    2017-08-01

    The major trigger of asthma exacerbations is infection with a respiratory virus, most commonly rhinovirus. Type 2 inflammation is known to be associated with an increased risk of exacerbations in general. Whether type 2 inflammation at baseline increases the risk of future virus-induced exacerbations is unknown. To assess whether type 2 inflammation is associated with an increased risk of virus-induced exacerbations of asthma. Stable asthmatics had spirometry, skin prick test, measurement of FeNO and sputum induced for differential cell counts. Patients were followed up for 18 months, during which they were assessed at the research unit when they had symptoms of an exacerbation. Nasal swabs collected at these assessments underwent viral detection by PCR. A total of 81 asthma patients were recruited, of which 22 (27%) experienced an exacerbation during the follow-up period. Of these, 15 (68%) had a respiratory virus detected at exacerbation. Sputum eosinophils >1% at baseline increased the risk of having a subsequent virus-induced exacerbation (HR 7.6 95% CI: 1.6-35.2, P=.010) as did having FeNO >25 ppb (HR 3.4 95% CI: 1.1-10.4, P=.033). Established type 2 inflammation during stable disease is a risk factor for virus-induced exacerbations in a real-life setting. Measures of type 2 inflammation, such as sputum eosinophils and FeNO, could be included in the risk assessment of patients with asthma in future studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke in Danon Disease with Formation of Left Ventricular Apical Thrombus despite Normal Systolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, skeletal myopathy, and mild intellectual disability. Early morbidity and mortality due to heart failure or sudden death are known in Danon disease, more in males than in females. Here, we present a 17-year-old female adolescent with Danon disease and severe concentric hypertrophy with normal left ventricular (LV systolic function, who has been complaining of intermittent headache and weakness for about 3 years, initially diagnosed with hemiplegic migraine. Subsequently, her neurological manifestation progressed to transient ischemic attack (TIA and eventually to ischemic stroke confirmed by CT scan with 1-day history of expressive aphasia followed by persistent left side weakness and numbness. Detailed echocardiogram for the first time revealed a small LV apical thrombus with unchanged severe biventricular hypertrophy and normal systolic function. This unexpected LV apical thrombus may be associated with a wide spectrum of neurological deficits ranging from TIA to ischemic stroke in Danon disease. Possibility of cerebral ischemic events should be suspected in Danon disease when presenting with neurological deficits even with normal systolic function. Careful assessment for LV apical thrombus is warranted in such cases.

  6. Physiological roles of the transient outward current Ito in normal and diseased hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, Jonathan M.; Callø, Kirstine; Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+-independent transient outward K+ current (Ito) plays a critical role in underlying phase 1 of repolarization of the cardiac action potential and, as a result, is central to modulating excitation-contraction coupling and propensity for arrhythmia. Additionally, Ito and its molecular...... potential and the mechanisms by which Ito modulates excitation-contraction coupling. We also describe the effects of mutations in the subunits constituting the Ito channel as well as the role of Ito in the failing myocardium. Finally, we review pharmacological modulation of Ito and discuss the evidence...... constituents are consistently reduced in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In this review, we discuss the physiological role of Ito as well as the molecular basis of this current in human and canine hearts, in which Ito has been thoroughly studied. In particular, we discuss the role of Ito in the action...

  7. Mechanisms of Virus-Induced Neural Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    muscular dys- Reoviruses and the host cell. Trends Microbiol. 9:560-564. trophy. Exp. Cell Res. 282:14-23. 41. Tyler, K. L, M. K. Squier, S. E. Rodgers, B...enteroviruses and herpes sim- C plex virus. During her 5 days of hospitalization, the patient 5951"I5C6 developed transient abdominal distension and...KB pathway in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. sponses to stress. Science 274:1855-1859. Nat. Med. 5:503-5 11. 28. Hengartner, M. 0. 20(11. The

  8. IgG4-Related Disease Combined with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Steroid-Responsive Transient Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hasegawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man with elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 levels, systemic lymphadenopathy infiltrated by IgG4-positive plasma cells, and Coombs-positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA showed marked hypercalcemia. Although the intact parathyroid hormone (PTH level was elevated, 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and thyroid ultrasonography revealed no evidence of primary hyperparathyroidism. Liver biopsy showed marked infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, which confirmed the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD. Corticosteroid therapy was initiated, and subsequently, intact PTH and serum calcium levels gradually normalized. Transient hypercalcemia in a patient with AIHA may therefore be associated with IgG4-RD.

  9. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui

    2007-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr ∼ 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1∼9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI

  10. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr {approx} 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1{approx}9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI.

  11. The potential of virus-induced gene silencing for speeding up functional characterization of plant genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedito, V.A.; Visser, P.B.; Angenent, G.C.; Krens, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been shown to be of great potential in plant reverse genetics. Advantages of VIGS over other approaches, such as T-DNA or transposon tagging, include the circumvention of plant transformation, methodological simplicity and robustness, and speedy results. These

  12. Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations--a pharmacological target for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, D. P.; Tytgat, G. N. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E. E.

    2002-01-01

    The oesophago-gastric junction functions as an anti-reflux barrier preventing increased exposure of the oesophageal mucosa to gastric contents. Failure of this anti-reflux barrier results in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and may lead to complications such as oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus

  13. Chronic liver disease and subchronic nephritis in a male warty chameleon (Furcifer verrucosus with transient hyperglycaemia – case report

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    Zdeněk Knotek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year old male warty chameleon (Furcifer verrucosus weighing 160 g was presented for veterinary examination following 4 weeks of decreased ability to catch insects with the tongue and difficulty in swallowing the prey. Non-invasive endoscopy did not reveal any macroscopic changes of the oral cavity mucosa or the cranial part of the esophagus. Dorsoventral and laterolateral plain and contrast radiographs revealed enlargement of the medial part of the liver without any visible abnormalities in the regions of the esophagus, stomach or small intestine. Abnormalities in the plasma chemistry profile included transient hyperglycaemia (52.68–57.18 mmol/l and hyperuricaemia (452.70–622.20 μmol/l. The chameleon was examined at 7, 20 and 22 weeks after initial examination. Its body weight decreased to 120 g. A blood profile revealed normoglycaemia (16.37–10.22 mmol/l and hyperphosphataemia (2.92–3.06 mmol/l at the last three examinations. The chameleon died suddenly 33 days after the final examination. Necropsy revealed the presence of a large liver cyst, filled with fluid. The liver had lost all of its normal structure. The kidneys showed a large area with fibrosis and multiple uric acid tophi. The post mortem findings were defined as liver with fatty degeneration and moderate fibrotic changes with large cyst, subchronic nephritis with uric acid tophi, and mineralization in the myocardium. This paper describes the first documented case of transient hyperglycaemia in a warty chameleon (Furcifer verrucosus associated with chronic liver disease and subchronic nephritis.

  14. Disruption of the Opal Stop Codon Attenuates Chikungunya Virus-Induced Arthritis and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer E; Long, Kristin M; Whitmore, Alan C; Sanders, Wes; Thurlow, Lance R; Brown, Julia A; Morrison, Clayton R; Vincent, Heather; Peck, Kayla M; Browning, Christian; Moorman, Nathaniel; Lim, Jean K; Heise, Mark T

    2017-11-14

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for several significant outbreaks of debilitating acute and chronic arthritis and arthralgia over the past decade. These include a recent outbreak in the Caribbean islands and the Americas that caused more than 1 million cases of viral arthralgia. Despite the major impact of CHIKV on global health, viral determinants that promote CHIKV-induced disease are incompletely understood. Most CHIKV strains contain a conserved opal stop codon at the end of the viral nsP3 gene. However, CHIKV strains that encode an arginine codon in place of the opal stop codon have been described, and deep-sequencing analysis of a CHIKV isolate from the Caribbean identified both arginine and opal variants within this strain. Therefore, we hypothesized that the introduction of the arginine mutation in place of the opal termination codon may influence CHIKV virulence. We tested this by introducing the arginine mutation into a well-characterized infectious clone of a CHIKV strain from Sri Lanka and designated this virus Opal524R. This mutation did not impair viral replication kinetics in vitro or in vivo Despite this, the Opal524R virus induced significantly less swelling, inflammation, and damage within the feet and ankles of infected mice. Further, we observed delayed induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as reduced CD4 + T cell and NK cell recruitment compared to those in the parental strain. Therefore, the opal termination codon plays an important role in CHIKV pathogenesis, independently of effects on viral replication. IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes significant outbreaks of viral arthralgia. Studies with CHIKV and other alphaviruses demonstrated that the opal termination codon within nsP3 is highly conserved. However, some strains of CHIKV and other alphaviruses contain mutations in the opal termination codon. These mutations alter the virulence

  15. Relevance of 3D Cholangiography and Transient Elastography to Assess Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Liver Disease?

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    C. Lemaitre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease (CFLD is a major cause of death. The objective of our retrospective study was to describe the relevance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and liver stiffness measurement (LSM for CFLD evaluation. Methods. All cystic fibrosis adult patients evaluated by MRI and LSM were included. MR signs of portal hypertension (PHT, dysmorphia, or cholangitis were collected and LSM expressed in kPa and Metavir. Results. Of 25 patients, 52% had abnormal MRI. Median LSM was 5.7 kPa (3.4–9.9. Three patients had F2 score and one had F3 score. In patients with PHT, LSM was 7.85 kPa (3.7–9.9 compared to 5 (3.4–7.5 in others, p=0.02. In patients with abnormal liver function tests, 50% had increased LSM (≥F2, whereas 94% with normal tests had normal LSM (p=0.04. Seven patients had abnormal MRI despite normal ultrasonography. Conclusions. MRI and LSM provide useful information on CFLD and may help to screen patients with PHT.

  16. Dynamics of the liver stiffness value using transient elastography during the perioperative period in patients with valvular heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Chon

    Full Text Available Liver congestion due to heart failure in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD can result in an overestimate of the liver stiffness (LS as assessed by transient elastography (TE. This prospective pilot study investigated the dynamics of LS during the perioperative valve operation period.Thirty-two patients who underwent a valve operation (case and 12 who underwent a varicose vein operation (control were prospectively enrolled. LS and cardiologic parameters at three time points [baseline, post-operative day (POD7, and POD90] were collected.LS at three time points were consistently higher in the case group than those in the control group, although all participants did not show evidence of underlying chronic liver disease (all P<0.05. In the case group, LS at POD7 increased slightly from the LS at baseline (median 7.9→8.4 kPa, P = 0.816, whereas LS at POD90 decreased significantly from the LS at POD7 (median 8.4→6.0 kPa; P = 0.026. LS was significantly correlated with N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP (ρ = 0.412, left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ = -0.494, and central venous pressure during the operation (ρ = 0.555 at baseline (all P<0.05. LS was significantly correlated with NT-proBNP (ρ = 0.526 and right ventricular pressure (ρ = 0.572 at POD7, whereas LS was significantly correlated with NT-proBNP (ρ = 0.590 at POD90 (all P<0.05.LS can be overestimated in patients with VHD due to hepatic congestion. However, LS can be dynamically reversed during the perioperative period reflecting the restoration of cardiac function after a successful operation.

  17. Liver fibrosis in type I Gaucher disease: magnetic resonance imaging, transient elastography and parameters of iron storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneloes E Bohte

    Full Text Available Long term liver-related complications of type-1 Gaucher disease (GD, a lysosomal storage disorder, include fibrosis and an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenectomy has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of liver pathology in GD. High ferritin concentrations are a feature of GD and iron storage in Gaucher cells has been described, but iron storage in the liver in relation to liver fibrosis has not been studied. Alternatively, iron storage in GD may be the result of iron supplementation therapy or regular blood transfusions in patients with severe cytopenia. In this pilot study, comprising 14 type-1 GD patients (7 splenectomized, 7 non-splenectomized and 7 healthy controls, we demonstrate that liver stiffness values, measured by Transient Elastography and MR-Elastography, are significantly higher in splenectomized GD patients when compared with non-splenectomized GD patients (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively. Liver iron concentration was elevated (>60±30 µmol/g in 4 GD patients of whom 3 were splenectomized. No relationship was found between liver stiffness and liver iron concentration. HFE gene mutations were more frequent in splenectomized (6/7 than in non-splenectomized (2/7 participants (p = 0.10. Liver disease appeared more advanced in splenectomized than in non-splenectomized patients. We hypothesize a relationship with excessive hepatic iron accumulation in splenectomized patients. We recommend that all splenectomized patients, especially those with evidence of substantial liver fibrosis undergo regular screening for HCC, according to current guidelines.

  18. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i. but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy.

  19. Relationship of liver stiffness and controlled attenuation parameter measured by transient elastography with diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jem Ma; Paik, Yong-Han; Kim, So Hyun; Lee, Jun Hee; Cho, Ju Yeon; Sohn, Won; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2014-08-01

    High prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with liver cirrhosis has been reported in many studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis assessed by transient elastography with diabetes in patients with chronic liver disease. The study population consisted of 979 chronic liver disease patients. Liver fibrosis and steatosis were assessed by liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) on transient elastography. Diabetes was diagnosed in 165 (16.9%) of 979 patients. The prevalence of diabetes had significant difference among the etiologies of chronic liver disease. Higher degrees of liver fibrosis and steatosis, assessed by LSM and CAP score, showed higher prevalence of diabetes (F0/1 [14%], F2/3 [18%], F4 [31%], Pdiabetes were hypertension (OR, 1.98; P=0.001), LSM F4 (OR, 1.86; P=0.010), male gender (OR, 1.60; P=0.027), and age>50 yr (OR, 1.52; P=0.046). The degree of hepatic fibrosis but not steatosis assessed by transient elastography has significant relationship with the prevalence of diabetes in patients with chronic liver disease.

  20. The central nervous system phenotype of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a transient disorder of children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mateen, Majeed; Craig, Alexa Kanwit; Chance, Phillip F

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2 patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 (CMTX1) disease and central nervous system manifestations and review 19 cases from the literature. Our first case had not been previously diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and the second case, although known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, was suspected of having CMTX1 after presentation with central nervous system manifestations. The most common central nervous system manifestations were transient and included dysarthria, ataxia, hemiparesis, and tetraparesis resembling periodic paralysis. Of the 21 patients, 19 presented at 21 years of age or younger, implicating CMTX1 with transient central nervous system manifestations as a disorder that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CMTX1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with transient central nervous system phenomena, including stroke-like episodes, tetraparesis suggestive of periodic paralysis, dysarthria, ataxia, or combinations of these deficits. Reversible, bilateral, nonenhancing white matter lesions and restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance imaging are characteristic features of the central nervous system phenotype of CMTX1.

  1. Systemic virus-induced gene silencing allows functional characterization of maize genes during biotrophic interaction with Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Kastner, Christine; Kumlehn, Jochen; Kahmann, Regine; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Infection of maize (Zea mays) plants with the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on the stem, leaves and inflorescences. In this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed massive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression. To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) for maize. Conditions were established that allowed successful U. maydis infection of BMV-preinfected maize plants. This set-up enabled quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based readout. In proof-of-principle experiments, an U. maydis-induced terpene synthase was shown to negatively regulate disease development while a protein involved in cell death inhibition was required for full virulence of U. maydis. The results suggest that this system is a versatile tool for the rapid identification of maize genes that determine compatibility with U. maydis. © (2010) Max Planck Society. Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  2. Non-invasive evaluation of cystic fibrosis related liver disease in adults with ARFI, transient elastography and different fibrosis scores.

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    Thomas Karlas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. AIM: We evaluated transient elastography (TE, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI, and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. METHODS: TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patients. In addition, AST/Platelets-Ratio-Index (APRI, and Forns' score were calculated. Healthy probands and patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis served as controls. RESULTS: Fourteen CF patients met CFLD criteria, six had liver cirrhosis. Elastography acquisition was successful in >89% of cases. Non-cirrhotic CFLD individuals showed elastography values similar to CF patients without liver involvement. Cases with liver cirrhosis differed significantly from other CFLD patients (ARFI: 1.49 vs. 1.13 m/s; p = 0.031; TE: 7.95 vs. 4.16 kPa; p = 0.020 and had significantly lower results than individuals with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ARFI: 1.49 vs. 2.99 m/s; p = 0.002. APRI showed the best diagnostic performance for CFLD detection (AUROC 0.815; sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 70.7%. CONCLUSIONS: ARFI, TE, and laboratory based fibrosis indices correlate with each other and reliably detect CFLD related liver cirrhosis in adult CF patients. CF specific cut-off values for cirrhosis in adults are lower than in alcoholic cirrhosis.

  3. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease in Adults with ARFI, Transient Elastography and Different Fibrosis Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Annett; Güttler, Andrea; Petroff, David; Wirtz, Hubert; Mainz, Jochen G.; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Tröltzsch, Michael; Keim, Volker; Wiegand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. Aim We evaluated transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. Methods TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patients. In addition, AST/Platelets-Ratio-Index (APRI), and Forns' score were calculated. Healthy probands and patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis served as controls. Results Fourteen CF patients met CFLD criteria, six had liver cirrhosis. Elastography acquisition was successful in >89% of cases. Non-cirrhotic CFLD individuals showed elastography values similar to CF patients without liver involvement. Cases with liver cirrhosis differed significantly from other CFLD patients (ARFI: 1.49 vs. 1.13 m/s; p = 0.031; TE: 7.95 vs. 4.16 kPa; p = 0.020) and had significantly lower results than individuals with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ARFI: 1.49 vs. 2.99 m/s; p = 0.002). APRI showed the best diagnostic performance for CFLD detection (AUROC 0.815; sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 70.7%). Conclusions ARFI, TE, and laboratory based fibrosis indices correlate with each other and reliably detect CFLD related liver cirrhosis in adult CF patients. CF specific cut-off values for cirrhosis in adults are lower than in alcoholic cirrhosis. PMID:22848732

  4. Prospective comparison among transient elastography, supersonic shear imaging, and ARFI imaging for predicting fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Myoung Seok Lee

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of supersonic shear imaging (SSI in comparison with those of transient elastography (TE and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI for staging fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients has not been fully assessed, especially in Asian populations with relatively lean NAFLD compared to white populations. Thus, we focused on comparing the diagnostic performances of TE, ARFI, and SSI for staging fibrosis in a head-to-head manner, and identifying the clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and histological features which might affect liver stiffness measurement (LSM in our prospective biopsy-proven NAFLD cohort. In this study, ninety-four patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included prospectively. Liver stiffness was measured using TE, SSI, and ARFI within 1 month of liver biopsy. The diagnostic performance for staging fibrosis was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Anthropometric data were evaluated as covariates influencing LSM by regression analyses. Liver stiffness correlated with fibrosis stage (p < 0.05; the area under the ROC curve of TE (kPa, SSI (kPa, and ARFI (m/s were as follows: 0.757, 0.759, and 0.657 for significant fibrosis and 0.870, 0.809, and 0.873 for advanced fibrosis. Anthropometric traits were significant confounders affecting SSI, while serum liver injury markers significantly confounded TE and ARFI. In conclusion, the LSM methods had similar diagnostic performance for staging fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Pre-LSM anthropometric evaluation may help predict the reliability of SSI.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging More Accurately Classifies Steatosis and Fibrosis in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Than Transient Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Kento; Kessoku, Takaomi; Honda, Yasushi; Tomeno, Wataru; Ogawa, Yuji; Mawatari, Hironori; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Taguri, Masataka; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Sumida, Yoshio; Ono, Masafumi; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Inoue, Tomio; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Wada, Koichiro; Saito, Satoru; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive methods have been evaluated for the assessment of liver fibrosis and steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We compared the ability of transient elastography (TE) with the M-probe, and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to assess liver fibrosis. Findings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measurements were compared with those from TE-based controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurements to assess steatosis. We performed a cross-sectional study of 142 patients with NAFLD (identified by liver biopsy; mean body mass index, 28.1 kg/m(2)) in Japan from July 2013 through April 2015. Our study also included 10 comparable subjects without NAFLD (controls). All study subjects were evaluated by TE (including CAP measurements), MRI using the MRE and PDFF techniques. TE identified patients with fibrosis stage ≥2 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve value of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.89), whereas MRE identified these patients with an AUROC curve value of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96; P = .001). TE-based CAP measurements identified patients with hepatic steatosis grade ≥2 with an AUROC curve value of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.64-0.81) and PDFF methods identified them with an AUROC curve value of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97; P steatosis in patients with NAFLD than TE and CAP methods. MRI-based noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis and steatosis is a potential alternative to liver biopsy in clinical practice. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry No. UMIN000012757. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Liver Fibrosis by Transient Elastography Should Be Done After Hemodialysis in End Stage Renal Disease Patients with Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Sunil; Borkakoty, Amritangsu; Rathi, Sahaj; Kumar, Vivek; Duseja, Ajay; Dhiman, Radha K; Gupta, Krishan L; Chawla, Yogesh

    2017-11-01

    The patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are at greater risk of acquiring chronic hepatitis B or C and subsequently development of liver disease. The aim of the study was to assess liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE) and look for factors associated with change in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) with one session of hemodialysis (HD). Consecutive ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) with suspected liver disease were enrolled. They underwent LSM by TE before and after one session of HD. Bioelectric impedance analysis was done to evaluate the volume status at the time of TE. Sixty-eight patients with mean age of 40 ± 14 years were included. There was a significant reduction in LSM after HD (18.5 [95% CI 14.8-23.1] vs. 11.2 [95% CI 8.8-13.7] kPa, p  or  2.5 L (8.6 [95% CI 5.7-11.5] vs. 5.1 [95% CI 2.9-7.5], p = 0.05). In 18 patients who underwent liver biopsy, LSM after HD performed better at detecting significant fibrosis, with area under receiver operating characteristics curve 0.71 [95% CI 0.46-0.97], versus 0.64 [95% CI 0.38-0.90], respectively. An LSM value of 12.2 kPa after HD was 71% sensitive and 74% specific for detection of significant fibrosis (≥ F2), while values less than 9 kPa ruled out significant fibrosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 37 and 100%, respectively. LSM by TE decreases significantly after HD in patients with ESRD on long-term MHD. Hence, TE should be done after HD for accurate assessment of liver fibrosis.

  7. Renal dysfunction and chronic kidney disease in ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Derek; McCarthy, Christine; Akijian, Layan; Callaly, Elizabeth; Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Horgan, Gillian; Kyne, Lorraine; Duggan, Joseph; Dolan, Eamon; O' Rourke, Killian; Williams, David; Murphy, Sean; O'Meara, Yvonne; Kelly, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) chronic kidney disease (CKD)) in ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is unknown, as estimates have been based on single-point estimates of renal function. Studies investigating the effect of renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 , renal dysfunction) on post-stroke outcomes are limited to hospitalized cohorts and have provided conflicting results. Methods We investigated rates, determinants and outcomes of renal dysfunction in ischemic stroke and TIA in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study. We also investigate the persistence of renal dysfunction in 90-day survivors to determine the prevalence of CKD. Ascertainment included hot and cold pursuit using multiple overlapping sources. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results In 547 patients (ischemic stroke in 76.4%, TIA in 23.6%), the mean eGFR at presentation was 63.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (SD 22.1). Renal dysfunction was observed in 44.6% (244/547). Among 90-day survivors, 31.2% (139/446) met criteria for CKD. After adjusting for age and stroke severity, eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (hazard ratio 2.53, p = 0.01) independently predicted 28-day fatality but not at two years. Poor post-stroke functional outcome (Modified Rankin Scale 3-5) at two years was more common in those with renal dysfunction (52.5% vs. 20.6%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, stroke severity and pre-stroke disability, renal dysfunction (OR 2.17, p = 0.04) predicted poor functional outcome. Conclusion Renal dysfunction and CKD are common in ischemic stroke and TIA. Renal dysfunction is associated with considerable post-stroke morbidity and mortality. Further studies are needed to investigate if modifiable mechanisms underlie these associations.

  8. Liver stiffness by transient elastography predicts liver-related complications and mortality in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack X Q Pang

    Full Text Available Liver stiffness measurement (LSM by transient elastography (TE, FibroScan is a validated method for noninvasively staging liver fibrosis. Most hepatic complications occur in patients with advanced fibrosis. Our objective was to determine the ability of LSM by TE to predict hepatic complications and mortality in a large cohort of patients with chronic liver disease.In consecutive adults who underwent LSM by TE between July 2008 and June 2011, we used Cox regression to determine the independent association between liver stiffness and death or hepatic complications (decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. The performance of LSM to predict complications was determined using the c-statistic.Among 2,052 patients (median age 51 years, 65% with hepatitis B or C, 87 patients (4.2% died or developed a hepatic complication during a median follow-up period of 15.6 months (interquartile range, 11.0-23.5 months. Patients with complications had higher median liver stiffness than those without complications (13.5 vs. 6.0 kPa; P<0.00005. The 2-year incidence rates of death or hepatic complications were 2.6%, 9%, 19%, and 34% in patients with liver stiffness <10, 10-19.9, 20-39.9, and ≥40 kPa, respectively (P<0.00005. After adjustment for potential confounders, liver stiffness by TE was an independent predictor of complications (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05 per kPa; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.06. The c-statistic of liver-stiffness for predicting complications was 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.85. A liver stiffness below 20 kPa effectively excluded complications (specificity 93%, negative predictive value 97%; however, the positive predictive value of higher results was sub-optimal (20%.Liver stiffness by TE accurately predicts the risk of death or hepatic complications in patients with chronic liver disease. TE may facilitate the estimation of prognosis and guide management of these patients.

  9. Novel aspects of defensins' involvement in virus-induced autoimmunity in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakos, Evangelos I; Kountouras, Jannis; Polyzos, Stergios A; Deretzi, Georgia

    2017-05-01

    Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes. Therefore, in this review we describe current contributions in this field and we propose novel hypotheses regarding the potential impact of defensin-related pathways on virus-driven autoimmune neurodegeneration. In this regard, we have previously proposed that abnormal expression of defensins by penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may contribute to the pathophysiology of Helicobacter pylori-related brain neurodegenerative disorders through variable modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses. We hereby propose that impaired expression of defensins by structural components of the BBB may impede glymphatic circulation and disrupt receptor signalling in pericytes that is essential for microvascular stability, thereby retaining blood-derived toxins and bystander activated T-cells in the brain and further impairing BBB integrity and hampering viral clearance. Autoreactive T-cell infiltrates in neuronaxonal lesions characteristic of chronic central nervous system diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are directed against both, myelin and non-myelin, antigens the precise nature of which remains enigmatic. Inadequate expression of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a gene expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, induces the recruitment of defensin-specific T-cells. These cells may access the brain, thereby causing a decrease in defensin expression and subsequent down-regulation of CD91/LRP1-mediated clearance of amyloid-β that

  10. Coronary heart disease risk in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease: findings from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Noncoronary forms of atherosclerosis (including transient ischemic attacks or stroke of carotid origin or >50% stenosis of the carotid artery) are associated with a 10-year vascular risk of >20% and are considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) -risk equivalent from the standpoint of lipid...... management. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial included patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known CHD regardless of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated the risk of developing clinically recognized CHD in SPARCL patients....

  11. Ligand Modulation of the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced Seven-transmembrane Receptor EBI2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Smethurst, Christopher; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor, which was recently shown to orchestrate the positioning of B cells in the follicle. To date, no ligands, endogenously or synthetic, have been identified that modulate EBI2 activity. Here we...... with similar potency. Overexpression of EBI2 profoundly potentiated antibody-stimulated ex vivo proliferation of murine B cells compared with WT cells, whereas this was equivalently reduced for EBI2-deficient B cells. Inhibition of EBI2 constitutive activity suppressed the proliferation in all cases...

  12. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  13. Characteristics associated with clinical severity and inflammatory phenotype of naturally occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Poulsen, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In experimental studies viral infections have been shown to induce type 2 inflammation in asthmatics, but whether this is a feature of naturally occurring virus-induced asthma exacerbations is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from the airway epithelium in response...... occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and whether TSLP is associated with this type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with acute asthma were examined during the exacerbation, and after 4 weeks recovery. The assessments included spirometry, FeNO and induced sputum...... in patients during virus-induced asthma exacerbations, to the same degree as non-viral exacerbations, and correlate negatively with FEV1. However, in virus-positive patients, high TSLP expression during exacerbation was associated with low sputum eosinophils, suggesting that the effect of TSLP in vivo...

  14. Salicylate prevents virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the BBDR rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoxing Yang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1β and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

  15. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  17. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  18. Multiple granulomatous lung lesions in a patient with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Aki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Granulomatous lesions are commonly encountered abnormalities in pulmonary pathology, and often pose a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of granulomatous lung disease with uncommon characteristics, which developed following Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. We aim to highlight a diagnostic approach for the condition and to raise awareness of the possibility of it being related to the immunological reaction caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Case presentation A 36-year-old Japanese man, who had been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome three weeks previously, presented to our facility with fever and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple small nodules in both lungs. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytosis with predominance of T lymphocytes. A histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracic surgery showed randomly distributed tiny granulomatous lesions with infiltration of eosinophils. The differential diagnoses included hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary involvement of Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren’s syndrome, but the clinical and pathological findings were not consistent with any of these. Our patient’s condition did not improve; therefore, prednisolone therapy was started because of the possibility of specific immunological reactions associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. After steroid treatment, our patient showed radiological and clinical improvement. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing randomly distributed multiple granulomatous lung lesions with eosinophilic infiltrates after Epstein-Barr virus infection and systemic

  19. Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza a virus-induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress.

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    Stavros Selemidis

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus infection is an ongoing clinical problem and thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the lung inflammation in order to unravel novel generic pharmacological strategies. Evidence indicates that the Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase enzyme promotes influenza A virus-induced lung oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunction via ROS generation. In addition, lung epithelial and endothelial cells express the Nox1 isoform of NADPH oxidase, placing this enzyme at key sites to regulate influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nox1 oxidase regulates the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress to influenza infection in vivo in mice. Male WT and Nox1-deficient (Nox1(-/y mice were infected with the moderately pathogenic HkX-31 (H3N2, 1×10(4 PFU influenza A virus for analysis of bodyweight, airways inflammation, oxidative stress, viral titre, lung histopathology, and cytokine/chemokine expression at 3 and 7 days post infection. HkX-31 virus infection of Nox1(-/y mice resulted in significantly greater: loss of bodyweight (Day 3; BALF neutrophilia, peri-bronchial, peri-vascular and alveolar inflammation; Nox2-dependent inflammatory cell ROS production and peri-bronchial, epithelial and endothelial oxidative stress. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, GM-CSF and TNF-α was higher in Nox1(-/y lungs compared to WT mice at Day 3, however, the expression of CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IFN-γ and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were lower in lungs of Nox1(-/y mice vs. WT mice at Day 7. Lung viral titre, and airways infiltration of active CD8(+ and CD4(+ T lymphocytes, and of Tregs were similar between WT and Nox1(-/y mice. In conclusion, Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza A virus induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice particularly at the early phases of the infection. Nox1 and Nox2 oxidases appear

  20. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

    2006-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML

  1. Disruption of plant carotenoid biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing affects oviposition behaviour of the butterfly Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hogewoning, S.W.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Optical plant characteristics are important cues to plant-feeding insects. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that silencing the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene, encoding a key enzyme in plant carotenoid biosynthesis, affects insect oviposition site selection behaviour. Virus-induced

  2. Molecular characterization of oxysterol binding to the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (GPR183)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Norn, Christoffer; Laurent, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    , the family of G protein-coupled seven transmembrane-spanning receptors (7TM receptors) was added to this group. Specifically, the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2 or GPR183) was shown to be activated by several oxysterols, most potently by 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). Nothing is known about...

  3. Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

  4. Small molecule antagonism of oxysterol-induced Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Madsen, Christian M; Arfelt, Kristine N

    2013-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) was recently identified as the first oxysterol-activated 7TM receptor. EBI2 is essential for B cell trafficking within lymphoid tissues and thus the humoral immune response in general. Here we characterize the antagonism of the non-peptide molecule GSK...

  5. Development of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system for Spinacia oleracea L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jungmin; Cao, Dang Viet; Kim, Jiwon

    2017-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is known as a rapid and efficient system for studying functions of interesting genes in plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) is widely applied for the gene silencing of many plants. Although spinach is a TRV-susceptible plant, a TRV-based VIGS system has not yet ...

  6. Virus-induced gene silencing in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Piednoir, Elodie

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an important reverse genetics tool for functional genomics. VIGS vectors based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV, genus Tobravirus) and Bean pod mottle virus (genus Comovirus) are available for the legume species Pisum sativum and Glycine max, respec...

  7. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a reverse genetic tool to study development of symbiotic root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Grønlund, Mette; Stougaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can provide a shortcut to plants with altered expression of specific genes. Here, we report that VIGS of the Nodule inception gene (Nin) can alter the nodulation phenotype and Nin gene expression in Pisum sativum. PsNin was chosen as target because of the disti...

  8. DNA Oncogenic Virus-Induced Oxidative Stress, Genomic Damage, and Aberrant Epigenetic Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankgopo Magdeline Kgatle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of human cancers is attributable to DNA oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Unrepaired DNA damage is the most common and overlapping feature of these DNA oncogenic viruses and a source of genomic instability and tumour development. Sustained DNA damage results from unceasing production of reactive oxygen species and activation of inflammasome cascades that trigger genomic changes and increased propensity of epigenetic alterations. Accumulation of epigenetic alterations may interfere with genome-wide cellular signalling machineries and promote malignant transformation leading to cancer development. Untangling and understanding the underlying mechanisms that promote these detrimental effects remain the major objectives for ongoing research and hope for effective virus-induced cancer therapy. Here, we review current literature with an emphasis on how DNA damage influences HPV, HVB, and EBV replication and epigenetic alterations that are associated with carcinogenesis.

  9. Epstein–Barr Virus-Induced Metabolic Rearrangements in Human B-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier P. Piccaluga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metabolism has been the object of several studies in the past, leading to the pivotal observation of a consistent shift toward aerobic glycolysis (so-called Warburg effect. More recently, several additional investigations proved that tumor metabolism is profoundly affected during tumorigenesis, including glucose, lipid and amino-acid metabolism. It is noticeable that metabolic reprogramming can represent a suitable therapeutic target in many cancer types. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was the first virus linked with cancer in humans when Burkitt lymphoma (BL was described. Besides other well-known effects, it was recently demonstrated that EBV can induce significant modification in cell metabolism, which may lead or contribute to neoplastic transformation of human cells. Similarly, virus-induced tumorigenesis is characterized by relevant metabolic abnormalities directly induced by the oncoviruses. In this article, the authors critically review the most recent literature concerning EBV-induced metabolism alterations in lymphomas.

  10. Pleiotropic Effects of Levofloxacin, Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics, against Influenza Virus-Induced Lung Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Enoki

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO are major pathogenic molecules produced during viral lung infections, including influenza. While fluoroquinolones are widely used as antimicrobial agents for treating a variety of bacterial infections, including secondary infections associated with the influenza virus, it has been reported that they also function as anti-oxidants against ROS and as a NO regulator. Therefore, we hypothesized that levofloxacin (LVFX, one of the most frequently used fluoroquinolone derivatives, may attenuate pulmonary injuries associated with influenza virus infections by inhibiting the production of ROS species such as hydroxyl radicals and neutrophil-derived NO that is produced during an influenza viral infection. The therapeutic impact of LVFX was examined in a PR8 (H1N1 influenza virus-induced lung injury mouse model. ESR spin-trapping experiments indicated that LVFX showed scavenging activity against neutrophil-derived hydroxyl radicals. LVFX markedly improved the survival rate of mice that were infected with the influenza virus in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the LVFX treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a marker of oxidative stress and nitrotyrosine (a nitrative marker in the lungs of virus-infected mice, and the nitrite/nitrate ratio (NO metabolites and IFN-γ in BALF. These results indicate that LVFX may be of substantial benefit in the treatment of various acute inflammatory disorders such as influenza virus-induced pneumonia, by inhibiting inflammatory cell responses and suppressing the overproduction of NO in the lungs.

  11. Control of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations and reflux by the GABAB agonist baclofen in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Lehmann, A; Rigda, R; Dent, J; Holloway, R H

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) are the major cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux in normal subjects and in most patients with reflux disease. The gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor type B agonist, baclofen, is a potent inhibitor of TLOSRs in normal subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of baclofen on TLOSRs and postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease. Methods: In 20 patients with reflux disease, oesophageal motility and pH were measured, with patients in the sitting position, for three hours after a 3000 kJ mixed nutrient meal. On separate days at least one week apart, 40 mg oral baclofen or placebo was given 90 minutes before the meal. Results: Baclofen reduced the rate of TLOSRs by 40% from 15 (13.8–18.3) to 9 (5.8–13.3) per three hours (preflux episodes by 43% from 7.0 (4.0–12.0) to 4.0 (1.5–9) per three hours (median (interquartile range); preflux disease, the GABAB agonist baclofen significantly inhibits gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes by inhibition of TLOSRs. These findings suggest that GABAB agonists may be useful as therapeutic agents for the management of reflux disease. PMID:11772961

  12. Previously unrecognized advanced liver disease unveiled by transient elastography in patients with Haemophilia and chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moessner, B K; Andersen, E S; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    with haemophilia A or B. TE with liver stiffness measurements (LSM) = 8 kPa were repeated after 4-6 weeks. Significant fibrosis and cirrhosis was defined as measurements = 8 kPa or = 12 kPa respectively. Among 307 patients with haemophilia A or B registered at the two Haemophilia centres, 141(46%) participate......Before the introduction of viral inactivation procedures and viral screening of plasma-products, haemophiliacs were at high risk of infection with HCV. Those who acquired HCV infection in the 1980s, and are still alive today, may have developed significant liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. However......, liver biopsy has not routinely been utilized in the evaluation of haemophiliacs with HCV in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of significant fibrosis/cirrhosis among haemophiliacs as evaluated by transient elastography (TE). Cross-sectional investigation of adult patients...

  13. Previously unrecognized advanced liver disease unveiled by transient elastography in patients with Haemophilia and chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mössner, Belinda Klemmensen; Andersen, E S; Weis, N

    2011-01-01

    patients with haemophilia A or B. TE with liver stiffness measurements (LSM) ≥8 kPa were repeated after 4-6 weeks. Significant fibrosis and cirrhosis was defined as measurements ≥8 kPa or ≥12 kPa respectively. Among 307 patients with haemophilia A or B registered at the two Haemophilia centres, 141......Summary.  Before the introduction of viral inactivation procedures and viral screening of plasma-products, haemophiliacs were at high risk of infection with HCV. Those who acquired HCV infection in the 1980s, and are still alive today, may have developed significant liver fibrosis or cirrhosis....... However, liver biopsy has not routinely been utilized in the evaluation of haemophiliacs with HCV in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of significant fibrosis/cirrhosis among haemophiliacs as evaluated by transient elastography (TE). Cross-sectional investigation of adult...

  14. Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke in Danon Disease with Formation of Left Ventricular Apical Thrombus despite Normal Systolic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuda, Takeshi; Shillingford, Amanda J.; Vetter, Jane; Kandula, Vinay; Jain, Badal; Temple, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, skeletal myopathy, and mild intellectual disability. Early morbidity and mortality due to heart failure or sudden death are known in Danon disease, more in males than in females. Here, we present a 17-year-old female adolescent with Danon disease and severe concentric hypertrophy with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function, who has ...

  15. Transient ischemic attack and minor stroke are the most common manifestations of acute cerebrovascular disease: a prospective, population-based study--the Aarhus TIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Weitzel-Mudersbach, Paul; Andersen, Grethe; Hundborg, Heidi H; Johnsen, Søren P

    2013-01-01

    Severity of acute vascular illness may have changed in the last decades due to improvements in primary and secondary prevention. Population-based data on the severity of acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease are sparse. We aimed to examine incidence, characteristics and severity of acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease in a well-defined population. All patients admitted with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or acute ischemic stroke from March 1, 2007, to February 29, 2008, with residence in the Aarhus area, were included. Incidence rates and characteristics of TIA and ischemic stroke were compared. TIA accounted for 30%, TIA and minor stroke combined for 65% of all acute ischemic cerebrovascular events. Age-adjusted incidence rates of TIA and ischemic stroke were 72.2/100,000 and 129.5/100,000 person-years, respectively. TIA patients were younger than stroke patients (66.3 vs. 72.7 years; p TIA and stroke patients share many characteristics; however, TIA patients are younger and have fewer manifestations of atherosclerotic diseases, indicating a high potential for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Is the measurement of inferior thyroid artery blood flow velocity by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography useful for differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Ozel, Alper; Velet, Selvinaz; Buğdacı, Mehmet Sait; Cil, Esra; Altuntas, Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    To determine the role of peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and resistance indices of both the right and left inferior thyroid arteries measured by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography for a differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease during pregnancy. The right and left inferior thyroid artery-peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and resistance indices of 96 patients with thyrotoxicosis (41 with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis, 31 age-matched pregnant patients with Graves' disease and 24 age- and sex-matched non-pregnant patients with Graves' disease) and 25 age and sex-matched healthy euthyroid subjects were assessed with color-flow Doppler ultrasonography. The right and left inferior thyroid artery-peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in patients with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis were found to be significantly lower than those of pregnant patients with Graves' disease and higher than those of healthy euthyroid subjects. However, the right and left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in pregnant patients with Graves' disease were significantly lower than those of non-pregnant patients with Graves' disease. The right and left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities were positively correlated with TSH-receptor antibody levels. We found an overlap between the inferior thyroid artery-blood flow velocities in a considerable number of patients with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and pregnant patients with Graves' disease. This study suggests that the measurement of inferior thyroid artery-blood flow velocities with color-flow Doppler ultrasonography does not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be recommended as an initial diagnostic test for a differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease during pregnancy.

  17. Calcium-dependent expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Hovsepian, Anahit

    2011-01-01

    patients with chronic kidney disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. TRPC3 channels were identified by immunoblotting using specific antibodies and TRPC3 protein was further confirmed by mass spectrometry. We observed a significant increase of TRPC3 channel protein expression...

  18. An Optimized Protocol to Increase Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Efficiency and Minimize Viral Symptoms in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Shaun R.; Jones, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used to down-regulate endogenous plant genes. VIGS efficiency depends on viral proliferation and systemic movement throughout the plant. Although tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS has been successfully used in petunia (Petunia × hybrida), the protocol has not been thoroughly optimized for efficient and uniform gene down-regulation in this species. Therefore, we evaluated six parameters that improved VIGS in petunia. Inoculation of mechanically wounde...

  19. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Zhang, Chunquan; Kernodle, Bliss M; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Hill, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. PMID:27208311

  1. Virus-induced apoptosis and phosphorylation form of metacaspase in the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Cai, Weicong; Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling

    2018-04-01

    Lytic viral infection and programmed cell death (PCD) are thought to represent two distinct death mechanisms in phytoplankton, unicellular photoautotrophs that drift with ocean currents. PCD (apoptosis) is mainly brought about by the activation of caspases, a protease family with unique substrate selectivity. Here, we demonstrated that virus infection induced apoptosis of marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi BOF92 involving activation of metacaspase. E. huxleyi cells exhibited cell death process akin to that of apoptosis when exposed to virus infection. We observed typical hallmarks of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, associated nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Immunoblotting revealed that antibody against human active-caspase-3 shared epitopes with a protein of ≈ 23 kDa; whose pattern of expression correlated with the onset of cell death. Moreover, analysis on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that two spots of active caspase-3 co-migrated with the different isoelectric points. Phosphatase treatment of cytosolic extracts containing active caspases-3 showed a mobility shift, suggesting that phosphorylated form of this enzyme might be present in the extracts. Computational prediction of phosphorylation sites based on the amino acid sequence of E. huxleyi metacaspase showed multiple phosphorylated sites for serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. This is the first report showing that phosphorylation modification of metacaspase in E. huxleyi might be required for certain biochemical and morphological changes during virus induced apoptosis.

  2. Functional analyses of cellulose synthase genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) by virus-induced gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantreau, Maxime; Chabbert, Brigitte; Billiard, Sylvain; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2015-12-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) bast fibres are located in the stem cortex where they play an important role in mechanical support. They contain high amounts of cellulose and so are used for linen textiles and in the composite industry. In this study, we screened the annotated flax genome and identified 14 distinct cellulose synthase (CESA) genes using orthologous sequences previously identified. Transcriptomics of 'primary cell wall' and 'secondary cell wall' flax CESA genes showed that some were preferentially expressed in different organs and stem tissues providing clues as to their biological role(s) in planta. The development for the first time in flax of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to functionally evaluate the biological role of different CESA genes in stem tissues. Quantification of transcript accumulation showed that in many cases, silencing not only affected targeted CESA clades, but also had an impact on other CESA genes. Whatever the targeted clade, inactivation by VIGS affected plant growth. In contrast, only clade 1- and clade 6-targeted plants showed modifications in outer-stem tissue organization and secondary cell wall formation. In these plants, bast fibre number and structure were severely impacted, suggesting that the targeted genes may play an important role in the establishment of the fibre cell wall. Our results provide new fundamental information about cellulose biosynthesis in flax that should facilitate future plant improvement/engineering. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Deteriorates Control of Systemic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Merches

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type I interferon (IFN-I predisposes to bacterial superinfections, an important problem during viral infection or treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α. IFN-I-induced neutropenia is one reason for the impaired bacterial control; however there is evidence that more frequent bacterial infections during IFN-α-treatment occur independently of neutropenia. Methods: We analyzed in a mouse model, whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa control is influenced by co-infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Bacterial titers, numbers of neutrophils and the gene-expression of liver-lysozyme-2 were determined during a 24 hours systemic infection with P. aeruginosa in wild-type and Ifnar-/- mice under the influence of LCMV or poly(I:C. Results: Virus-induced IFN-I impaired the control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was associated with neutropenia and loss of lysozyme-2-expression in the liver, which had captured P. aeruginosa. A lower release of IFN-I by poly(I:C-injection also impaired the bacterial control in the liver and reduced the expression of liver-lysozyme-2. Low concentration of IFN-I after infection with a virulent strain of P. aeruginosa alone impaired the bacterial control and reduced lysozyme-2-expression in the liver as well. Conclusion: We found that during systemic infection with P. aeruginosa Kupffer cells quickly controlled the bacteria in cooperation with neutrophils. Upon LCMV-infection this cooperation was disturbed.

  4. A CRISPR-Based Screen Identifies Genes Essential for West-Nile-Virus-Induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-07-28

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating Gene Function in Cereal Rust Fungi by Plant-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; Bakkeren, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Cereal rust fungi are destructive pathogens, threatening grain production worldwide. Targeted breeding for resistance utilizing host resistance genes has been effective. However, breakdown of resistance occurs frequently and continued efforts are needed to understand how these fungi overcome resistance and to expand the range of available resistance genes. Whole genome sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic studies followed by genome-wide computational and comparative analyses have identified large repertoire of genes in rust fungi among which are candidates predicted to code for pathogenicity and virulence factors. Some of these genes represent defence triggering avirulence effectors. However, functions of most genes still needs to be assessed to understand the biology of these obligate biotrophic pathogens. Since genetic manipulations such as gene deletion and genetic transformation are not yet feasible in rust fungi, performing functional gene studies is challenging. Recently, Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) has emerged as a useful tool to characterize gene function in rust fungi while infecting and growing in host plants. We utilized Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) to induce HIGS of candidate rust fungal genes in the wheat host to determine their role in plant-fungal interactions. Here, we describe the methods for using BSMV-VIGS in wheat for functional genomics study in cereal rust fungi.

  6. Outer nuclear membrane fusion of adjacent nuclei in varicella-zoster virus-induced syncytia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Lianwei; Huang, Xiumin; Fu, Wenkun; Pan, Dequan; Cai, Linli; Ye, Jianghui; Liu, Jian; Xia, Ningshao; Cheng, Tong; Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo. This work reveals a novel aspect of VZV-related cytopathic effect in the context of multinucleated syncytia. Additionally, the information provided by this study could be helpful for future studies on interactions of viruses with host cell nuclei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. C-reactive protein predicts further ischemic events in first-ever transient ischemic attack or stroke patients with intracranial large-artery occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Molina, Carlos A; Chacón, Pilar; Montaner, Joan; Rovira, Alex; Ibarra, Bernardo; Quintana, Manuel

    2003-10-01

    The role of inflammation in intracranial large-artery occlusive disease is unclear. We sought to investigate the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the risk of further ischemic events in first-ever transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke patients with intracranial large-artery occlusive disease. Of a total of 127 consecutive first-ever TIA or ischemic stroke patients with intracranial stenoses detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 71 fulfilled all inclusion criteria, which included angiographic confirmation. Serum high-sensitivity CRP level was determined a minimum of 3 months after the qualifying event. Patients were followed up during 1 year after blood sampling. Thirteen patients (18.3%) with intracranial large-artery occlusive disease experienced an end point event: 9 cerebral ischemic events, 7 of which were attributable to intracranial large-artery occlusive disease, and 4 myocardial infarctions. Patients in the highest quintile of high-sensitivity CRP level had a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for new events compared with those in the first quintile (odds ratio, 8.66; 95% CI, 1.39 to 53.84; P=0.01). A high-sensitivity CRP level above the receiver operating characteristic curve cutoff value of 1.41 mg/dL emerged as an independent predictor of new end point events (hazard ratio, 7.14; 95% CI, 1.77 to 28.73; P=0.005) and of further intracranial large-artery occlusive disease-related ischemic events (hazard ratio, 30.67; 95% CI, 3.6 to 255.5; P=0.0015), after adjustment for age, sex, and risk factors. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that a significantly lower proportion of patients with a high-sensitivity CRP >1.41 mg/dL remained free of a new ischemic event (P<0.0001). High-sensitivity CRP serum level predicts further intracranial large-artery occlusive disease-related and any major ischemic events in patients with first-ever TIA or stroke with intracranial large-artery occlusive disease. These findings

  8. Transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Mignaqui

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV. The use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. In this report, we explored transient gene expression (TGE in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of FMDV recombinant empty capsids as a subunit vaccine. The recombinant proteins produced, assembled into empty capsids and induced protective immune response against viral challenge in mice. Furthermore, they were recognized by anti-FMDV bovine sera. By using this technology, we were able to achieve expression levels that are compatible with the development of a vaccine. Thus, TGE of mammalian cells is an easy to perform, scalable and cost-effective technology for the production of a recombinant subunit vaccine against FMDV.

  9. Transient polyuria related to central diabetes insipidus caused by lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis in a patient treated for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masanori; Sato, Ai; Nishio, Shin-ichi; Uehara, Takeshi; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2010-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was hospitalized because of weight loss, finger tremor, thirst, polydipsia and increased urinary frequency. He was diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) and central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the enlarged posterior pituitary with thickened stalk. Histological examination obtained from biopsy of the pituitary revealed lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis. He received treatment with thiamazole (MMI) for GD and desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) for CDI. However, DDAVP administration could be discontinued as GD was gradually improved. This course indicates that not only the recovered renal response to arginine-vasopressin but also the immunomodulative effects of MMI might attribute to the improvement of polyuria.

  10. Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhangmei; Wang, Yan; Bian, Liang; Liu, Qingqing; Long, Jian-Er

    2017-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. However, the role of STAT3 in EV71 infection remains unknown. This study found that the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 (p Y705 -STAT3) are closely related to EV71 infection. Further experiments revealed that STAT3 exerts an anti-EV71 activity. However, the antiviral activity of STAT3 is partially antagonized by EV71-induced miR-124, which directly targets STAT3 mRNA. Similarly, IL-6R, the α-subunit of the IL-6 receptor complex, exhibits anti-EV71 activity and is directly targeted by the virus-induced miR-124. These results indicate that EV71 can evade host IL-6R- and STAT3-mediated antiviral activities by EV71-induced miR-124. This suggests that controlling miR-124 and the downstream targets, IL-6R and STAT3, might benefit the antiviral treatment of EV71 infection.

  11. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajão Daniela S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis can be induced or inhibited by viral proteins, it can form part of the host defense against virus infection, or it can be a mechanism for viral spread to neighboring cells. Canine distemper virus (CDV induces apoptotic cells in lymphoid tissues and in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected. CDV also produces a cytopathologic effect, leading to apoptosis in Vero cells in tissue culture. We tested canine distemper virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, for the ability to trigger apoptosis in HeLa cells, derived from cervical cancer cells resistant to apoptosis. To study the effect of CDV infection in HeLa cells, we examined apoptotic markers 24 h post infection (pi, by flow cytometry assay for DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR assay for caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA expression, and by caspase-3 and -8 immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry showed that DNA fragmentation was induced in HeLa cells infected by CDV, and immunocytochemistry revealed a significant increase in the levels of the cleaved active form of caspase-3 protein, but did not show any difference in expression of caspase-8, indicating an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Confirming this observation, expression of caspase-3 mRNA was higher in CDV infected HeLa cells than control cells; however, there was no statistically significant change in caspase-8 mRNA expression profile. Our data suggest that canine distemper virus induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, triggering apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway, with no participation of the initiator caspase -8 from the extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, the cellular stress caused by CDV infection of HeLa cells, leading to apoptosis, can be used as a tool in future research for cervical cancer treatment and control.

  12. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infants with urinary tract malformations (UTM presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI are prone to develop transient type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (THPA1. Objective. Report on patient series with characteristics of THPA1, UTM and/or UTI and suggestions for the diagnosis and therapy. Methods. Patients underwent blood and urine electrolyte and acid-base analysis, serum aldosterosterone levels and plasma rennin activity measuring; urinalysis, urinoculture and renal ultrasound were done and medical and/or surgical therapy was instituted. Results. Hyponatraemia (120.9±5.8 mmol/L, hyperkalaemia (6.9±0.9 mmol/L, metabolic acidosis (plasma bicarbonate, 11±1.4 mmol/L, and a rise in serum creatinine levels (145±101 μmol/L were associated with inappropriately high urinary sodium (51.3±17.5 mmol/L and low potassium (14.1±5.9 mmol/L excretion. Elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations (170.4±100.5 ng/dL and the very high levels of the plasma aldosterone to potassium ratio (25.2±15.6 together with diminished urinary K/Na values (0.31±0.19 indicated tubular resistance to aldosterone. After institution of appropriate medical and/or surgical therapy, serum electrolytes, creatinine, and acid-base balance were normalized. Imaging studies showed ureteropyelic or ureterovesical junction obstruction in 3 and 2 patients, respectively, posterior urethral valves in 3, and normal UT in 1 patient. According to our knowledge, this is the first report on THPA1 in the Serbian literature. Conclusion. Male infants with hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis have to have their urine examined and the renal ultrasound has to be done in order to avoid both, the underdiagnosis of THPA1 and the inappropriate medication.

  13. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing for the functional characterization of maize genes during infection with the fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    While in dicotyledonous plants virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is well established to study plant-pathogen interaction, in monocots only few examples of efficient VIGS have been reported so far. One of the available systems is based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) which allows gene silencing in different cereals including barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays).Infection of maize plants by the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on stem, leaves, and inflorescences. During this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed comprehensive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression.To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a VIGS system based on the Brome mosaic virus (BMV) to maize at conditions that allow successful U. maydis infection of BMV pre-infected maize plants. This setup enables quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (q(RT)-PCR)-based readout.

  14. Singapore grouper iridovirus, a large DNA virus, induces nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion and evokes ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Xu, Lixiao; Yan, Yang; Cui, Huachun; Han, Xin; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-08-01

    Virus induced cell death, including apoptosis and nonapoptotic cell death, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), a novel iridovirus of genus Ranavirus, causes high mortality and heavy economic losses in grouper aquaculture. Here, using fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and biochemical assays, we found that SGIV infection in host (grouper spleen, EAGS) cells evoked nonapoptotic programmed cell death (PCD), characterized by appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles and distended endoplasmic reticulum, in the absence of DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies and caspase activation. In contrast, SGIV induced typical apoptosis in non-host (fathead minnow, FHM) cells, as evidenced by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion. Furthermore, viral replication was essential for SGIV induced nonapoptotic cell death, but not for apoptosis. Notably, the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) were not detected in EAGS cells but in FHM cells after SGIV infection. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was involved in SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death and viral replication. This is a first demonstration of ERK-mediated nonapoptotic cell death induced by a DNA virus. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  15. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  16. Antibody response is required for protection from Theiler's virus-induced encephalitis in C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CD8+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, B.-S.; Palma, Joann P.; Lyman, Michael A.; Dal Canto, Mauro; Kim, Byung S.

    2005-01-01

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces immune-mediated demyelinating disease and this system serves as a relevant infectious model for human multiple sclerosis. It was previously shown that β 2 M-deficient C57BL/6 mice lacking functional CD8 + T cells display increased viral persistence and enhanced susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelination, and yet the majority of mice are free of clinical signs. To understand the mechanisms involved in this general resistance of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CTL responses, mice (μMT) deficient in the B-cell compartment lacking membrane IgM molecules were treated with anti-CD8 antibody and then infected with TMEV. Although little difference in the proliferative responses of peripheral T cells to UV-inactivated TMEV and the resistance to demyelinating disease was observed between virus-infected μMT and control B6 mice, the levels of CD4 + T cells were higher in the CNS of μMT mice. However, after treatment with anti-CD8 antibody, 100% of the mice displayed clinical gray matter disease and prolonged viral persistence in μMT mice, while only 10% of B6 mice showed clinical symptoms and very low viral persistence. Transfusion of sera from TMEV-infected B6 mice into anti-CD8 antibody-treated μMT mice partially restored resistance to virus-induced encephalitis. These results indicate that the early anti-viral antibody response is also important in the protection from TMEV-induced encephalitis particularly in the absence of CD8 + T cells

  17. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  18. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as an early and sensitive marker for virus-induced T cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Johansen, J; Marker, O

    1995-01-01

    mice, clearly demonstrating that T cells were mandatory. Analysis of MHC class I and MHC class II-deficient mice revealed that either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells alone are sufficient, despite a markedly reduced inflammatory exudate in the former animals. These results indicate that virus-activated T cells......The effect of systemic virus infection on the level of circulating ICAM-1 (cICAM-1) in serum, and the role of virus-activated T cells in this context, were studied using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection as primary model system. A marked virus-induced elevation in cICAM-1...... in serum was revealed, the presence of which coincided with the phase of virus-induced T cell activation. However, high levels of cICAM-1 in serum were observed well before maximal T cell activation could be demonstrated. No increase in cICAM-1 was observed in the serum of infected T cell-deficient nude...

  19. Aplasia transitória da série vermelha na anemia falciforme Transient red cell aplasia in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica P. A. Veríssimo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A doença falciforme, devido à vida média encurtada das hemácias, pelo quadro de hemólise crônica, pode apresentar um quadro clínico grave de anemia quando ocorre supressão da eritropoese devida à infecção pelo Parvovírus humano B19. O quadro clínico apresenta-se com febre, que pode preceder a anemia grave, fraqueza e mal- estar, além de sinais laboratoriais como queda da hemoglobina e reticulocitopenia importante. Diagnóstico laboratorial pode ser por imunofluorescência ou ensaio enzimático. O tratamento é a transfusão de concentrado de hemácias. Pode haver complicações associadas a esta infecção, tais como seqüestro esplênico, seqüestro hepático, síndrome torácica aguda, síndrome nefrótica, meningoencefalite e acidente vascular cerebral. Estratégias de prevenção poderão mudar a morbi-mortalidade desta condição no paciente portador de doença falciforme.Sickle cell disease due to shortened life span of red blood cells by hemolysis, may present with severe anemia when erythropoietic suppression occurs due to infection by the Human parvovirus B19. The clinical presentation presents with fever, which may precede transient red cell aplasia, as well as laboratorial signs such as a drop in hemoglobin and significant reticulo cytopenia. Laboratorial diagnosis may be by immunofluorescence or enzymatic assays. Treatment is achieved by transfusion of packed red blood cells. Complications may be associated to this infection, including splenic and hepatic sequestration, acute chest syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, meningoencephalitis and strokes. Strategies of prevention are able to change the morbidity and mortality of this condition in sickle cell disease patients.

  20. Age-Specific Associations of Renal Impairment With Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Lau, Kui Kai; Li, Linxin; Lovelock, Caroline; Liu, Ming; Kuker, Wilhelm; Rothwell, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and chronic renal impairment may be part of a multisystem small-vessel disorder, but their association may simply be as a result of shared risk factors (eg, hypertension) rather than to a systemic susceptibility to premature SVD. However, most previous studies were hospital based, most had inadequate adjustment for hypertension, many were confined to patients with lacunar stroke, and none stratified by age. In a population-based study of transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular Study]), we evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral SVD, including lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, and enlarged perivascular space. We studied the age-specific associations of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ) and total SVD burden (total SVD score) adjusting for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and premorbid blood pressure (mean blood pressure during 15 years preevent). Of 1080 consecutive patients, 1028 (95.2%) had complete magnetic resonance imaging protocol and creatinine measured at baseline. Renal impairment was associated with total SVD score (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-2.75; P <0.001), but only at age <60 years (<60 years: OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.69-9.32; P =0.002; 60-79 years: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72-1.41; P =0.963; ≥80 years: OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.59-1.54; P =0.832). The overall association of renal impairment and total SVD score was also attenuated after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premorbid average systolic blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.02; P =0.067), but the independent association of renal impairment and total SVD score at age <60 years was maintained (adjusted OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.21-7.98; P =0.018). Associations of renal impairment and SVD were consistent for each SVD marker at age <60 years but

  1. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Duncan disease Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferative disease in males familial fatal ... the proapoptotic SAP function in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease aggravates Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced mononucleosis and promotes lymphoma development. ...

  2. The gastric accommodation response to meal intake determines the occurrence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and reflux events in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, A; Altan, E; Tack, J

    2014-04-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), the retrograde flow of gastric contents into the esophagus is a physiologic phenomenon, which can evoke symptoms and/or lesions in the esophagus (=gastro-esophageal reflux disease or GERD). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce gastric acidity; however, as they are unable to control transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), the main mechanism for reflux in GERD, they do not abolish reflux. TLESRs occur predominantly in the postprandial period, and they are believed to be triggered by gastric distention. Gastric accommodation (GA) is the physiologic response to gastric distention and serves to prevent a rise in gastric wall tension during food intake. We aimed to study the relationship between GA and TLESRs, as they both are triggered by gastric distention. We studied 12 GERD patients (average age 37 years [range 18-62], 7m/5f) and nine healthy volunteers (average age 27 years [range 22-36], 2m/7f) using high resolution manometry-impedance measurement before and after a mixed meal challenge. We determined the number of TLESRs (with or without reflux) and measured pre- and postprandial IGP. The change in IGP between the pre- and postprandial period (ΔIGP) is used as surrogate for GA. We also measured LES pressure before and after the meal and calculated the change (ΔLESp). There were no statistical differences between pre- and postprandial IGP in GERD and healthy volunteers and similarly, there was no significant difference between pre- and postprandial LES pressures in GERD patients and healthy volunteers. The number of TLESRs (with or without reflux) was similar in GERD and healthy volunteers. More importantly, we did observe a negative correlation between ΔIGP and the number of TLESRs, irrespective of whether they were associated with reflux or not, in the GERD patients (without reflux r = -0.67, p = 0.017; with reflux r = -0.81, p = 0.0014). The same observations were found in healthy volunteers, where ΔIGP and

  3. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  4. Identification and validation of a virus-inducible ta-siRNA-generating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... and bacterial spot disease resistance protein Bs4 gene. ... whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and infect a variety of crops, both monocot and dicot, causing ..... virus variant associated with newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of ...

  5. PSH Transient Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    PSH Transient Simulation Modeling presentation from the WPTO FY14 - FY16 Peer Review. Transient effects are an important consideration when designing a PSH system, yet numerical techniques for hydraulic transient analysis still need improvements for adjustable-speed (AS) reversible pump-turbine applications.

  6. Identification of an attenuated barley stripe mosaic virus for the virus-induced gene silencing of pathogenesis-related wheat genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Leann M; Clark, Shawn M; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an emerging technology for the rapid, efficient functional genomic screening of monocot and dicot species. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) has been described as an effective VIGS vehicle for the evaluation of genes involved in wheat and barley phytopathogenesis; however, these studies have been obscured by BSMV-induced phenotypes and defense responses. The utility of BSMV VIGS may be improved using a BSMV genetic background which is more tolerable to the host plant especially upon secondary infection of highly aggressive, necrotrophic pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum. BSMV-induced VIGS in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) cv. 'Fielder' was assessed for the study of wheat genes putatively related to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), the necrotrophism of wheat and other cereals by F. graminearum. Due to the lack of 'Fielder' spike viability and increased accumulation of Fusarium-derived deoxynivalenol contamination upon co-infection of BSMV and FHB, an attenuated BSMV construct was generated by the addition of a glycine-rich, C-terminal peptide to the BSMV γ b protein. This attenuated BSMV effectively silenced target wheat genes while limiting disease severity, deoxynivalenol contamination, and yield loss upon Fusarium co-infection compared to the original BSMV construct. The attenuated BSMV-infected tissue exhibited reduced abscisic, jasmonic, and salicylic acid defense phytohormone accumulation upon secondary Fusarium infection. Finally, the attenuated BSMV was used to investigate the role of the salicylic acid-responsive pathogenesis-related 1 in response to FHB. The use of an attenuated BSMV may be advantageous in characterizing wheat genes involved in phytopathogenesis, including Fusarium necrotrophism, where minimal viral background effects on defense are required. Additionally, the attenuated BSMV elicits reduced defense hormone accumulation, suggesting that this genotype may have applications for the

  7. Growth of transplantable melanoma and leukaemia and prevention of virus-induced leukaemia in long lived radiation chimeras constructed with unmanipulated bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierpaoli, W.

    1985-01-01

    Haemopoietic radiation chimeras across the H-2 barrier (BALB/c → C57B1/6; H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b) chimeras and vice versa) have been studied for their capacity to suppress the growth, or to reject, transplantable B16 melanotic melanoma and radiation leukaemia virus-induced, transplantable leukaemia. Also, radiation leukaemia virus (RadLV) obtained from the thymus of leukaemic C57B1/6 mice was injected i.p. into established chimeras (H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b)). As expected, long lived, graft versus host disease free allogeneic chimeras constructed with intact bone marrow were unable to reject the tumours both when recipients were BALB/c → C57B1/6 or C57B1/6 → BALB/c chimeras. However, inoculation of a large number of immunocompetent cells from normal BALB/c mice into BALB/c → C57B1/6 chimeras failed to promote a rejection of the tumours. On the contrary, the same amount of syngeneic (BALB/c) immunocompetent cells prevented growth of melanoma when transferred into athymic nude BALB/c mice, while the tumour grew unimpaired in untreated athymic nude BALB/c mice. The same type of H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b) chimeras displayed complete resistance to inoculation of leukaemogenic H-2sup(b) restricted RadLV while all H-2sup(b) → H-2sup(b), syngeneically reconstituted mice developed disseminated leukaemia. (author)

  8. Solanum venturii, a suitable model system for virus-induced gene silencing studies in potato reveals StMKK6 as an important player in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobnik, David; Lazar, Ana; Stare, Tjaša; Gruden, Kristina; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Žel, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an optimal tool for functional analysis of genes in plants, as the viral vector spreads throughout the plant and causes reduced expression of selected gene over the whole plant. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important food crops,

  9. Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the CaMV 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation 0 plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification.

  10. Transient plant transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Principles, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient regional osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Marquina, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel-Ángel; Cano, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Transient regional osteoporosis (TRO) is a disease that predisposes to fragility fracture in weight bearing joints of mid-life women and men. Pregnant women may also suffer the process, usually at the hip. The prevalence of TRO is lower than the systemic form, associated with postmenopause and advanced age, but may be falsely diminished by under-diagnosis. The disease may be uni- or bilateral, and may migrate to distinct joints. One main feature of TRO is spontaneous recovery. Pain and progressive limitation in the functionality of the affected joint(s) are key symptoms. In the case of the form associated with pregnancy, difficulties in diagnosis derive from the relatively young age at presentation and from the clinical overlapping with the frequent aches during gestation. Densitometric osteoporosis in the affected region is not always present, but bone marrow edema, with or without joint effusion, is detected by magnetic resonance. There are not treatment guidelines, but the association of antiresorptives to symptomatic treatment seems to be beneficial. Surgery or other orthopedic interventions can be required for specific indications, like hip fracture, intra-medullary decompression, or other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0169 TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...SUBTITLE TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Burhan...88ABW-2017-3747, Clearance Date 31 July 2017. Paper contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Transient electronics is an emerging technology area that lacks proper

  13. [Transient amnesia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellal, François

    2006-03-01

    The two main aetiologies of transient amnesia in the elderly are idiopathic transient global amnesia (TGA) and iatrogenic or toxic amnesia. Vascular and epileptic amnesia are less common. According to the literature, transient psychogenic amnesia, which is a frequent cause of amnesia at age 30 to 50, is very rare in the elderly. TGA is the prototypical picture of transient amnesia. It occurs more often after age 50, with no identified cause, even if some authors accept emotional stress or minor head trauma as occasional precipitants. The mechanism of TGA remains a matter of discussion. It may be the consequence of a spreading depression similar to that described in migraine with aura, but other arguments support an ischemic mechanism. Iatrogenic amnesias are mainly caused by benzodiazepines (BZs) or anticholinergics. The former may occur in a non-anxious subject, who is not a usual consumer of BZ and takes a single dose. The latter are more often due to a hypersensitivity to anticholinergic drugs, in particular in patients presenting with a covert, incipient Alzheimer's disease. A vascular origin must be considered when amnesia is accompanied by other neurological symptoms, and when the regression of the amnesic disorder is slow, lasting several days. It results from lesions involving various mechanisms and locations, mainly subcortical. Partial seizures, most often mesio-temporal, more rarely frontal, may be the cause of transient amnesia in the elderly, in the absence of a past history of epilepsy. The red flag supportive of an epileptic origin is the repetition of stereotyped amnesic episodes. EEG demonstration of seizures may be difficult and the response to antiepileptic drugs effective on partial seizures is usually good.

  14. Immune Response and Partial Protection against Heterologous Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Induced by Dendrimer Peptides in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides mimicking protective B- and T-cell epitopes are good candidates for safer, more effective FMD vaccines. Nevertheless, previous studies of immunization with linear peptides showed that they failed to induce solid protection in cattle. Dendrimeric peptides displaying two or four copies of a peptide corresponding to the B-cell epitope VP1 [136–154] of type O FMDV (O/UKG/11/2001 linked through thioether bonds to a single copy of the T-cell epitope 3A [21–35] (termed B2T and B4T, resp. afforded protection in vaccinated pigs. In this work, we show that dendrimeric peptides B2T and B4T can elicit specific humoral responses in cattle and confer partial protection against the challenge with a heterologous type O virus (O1/Campos/Bra/58. This protective response correlated with the induction of specific T-cells as well as with an anamnestic antibody response upon virus challenge, as shown by the detection of virus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC in lymphoid tissues distal from the inoculation point.

  15. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  16. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  17. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  18. Dengue virus-induced regulation of the host cell translational machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.A. Villas-Bôas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV-induced changes in the host cell protein synthesis machinery are not well understood. We investigated the transcriptional changes related to initiation of protein synthesis. The human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was infected with DV serotype 2 for 1 h at a multiplicity of infection of one. RNA was extracted after 6, 24 and 48 h. Microarray results showed that 36.5% of the translation factors related to initiation of protein synthesis had significant differential expression (Z-score ≥ ±2.0. Confirmation was obtained by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Of the genes involved in the activation of mRNA for cap-dependent translation (eIF4 factors, eIF4A, eIF4G1 and eIF4B were up-regulated while the negative regulator of translation eIF4E-BP3 was down-regulated. This activation was transient since at 24 h post-infection levels were not significantly different from control cells. However, at 48 h post-infection, eIF4A, eIF4E, eIF4G1, eIF4G3, eIF4B, and eIF4E-BP3 were down-regulated, suggesting that cap-dependent translation could be inhibited during the progression of infection. To test this hypothesis, phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1, which induce cap-dependent protein synthesis, was assayed. Both proteins remained phosphorylated when assayed at 6 h after infection, while infection induced dephosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1 at 24 and 48 h of infection, respectively. Taken together, these results provide biological evidence suggesting that in HepG2 cells DV sustains activation of the cap-dependent machinery at early stages of infection, but progression of infection switches protein synthesis to a cap-independent process.

  19. Gene-gun DNA vaccination aggravates respiratory syncytial virus-induced pneumonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Christina; Olszewska, Wieslawa; Stryhn, Anette

    2004-01-01

    elicited with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the complete RSV M2 protein, but stronger than those induced by a similar DNA construct without the beta2m gene. DNA vaccination led to enhanced pulmonary disease after RSV challenge, with increased weight loss and cell recruitment to the lung. Depletion......A CD8+ T-cell memory response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was generated by using a DNA vaccine construct encoding the dominant Kd-restricted epitope from the viral transcription anti-terminator protein M2 (M2(82-90)), linked covalently to human beta2-microglobulin (beta2m). Cutaneous gene...... of CD8+ T cells reduced, but did not abolish, enhancement of disease. Mice vaccinated with a construct encoding a class I-restricted lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus epitope and beta2m suffered more severe weight loss after RSV infection than unvaccinated RSV-infected mice, although RSV-specific CD8...

  20. Identification of an attenuated barley stripe mosaic virus for the virus-induced gene silencing of pathogenesis-related wheat genes

    OpenAIRE

    Buhrow, Leann M.; Clark, Shawn M.; Loewen, Michele C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an emerging technology for the rapid, efficient functional genomic screening of monocot and dicot species. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) has been described as an effective VIGS vehicle for the evaluation of genes involved in wheat and barley phytopathogenesis; however, these studies have been obscured by BSMV-induced phenotypes and defense responses. The utility of BSMV VIGS may be improved using a BSMV genetic background which...

  1. Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) polymorphisms and expression are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruijuan; Liu, Haipeng; Song, Peng; Feng, Yonghong; Qin, Lianhua; Huang, Xiaochen; Chen, Jianxia; Yang, Hua; Liu, Zhonghua; Cui, Zhenglin; Hu, Zhongyi; Ge, Baoxue

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and host genetic factors play a critical role in susceptibility and resistance to TB. The aim of this study was to identify novel candidate genes associated with TB susceptibility. We performed a population-based case-control study to genotype 13 tag SNPs spanning Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), IL-4, interferon beta 1 (IFNB1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (CXCL14) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) genes in 435 pulmonary TB patients and 375 health donors from China. We observed that EBI3 gene rs4740 polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and the allele G was associated with a protective effect against PTB. Furthermore, EBI3 deficiency led to reduced bacterial burden and histopathological impairment in the lung of mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Meanwhile, higher abundance of EBI3 was observed in the granuloma of PTB patients and in the lung tissue of BCG-infected mice. Of note, the expression of EBI3 in macrophages was remarkably induced by mycobacteria infection at both mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, EBI3 gene rs4740 polymorphism is closely associated with susceptibility to PTB and the elevation and enrichment of EBI3 in the lung which at least partially derived from macrophages may contribute to the exacerbation of mycobacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunological responses against human papilloma virus and human papilloma virus induced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sakazaki, T; Ono, T; Kurita, T; Mihashi, H; Nakashima, T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the local immune status in the larynx in the presence of infection or carcinogenesis associated with human papilloma virus. Cytological samples (for human papilloma virus detection) and laryngeal secretions (for immunoglobulin assessment) were obtained from 31 patients with laryngeal disease, during microscopic laryngeal surgery. On histological examination, 12 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had laryngeal papilloma and 15 had other benign laryngeal disease. Cytological samples were tested for human papilloma virus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. High risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 25 per cent of patients (three of 12) with laryngeal cancer. Low risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected only in three laryngeal papilloma patients. The mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A in human papilloma virus DNA positive patients were more than twice those in human papilloma virus DNA negative patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between the secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in the two groups. Patients with laryngeal cancer had higher laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type, compared with patients with benign laryngeal disease. The study assessed the mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type in the 12 laryngeal cancer patients, comparing human papilloma virus DNA positive patients (n = 3) and human papilloma virus DNA negative patients (n = 9); the mean concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A tended to be greater in human papilloma virus DNA positive cancer patients, compared with human papilloma virus DNA negative cancer patients. These results suggest that the local laryngeal immune response is activated by infection or carcinogenesis due to human papilloma virus. The findings strongly suggest that secretory IgA has inhibitory activity

  3. Apparent feline leukemia virus-induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristy N; Wright, Zachary

    2010-04-01

    Chylothorax secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed in a feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-positive 8-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair feline. The leukemia resolved following therapy with chlorambucil, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and lomustine. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CLL in an FeLV-positive cat. Although a causative relationship cannot be proven, patients diagnosed with either disease may benefit from diagnostics to rule out the presence of the other concurrent condition. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, V; Pascual, E; Avia, M; Rangel, G; de Molina, A; Alejo, A; Sevilla, N

    2016-01-06

    Ovine interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a unique type I interferon with low toxicity and a broad host range in vivo. We report the generation of a nonreplicative recombinant adenovirus expressing biologically active IFN-τ. Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent lethality and disease induced by highly virulent hv-PR8 influenza virus by activating the interferon response and preventing viral replication. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Summary of transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the papers on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) transient analyses given at the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors. Most of the papers were based on the systems calculations performed using the TRAC-PWR, RELAP5 and RETRAN codes. The status of the nuclear industry in the code applications area is discussed. It is concluded that even though comprehensive computer codes are available for plant transient analysis, there is still a need to exercise engineering judgment, simpler tools and even hand calculations to supplement these codes

  6. Classical swine fever virus induces pyroptosis in the peripheral lymphoid organs of infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Zhu, Mengjiao; Deng, Shaofeng; Fan, Shuangqi; Xu, Hailuan; Liao, Jiedan; Li, Peng; Zheng, Jingfang; Zhao, Mingqiu; Chen, Jinding

    2018-05-02

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly lethal disease in pigs, which is characterized by immunosuppression. Leukopenia is known to be a possible mechanism of immunosuppression during CSFV infection. As a new and specialized form of cell death, pyroptosis is the key response of the innate immune system to pathogens, and is widely involved in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. However, the relationship between CSFV and pyroptosis has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of pyroptosis in pigs following CSFV infection. According to qRT-PCR assay results, the prevalence of this virus in peripheral lymphoid organs (tonsils, lymph nodes, and spleen) was much higher than that in other organs. Severe bleeding, necrosis, and a significant reduction in lymphocytes were found in the peripheral lymphoid organs of CSFV-infected pigs based on histological examination. In-depth studies showed that an increased ratio of deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were present in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group according to immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the p10 subunit and activity of caspase-1, which is a regulator of pyroptosis, the N-terminal domain of gasdermin D, which is an executor of pyroptosis, and the cleavage and secretion of IL-1b, which is a product of pyroptosis were increased in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group. Together, these results demonstrated that pyroptosis is involved in CSFV-induced cell death in vivo, which provides a new understanding of the mechanism associated with lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in pigs infected with this virus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PWR systems transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.F.; Peeler, G.B.; Abramson, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of transients in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems involves the assessment of the response of the total plant, including primary and secondary coolant systems, steam piping and turbine (possibly including the complete feedwater train), and various control and safety systems. Transient analysis is performed as part of the plant safety analysis to insure the adequacy of the reactor design and operating procedures and to verify the applicable plant emergency guidelines. Event sequences which must be examined are developed by considering possible failures or maloperations of plant components. These vary in severity (and calculational difficulty) from a series of normal operational transients, such as minor load changes, reactor trips, valve and pump malfunctions, up to the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary reactor coolant system pipe known as a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA). The focus of this paper is the analysis of all those transients and accidents except loss of coolant accidents

  8. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  9. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  10. Clinical courses of herpes simplex virus-induced urethritis in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Kondo, Hiromi; Yamada, Yoshiteru; Nakane, Keita; Mizutani, Kosuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    We retrieved clinical data of 13 men having herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) without visible herpetic lesions. They visited a clinic in Sendai, Japan, between April 2013 and December 2015. All the men complained of dysuria. Meatitis was observed in 9 of the 13 men. Mononuclear cells were observed in the urethral smears from 9 men. The 13 men were treated with azithromycin or sitafloxacin regimen. First-voided urine (FVU) specimens became negative for HSV in 8 of the 10 men who returned to the clinic after antibacterial treatment, and urethritis symptoms were alleviated. However, herpetic lesions were observed at the follow-up visits in 3 men, and 2 of them were still positive for HSV in their FVU. HSV could be a cause of acute urethritis without causing visible herpetic lesions. The shedding of HSV from the urethra would spontaneously cease with alleviation of urethritis symptoms in most cases of HSV-induced NGU without antiviral therapy. However, new herpetic lesions could be developed in some cases. Early antiviral therapy is beneficial for patients with HSV infections. The development of meatitis and the mononuclear cell response in the urethral smear could be helpful to diagnose HSV-induced NGU. Therefore, we should presumptively initiate anti-HSV therapy for patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of HSV-induced NGU at their first presentation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toscana virus induces interferon although its NSs protein reveals antagonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori Savellini, Gianni; Weber, Friedemann; Terrosi, Chiara; Habjan, Matthias; Martorelli, Barbara; Cusi, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is a phlebotomus-transmitted virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and causes widespread infections in humans; about 30 % of these cases result in aseptic meningitis. In the present study, it was shown that TOSV is an inducer of beta interferon (IFN-β), although its non-structural protein (NSs) could inhibit the induction of IFN-β if expressed in a heterologous context. A recombinant Rift Valley fever virus expressing the TOSV NSs could suppress IFN-β expression in infected cells. Moreover, in cells expressing NSs protein from a cDNA plasmid, IFN-β transcripts were not inducible by poly(I : C). Unlike other members of the family Bunyaviridae, TOSV appears to express an NSs protein that is a weak antagonist of IFN induction. Characterization of the interaction of TOSV with the IFN system will help our understanding of virus-host cell interactions and may explain why the pathogenesis of this disease is mostly mild in humans.

  12. Transcriptional changes in canine distemper virus-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis favor a biphasic mode of demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Ulrich

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs (Canis familiaris is suggested to represent a naturally occurring translational model for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was a hypothesis-free microarray analysis of the transcriptional changes within cerebellar specimens of five cases of acute, six cases of subacute demyelinating, and three cases of chronic demyelinating and inflammatory CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to twelve non-infected control dogs. Frozen cerebellar specimens were used for analysis of histopathological changes including demyelination, transcriptional changes employing microarrays, and presence of CDV nucleoprotein RNA and protein using microarrays, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 780 differentially expressed probe sets. The dominating change was an up-regulation of genes related to the innate and the humoral immune response, and less distinct the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in all subtypes of CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to controls. Multiple myelin genes including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein displayed a selective down-regulation in subacute CDV leukoencephalitis, suggestive of an oligodendrocyte dystrophy. In contrast, a marked up-regulation of multiple immunoglobulin-like expressed sequence tags and the delta polypeptide of the CD3 antigen was observed in chronic CDV leukoencephalitis, in agreement with the hypothesis of an immune-mediated demyelination in the late inflammatory phase of the disease. Analysis of pathways intimately linked to demyelination as determined by morphometry employing correlation-based Gene Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted the pathomechanistic importance of up-regulated genes comprised by the gene ontology terms "viral replication" and "humoral immune response" as well as down-regulated genes functionally related to "metabolite and energy

  13. Transcriptional changes in canine distemper virus-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis favor a biphasic mode of demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Reiner; Puff, Christina; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs (Canis familiaris) is suggested to represent a naturally occurring translational model for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was a hypothesis-free microarray analysis of the transcriptional changes within cerebellar specimens of five cases of acute, six cases of subacute demyelinating, and three cases of chronic demyelinating and inflammatory CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to twelve non-infected control dogs. Frozen cerebellar specimens were used for analysis of histopathological changes including demyelination, transcriptional changes employing microarrays, and presence of CDV nucleoprotein RNA and protein using microarrays, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 780 differentially expressed probe sets. The dominating change was an up-regulation of genes related to the innate and the humoral immune response, and less distinct the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in all subtypes of CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to controls. Multiple myelin genes including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein displayed a selective down-regulation in subacute CDV leukoencephalitis, suggestive of an oligodendrocyte dystrophy. In contrast, a marked up-regulation of multiple immunoglobulin-like expressed sequence tags and the delta polypeptide of the CD3 antigen was observed in chronic CDV leukoencephalitis, in agreement with the hypothesis of an immune-mediated demyelination in the late inflammatory phase of the disease. Analysis of pathways intimately linked to demyelination as determined by morphometry employing correlation-based Gene Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted the pathomechanistic importance of up-regulated genes comprised by the gene ontology terms "viral replication" and "humoral immune response" as well as down-regulated genes functionally related to "metabolite and energy generation".

  14. Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Induced Stromal Keratitis by a Glycoprotein B-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dirks, Miriam; Kasper, Maren; Buch, Anna; Dittmer, Ulf; Giebel, Bernd; Wildschütz, Lena; Busch, Martin; Goergens, Andre; Schneweis, Karl E.; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M.; Sodeik, Beate; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Roggendorf, Michael; Bauer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV) and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK) is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c) that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis) or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy). Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day) of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c) was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans. PMID:25587898

  15. Transcriptional Changes in Canine Distemper Virus-Induced Demyelinating Leukoencephalitis Favor a Biphasic Mode of Demyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Reiner; Puff, Christina; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs (Canis familiaris) is suggested to represent a naturally occurring translational model for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was a hypothesis-free microarray analysis of the transcriptional changes within cerebellar specimens of five cases of acute, six cases of subacute demyelinating, and three cases of chronic demyelinating and inflammatory CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to twelve non-infected control dogs. Frozen cerebellar specimens were used for analysis of histopathological changes including demyelination, transcriptional changes employing microarrays, and presence of CDV nucleoprotein RNA and protein using microarrays, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 780 differentially expressed probe sets. The dominating change was an up-regulation of genes related to the innate and the humoral immune response, and less distinct the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in all subtypes of CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to controls. Multiple myelin genes including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein displayed a selective down-regulation in subacute CDV leukoencephalitis, suggestive of an oligodendrocyte dystrophy. In contrast, a marked up-regulation of multiple immunoglobulin-like expressed sequence tags and the delta polypeptide of the CD3 antigen was observed in chronic CDV leukoencephalitis, in agreement with the hypothesis of an immune-mediated demyelination in the late inflammatory phase of the disease. Analysis of pathways intimately linked to demyelination as determined by morphometry employing correlation-based Gene Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted the pathomechanistic importance of up-regulated genes comprised by the gene ontology terms “viral replication” and “humoral immune response” as well as down-regulated genes functionally related to “metabolite and energy

  16. Prevention of herpes simplex virus induced stromal keratitis by a glycoprotein B-specific monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Krawczyk

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy. Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans.

  17. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing and performance evaluation of four marker genes in Gossypium barbadense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Pang

    Full Text Available Gossypiumbarbadense is a cultivated cotton species and possesses many desirable traits, including high fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, especially Verticilliumdahliae (a devastating pathogen of Gossypium hirsutum, the main cultivated species. These elite traits are difficult to be introduced into G. hirsutum through classical breeding methods. In addition, genetic transformation of G. barbadense has not been successfully performed. It is therefore important to develop methods for evaluating the function and molecular mechanism of genes in G. barbadense. In this study, we had successfully introduced a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS system into three cultivars of G. barbadense by inserting marker genes into the tobacco rattle virus (TRV vector. After we optimized the VIGS conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, seedling age and Agrobacterium strain, 100% of plants agroinfiltrated with the GaPDS silencing vector showed white colored leaves. Three other marker genes, GaCLA1, GaANS and GaANR, were employed to further test this VIGS system in G. barbadense. The transcript levels of the endogenous genes in the silenced plants were reduced by more than 99% compared to control plants; these plants presented phenotypic symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation. We introduced a fusing sequence fragment of GaPDS and GaANR gene silencing vectors into a single plant, which resulted in both photobleaching and brownish coloration. The extent of silencing in plants agroinfiltrated with fusing two-gene-silencing vector was consistent with plants harboring a single gene silencing vector. The development of this VIGS system should promote analysis of gene function in G. barbadense, and help to contribute desirable traits for breeding of G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.

  18. Bradykinin-induced lung inflammation and bronchoconstriction: role in parainfluenze-3 virus-induced inflammation and airway hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Blair, Alan E; Kidd, Emma J; Bugert, Joachim J; Ford, William R

    2010-12-01

    Inhaled bradykinin causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects but not nonasthmatics. To date, animal studies with inhaled bradykinin have been performed only in anesthetized guinea pigs and rats, where it causes bronchoconstriction through sensory nerve pathways. In the present study, airway function was recorded in conscious guinea pigs by whole-body plethysmography. Inhaled bradykinin (1 mM, 20 s) caused bronchoconstriction and influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs, but only when the enzymatic breakdown of bradykinin by angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase was inhibited by captopril (1 mg/kg i.p.) and phosphoramidon (10 mM, 20-min inhalation), respectively. The bronchoconstriction and cell influx were antagonized by the B(2) kinin receptor antagonist 4-(S)-amino-5-(4-{4-[2,4-dichloro-3-(2,4-dimethyl-8-quinolyloxymethyl)phenylsulfonamido]-tetrahydro-2H-4-pyranylcarbonyl}piperazino)-5-oxopentyl](trimethyl)ammonium chloride hydrochloride (MEN16132) when given by inhalation (1 and 10 μM, 20 min) and are therefore mediated via B(2) kinin receptors. However, neither intraperitioneal MEN16132 nor the peptide B(2) antagonist icatibant, by inhalation, antagonized these bradykinin responses. Sensitization of guinea pigs with ovalbumin was not sufficient to induce airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to the bronchoconstriction by inhaled bradykinin. However, ovalbumin challenge of sensitized guinea pigs caused AHR to bradykinin and histamine. Infection of guinea pigs by nasal instillation of parainfluenza-3 virus produced AHR to inhaled histamine and lung influx of inflammatory cells. These responses were attenuated by the bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist MEN16132 and H-(4-chloro)DPhe-2'(1-naphthylalanine)-(3-aminopropyl)guanidine (VA999024), an inhibitor of tissue kallikrein, the enzyme responsible for lung synthesis of bradykinin. These results suggest that bradykinin is involved in virus-induced inflammatory cell influx and AHR.

  19. Characteristics of adipose tissue macrophages and macrophage-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 in virus-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Park, H-L; Lee, S-Y; Nam, J-H

    2016-03-01

    Various pathogens are implicated in the induction of obesity. Previous studies have confirmed that human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) is associated with increased adiposity, improved glycemic control and induction of inflammation. The Ad36-induced inflammation is reflected in the infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. However, the characteristics and role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and macrophage-secreted factors in virus-induced obesity (VIO) are unclear. Although insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is involved in obesity metabolism, the contribution of IGF secreted by macrophages in VIO has not been studied. Four-week-old male mice were studied 1 week and 12 weeks after Ad36 infection for determining the characteristics of ATMs in VIO and diet-induced obesity (DIO). In addition, macrophage-specific IGF-1-deficient (MIKO) mice were used to study the involvement of IGF-1 in VIO. In the early stage of VIO (1 week after Ad36 infection), the M1 ATM sub-population increased, which increased the M1/M2 ratio, whereas DIO did not cause this change. In the late stage of VIO (12 weeks after Ad36 infection), the M1/M2 ratio did not change because the M1 and M2 ATM sub-populations increased to a similar extent, despite an increase in adiposity. By contrast, DIO increased the M1/M2 ratio. In addition, VIO in wild-type mice upregulated angiogenesis in adipose tissue and improved glycemic control. However, MIKO mice showed no increase in adiposity, angiogenesis, infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, or improvement in glycemic control after Ad36 infection. These data suggest that IGF-1 secreted by macrophages may contribute to hyperplasia and hypertrophy in adipose tissue by increasing angiogenesis, which helps to maintain the 'adipose tissue robustness'.

  20. Virus-Induced Silencing of Key Genes Leads to Differential Impact on Withanolide Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Plant, Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aditya Vikram; Singh, Deeksha; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Michael, Rahul; Gupta, Parul; Chandra, Deepak; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Withanolides are a collection of naturally occurring, pharmacologically active, secondary metabolites synthesized in the medicinally important plant, Withania somnifera. These bioactive molecules are C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids and their synthesis is proposed to take place via the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways through the sterol pathway using 24-methylene cholesterol as substrate flux. Although the phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities of Withania extracts have been well studied, limited genomic information and difficult genetic transformation have been a major bottleneck towards understanding the participation of specific genes in withanolide biosynthesis. In this study, we used the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach to study the participation of key genes from MVA, MEP and triterpenoid biosynthesis for their involvement in withanolide biosynthesis. TRV-infected W. somnifera plants displayed unique phenotypic characteristics and differential accumulation of total Chl as well as carotenoid content for each silenced gene suggesting a reduction in overall isoprenoid synthesis. Comprehensive expression analysis of putative genes of withanolide biosynthesis revealed transcriptional modulations conferring the presence of complex regulatory mechanisms leading to withanolide biosynthesis. In addition, silencing of genes exhibited modulated total and specific withanolide accumulation at different levels as compared with control plants. Comparative analysis also suggests a major role for the MVA pathway as compared with the MEP pathway in providing substrate flux for withanolide biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of selected Withania genes of the triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway critically affects withanolide biosynthesis, providing new horizons to explore this process further, in planta.

  1. Virus-induced plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 silencing inhibits plant water transport of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juanjuan; Ye, Guoliang; Qian, Zhengjiang; Ye, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to facilitate water transport across cell membranes, but the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport, particularly in plants other than Arabidopsis remains largely unexplored. In the present study, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique was employed to suppress the expression of a specific plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 of Pea plants (Pisum sativum), and subsequent effects of the gene suppression on root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), leaf hydraulic conductivity (K leaf ), root cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp rc ), and leaf cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp lc ) were investigated, using hydroponically grown Pea plants. Compared with control plants, VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants displayed a significant suppression of PsPIP2;1 in both roots and leaves, while the expression of other four PIP isoforms (PsPIP1;1, PsPIP1;2, PsPIP2;2, and PsPIP2;3) that were simultaneously monitored were not altered. As a consequence, significant declines in water transport of VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants were observed at both organ and cell levels, i.e., as compared to control plants, Lp r and K leaf were reduced by 29 %, and Lp rc and Lp lc were reduced by 20 and 29 %, respectively. Our results demonstrate that PsPIP2;1 alone contributes substantially to root and leaf water transport in Pea plants, and highlight VIGS a useful tool for investigating the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport.

  2. Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains function as nuclear protein quality control centers during HSV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Livingston

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains form adjacent to nuclear viral replication compartments (RC during the early stages of HSV-1 infection. Between 2 and 3 hours post infection at a MOI of 10, host protein quality control machinery such as molecular chaperones (e.g. Hsc70, the 20S proteasome and ubiquitin are reorganized from a diffuse nuclear distribution pattern to sequestration in VICE domains. The observation that VICE domains contain putative misfolded proteins suggests that they may be similar to nuclear inclusion bodies that form under conditions in which the protein quality control machinery is overwhelmed by the presence of misfolded proteins. The detection of Hsc70 in VICE domains, but not in nuclear inclusion bodies, indicates that Hsc70 is specifically reorganized by HSV-1 infection. We hypothesize that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of nuclear protein quality control centers to remodel or degrade aberrant nuclear proteins that would otherwise interfere with productive infection. Detection of proteolytic activity in VICE domains suggests that substrates may be degraded by the 20S proteasome in VICE domains. FRAP analysis reveals that GFP-Hsc70 is dynamically associated with VICE domains, suggesting a role for Hsc70 in scanning the infected nucleus for misfolded proteins. During 42 degrees C heat shock, Hsc70 is redistributed from VICE domains into RC perhaps to remodel viral replication and regulatory proteins that have become insoluble in these compartments. The experiments presented in this paper suggest that VICE domains are nuclear protein quality control centers that are modified by HSV-1 to promote productive infection.

  3. A Virus-Induced Assay for Functional Dissection and Analysis of Monocot and Dicot Flowering Time Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Chen, Weiwei; Shen, Jiajia; Cheng, Linming; Akande, Femi; Zhang, Ke; Yuan, Chen; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Pengcheng; Shi, Nongnong; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Yule; Jackson, Stephen; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-06-01

    Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T ( FT ) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth. Ectopic delivery of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) AtFT by PVX/AtFT did not induce the expression of the endogenous FT ortholog NtFT4 ; however, it was sufficient to trigger flowering in Maryland Mammoth plants grown under noninductive long-day conditions. Infected tobacco plants developed no systemic symptoms, and the PVX-based VIF did not cause transgenerational flowering. We showed that the PVX-based VIF is a much more rapid method to examine the impacts of single amino acid mutations on AtFT for floral induction than making individual transgenic Arabidopsis lines for each mutation. We also used the PVX-based VIF to demonstrate that adding a His- or FLAG-tag to the N or C terminus of AtFT could affect its florigenic activity and that this system can be applied to assay the function of FT genes from heterologous species, including tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) SFT and rice ( Oryza sativa ) Hd3a Thus, the PVX-based VIF represents a simple and efficient system to identify individual amino acids that are essential for FT-mediated floral induction and to test the ability of mono- and dicotyledonous FT genes and FT fusion proteins to induce flowering. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Influenza Virus-Induced Lung Inflammation Was Modulated by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Ling, Man To; Mao, Huawei; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Ming; Lam, Kwok Tai; Liu, Yuan; Tu, Wenwei; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Although smokers have increased susceptibility and severity of seasonal influenza virus infection, there is no report about the risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) or avian H9N2 (H9N2/G1) virus infection in smokers. In our study, we used mouse model to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 days and then infected with pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus. Control mice were exposed to air in parallel. We found that cigarette smoke exposure alone significantly upregulated the lung inflammation. Such prior cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced the disease severity of subsequent pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. For pdmH1N1 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice had significantly lower mortality than the control mice, possibly due to the significantly decreased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, after H9N2 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice displayed significantly less weight loss, which might be attributed to lower cytokines and chemokines production, less macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltration and reduced lung damage compared to the control mice. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we used nicotine to mimic the effect of cigarette smoke both in vitro and in vivo. Pre-treating the primary human macrophages with nicotine for 72 h significantly decreased their expression of cytokines and chemokines after pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. The mice subcutaneously and continuously treated with nicotine displayed significantly less weight loss and lower inflammatory response than the control mice upon pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. Moreover, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice had more body weight loss than wild-type mice after cigarette smoke exposure and H9N2 infection. Our study provided the first evidence that the pathogenicity of both pdmH1N1 and H9N2 viruses was alleviated in cigarette smoke exposed mice, which might

  5. Influenza virus-induced lung inflammation was modulated by cigarette smoke exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    Full Text Available Although smokers have increased susceptibility and severity of seasonal influenza virus infection, there is no report about the risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1 or avian H9N2 (H9N2/G1 virus infection in smokers. In our study, we used mouse model to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 days and then infected with pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus. Control mice were exposed to air in parallel. We found that cigarette smoke exposure alone significantly upregulated the lung inflammation. Such prior cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced the disease severity of subsequent pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. For pdmH1N1 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice had significantly lower mortality than the control mice, possibly due to the significantly decreased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, after H9N2 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice displayed significantly less weight loss, which might be attributed to lower cytokines and chemokines production, less macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltration and reduced lung damage compared to the control mice. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we used nicotine to mimic the effect of cigarette smoke both in vitro and in vivo. Pre-treating the primary human macrophages with nicotine for 72 h significantly decreased their expression of cytokines and chemokines after pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. The mice subcutaneously and continuously treated with nicotine displayed significantly less weight loss and lower inflammatory response than the control mice upon pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. Moreover, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice had more body weight loss than wild-type mice after cigarette smoke exposure and H9N2 infection. Our study provided the first evidence that the pathogenicity of both pdmH1N1 and H9N2 viruses was alleviated in cigarette smoke exposed

  6. Transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jackie Y L; Loh, Keh Chuan; Yeo, George S H; Chee, Yam Cheng

    2002-06-01

    To characterise the clinical, biochemical and thyroid antibody profile in women with transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. Prospective observational study. Hospital inpatient gynaecological ward. Women admitted with hyperemesis gravidarum and found to have hyperthyroidism. Fifty-three women were admitted with hyperemesis gravidarum and were found to have hyperthyroidism. Each woman was examined for clinical signs of thyroid disease and underwent investigations including urea, creatinine, electrolytes, liver function test, thyroid antibody profile and serial thyroid function test until normalisation. Gestation at which thyroid function normalised, clinical and thyroid antibody profile and pregnancy outcome (birthweight, gestation at delivery and Apgar score at 5 minutes). Full data were available for 44 women. Free T4 levels normalised by 15 weeks of gestation in the 39 women with transient hyperthyroidism while TSH remained suppressed until 19 weeks of gestation. None of these women were clinically hyperthyroid. Thyroid antibodies were not found in most of them. Median birthweight in the infants of mothers who experienced weight loss of > 5% of their pre-pregnancy weight was lower compared with those of women who did not (P = 0.093). Five women were diagnosed with Graves' disease based on clinical features and thyroid antibody profile. In transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum, thyroid function normalises by the middle of the second trimester without anti-thyroid treatment. Clinically overt hyperthyroidism and thyroid antibodies are usually absent. Apart from a non-significant trend towards lower birthweights in the infants of mothers who experienced significant weight loss, pregnancy outcome was generally good. Routine assessment of thyroid function is unnecessary for women with hyperemesis gravidarum in the absence of any clinical features of hyperthyroidism.

  7. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  8. Transient hardened power FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable

  9. Transients in the Vivitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, C.M.; Frick, G.; Roumie, M.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical measurements are presented for the construction of a model for the study of transients in the Vivitron. Observation of the transmission of electrical pulses in the porticos clearly shows transmission-line behaviour. Measurements of the vector impedance of the outer porticos show the same transmission-line properties, but also gives a description of the modification from a pure transmission line due to the circular electrodes. The results of this investigation should allow the construction of a computer model which predicts the evolution of the transients in the case of a spark in the Vivitron. (orig.)

  10. Transient elastography for liver fibrosis diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Weis, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the "golden standard" for assessment of hepatic fibrosis. However, the procedure has limitations because of inconvenience and rare but serious complications as bleeding. Furthermore, sampling errors are frequent, and interobserver variability often poses problems....... Recently, a modified ultrasound scanner (transient elastography) has been developed to assess fibrosis. The device measures liver elasticity, which correlates well with the degree of fibrosis. Studies have shown that transient elastography is more accurate in diagnosing cirrhosis than minor to moderate...... to be a valuable diagnostic procedure and follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases....

  11. Transient elastography for liver fibrosis diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Weis, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the "golden standard" for assessment of hepatic fibrosis. However, the procedure has limitations because of inconvenience and rare but serious complications as bleeding. Furthermore, sampling errors are frequent, and interobserver variability often poses problems....... Recently, a modified ultrasound scanner (transient elastography) has been developed to assess fibrosis. The device measures liver elasticity, which correlates well with the degree of fibrosis. Studies have shown that transient elastography is more accurate in diagnosing cirrhosis than minor to moderate...... to be a valuable diagnostic procedure and follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases....

  12. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  13. Transient cavitation in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The

  14. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin

    2017-04-01

    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  15. Clinical applications of transient elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Sik Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease represents a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As prognosis and management depend mainly on the amount and progression of liver fibrosis, accurate quantification of liver fibrosis is essential for therapeutic decision-making and follow-up of chronic liver diseases. Even though liver biopsy is the gold standard for evaluation of liver fibrosis, non-invasive methods that could substitute for invasive procedures have been investigated during past decades. Transient elastography (TE, FibroScan® is a novel non-invasive method for assessment of liver fibrosis with chronic liver disease. TE can be performed in the outpatient clinic with immediate results and excellent reproducibility. Its diagnostic accuracy for assessment of liver fibrosis has been demonstrated in patients with chronic viral hepatitis; as a result, unnecessary liver biopsy could be avoided in some patients. Moreover, due to its excellent patient acceptance, TE could be used for monitoring disease progression or predicting development of liver-related complications. This review aims at discussing the usefulness of TE in clinical practice.

  16. Transient particle emission measurement with optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Luján, José M.; Serrano, José R.; Pla, Benjamín

    2008-06-01

    Particulate matter is responsible for some respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, it is one of the most important pollutants of high-speed direct injection (HSDI) passenger car engines. Current legislation requires particulate dilution tunnels for particulate matter measuring. However for development work, dilution tunnels are expensive and sometimes not useful since they are not able to quantify real-time particulate emissions during transient operation. In this study, the use of a continuous measurement opacimeter and a fast response HFID is proven to be a good alternative to obtain instantaneous particle mass emissions during transient operation (due to particulate matter consisting mainly of soot and SOF). Some methods and correlations available from literature, but developed for steady conditions, are evaluated during transient operation by comparing with mini-tunnel measurements during the entire MVEG-A transient cycle. A new correlation was also derived from this evaluation. Results for soot and SOF (obtained from the new correlation proposed) are compared with soot and SOF captured with particulate filters, which have been separated by means of an SOF extraction method. Finally, as an example of ECU design strategies using these sort of correlations, the EGR valve opening is optimized during transient operation. The optimization is performed while simultaneously taking into account instantaneous fuel consumption, particulate emissions (calculated with the proposed correlation) and other regulated engine pollutants.

  17. Transient ischemic attack: diagnostic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Steven R; Jauch, Edward C

    2008-08-01

    A transient ischemic attack portends significant risk of a stroke. Consequently, the diagnostic evaluation in the emergency department is focused on identifying high-risk causes so that preventive strategies can be implemented. The evaluation consists of a facilitated evaluation of the patient's metabolic, cardiac, and neurovascular systems. At a minimum, the following tests are recommended: fingerstick glucose level, electrolyte levels, CBC count, urinalysis, and coagulation studies; noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head; electrocardiography; and continuous telemetry monitoring. Vascular imaging studies, such as carotid ultrasonography, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography, should be performed on an urgent basis and prioritized according to the patient's risk stratification for disease. Consideration should be given for echocardiography if no large vessel abnormality is identified.

  18. Transient osteoporosis of hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH in a 50-year-old man including the clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, management, and clinical progress. TOH is a rare self-limiting condition that typically affects middle-aged men or, less frequently, women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Affected individuals present clinically with acute hip pain, limping gait, and limited ranges of hip motion. TOH may begin spontaneously or after a minor trauma. Radiographs are typically unremarkable but magnetic resonance (MR imaging studies yield findings consistent with bone marrow edema. TOH is referred to as regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO if it travels to other joints or the contralateral hip. TOH often resembles osteonecrosis but the two conditions must be differentiated due to different prognoses and management approaches. The term TOH is often used interchangeably and synonymously with transient bone marrow edema (TBME.

  19. Stability of Ignition Transients

    OpenAIRE

    V.E. Zarko

    1991-01-01

    The problem of ignition stability arises in the case of the action of intense external heat stimuli when, resulting from the cut-off of solid substance heating, momentary ignition is followed by extinction. Physical pattern of solid propellant ignition is considered and ignition criteria available in the literature are discussed. It is shown that the above mentioned problem amounts to transient burning at a given arbitrary temperature distribution in the condensed phase. A brief survey...

  20. Transient FDTD simulation validation

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui Tellería, Ricardo; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martínez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In computational electromagnetic simulations, most validation methods have been developed until now to be used in the frequency domain. However, the EMC analysis of the systems in the frequency domain many times is not enough to evaluate the immunity of current communication devices. Based on several studies, in this paper we propose an alternative method of validation of the transients in time domain allowing a rapid and objective quantification of the simulations results.

  1. MHD aspects of coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzer, U.

    1979-10-01

    If one defines coronal transients as events which occur in the solar corona on rapid time scales (< approx. several hours) then one would have to include a large variety of solar phenomena: flares, sprays, erupting prominences, X-ray transients, white light transients, etc. Here we shall focus our attention on the latter two phenomena. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 RDG

  2. MR imaging of transient synovitis: differentiation from septic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.; Im, S.A.; Lim, G.Y.; Chun, H.J.; Jung, N.Y.; Sung, M.S.; Choi, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Transient synovitis is the most common cause of acute hip pain in children. However, MR imaging findings in transient synovitis and the role of MR imaging in differentiating transient synovitis from septic arthritis have not been fully reported. To describe the MR findings of transient synovitis and to determine whether the MR characteristics can differentiate this disease entity from septic arthritis. Clinical findings and MR images of 49 patients with transient synovitis (male/female 36/13, mean age 6.1 years) and 18 patients with septic arthritis (male/female 10/8, mean age 4.9 years) were retrospectively reviewed. MR findings of transient synovitis were symptomatic joint effusion, synovial enhancement, contralateral joint effusion, synovial thickening, and signal intensity (SI) alterations and enhancement in surrounding soft tissue. Among these, SI alterations and enhancement in bone marrow and soft tissue, contralateral joint effusion, and synovial thickening were statistically significant MR findings in differentiating transient synovitis from septic arthritis. The statistically significant MR findings in transient synovitis are contralateral (asymptomatic) joint effusions and the absence of SI abnormalities of the bone marrow. It is less common to have SI alterations and contrast enhancement of the soft tissues. The statistically significant MR findings in septic arthritis are SI alterations of the bone marrow, and SI alterations and contrast enhancement of the soft tissue. Ipsilateral effusion and synovial thickening and enhancement are present in both diseases

  3. Viral Impact in Autoimmune Diseases: Expanding the “X Chromosome–Nucleolus Nexus” Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wesley H.

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are suspected of significant roles in autoimmune diseases but the mechanisms are unclear. We get some insight by considering demands a virus places on host cells. Viruses not only require production of their own proteins, RNA and/or DNA, but also production of additional cellular machinery, such as ribosomes, to handle the increased demands. Since the nucleolus is a major site of RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly, nucleoli are targeted by viruses, directly when viral RNA and proteins enter the nucleolus and indirectly when viruses induce increased expression of cellular polyamine genes. Polyamines are at high levels in nucleoli to assist in RNA folding. The size and activity of nucleoli increase directly with increases in polyamines. Nucleolar expansion due to abnormal increases in polyamines could disrupt nearby chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome, leading to expression of previously sequestered DNA. Sudden expression of a large concentration of Alu elements from the disrupted inactive X can compete with RNA transcripts containing intronic Alu sequences that normally maintain nucleolar structural integrity. Such disruption of nucleolar activity can lead to misfolded RNAs, misassembled ribonucleoprotein complexes, and fragmentation of the nucleolus. Many autoantigens in lupus are, at least transiently, components of the nucleolus. Considering these effects of viruses, the “X chromosome–nucleolus nexus” hypothesis, which proposed disruption of the inactive X by the nucleolus during stress, is now expanded here to propose subsequent disruption of the nucleolus by previously sequestered Alu elements, which can fragment the nucleolus, leading to generation of autoantigens. PMID:29234321

  4. Magnetic transients in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.; Tanaka, K.

    1981-01-01

    We present data on magnetic transients (mgtr's) observed in flares on 1980 July 1 and 5 with Big Bear videomagnetograph (VMG). The 1980 July 1 event was a white light flare in which a strong bipolar mgtr was observed, and a definite change in the sunspots occurred at the time of the flare. In the 1980 July 5 flare, a mgtr was observed in only one polarity, and, although no sunspot changes occurred simultaneous with the flare, major spot changes occurred in a period of hours

  5. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rhys Davies

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA, a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

  6. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  7. Measurand transient signal suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transient signal suppressor for use in a controls system which is adapted to respond to a change in a physical parameter whenever it crosses a predetermined threshold value in a selected direction of increasing or decreasing values with respect to the threshold value and is sustained for a selected discrete time interval is presented. The suppressor includes a sensor transducer for sensing the physical parameter and generating an electrical input signal whenever the sensed physical parameter crosses the threshold level in the selected direction. A manually operated switch is provided for adapting the suppressor to produce an output drive signal whenever the physical parameter crosses the threshold value in the selected direction of increasing or decreasing values. A time delay circuit is selectively adjustable for suppressing the transducer input signal for a preselected one of a plurality of available discrete suppression time and producing an output signal only if the input signal is sustained for a time greater than the selected suppression time. An electronic gate is coupled to receive the transducer input signal and the timer output signal and produce an output drive signal for energizing a control relay whenever the transducer input is a non-transient signal which is sustained beyond the selected time interval.

  8. Suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 are up-regulated in brain resident cells in response to virus induced inflammation of the CNS via at least two distinctive pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Fenger, Christina; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo

    2014-01-01

    underlie a virus induced up-regulation of SOCS in the CNS. We found that i.c. infection with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or yellow fever virus (YF) results in gradual up-regulation of SOCS1/3 mRNA expression peaking at day 7 post infection (p.i.). In the LCMV model, SOCS m...

  9. The joy of transient chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tél, Tamás [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, and MTA-ELTE Theoretical Physics Research Group, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest H-1117 (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  10. Transient osteoporosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWalter, Patricia; Hassan Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is an uncommon cause of hip pain, mostly affecting healthy middle-aged men and also women in the third trimester of pregnancy. We present a case of transient osteoporosis of the hip in a 33-year-old non-pregnant female patient. This case highlights the importance of considering a diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip in patients who present with hip pain. (author)

  11. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  12. The joy of transient chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  13. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  14. Anticipated transients without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lellouche, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses in various degrees of depth the publications WASH-1270, WASH-1400, and NUREG-0460, and has as its purpose a description of the technical work done by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) personnel and its contractors on the subject of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). It demonstrates the close relation between the probability of scram failure derived from historical scram data and that derived from the use of component data in a model of a system (the so-called synthesis method), such as was done in WASH-1400. The inherent conservatism of these models is demonstrated by showing that they predict significantly more events than have in fact occurred and that such models still predict scram failure probabilities low enough to make ATWS an insignificant contributor to accident risk

  15. Transient fuel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.; Schmitz, F.

    1982-10-01

    The observation of micrographic documents from fuel after a CABRI test leads to postulate a specific mode of transient fuel melting during a rapid nuclear power excursion. When reaching the melt threshold, the bands which are characteristic for the solid state are broken statistically over a macroscopic region. The time of maintaining the fuel at the critical enthalpy level between solid and liquid is too short to lead to a phase separation. A significant life-time (approximately 1 second) of this intermediate ''unsolide'' state would have consequences on the variation of physical properties linked to the phase transition solid/liquid: viscosity, specific volume and (for the irradiated fuel) fission gas release [fr

  16. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Morgan, Jordan; Vrahas, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare yet perhaps under-reported condition that has affected otherwise healthy pregnancies throughout the world. The condition presents suddenly in the third trimester of a usually uneventful pregnancy and progressively immobilizes the mother. Radiographic studies detect drastic loss of bone mass, elevated rates of turnover in the bone, and oedema in the affected portion. Weakness of the bone can lead to fractures during delivery and other complications for the mother. Then, within weeks of labour, symptoms and radiological findings resolve. Aetiology is currently unknown, although neural, vascular, haematological, endocrine, nutrient-deficiency, and other etiologies have been proposed. Several treatments have also been explored, including simple bed rest, steroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, induced termination of pregnancy, and surgical intervention. The orthopedist plays an essential role in monitoring the condition (and potential complications) as well as ensuring satisfactory outcomes for both the mother and newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Case of Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Sucuoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip is an uncommon disease, the cause is not known. It is usually seen in women in the third trimester of pregnancy and in middle-aged men. Patients present with acute, severe hip pain which generally resulting in gait disorder. Prognosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip is good. Within few months of appropriate conservative aproach and bed rest patient’s complains can be fully recovered. In this article; we present the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment options of patients presented to our clinic with severe bilateral hip pain during the third trimester of pregnancy diagnosed as transient osteoporosis accompanied by literature review.

  18. Transient Go: A Mobile App for Transient Astronomy Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D.; Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Drake, A.; Early, J.; Ivezic, Z.; Jacoby, S.; Kanbur, S.

    2016-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is set to revolutionize human interaction with the real world as demonstrated by the phenomenal success of `Pokemon Go'. That very technology can be used to rekindle the interest in science at the school level. We are in the process of developing a prototype app based on sky maps that will use AR to introduce different classes of astronomical transients to students as they are discovered i.e. in real-time. This will involve transient streams from surveys such as the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) today and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the near future. The transient streams will be combined with archival and latest image cut-outs and other auxiliary data as well as historical and statistical perspectives on each of the transient types being served. Such an app could easily be adapted to work with various NASA missions and NSF projects to enrich the student experience.

  19. Pressure transients in pipeline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This text is to give an overview of the necessary background to do investigation of pressure transients via simulations. It will describe briefly the Method of Characteristics which is the defacto standard for simulating pressure transients. Much of the text has been adopted from the book Pressur...

  20. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  1. Development and evaluation of aerosol delivery of antivirals for the treatment of equine virus induced respiratory infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An aerosol delivery system incorporating the DeVilbiss ultrasonic nebulizer was developed for antiviral chemotherapy of equine viral respiratory infections. The system's delivery capabilities were proven effective by two modes of analysis: (a) a non-destructive, non-invasive radioactive tracer method utilizing a saline solution of DTPA labelled 99mTc and, (b) an invasive-terminal study using fluorescent polystyrene monodispersed latex particles. Particles were efficiently distributed throughout the lung parenchyma with deposition more heavily concentrated in the tracheobronchial region. Amantadine HCl was administered to the lungs of a yearling horse and three yearling Shetland ponies over a single 15-30 minute period with no untoward side effects. Likewise, ribavirin was aerosolized into the respiratory trace of an adult pony and a yearling horse for 15-30 minutes twice a day for three and seven days respectively. Neither the horse nor pony demonstrated signs of clinical illness or other signs of ribavirin toxicity. Attempts to produce a reproducible equine influenza disease model were made. During these studies, the authors were unsuccessful in developing a consistent respiratory disease model. Without this model the efficacy of antiviral compounds cannot be assessed. From the data generated in these studies, the implication of equine influenza viruses as the major single etiological agents responsible for equine respiratory disease is brought into question. Further, the author proposed that equine respiratory disease is a multiple agent-induced disease, which needs extensive investigation

  2. Combined immunodeficiency and Epstein-Barr virus-induced B cell malignancy in humans with inherited CD70 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolhassani, Hassan; Edwards, Emily S. J.; Ikinciogullari, Aydan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe four patients from two unrelated families of different ethnicities with a primary immunodeficiency, predominantly manifesting as susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related diseases. Three patients presented with EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma...... is a novel cause of combined immunodeficiency and EBV-associated diseases, reminiscent of inherited CD27 deficiency. Overall, human CD70-CD27 interactions therefore play a nonredundant role in T and B cell-mediated immunity, especially for protection against EBV and humoral immunity....

  3. Explosive and radio-selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40

    sitive measurements will lead to very accurate mass loss estimation in these supernovae. .... transients are powerful probes of intervening media owing to dispersion ...... A., & Chandra, P. 2011, Nature Communications,. 2, 175. Chakraborti, S.

  4. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  5. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  6. Identification and characterization of small molecule modulators of the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessier, Francois; Preuss, Inga; Yin, Hong

    2014-01-01

    immune response and has been genetically linked to autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes ( Nature 2010 , 467 , 460 ). Here we describe the isolation of a potent small molecule antagonist for the EBI2 receptor. First, we identified a small molecule agonist NIBR51 (1), which enabled identification...

  7. Molecular identification of GAPDHs in cassava highlights the antagonism of MeGAPCs and MeATG8s in plant disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongqiu; Xie, Yanwei; Liu, Guoyin; Lin, Daozhe; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2018-06-01

    MeGAPCs were identified as negative regulators of plant disease resistance, and the interaction of MeGAPCs and MeATG8s was highlighted in plant defense response. As an important enzyme of glycolysis metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays important roles in plant development, abiotic stress and immune responses. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is most important tropical crop and one of the major food crops, however, no information is available about GAPDH gene family in cassava. In this study, 14 MeGAPDHs including 6 cytosol GAPDHs (MeGAPCs) were identified from cassava, and the transcripts of 14 MeGAPDHs in response to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) indicated their possible involvement in immune responses. Further investigation showed that MeGAPCs are negative regulators of disease resistance against Xam. Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that overexpression of MeGAPCs led to decreased disease resistance against Xam. On the contrary, MeGAPCs-silenced cassava plants through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) conferred improved disease resistance. Notably, MeGAPCs physically interacted with autophagy-related protein 8b (MeATG8b) and MeATG8e and inhibited autophagic activity. Moreover, MeATG8b and MeATG8e negatively regulated the activities of NAD-dependent MeGAPDHs, and are involved in MeGAPCs-mediated disease resistance. Taken together, this study highlights the involvement of MeGAPCs in plant disease resistance, through interacting with MeATG8b and MeATG8e.

  8. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  9. Transient thyrotoxicosis during nivolumab treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, M. J.; van den Berg, G.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Hiltermann, T. J. N.; Groen, H. J. M.; Rutgers, A.; Links, T. P.

    Two patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis within 2-4 weeks after starting treatment with nivolumab. This thyrotoxicosis turned into hypothyroidism within 6-8 weeks. Temporary treatment with a beta blocker may be sufficient.

  10. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  11. Transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.

    1974-01-01

    The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)

  12. Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells develop cytotoxic activity and eliminate virus-induced tumor cells in the absence of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzyanova, Ilseyar; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy; Schimmer, Simone; Brandau, Sven; Altenhoff, Petra; Sparwasser, Tim; Dittmer, Ulf

    2013-02-01

    The important role of tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells is well defined in the immune control of the tumors, but the role of effector CD4(+) T cells is poorly understood. In the current research, we have used a murine retrovirus-induced tumor cell line of C57BL/6 mouse origin, namely FBL-3 cells, as a model to study basic mechanisms of immunological control and escape during tumor formation. This study shows that tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells are able to protect against virus-induced tumor cells. We show here that there is an expansion of tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells producing cytokines and cytotoxic molecule granzyme B (GzmB) in the early phase of tumor growth. Importantly, we demonstrate that in vivo depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8(+) T cells in FBL-3-bearing DEREG transgenic mice augments IL-2 and GzmB production by CD4(+) T cells and increases FV-specific CD4(+) T-cell effector and cytotoxic responses leading to the complete tumor regression. Therefore, the capacity to reject tumor acquired by tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells largely depends on the direct suppressive activity of Tregs. We suggest that a cytotoxic CD4(+) T-cell immune response may be induced to enhance resistance against oncovirus-associated tumors.

  13. Identification of Proteins Using iTRAQ and Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Reveals Three Bread Wheat Proteins Involved in the Response to Combined Osmotic-Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Lingran; Shi, Chaonan; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Dangqun; Chen, Feng

    2018-05-25

    Crops are often subjected to a combination of stresses in the field. To date, studies on the physiological and molecular responses of common wheat to a combination of osmotic and cold stresses, however, remain unknown. In this study, wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress for 24 h showed inhibited growth, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, relative electrolyte leakage, and soluble sugar contents. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome method was employed to determine the proteomic profiles of the roots and leaves of wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress conditions. A total of 250 and 258 proteins with significantly altered abundance in the roots and leaves were identified, respectively, and the majority of these proteins displayed differential abundance, thereby revealing organ-specific differences in adaptation to osmotic-cold stress. Yeast two hybrid assay examined five pairs of stress/defense-related protein-protein interactions in the predicted protein interaction network. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that abiotic stresses increased the expression of three candidate protein genes, i.e., TaGRP2, CDCP, and Wcor410c in wheat leaves. Virus-induced gene silencing indicated that three genes TaGRP2, CDCP, and Wcor410c were involved in modulating osmotic-cold stress in common wheat. Our study provides useful information for the elucidation of molecular and genetics bases of osmotic-cold combined stress in bread wheat.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis after two separate episodes of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Tatsuharu; Ueda, Yo; Kishimoto, Wataru; Arimoto-Miyamoto, Kazue; Takeoka, Tomoharu; Tsuji, Masaaki

    2009-01-01

    A 24-year-old man, who had suffered previous two episodes of non- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) at the ages of 16 and 18, developed EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis. His antibody pattern to EBV highlighted the initial infection. The disease took a self-limited course without developing into HPS. No reactivation of EBV infection was noted over the following 6 years. The patient may have attained immune competency in adulthood, which was somehow impaired during his adolescence.

  15. A Case Of Transient Ischemic Attack Presenting As Hemichroea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chorea is defined as; involuntary movements of the distal parts of limbs which have arrhythmic, rapid, bouncing or smooth, simple or complex properties. Choreiform movements occur when putamen, globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus are affected. Chorea can be observed during the course of metabolic and vascular diseases, neurodegenerative or hereditary diseases. Chorea may be a rare symptom of cerebral hypoperfusion. Transient ischemic attack is an event that occurs in short term characterized by a temporary ischemia of brain. A wide variety of symptoms can be seen depending on the localization of cerebral hypoperfusion. Hemichorea is a very rare finding observed during transient ischemic attacks. In this article hemichorea in a case of symptomatic transient ischemic attack is discussed with relevant literature.

  16. Transient magnetoviscosity of dilute ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Aquino, Denisse; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field induced change in the viscosity of a ferrofluid, commonly known as the magnetoviscous effect and parameterized through the magnetoviscosity, is one of the most interesting and practically relevant aspects of ferrofluid phenomena. Although the steady state behavior of ferrofluids under conditions of applied constant magnetic fields has received considerable attention, comparatively little attention has been given to the transient response of the magnetoviscosity to changes in the applied magnetic field or rate of shear deformation. Such transient response can provide further insight into the dynamics of ferrofluids and find practical application in the design of devices that take advantage of the magnetoviscous effect and inevitably must deal with changes in the applied magnetic field and deformation. In this contribution Brownian dynamics simulations and a simple model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations are applied to explore the dependence of the transient magnetoviscosity for two cases: (I) a ferrofluid in a constant shear flow wherein the magnetic field is suddenly turned on, and (II) a ferrofluid in a constant magnetic field wherein the shear flow is suddenly started. Both simulations and analysis show that the transient approach to a steady state magnetoviscosity can be either monotonic or oscillatory depending on the relative magnitudes of the applied magnetic field and shear rate. - Research Highlights: →Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to study the transient behavior of the magnetoviscosity of ferrofluids. →Damped and oscillatory approach to steady state magnetoviscosity was observed for step changes in shear rate and magnetic field. →A model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations qualitatively captured the damped and oscillatory features of the transient response →The transient behavior is due to the interplay of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and Brownian torques on the suspended particles.

  17. Pressure transients across HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Reynolds, G.; Ricketts, C.; Smith, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities require ventilation for health and safety reasons. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are located within ventilation systems to trap radioactive dust released in reprocessing and fabrication operations. Pressure transients within the air cleaning systems may be such that the effectiveness of the filtration system is questioned under certain accident conditions. These pressure transients can result from both natural and man-caused phenomena: atmospheric pressure drop caused by a tornado or explosions and nuclear excursions initiate pressure pulses that could create undesirable conditions across HEPA filters. Tornado depressurization is a relatively slow transient as compared to pressure pulses that result from combustible hydrogen-air mixtures. Experimental investigation of these pressure transients across air cleaning equipment has been undertaken by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and New Mexico State University. An experimental apparatus has been constructed to impose pressure pulses across HEPA filters. The experimental equipment is described as well as preliminary results using variable pressurization rates. Two modes of filtration of an aerosol injected upstream of the filter is examined. A laser instrumentation for measuring the aerosol release, during the transient, is described

  18. Recent development of transient electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient electronics are an emerging class of electronics with the unique characteristic to completely dissolve within a programmed period of time. Since no harmful byproducts are released, these electronics can be used in the human body as a diagnostic tool, for instance, or they can be used as environmentally friendly alternatives to existing electronics which disintegrate when exposed to water. Thus, the most crucial aspect of transient electronics is their ability to disintegrate in a practical manner and a review of the literature on this topic is essential for understanding the current capabilities of transient electronics and areas of future research. In the past, only partial dissolution of transient electronics was possible, however, total dissolution has been achieved with a recent discovery that silicon nanomembrane undergoes hydrolysis. The use of single- and multi-layered structures has also been explored as a way to extend the lifetime of the electronics. Analytical models have been developed to study the dissolution of various functional materials as well as the devices constructed from this set of functional materials and these models prove to be useful in the design of the transient electronics.

  19. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  20. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, F.A.; El Messiry, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  1. Distinct dictation of Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuroinflammation and lethality via triggering TLR3 and TLR4 signal pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woo Han

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is major emerging neurologic disease caused by JE virus. To date, the impact of TLR molecules on JE progression has not been addressed. Here, we determined whether each TLR modulates JE, using several TLR-deficient mouse strains (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR9. Surprisingly, among the tested TLR-deficient mice there were contrasting results in TLR3(-/- and TLR4(-/- mice, i.e. TLR3(-/- mice were highly susceptible to JE, whereas TLR4(-/- mice showed enhanced resistance to JE. TLR3 ablation induced severe CNS inflammation characterized by early infiltration of inflammatory CD11b(+Ly-6Chigh monocytes along with profoundly increased viral burden, proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression as well as BBB permeability. In contrast, TLR4(-/- mice showed mild CNS inflammation manifested by reduced viral burden, leukocyte infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Interestingly, TLR4 ablation provided potent in vivo systemic type I IFN innate response, as well as ex vivo type I IFN production associated with strong induction of antiviral PRRs (RIG-I, MDA5, transcription factors (IRF-3, IRF-7, and IFN-dependent (PKR, Oas1, Mx and independent ISGs (ISG49, ISG54, ISG56 by alternative activation of IRF3 and NF-κB in myeloid-derived DCs and macrophages, as compared to TLR3(-/- myeloid-derived cells which were more permissive to viral replication through impaired type I IFN innate response. TLR4 ablation also appeared to mount an enhanced type I IFN innate and humoral, CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses, which were mediated by altered immune cell populations (increased number of plasmacytoid DCs and NK cells, reduced CD11b(+Ly-6C(high monocytes and CD4(+Foxp3(+ Treg number in lymphoid tissue. Thus, potent type I IFN innate and adaptive immune responses in the absence of TLR4 were closely coupled with reduced JE lethality. Collectively, these results suggest that a balanced triggering of TLR signal array by viral components

  2. Apocynin and ebselen reduce influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostwoud, L C; Gunasinghe, P; Seow, H J; Ye, J M; Selemidis, S; Bozinovski, S; Vlahos, R

    2016-02-15

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 10(4.5) PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD.

  3. Selective inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/CBP signaling ameliorates hepatitis C virus-induced liver fibrosis in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yuko; Osawa, Yosuke; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Yamane, Daisuke; Hara, Mitsuko; Munekata, Keisuke; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kojima, Soichi; Kimura, Kiminori; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-03-23

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of serious liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis. There are no anti-fibrotic drugs with efficacy against liver cirrhosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a β-catenin/CBP (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) inhibitor on liver fibrosis. The anti-fibrotic activity of PRI-724, a selective inhibitor of β-catenin/CBP, was assessed in HCV GT1b transgenic mice at 18 months after HCV genome expression. PRI-724 was injected intraperitoneally or subcutaneously in these mice for 6 weeks. PRI-724 reduced liver fibrosis, which was indicated by silver stain, Sirius Red staining, and hepatic hydroxyproline levels, in HCV mice while attenuating αSMA induction. PRI-724 led to increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 mRNA in the liver, along with elevated levels of intrahepatic neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes. The induced intrahepatic neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes were identified as the source of MMP-8. In conclusion, PRI-724 ameliorated HCV-induced liver fibrosis in mice. We hypothesize that inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation and induction of fibrolytic cells expressing MMP-8 contribute to the anti-fibrotic effects of PRI-724. PRI-724 is a drug candidate which possesses anti-fibrotic effect.

  4. Transient acute tubular dysfunction in the newborn: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.G.; Schwartz, J.R.; Swayne, L.C.; Columbia Univ., New York; Rubenstein, J.B.; University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ; Block, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    We report the CT and sonographic findings of transient acute tubular disease in a newborn infant, who was dehydrated at birth. The initial CT scan demonstrated focal areas of increased attenuation within the central portions of both kidneys, and sonography showed echogenic medullary pyramids. After adequate hydration, a follow-up examination demonstrated complete spontaneous resolution. (orig.)

  5. THYROID FUNCTION Quitting smoking-transient risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for Graves disease. However, Carle et al. have demonstrated that individuals have a transient increased risk of developing overt autoimmune hypothyroidism in the first 2 years after quitting smoking. The mechanisms involved in these two opposing effects of smoking on the

  6. HEDL experimental transient overpower program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikido, T.; Culley, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    HEDL is conducting a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) prototypic fuel pins up to the point of cladding breach. A primary objective of the program is to demonstrate the adequacy of fuel pin and Plant Protective System (PPS) designs for terminated transients. Transient tests of prototypic FFTF fuel pins previously irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) have demonstrated the adequacy of the PPS and fuel pin designs and indicate that a very substantial margin exists between PPS-terminated transients and that required to produce fuel pin cladding failure. Additional experiments are planned to extend the data base to high burnup, high fluence fuel pin specimens

  7. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  8. Transient analysis of DTT rakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.S.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model for the determination of the cross-sectionally averaged transient mass flux of a two-phase fluid flowing in a conduit instrumented by a Drag-Disk Turbine Transducer (DTT) Rake and a multibeam gamma densitometer. Parametric studies indicate that for a typical blowdown transient, dynamic effects such as rotor inertia can be important for the turbine-meter. In contrast, for the drag-disk, a frequency response analysis showed that the quasisteady solution is valid below a forcing frequency of about 10 Hz, which is faster than the time scale normally encountered during blowdowns. The model showed reasonably good agreement with full scale transient rake data, where the flow regimes were mostly homogeneous or stratified, thus indicating that the model is suitable for the analysis of a DTT rake. (orig.)

  9. Transient analysis of multicavity klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Ruth, R.D.

    1988-09-01

    We describe a model for analytic analysis of transients in multicavity klystron output power and phase. Cavities are modeled as resonant circuits, while bunching of the beam is modeled using linear space-charge wave theory. Our analysis has been implemented in a computer program which we use in designing multicavity klystrons with stable output power and phase. We present as examples transient analysis of a relativistic klystron using a magnetic pulse compression modulator, and of a conventional klystron designed to use phase shifting techniques for RF pulse compression. 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. Transient formation of forbidden lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, F.B.; Rosmej, O.N.

    1996-01-01

    An explanation of anomalously long time scales in the transient formation of forbidden lines is proposed. The concept is based on a collisionally induced density dependence of the relaxation times of metastable level populations in transient plasma. Generalization leads to an incorporation of diffusion phenomena. We demonstrate this new concept for the simplest atomic system: the He-like isoelectronic sequence. A new interpretation of the observed long duration and anomalously high intensity of spin-forbidden emission in hot plasmas is given. (author)

  11. Transient formation of forbidden lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [Bochum Univ., Ruhr (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik V; Rosmej, O.N. [VNIIFTRI, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). MISDC

    1996-05-14

    An explanation of anomalously long time scales in the transient formation of forbidden lines is proposed. The concept is based on a collisionally induced density dependence of the relaxation times of metastable level populations in transient plasma. Generalization leads to an incorporation of diffusion phenomena. We demonstrate this new concept for the simplest atomic system: the He-like isoelectronic sequence. A new interpretation of the observed long duration and anomalously high intensity of spin-forbidden emission in hot plasmas is given. (author).

  12. Virus-induced asthma attack: The importance of allergic inflammation in response to viral antigen in an animal model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skappak, Christopher; Ilarraza, Ramses; Wu, Ying-Qi; Drake, Matthew G; Adamko, Darryl J

    2017-01-01

    Asthma exacerbation can be a life-threatening condition, and is most often triggered by common respiratory viruses. Poor asthma control and worsening of respiratory function is associated with increased airway inflammation, including eosinophilia. Prevention of asthma exacerbation relies on treatment with corticosteroids, which preferentially inhibit allergic inflammation like eosinophils. Human studies demonstrate that inactivated virus can trigger eosinophil activation in vitro through antigen presentation and memory CD4+ lymphocytes. We hypothesized that animals with immunologic memory to a respiratory virus would also develop airway hyperresponsiveness in response to a UV-inactivated form of the virus if they have pre-existing allergic airway inflammation. Guinea pigs were ovalbumin-sensitized, infected with live parainfluenza virus (PIV), aerosol-challenged with ovalbumin, and then re-inoculated 60 days later with live or UV-inactivated PIV. Some animals were either treated with dexamethasone prior to the second viral exposure. Lymphocytes were isolated from parabronchial lymph nodes to confirm immunologic memory to the virus. Airway reactivity was measured and inflammation was assessed using bronchoalveolar lavage and lung histology. The induction of viral immunologic memory was confirmed in infected animals. Allergen sensitized and challenged animals developed airway hyperreactivity with eosinophilic airway inflammation when re-exposed to UV-inactivated PIV, while non-sensitized animals did not. Airway hyperreactivity in the sensitized animals was inhibited by pre-treatment with dexamethasone. We suggest that the response of allergic inflammation to virus antigen is a significant factor causing asthma exacerbation. We propose that this is one mechanism explaining how corticosteroids prevent virus-induced asthma attack.

  13. Novel cytotoxic exhibition mode of antimicrobial peptide anoplin in MEL cells, the cell line of murine Friend leukemia virus-induced leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Na; Fu, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Fu; Chen, Wei; Jin, Yuan-Ting; Zhao, Fu-Kun

    2013-09-01

    Anoplin is a recently discovered antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from the venom sac of the spider wasp Anoplius samariensis, and it is one of the shortest α-helical AMP found naturally to date consisting of only ten amino acids. Previous results showed that anoplin exhibits potent antimicrobial activity but little hemolytic activity. In this study, we synthesized anoplin, studied its cytotoxicity in Friend virus-induced leukemia cells [murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells], and proposed its possible mechanism. Our results showed that anoplin could inhibit the proliferation of MEL cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner via disrupting the integrity of cell membrane, which indicated that anoplin exerts its cytotoxicity efficacy. In addition, the cell cycle distribution of MEL cells was arrested in the G₀/G₁ phase significantly. However, anoplin could not induce obvious apoptosis in MEL cells, as well as anoplin could not induce visible changes on morphology and quantity in the bone marrow cells isolated from normal mice. All of these results indicate that anoplin, as generally believed, is a selective AMP, a value characteristic in the design of safe therapeutic agents. The cytotoxicity of anoplin on MEL cells was mainly attributable to the plasma membrane perturbation and also to the intracellular events such as the arrest of cell cycle. Although this is an initial study that explored the activity of anoplin in vitro rather than in vivo, with the increasing resistance of conventional chemotherapy, there is no doubt that anoplin has desirable feature to be developed as a novel and selective anticancer agent. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  15. Toward a generalized computational workflow for exploiting transient pockets as new targets for small molecule stabilizers: Application to the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase mutants at the base of rare disease Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Andrea; Galderisi, Silvia; Spiga, Ottavia; Bernardini, Giulia; Niccolai, Neri; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2017-10-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an inborn error of metabolism where mutation of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene leads to a deleterious or misfolded product with subsequent loss of enzymatic degradation of homogentisic acid (HGA) whose accumulation in tissues causes ochronosis and degeneration. There is no licensed therapy for AKU. Many missense mutations have been individuated as responsible for quaternary structure disruption of the native hexameric HGD. A new approach to the treatment of AKU is here proposed aiming to totally or partially rescue enzyme activity by targeting of HGD with pharmacological chaperones, i.e. small molecules helping structural stability. Co-factor pockets from oligomeric proteins have already been successfully exploited as targets for such a strategy, but no similar sites are present at HGD surface; hence, transient pockets are here proposed as a target for pharmacological chaperones. Transient pockets are detected along the molecular dynamics trajectory of the protein and filtered down to a set of suitable sites for structural stabilization by mean of biochemical and pharmacological criteria. The result is a computational workflow relevant to other inborn errors of metabolism requiring rescue of oligomeric, misfolded enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  17. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    401–406. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 401. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal. P K KHARE*, P L JAIN† and R K PANDEY‡. Department of Postgraduate Studies & Research in Physics & Electronics, Rani Durgavati University,. Jabalpur 482 001, India. †Department of Physics, Government PG College, Damoh 470 ...

  18. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  19. Fuel rod behaviour during transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, H.; Haste, T.J.; Cameron, R.F.; Sinclair, J.E.

    1982-04-01

    The fuel pin performance code SLEUTH, the transient codes FRAP-T5 and TRAFIC and the clad deformation code CANSWEL-2 are described. It is shown how the codes treat gas release, pin cooling, cladding deformation and interaction, gap conductance etc. The materials properties used are indicated. (author)

  20. Simulation Model of a Transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Sørensen, Poul; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation model of a controller that enables an active-stall wind turbine to ride through transient faults. The simulated wind turbine is connected to a simple model of a power system. Certain fault scenarios are specified and the turbine shall be able to sustain operati...

  1. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  2. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  3. Research of the transient management in TQNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Longzhang; Lin Chuanqing

    2008-01-01

    Transient management is the basic technical subject in nuclear power plant. Since the Third Qinshan nuclear power company (TQNPC) successful completes the commissioning in 2003, the transient management work start at the transient management item selection and the flow definition. Now TQNPC have a complete transient management system and the management flow. In the last two years, TNQPC have finished the historic transient data collection for two units, and confirmed that the plant's key systems and equipments are at safe state. The development of the transient management subject would build a reliable foundation for the plant safe operation, plant lifetime management and periodic safety review. (author)

  4. An Infant With Transient Neonatal Pustular Melanosis Presenting as Pustules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-San Chia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient neonatal pustular melanosis is mostly found in full-term black infants. It is a benign and self-limited disease, and the etiology is still unknown. We present a full-term female neonate with multiple vesiculopustular and pigmented macular lesions found immediately after her birth. A skin biopsy showed vesicles consisting of intracorneal and subcorneal aggregates of neutrophils, which is compatible with transient neonatal pustular melanosis. Although it is rare in Taiwan and Asian countries, transient neonatal pustular melanosis should always be considered when pustulosis is found in the neonatal period to prevent the use of unnecessary antibiotics. Dermatological consultation and histological confirmation are sometimes required for the final diagnosis.

  5. Association of transient hyperthyroidism and severity of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Nor Zila Hassan; Kalok, Aida; Hanafiah, Zainal Abidin; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Ismail, Nor Azlin Mohamed

    2017-03-23

    Background Transient non-immune hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy is hyperthyroidism diagnosed for the first time in early pregnancy, without evidence of thyroid autoimmunity or clinical findings of Grave's disease and resolved spontaneously as the pregnancy progressed. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is the commonest cause with 66%-73% of women with severe HG were found to have elevated thyroid function. Materials and methods We conducted a cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of transient hyperthyroidism in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation to the severity of nausea and vomiting. Severity of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy was assessed using the modified pregnancy-unique quantification of emesis (PUQE) scoring system. Each patient had urine and blood investigations which also included a full blood count and thyroid and renal function tests. Patients with abnormal thyroid function were retested at 20 weeks of gestation. The patients' demographic data, electrolyte levels, thyroid function and their respective PUQE score were analyzed. Results The prevalence of transient hyperthyroidism in women with hyperemesis gravidarum was 4.8%. Although there was a significant association between the severity of the PUQE score and hypokalemia (p = 0.001), there was no significant association with transient hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy (p = 0.072). Free T4 and TSH values of all women with transient hyperthyroidism were normalized by 20 weeks of gestation. Conclusion Transient hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is not significantly associated with the severity of the PUQE score. Women with transient hyperthyroidism in pregnancy are normally clinically euthyroid, hence a routine thyroid function test is unnecessary unless they exhibit clinical signs or symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

  6. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  7. Comparison of Liver Biopsy and Transient Elastography based on Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Masuzaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM by transient elastography has recently been validated for the evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. The present study focused on cases in which liver biopsy and LSM were discordant.

  8. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  9. Kaempferol ameliorates H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury by inactivation of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Ai, Xia; Duan, Yongjie; Xue, Man; He, Wenxiao; Wang, Cunlian; Xu, Tong; Xu, Mingju; Liu, Baojian; Li, Chunhong; Wang, Zhijun; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Guohua; Tian, Shufei; Liu, Huifeng

    2017-05-01

    Kaempferol, a very common type of dietary flavonoids, has been found to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of kaempferol on H9N2 influenza virus-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. In vitro, MH-S cells were infected with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment. In vivo, kaempferol treatment attenuated pulmonary edema, the W/D mass ratio, pulmonary capillary permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the numbers of inflammatory cells. Kaempferol reduced ROS and Malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Kaempferol also reduced overproduction of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, kaempferol decreased the H9N2 viral titre. In vitro, ROS, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was also reduced by kaempferol. Moreover, our data showed that kaempferol significantly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, and phosphorylation level of MAPKs, both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that kaempferol exhibits a protective effect on H9N2 virus-induced inflammation via suppression of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPKs pathways, and kaempferol may be considered as an effective drug for the potential treatment of influenza virus-induced ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.

    1984-05-01

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  11. Delayed Transient Post-Traumatic Quadriplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaloud Al-Shaaibi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient neurological deficit following cervical trauma have been reported following sports injuries, and has been referred to as cervical cord neurapraxia. The so-called "whiplash injuries" following minor motor vehicle collisions usually do not produce any neurological deficit. Here we report the case of a whiplash type of injury presenting with a delayed onset neurological deficit, which was followed by rapid and complete recovery. The patient, an otherwise healthy 34-year-old male, attended the emergency department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital following a rear-end motor vehicle collision. We present images showing degenerative disc disease causing spinal canal narrowing and mild cord compression in the patient, but no spinal instability. Differential diagnoses are also discussed.

  12. Transient Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilnur Konuralp

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES is accepted as a possible cause of acute disabling hip pain. This syndrome is defined as local osteoporosis in hip in radiographies, BME in MRI which can be rarely seen and has a self-limiting course. Although the disease generally has a self-limiting course, surgical treatment by early core decompression of the femoral head has proven effective in rapidly relieving the symptoms. Although BMES is relatively rare and probably underdiagnosed when compared to nontraumatic osteonecrosis, both conditions are associated with known osteonecrosis risk factors in middle aged men and especially with late (thirdhad trimester pregnancy in women. We have reported three cases with BMES that had different etiology and followed up presented the differential diagnosis to nontraumatic avascular osteonecrosis. These three cases were treated in early stage very succesfully.

  13. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Favaro, Carla F; Azevedo, Kamila E X; Landi, Carolina H; Maluta, Nathalie K P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Lopes, Joao R S

    2016-08-11

    , this type of virus-induced manipulation of vector behaviour was not observed for the semi persistent crinivirus, ToCV, which is not specifically transmitted by B. tabaci and has a much less intimate virus-vector relationship.

  14. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fereres

    2016-08-01

    spread. However, this type of virus-induced manipulation of vector behaviour was not observed for the semi persistent crinivirus, ToCV, which is not specifically transmitted by B. tabaci and has a much less intimate virus-vector relationship.

  15. Replication and virus-induced transcriptome of HAdV-5 in normal host cells versus cancer cells--differences of relevance for adenoviral oncolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik E Dorer

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses (Ads, especially HAdV-5, have been genetically equipped with tumor-restricted replication potential to enable applications in oncolytic cancer therapy. Such oncolytic adenoviruses have been well tolerated in cancer patients, but their anti-tumor efficacy needs to be enhanced. In this regard, it should be considered that cancer cells, dependent on their tissue of origin, can differ substantially from the normal host cells to which Ads are adapted by complex virus-host interactions. Consequently, viral replication efficiency, a key determinant of oncolytic activity, might be suboptimal in cancer cells. Therefore, we have analyzed both the replication kinetics of HAdV-5 and the virus-induced transcriptome in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC in comparison to cancer cells. This is the first report on genome-wide expression profiling of Ads in their native host cells. We found that E1A expression and onset of viral genome replication are most rapid in HBEC and considerably delayed in melanoma cells. In squamous cell lung carcinoma cells, we observed intermediate HAdV-5 replication kinetics. Infectious particle production, viral spread and lytic activity of HAdV-5 were attenuated in melanoma cells versus HBEC. Expression profiling at the onset of viral genome replication revealed that HAdV-5 induced the strongest changes in the cellular transcriptome in HBEC, followed by lung cancer and melanoma cells. We identified prominent regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and DNA metabolism, replication and packaging in HBEC, which is in accord with the necessity to induce S phase for viral replication. Strikingly, in melanoma cells HAdV-5 triggered opposing regulation of said genes and, in contrast to lung cancer cells, no weak S phase induction was detected when using the E2F promoter as reporter. Our results provide a rationale for improving oncolytic adenoviruses either by adaptation of viral infection to target tumor cells or by

  16. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. Fast thermal transients on valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjancic, M.; Stok, B.; Halilovic, M.; Koc, P.; Mole, N.; Otrin, Z.; Kotar, A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the regulatory body methods to supervise nuclear safety of a nuclear power plant is a review of plant modifications and evaluation of their impact on plant operating experience. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) licensed in April 2003 the use of leak-before-break (LBB) methodology in the Krsko NPP for the primary loop including surge line and connecting pipelines with minimal diameter of 6 inch. The SNSA decision based also on fracture mechanics analyses that include direct pipe failure mechanisms such as water hammer, creep damage, erosion and corrosion, fatigue and environmental conditions over the entire life of the plant. The evaluation of the operating transients pointed out, that presumed loadings, used for the LBB analysis, did not incorporate all the fast thermal transients data. For that purpose the SNSA requested Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FS) in Ljubljana to perform additional analyses. The results of the analysis shall confirm the validity of the LBB analysis. (author)

  18. Pressure transient in liquid lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.G.; Wang, X.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The pressure surge that results from a step change of flow in liquid pipelines, commonly known as water hammer, was analyzed by an eigenfunction method. A differential-integral Pressure wave equation and a linearized velocity equation were derived from the equations of mass and momentum conservation. Waveform distortion due to viscous dissipation and pipe-wall elastic expansion is characterized by a dimensionless transmission number K. The pressure surge condition, which is mathematically singular, was used in the solution procedure. The exact solutions from numerical calculation of the differential-integral equation provide a complete Pressure transient in the pipe. The problems are also calculated With the general-purpose computer code COMMIX, which solves the exact mass conservation equation and Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions were compared with published experimental results, and agreement was good. The effect of turbulence on the pressure transient is discussed in the light of COMMIX calculational results

  19. Superresolution microscopy with transient binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Julia; Raab, Mario; Holzmeister, Susanne; Schmitt-Monreal, Daniel; Grohmann, Dina; He, Zhike; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    For single-molecule localization based superresolution, the concentration of fluorescent labels has to be thinned out. This is commonly achieved by photophysically or photochemically deactivating subsets of molecules. Alternatively, apparent switching of molecules can be achieved by transient binding of fluorescent labels. Here, a diffusing dye yields bright fluorescent spots when binding to the structure of interest. As the binding interaction is weak, the labeling is reversible and the dye ligand construct diffuses back into solution. This approach of achieving superresolution by transient binding (STB) is reviewed in this manuscript. Different realizations of STB are discussed and compared to other localization-based superresolution modalities. We propose the development of labeling strategies that will make STB a highly versatile tool for superresolution microscopy at highest resolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    . The chapter ends by proposing a systematic method that can be used when doing the insulation co-ordination study for a line, as well as the modelling requirements, both modelling depth and modelling detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic...... typically used for the screens of cables (both-ends bonding and cross-boding) and also presents methods that can be used to estimate the maximum current of a cable for different types of soils, i.e. thermal calculations. The end of the chapter introduces the shunt reactor, which is an important element...... detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic example....

  1. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4–6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m2). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350–1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278–295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135–145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5–5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5–6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Learning points Gestational DI is a rare complication of

  2. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro; Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4-6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m(2)). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350-1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278-295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135-145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5-5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5-6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Gestational DI is a rare complication of pregnancy occurring in two to four out of

  3. LLL transient-electromagnetics-measurement facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Miller, E.K.; Hudson, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and hardware of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's transient-electromagnetics (EM)-measurement facility are described. The transient-EM range is useful for determining the time-domain transient responses of structures to incident EM pulses. To illustrate the accuracy and utility of the EM-measurement facility, actual experimental measurements are compared to numerically computed values

  4. Learning from anticipated and abnormal plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, B.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given of the American Nuclear Society topical meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Transients in Light Water Reactors held in Jackson, Wyoming in September 1983. Industry involvement in the evaluation of operating experience, human error contributions, transient management, thermal hydraulic modelling, the role of probabilistic risk assessment and the cost of transient incidents are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited ...

  6. Adaptive sampling of AEM transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Massa, Domenico; Florio, Giovanni; Viezzoli, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the sampling of the electromagnetic transient as acquired by airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems. Typically, the sampling of the electromagnetic transient is done using a fixed number of gates whose width grows logarithmically (log-gating). The log-gating has two main benefits: improving the signal to noise (S/N) ratio at late times, when the electromagnetic signal has amplitudes equal or lower than the natural background noise, and ensuring a good resolution at the early times. However, as a result of fixed time gates, the conventional log-gating does not consider any geological variations in the surveyed area, nor the possibly varying characteristics of the measured signal. We show, using synthetic models, how a different, flexible sampling scheme can increase the resolution of resistivity models. We propose a new sampling method, which adapts the gating on the base of the slope variations in the electromagnetic (EM) transient. The use of such an alternative sampling scheme aims to get more accurate inverse models by extracting the geoelectrical information from the measured data in an optimal way.

  7. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-06

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.

  8. Cortical computations via transient attractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver L C Rourke

    Full Text Available The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories. Earlier work that has explored this method has done so by emphasizing one attractor from a limited, pre-defined set. Here, we describe an alternative, a Transient Attractor network, which can learn any pattern presented to it, store several simultaneously, and robustly recall them on demand using targeted probes in a manner reminiscent of Hopfield networks. We hypothesize that such functionality could be usefully embedded within sensory cortex, and allow for a flexibly-gated short-term memory, as well as conferring the ability of the network to perform automatic de-noising, and separation of input signals into distinct perceptual objects. We demonstrate that the stored information can be refreshed to extend storage time, is not sensitive to noise in the system, and can be turned on or off by simple neuromodulation. The diverse capabilities of transient attractors, as well as their resemblance to many features observed in sensory cortex, suggest the possibility that their actions might underlie neural processing in many sensory areas.

  9. Cortical computations via transient attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Oliver L C; Butts, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories. Earlier work that has explored this method has done so by emphasizing one attractor from a limited, pre-defined set. Here, we describe an alternative, a Transient Attractor network, which can learn any pattern presented to it, store several simultaneously, and robustly recall them on demand using targeted probes in a manner reminiscent of Hopfield networks. We hypothesize that such functionality could be usefully embedded within sensory cortex, and allow for a flexibly-gated short-term memory, as well as conferring the ability of the network to perform automatic de-noising, and separation of input signals into distinct perceptual objects. We demonstrate that the stored information can be refreshed to extend storage time, is not sensitive to noise in the system, and can be turned on or off by simple neuromodulation. The diverse capabilities of transient attractors, as well as their resemblance to many features observed in sensory cortex, suggest the possibility that their actions might underlie neural processing in many sensory areas.

  10. Factors Associated with the Quality of Transient Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Uribe-Ramos, Martha Helena; Ramos-Ostos, Martha Helena; López-Ramírez, Angélica Yanine; Ornelas-Arroyo, Sofía; Romero-Flores, Juan Luis; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Uribe, Misael; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C

    2015-07-01

    Transient elastography is a noninvasive method for the evaluation of fibrosis in chronic liver disease. However, its reliability is variable, and the factors associated with its accuracy have not been identified completely. To identify the factors associated with the reliability of transient elastography. A total of 2033 transient elastography measurements were taken from March 2009 to October 2013. Reliability was determined according to the interquartile range/median (IQR/M reliable; IQR/M reliable). Other indicators such as the percentage of successful measurements (>60 %), time of performance, and probe size were recorded. Potential factors that could affect the reliability of the procedure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Slightly less than 5 % of the measurements were unsuccessful, and 83 % of the successful measurements were found to be reliable. Factors associated with an unsuccessful measurement were female gender, incorrect probe size, and the presence of HCV infection. Unreliable measurements were associated with use of the procedure as part of a clinical study and success rate. Very reliable evaluations were associated with >10 measurements, the presence of chronic hepatic disease, and a success rate of >60 %. The operator and clinical and anthropometric characteristics are factors that influence the success and reliability of transient elastography. Improvements in the quality of the procedure are needed to provide better diagnostic accuracy in clinical practice.

  11. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  12. Genetic associations with asthma and virus-induced wheezing: a systematic review Associação genética da asma e da sibilância induzida por vírus: uma revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Araujo Pinto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Various wheezing phenotypes can be identified based on differences in natural histories, risk factors and responses to treatment. In epidemiologic studies, atopic asthma or virus-induced wheezing can be discriminated by the presence or the absence of sensitization to allergens. Children with asthma have been shown to present lower levels of lung function. Patients with viral respiratory infections evolve from normal lung function to enhanced airway reactivity. The objective of this study was to identify genes and polymorphisms associated with different wheezing phenotypes. Using data obtained from the Genetic Association Database, we systematically reviewed studies on genes and polymorphisms that have been associated with virus-induced wheezing or atopic asthma. The research was carried out in February of 2009. Genes associated with the studied outcomes in more than three studies were included in the analysis. We found that different genes and loci have been associated with virus-induced wheezing or atopic asthma. Virus-induced wheezing has frequently been associated with IL-8 polymorphisms, whereas atopic asthma and atopy have frequently been associated with Th2 cytokine gene (CD14 and IL-13 polymorphisms on chromosome 5. This review provides evidence that different wheezing disorders in childhood can be differently affected by genetic variations, considering their role on airway inflammation and atopy. Future studies of genetic associations should consider the different wheezing phenotypes in infancy. In addition, stratified analyses for atopy can be useful for elucidating the mechanisms of the disease.Diversos fenótipos de sibilância têm sido identificados com base em diferenças na história natural, fatores de risco e resposta ao tratamento. Em estudos epidemiológicos, a asma atópica ou sibilância induzida por vírus pode ser discriminada pela presença ou ausência de sensibilização a alérgenos. As crianças com asma apresentam n

  13. Mutagenesis of Dengue Virus Protein NS2A Revealed a Novel Domain Responsible for Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effect and Interactions between NS2A and NS2B Transmembrane Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Han; Tsai, Kuen-Nan; Tian, Jia Ni; Wu, Jian-Sung; Wu, Su-Ying; Chern, Jyh-Haur; Chen, Chun-Hong; Yueh, Andrew

    2017-06-15

    The NS2A protein of dengue virus (DENV) has eight predicted transmembrane segments (pTMS1 to -8) and participates in RNA replication, virion assembly, and host antiviral response. However, the roles of specific amino acid residues within the pTMS regions of NS2A during the viral life cycle are not clear. Here, we explore the function of DENV NS2A by introducing a series of alanine substitutions into the N-terminal half (pTMS1 to -4) of the protein in the context of a DENV infectious clone or subgenomic replicon. Six NS2A mutants (NM5, -7, -9, and -17 to -19) around pTMS1 and -2 displayed a novel phenotype showing a >1,000-fold reduction in virus yield, an absence of plaque formation despite wild-type-like replicon activity, and infectious-virus-like particle yields. HEK-293 cells infected with the six NS2A mutant viruses failed to cause a virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) by MitoCapture staining, cell proliferation, and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Sequencing analyses of pseudorevertant viruses derived from lethal-mutant viruses revealed two consensus reversion mutations, leucine to phenylalanine at codon 181 (L181F) within pTMS7 of NS2A and isoleucine to threonine at codon 114 (I114T) within NS2B. The introduction of an NS2A-L181F mutation into the lethal (NM15, -16, -25, and -33) and CPE-defective (NM7, -9, and -19) mutants substantially rescued virus infectivity and virus-induced CPE, respectively, whereas the NS2B-L114T mutation rescued the NM16, -25, and -33 mutants. In conclusion, the results revealed the essential roles of the N-terminal half of NS2A in RNA replication and virus-induced CPE. Intramolecular interactions between pTMSs of NS2A and intermolecular interactions between the NS2A and NS2B proteins were also implicated. IMPORTANCE The characterization of the N-terminal (current study) and C-terminal halves of DENV NS2A is the most comprehensive mutagenesis study to date to investigate the function of NS2A during the flaviviral life cycle

  14. Transient global amnesia and neurological events: the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Rafael Romero; Jose Rafael Romero; Melissa eMercado; Alexa S Beiser; Alexa S Beiser; Alexa S Beiser; Aleksandra ePikula; Aleksandra ePikula; Sudha eSeshadri; Sudha eSeshadri; Margaret eKelly-Hayes; Philip A Wolf; Philip A Wolf; Carlos S Kase; Carlos S Kase

    2013-01-01

    Background/ objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary amnestic syndrome characterized by lack of other focal neurological deficits. Cerebrovascular disease, migraine and seizures have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. TGA may be a risk factor for cerebrovascular or other neurological events. We studied the relation of TGA, vascular risk factors, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices of subclinical ischemia and neurological events in a community-based sample. Des...

  15. Transient Hearing Loss in Adults Associated With Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhaes, Eriko S; Santos, Luciane A; Dias, Lislane; Andrade, Nilvano A; Bezerra, Victor H; de Carvalho, Anderson T; de Moraes, Laise; Henriques, Daniele F; Azar, Sasha R; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ko, Albert I; Andrade, Bruno B; Siqueira, Isadora C; Khouri, Ricardo; Boaventura, Viviane S

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, during the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil, we identified 3 cases of acute hearing loss after exanthematous illness. Serology yielded finding compatible with ZIKV as the cause of a confirmed (n = 1) and a probable (n = 2) flavivirus infection, indicating an association between ZIKV infection and transient hearing loss. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. Robust transient dynamics and brain functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades several concepts of Dynamical Systems Theory (DST have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc. have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework -heteroclinic sequential dynamics- to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i within the same modality, (ii among different modalities from the same family (like perception, and (iii among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition. The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory -a vital cognitive function-, and to find specific dynamical signatures -different kinds of instabilities- of several brain functions and mental diseases.

  17. Transient tachypnea of the newborn and congenital pneumonia: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sandra; Rocha, Gustavo; Leitão, Andreia; Guimarães, Hercília

    2012-07-01

    Identify perinatal risk factors for transient tachypnea and pneumonia in neonates, and compare the outcome of these clinical conditions during the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay. Retrospective review of newborns admitted to a level III NICU, comparing patients with transient tachypnea, pneumonia and a control group of healthy neonates. We included 202 patients with transient tachypnea, 29 with pneumonia and 498 controls. Perinatal infectious risk factors were more frequent in patients with pneumonia than in transient tachypnea (p ventilatory support more frequently and for a longer period. Comparing with controls, Apgar score at one and five minutes was higher in controls than in patients with pneumonia (p0.032 and p newborns with transient tachypnea and pneumonia are indistinguishable at presentation but clinical evolution is significantly different. The presence of perinatal infectious risk supports the diagnosis of pneumonia. Low Apgar score at one and five minutes was associated with both diseases, suggesting that etiologic factors may already be present at birth.

  18. The course of transient hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, A J; Cleary, P D; Sarnie, M K; Klerman, G L

    1993-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal course of patients known to have had a previous episode of transient hypochondriasis. Twenty-two transiently hypochondriacal patients and 24 nonhypochondriacal patients from the same general medical clinic were reexamined after an average of 22 months with the use of self-report questionnaires, structured diagnostic interviews, and medical record review. The hypochondriacal patients continued to manifest significantly more hypochondriacal symptoms, more somatization, and more psychopathological symptoms at follow-up. They also reported significantly more amplification of bodily sensations and more functional disability and utilized more medical care. These differences persisted after control for differences in medical morbidity and marital status. Only one hypochondriacal patient, however, had a DSM-III-R diagnosis of hypochondriasis at follow-up. Multivariate analyses revealed that the only significant predictors of hypochondriacal symptoms at follow-up were hypochondriacal symptoms and the tendency to amplify bodily sensations at the baseline evaluation. Hypochondriacal symptoms appear to have some temporal stability: patients who experienced hypochondriacal episodes at the beginning of the study were significantly more hypochondriacal 2 years later than comparison patients. They were not, however, any more likely to develop DSM-III-R-defined hypochondriasis. Thus, hypochondriacal symptoms may be distinct from the axis I disorder. The data are also compatible with the hypothesis that preexisting amplification of bodily sensations is an important predictor of subsequent hypochondriacal symptoms.

  19. Transient global amnesia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel DR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Spiegel, Justin Smith, Ryan R Wade, Nithya Cherukuru, Aneel Ursani, Yuliya Dobruskina, Taylor Crist, Robert F Busch, Rahim M Dhanani, Nicholas Dreyer Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Abstract: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive. Recent data suggest that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays a pivotal part in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an impairment of hippocampal function during TGA. In this review, we discuss clinical aspects, new imaging findings, and recent clinical–epidemiological data with regard to the phenotype, functional anatomy, and putative cellular mechanisms of TGA. Keywords: transient global amnesia, vascular, migraines, psychiatric

  20. Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Cashman, John R; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Methods FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine. Results Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. PMID:17257434

  1. Prismatic Core Coupled Transient Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortensi, J.; Pope, M.A.; Strydom, G.; Sen, R.S.; DeHart, M.D.; Gougar, H.D.; Ellis, C.; Baxter, A.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.J.; Vierow, K.; Ivanov, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  2. A COMETHE version with transient capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Lebon, G.; Mathieu, P.

    1980-01-01

    A version of the COMETHE code is under development to simulate transient situations. This paper focuses on some aspects of the transient heat transfer models. Initially the coupling between transient heat transfer and other thermomechanical models is discussed. An estimation of the thermal characteristic times shows that the cladding temperatures are often in quasi-steady state. In order to reduce the computing time, calculations are therefore switched from a transient to a quasi-static numerical procedure as soon as such a quasi-equilibrium is detected. The temperature calculation is performed by use of the Lebon-Lambermont restricted variational principle, with piecewise polynoms as trial functions. The method has been checked by comparison with some exact results and yields good agreement for transient as well as for quasi-static situations. This method therefore provides a valuable tool for the simulation of the transient behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel rods. (orig.)

  3. Experience with transients in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindauer, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines reactor accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany based on the formal reporting system for licensee event reports (LERs) and a special investigation on all unplanned power variations in 3 PWRs. The significant transients experienced by BWR type reactors are analyzed. The main goal is to find weak points which caused the transient or influenced its course in an unfavorable way in order to improve the affected plant and others. The complete survey of all transients, with normally little or no safety relevance, allows statistical evaluations and the analysis of trends. It is concluded that significant transients were mainly experienced at older plants, whereas plants of an advanced design produced very few significant transients. The most frequent human errors which lead to transients are failure search in electronic systems and errors during design and commissioning

  4. Transient analysis for resolving safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Layman, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) has a Generic Safety Analysis Program to help resolve high priority generic safety issues. This paper describes several high priority safety issues considered at NSAC and how they were resolved by transient analysis using thermal hydraulics and neutronics codes. These issues are pressurized thermal shock (PTS), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and reactivity transients in light of the Chernobyl accident

  5. Analysis of transient signals by Wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, Rosani Libardi da; Silva, Aucyone A. da; Ting, Daniel K.S.; Oliveira Neto, Jose Messias de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the Wavelet Transform in transient signals. The Wavelet technique can outline the short time events that are not easily detected using traditional techniques. In this work, the Wavelet Transform is compared with Fourier Transform, by using simulated data and rotor rig data. This data contain known transients. The wavelet could follow all the transients, what do not happen to the Fourier techniques. (author)

  6. Instrument response during overpower transients at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.C.; Bauer, T.H.; Hill, D.J.; Froehle, P.H.; Klickman, A.E.; Tylka, J.P.; Doerner, R.C.; Wright, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A program to empirically analyze data residuals or noise to determine instrument response that occurs during in-pile transient tests is out-lined. As an example, thermocouple response in the Mark III loop during a severe overpower transient in TREAT is studied both in frequency space and in real-time. Time intervals studied included both constant power and burst portions of the power transient. Thermocouple time constants were computed. Benefits and limitations of the method are discussed

  7. OPTICAL TRANSIENT DETECTOR (OTD) LIGHTNING V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) records optical measurements of global lightning events in the daytime and nighttime. The data includes individual point...

  8. Transient shielded liquid hydrogen containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.P.; Herring, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase has been limited in duration due to the thermal performance constraints of conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers available. Conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers lose hydrogen because of their relatively high heat leak and variations in usage pattern of hydrogen due to shutdowns. Local regulations also discourage venting of hydrogen. Long term storage of Liquid Hydrogen without product loss was usually accomplished using Liquid Nitrogen sacrificial shields. This paper reports on a new low heat leak container developed and patented that will extend the storage time of liquid hydrogen by five hundred percent. The principle of operation of the Transient Shields which makes the extraordinary performance of this container feasible is described in this paper. Also covered are the impact of this new container on present applications of hydrogen and the new opportunities afforded to Liquid hydrogen in the world hydrogen market

  9. Measurement of fast transient pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procaccia, Henri

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy, reliability and sensitivity of a pressure transducers define its principal static characteristics. When the quantity measured varies with time, the measurement carries a dynamic error and a delay depending on the frequency of this variation. Hence, when fast pressure changes in a fluid have to be determined, different kinds of pressure transducers can be used depending on their inherent dynamic characteristics which must be compared with those of the transient phenomenon to be analysed. The text describes the pressure transducers generally employed in industry for analysing such phenomenon and gives two practical applications developed in the EDF: the first submits the measurements and results of pump cavitation tests carried out at the Vitry II EDF power station; the second deals with hammer blows particularly noticed in nuclear power stations and required the use of transducers of exceptionally high performance such as strain gauge transducers and piezoelectric transducers (response time within 1m sec.) [fr

  10. Transient photoconductivity in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpawenayo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Localized states in amorphous semiconductors are divided in disorder induced shallow trap levels and dangling bonds deep states. Dangling bonds are assumed here to be either neutral or charged and their energy distribution is a single gaussian. Here, it is shown analytically that transient photocurrent in amorphous semiconductors is fully controlled by charge carriers transitions between localized states for one part and tunneling hopping carriers on the other. Localized dangling bonds deep states act as non radiative recombination centres, while hopping tunnelling is assisted by the Coulomb interaction between defects sites. The half-width of defects distribution is the disorder parameter that determines the carrier hopping time between defects sites. The macroscopic time that explains the long decay response times observed will all types of amorphous semiconductors is duly thought to be temperature dependent. Basic equations developed by Longeaud and Kleider are solved for the general case of a semiconductor after photo-generation. It turns out that the transient photoconductivity decay has two components; one with short response times from carriers trap-release transitions between shallow levels and extended states and a hopping component made of inter-dependent exponentials whose time constants span in larger ranges depending on disorder. The photoconductivity hopping component appears as an additional term to be added to photocurrents derived from existing models. The results of the present study explain and complete the power law decay derived in the multiple trapping models developed 20 years ago only in the approximation of the short response time regime. The long response time regime is described by the hopping macroscopic time. The present model is verified for all samples of amorphous semiconductors known so far. Finally, it is proposed to improved the modulated photoconductivity calculation techniques by including the long-lasting hopping dark documents

  11. Adoptive transfer of EBV specific CD8+ T cell clones can transiently control EBV infection in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsiferova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection expands CD8+ T cells specific for lytic antigens to high frequencies during symptomatic primary infection, and maintains these at significant numbers during persistence. Despite this, the protective function of these lytic EBV antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that lytic EBV replication does not significantly contribute to virus-induced B cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model with reconstituted human immune system components (huNSG mice. However, we report a trend to reduction of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation outside of lymphoid organs upon diminished lytic replication. Moreover, we could demonstrate that CD8+ T cells against the lytic EBV antigen BMLF1 can eliminate lytically replicating EBV-transformed B cells from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs and in vivo, thereby transiently controlling high viremia after adoptive transfer into EBV infected huNSG mice. These findings suggest a protective function for lytic EBV antigen-specific CD8+ T cells against EBV infection and against virus-associated tumors in extra-lymphoid organs. These specificities should be explored for EBV-specific vaccine development.

  12. An attempt to induce transient immunosuppression pre-erythrocytapheresis in a girl with sickle cell disease, a history of severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and need for hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cattoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR occurred 7 days after an erythrocytapheresis or eritroexchange procedure (EEX treated with rituximab and glucocorticoids in a 15-years old patient with sickle cell disease. EEX was performed despite a previous diagnosis of alloimmunization, in order to reduce hemoglobin S rate before a major surgery for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. A first dose of rituximab was administered before EEX. However, rituximab couldn’t prevent DHTR that occurred with acute hemolysis, hemoglobinuria and hyper-bilirubinemia. A further dose of rituximab and three boli of methylprednisolone were given after the onset of the reaction. It is likely that the combined use of rituximab and steroids managed to gradually improve both patient’s general conditions and hemoglobin levels. Nor early or late side effects were registered in a 33-months follow-up period. This report suggests the potential effectiveness and safety of rituximab in combination with steroids in managing and mitigating the symptoms of delayed post-transfusional hemolytic reactions in alloimmunized patients affected by sickle cell disease with absolute need for erythrocytapheresis.

  13. Plasma transport studies using transient techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Brower, D.L.; Efthimion, P.

    1991-01-01

    Selected topics from the Transient Transport sessions of the Transport Task Force Workshop, held February 19-23, 1990, in Hilton Head, South Carolina are summarized. Presentations on sawtooth propagation, ECH modulation, particle modulation, and H-mode transitions are included. The research results presented indicated a growing theoretical understanding and experimental sophistication in the application of transient techniques to transport studies. (Author)

  14. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  15. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  16. Synchronizing noisy nonidentical oscillators by transient uncoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, Aditya, E-mail: adityat@iitk.ac.in; Mannattil, Manu, E-mail: mmanu@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Schröder, Malte, E-mail: malte@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc, E-mail: timme@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Physics, Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Chakraborty, Sagar, E-mail: sagarc@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Synchronization is the process of achieving identical dynamics among coupled identical units. If the units are different from each other, their dynamics cannot become identical; yet, after transients, there may emerge a functional relationship between them—a phenomenon termed “generalized synchronization.” Here, we show that the concept of transient uncoupling, recently introduced for synchronizing identical units, also supports generalized synchronization among nonidentical chaotic units. Generalized synchronization can be achieved by transient uncoupling even when it is impossible by regular coupling. We furthermore demonstrate that transient uncoupling stabilizes synchronization in the presence of common noise. Transient uncoupling works best if the units stay uncoupled whenever the driven orbit visits regions that are locally diverging in its phase space. Thus, to select a favorable uncoupling region, we propose an intuitive method that measures the local divergence at the phase points of the driven unit's trajectory by linearizing the flow and subsequently suppresses the divergence by uncoupling.

  17. Transient survivability of LMR oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.T.; Pitner, A.L.; Bard, F.E.; Culley, G.E.; Hunter, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel pin integrity during transient events must be assessed for both the core design and safety analysis phases of a reactor project. A significant increase in the experience related to limits of integrity for oxide fuel pins in transient overpower events has been realized from testing of fuel pins irradiated in FFTF and PFR. Fourteen FFTF irradiated fuel pins were tested in TREAT, representing a range of burnups, overpower ramp rates and maximum overpower conditions. Results of these tests along with similar testing in the PFR/TREAT program, provide a demonstration of significant safety margins for oxide fuel pins. Useful information applied in analytical extrapolation of fuel pin test data have been developed from laboratory transient tests on irradiated fuel cladding (FCTT) and on unirradiated fuel pellet deformation. These refinements in oxide fuel transient performance are being applied in assessment of transient capabilities of long lifetime fuel designs using ferritic cladding

  18. Characterizing transient noise in the LIGO detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. K.

    2018-05-01

    Data from the LIGO detectors typically contain many non-Gaussian noise transients which arise due to instrumental and environmental conditions. These non-Gaussian transients can be an issue for the modelled and unmodelled transient gravitational-wave searches, as they can mask or mimic a true signal. Data quality can change quite rapidly, making it imperative to track and find new sources of transient noise so that data are minimally contaminated. Several examples of transient noise and the tools used to track them are presented. These instances serve to highlight the diverse range of noise sources present at the LIGO detectors during their second observing run. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  19. Nuclear reactors transients identification and classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Paulo Henrique

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the study and test of a system capable to identify and classify transients in thermo-hydraulic systems, using a neural network technique of the self-organizing maps (SOM) type, with the objective of implanting it on the new generations of nuclear reactors. The technique developed in this work consists on the use of multiple networks to do the classification and identification of the transient states, being each network a specialist at one respective transient of the system, that compete with each other using the quantization error, that is a measure given by this type of neural network. This technique showed very promising characteristics that allow the development of new functionalities in future projects. One of these characteristics consists on the potential of each network, besides responding what transient is in course, could give additional information about that transient. (author)

  20. Contribution of EEG in transient neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Tcheumeni, Nadine Carole; Turki, Sahar; Amiel, Hélène; Meppiel, Elodie; Masmoudi, Sana; Roos, Caroline; Crassard, Isabelle; Plaisance, Patrick; Benbetka, Houria; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Houdart, Emmanuel; Baudoin, Hélène; Kubis, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Identification of stroke mimics and 'chameleons' among transient neurological deficits (TND) is critical. Diagnostic workup consists of a brain imaging study, for a vascular disease or a brain tumour and EEG, for epileptiform discharges. The precise role of EEG in this diagnostic workup has, however, never been clearly delineated. However, this could be crucial in cases of atypical or incomplete presentation with consequences on disease management and treatment. We analysed the EEG patterns on 95 consecutive patients referred for an EEG within 7 days of a TND with diagnostic uncertainty. Patients were classified at the discharge or the 3-month follow-up visit as: 'ischemic origin', 'migraine aura', 'focal seizure', and 'other'. All patients had a brain imaging study. EEG characteristics were correlated to the TND symptoms, imaging study, and final diagnosis. Sixty four (67%) were of acute onset. Median symptom duration was 45 min. Thirty two % were 'ischemic', 14% 'migraine aura', 19% 'focal seizure', and 36% 'other' cause. EEGs were recorded with a median delay of 1.6 day after symptoms onset. Forty EEGs (42%) were abnormal. Focal slow waves were the most common finding (43%), also in the ischemic group (43%), whether patients had a typical presentation or not. Epileptiform discharges were found in three patients, one with focal seizure and two with migraine aura. Non-specific EEG focal slowing is commonly found in TND, and may last several days. We found no difference in EEG presentation between stroke mimics and stroke chameleons, and between other diagnoses.

  1. Defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Ibrahim Ahmad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2008-08-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 kWatt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with ThermofitTMPro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔΤ m ax and the time of its appearance, τ m ax (ΔΤ). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔΤ m ax), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defects are at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (Author)

  2. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, R L; Pogorelov, N V; Burlaga, L F

    2015-01-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations. (paper)

  3. Transient phenomena in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled

  4. Fission gas behavior during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of non-equilibrium fission in fuel elements undergoing fast thermal transients is analyzed. To facilitate the analysis, a new variable, the equilibrium variable (EV) is defined. This variable, together with bubble radius, completely specifies a bubble with respect to its size and equilibrium condition. The analysis is coded using a two-variable (radius and EV) multigroup numerical approximation that accepts as input the time-temperature history, the time-fission rate history, and the time-thermal gradient history of the fuel element. Studies were performed to test the code for convergence with respect to the time interval and the number of groups chosen. For a series of transient simulation studies, the measurements obtained at HEDL (microscopic examination of intragranular porosity in oxide fuel transient-tested in TREAT) are used. Two different transient histories were selected; the first, a high-temperature transient (HTT) with a peak at 2477 0 K and the second, a low-temperature transient (LTT) with a peak-temperature at 2000 0 K. The LTT was simulated for three different conditions: Bubbles were allowed to move via (a) only biased migration, (b) via random migration, and (c) via both mechanisms. The HTT was also run for both mechanisms. The agreement with HEDL microscopic observations was fair for bubbles smaller than 964 A in diameter, and poor for larger bubbles. Bubbles that grew during the heat-up part of the transient were frozen at a larger size during the cool down

  5. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  6. New developments in French transient monitoring: SYSFAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'huby, Y.; Genette, P.; Faidy, C.; Kappler, F.; Balley, J.; Bimont, G.

    1991-01-01

    After more than ten years of experience with Transient Monitoring and Logging Procedure (TMLP) and six years of successfully experience with Fatiguemeters, EDF has decided to study a new concept of Fatigue Monitoring System: SYSFAC. This new automatic system which is developed to be operating in all the French PWR units is composed of three modules: mechanical transient logging, functional transient logging and fatiguemeters. This application must be connected to the on-site data acquisition system without complementary instrumentation on the plant. (author)

  7. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  8. Transient analysis capabilities at ABB-CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The transient capabilities at ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) Nuclear Power are a function of the computer hardware and related network used, the computer software that has evolved over the years, and the commercial technical exchange agreements with other related organizations and customers. ABB-CEA is changing from a mainframe/personal computer network to a distributed workstation/personal computer local area network. The paper discusses computer hardware, mainframe computing, personal computers, mainframe/personal computer networks, workstations, transient analysis computer software, design/operation transient analysis codes, safety (licensed) analysis codes, cooperation with ABB-Atom, and customer support

  9. Transient burnout in flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki

    1981-01-01

    A transient flow reduction burnout experiment was conducted with water in a uniformly heated, vertically oriented tube. Test pressures ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 MPa. An analytical method was developed to obtain transient burnout conditions at the exit. A simple correlation to predict the deviation of the transient burnout mass velocity at the tube exit from the steady state mass velocity obtained as a function of steam-water density ratio and flow reduction rate. The correlation was also compared with the other data. (author)

  10. Utilidad de la elastografía de transición (Fibroscan® en la evaluación de la fibrosis hepática en pacientes con hepatopatía crónica Usefulness of transient elastography (Fibroscan® in the assessment of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Álvarez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El pronóstico de la enfermedad crónica hepática depende de la extensión y la progresión de la fibrosis hepática. Actualmente la biopsia hepática es la técnica de elección para determinar el grado de fibrosis, pero es una prueba invasiva, no exenta de complicaciones. Por ello, el desarrollo de marcadores no invasivos de fibrosis hepática se convirtió en una necesidad indiscutible. Se propuso la elastografìa por transición (Fibroscan® para valorar la fibrosis hepática en pacientes con enfermedad crónica hepática, mediante la medición de la rigidez hepática. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la efectividad, la objetividad y la seguridad de esta técnica. Se estudiaron 68 pacientes a los que se les realizó una biopsia hepática en los 18 meses previos al estudio. Todos los procedimientos de elastografia y biopsia hepática fueron analizados por un mismo profesional (DA y MA, respectivamente. Para la valoración de la biopsia hepática se utilizó la escala METAVIR. El valor medio de rigidez en pacientes sin fibrosis o con fibrosis leve (F0-F1 y en los pacientes con fibrosis avanzada o cirrosis (F3-F4 fue 6.8 ± 3.0 kPa y 21.0 ± 15.1 kPa, respectivamente (con diferencia significativa, p The prognosis and management of chronic liver disease largely depends on the extent and progression of liver fibrosis. Unfortunately, liver biopsy, an invasive and painful technique with several limitations, continues to be the gold standard for the staging and grading of fibrosis. Therefore, accurate noninvasive tests for liver injury are urgently needed. During the last years, transient elastography (Fibroscan® has been proposed for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease, by measuring liver stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness, objectivity and safety of this technique. We included 68 patients who underwent a liver biopsy in the last 18 months with a wide spectrum of chronic liver

  11. Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip in Pregnancy: A Case Report - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ekim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip is an uncommon disease, the cause is not known. This condition is reversible. Because generally the hip joint is effected it is named as “transient osteoporosis of the hip”. It is usually seen in women in the third trimester of pregnancy and in middle-aged men. The patients admitts with acute, severe, and progressive hip pain and these complaints are generally severe limiting their ambulations. Prognose of transient osteoporosis of the hip is good. In treatment; conservative treament approaches, bed rest is recommended and generally complaints are disappear in a few months. In this article; a case is presented which has applied with acut hip pain in one side, in the third trimester of pregnancy. The case has been diagnosed as transient osteoporosis of the hip according to clinical examination and radilogical investigation results. And cured with conservative approaches. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:48-51

  12. Peptidomics Analysis of Transient Regeneration in the Neonatal Mouse Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Zhang, Qijun; Li, Hua; Cheng, Zijie; Li, Xing; Chen, Yumei; Shen, Yahui; Wang, Liansheng; Song, Guixian; Qian, Lingmei

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal mouse hearts have completely regenerative capability after birth, but the ability to regenerate rapidly lost after 7 days, the mechanism has not been clarified. Previous studies have shown that mRNA profile of adult mouse changed greatly compared to neonatal mouse. So far, there is no research of peptidomics related to heart regeneration. In order to explore the changes of proteins, enzymes, and peptides related to the transient regeneration, we used comparative petidomics technique to compare the endogenous peptides in the mouse heart of postnatal 1 and 7 days. In final, we identified 236 differentially expressed peptides, 169 of which were upregulated and 67 were downregulated in the postnatal 1 day heart, and also predicted 36 functional peptides associated with transient regeneration. The predicted 36 candidate peptides are located in the important domains of precursor proteins and/or contain the post-transcriptional modification (PTM) sites, which are involved in the biological processes of cardiac development, cardiac muscle disease, cell proliferation, necrosis, and apoptosis. In conclusion, for the first time, we compared the peptidomics profiles of neonatal heart between postnatal 1 day and postnatal 7 day. This study provides a new direction and an important basis for the mechanism research of transient regeneration in neonatal heart. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2828-2840, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Shiga, Kouji; Umamoto, Ikuo

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy in 80 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 50 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Twenty persons without either coronary artery stenosis or heart disease were served as controls. Areas surrounded by maximum count points on the line of each 10deg on the short axis slice through the mid-cavity of the left ventricle were obtained at 10 minutes and at 3 hours after exercise. Transient dilation index (TDI) was obtained by dividing the area on early image by that on delayed image. TDI was significantly higher in patients with two or three vessel disease in the IHD group than the control group. High TDI was observed in 8% for one vessel disease, 40% for two vessel disease, and 80% for three vessel disease, contributing to the detection of multivessel IHD. In the HCM group of 80 patients, 24 (48%) had high TDI which was frequently associated with a history of chest pain and positive ECG findings at exercise. When these 24 HCM patients underwent exercise blood pool scintiscanning, left ventricular enddiastolic volume was similar before and at 10 minutes after exercise. These findings suggest that transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity after exercise may reflect subendocardial ischemia in both IHD and HCM. TDI would become a useful indicator for transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity. (N.K.)

  14. Rare Cause of Hip Pain: Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip-Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Şaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH is a rare disease affecting especially middle-aged men and women in the third trimester of pregnancy with unknown etiology. It has a benign course with spontaneous resolution. Transient osteoporosis may be confused with other diseases such as avascular necrosis. Early diagnosis is important to identify and plan correct treatment. In this report, two male cases with complaint of hip pain and difficulty in walking, which were diagnosed with TOH was presented by reviewing current literature.

  15. simulation of electromagnetic transients in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1996-09-01

    Sep 1, 1996 ... Transients in power systems are initiated by abrupt changes to otherwise steady operating conditions. These changes would .... The method is applicable both to single transmission in real time. The method is applicable both ...

  16. The economic impact of reactor transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.; Vine, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the cost estimation of transients and the causal relationship between transients and accidents. It is suggested that the calculation of the actual cost of a transient that has occurred is impossible without computerized records. Six months of operating experience reports, based on a survey of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) conducted by the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC), are analyzed. The significant costs of a reactor transient are the repair costs resulting from severe damage to plant equipment, the cost of scrams (the actions the system is designed to take to avoid safety risks), US NRC fines, negative publicity, utility rates and revenues. It is estimated that the Three Mile Island-2 accident cost the US over $100 billion in nuclear plant delays and cancellations, more expensive fuel, oil imports, backfits, bureaucratic, administrative and legal costs, and lost productivity

  17. Fuel cladding mechanical properties for transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.; Hanson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Out-of-pile simulated transient tests have been conducted on irradiated fast-reactor fuel pin cladding specimens at heating rates of 10 0 F/s (5.6 0 K/s) and 200 0 F/s (111 0 K/s) to generate mechanical property information for use in describing cladding behavior during off-normal events. Mechanical property data were then analyzed, applying the Larson-Miller Parameter to the effects of heating rate and neutron fluence. Data from simulated transient tests on TREAT-tested fuel pins demonstrate that Plant Protective System termination of 3$/s transients prevents significant damage to cladding. The breach opening produced during simulated transient testing is shown to decrease in size with increasing neutron fluence

  18. Detection of Transient Signals in Doppler Spectra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Signal processing is used to detect transient signals in the presence of noise. Two embodiments are disclosed. In both embodiments, the time series from a remote...

  19. Transient management using the safety function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Barrow, J.H.; Bischoff, G.C.; Callaghan, V.M.; Pearce, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The safety function approach is described. Its use in the development of a transient management procedures system includes optimal recovery procedures tailored to specific, anticipated symptom sets and a functional recovery procedure which is more general. Simulator evaluations are described

  20. Development of a transient criticality evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, C.C.; Eaton, M.D.; Miles, B.; Ziver, A.K.; Gomes, J.L.M.A.; Umpleby, A.P.; Piggott, M.D.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de

    2005-01-01

    In developing a transient criticality evaluation method we model, in full spatial/temporal detail, the neutron fluxes and consequent power and the evolving material properties - their flows, energies, phase changes etc. These methods are embodied in the generic method FETCH code which is based as far as possible on basic principles and is capable of use in exploring safety-related situations somewhat beyond the range of experiment. FETCH is a general geometry code capable of addressing a range of criticality issues in fissile materials. The code embodies both transient radiation transport and transient fluid dynamics. Work on powders, granular materials, porous media and solutions is reviewed. The capability for modelling transient criticality for chemical plant, waste matrices and advanced reactors is also outlined. (author)

  1. RFSP simulations of Darlington FINCH refuelling transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, E.V.; Chow, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Immediately after refuelling of a channel, the fresh bundles are free of fission products. Xenon-135, the most notable of the saturating fission products, builds up to an equilibrium level in about 30 h. The channel power of the refuelled channel would therefore initially peak and then drop to a steady-state level. The RFSP code can track saturating-fission-product transients and power transients. The Fully INstrumented CHannels (FINCHs) in Darlington NGS provides channel power data on the refuelling power transients. In this paper, such data has been used to identify the physical evidence of the fission-product transient effect on channel power, and to validate RFSP fission-product-driver calculation results. (author)

  2. Climatic feedbacks between stationary and transient eddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branscome, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary eddies make a significant contribution to poleward heat transport during Northern Hemisphere winter, equaling the transport by transient eddies. On the other hand, stationary eddy transport during the summer is negligible. The effect of topography on time-mean stationary waves and low-frequency variability has been widely studied. In contrast, little attention has been given to the climatic feedbacks associated with stationary eddies. Furthermore, the relationship between stationary and transient eddies in the context of global and regional climate is not well understood. The response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing is likely to have some dependence on stationary wave transport and its interaction with transient eddies. Some early GCM simulations and observational analyses indicate a strong feedback between the meridional heat fluxes of stationary and transient eddies

  3. Acoustic Transient Source Localization From an Aerostat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scanlon, Michael; Reiff, Christian; Noble, John

    2006-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has conducted experiments using acoustic sensor arrays suspended below tethered aerostats to detect and localize transient signals from mortars, artillery and small arms fire...

  4. Attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Fernando; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Palacios, Alicia; Argenti, Luca; Cheng, Yan; Chini, Michael; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zenghu

    2015-01-01

    We extend attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS) to the study of hydrogen molecules, demonstrating the potential of the technique to resolve – simultaneously and with state resolution – both the electronic and nuclear dynamics. (paper)

  5. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  6. Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1998-01-01

    Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead...... began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed....

  7. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  8. PC-Reactor-core transient simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1989-10-01

    PC-REATOR, a reactor core transient simulation code has been developed for the real-time operator training on a IBM-PC microcomputer. The program presents capabilities for on-line exchange of the operating parameters during the transient simulation, by friendly keyboard instructions. The model is based on the point-kinetics approximation, with 2 delayed neutron percursors and up to 11 decay power generating groups. (author) [pt

  9. Modeling of Transients in an Enrichment Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandino, Maria; Delmastro, Dario; Brasnarof, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a mathematical model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.Transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations along the closed loop

  10. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Kuzmin; Irina V. Soboleva; Elena V. Dolotova

    2011-01-01

    Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for c...

  11. Transient ischemic attack presenting in an elderly patient with transient ophthalmic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparshi Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient ischemic attack (TIA is a transient neurological deficit of cerebrovascular origin without infarction which may last only for a short period and can have varying presentations. We report a case of 58-year-old male with presenting features of sudden onset transient vertical diplopia and transient rotatory nystagmus which self-resolved within 12 h. Patient had no history of any systemic illness. On investigating, hematological investigations and neuroimaging could not explain these sudden and transient findings. A TIA could possibly explain these sudden and transient ocular findings in our patient. This case report aims to highlight the importance of TIA for ophthalmologists. We must not ignore these findings as these could be warning signs of an impending stroke which may or may not be detected on neuroimaging. Thus, early recognition, primary prevention strategies, and timely intervention are needed.

  12. Flow transients experiments with refrigerant-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; D'Annibale, F.; Farello, G.E.; Setaro, T.

    1986-01-01

    Flow transients have been investigated in a wide range of thermal-hydraulics situations with Refrigerannt-12. Six pressures (including the reference to PWR and BWR characteristic liquid to vapour densities ratios), several periods of the flowrate transients coastdown during the simulated flow decays, and different specific mass flowrate have been studied emploiyng a circular duct test section (Dsub(i)=7,5 mm). Two heated lengths of the test section have been considered (L = 2300 and 1180 mm). Experimental data have shown the complete inadequacy of steady-state critical heat flux correlations in predicting the onset of boiling crisis during fast flow transients (half-flow decay time, tsub(h)lt5.0-6.0 s). The flow transient does not show dependence, in terms of DNB conditions ,upon the length of the test section: the ratio between transient and steady-state critical mass flowrate is not dependent on the tested geometry. The time interval from the start of the flowrate transient to the onset of DNB (time to crisis), has been experimentally determined for all the runs. Data analysis for a better theoretical prediction of the phenomenon has been accomplished, and a design correlation for DNB conditons and time to crisis prediction has been proposed

  13. Sporadic on/off switching of HTLV-1 Tax expression is crucial to maintain the whole population of virus-induced leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Mohamed; Yasunaga, Jun-Ichirou; Iwami, Shingo; Nakaoka, Shinji; Koizumi, Yoshiki; Shimura, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Masao

    2018-02-06

    Viruses causing chronic infection artfully manipulate infected cells to enable viral persistence in vivo under the pressure of immunity. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) establishes persistent infection mainly in CD4+ T cells in vivo and induces leukemia in this subset. HTLV-1-encoded Tax is a critical transactivator of viral replication and a potent oncoprotein, but its significance in pathogenesis remains obscure due to its very low level of expression in vivo. Here, we show that Tax is expressed in a minor fraction of leukemic cells at any given time, and importantly, its expression spontaneously switches between on and off states. Live cell imaging revealed that the average duration of one episode of Tax expression is ∼19 hours. Knockdown of Tax rapidly induced apoptosis in most cells, indicating that Tax is critical for maintaining the population, even if its short-term expression is limited to a small subpopulation. Single-cell analysis and computational simulation suggest that transient Tax expression triggers antiapoptotic machinery, and this effect continues even after Tax expression is diminished; this activation of the antiapoptotic machinery is the critical event for maintaining the population. In addition, Tax is induced by various cytotoxic stresses and also promotes HTLV-1 replication. Thus, it seems that Tax protects infected cells from apoptosis and increases the chance of viral transmission at a critical moment. Keeping the expression of Tax minimal but inducible on demand is, therefore, a fundamental strategy of HTLV-1 to promote persistent infection and leukemogenesis. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. An animal experimental study of transient synovitis of hip using three phase bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jiugen; Lu Bing; Lu Xiaohu; Liu Shangli

    1994-01-01

    A model of transient synovitis was established by means of injecting noradrenaline (NA) into the joint cavity of young dogs. Radionuclide three phase bone imaging was then used to observe the local blood supply of femoral head and histological examination was used to understand the natural course of the disease process. The result showed that there were transient synovitis of the hip and decrease of blood supply in the affected femoral head after NA injection, but the changes gradually returned to normal after 4 weeks. No evidence of femoral head necrosis had been noticed. It is suggested that serial quantitative analysis of three phase bone imaging may have good clinical value in the early diagnosis transient hip synovitis, as well as in the assessment of the stage of the disease etc

  15. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  16. Transient cognitive dynamics, metastability, and decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively discussed at length for the last 15 years. One of the popular points of view is that metastable states play a key role in the execution of cognitive functions. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that most of these functions are the result of transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such transients may consist of a sequential switching between different metastable cognitive states. The main problem faced when using dynamical theory to describe transient cognitive processes is the fundamental contradiction between reproducibility and flexibility of transient behavior. In this paper, we propose a theoretical description of transient cognitive dynamics based on the interaction of functionally dependent metastable cognitive states. The mathematical image of such transient activity is a stable heteroclinic channel, i.e., a set of trajectories in the vicinity of a heteroclinic skeleton that consists of saddles and unstable separatrices that connect their surroundings. We suggest a basic mathematical model, a strongly dissipative dynamical system, and formulate the conditions for the robustness and reproducibility of cognitive transients that satisfy the competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Based on this approach, we describe here an effective solution for the problem of sequential decision making, represented as a fixed time game: a player takes sequential actions in a changing noisy environment so as to maximize a cumulative reward. As we predict and verify in computer simulations, noise plays an important role in optimizing the gain.

  17. Advanced Instrumentation for Transient Reactor Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael L.; Anderson, Mark; Imel, George; Blue, Tom; Roberts, Jeremy; Davis, Kurt

    2018-01-31

    Transient testing involves placing fuel or material into the core of specialized materials test reactors that are capable of simulating a range of design basis accidents, including reactivity insertion accidents, that require the reactor produce short bursts of intense highpower neutron flux and gamma radiation. Testing fuel behavior in a prototypic neutron environment under high-power, accident-simulation conditions is a key step in licensing nuclear fuels for use in existing and future nuclear power plants. Transient testing of nuclear fuels is needed to develop and prove the safety basis for advanced reactors and fuels. In addition, modern fuel development and design increasingly relies on modeling and simulation efforts that must be informed and validated using specially designed material performance separate effects studies. These studies will require experimental facilities that are able to support variable scale, highly instrumented tests providing data that have appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. Finally, there are efforts now underway to develop advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels with enhanced performance and accident tolerance. These advanced reactor designs will also require new fuel types. These new fuels need to be tested in a controlled environment in order to learn how they respond to accident conditions. For these applications, transient reactor testing is needed to help design fuels with improved performance. In order to maximize the value of transient testing, there is a need for in-situ transient realtime imaging technology (e.g., the neutron detection and imaging system like the hodoscope) to see fuel motion during rapid transient excursions with a higher degree of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. There also exists a need for new small, compact local sensors and instrumentation that are capable of collecting data during transients (e.g., local displacements, temperatures, thermal conductivity, neutron flux, etc.).

  18. A case of severe transient hyperammonemia in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Woo Hwang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient hyperammonemia in a newborn is an overwhelming disease manifested by hyperammonemic coma. The majority of affected newborns are premature and have mild respiratory syndrome. The diagnosis may be difficult to determine. This metabolic disorder is primarily characterized by severe hyperammonemia in the postnatal period, coma, absence of abnormal organic aciduria and normal activity of the enzymes of the urea cycle. Hyperammonemic coma may develop within 2-3 days of life, although its etiology is unknown. Laboratory studies reveal marked hyperammonemia (&gt;4,000 &micro;mol/ L. The degree of neurologic impairment and developmental delay in this disorder depends on the duration of hyperammonemic coma. Moreover, the infant may succumb to the disease if treatment is not started immediately and continued vigorously. Hyperammonemic coma as a medical emergency requires dialysis therapy. Here, we report a case of severe transient hyperammonemia in a preterm infant (35 week of gestation presented with respiratory distress, seizure, and deep coma within 48 hours and required ventilatory assistance and marked elevated plasma ammonia levels. He survived with aggressive therapy including peritoneal dialysis, and was followed 2 years later without sequelae.

  19. Transient global amnesia and neurological events: the Framingham Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rafael Romero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/ objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a temporary amnestic syndrome characterized by lack of other focal neurological deficits. Cerebrovascular disease, migraine and seizures have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. TGA may be a risk factor for cerebrovascular or other neurological events. We studied the relation of TGA, vascular risk factors, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI indices of subclinical ischemia and neurological events in a community-based sample. Design/setting: A total of 12 TGA cases were ascertained using standard criteria by experienced neurologists, and matched to 41 stroke- and seizure-free controls. Vascular risk factors, brain MRI findings, and subsequent cerebrovascular or seizure events were compared in cases and controls. Participants: Framingham Heart Study (FHS original and offspring cohort participants were included.Results: No significant differences between the groups were observed in the prevalence of vascular risk factors, or brain MRI measures. Few incident stroke/transient ischemic attacks (TIA (1 event among the cases and 4 in controls or subsequent seizures occurred in either group. Head CT during the acute event (n=11 and brain MRI (n=7 were negative for acute abnormalities. Electroencephalograms (EEG (n=5 were negative for epileptiform activity. Extracranial vascular studies were negative for significant stenosis in all cases.Conclusions: In our community-based study TGA was not related to traditional vascular risk factors, or cerebrovascular disease. However, our study is limited by small sample size and power, and larger studies are required to exclude an association.

  20. Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip: A Case Report - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Bahadır

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis is a process in which peri-articuler osteoporosis occurs, with cartilage remaining intact. A painful disease, it is more common in males than females, may be migratory and is self-limited, with complete resolution of symptoms and all imaging findings. Characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Diagnosis is made upon clinical presentation and x-ray evidence of diffuse osteopenia in the affected bone area followed by spontaneous healing after several months. Magnetic resonance imaging and techneticum-99 bone scan may be helpful in diagnosis especially in early phase of the disease. In this case report 41 year old male patient who had transient osteoporosis of the hip was evaluated in the light of relevant literature. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:19-22

  1. Switching transients in a superconducting coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to performance tests on the MFTF Yin-yang coils. It is found that the breaker opening time is the critical factor in determining the size and shape of the transient. Instantaneous opening of the breaker causes a lightly damped transient with large amplitude voltages to ground. Increasing the opening time causes the transient to become a monopulse of decreasing amplitude. The voltages at the external terminals are determined by the parameters of the external circuit. For fast opening times the frequency depends on the dump resistor inductance, the circuit capacitance, and the amplitude on the coil current. For slower openings the dump resistor inductance and the current determine the amplitude of the voltage to ground at the terminals. Voltages to ground are less in the interior of the coil, where transients related to the parameters of the coil itself are observed

  2. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Fox, Ori D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr −1 to >7 mag yr −1 . SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  3. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  4. Transient mutism and pathologic laughter in the course of cerebellitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Petia S; Bojinova, Veneta S; Milanov, Ivan G

    2009-07-01

    The phenomenon of cerebellar mutism with subsequent dysarthria is most commonly described as a part of posterior fossa syndrome after surgery for neoplasms in childhood. Pathologic laughter, on the other hand, is observed primarily in various neurologic diseases in adults. In the present case, a child manifested transient mutism and pathologic laughter during a severe cerebellitis. Headache, vertigo, and impaired consciousness developed during an acute respiratory infection. Thereafter, severe ataxia, mutism, and involuntary laughter became the main clinical features, as well as pyramidal signs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebellar swelling and T(2) hyperintensity. During steroid treatment, a gradual vanishing of the pathologic laughter and improvement of the motor and speech functions occurred. Recovery was slow and incomplete, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebellar atrophy. This case confirms that mutism is a rare, but possible, manifestation in acute parainfectious cerebellitis and provides a novel example of pathologic laughter during this disease in childhood.

  5. Clinical Applicability of Transient Elastography for Estimating Liver Stiffness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, P. R.; Landman, G. W. D.; Hoving, S.; Kleefstra, N.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can lead to liver fibrosis and ultimately to cirrhosis. Transient elastography (TE), by using the FibroScan, and is a non-invasive ultrasonography method to measure liver

  6. Transient plasma cobalamin elevation in patients with pneumonia - two case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Torp; Scheller, Rudolf; Nybo, Mads

    2018-01-01

    We report two cases of transient significantly elevated plasma cobalamin (B12) in geriatric patients acutely admitted with fever, increased C-reactive protein and X-ray verified pneumonia. Extensive diagnostic workup did not reveal kidney or liver disease, neither any signs of cancer. Furthermore...

  7. Virus-induced down-regulation of GmERA1A and GmERA1B genes enhances the stomatal response to abscisic acid and drought resistance in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Ogata

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to global soybean production. The limited transformation potential and polyploid nature of soybean have hindered functional analysis of soybean genes. Previous research has implicated farnesylation in the plant's response to abscisic acid (ABA and drought tolerance. We therefore used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS to evaluate farnesyltransferase genes, GmERA1A and GmERA1B (Glycine max Enhanced Response to ABA1-A and -B, as potential targets for increasing drought resistance in soybean. Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV-mediated GmERA1-down-regulated soybean leaves displayed an enhanced stomatal response to ABA and reduced water loss and wilting under dehydration conditions, suggesting that GmERA1A and GmERA1B negatively regulate ABA signaling in soybean guard cells. The findings provide evidence that the ALSV-VIGS system, which bypasses the need to generate transgenic plants, is a useful tool for analyzing gene function using only a single down-regulated leaf. Thus, the ALSV-VIGS system could constitute part of a next-generation molecular breeding pipeline to accelerate drought resistance breeding in soybean.

  8. NuMA and nuclear lamins are cleaved during viral infection - inhibition of caspase activity prevents cleavage and rescues HeLa cells from measles virus-induced but not from rhinovirus 1B-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimen, Pekka; Berghaell, Heidi; Vainionpaeae, Raija; Kallajoki, Markku

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear matrix is a structural framework of important nuclear processes. We studied the effect of two different types of viral infections on nuclear matrix. HeLa cells were infected with human rhinovirus 1B (HRV 1B) or measles virus (MV), and Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus protein (NuMA) and lamins A/C and B were used as markers for internal nuclear matrix and peripheral nuclear lamina, respectively. We show that NuMA, lamins, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 are cleaved during viral infection in a virus family-specific manner suggesting that these viruses activate different sets of proteases. Morphologically, NuMA was excluded from the condensed chromatin, lamins showed a folded distribution, and both proteins finally remained around the nuclear fragments. A general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) prevented the nuclear disintegration and the cleavage of the proteins studied. Interestingly, z-VAD-FMK rescued MV-infected but not HRV 1B-infected cells from cell death. These results show for the first time that NuMA and lamins are specific target proteins during virus-induced programmed cell death

  9. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection.

  10. Separative performance transients in a gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A general method has been developed to calculate the behavior of the exit compositions from a gas centrifuge under unsteady conditions. The method utilizes the basic enrichment gradient equations derived by Cohen, which, in this case, contain time derivatives of the partial 235 U inventories. These partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations by a linear approximation to the axial concentration distribution for use in the inventory terms only. With this simplification, analytical solution is possible for the feed concentration transient. The transient driven by a change in the feed flow rate, however, requires numerical solution. For analysis of ideal cascades in the unsteady state, the transient flow and separation characteristics of the centrifuge must be combined with total uranium and 235 U material balances on each stage

  11. Transient effects in friction fractal asperity creep

    CERN Document Server

    Goedecke, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Transient friction effects determine the behavior of a wide class of mechatronic systems. Classic examples are squealing brakes, stiction in robotic arms, or stick-slip in linear drives. To properly design and understand mechatronic systems of this type, good quantitative models of transient friction effects are of primary interest. The theory developed in this book approaches this problem bottom-up, by deriving the behavior of macroscopic friction surfaces from the microscopic surface physics. The model is based on two assumptions: First, rough surfaces are inherently fractal, exhibiting roughness on a wide range of scales. Second, transient friction effects are caused by creep enlargement of the real area of contact between two bodies. This work demonstrates the results of extensive Finite Element analyses of the creep behavior of surface asperities, and proposes a generalized multi-scale area iteration for calculating the time-dependent real contact between two bodies. The toolset is then demonstrated both...

  12. Transient response in granular bounded heap flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Heap formation, a canonical granular flow, is common in industry and is also found in nature. Here, we study the transition between steady flow states in quasi-2D bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate from one fixed value to another. During the transition, in both experiments and discrete element method simulations, an additional wedge of flowing particles propagates over the rising free surface. The downstream edge of the wedge - the wedge front - moves downstream with velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The transient flux profile during the entire transition is well modeled by a diffusion-like equation derived from local mass balance and a local linear relation between the flux and the surface slope. Scalings for the transient kinematics during the flow transitions are developed based on the flux profiles. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  13. NALAP: an LMFBR system transient code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Albright, D.C.; Epel, L.G.; Maise, G.

    1975-07-01

    NALAP is a LMFBR system transient code. This code, adapted from the light water reactor transient code RELAP 3B, simulates thermal-hydraulic response of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors when subjected to postulated accidents such as a massive pipe break as well as a variety of other upset conditions that do not disrupt the system geometry. Various components of the plant are represented by control volumes. These control volumes are connected by junctions some of which may be leak or fill junctions. The fluid flow equations are modeled as compressible, single-stream flow with momentum flux in one dimension. The transient response is computed by integrating the thermal-hydraulic conservation equations from user-initialized operating conditions by an implicit numerical scheme. Point kinetics approximation is used to represent the time dependent heat generation in the reactor core

  14. Modeling of environmentally induced transients within satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. John; Barbay, Gordon J.; Jones, Michael R.; Viswanathan, R.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is described that allows an estimation of possible spacecraft charging hazards. This technique, called SCREENS (spacecraft response to environments of space), utilizes the NASA charging analyzer program (NASCAP) to estimate the electrical stress locations and the charge stored in the dielectric coatings due to spacecraft encounter with a geomagnetic substorm environment. This information can then be used to determine the response of the spacecraft electrical system to a surface discharge by means of lumped element models. The coupling into the electronics is assumed to be due to magnetic linkage from the transient currents flowing as a result of the discharge transient. The behavior of a spinning spacecraft encountering a severe substorm is predicted using this technique. It is found that systems are potentially vulnerable to upset if transient signals enter through the ground lines.

  15. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  16. Positron beam studies of transients in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Ling, C.C.; Cheung, C.K.; Naik, P.S.; Zhang, J.D.; Fung, S.

    2006-01-01

    Vacancy-sensing positron deep level transient spectroscopy (PDLTS) is a positron beam-based technique that seeks to provide information on the electronic ionization levels of vacancy defects probed by the positron through the monitoring of thermal transients. The experimental discoveries leading to the concept of vacancy-sensing PDLTS are first reviewed. The major problem associated with this technique is discussed, namely the strong electric fields establish in the near surface region of the sample during the thermal transient which tend to sweep positrons into the contact with negligible defect trapping. New simulations are presented which suggest that under certain conditions a sufficient fraction of positrons may be trapped into ionizing defects rendering PDLTS technique workable. Some suggestions are made for techniques that might avoid the problematic electric field problem, such as optical-PDLTS where deep levels are populated using light and the use of high forward bias currents for trap filling

  17. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Kuzmin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for conventional long-range ET mechanism, especially for endergonic reactions, and provides the possibility for medium reorganization concatenated to gradual charge shift in contrast to conventional preliminary medium and reactants reorganization. Experimental criteria for transient exciplex formation (concatenated mechanism of excited-state electron transfer are considered. Available experimental data show that this mechanism dominates for endergonic ET reactions and provides a natural explanation for a lot of known paradoxes of ET reactions.

  18. Turbofan compressor dynamics during afterburner transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of afterburner light-off and shut-down transients on the compressor stability are investigated. The reported experimental results are based on detailed high response pressure and temperature measurements on the TF30-P-3 turbofan engine. The tests were performed in an altitude test chamber simulating high altitude engine operation. It is shown that during both types of transients, flow breaks down in the forward part of the fan bypass duct. At a sufficiently low engine inlet pressure this resulted in a compressor stall. Complete flow breakdown within the compressor was preceded by a rotating stall. At some locations in the compressor, rotating stall cells initially extended only through part of the blade span. For the shutdown transient the time between first and last detected occurrence of rotating stall is related to the flow Reynolds number. An attempt was made to deduce the number and speed of propagation of rotating stall cells.

  19. Characterization of electrical appliances in transient state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Augustyn; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2017-08-01

    The article contains the study about electrical appliance characterization on the basis of power grid signals. To represent devices, parameters of current and voltage signals recorded during transient states are used. In this paper only transients occurring as a result of switching on devices are considered. The way of data acquisition performed in specialized measurement setup developed for electricity load monitoring is described. The paper presents the method of transients detection and the method of appliance parameters calculation. Using the set of acquired measurement data and appropriate software the set of parameters for several household appliances operating in different operating conditions was processed. Usefulness of appliances characterization in Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS) with the use of proposed method is discussed focusing on obtained results.

  20. Transient Seepage for Levee Engineering Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, F. T.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, steady-state seepage analyses have been a key tool for designing levees by practicing engineers. However, with the advances in computer modeling, transient seepage analysis has become a potentially viable tool. A complication is that the levees usually have partially saturated flow, and this is significantly more complicated in transient flow. This poster illustrates four elements of our research in partially saturated flow relating to the use of transient seepage for levee design: (1) a comparison of results from SEEP2D, SEEP/W, and SLIDE for a generic levee cross section common to the southeastern United States; (2) the results of a sensitivity study of varying saturated hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric water content function (as represented by van Genuchten), and volumetric compressibility; (3) a comparison of when soils do and do not exhibit hysteresis, and (4) a description of proper and improper use of transient seepage in levee design. The variables considered for the sensitivity and hysteresis studies are pore pressure beneath the confining layer at the toe, the flow rate through the levee system, and a levee saturation coefficient varying between 0 and 1. Getting results for SEEP2D, SEEP/W, and SLIDE to match proved more difficult than expected. After some effort, the results matched reasonably well. Differences in results were caused by various factors, including bugs, different finite element meshes, different numerical formulations of the system of nonlinear equations to be solved, and differences in convergence criteria. Varying volumetric compressibility affected the above test variables the most. The levee saturation coefficient was most affected by the use of hysteresis. The improper use of pore pressures from a transient finite element seepage solution imported into a slope stability computation was found to be the most grievous mistake in using transient seepage in the design of levees.

  1. Transient behaviour of small HTR for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, E.C.; Van Heek, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch market for combined generation of heat and power identifies a unit size of 40 MW thermal for the conceptual design of a nuclear cogeneration plant. The ACACIA system provides 14 MWe electricity combined with 17 t/h of high temperature steam (220 deg C, 10 bar) with a pebble-bed high temperature reactor directly coupled with a helium compressor and a helium turbine. The design of this small CHP unit that is used for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. Thermal hydraulic and reactor physics analyses show favourable control characteristics during normal operation and a benign response to loss of helium coolant and loss of flow conditions. Throughout the response on these highly infrequent conditions, ample margin exists between the highest fuel temperatures and the temperature above which fuel degradation will occur. To come to quantitative statements about the ACACIA transient behaviour, a calculational coupling between the high temperature reactor core analysis code package PANTHER/DIREKT and the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5 for the energy conversion system has been made. This coupling offers a more realistic simulation of the entire system, since it removes the necessity of forcing boundary conditions on the simulation models at the data transfer points. In this paper, the models used for the dynamic components of the energy conversion system are described, and the results of the calculation for two operational transients in order to demonstrate the effects of the interaction between reactor core and its energy conversion system are shown. Several transient cases that are representative as operational transients for an HTR will be discussed, including one representing a load rejection case that shows the functioning of the control system, in particular the bypass valve. Another transient is a load following

  2. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  3. Transient thermal camouflage and heat signature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Zhi; Su, Yishu; Xu, Weikai; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Thermal metamaterials have been proposed to manipulate heat flux as a new way to cloak or camouflage objects in the infrared world. To date, however, thermal metamaterials only operate in the steady-state and exhibit detectable, transient heat signatures. In this letter, the theoretical basis for a thermal camouflaging technique with controlled transient diffusion is presented. This technique renders an object invisible in real time. More importantly, the thermal camouflaging device instantaneously generates a pre-designed heat signature and behaves as a perfect thermal illusion device. A metamaterial coating with homogeneous and isotropic thermal conductivity, density, and volumetric heat capacity was fabricated and very good camouflaging performance was achieved.

  4. Experimental verification of transient nonlinear acoustical holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yun; Cannata, Jonathan; Wang, Tianren

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on nonlinear transient acoustical holography. The validity and effectiveness of a recently proposed nonlinear transient acoustical holography algorithm is evaluated in the presence of noise. The acoustic field measured on a post-focal plane of a high-intensity focused transducer is backward projected to reconstruct the pressure distributions on the focal and a pre-focal plane, which are shown to be in good agreement with the measurement. In contrast, the conventional linear holography produces erroneous results in this case where the nonlinearity involved is strong. Forward acoustic field projection was also carried out to further verify the algorithm.

  5. SIRT6 Acts as a Negative Regulator in Dengue Virus-Induced Inflammatory Response by Targeting the DNA Binding Domain of NF-κB p65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 mediated NF-κB activation. The sirtuin core domain of SIRT6 is required for the inhibition of NF-κB p65 function. SIRT6 interacts with the DNA binding domain of p65 and competes with p65 to occupy the Il6 promoter during DENV infection. Collectively, our study demonstrates that SIRT6 negatively regulates DENV-induced inflammatory response via RLR and TLR3 signaling pathways.

  6. Herpes simplex virus-induced anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: a systematic literature review with analysis of 43 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosadini, Margherita; Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Corazza, Francesco; Ruga, Ezia Maria; Kothur, Kavitha; Perilongo, Giorgio; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Toldo, Irene; Dale, Russell C; Sartori, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review on patients with biphasic disease with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis followed by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. We conducted a case report and systematic literature review (up to 10 December 2016), focused on differences between herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and anti-NMDAR encephalitis phases, age-related characteristics of HSV-induced anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and therapy. For statistical analyses, McNemar's test, Fisher's test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used (two-tailed significance level set at 5%). Forty-three patients with biphasic disease were identified (31 children). Latency between HSE and anti-NMDAR encephalitis was significantly shorter in children than adults (median 24 vs 40.5d; p=0.006). Compared with HSE, anti-NMDAR encephalitis was characterized by significantly higher frequency of movement disorder (2.5% vs 75% respectively; panti-NMDAR encephalitis children had significantly more movement disorders (86.7% children vs 40% adults; p=0.006), fewer psychiatric symptoms (41.9% children vs 90.0% adults; p=0.025), and a slightly higher median modified Rankin Scale score (5 in children vs 4 in adults; p=0.015). During anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 84.6 per cent of patients received aciclovir (for ≤7d in 22.7%; long-term antivirals in 18.0% only), and 92.7 per cent immune therapy, but none had recurrence of HSE clinically or using cerebrospinal fluid HSV polymerase chain reaction (median follow-up 7mo). Our review suggests that movement disorder may help differentiate clinically an episode of HSV-induced anti-NMDAR encephalitis from HSE relapse. Compared with adults, children have shorter latency between HSE and anti-NMDAR encephalitis and, during anti-NMDAR encephalitis, more movement disorder, fewer psychiatric symptoms, and slightly more severe disease. According to our results, immune therapy given for HSV-induced anti-NMDAR encephalitis does not predispose patients to

  7. Searching for MHz Transients with the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisensky, Emil; Peters, Wendy; Giacintucci, Simona; Clarke, Tracy; Kassim, Namir E.; hyman, Scott D.; van der Horst, Alexander; Linford, Justin; Waldron, Zach; Frail, Dale

    2018-01-01

    NRL and NRAO have expanded the low frequency capabilities of the VLA through the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, http://vlite.nrao.edu/ ), effectively making the instrument two telescopes in one. VLITE is a commensal observing system that harvests data from the prime focus in parallel with normal Cassegrain focus observing on a subset of VLA antennas. VLITE provides over 6000 observing hours per year in a > 5 square degree field-of-view using 64 MHz bandwidth centered on 352 MHz. By operating in parallel, VLITE offers invaluable low frequency data to targeted observations of transient sources detected at higher frequencies. With arcsec resolution and mJy sensitivity, VLITE additionally offers great potential for blind searches of rarer radio-selected transients. We use catalog matching software on the imaging products from the daily astrophysics pipeline and the LOFAR Transients Pipeline (TraP) on repeated observations of the same fields to search for coherent and incoherent astronomical transients on timescales of a few seconds to years. We present the current status of the VLITE transient science program from its initial deployment on 10 antennas in November 2014 through its expansion to 16 antennas in the summer of 2017. Transient limits from VLITE’s first year of operation (Polisensky et al. 2016) are updated per the most recent analysis.

  8. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureau, A., E-mail: laureau.axel@gmail.com; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  9. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureau, A.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  10. Hepatitis B virus induces IL-23 production in antigen presenting cells and causes liver damage via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Wang

    Full Text Available IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4(+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  11. Transient myocardial ischaemia during ambulatory monitoring out of hospital in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1988-01-01

    monitoring was significantly lower than heart rate at the onset of ST-segment change during exercise testing (100.2 +/- 14.6 vs. 115.8 +/- 19.6 beats/min, p less than 0.01), which may indicate different pathophysiological mechanisms. Transient impairment in coronary oxygen supply seems to be of importance......Transient myocardial ischaemia during daily life, detected by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, was investigated in 42 patients with chronic stable angina and documented coronary artery disease. Ambulatory monitoring was initiated for 36 hours after all prophylactic antianginal medication...

  12. To review the transient osteoporosis of the hip due to a case report - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Şendur

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of hip is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is usually seen in middle-aged men and women in the third trimester of pregnancy and is associated with hip pain. It typically runs a benign course with eventual resolution of symptoms. In this paper, a male patient with a complaint of left hip pain which was diagnosed as transient osteoporosis of the hip was presented by reviewing current literatures. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2006; 12 (1: 15-17

  13. RFI flagging implications for short-duration transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Y.; Prasad, P.; Rowlinson, A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Swinbank, J. D.; Law, C. J.; van der Horst, A. J.; Carbone, D.; Broderick, J. W.; Staley, T. D.; Stewart, A. J.; Huizinga, F.; Molenaar, G.; Alexov, A.; Bell, M. E.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fender, R.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Jonker, P.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Pietka, M.; Stappers, B.; Wise, M.; Zarka, P.

    2018-04-01

    With their wide fields of view and often relatively long coverage of any position in the sky in imaging survey mode, modern radio telescopes provide a data stream that is naturally suited to searching for rare transients. However, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can show up in the data stream in similar ways to such transients, and thus the normal pre-treatment of filtering RFI (flagging) may also remove astrophysical transients from the data stream before imaging. In this paper we investigate how standard flagging affects the detectability of such transients by examining the case of transient detection in an observing mode used for Low Frequency Array (LOFAR; van Haarlem et al., 2013) surveys. We quantify the fluence range of transients that would be detected, and the reduction of their SNR due to partial flagging. We find that transients with a duration close to the integration sampling time, as well as bright transients with durations on the order of tens of seconds, are completely flagged. For longer transients on the order of several tens of seconds to minutes, the flagging effects are not as severe, although part of the signal is lost. For these transients, we present a modified flagging strategy which mitigates the effect of flagging on transient signals. We also present a script which uses the differences between the two strategies, and known differences between transient RFI and astrophysical transients, to notify the observer when a potential transient is in the data stream.

  14. Cladding properties under simulated fuel pin transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.W.; Johnson, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the HEDL fuel pin testing program utilizing a recently developed Fuel Cladding Transient Tester (FCTT) to generate the requisite mechanical property information on irradiated and unirradiated fast reactor fuel cladding under temperature ramp conditions. The test procedure is described, and data are presented

  15. Incidental transients problems in reactor. Application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbach, G.

    1988-03-01

    The fast neutron reactor fuel element qualification should be made not only for nominal operation but also for incidental and accidental transients. Different studies and tests permit to bring this justification such as simulation in hot laboratory after irradiation of irradiated pins or specific tests interpretation [fr

  16. Transient soft X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Murakami, T.; Nagase, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamashita, K.

    1976-01-01

    A rocket observation of cosmic soft X-rays suggests the existence of transient, recurrent soft X-ray sources which are found variable during the flight time of the rocket. Some of the soft X-ray sources thus far reported are considered to be of this time. These sources are listed and their positions are shown. (Auth.)

  17. Transient Evoked aotacoustic emissions otologically normal adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUTH

    between 1999-2000 using a manually Operated Madson Audiometer ,and the IL 088 otodynamic. Analyser was used to record transient otoacoustic emission. Results The age groups were 20-30,31-40, 41-50, 51-60 years .There was no significant difference in threshold as a function of age at p<0.05 .The TEOAE amplitude ...

  18. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  19. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  20. Mechanisms of transient radiation-induced creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyatiletov, Yu.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced creep at the transient stage is investigated for metals. The situation, when several possible creep mechanisms operate simultaneously is studied. Among them revealed are those which give the main contribution and determine thereby the creep behaviour. The time dependence of creep rate and its relation to the smelling rate is obtained. The results satisfactorily agree with the available experimental data [ru

  1. A review on transient monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylac, G.

    1986-01-01

    A good design must be followed by the continuous verification during service of design basis hypotheses. Transient monitoring techniques described hereafter were developed to fulfill this very logical requirement. They are shown to be useful to improve the reliability, operability, inspection and lifetime of components of the Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary. 16 refs.

  2. Electric fields associated with transient surface currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1992-01-01

    The boundary condition to be fulfilled by the potential functions associated with a transient surface current is derived and expressed in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates. From the analysis, it can be deduced that the use of the method of separation of variables is restricted to three ...

  3. Interpreting signals from astrophysical transient experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul T; Smartt, Stephen J

    2013-06-13

    Time-domain astronomy has come of age with astronomers now able to monitor the sky at high cadence, both across the electromagnetic spectrum and using neutrinos and gravitational waves. The advent of new observing facilities permits new science, but the ever-increasing throughput of facilities demands efficient communication of coincident detections and better subsequent coordination among the scientific community so as to turn detections into scientific discoveries. To discuss the revolution occurring in our ability to monitor the Universe and the challenges it brings, on 25-26 April 2012, a group of scientists from observational and theoretical teams studying transients met with representatives of the major international transient observing facilities at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, UK. This immediately followed the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'New windows on transients across the Universe' held in London. Here, we present a summary of the Kavli meeting at which the participants discussed the science goals common to the transient astronomy community and analysed how to better meet the challenges ahead as ever more powerful observational facilities come on stream.

  4. Tackling complex turbulent flows with transient RANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.; Hanjalic, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews some recent applications of the transient-Reynoldsaveraged Navier–Stokes (T-RANS) approach in simulating complex turbulent flows dominated by externally imposed body forces, primarily by thermal buoyancy and the Lorentz force. The T-RANS aims at numerical resolving unsteady

  5. Reactivity transient calculatios in research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.S. dos

    1986-01-01

    A digital program for reactivity transient analysis in research reactor and cylindrical geometry was showed quite efficient when compared with methods and programs of the literature, as much in the solution of the neutron kinetics equation as in the thermohydraulic. An improvement in the representation of the feedback reactivity adopted on the program reduced markedly the computation time, with some accuracy. (Author) [pt

  6. Calculation of transients in WWER power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.; Kyncl, M.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model is described for the computation of transient processes in a nuclear power plant as is the DYNAMIKA computer program. The program is used for computing two accident variants: rupture of the main steam collector and a failure of the main circulating pump. (H.S.)

  7. Laser spectroscopy and dynamics of transient species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouthier, D.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to study the vibrational and electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of a number of transient sulfur and oxygen species. A variety of supersonic jet techniques, as well as high resolution FT-IR and intracavity dye laser spectroscopy, have been applied to these studies.

  8. Detecting aseismic strain transients from seismicity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenos, A.L.; McGuire, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aseismic deformation transients such as fluid flow, magma migration, and slow slip can trigger changes in seismicity rate. We present a method that can detect these seismicity rate variations and utilize these anomalies to constrain the underlying variations in stressing rate. Because ordinary aftershock sequences often obscure changes in the background seismicity caused by aseismic processes, we combine the stochastic Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model that describes aftershock sequences well and the physically based rate- and state-dependent friction seismicity model into a single seismicity rate model that models both aftershock activity and changes in background seismicity rate. We implement this model into a data assimilation algorithm that inverts seismicity catalogs to estimate space-time variations in stressing rate. We evaluate the method using a synthetic catalog, and then apply it to a catalog of M???1.5 events that occurred in the Salton Trough from 1990 to 2009. We validate our stressing rate estimates by comparing them to estimates from a geodetically derived slip model for a large creep event on the Obsidian Buttes fault. The results demonstrate that our approach can identify large aseismic deformation transients in a multidecade long earthquake catalog and roughly constrain the absolute magnitude of the stressing rate transients. Our method can therefore provide a way to detect aseismic transients in regions where geodetic resolution in space or time is poor. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Transient neuropathic bladder following herpes simplex genitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, R A; Williams, J J

    1979-08-01

    A case of transient bladder dysfunction and urinary retention concomitant with herpes genitalis is presented. The protean manifestations of the herpes simplex virus, the similar neurotropic behavior of simplex and zoster, and the neurologic sequelae of the cutaneous simplex eruption are discussed. The possibility of sacral radiculopathy after herpes genitalis must be considered when evaluating acute or episodic neurogenic bladders.

  10. Diuretics for transient tachypnoea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Manal; Khriesat, Wadah M; Anabrees, Jasim

    2015-11-21

    Transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) results from delayed clearance of lung liquid and is a common cause of admission of full-term infants to neonatal intensive care units. The condition is particularly common after elective caesarean section. Conventional treatment involves appropriate oxygen administration and continuous positive airway pressure in some cases. Most infants receive antibiotic therapy. Hastening the clearance of lung liquid may shorten the duration of the symptoms and reduce complications. To determine whether diuretic administration reduces the duration of oxygen therapy and respiratory symptoms and shortens hospital stay in term infants presenting with transient tachypnoea of the newborn. An updated search was carried out in September 2015 of the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library issue 9, 2015), MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, PubMed, and CINAHL via OVID. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of diuretics administration versus placebo or no treatment in infants of less than seven days of age, born at 37 or more weeks of gestation with the clinical picture of transient tachypnoea of the newborn. We extracted and analysed data according to the methods outlined in the latest Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two review authors assessed trial quality in each potentially eligible manuscript and two review authors extracted data. Our previous systematic review included two trials enrolling a total of 100 infants with transient tachypnoea of the newborn (Wiswell 1985; Karabayir 2006). The updated search revealed no new trials. Wiswell 1985 randomised 50 infants to receive either oral furosemide (2 mg/kg body weight at time of diagnosis followed by a 1 mg/kg dose 12 hours later if the tachypnoea persisted) or placebo. Karabayir 2006 randomised 50 infants to receive either intravenous furosemide (2 mg/kg body

  11. The fast transient sky with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, Thomas; Jonker, Peter G.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Harrison, Diana L.; Rixon, Guy; Nelemans, Gijs; Roelens, Maroussia; Eyer, Laurent; van Leeuwen, Floor; Yoldas, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite scans the whole sky with a temporal sampling ranging from seconds and hours to months. Each time a source passes within the Gaia field of view, it moves over 10 charge coupled devices (CCDs) in 45 s and a light curve with 4.5 s sampling (the crossing time per CCD) is registered. Given that the 4.5 s sampling represents a virtually unexplored parameter space in optical time domain astronomy, this data set potentially provides a unique opportunity to open up the fast transient sky. We present a method to start mining the wealth of information in the per CCD Gaia data. We perform extensive data filtering to eliminate known onboard and data processing artefacts, and present a statistical method to identify sources that show transient brightness variations on ≲2 h time-scales. We illustrate that by using the Gaia photometric CCD measurements, we can detect transient brightness variations down to an amplitude of 0.3 mag on time-scales ranging from 15 s to several hours. We search an area of ∼23.5 deg2 on the sky and find four strong candidate fast transients. Two candidates are tentatively classified as flares on M-dwarf stars, while one is probably a flare on a giant star and one potentially a flare on a solar-type star. These classifications are based on archival data and the time-scales involved. We argue that the method presented here can be added to the existing Gaia Science Alerts infrastructure for the near real-time public dissemination of fast transient events.

  12. RETRAN sensitivity studies of light water reactor transients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, N.S.; Gose, G.C.; Harrison, J.F.; Sawtelle, G.R.

    1977-06-01

    This report presents the results of sensitivity studies performed using the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient analysis code to identify critical parameters and models which influence light water reactor transient predictions. Various plant transients for both boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are examined. These studies represent the first detailed evaluation of the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient code capability in predicting a variety of plant transient responses. The wide range of transients analyzed in conjunction with the parameter and modeling studies performed identify several sensitive areas as well as areas requiring future study and model development

  13. Sleep and behavior during vesicular stomatitis virus induced encephalitis in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Mayumi; Ambrozewicz, Marta A.; Breving, Kimberly; Wellman, Laurie L.; Yang, Linghui; Ciavarra, Richard P.; Sanford, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    Intranasal application of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) produces a well-characterized model of viral encephalitis in mice. Within one day post-infection (PI), VSV travels to the olfactory bulb and, over the course of 7 days, it infects regions and tracts extending into the brainstem followed by clearance and recovery in most mice by PI day 14 (PI 14). Infectious diseases are commonly accompanied by excessive sleepiness; thus, sleep is considered a component of the acute phase response to infection. In this project, we studied the relationship between sleep and VSV infection using C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice. Mice were implanted with transmitters for recording EEG, activity and temperature by telemetry. After uninterrupted baseline recordings were collected for 2 days, each animal was infected intranasally with a single low dose of VSV (5 × 104 PFU). Sleep was recorded for 15 consecutive days and analyzed on PI 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Compared to baseline, amounts of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) were increased in B6 mice during the dark period of PI 1–5, whereas rapid eye movement sleep (REM) was significantly reduced during the light periods of PI 0–14. In contrast, BALB/c mice showed significantly fewer changes in NREM and REM. These data demonstrate sleep architecture is differentially altered in these mouse strains and suggests that, in B6 mice, VSV can alter sleep before virus progresses into brain regions that control sleep. PMID:24055862

  14. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Martin; Es-Saad, Salwa; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fink, Karin; Pham, Tram; Raymond, Valérie-Ann; Audette, Karine; Guenier, Anne-Sophie; Duchaine, Jean; Servant, Marc; Bilodeau, Marc; Cohen, Eric; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Lamarre, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1) promoter following Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1) upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  15. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baril

    Full Text Available To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1 promoter following Sendai virus (SeV infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptor (RLR-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1 upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  16. Radix isatidis Polysaccharides Inhibit Influenza a Virus and Influenza A Virus-Induced Inflammation via Suppression of Host TLR3 Signaling In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza remains one of the major epidemic diseases worldwide, and rapid virus replication and collateral lung tissue damage caused by excessive pro-inflammatory host immune cell responses lead to high mortality rates. Thus, novel therapeutic agents that control influenza A virus (IAV propagation and attenuate excessive pro-inflammatory responses are needed. Polysaccharide extract from Radix isatidis, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, exerted potent anti-IAV activity against human seasonal influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 and avian influenza viruses (H6N2 and H9N2 in vitro. The polysaccharides also significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and chemokines (IP-10, MIG, and CCL-5 stimulated by A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 at a range of doses (7.5 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL, and 30 mg/mL; however, they were only effective against progeny virus at a high dose. Similar activity was detected against inflammation induced by avian influenza virus H9N2. The polysaccharides strongly inhibited the protein expression of TLR-3 induced by PR8, suggesting that they impair the upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors induced by IAV by inhibiting activation of the TLR-3 signaling pathway. The polysaccharide extract from Radix isatidis root therefore has the potential to be used as an adjunct to antiviral therapy for the treatment of IAV infection.

  17. Transient analysis on the SMART-P anticipated transients without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S. H.; Bae, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Zee, S. Q.

    2005-01-01

    Anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) are anticipated operational occurrences accompanied by a failure of an automatic reactor trip when required. Although the occurrence probability of the ATWS events is considerably low, these events can result in unacceptable consequences, i.e. the pressurization of the reactor coolant system (RCS) up to an unacceptable range and a core-melting situation. Therefore, the regulatory body requests the installation of a protection system against the ATWS events. According to the request, a diverse protection system (DPS) is installed in the SMART-P (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-Pilot). This paper presents the results of the transient analysis performed to identify the performance of the SMART-P against the ATWS. In the analysis, the TASS/SMR (Transients And Setpoint Simulation/Small and Medium Reactor) code is applied to identify the thermal hydraulic response of the RCS during the transients

  18. Dynamic CT of portal hypertensive gastropathy: significance of transient gastric perfusion defect sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.U.; Kim, S.; Woo, S.K.; Lee, J.W.; Lee, T.H.; Jeong, Y.J.; Heo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the 'transient gastric perfusion defect' sign as a way of diagnosing portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) on multidetector computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Ninety-two consecutive patients with cirrhosis underwent three-phase CT and endoscopy. Endoscopy was performed within 3 days of the CT examination. As controls, 92 patients without clinical evidence of chronic liver diseases who underwent CT and endoscopy were enrolled; the findings at endoscopy were used as a reference standard for patients with PHG. Two radiologists who were unaware of the results of the endoscopy retrospectively interpreted the CT images. PHG was diagnosed on dynamic CT if the transient gastric perfusion defect sign was present. The transient gastric perfusion defect was defined as the presence of transient, segmental or subsegmental hypo-attenuating mucosa in the fundus or body of the stomach on hepatic arterial imaging that returned to normal attenuation on portal venous or equilibrium-phase imaging. The frequency of the transient gastric perfusion defect sign was compared between these two groups using Fisher's exact test. The frequency, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the transient gastric perfusion defect sign were also compared between patients with PHG and without PHG in the cirrhosis group. Results: Nine patients of 92 patients with cirrhosis were excluded because of previous procedure or motion artifact; the remaining 83 patients with cirrhosis were evaluated. In the cirrhosis group, 40 (48.1%) of 83 patients showed the transient gastric perfusion defect sign. In the control group, none of the 92 patients showed the transient gastric perfusion defect sign. In the cirrhotic group, the frequency of the transient gastric perfusion defect sign was significantly higher in the patients with PHG (75%, 36/48) than in patients without PHG (11.4%, 4/35). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive

  19. Transient urinary retention and chronic neuropathic pain associated with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haanpää, Maija; Paavonen, Jorma

    2004-10-01

    Genital herpes (GH) causes genital ulcer disease, severe transient pain, and often paresthesias. Whether or not GH can cause urinary retention or chronic neuropathic pain is not well known. We present two immunocompetent patients with GH associated with neuropathic symptoms. We also review the literature on GH and associated neurologic problems. Patient 1 had primary herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection with transient urinary retention and chronic bilateral neuropathic pain in the sacral area. Patient 2 had recurrent HSV-1 associated with unitaleral chronic neuropathic pain in the sacral area. Although transient urinary retention associated with GH is not uncommon, chronic neuropathic pain has not been reported previously. Our cases show that chronic neuropathic pain, that is "pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system," can follow genital HSV infection.

  20. Sodium phenylbutyrate abrogates African swine fever virus replication by disrupting the virus-induced hypoacetylation status of histone H3K9/K14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouco, Gonçalo; Freitas, Ferdinando B; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2017-10-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly lethal disease in swine for which neither a vaccine nor treatment are available. Recently, a new class of drugs that inhibit histone deacetylases enzymes (HDACs) has received an increasing interest as antiviral agents. Considering studies by others showing that valproic acid, an HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), blocks the replication of enveloped viruses and that ASFV regulates the epigenetic status of the host cell by promoting heterochromatinization and recruitment of class I HDACs to viral cytoplasmic factories, the antiviral activity of four HDACi against ASFV was evaluated in this study. Results showed that the sodium phenylbutyrate fully abrogates the ASFV replication, whereas the valproic acid leads to a significant reduction of viral progeny at 48h post-infection (-73.9%, p=0.046), as the two pan-HDAC inhibitors tested (Trichostatin A: -82.2%, p=0.043; Vorinostat: 73.9%, p=0.043). Further evaluation showed that protective effects of NaPB are dose-dependent, interfering with the expression of late viral genes and reversing the ASFV-induced histone H3 lysine 9 and 14 (H3K9K14) hypoacetylation status, compatible to an open chromatin state and possibly enabling the expression of host genes non-beneficial to infection progression. Additionally, a synergic antiviral effect was detected when NaPB is combined with an ASFV-topoisomerase II poison (Enrofloxacin). Altogether, our results strongly suggest that cellular HDACs are involved in the establishment of ASFV infection and emphasize that further in vivo studies are needed to better understand the antiviral activity of HDAC inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Hepatitis C Virus-induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activates the Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein (SREBP) and Regulates Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Steven; Iqbal, Jawed; Sarkar-Dutta, Mehuli; Lane, Samantha; Nagaraj, Abhiram; Ali, Naushad; Waris, Gulam

    2016-02-12

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) relies on host lipids and lipid droplets for replication and morphogenesis. The accumulation of lipid droplets in infected hepatocytes manifests as hepatosteatosis, a common pathology observed in chronic hepatitis C patients. One way by which HCV promotes the accumulation of intracellular lipids is through enhancing de novo lipogenesis by activating the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). In general, activation of SREBPs occurs during cholesterol depletion. Interestingly, during HCV infection, the activation of SREBPs occurs under normal cholesterol levels, but the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Our previous study has demonstrated the activation of the inflammasome complex in HCV-infected human hepatoma cells. In this study, we elucidate the potential link between chronic hepatitis C-associated inflammation and alteration of lipid homeostasis in infected cells. Our results reveal that the HCV-activated NLRP3 inflammasome is required for the up-regulation of lipogenic genes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA against the inflammasome components (NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD, and caspase-1), we further show that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a critical role in lipid droplet formation. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HCV-infected cells enables caspase-1-mediated degradation of insulin-induced gene proteins. This subsequently leads to the transport of the SREBP cleavage-activating protein·SREBP complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, followed by proteolytic activation of SREBPs by S1P and S2P in the Golgi. Typically, inflammasome activation leads to viral clearance. Paradoxically, here we demonstrate how HCV exploits the NLRP3 inflammasome to activate SREBPs and host lipid metabolism, leading to liver disease pathogenesis associated with

  2. Virus-induced gene silencing of the two squalene synthase isoforms of apple tree (Malus × domestica L.) negatively impacts phytosterol biosynthesis, plastid pigmentation and leaf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Gallón, Sandra M; Elejalde-Palmett, Carolina; Daudu, Dimitri; Liesecke, Franziska; Jullien, Frédéric; Papon, Nicolas; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Courdavault, Vincent; Lanoue, Arnaud; Oudin, Audrey; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Pichon, Olivier; Clastre, Marc; St-Pierre, Benoit; Atehortùa, Lucia; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Besseau, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    The use of a VIGS approach to silence the newly characterized apple tree SQS isoforms points out the biological function of phytosterols in plastid pigmentation and leaf development. Triterpenoids are beneficial health compounds highly accumulated in apple; however, their metabolic regulation is poorly understood. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key branch point enzyme involved in both phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis. In this study, two SQS isoforms were identified in apple tree genome. Both isoforms are located at the endoplasmic reticulum surface and were demonstrated to be functional SQS enzymes using an in vitro activity assay. MdSQS1 and MdSQS2 display specificities in their expression profiles with respect to plant organs and environmental constraints. This indicates a possible preferential involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and/or triterpene metabolic pathways as further argued using RNAseq meta-transcriptomic analyses. Finally, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to silence MdSQS1 and MdSQS2. The concomitant down-regulation of both MdSQS isoforms strongly affected phytosterol synthesis without alteration in triterpene accumulation, since triterpene-specific oxidosqualene synthases were found to be up-regulated to compensate metabolic flux reduction. Phytosterol deficiencies in silenced plants clearly disturbed chloroplast pigmentation and led to abnormal development impacting leaf division rather than elongation or differentiation. In conclusion, beyond the characterization of two SQS isoforms in apple tree, this work brings clues for a specific involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and triterpene pathways and emphasizes the biological function of phytosterols in development and chloroplast integrity. Our report also opens the door to metabolism studies in Malus domestica using the apple latent spherical virus-based VIGS method.

  3. PD-1/CTLA-4 Blockade Inhibits Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Lymphoma Growth in a Cord Blood Humanized-Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Dong Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection causes B cell lymphomas in humanized mouse models and contributes to a variety of different types of human lymphomas. T cells directed against viral antigens play a critical role in controlling EBV infection, and EBV-positive lymphomas are particularly common in immunocompromised hosts. We previously showed that EBV induces B cell lymphomas with high frequency in a cord blood-humanized mouse model in which EBV-infected human cord blood is injected intraperitoneally into NOD/LtSz-scid/IL2Rγnull (NSG mice. Since our former studies showed that it is possible for T cells to control the tumors in another NSG mouse model engrafted with both human fetal CD34+ cells and human thymus and liver, here we investigated whether monoclonal antibodies that block the T cell inhibitory receptors, PD-1 and CTLA-4, enhance the ability of cord blood T cells to control the outgrowth of EBV-induced lymphomas in the cord-blood humanized mouse model. We demonstrate that EBV-infected lymphoma cells in this model express both the PD-L1 and PD-L2 inhibitory ligands for the PD-1 receptor, and that T cells express the PD-1 and CTLA-4 receptors. Furthermore, we show that the combination of CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade strikingly reduces the size of lymphomas induced by a lytic EBV strain (M81 in this model, and that this anti-tumor effect requires T cells. PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade markedly increases EBV-specific T cell responses, and is associated with enhanced tumor infiltration by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade decreases the number of both latently, and lytically, EBV-infected B cells. These results indicate that PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade enhances the ability of cord blood T cells to control outgrowth of EBV-induced lymphomas, and suggest that PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade might be useful for treating certain EBV-induced diseases in humans.

  4. Transient splenial lesion: Further experience with two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Paramjeet; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Vyas, Sameer; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2010-01-01

    Transient splenial lesions (TSL) of the corpus callosum are uncommon radiologic findings that are seen in a number of clinical conditions with varied etiologies. They were first described a decade earlier in patients with epilepsy and hence were thought to be seizure or seizure therapy related. Subsequently, more cases were described by different observers in diseases with different etiologies, and the list is still increasing. Awareness of these lesions is necessary as they are an uncommon finding and have to be differentiated from other infective/noninfective causes. MRI is the imaging modality of choice as these lesions are not seen on routine noncontrast CT scan. The authors here describe two cases which showed TSL, with complete/partial resolution on follow-up scans. The authors also present a review of the literature

  5. Scintimetry in transient synovitis of the hip in the child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Wingstrand, H.; Gustafson, T.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-five consecutive children presenting with transient synovitis of the hip were examined with 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy and pin-hole collimator technique. Quantitative assessment was performed along a profile of interest across the hip joint. The criteria for the normal scintimetric pattern in the child's hip were established and the pathologic pattern of uptake in the acute phase, as well as in the follow-up after synovitis, was described. A decrease in isotope uptake in the proximal femoral epiphysis was observed in 13 children. This was correlated with a reduced uptake in the growth-plate, indicating a disturbance of blood supply to these regions. A characteristic pattern of isotope uptake with duration of symptoms was observed: a decrease in uptake during the first week followed by rebound hyperemia within 1 month. One child developed osteonecrosis (Legg-Calve-Perthes disease). (author)

  6. Transient splenial lesion: Further experience with two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Paramjeet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient splenial lesions (TSL of the corpus callosum are uncommon radiologic findings that are seen in a number of clinical conditions with varied etiologies. They were first described a decade earlier in patients with epilepsy and hence were thought to be seizure or seizure therapy related. Subsequently, more cases were described by different observers in diseases with different etiologies, and the list is still increasing. Awareness of these lesions is necessary as they are an uncommon finding and have to be differentiated from other infective/noninfective causes. MRI is the imaging modality of choice as these lesions are not seen on routine noncontrast CT scan. The authors here describe two cases which showed TSL, with complete/partial resolution on follow-up scans. The authors also present a review of the literature.

  7. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  8. Operational transients: A regional administrator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.T.; Johnson, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the response of the regional US NRC to operational transients. Three of the major lessons learned from the Three Mile Island-2 accident are reviewed. The need to consider the more probable events of lesser consequences in addition to the significant events is now realized. The importance of the operator in the course of an operational event has been recognized. Three Mile Island also pointed out the many design and hardware deficiencies. Topics considered include the industry capability to meet the challenge of operational transients, the region's capability, and the capability of the utility. It is recommended that technical drills be developed, that plant-specific technical competence be improved, that operator training and education be improved, and that the attitude changes on the part of utilities and the nuclear industry in general be accelerated

  9. Transient hypothyroidism following radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.M.C.; McCruden, D.C.; Alexander, W.D.; Hilditch, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study of thyroid function including serial tracer radioisotope uptake measurements in 55 patients treated with 131 I therapy is described. Five patients had an episode of transient hypothyroidism within eight months of treatment: in three of these patients this was due to impaired organification of iodide, with normal iodide trapping by the thyroid (as measured by a twenty minute 123 I uptake) being preserved. In contrast, in all patients who developed permanent hypothyroidism, iodide trapping was markedly diminished and did not recover. It is suggested that hypothyroidism due to organification failure following 131 I therapy is potentially short-lived; where hypothyroidism is associated with gross impairment of iodide trapping, recovery is unlikely. Early iodine uptake measurements may be of value in selecting those patients whose hypothyroidism is transient and who do not require permanent thyroid hormone replacement. (author)

  10. Experimental study on transient boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visentini, R.

    2012-01-01

    Boiling phenomena can be found in the everyday life, thus a lot of studies are devoted to them, especially in steady state conditions. Transient boiling is less known but still interesting as it is involved in the nuclear safety prevention. In this context, the present work was supported by the French Institute of Nuclear Safety (IRSN). In fact, the IRSN wanted to clarify what happens during a Reactivity-initiated Accident (RIA). This accident occurs when the bars that control the nuclear reactions break down and a high power peak is passed from the nuclear fuel bar to the surrounding fluid. The temperature of the nuclear fuel bar wall increases and the fluid vaporises instantaneously. Previous studies on a fuel bar or on a metal tube heated by Joule effect were done in the past in order to understand the rapid boiling phenomena during a RIA. However, the measurements were not really accurate because the measurement techniques were not able to follow rapid phenomena. The main goal of this work was to create an experimental facility able to simulate the RIA boiling conditions but at small scale in order to better understand the boiling characteristics when the heated-wall temperature increases rapidly. Moreover, the experimental set-up was meant to be able to produce less-rapid transients as well, in order to give information on transient boiling in general. The facility was built at the Fluid-Mechanics Institute of Toulouse. The core consists of a metal half-cylinder heated by Joule effect, placed in a half-annulus section. The inner half cylinder is made of a 50 microns thick stainless steel foil. Its diameter is 8 mm, and its length 200 mm. The outer part is a 34 mm internal diameter glass half cylinder. The semi-annular section is filled with a coolant, named HFE7000. The configuration allows to work in similarity conditions. The heated part can be place inside a loop in order to study the flow effect. The fluid temperature influence is taken into account as

  11. Topology optimization for transient heat transfer problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidan, Said; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    The focus of this work is on passive control of transient heat transfer problems using the topology optimization (TopOpt) method [1]. The goal is to find distributions of a limited amount of phase change material (PCM), within a given design domain, which optimizes the heat energy storage [2]. Our......, TopOpt has later been extended to transient problems in mechanics and photonics (e.g. [5], [6] and [7]). In the presented approach, the optimization is gradient-based, where in each iteration the non-steady heat conduction equation is solved,using the finite element method and an appropriate time......-stepping scheme. A PCM can efficiently absorb heat while keeping its temperature nearly unchanged [8]. The use of PCM ine.g. electronics [9] and mechanics [10], yields improved performance and lower costs depending on a.o., the spatial distribution of PCM.The considered problem consists in optimizing...

  12. Transient heat transfer in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotsu, Masahiro

    1991-01-01

    Detailed knowledge on the steady-state and transient heat transfer from solid surfaces in He I and He II is important as a database for the analysis of the influence of local thermal disturbances on the stability of He I or He II cooled large superconducting magnets. In this paper, an overview of the transient heat transfer characteristics on solid surfaces in He I and He II caused by various large stepwise heat inputs, such as the quasi-steady nucleate boiling with a certain lifetime in He I and the quasi-steady Kapitza conductance heat flux with a certain lifetime in He II, are presented in comparison with their steady-state heat transfer characteristics. (author)

  13. The transient transpiration heat flux meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, N.; Calisto, H.; Afgan, N.; Leontiev, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    A new heat flux measurement principle, based on the transient response of a transpiration radiometer, is proposed. The measurement principle of current transpiration radiometers is based on a steady-state temperature measurement in a porous element. Since it may typically take several seconds to reach these conditions, there are obvious benefits in reducing the instrument response time. This can be achieved through the analysis of its transient response in order to predict the incident heat flux. In addition, the proposed methodology enables the separate measurement of the radiative and convective components of incident heat fluxes, without compromising the known advantages of transpiration radiometers. The availability of such an instrument may enable the development of advanced monitoring, diagnostic and control systems for thermal equipment

  14. Work plan: transient release from LMFBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.; Fontana, M.H.

    1975-09-01

    The proposed LMFBR Transient Release Program at ORNL is designed to investigate, by means of ex-reactor experiments and analytical modeling, the release and transport of fuel, fission products, and transuranic elements from fast reactor cores in the event of certain hypothetical accidents. It is desired to experimentally produce energy depositions that are characteristic of severe hypothetical reactor transients by the application of direct electrical current to mixed-oxide fuels under sodium. The experimental program includes tests with and without sodium, investigations of alternative methods of generating fuel and sodium aerosols, the use of UO 2 as a fuel simulant, additions of tracers as fission product simulants, effects of radiation, and under-water and under-sodium efforts to study the behavior of the vapor bubble itself. Analytical modeling will accompany all phases of the program, and the data will be correlated with models developed. 21 references. (auth)

  15. A transient model to the thermal detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachalios, K.

    1987-04-01

    The model calculates the escalation dynamics and the long time behavior of thermal detonation waves depending on the initial and boundary conditions (data of the premixture, ignition at a solid wall or at an open end, etc.). Especially, for a given mixture and a certain fragmentation behavior more than one stable steady-state cases resulted, depending on the applied ignition energy. Investigations showed a very good consistency between the transient model and a steady-state model which is based on the same physical description and includes an additional stability criterion. Also the influence of effects such as e.g. non-homogeneous coolant heating, spherical instead of plane wave propagation and inhomogeneities of the premixture on the development of the wave were investigated. Comparison calculations with large scale experiments showed that they can be well explained by means of the thermal detonation theory, especially considering the transient phase of the wave development. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.

  17. Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajic, A

    2013-01-01

    Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock

  18. Transient evaluation for LPG and oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Do Nascimento, Elson Antonio; Fernandes Lacerda, Rogerio [Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the last decades, the offshore industry has expanded thanks to the development of equipment for subsea operation. In such installations, protection equipment can be adapted to the installation's design in order to avoid surge pressure effects and ensure safety and integrity of the system, predicting transient effect is therefore very important. The purpose of this study is to predict the surge pressure on refrigerated LPG and gasoline pipelines during unpredicted closure of valves. Flowmaster software was used to carry out the simulations and its results were then validated with a methodology that applied the characteristics method based on Wylie and Streeter assumptions. Results showed that surge pressures during transient effect for both refrigerated LPG and Gasoline pipeline systems were less than the maximum allowable operating pressure and therefore no control dispositive installations are geeded. This study showed that the use of these computer models can ensure the optimization of the system and provide cost effective solutions.

  19. Transient accelerating scalar models with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wen-Ping; Zhang Yang; Fu Zheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    We study a known class of scalar dark energy models in which the potential has an exponential term and the current accelerating era is transient. We find that, although a decelerating era will return in the future, when extrapolating the model back to earlier stages (z ≳ 4), scalar dark energy becomes dominant over matter. So these models do not have the desired tracking behavior, and the predicted transient period of acceleration cannot be adopted into the standard scenario of the Big Bang cosmology. When couplings between the scalar field and matter are introduced, the models still have the same problem; only the time when deceleration returns will be varied. To achieve re-deceleration, one has to turn to alternative models that are consistent with the standard Big Bang scenario.

  20. A physically transient form of silicon electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Tao, Hu; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Cheng, Huanyu; Song, Jun-Kyul; Rill, Elliott; Brenckle, Mark A; Panilaitis, Bruce; Won, Sang Min; Kim, Yun-Soung; Song, Young Min; Yu, Ki Jun; Ameen, Abid; Li, Rui; Su, Yewang; Yang, Miaomiao; Kaplan, David L; Zakin, Mitchell R; Slepian, Marvin J; Huang, Yonggang; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Rogers, John A

    2012-09-28

    A remarkable feature of modern silicon electronics is its ability to remain physically invariant, almost indefinitely for practical purposes. Although this characteristic is a hallmark of applications of integrated circuits that exist today, there might be opportunities for systems that offer the opposite behavior, such as implantable devices that function for medically useful time frames but then completely disappear via resorption by the body. We report a set of materials, manufacturing schemes, device components, and theoretical design tools for a silicon-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology that has this type of transient behavior, together with integrated sensors, actuators, power supply systems, and wireless control strategies. An implantable transient device that acts as a programmable nonantibiotic bacteriocide provides a system-level example.

  1. Meteorological interpretation of transient LOD changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.

    2008-04-01

    The Earth’s spin rate is mainly changed by zonal winds. For example, seasonal changes in global atmospheric circulation and episodic changes accompanied with El Nĩ os are clearly detected n in the Length-of-day (LOD). Sub-global to regional meteorological phenomena can also change the wind field, however, their effects on the LOD are uncertain because such LOD signals are expected to be subtle and transient. In our previous study (Masaki, 2006), we introduced atmospheric pressure gradients in the upper atmosphere in order to obtain a rough picture of the meteorological features that can change the LOD. In this presentation, we compare one-year LOD data with meteorological elements (winds, temperature, pressure, etc.) and make an attempt to link transient LOD changes with sub-global meteorological phenomena.

  2. Transient failure behavior of HT9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.

    1994-07-01

    Alloy HT9 has-been chosen as candidate materials for fast and fusion reactor applications because the.material exhibits excellent resistance to void swelling. However, ferritic alloys are known to undergo a ductile-brittle transition as the test temperature is decreased. This inherent problem has limited their applications to reactor component materials subjected to low neutron exposures. Despite the ductile-brittle transition problem, results show that the materials exhibit superior resistance to fracture under very high neutron fluences at irradiation temperatures above 380C. Results also show that the transient behavior for HT9 cladding specimens taken from the fuel column region and cladding taken from outside the fuel column or unirradiated cladding are the same. HT9 cladding maintained its transient strength with irradiation to a fluence of 9 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV)

  3. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi-Jafari, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  4. Intermediate Leg SBLOCA - Long Lasting Pressure Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konjarek, D.; Bajs, T.; Vukovic, J.

    2010-01-01

    The basic phenomenology of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) for PWR plant is described with focus on analysis of scenario in which reactor coolant pressure decreases below secondary system pressure. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Rather detailed model of the plant was used. The break occurs in intermediate leg on lowest elevation near pump suction. The size of the break is chosen to be small enough to cause cycling of safety valves (SVs) on steam generators (SGs) for some time, but, afterwards, it is large enough to remove decay heat through the break, causing cooling the secondary side. In this case of SBLOCA, when primary pressure decreases below secondary pressure, long lasting pressure transients with significant amplitude occur. Reasons for such behavior are explained.(author).

  5. Modeling transient radiation effects in power MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.R.; Hall, W.E.; Dunn, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Using standard device specifications and simple assumptions, the transient radiation response of VDMOS MOSFETs can be modeled in a standard circuit analysis program. The device model consists of a body diode, a parasitic bipolar transistor, and elements to simulate high-current reduced breakdown. The attached photocurrent model emulates response to any pulse shape and accounts for bias-dependent depletion regions. The model can be optimized to best fit available test data

  6. Removing fuelling transient using neutron absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, S.; Chan, P.K.; Bonin, H.W., E-mail: Stephane.Paquette@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Preliminary criticality and burnup calculation results indicate that by employing a small amount of neutron absorber the fuelling transient, currently occurring in a CANDU 37-element fuel bundle, can be significantly reduced. A parametric study using the Los Alamos National Laboratories' MCNP 5 code and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's WIMS-AECL 3.1 is presented in this paper. (author)

  7. Pump transients in FGD slurry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce-Campos, C.D., Thoy, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the start-up transient of a limestone slurry system used for a power plant scrubber is discussed. Particular characteristics of these kind of systems are pointed out and incorporated into an ad-hoc numerical model. Three possible start-up scenarios are discussed and compared with field experimental data. The results illustrate well the importance of air pocket purging prior to system start-up

  8. EP1000 anticipated transient without scram analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiu, G.; Frogheri, M.; Schulz, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the main results of the Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) analysis activity, performed for the European Passive Plant Program (EPP). The behavior of the EP1000 plant following an ATWS has been analyzed by means of the RELAP5/Mod3.2 code. An ATWS is defined as an Anticipated Transient accompanied by a common mode failure in the reactor protection system, such that the control rods do not scram as required to mitigate the consequences of the transient. According to the experience gained in PWR design, the limiting ATWS events, in a PWR, have been found to be the heatup transients caused by a reduction of heat removal capability by the secondary side of the plant. For this reason, the Loss of Normal Feedwater initiating event, to which the failure of the reactor scram is associated, has been analyzed. The purpose of the study is to verify the performance requirements set for the core feedback characteristics (that is to evaluate the effect of the low boron core neutron kinetic parameters), the overpressure protection system, and boration systems to cope with the EUR Acceptance Criteria for ATWS. Another purpose of this analysis was to support development of revised PSA success criteria that would reduce the contribution of ATWS to the large release frequency (LRF). The low boron core improved the basic EP1000 response to an ATWS event. In particular, the peak pressure was significantly lower than that which would result from a standard core configuration. The improved ATWS analysis results also permitted improved ATWS PSA success criteria. For example, the reduced peak pressure allows the use of other plant features to mitigate the event, including manual initiation of feed-bleed cooling in the event of PRHR HX failure. As a result, the core melt frequency and especially the LRF are significantly reduced. (author)

  9. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of transient species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuw, D.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    Transient species are studied in the isolation of the gas phase using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). A description of the equipment used and a discussion of some theoretical topics, which play a role in the interpretation of PE spectra, are given. Koopmans' theorem, Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) calculations and the sum rule are discussed. A versatile ultraviolet PE spectrometer, designed specifically for this purpose, has been built and the construction and performance of this instrument are described. (Auth.)

  10. Transient thermal analysis of Vega launcher structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, F. [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Rome (Italy); De Stefanis, M. [Thales Alenia Space Italia, Rome (Italy); Worek, W.M. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States)], E-mail: wworek@uic.edu; Minkowycz, W.J. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A transient thermal analysis is carried out to verify the base cover thermal protection system of Vega 2nd stage Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) and the flange coupling of the inter-stage 2/3. The analysis is performed with a finite element code. The work has developed suitable numerical Fortran subroutines to assign radiation and convection boundary conditions. The thermal behaviour of the structures is presented.

  11. On transient effects in violent nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Belkacem, M.; Feng-Shou Zhang; Academia Sinica, Lanzhou, GS

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the numerical simulations of the recently developed Boltzmann-Langevin model exhibit large dynamical fluctuations in momentum space during the early stages of heavy-ion collisions, which arise from an interplay between the nuclear meanfield and binary collisions. It is pointed out that this transient behaviour provides an initial seed for the development of density fluctuations, and could strongly influence the particle production cross-sections at subthreshold energies. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Some new directions in system transient simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.

    1986-01-01

    The current research in system transient simulation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is summarized in this paper and three new directions that are emerging from this work are discussed. The new directions are: development of an Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer (ATHENA) having new modeling capability, use of expert systems for enhancing simulation methods, and the trend to individual workstations for simulation

  13. Experimental study and modelling of transient boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A failure in the control system of the power of a nuclear reactor can lead to a Reactivity Initiated Accident in a nuclear power plant. Then, a power peak occurs in some fuel rods, high enough to lead to the coolant film boiling. It leads to an important increase of the temperature of the rod. The possible risk of the clad failure is a matter of interest for the Institut de Radioprotection et de Securite Nucleaire. The transient boiling heat transfer is not yet understood and modelled. An experimental set-up has been built at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT). Subcooled HFE-7000 flows vertically upward in a semi annulus test section. The inner half cylinder simulates the clad and is made of a stainless steel foil, heated by Joule effect. Its temperature is measured by an infrared camera, coupled with a high speed camera for the visualization of the flow topology. The whole boiling curve is studied in steady state and transient regimes: convection, onset of boiling, nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, film boiling and rewetting. The steady state heat transfers are well modelled by literature correlations. Models are suggested for the transient heat flux: the convection and nucleate boiling evolutions are self-similar during a power step. This observation allows to model more complex evolutions, as temperature ramps. The transient Hsu model well represents the onset of nucleate boiling. When the intensity of the power step increases, the film boiling begins at the same temperature but with an increasing heat flux. For power ramps, the critical heat flux decreases while the corresponding temperature increases with the heating rate. When the wall is heated, the film boiling heat transfer is higher than in steady state but it is not understood. A two-fluid model well simulates the cooling film boiling and the rewetting. (author)

  14. Transient central diabetes insipidus following ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following ischemic infarction of the brain has been described as a rare presentation. Posterior pituitary ischemia has also been postulated as a possible cause of idiopathic CDI. We encountered a young male with bilateral extensive ischemic infarction sustained at high altitude, who had transient polyuria due to central diabetes insipidus, requiring desmopressin therapy. DI completely resolved during the course of his neurological recovery.

  15. Voltage-Step Transient on Circular Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wein, Ondřej; Tovčigrečko, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2011), s. 1065-1075 ISSN 0021-891X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0428; GA ČR GA104/09/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ohmic loss * voltage-step transient * cottrell asymptote Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2011

  16. Recurrent transient thyrotoxicosis in multinodular goitre.

    OpenAIRE

    Arem, R.

    1990-01-01

    A patient initially presented with an autonomously functioning right thyroid nodule and transient hyperthyroidism which lasted for a few months. Several months after resolution of thyrotoxicosis, the patient had a recurrent episode of hyperthyroidism and was found to have a left hot nodule. The right hyperfunctioning nodule had become cold on scintigraphy, and its aspiration revealed haemorrhagic fluid suggesting haemorrhagic infarction as the mechanism of resolution of the first episode of h...

  17. Transient magnetic field changes in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, A.; Zirin, H.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic changes have been detected with the videomagnetograph (VMG) at Big Bear during two large flares on 1979 November 5. Two kinds of changes were detected in both flares: a decrease in satellite field strength near the locus of the flare and the appearance of strong transient fields during the peak of the flare. We explain why we believe that the observed effects are real and not instrumental and discuss their significance for flare studies

  18. High energy transients: The millisecond domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    The search for high energy transients in the millisecond domain has come to the focus in recent times due to the detection of gravitational wave events and the identification of fast radio bursts as cosmological sources. Here we highlight the sensitivity limitations in the currently operating hard X-ray telescopes and give some details of the search for millisecond events in the AstroSat CZT Imager data.

  19. Simulation of Thermal Transients using CSMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuk, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate thermal transientes for the Hellum Loop of the 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nuleares', Sao Paulo. The model is based on the energy equation applied to the various components of the loop. The non-linear system of first order ordinary differential equation and algebraic equations has been solved using IBM'S 'System/360-Continuous System Modeling Program-CSMP'. The model has been tested satisfactory with experimental results. (Author) [pt

  20. Transient sexual precocity and ovarian cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, A J; De Bruyn, R; Grant, D B

    1985-01-01

    Nine girls presenting under the age of 7 years with unsustained sexual precocity are described. Large ovarian cysts were detected by ultrasound in three and laparotomy in one. In two girls the symptoms resolved after surgical removal of the cyst; the other seven had spontaneous remission of symptoms, but in two of these transient breast development and bleeding recurred: further ovarian cyst formation was found in one of these patients. Endocrine studies performed before resolution of the cys...

  1. Transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beushausen, R.; Tornow, S.; Borchers, H. [Nord-West Oelleitung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Murphy, K.; Zhang, J. [Atmos International Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Nord-West Oelleitung (NWO) operates 2 crude oil pipelines from Wilhemshaven to Koln and Hamburg respectively. German regulations for transporting flammable substances stipulate that 2 independent continuously working procedures be used to detect leaks. Leak detection pigs are used routinely to complement the surveillance system. This paper described the specific issues of transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines. It was noted that traditional methods have failed to detect leaks that occur immediately after pumps are turned on or off because the pressure wave generated by the transient dominates the pressure wave that results from the leak. Frequent operational changes in a pipeline are often accompanied by an increased number of false alarms and failure to detect leaks due to unsteady operations. NWO therefore decided to have the Atmos statistical pipeline leak detection (SPLD) system installed on their pipelines. The key to the SPLD system is the sequential probability ratio test. Comprehensive data validation is performed following reception of pipeline data from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The validated data is then used to calculate the corrected flow imbalance, which is fed into the SPRT to determine if there is an increase in the flow imbalance. Pattern recognition is then used to distinguish a leak from operational changes. The SPLD is unique because it uses 3 computational pipeline monitoring methods simultaneously, namely modified volume balance, statistical analysis, and pressure and flow monitoring. The successful installation and testing of the SPLD in 2 crude oil pipelines was described along with the main difficulties associated with transient leaks. Field results were presented for both steady-state and transient conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  2. Transient analysis for Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Pablos, J.C. et.al.

    1991-01-01

    Relationship between transients analysis and safety of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant is described a general panorama of safety thermal limits of a nuclear station, as well as transients classification and events simulation codes are exposed. Activities of a group of transients analysis of electrical research institute are also mentioned (Author)

  3. Review of HEDL fuel pin transient analyses analytical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.H.; Baars, R.E.

    1975-05-01

    Methods for analysis of transient fuel pin performance are described, as represented by the steady-state SIEX code and the PECT series of codes used for steady-state and transient mechanical analyses. The empirical fuel failure correlation currently in use for analysis of transient overpower accidents is described. (U.S.)

  4. Transient Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josine van der Schoot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate transient focal microcystic retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes in images obtained with several imaging techniques used in daily glaucoma care. Methods. Images of 117 glaucoma patients and 91 healthy subjects participating in a large prospective follow-up study into glaucoma imaging were reviewed. Participants were measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, scanning laser polarimetry (SLP, scanning laser tomography (SLT, and standard automated perimetry (SAP. The presence of a focal retinoschisis in SD-OCT was observed and correlated to SLP, SLT, and SAP measurements, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results. Seven out of 117 glaucoma patients showed a transient, localised, peripapillary, heterogeneous microcystic schisis of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and sometimes other retinal layers as well in SD-OCT. None of the healthy eyes showed this phenomenon nor did any of the other imaging techniques display it as detailed and consistently as did the SD-OCT. SAP showed a temporarily decreased focal retinal sensitivity during the retinoschisis and we found no signs of glaucomatous progression related to the retinoschisis. Conclusions. Transient microcystic retinoschisis appears to be associated with glaucomatous wedge defects in the RNFL. It was best observed with SD-OCT and it was absent in healthy eyes. We found no evidence that the retinoschisis predicted glaucomatous progression.

  5. Transient selection in multicellular immune networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a multi-clonotype naive T-cell population competing for survival signals from antigen-presenting cells. We find that this competition provides with an efficacious selection of clonotypes, making the less able and more repetitive get extinct. We uncover the scaling principles for large systems the extinction rate obeys and calibrate the model parameters to their experimental counterparts. For the first time, we estimate the physiological values of the T-cell receptor-antigen presentation profile recognition probability and T-cell clonotypes niche overlap. We demonstrate that, while the ultimate state is a stable fixed point, sequential transients dominate the dynamics over large timescales that may span over years, if not decades, in real time. We argue that what is currently viewed as "homeostasis" is a complex sequential transient process, while being quasi-stationary in the total number of T-cells only. The discovered type of sequential transient dynamics in large random networks is a novel alternative to the stable heteroclinic channel mechanism.

  6. Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-22

    Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.

  7. Anticipated transient without SCRAM experiments at LOFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grush, W.H.; Harvego, E.A.; Koizumi, Y.; Varacalle, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the experimental results for two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) experiments, and compares computer code predictions with the experimental data. Experiment L9-3 simulated an ATWS in a commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) initiated by a complete loss of feedwater and Experiment L9-4 simulated a loss-of-offsite-power-initiated (loss of feedwater and trip of the primary coolant pumps) ATWS. The LOFT facility is uniquely suited for ATWS experiments because it is a volumetrically scaled (1/44) experimental PWR designed to simulate the major components and system responses of larger commercial PWRs during both hypothesized loss-of-coolant accidents and anticipated transients. In both of the examined experiments, the primary system transient behavior was dominated by the interactions between the steam generator primary-to-secondary heat removal, the reactor kinetics, and the relief valve actuation. It is demonstrated that the discussed ATWS events can be controlled by properly sized automatic safety systems

  8. Beam induced rf cavity transient voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Wang, J.M.

    1998-10-01

    The authors calculate the transient voltage induced in a radio frequency cavity by the injection of a relativistic bunched beam into a circular accelerator. A simplified model of the beam induced voltage, using a single tone current signal, is generated and compared with the voltage induced by a more realistic model of a point-like bunched beam. The high Q limit of the bunched beam model is shown to be related simply to the simplified model. Both models are shown to induce voltages at the resonant frequency ω r of the cavity and at an integer multiple of the bunch revolution frequency (i.e. the accelerating frequency for powered cavity operation) hω ο . The presence of two nearby frequencies in the cavity leads to a modulation of the carrier wave exp(hω ο t). A special emphasis is placed in this paper on studying the modulation function. These models prove useful for computing the transient voltage induced in superconducting rf cavities, which was the motivation behind this research. The modulation of the transient cavity voltage discussed in this paper is the physical basis of the recently observed and explained new kinds of longitudinal rigid dipole mode which differs from the conventional Robinson mode

  9. Could the cosmic acceleration be transient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Antonio C.C.; Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The possibility of a transient cosmic acceleration appears in several theoretical scenarios and is theoretically interesting because it solves some difficulties inherent to eternally accelerating universes (like {Lambda}CDM). On the observational side, some authors, using a dynamical Ansatz for the dark energy equation of state, have suggested that the cosmic acceleration have already peaked and that we are currently witnessing its slowing down. Here, a possible slowing down of the cosmic expansion is investigated through a cosmographic approach. By expanding the luminous distance to fourth order and fitting the SNe Ia data from the most recent compilations (Union, Constitution and Union 2), the marginal likelihood distribution for the deceleration parameter today indicates that there is a considerable probability for q{sub 0} > 0. Also in contrast to the prediction of the {Lambda}CDM model, the cosmographic q(z) reconstruction suggests that the cosmic acceleration could already have peaked and be presently slowing down, what would imply that the recent accelerated expansion of the Universe is a transient phenomenon. It is also shown that to describe a transient acceleration the luminous distance needs to be expanded at least to fourth order. The present cosmographic results depend neither on the validity of general relativity nor on the matter-energy contents of the Universe. (author)

  10. Transient birefringence effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, O M

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of numerical modelling of transient birefringence that arises as a result of electromagnetically induced transparency on degenerate quantum transitions between the states with J = 0, 1 and 2 in the presence of the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. It is shown that in the case of a linearly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence leads to a decay of the input circularly polarised probe pulse into separate linearly polarised pulses inside a medium. In the case of a circularly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence manifests itself in a decay of the input linearly polarised probe pulse into separate circularly polarised pulses. It is shown that the distance that a probe pulse has to pass in a medium before decaying into subpulses is considerably greater in the first case than in the second. The influence of the input probe pulse power and duration on the process of spatial separation into individual pulses inside a medium is studied. A qualitative analysis of the obtained results is presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  11. Transient performance of S-prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubberley, A.E.; Boardman, C.E.; Gamble, R.E.; Hiu, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated plant called SuperPRISM (S-PRISM). This paper presents the results of transient analyses performed to assess the ability of S-PRISM to accommodate severe accident initiator events. A unique safety capability of S-PRISM is accommodation of the ''higher probability'' accident initiators that led to core melt accidents in prior large LMRs. These events, the Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events, are thus the focus of passive safety confirmation analyses. The events included in this assessment are: Unprotected Loss of Flow, Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink, Unprotected Loss of Flow and Heat sink, Unprotected Transient Overpower and Unprotected Safe Shutdown Earthquake. (author)

  12. Aeroelastic Modeling of a Nozzle Startup Transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Sijun; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Lateral nozzle forces are known to cause severe structural damage to any new rocket engine in development during test. While three-dimensional, transient, turbulent, chemically reacting computational fluid dynamics methodology has been demonstrated to capture major side load physics with rigid nozzles, hot-fire tests often show nozzle structure deformation during major side load events, leading to structural damages if structural strengthening measures were not taken. The modeling picture is incomplete without the capability to address the two-way responses between the structure and fluid. The objective of this study is to develop a tightly coupled aeroelastic modeling algorithm by implementing the necessary structural dynamics component into an anchored computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational fluid dynamics component is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, while the computational structural dynamics component is developed under the framework of modal analysis. Transient aeroelastic nozzle startup analyses at sea level were performed, and the computed transient nozzle fluid-structure interaction physics presented,

  13. Initial Implementation of Transient VERA-CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Andrew [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kochunas, Brendan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Salko, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In this milestone the capabilities of both CTF and MPACT were extended to perform coupled transient calculations. This required several small changes in MPACT to setup the problems correctly, perform the edits correctly, and call the appropriate CTF interfaces in the right order. For CTF, revisions and corrections to the transient timestepping algorithm were made, as well as the addition of a new interface subroutine to allow MPACT to drive CTF at each timestep. With the modifications completed, the initial coupled capability was demonstrated on some problems used for code verification, a hypothetical small mini-core, and a Watts Bar demonstration problem. For each of these cases the results showed good agreement with the previous MPACT internal TH feedback model that relied on a simplified fuel heat conduction model and simplified coolant treatment. After the pulse the results are notably different as expected, where the effects of convection of heat to the coolant can be observed. Areas for future work were discussed, including assessment and development of the CTF dynamic fuel deformation and gap conductance models, addition of suitable transient boiling and CHF models for the rapid heating and cooling rates seen in RIAs, additional validation and demonstration work, and areas for improvement to the code input and output capabilities.

  14. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts by reinforcing intracellular calcium transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jie; Sun, Lijun; Zhu, Bin; Fan, Yun; Ma, Xingfeng; Yu, Liyin; Zhang, Jianbao

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can be used to treat bone-related diseases, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially the process by which PEMFs initiate biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of PEMF on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts using the model of calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium. Our results showed that PEMF can increase both the percentage of responding cells and amplitude of intracellular calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium stimulation. Compared with corresponding extracellular calcium levels, PEMF stimulation increased proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and related gene expressions, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (OCN), which can be completely abolished by BAPTA-AM. Moreover, PEMF did not affect proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts if no intracellular calcium transient was present in osteoblasts during PEMF exposure. Our results revealed that PEMF affects osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through enhanced intracellular calcium transients, which provided a cue to treat bone-related diseases with PEMF. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:541-549, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Transient osteoporosis or femoral head necrosis Early diagnosis via MRI. Transitorische Osteoporose oder Femurkopfnekrose Fruehdiagnose mit der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higer, H P; Grimm, J; Pedrosa, P; Apel, R; Bandilla, K [Stiftung Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Kernspintomographie; Stiftung Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Rheumatologie; Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1989-04-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is a syndrome that does not seem to be widely known; this is also true for its radiological appearance. It is often mistaken for avascular necrosis of the femoral head, metastatic or inflammatory disease. These differential diagnoses lead to more or less invasive procedures, although transient osteoporosis does not require more than immobilisation for complete remission. MRI was done in 38 patients with acute hip pain, 13 had femoral head necrosis and 8 transient osteoporosis. Follow-up studies via MRI in patients with transient osteoporosis revealed 3 stages (diffuse, focal, residual) during the clinical course of which stage II is similar to femoral head necrosis but always without the typical sclerotic rim. (orig.).

  16. Delayed-onset dementia after stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Bonnie Y K; Wang, Zhaolu; Liu, Wenyan; Au, Lisa; Leung, Eric Y L; Chen, Sirong; Yang, Jie; Chu, Winnie C W; Lau, Alexander Y L; Chan, Anne Y Y; Shi, Lin; Fan, Florence; Ma, Sze H; Ip, Vincent; Soo, Yannie O Y; Leung, Thomas W H; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Ho, Chi L; Wong, Lawrence K S; Wong, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Patients surviving stroke without immediate dementia are at high risk of delayed-onset dementia. Mechanisms underlying delayed-onset dementia are complex and may involve vascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Dementia-free patients with stroke and/or transient ischemic attack (TIA; n = 919) were studied for 3 years prospectively, excluding those who developed dementia 3 to 6 months after stroke and/or TIA. Forty subjects (4.4%) developed dementia during the study period. Imaging markers of severe small vessel disease (SVD), namely presence of ≥3 lacunes and confluent white matter changes; history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus independently predicted delayed-onset dementia after adjustment for age, gender, and education. Only 6 of 31 (19.4%) subjects with delayed cognitive decline harbored Alzheimer's disease-like Pittsburg compound B (PiB) retention. Most PiB cases (16/25, 64%) had evidence of severe SVD. Severe SVD contributes importantly to delayed-onset dementia after stroke and/or TIA. Future clinical trials aiming to prevent delayed-onset dementia after stroke and/or TIA should target this high-risk group. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Haziah

    This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations used the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions.. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the

  18. SCANAIR: A transient fuel performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moal, Alain; Georgenthum, Vincent; Marchand, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Since the early 1990s, the code SCANAIR is developed at IRSN. • The software focuses on studying fast transients such as RIA in light water reactors. • The fuel rod modelling is based on a 1.5D approach. • Thermal and thermal-hydraulics, mechanical and gas behaviour resolutions are coupled. • The code is used for safety assessment and integral tests analysis. - Abstract: Since the early 1990s, the French “Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire” (IRSN) has developed the SCANAIR computer code with the view to analysing pressurised water reactor (PWR) safety. This software specifically focuses on studying fast transients such as reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA) caused by possible ejection of control rods. The code aims at improving the global understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the thermal-mechanical behaviour of a single rod. It is currently used to analyse integral tests performed in CABRI and NSRR experimental reactors. The resulting validated code is used to carry out studies required to evaluate margins in relation to criteria for different types of fuel rods used in nuclear power plants. Because phenomena occurring during fast power transients are complex, the simulation in SCANAIR is based on a close coupling between several modules aimed at modelling thermal, thermal-hydraulics, mechanical and gas behaviour. During the first stage of fast power transients, clad deformation is mainly governed by the pellet–clad mechanical interaction (PCMI). At the later stage, heat transfers from pellet to clad bring the cladding material to such high temperatures that the boiling crisis might occurs. The significant over-pressurisation of the rod and the fact of maintaining the cladding material at elevated temperatures during a fairly long period can lead to ballooning and possible clad failure. A brief introduction describes the context, the historical background and recalls the main phenomena involved under

  19. SCANAIR: A transient fuel performance code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moal, Alain, E-mail: alain.moal@irsn.fr; Georgenthum, Vincent; Marchand, Olivier

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Since the early 1990s, the code SCANAIR is developed at IRSN. • The software focuses on studying fast transients such as RIA in light water reactors. • The fuel rod modelling is based on a 1.5D approach. • Thermal and thermal-hydraulics, mechanical and gas behaviour resolutions are coupled. • The code is used for safety assessment and integral tests analysis. - Abstract: Since the early 1990s, the French “Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire” (IRSN) has developed the SCANAIR computer code with the view to analysing pressurised water reactor (PWR) safety. This software specifically focuses on studying fast transients such as reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA) caused by possible ejection of control rods. The code aims at improving the global understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the thermal-mechanical behaviour of a single rod. It is currently used to analyse integral tests performed in CABRI and NSRR experimental reactors. The resulting validated code is used to carry out studies required to evaluate margins in relation to criteria for different types of fuel rods used in nuclear power plants. Because phenomena occurring during fast power transients are complex, the simulation in SCANAIR is based on a close coupling between several modules aimed at modelling thermal, thermal-hydraulics, mechanical and gas behaviour. During the first stage of fast power transients, clad deformation is mainly governed by the pellet–clad mechanical interaction (PCMI). At the later stage, heat transfers from pellet to clad bring the cladding material to such high temperatures that the boiling crisis might occurs. The significant over-pressurisation of the rod and the fact of maintaining the cladding material at elevated temperatures during a fairly long period can lead to ballooning and possible clad failure. A brief introduction describes the context, the historical background and recalls the main phenomena involved under

  20. Quantification of metabolically active transient storage (MATS) in two reaches with contrasting transient storage and ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Argerich; Roy Haggerty; Eugènia Martí; Francesc Sabater; Jay. Zarnetske

    2011-01-01

    Water transient storage zones are hotspots for metabolic activity in streams although the contribution of different types of transient storage zones to the whole�]reach metabolic activity is difficult to quantify. In this study we present a method to measure the fraction of the transient storage that is metabolically active (MATS) in two consecutive reaches...

  1. Modelling and transient simulation of water flow in pipelines using WANDA Transient software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Akpan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressure transients in conduits such as pipelines are unsteady flow conditions caused by a sudden change in the flow velocity. These conditions might cause damage to the pipelines and its fittings if the extreme pressure (high or low is experienced within the pipeline. In order to avoid this occurrence, engineers usually carry out pressure transient analysis in the hydraulic design phase of pipeline network systems. Modelling and simulation of transients in pipelines is an acceptable and cost effective method of assessing this problem and finding technical solutions. This research predicts the pressure surge for different flow conditions in two different pipeline systems using WANDA Transient simulation software. Computer models were set-up in WANDA Transient for two different systems namely; the Graze experiment (miniature system and a simple main water riser system based on some initial laboratory data and system parameters. The initial laboratory data and system parameters were used for all the simulations. Results obtained from the computer model simulations compared favourably with the experimental results at Polytropic index of 1.2.

  2. COMETHE III-M for transient fuel rod behaviour prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, M.; Vliet, J. van

    1983-01-01

    The COMETHE III-M version is being developed in order to provide fuel rod behaviour prediction capability both in steady-state and in transient situations. It also allows to estimate the fuel rod enthalpy evolution versus time or burnup which may be important in core-related safety studies. This paper describes the transient heat transfer models, including transient heat conduction inside the fuel rod, and a subchannel model providing transient flow as well as enthalpy calculation capability. Transient fission gas release is also modelled on basis of the change rate of oxide temperature. The models are illustrated by a few calculation examples. (author)

  3. Transient Analysis and Dosimetry of the Tokaimura Criticality Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Christopher C.; Oliveira, Cassiano R.E. de; Goddard, Antony J. H.; Eaton, Matthew D.; Gundry, Sarah; Umpleby, Adrian P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes research on the application of the finite element transient criticality (FETCH) code to modeling and neutron dosimetry of the Tokaimura criticality incident. FETCH has been developed to model criticality transients in single and multiphase media and is applied here to fissile solution transient criticality. Since the initial transient behavior has different time scales and physics to the longer transient behavior, the transient modeling is divided into two parts: modeling the initial transient over a time scale of seconds in which radiolytic gases and free-surface sloshing play an important role in the transient - this provides information about the dose to workers; and modeling the long-term transient behavior following the initial transient that has a time scale over hours.The neutron dosimetry of worker A who received the largest dose during the Tokaimura criticality incident is also investigated here. This dose was received mainly in the first few seconds of the ensuing nuclear criticality transient. In addition to the multiorgan dosimetry of worker A, this work provides a method of helping to evaluate the yield in the initial phase of the criticality incident; it also shows how kinetic simulations can be calibrated so that they can be applied to investigate the physics behind the incident

  4. Pressurizer and steam-generator behavior under PWR transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, A.B.; Berta, V.T.; Pointner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) pressurized water reactor (PWR), at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in which transient phenomena arising from accident events with and without reactor scram were studied. The main purpose of the LOFT facility is to provide data for the development of computer codes for PWR transient analyses. Significant thermal-hydraulic differences have been observed between the measured and calculated results for those transients in which the pressurizer and steam generator strongly influence the dominant transient phenomena. Pressurizer and steam generator phenomena that occurred during four specific PWR transients in the LOFT facility are discussed. Two transients were accompanied by pressurizer inflow and a reduction of the heat transfer in the steam generator to a very small value. The other two transients were accompanied by pressurizer outflow while the steam generator behavior was controlled

  5. Ethnicity and Onset of Cardiovascular Disease: A CALIBER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease; Sudden Cardiac Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest

  6. Heart Rate and Initial Presentation of Cardiovascular Diseases (Caliber)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease NOS; Unheralded Coronary Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest, Sudden Cardiac Death

  7. Transient psychosis due to painless thyroiditis in a patient with anxiety disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Nobuyuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There are few reports on thyrotoxic psychosis caused by diseases other than Graves' disease or toxic nodular goiter. Case presentation A 64-year-old Japanese woman was treated for anxiety disorder in our clinic for 10 years. She had five episodes of transient psychosis during the first five years. When she developed psychosis without neck pain 10 years after her first visit, a laboratory reexamination revealed that she had subclinical hyperthyroidism, and tested positive for antithyroid autoantibodies, negative for thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody and had decreased radioactive iodine uptake. She was diagnosed as having painless thyroiditis. The hyperthyroidism disappeared within a month, and the psychosis lasted for three months. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of psychosis due to painless thyroiditis-induced hyperthyroidism. Physical symptoms of painless thyroiditis are often so mild that careful differential diagnosis is necessary in the cases of transient psychosis.

  8. Rapamycin preconditioning attenuates transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lele; Ye, Shasha; Chen, Zhen; Zeng, Yaoying

    2012-12-01

    Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor and immunosuppressive agent in clinic, has protective effects on traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. But, its effects on transient focal ischemia/reperfusion disease are not very clear. In this study, we examined the effects of rapamycin preconditioning on mice treated with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion operation (MCAO/R). We found that the rapamycin preconditioning by intrahippocampal injection 20 hr before MCAO/R significantly improved the survival rate and longevity of mice. It also decreased the neurological deficit score, infracted areas and brain edema. In addition, rapamycin preconditioning decreased the production of NF-κB, TNF-α, and Bax, but not Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein in the ischemic area. From these results, we may conclude that rapamycin preconditioning attenuate transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibits apoptosis induced by MCAO/R in mice.

  9. NS Segment of a 1918 Influenza A Virus-Descendent Enhances Replication of H1N1pdm09 and Virus-Induced Cellular Immune Response in Mammalian and Avian Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Henning; Mostafa, Ahmed; Tantawy, Mohamed A.; Iqbal, Azeem A.; Hoffmann, Donata; Tallam, Aravind; Selvakumar, Balachandar; Pessler, Frank; Beer, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke; Pleschka, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) has widely spread and is circulating in humans and swine together with other human and avian IAVs. This fact raises the concern that reassortment between H1N1pdm09 and co-circulating viruses might lead to an increase of H1N1pdm09 pathogenicity in different susceptible host species. Herein, we explored the potential of different NS segments to enhance the replication dynamics, pathogenicity and host range of H1N1pdm09 strain A/Giessen/06/09 (Gi-wt). The NS segments were derived from (i) human H1N1- and H3N2 IAVs, (ii) highly pathogenic- (H5- or H7-subtypes) or (iii) low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H7- or H9-subtypes). A significant increase of growth kinetics in A549 (human lung epithelia) and NPTr (porcine tracheal epithelia) cells was only noticed in vitro for the reassortant Gi-NS-PR8 carrying the NS segment of the 1918-descendent A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8-wt, H1N1), whereas all other reassortants showed either reduced or comparable replication efficiencies. Analysis using ex vivo tracheal organ cultures of turkeys (TOC-Tu), a species susceptible to IAV H1N1 infection, demonstrated increased replication of Gi-NS-PR8 compared to Gi-wt. Also, Gi-NS-PR8 induced a markedly higher expression of immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and interferon-stimulated genes in A549 cells, THP-1-derived macrophages (dHTP) and TOC-Tu. In vivo, Gi-NS-PR8 induced an earlier onset of mortality than Gi-wt in mice, whereas, 6-week-old chickens were found to be resistant to both viruses. These data suggest that the specific characteristics of the PR8 NS segments can impact on replication, virus induced cellular immune responses and pathogenicity of the H1N1pdm09 in different avian and mammalian host species. PMID:29623073

  10. Infection of mice with a human influenza A/H3N2 virus induces protective immunity against lethal infection with influenza A/H5N1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Bodewes, R; van den Brand, J M A; de Mutsert, G; Baas, C; van Amerongen, G; Fouchier, R A M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2009-08-06

    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A viruses of the H5N1 subtype from poultry to man and the high case fatality rate fuels the fear for a pandemic outbreak caused by these viruses. However, prior infections with seasonal influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses induce heterosubtypic immunity that could afford a certain degree of protection against infection with the HPAI A/H5N1 viruses, which are distantly related to the human influenza A viruses. To assess the protective efficacy of such heterosubtypic immunity mice were infected with human influenza virus A/Hong Kong/2/68 (H3N2) 4 weeks prior to a lethal infection with HPAI virus A/Indonesia/5/05 (H5N1). Prior infection with influenza virus A/Hong Kong/2/68 reduced clinical signs, body weight loss, mortality and virus replication in the lungs as compared to naive mice infected with HPAI virus A/Indonesia/5/05. Priming by infection with respiratory syncytial virus, a non-related virus did not have a beneficial effect on the outcome of A/H5N1 infections, indicating that adaptive immune responses were responsible for the protective effect. In mice primed by infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for NP(366-374) epitope ASNENMDAM and PA(224-232) SCLENFRAYV were observed. A small proportion of these CTL was cross-reactive with the peptide variant derived from the influenza A/H5N1 virus (ASNENMEVM and SSLENFRAYV respectively) and upon challenge infection with the influenza A/H5N1 virus cross-reactive CTL were selectively expanded. These CTL, in addition to those directed to conserved epitopes, shared by the influenza A/H3N2 and A/H5N1 viruses, most likely contributed to accelerated clearance of the influenza A/H5N1 virus infection. Although also other arms of the adaptive immune response may contribute to heterosubtypic immunity, the induction of virus-specific CTL may be an attractive target for development of broad protective vaccines. Furthermore the

  11. Achalasia: virus-induced euthanasia of neurons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2008-01-01

    Achalasia, a motor disorder of the esophagus, is characterized by myenteric plexitis leading to neuronal loss. Cytotoxic T cells, isolated from the lower esophageal sphincter of achalasia patients, respond to human herpes virus-1 (HSV-1) with gamma-IFN (and to a lesser extent IL-2) production and

  12. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The finite-difference technique is used for the vertical flow component only. The aquifer is discretized in the vertical dimension and the heterogeneous aquifer is considered to be a layered (stratified) formation with a finite number of homogeneous sublayers, where each sublayer may have different properties. The transient part of the differential equation is solved with Stehfest's algorithm, a numerical inversion technique of the Laplace transform. The well is of constant discharge and penetrates one or more of the sublayers. The effect of wellbore storage on early drawdown data is taken into account. In this way drawdowns are found for a finite number of sublayers as a continuous function of radial distance to the well and of time since the pumping started. The model is verified by comparing results with published analytical and numerical solutions for well flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous, confined and unconfined aquifers. Instantaneous and delayed drainage of water from above the water table are considered, combined with the effects of partially penetrating and finite-diameter wells. The model is applied to demonstrate that the transient effects of wellbore storage in unconfined aquifers are less pronounced than previous numerical experiments suggest. Other applications of the presented solution technique are given for partially penetrating wells in heterogeneous formations, including a demonstration of the effect of decreasing specific storage values with depth in an otherwise homogeneous aquifer. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for the analysis of drawdown from pumping tests, because hydraulic properties of layered heterogeneous aquifer systems with

  13. Modelling structural systems for transient response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper introduces and reports success of a direct means of determining the time periods in which a structural system behaves as a linear system. Numerical results are based on post fracture transient analyses of simplified nuclear piping systems. Knowledge of the linear response ranges will lead to improved analysis-test correlation and more efficient analyses. It permits direct use of data from physical tests in analysis and simplication of the analytical model and interpretation of its behavior. The paper presents a procedure for deducing linearity based on transient responses. Given the forcing functions and responses of discrete points of the system at various times, the process produces evidence of linearity and quantifies an adequate set of equations of motion. Results of use of the process with linear and nonlinear analyses of piping systems with damping illustrate its success. Results cover the application to data from mathematical system responses. The process is successfull with mathematical models. In loading ranges in which all modes are excited, eight digit accuracy of predictions are obtained from the equations of motion deduced. Small changes (less than 0.01%) in the norm of the transfer matrices are produced by manipulation errors for linear systems yielding evidence that nonlinearity is easily distinguished. Significant changes (greater than five %) are coincident with relatively large norms of the equilibrium correction vector in nonlinear analyses. The paper shows that deducing linearity and, when admissible, quantifying linear equations of motion from transient response data for piping systems can be achieved with accuracy comparable to that of response data

  14. Transient study of a PWR pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoma, H.

    1973-01-01

    An appropriate method for the calculation and transient performance of the pressurizer of a pressurized water reactor is presented. The study shows a digital program of simulation of pressurizer dynamics based on the First Law of Thermodynamic and Laws of Heat and Mass Transfer. The importance of the digital program that was written for a pressurizer of PWR, lies in the fact that, this can be of practical use in the safety analysis of a reactor of Angra dos Reis type with a power of about 500 M We. (author)

  15. Analytic models for fuel pin transient performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, F.E.; Fox, G.L.; Washburn, D.F.; Hanson, J.E.

    1976-09-01

    HEDL's ability to analyze various mechanisms that operate within a fuel pin has progressed substantially through development of codes such as PECTCLAD, which solves cladding response, and DSTRESS, which solves fuel response. The PECTCLAD results show good correlation with a variety of mechanical tests on cladding material and also demonstrate the significance of cladding strength when applying the life fraction rule. The DSTRESS results have shown that fuel deforms sufficiently during overpower transient tests that available volumes are filled, whether in the form of a central cavity or start-up cracks

  16. Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, J.; Valeš, František; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 98-107 ISSN 0567-7718. [International Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications /10./. Lodz, 07.12.2009-10.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transient vibration thin plate * orthotropic * general viscoelastic standard solid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn67324178846n4r/

  17. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust...... of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is concluded...

  18. Future Transient Testing of Advanced Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack

    2009-09-01

    The transient in-reactor fuels testing workshop was held on May 4–5, 2009 at Idaho National Laboratory. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum where technical experts in transient testing of nuclear fuels could meet directly with technical instrumentation experts and nuclear fuel modeling and simulation experts to discuss needed advancements in transient testing to support a basic understanding of nuclear fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. The workshop was attended by representatives from Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique CEA, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Department of Energy (DOE), AREVA, General Electric – Global Nuclear Fuels (GE-GNF), Westinghouse, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), universities, and several DOE national laboratories. Transient testing of fuels and materials generates information required for advanced fuels in future nuclear power plants. Future nuclear power plants will rely heavily on advanced computer modeling and simulation that describes fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. TREAT is an ideal facility for this testing because of its flexibility, proven operation and material condition. The opportunity exists to develop advanced instrumentation and data collection that can support modeling and simulation needs much better than was possible in the past. In order to take advantage of these opportunities, test programs must be carefully designed to yield basic information to support modeling before conducting integral performance tests. An early start of TREAT and operation at low power would provide significant dividends in training, development of instrumentation, and checkout of reactor systems. Early start of TREAT (2015) is needed to support the requirements of potential users of TREAT and include the testing of full length fuel irradiated in the FFTF reactor. The capabilities provided by TREAT are needed for the development of nuclear power and the following benefits will be realized by

  19. GRB 070610: a curious galactic transient

    OpenAIRE

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Cameron, P. B.; Nakar, E.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Campana, S.; Bloom, J. S.; Perley, D. A.; Pollack, L. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.

    2008-01-01

    GRB 070610 is a typical high-energy event with a duration of 5 s. Yet within the burst localization we detect a highly unusual X-ray and optical transient, Swift J195509.6+261406. We see high-amplitude X-ray and optical variability on very short timescales even at late times. Using near-infrared imaging assisted by a laser guide star and adaptive optics, we identified the counterpart of Swift J195509.6+261406. Late-time optical and near-infrared imaging constrain the spectral type of the coun...

  20. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-19

    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.