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Sample records for disease propensity score

  1. Effect of Chronic Diseases on Work Productivity: A Propensity Score Analysis.

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    Fouad, Ahmed Mahmoud; Waheed, Amani; Gamal, Amira; Amer, Shaimaa Ahmed; Abdellah, Rasha Farouk; Shebl, Fatma Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic disease(s) on work productivity. Using the Health & Work Performance Questionnaire, information was collected from 516 workers on chronic disease status and work productivity. Propensity-score matching was performed to identify matched-pairs of workers. In the propensity-score matched sample, workers with chronic diseases were more likely to have increased absenteeism and presenteeism rates, 6.34 and 2.36 times the rates if no chronic diseases, respectively. In addition, they had greater odds for getting negative critical work incidents and less odds for positive incidents than none or balanced status. Multimorbidity showed more significant increase in absenteeism and presenteeism rates, as well as increased odds for excess negative critical work incidents. Chronic disease(s) can significantly reduce work productivity by increasing absenteeism, presenteeism, and net negative critical incidents.

  2. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

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    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  3. Patients with type 2 diabetes benefit from primary care-based disease management: a propensity score matched survival time analysis.

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    Drabik, Anna; Büscher, Guido; Thomas, Karsten; Graf, Christian; Müller, Dirk; Stock, Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of a nationwide German diabetes mellitus disease management program (DMP) on survival time and costs in comparison to routine care. The authors conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using routine administration data from Germany's largest sickness fund to identify insured suffering from diabetes in 2002. A total of 95,443 insured with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were born before January 1, 1962 met the defined inclusion criteria, resulting in 19,888 pairs of DMP participants and nonparticipants matched for socioeconomic and health status using propensity score matching methods. This is the first time propensity score matching has been used to evaluate a survival benefit of DMPs. In the time frame analyzed (3 years), mean survival time for the DMP group was 1045 days vs. 985 days for the routine care group (Ptime. They also incurred lower costs compared to propensity score matched insured in routine care.

  4. Spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease: a population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up study.

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    Yeh, T-S; Huang, Y-P; Wang, H-I; Pan, S-L

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). A population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up cohort study. The study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. A total of 10 125 patients with at least 2 ambulatory visits with a diagnosis of SCI in 2001 were enrolled in the SCI group. The non-SCI group comprised 10 125 propensity score-matched patients without SCI. The propensity scores were computed using a logistic regression model that included age, sex, comorbidities and socioeconomic status. The PD-free survival rates of the two groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the effect of SCI on subsequent occurrence of PD. During the 3-year follow-up period, 99 subjects in the SCI group and 59 in the non-SCI group developed PD. The hazard ratio of PD for the SCI group compared with the non-SCI group was 1.65 (95% confidence interval 1.16-2.33, P=0.0049). The PD-free survival rate for the SCI group was lower than that for the non-SCI group (P=0.0017). This study shows that SCI is associated with a subsequent increased risk of PD. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism underlying this association.

  5. Effect of vitamin E in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with metabolic syndrome: A propensity score-matched cohort study

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    Gi Hyun Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsVitamin E improves the biochemical profiles and liver histology in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but the role of vitamin E is not clearly defined in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which includes both simple steatosis and steatohepatitis. Co-morbid metabolic syndrome increases the probability of steatohepatitis in NAFLD. In this study, we aimed to determine the short-term effects of vitamin E and off-treatment durability of response in a propensity-score matched cohort of NAFLD patients with metabolic syndrome.MethodsA retrospective cohort was constructed by retrieving 526 consecutive NAFLD patients from the electronic medical record data warehouse of a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Among them, 335 patients (63.7% had metabolic syndrome and were eligible for vitamin E therapy. In order to assess the effect of vitamin E, propensity score matching was used by matching covariates between control patients (n=250 and patients who received vitamin E (n=85.ResultsThe PS-matched vitamin E group (n=58 and control group (n=58 exhibited similar baseline metabolic profiles. After 6 months of vitamin E therapy, the mean ALT levels decreased significantly compared to PS-matched control (P<0.01. The changes in metabolic profiles (body weight, lipid and glucose levels did not differ between control and vitamin E groups during the study period.ConclusionsShort-term vitamin E treatment significantly reduces ALT levels in NAFLD patients with metabolic syndrome, but metabolic profiles are not affected by vitamin E.

  6. Characteristics and management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease between a secondary and tertiary hospitals: a propensity score analysis

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    Ki Hwan Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims : This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and management patterns of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in a secondary hospital (SH with those in tertiary referral centers (TRC. Methods : Data from IBD patients in SH and 2 TRCs were retrospectively reviewed. The cumulative thiopurine use rate was compared between hospitals after controlling for different baseline characteristics using propensity score matching. Results : Among the total of 447 patients with IBD, 178 Crohn's disease (CD and 269 ulcerative colitis (UC patients were included. Regarding initial CD symptoms, patients from SH were more likely to show perianal symptoms, such as anal pain or discharge (56.6% vs. 34.3%, P=0.003, whereas those from TRCs more often had luminal symptoms, such as abdominal pain (54.9% vs. 17.1%, P<0.001, diarrhea (44.1% vs. 18.4%, P<0.001, and body weight loss (9.8% vs. 1.3%, P=0.025. Complicating behaviors, such as stricturing and penetrating, were significantly higher in TRCs, while perianal disease was more common in SH. Ileal location was more frequently observed in TRCs. For UC, SH had a more limited extent of disease (proctitis 58.8% vs. 21.2%, P<0.001. The cumulative azathioprine use rate in SH was significantly lower than that in TRCs in both CD and UC patients after controlling for disease behavior, location, and perianal disease of CD and extent of UC. Conclusions : The clinical characteristics and management of the IBD patients in SH were substantially different from those in TRCs. Thiopurine treatment was less commonly used for SH patients.

  7. Anterior Versus Posterior Approach for Multilevel Degenerative Cervical Disease: A Retrospective Propensity Score-Matched Study of the MarketScan Database.

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    Cole, Tyler; Veeravagu, Anand; Zhang, Michael; Azad, Tej D; Desai, Atman; Ratliff, John K

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective 2:1 propensity score-matched analysis on a national longitudinal database between 2006 and 2010. To compare rates of adverse events, revisions procedure rates, and payment differences in anterior cervical fusion procedures compared with posterior laminectomy and fusion procedures with at least 3 levels of instrumentation. The comparative benefits of anterior versus posterior approach to multilevel degenerative cervical disease remain controversial. Recent systematic reviews have reached conflicting conclusions. We demonstrate the comparative economic and clinical outcomes of anterior and posterior approaches for multilevel cervical degenerative disk disease. We identified 13,662 patients in a national billing claims database who underwent anterior or posterior cervical fusion procedures with 3 or more levels of instrumentation. Cohorts were balanced using 2:1 propensity score matching and outcomes were compared using bivariate analysis. With the exception of dysphagia (6.4% in anterior and 1.4% in posterior), overall 30-day complication rates were lower in the anterior approach group. The rate of any complication excluding dysphagia with anterior approaches was 12.3%, significantly lower (P disease provide clinical advantages over posterior approaches, including lower overall complication rates, revision procedure rates, and decreased length of stay. Anterior approach procedures are also associated with decreased overall payments. These findings must be interpreted in light of limitations inherent to retrospective longitudinal studies including absence of subjective and radiographical outcomes. 3.

  8. Statin use and kidney cancer outcomes: A propensity score analysis.

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    Nayan, Madhur; Finelli, Antonio; Jewett, Michael A S; Juurlink, David N; Austin, Peter C; Kulkarni, Girish S; Hamilton, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Studies evaluating the association between statin use and survival outcomes in renal cell carcinoma have demonstrated conflicting results. Our objective was to evaluate this association in a large clinical cohort by using propensity score methods to reduce confounding from measured covariates. We performed a retrospective review of 893 patients undergoing nephrectomy for unilateral, M0 renal cell carcinoma between 2000 and 2014 at a tertiary academic center. Inverse probability of treatment weights were derived from a propensity score model based on clinical, surgical, and pathological characteristics. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between statin use and disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival in the sample weighted by the inverse probability of treatment weights. A secondary analysis was performed matching statin users 1:1 to statin nonusers on the propensity score. Of the 893 patients, 259 (29%) were on statins at the time of surgery. Median follow-up was 47 months (interquartile range: 20-80). Statin use was not significantly associated with disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.65-1.81), cancer-specific survival (HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.40-2.01), or overall survival (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.55-1.44). Similar results were observed when using propensity score matching. The present study found no significant association between statin use and kidney cancer outcomes. Population-based studies are needed to further evaluate the role of statins in kidney cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of rescue breathing by lay rescuers for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by respiratory disease: a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched study.

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    Fukuda, Tatsuma; Ohashi-Fukuda, Naoko; Kondo, Yutaka; Sera, Toshiki; Yahagi, Naoki

    2017-06-01

    The importance of respiratory care in cardiopulmonary resuscitation may vary depending on the cause of cardiac arrest. No previous study has investigated the effects of rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer on the outcomes of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by intrinsic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer is associated with outcomes after respiratory disease-related OHCA. In a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched study in Japan, among adult patients with OHCA caused by respiratory disease who received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010, we compared patients with rescue breathing to those without rescue breathing. The primary outcome was neurologically favorable survival 1 month after OHCA. Of the eligible 14,781 patients, 4970 received rescue breathing from a lay rescuer and 9811 did not receive rescue breathing. In a propensity score-matched cohort (4897 vs. 4897 patients), the neurologically favorable survival rate was similar between patients with and without rescue breathing from a lay rescuer [0.9 vs. 0.7 %; OR 1.23 (95 % CI 0.79-1.93)]. Additionally, in subgroup analyses, rescue breathing was not associated with neurological outcome regardless of the type of rescuer [family member: adjusted OR 0.83 (95 % CI 0.39-1.70); or non-family member: adjusted OR 1.91 (95 % CI 0.79-5.35)]. Even among patients with OHCA caused by respiratory disease, rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer was not associated with neurological outcomes, regardless of the type of lay rescuer.

  10. Clinical impact and risk stratification of balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal disease in nitinol stenting era: Retrospective multicenter study using propensity score matching analysis

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    Taketsugu Tsuchiya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitinol stenting could bring the better outcome in endovascular therapy for femoropopliteal disease. However, it might be expected that recent marked advances in both device technology and operator technique had led to improved efficacy of balloon angioplasty even in this segment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical impact of balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal disease and make risk stratification clear by propensity score matching analysis. Methods: Based on the multicenter retrospective data, 2758 patients (balloon angioplasty: 729 patients and nitinol stenting: 2029 patients, those who underwent endovascular therapy for femoropopliteal disease, were analyzed. Results: The propensity score matching procedure extracted a total of 572 cases per group, and the primary patency rate of balloon angioplasty and nitinol stenting groups after matching was significantly the same (77.2% vs 82.7% at 1 year; 62.2% vs 64.3% at 3 years; 47.8% vs 54.3% at 5 years. In multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis, significant predictors for primary patency were diabetes mellitus, regular dialysis, cilostazol use, chronic total occlusion, and intra-vascular ultra-sonography use. The strategy of balloon angioplasty was not evaluated as a significant predictor for the primary patency. After risk stratification using five items (diabetes mellitus, regular dialysis, no use of intra-vascular ultra-sonography, chronic total occlusion, and no use of cilostazol: the DDICC score, the estimated primary patency rates of each group (low, DDICC score 0–2; moderate, DDICC score 3; high risk, DDICC score 4–5 were 88.6%, 78.3%, and 63.5% at 1 year; 75.2%, 60.7%, and 39.8% at 3 years; and 66.0%, 47.1%, and 26.3% at 5 years (p < 0.0001. The primary patency rate of balloon angioplasty and nitinol stenting groups was significantly the same in each risk stratification. Conclusion: This study suggests that balloon angioplasty does

  11. Robot-assisted laparoscopic versus open partial nephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease: A propensity score-matched comparative analysis of surgical outcomes.

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    Takagi, Toshio; Kondo, Tsunenori; Tachibana, Hidekazu; Iizuka, Junpei; Omae, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-07-01

    To compare surgical outcomes between robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease. Of 550 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2012 and 2015, 163 patients with T1-2 renal tumors who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy or open partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. To minimize selection bias between the two surgical methods, patient variables were adjusted by 1:1 propensity score matching. The present study included 75 patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and 88 undergoing open partial nephrectomy. After propensity score matching, 40 patients were included in each operative group. The mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 49 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The mean ischemia time was 21 min in robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (warm ischemia) and 35 min in open partial nephrectomy (cold ischemia). Preservation of the estimated glomerular filtration rate 3-6 months postoperatively was not significantly different between robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy (92% vs 91%, P = 0.9348). Estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy group than in the open partial nephrectomy group (104 vs 185 mL, P = 0.0025). The postoperative length of hospital stay was shorter in the robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy group than in the open partial nephrectomy group (P negative surgical margin status were not significantly different between the two groups. In our experience, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy provide similar outcomes in terms of functional preservation and perioperative complications among patients with chronic kidney disease. However, a lower estimated blood loss and

  12. RISKS MANAGEMENT. A PROPENSITY SCORE APPLICATION

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    Constangioara Alexandru

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is relatively unexplored in Romania. Although Romanian specialists dwell on theoretical aspects such as the risks classification and the important distinction between risks and uncertainty the practical relevance of the matter is outside existing studies. Present paper uses a dataset of consumer data to build a propensity scorecard based on relevant quantitative modeling.

  13. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

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    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  14. Effect of tiotropium on lung function decline in early-stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: propensity score-matched analysis of real-world data

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    Lee HY

    2015-10-01

    using the drug.Results: Of the 587 patients enrolled in the study, 257 took tiotropium. Following propensity score matching, 404 patients were included in the analysis. The mean annual rate of post-BD FEV1 decline was 23.9 (tiotropium and 22.5 (control mL/yr (P=0.86; corresponding pre-BD values were 30.4 and 21.9 mL/yr (P=0.31, respectively. Mean annual rate of post-BD FVC decline was 55.1 (tiotropium and 43.5 (control mL/yr (P=0.33; corresponding pre-BD values were 37.1 and 33.3 mL/yr (P=0.13.Conclusion: Therefore, tiotropium does not reduce the rate of lung function decline in COPD patients with FEV1≥70%. Keywords: tiotropium, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung function decline

  15. Effects of the body mass index (BMI) on the surgical outcomes of laparoscopic fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a propensity score-matched analysis.

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    Hoshino, Masato; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Se Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Masuda, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we examined how the body mass index (BMI) affected the outcomes of laparoscopic fundoplication for GERD in patients, whose backgrounds were matched in a propensity score-matched analysis. We divided the patients into two groups (BMI esophageal hiatal hernia, acid exposure time, and degree of reflux esophagitis. In total, 105 subjects were extracted in each group. The surgical outcomes and postoperative outcomes of patients with BMI <25 kg/m 2 (Group A) and those with BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 (Group B) were compared and examined. There were no differences in the surgical procedure, intraoperative complications, or estimated blood loss (p = 0.876, p = 0.516, p = 0.438, respectively); however, the operative time was significantly prolonged in Group B (p = 0.003). The rate of postoperative recurrence in Group A was 17% (15/87 patients), while that in Group B was 11% (12/91 patients), and did not differ to a statistically significant extent (p = 0.533). Although the operative time for GERD in obese patients was prolonged in comparison with non-obese patients, there was no difference in the rate of postoperative recurrence.

  16. Epidemiology and long-term disease burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Taiwan: a population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study.

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    Lu, Wan-Hsuan; Lin, Chih-Wan; Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Liang-Kung; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan

    2018-03-20

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the burden of herpes zoster, as well as the longitudinal and incremental changes of healthcare service utilization among individuals with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) compared to those without. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), we established a herpes zoster cohort of people diagnosed with herpes zoster between 2004 and 2008 as study cases. Another subset of the NHIRD, which was randomly selected from all elderly beneficiaries between 2004 and 2008 served as a non-herpes-zoster elderly control pool. Each case was then assigned one matched control according to age, gender, index date and propensity score. PHN cases were defined as those with persisting pain for more than 90 days after the onset of herpes zoster. Between 2004 and 2008, about 0.6 million patients were newly diagnosed with herpes zoster. The incidence increased with age, and most cases were identified during the summer period. Herpes zoster cases were found to have higher consumption of all types of healthcare services in the first year after the index date. Such increases were particularly obvious for patients with PHN, who showed incremental increases on average of 16.3 outpatient visits, 0.4 emergency room visits and 0.24 inpatient admissions per year. The incidence of herpes zoster increased with age and changed according to the seasons. Patients with herpes zoster were associated with higher healthcare utilization and this increase in healthcare utilization was most obvious for herpes zoster patients with PHN.

  17. Temporary work and depressive symptoms: a propensity score analysis.

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    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies non-standard employment, namely temporary workers, and estimate the effect of this type of employment on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors and biochemical profile in patients with cardiac syndrome X and obstructive coronary artery disease: A propensity score-matched study

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    Ali Vasheghani-Farahani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 BACKGROUND: This study was designed to compare the frequency of conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors and clinical biochemistry profile in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX and obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with typical angina and positive exercise tolerance test undergoing coronary angiography in our center. 342 consecutive patients with CSX were enrolled into this study and were matched regarding age and sex with 342 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and also 342 patients with chronic stable angina (SA. Cardiovascular risk factors as well as biochemistry profile of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: Mean age of the studied patients was 53.0 years and 41.5% were male. There was no significant difference between the CSX patients and CAD patients regarding body mass index (BMI. Frequency of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history of premature CAD and hypertension was significantly lower in patients with CSX than ACS and SA patients. Patients with CSX had significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol than comparators while the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting blood sugar (FBS were significantly lower in patients with CSX than CAD patients. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that CSX patients had substantially lower frequency of all conventional CVD risk factors than patients with obstructive CAD. This might aid in developing novel scoring systems or appropriateness criteria for angiographic evaluation of patients with typical angina and positive exercise test in order to reduce the rate of negative results.   Keywords: Cardiac Syndrome X, Microvascular Dysfunction

  19. A Review of Propensity-Score Methods and Their Use in Cardiovascular Research.

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    Deb, Saswata; Austin, Peter C; Tu, Jack V; Ko, Dennis T; Mazer, C David; Kiss, Alex; Fremes, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies using propensity-score methods have been increasing in the cardiovascular literature because randomized controlled trials are not always feasible or ethical. However, propensity-score methods can be confusing, and the general audience may not fully understand the importance of this technique. The objectives of this review are to describe (1) the fundamentals of propensity score methods, (2) the techniques to assess for propensity-score model adequacy, (3) the 4 major methods for using the propensity score (matching, stratification, covariate adjustment, and inverse probability of treatment weighting [IPTW]) using examples from previously published cardiovascular studies, and (4) the strengths and weaknesses of these 4 techniques. Our review suggests that matching or IPTW using the propensity score have shown to be most effective in reducing bias of the treatment effect. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical primer: propensity score matching and its alternatives.

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    Benedetto, Umberto; Head, Stuart J; Angelini, Gianni D; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2018-06-01

    Propensity score (PS) methods offer certain advantages over more traditional regression methods to control for confounding by indication in observational studies. Although multivariable regression models adjust for confounders by modelling the relationship between covariates and outcome, the PS methods estimate the treatment effect by modelling the relationship between confounders and treatment assignment. Therefore, methods based on the PS are not limited by the number of events, and their use may be warranted when the number of confounders is large, or the number of outcomes is small. The PS is the probability for a subject to receive a treatment conditional on a set of baseline characteristics (confounders). The PS is commonly estimated using logistic regression, and it is used to match patients with similar distribution of confounders so that difference in outcomes gives unbiased estimate of treatment effect. This review summarizes basic concepts of the PS matching and provides guidance in implementing matching and other methods based on the PS, such as stratification, weighting and covariate adjustment.

  1. Balancing Treatment and Control Groups in Quasi-Experiments: An Introduction to Propensity Scoring

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    Connelly, Brian S.; Sackett, Paul R.; Waters, Shonna D.

    2013-01-01

    Organizational and applied sciences have long struggled with improving causal inference in quasi-experiments. We introduce organizational researchers to propensity scoring, a statistical technique that has become popular in other applied sciences as a means for improving internal validity. Propensity scoring statistically models how individuals in…

  2. Adjuvant treatment for resected rectal cancer: impact of standard and intensified postoperative chemotherapy on disease-free survival in patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation-a propensity score-matched analysis of an observational database.

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    Garlipp, Benjamin; Ptok, Henry; Benedix, Frank; Otto, Ronny; Popp, Felix; Ridwelski, Karsten; Gastinger, Ingo; Benckert, Christoph; Lippert, Hans; Bruns, Christiane

    2016-12-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected rectal cancer is widely used. However, studies on adjuvant treatment following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and total mesorectal excision (TME) have yielded conflicting results. Recent studies have focused on adding oxaliplatin to both preoperative and postoperative therapy, making it difficult to assess the impact of adjuvant oxaliplatin alone. This study was aimed at determining the impact of (i) any adjuvant treatment and (ii) oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant treatment on disease-free survival in CRT-pretreated, R0-resected rectal cancer patients. Patients undergoing R0 TME following 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-only-based CRT between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010, were selected from a nationwide registry. After propensity score matching (PSM), comparison of disease-free survival (DFS) using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test was performed in (i) patients receiving no vs. any adjuvant treatment and (ii) patients treated with adjuvant 5FU/capecitabine without vs. with oxaliplatin. Out of 1497 patients, 520 matched pairs were generated for analysis of no vs. any adjuvant treatment. Mean DFS was significantly prolonged with adjuvant treatment (81.8 ± 2.06 vs. 70.1 ± 3.02 months, p rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT and TME surgery under routine conditions, adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved DFS. No benefit was observed for the addition of oxaliplatin to adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting.

  3. An evaluation of bias in propensity score-adjusted non-linear regression models.

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    Wan, Fei; Mitra, Nandita

    2018-03-01

    Propensity score methods are commonly used to adjust for observed confounding when estimating the conditional treatment effect in observational studies. One popular method, covariate adjustment of the propensity score in a regression model, has been empirically shown to be biased in non-linear models. However, no compelling underlying theoretical reason has been presented. We propose a new framework to investigate bias and consistency of propensity score-adjusted treatment effects in non-linear models that uses a simple geometric approach to forge a link between the consistency of the propensity score estimator and the collapsibility of non-linear models. Under this framework, we demonstrate that adjustment of the propensity score in an outcome model results in the decomposition of observed covariates into the propensity score and a remainder term. Omission of this remainder term from a non-collapsible regression model leads to biased estimates of the conditional odds ratio and conditional hazard ratio, but not for the conditional rate ratio. We further show, via simulation studies, that the bias in these propensity score-adjusted estimators increases with larger treatment effect size, larger covariate effects, and increasing dissimilarity between the coefficients of the covariates in the treatment model versus the outcome model.

  4. Propensity Score Analysis Comparing Videothoracoscopic Lobectomy With Thoracotomy: A French Nationwide Study.

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    Pagès, Pierre-Benoit; Delpy, Jean-Philippe; Orsini, Bastien; Gossot, Dominique; Baste, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Pascal; Dahan, Marcel; Bernard, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has recently become the recommended approach for stage I non-small cell lung cancer. However, these guidelines are not based on any large randomized control trial. Our study used propensity scores and a sensitivity analysis to compare VATS lobectomy with open thoracotomy. From 2005 to 2012, 24,811 patients (95.1%) were operated on by open thoracotomy and 1,278 (4.9%) by VATS. The end points were 30-day postoperative death, postoperative complications, hospital stay, overall survival, and disease-free survival. Two propensity scores analyses were performed: matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting, and one sensitivity analysis to unmask potential hidden bias. A subgroup analysis was performed to compare "high-risk" with "low-risk" patients. Results are reported by odds ratios or hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Postoperative death was not significantly reduced by VATS whatever the analysis. Concerning postoperative complications, VATS significantly decreased the occurrence of atelectasis and pneumopathy with both analysis methods, but there were no differences in the occurrence of other postoperative complications. VATS did not provide a benefit for high-risk patients. The VATS approach decreased the hospital length of stay from 2.4 days (95% confidence interval, -1.7 to -3 days) to -4.68 days (95% confidence interval, -8.5 to 0.9 days). Overall survival and disease-free survival were not influenced by the surgical approach. The sensitivity analysis showed potential biases. The results must be interpreted carefully because of the differences observed according to the propensity scores method used. A multicenter randomized controlled trial is necessary to limit the biases. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adding propensity scores to pure prediction models fails to improve predictive performance

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    Amy S. Nowacki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Propensity score usage seems to be growing in popularity leading researchers to question the possible role of propensity scores in prediction modeling, despite the lack of a theoretical rationale. It is suspected that such requests are due to the lack of differentiation regarding the goals of predictive modeling versus causal inference modeling. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to formally examine the effect of propensity scores on predictive performance. Our hypothesis is that a multivariable regression model that adjusts for all covariates will perform as well as or better than those models utilizing propensity scores with respect to model discrimination and calibration.Methods. The most commonly encountered statistical scenarios for medical prediction (logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to investigate this research question. Random cross-validation was performed 500 times to correct for optimism. The multivariable regression models adjusting for all covariates were compared with models that included adjustment for or weighting with the propensity scores. The methods were compared based on three predictive performance measures: (1 concordance indices; (2 Brier scores; and (3 calibration curves.Results. Multivariable models adjusting for all covariates had the highest average concordance index, the lowest average Brier score, and the best calibration. Propensity score adjustment and inverse probability weighting models without adjustment for all covariates performed worse than full models and failed to improve predictive performance with full covariate adjustment.Conclusion. Propensity score techniques did not improve prediction performance measures beyond multivariable adjustment. Propensity scores are not recommended if the analytical goal is pure prediction modeling.

  6. Improving causal inference with a doubly robust estimator that combines propensity score stratification and weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2017-08-01

    When a randomized controlled trial is not feasible, health researchers typically use observational data and rely on statistical methods to adjust for confounding when estimating treatment effects. These methods generally fall into 3 categories: (1) estimators based on a model for the outcome using conventional regression adjustment; (2) weighted estimators based on the propensity score (ie, a model for the treatment assignment); and (3) "doubly robust" (DR) estimators that model both the outcome and propensity score within the same framework. In this paper, we introduce a new DR estimator that utilizes marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMWS) as the basis for weighted adjustment. This estimator may prove more accurate than treatment effect estimators because MMWS has been shown to be more accurate than other models when the propensity score is misspecified. We therefore compare the performance of this new estimator to other commonly used treatment effects estimators. Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare the DR-MMWS estimator to regression adjustment, 2 weighted estimators based on the propensity score and 2 other DR methods. To assess performance under varied conditions, we vary the level of misspecification of the propensity score model as well as misspecify the outcome model. Overall, DR estimators generally outperform methods that model one or the other components (eg, propensity score or outcome). The DR-MMWS estimator outperforms all other estimators when both the propensity score and outcome models are misspecified and performs equally as well as other DR estimators when only the propensity score is misspecified. Health researchers should consider using DR-MMWS as the principal evaluation strategy in observational studies, as this estimator appears to outperform other estimators in its class. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Influence of surgeon specialization upon the results of colon cancer surgery. Usefulness of propensity scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, D; Escrig-Sos, J; Miralles-Tena, J M; Rivadulla-Serrano, M I; Daroca-José, J M; Salvador Sanchís, J L

    2008-07-01

    surgeon influence on colorectal cancer surgery outcomes has been repeatedly studied in the scientific literature, but conclusions have been contradictory. Here we study whether surgeon specialization is a determinant factor for outcome in these patients. The importance of propensity scores (PS) in surgical research is also studied. a retrospective study was performed and medical records were reviewed for 236 patients who were intervened for colon cancer in Castellon General Hospital (Spain). Cases were divided into two groups (specialist and non-specialist surgeons), and both 5-year surveillance and disease free survival were compared. Comparisons were first made with no adjustments, and then subsequently using PS analysis. the initial (non-adjusted) analysis was clearly favourable for the specialist surgeon group (5-year surveillance, 64.3 vs. 79.3%, p = 0.028). After adjusting for PS no statistical significance was obtained. surgeon specialization had no significant impact on patient outcome after colon cancer surgery. Propensity score analysis is an important tool in the analysis of surgical non-randomized studies, particularly when events under scrutiny are rare.

  8. Propensity score matching of the gymnastics for diabetes mellitus using logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Bambang Widjanarko; Aisyah, Amalia; Purhadi, Andari, Shofi

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases with characteristics shows an abnormal blood glucose level occurring due to pancreatic insulin deficiency, decreased insulin effectiveness or both. The report from the ministry of health shows that DMs prevalence data of East Java province is 2.1%, while the DMs prevalence of Indonesia is only 1,5%. Given the high cases of DM in East Java, it needs the preventive action to control factors causing the complication of DM. This study aims to determine the combination factors causing the complication of DM to reduce the bias by confounding variables using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) with the method of propensity score estimation is binary logistic regression. The data used in this study is the medical record from As-Shafa clinic consisting of 6 covariates and health complication as response variable. The result of PSM analysis showed that there are 22 of 126 DMs patients attending gymnastics paired with patients who didnt attend to diabetes gymnastics. The Average Treatment of Treated (ATT) estimation results showed that the more patients who didnt attend to gymnastics, the more likely the risk for the patients having DMs complications.

  9. Propensity score methodology for confounding control in health care utilization databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Patorno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Propensity score (PS methodology is a common approach to control for confounding in nonexperimental studies of treatment effects using health care utilization databases. This methodology offers researchers many advantages compared with conventional multivariate models: it directly focuses on the determinants of treatment choice, facilitating the understanding of the clinical decision-making process by the researcher; it allows for graphical comparisons of the distribution of propensity scores and truncation of subjects without overlapping PS indicating a lack of equipoise; it allows transparent assessment of the confounder balance achieved by the PS at baseline; and it offers a straightforward approach to reduce the dimensionality of sometimes large arrays of potential confounders in utilization databases, directly addressing the “curse of dimensionality” in the context of rare events. This article provides an overview of the use of propensity score methodology for pharmacoepidemiologic research with large health care utilization databases, covering recent discussions on covariate selection, the role of automated techniques for addressing unmeasurable confounding via proxies, strategies to maximize clinical equipoise at baseline, and the potential of machine-learning algorithms for optimized propensity score estimation. The appendix discusses the available software packages for PS methodology. Propensity scores are a frequently used and versatile tool for transparent and comprehensive adjustment of confounding in pharmacoepidemiology with large health care databases.

  10. Using propensity scores to estimate the effects of insecticides on stream invertebrates from observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester L. Yuan,; Amina I. Pollard,; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of observational data can provide insights into relationships between environmental conditions and biological responses across a broader range of natural conditions than experimental studies, potentially complementing insights gained from experiments. However, observational data must be analyzed carefully to minimize the likelihood that confounding variables bias observed relationships. Propensity scores provide a robust approach for controlling for the effects of measured confounding variables when analyzing observational data. Here, we use propensity scores to estimate changes in mean invertebrate taxon richness in streams that have experienced insecticide concentrations that exceed aquatic life use benchmark concentrations. A simple comparison of richness in sites exposed to elevated insecticides with those that were not exposed suggests that exposed sites had on average 6.8 fewer taxa compared to unexposed sites. The presence of potential confounding variables makes it difficult to assert a causal relationship from this simple comparison. After controlling for confounding factors using propensity scores, the difference in richness between exposed and unexposed sites was reduced to 4.1 taxa, a difference that was still statistically significant. Because the propensity score analysis controlled for the effects of a wide variety of possible confounding variables, we infer that the change in richness observed in the propensity score analysis was likely caused by insecticide exposure.

  11. Get the most from your data: a propensity score model comparison on real-life data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dennis Ferdinand,1 Mirko Otto,2 Christel Weiss1 1Department of Biomathematics and Medical Statistics, 2Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim (UMM, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany Purpose: In the past, the propensity score has been in the middle of several discussions in terms of its abilities and limitations. With a comprehensive review and a practical example, this study examines the effect of propensity score analysis of real-life data and introduces a simple and effective clinical approach. Materials and methods: After the authors reviewed current publications, they applied their insights to the data of a nonrandomized clinical trial in bariatric surgery. This study examined weight loss in 173 patients where 127 patients received Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and 46 patients sleeve gastrectomy. Both groups underwent analysis in terms of their covariate distribution using Mann–Whitney U and χ2 testing. Mean differences within excess weight loss in native data were examined with Student’s t-test. Three propensity score models were defined and matching was performed. Covariate distribution and mean differences in excess weight loss were checked with Mann–Whitney U and χ2 testing. Results: Native data implied a significant difference in excess weight loss. The propensity score models did not confirm this difference. All models proved that both surgical procedures were equal, due to their weight-loss induction. Covariate distribution improved after the matching procedure in terms of an equal distribution. Conclusion: It seemed that a practical clinical approach with outcome-related covariates as a propensity score base is the ideal midpoint between an equal distribution in covariates and an acceptable loss of data. Nevertheless, propensity score models designed with clinical intent seemed to be absolutely suitable for overcoming heterogeneity in covariate distribution. Keywords: nonrandomized clinical

  12. Educational Research with Real-World Data: Reducing Selection Bias with Propensity Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L. Adelson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Often it is infeasible or unethical to use random assignment in educational settings to study important constructs and questions. Hence, educational research often uses observational data, such as large-scale secondary data sets and state and school district data, and quasi-experimental designs. One method of reducing selection bias in estimations of treatment effects is propensity score analysis. This method reduces a large number of pretreatment covariates to a single scalar function and allows researchers to compare subjects with similar probability to receive the treatment. This article provides an introduction to propensity score analysis and stratification, an example illustrating its use, and suggestions for using propensity score analysis in educational research.

  13. Get the most from your data: a propensity score model comparison on real-life data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Dennis; Otto, Mirko; Weiss, Christel

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the propensity score has been in the middle of several discussions in terms of its abilities and limitations. With a comprehensive review and a practical example, this study examines the effect of propensity score analysis of real-life data and introduces a simple and effective clinical approach. After the authors reviewed current publications, they applied their insights to the data of a nonrandomized clinical trial in bariatric surgery. This study examined weight loss in 173 patients where 127 patients received Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and 46 patients sleeve gastrectomy. Both groups underwent analysis in terms of their covariate distribution using Mann-Whitney U and χ (2) testing. Mean differences within excess weight loss in native data were examined with Student's t-test. Three propensity score models were defined and matching was performed. Covariate distribution and mean differences in excess weight loss were checked with Mann-Whitney U and χ (2) testing. Native data implied a significant difference in excess weight loss. The propensity score models did not confirm this difference. All models proved that both surgical procedures were equal, due to their weight-loss induction. Covariate distribution improved after the matching procedure in terms of an equal distribution. It seemed that a practical clinical approach with outcome-related covariates as a propensity score base is the ideal midpoint between an equal distribution in covariates and an acceptable loss of data. Nevertheless, propensity score models designed with clinical intent seemed to be absolutely suitable for overcoming heterogeneity in covariate distribution.

  14. Opium consumption and coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic patients: a propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Kianoosh; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Alipour-Parsa, Saeed; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Eftekhar, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    There is a traditional belief among Eastern people that opium may have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes; thus, it is widely used among diabetic patients. We attempted to investigate the association of opium consumption with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in our center. Out of 1925 diabetic patients included in the study, 228 were opium users, and the remaining 1697 non-opium users were used as a pool of potential comparators. Propensity scores were used to match the 228 opium consumers with 228 matched comparators for age, sex, and smoking status. The Gensini score and extent score were respectively used to assess the angiographic severity and extent of CAD. The mean Gensini score (86.9 ± 62.7 vs. 59.6 ± 43.4, p opium user diabetic patients than in non-opium users. After adjustment for potential confounders, a dose-response relationship was observed between dose of opium and the Gensini score ( β = 0.27, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the routes of opium administration (inhalation vs. oral) regarding the severity and extent of CAD. In conclusion, exposure to opium in diabetic patients may be positively associated with the risk of CAD, and with the angiographically determined severity and extent of the disease. Furthermore, dosage of opium consumption may correlate with severity of CAD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Drawing causal inferences using propensity scores: a practical guide for community psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Moore, Julia E; Butera, Nicole M

    2013-12-01

    Confounding present in observational data impede community psychologists' ability to draw causal inferences. This paper describes propensity score methods as a conceptually straightforward approach to drawing causal inferences from observational data. A step-by-step demonstration of three propensity score methods-weighting, matching, and subclassification-is presented in the context of an empirical examination of the causal effect of preschool experiences (Head Start vs. parental care) on reading development in kindergarten. Although the unadjusted population estimate indicated that children with parental care had substantially higher reading scores than children who attended Head Start, all propensity score adjustments reduce the size of this overall causal effect by more than half. The causal effect was also defined and estimated among children who attended Head Start. Results provide no evidence for improved reading if those children had instead received parental care. We carefully define different causal effects and discuss their respective policy implications, summarize advantages and limitations of each propensity score method, and provide SAS and R syntax so that community psychologists may conduct causal inference in their own research.

  17. Multicenter comparative study of laparoscopic and open distal pancreatectomy using propensity score-matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masafumi; Wakabayashi, Go; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Masao; Morikawa, Takanori; Unno, Michiaki; Tajima, Hiroshi; Kumamoto, Yusuke; Satoi, Sohei; Kwon, Masanori; Toyama, Hirochika; Ku, Yonson; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Nara, Satoshi; Shimada, Kazuaki; Yokoyama, Takahide; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Toyama, Yoichi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Miyata, Hiroaki; Takahara, Takeshi; Beppu, Toru; Yamaue, Hiroki; Miyazaki, Masaru; Takada, Tadahiro

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy has been shown to be associated with favorable postoperative outcomes using meta-analysis. However, there have been no randomized controlled studies yet. This study aimed to compare laparoscopic and open distal pancreatectomy using propensity score-matching. We retrospectively collected perioperative data of 2,266 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy in 69 institutes from 2006-2013 in Japan. Among them, 2,010 patients were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and open distal pancreatectomy. Perioperative outcomes were compared between the groups using unmatched and propensity matched analysis. After propensity score-matching, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was associated with favorable perioperative outcomes compared with open distal pancreatectomy, including higher rate of preservation of spleen and splenic vessels (P pancreatectomy was associated with more favorable perioperative outcomes than open distal pancreatectomy. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  18. Applications of Small Area Estimation to Generalization with Subclassification by Propensity Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Policymakers have grown increasingly interested in how experimental results may generalize to a larger population. However, recently developed propensity score-based methods are limited by small sample sizes, where the experimental study is generalized to a population that is at least 20 times larger. This is particularly problematic for methods…

  19. Understanding Foster Youth Outcomes: Is Propensity Scoring Better than Traditional Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study seeks to examine the relationship between foster care and outcomes using multiple comparison methods to account for factors that put foster youth at risk independent of care. Methods: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, matching, propensity scoring, and comparisons to the general population are used to…

  20. Automatic Promotion and Student Dropout: Evidence from Uganda, Using Propensity Score in Difference in Differences Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurut, Jeje Moses

    2018-01-01

    The impact of automatic promotion practice on students dropping out of Uganda's primary education was assessed using propensity score in difference in differences analysis technique. The analysis strategy was instrumental in addressing the selection bias problem, as well as biases arising from common trends over time, and permanent latent…

  1. Reporting of covariate selection and balance assessment in propensity score analysis is suboptimal: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M. Sanni|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345709497; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.; Belitser, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304843865; Pestman, Wiebe R.; Hoes, Arno W.; Roes, Kit C.B.; Boer, Anthonius De|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Klungel, Olaf H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the current practice of propensity score (PS) analysis in the medical literature, particularly the assessment and reporting of balance on confounders. Study Design and Setting A PubMed search identified studies using PS methods from December 2011 through May 2012. For each

  2. Assessment of balance in propensity score analysis in the medical literature: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M. Sanni|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345709497; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Pestman, Wiebe R.; Hoes, Arno W.; Roes, Kit C.B.; Boer, Ade; Klungel, Olaf H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessing balance on co-variate distributions between treatment groups with a given propensity score (PS) is a crucial step in PS analysis. Several methodological papers comparing different balance measures have been published in the last decade. However, the current practice on

  3. On the Importance of Reliable Covariate Measurement in Selection Bias Adjustments Using Propensity Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.; Shadish, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of unreliability of measurement on propensity score (PS) adjusted treatment effects has not been previously studied. The authors report on a study simulating different degrees of unreliability in the multiple covariates that were used to estimate the PS. The simulation uses the same data as two prior studies. Shadish, Clark, and Steiner…

  4. Comparing treatment effects after adjustment with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and propensity score methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Edwin P; de Boer, Anthonius; Pestman, Wiebe R; Belitser, Svetlana V; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Klungel, Olaf H

    PURPOSE: To compare adjusted effects of drug treatment for hypertension on the risk of stroke from propensity score (PS) methods with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards (Cox PH) regression in an observational study with censored data. METHODS: From two prospective population-based cohort

  5. Propensity Score Estimation with Data Mining Techniques: Alternatives to Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bryan S. B.; Kim, Jee-Seon; Steiner, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score analysis (PSA) is a methodological technique which may correct for selection bias in a quasi-experiment by modeling the selection process using observed covariates. Because logistic regression is well understood by researchers in a variety of fields and easy to implement in a number of popular software packages, it has…

  6. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  7. An examination of the effects of mountaintop removal coal mining on respiratory symptoms and COPD using propensity scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Luo, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on public health consequences of mountaintop removal (MTR) coal mining has been limited by the observational nature of the data. The current study used propensity scores, a method designed to overcome this limitation, to draw more confident causal inferences about mining effects on respiratory health using non-experimental data. These data come from a health survey of 682 adults residing in two rural areas of Virginia, USA characterized by the presence or absence of MTR mining. Persons with a history of occupational exposure as coal miners were excluded. Nine covariates including age, sex, current and former smoking, overweight, obesity, high school education, college education, and exposure to coal as a home-heating source were selected to estimate propensity scores. Propensity scores were tested for balance and then used as weights to create quasi-experimental exposed and unexposed groups. Results indicated that persons in the mountaintop mining group had significantly (p < 0.0001) elevated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results suggest that impaired respiratory health results from exposure to MTR environments and not from other risks.

  8. Propensity scores as a basis for equating groups: basic principles and application in clinical treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G; Cham, Heining; Thoemmes, Felix; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Julian; Weiler, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    A propensity score is the probability that a participant is assigned to the treatment group based on a set of baseline covariates. Propensity scores provide an excellent basis for equating treatment groups on a large set of covariates when randomization is not possible. This article provides a nontechnical introduction to propensity scores for clinical researchers. If all important covariates are measured, then methods that equate on propensity scores can achieve balance on a large set of covariates that mimics that achieved by a randomized experiment. We present an illustration of the steps in the construction and checking of propensity scores in a study of the effectiveness of a health coach versus treatment as usual on the well-being of seriously ill individuals. We then consider alternative methods of equating groups on propensity scores and estimating treatment effects including matching, stratification, weighting, and analysis of covariance. We illustrate a sensitivity analysis that can probe for the potential effects of omitted covariates on the estimate of the causal effect. Finally, we briefly consider several practical and theoretical issues in the use of propensity scores in applied settings. Propensity score methods have advantages over alternative approaches to equating groups particularly when the treatment and control groups do not fully overlap, and there are nonlinear relationships between covariates and the outcome. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of Clinical and Financial Outcomes After Robotic and Laparoscopic Colorectal Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Ahmed M; Baser, Onur; Kiran, Ravi P

    2018-06-01

    The study aims to evaluate the clinical and financial outcomes of the use of robotic when compared to laparoscopic colorectal surgery and any changes in these over time. From the Premier Perspective database, patients who underwent elective laparoscopic and robotic colorectal resections from 2012 to 2014 were included. Laparoscopic colorectal resections were propensity score matched to robotic cases for patient, disease, procedure, surgeon specialty, and hospital type and volume. The two groups were compared for conversion, hospital stay, 30-day post-discharge readmission, mortality, and complications. Direct, cumulative, and total (including 30-day post-discharge) costs were evaluated. Clinical and financial outcomes were also separately assessed for each of the included years. Of 36,701 patients, 32,783 (89.3%) had laparoscopic colorectal resection and 3918 (10.7%) had robotic colorectal resection; 4438 procedures (2219 in each group) were propensity score matched. For the entire period, conversion to open approach (4.7 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.1) and hospital stay (mean days [SD] 6 [5.3] vs. 5 [4.6], p = 0.2) were comparable between robotic and laparoscopic procedures. Surgical and medical complications were also the same for the two groups. However, the robotic approach was associated with lower readmission (6.3 vs. 4.8%, p = 0.04). Wound or abdominal infection (4.7 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.01) and respiratory complications (7.4 vs. 4.7%, p = 0.02) were significantly lower for the robotic group in the final year of inclusion, 2014. Direct, cumulative, and total (including 30-day post-discharge) costs were significantly higher for robotic surgery. The difference in costs between the two approaches reduced over time (direct cost difference: 2012, $2698 vs. 2013, $2235 vs. 2014, $1402). Robotic colorectal surgery can be performed with comparable clinical outcomes to laparoscopy. With greater use of the technology, some further recovery benefits may be evident

  10. Albumin administration is associated with acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery: a propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Anne Julie; Bouchard, Josée; Bernier, Pascaline; Charbonneau, Annie; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Rioux, Jean-Philippe; Troyanov, Stéphan; Williamson, David R

    2014-11-14

    The risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of albumin-containing fluids compared to starches in the surgical intensive care setting remains uncertain. We evaluated the adjusted risk of AKI associated with colloids following cardiac surgery. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center from 2008 to 2010. We assessed crystalloid and colloid administration until 36 hours after surgery. AKI was defined by the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss and end-stage kidney disease) risk and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 1 serum creatinine criterion within 96 hours after surgery. Our cohort included 984 patients with a baseline glomerular filtration rate of 72 ± 19 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Twenty-three percent had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), thirty-one percent were diabetics and twenty-three percent underwent heart valve surgery. The incidence of AKI was 5.3% based on RIFLE risk and 12.0% based on the AKIN criterion. AKI was associated with a reduced LVEF, diuretic use, anemia, heart valve surgery, duration of extracorporeal circulation, hemodynamic instability and the use of albumin, pentastarch 10% and transfusions. There was an important dose-dependent AKI risk associated with the administration of albumin, which also paralleled a higher prevalence of concomitant risk factors for AKI. To address any indication bias, we derived a propensity score predicting the likelihood to receive albumin and matched 141 cases to 141 controls with a similar risk profile. In this analysis, albumin was associated with an increased AKI risk (RIFLE risk: 12% versus 5%, P = 0.03; AKIN stage 1: 28% versus 13%, P = 0.002). We repeated this methodology in patients without postoperative hemodynamic instability and still identified an association between the use of albumin and AKI. Albumin administration was associated with a dose-dependent risk of AKI and remained significant using a propensity

  11. Using ecological propensity score to adjust for missing confounders in small area studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbo; Pirani, Monica; Hansell, Anna L; Richardson, Sylvia; Blangiardo, Marta

    2017-11-09

    Small area ecological studies are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the impact of area level risk factors on health outcomes when data are only available in an aggregated form. However, the resulting estimates are often biased due to unmeasured confounders, which typically are not available from the standard administrative registries used for these studies. Extra information on confounders can be provided through external data sets such as surveys or cohorts, where the data are available at the individual level rather than at the area level; however, such data typically lack the geographical coverage of administrative registries. We develop a framework of analysis which combines ecological and individual level data from different sources to provide an adjusted estimate of area level risk factors which is less biased. Our method (i) summarizes all available individual level confounders into an area level scalar variable, which we call ecological propensity score (EPS), (ii) implements a hierarchical structured approach to impute the values of EPS whenever they are missing, and (iii) includes the estimated and imputed EPS into the ecological regression linking the risk factors to the health outcome. Through a simulation study, we show that integrating individual level data into small area analyses via EPS is a promising method to reduce the bias intrinsic in ecological studies due to unmeasured confounders; we also apply the method to a real case study to evaluate the effect of air pollution on coronary heart disease hospital admissions in Greater London. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Can We Train Machine Learning Methods to Outperform the High-dimensional Propensity Score Algorithm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Pang, Menglan; Platt, Robert W

    2018-03-01

    The use of retrospective health care claims datasets is frequently criticized for the lack of complete information on potential confounders. Utilizing patient's health status-related information from claims datasets as surrogates or proxies for mismeasured and unobserved confounders, the high-dimensional propensity score algorithm enables us to reduce bias. Using a previously published cohort study of postmyocardial infarction statin use (1998-2012), we compare the performance of the algorithm with a number of popular machine learning approaches for confounder selection in high-dimensional covariate spaces: random forest, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and elastic net. Our results suggest that, when the data analysis is done with epidemiologic principles in mind, machine learning methods perform as well as the high-dimensional propensity score algorithm. Using a plasmode framework that mimicked the empirical data, we also showed that a hybrid of machine learning and high-dimensional propensity score algorithms generally perform slightly better than both in terms of mean squared error, when a bias-based analysis is used.

  13. Single Motherhood, Alcohol Dependence, and Smoking During Pregnancy: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lian, Min; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Miller, Ruth Huang; Lynskey, Michael T; Knopik, Valerie S; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2017-09-01

    Few studies linking single motherhood and maternal smoking during pregnancy consider correlated risk from problem substance use beyond history of smoking and concurrent use of alcohol. In the present study, we used propensity score methods to examine whether the risk of smoking during pregnancy associated with single motherhood is the result of potential confounders, including alcohol dependence. Data were drawn from mothers participating in a birth cohort study of their female like-sex twin offspring (n = 257 African ancestry; n = 1,711 European or other ancestry). We conducted standard logistic regression models predicting smoking during pregnancy from single motherhood at twins' birth, followed by propensity score analyses comparing single-mother and two-parent families stratified by predicted probability of single motherhood. In standard models, single motherhood predicted increased risk of smoking during pregnancy in European ancestry but not African ancestry families. In propensity score analyses, rates of smoking during pregnancy were elevated in single-mother relative to two-parent European ancestry families across much of the spectrum a priori risk of single motherhood. Among African ancestry families, within-strata comparisons of smoking during pregnancy by single-mother status were nonsignificant. These findings highlight single motherhood as a unique risk factor for smoking during pregnancy in European ancestry mothers, over and above alcohol dependence. Additional research is needed to identify risks, beyond single motherhood, associated with smoking during pregnancy in African ancestry mothers.

  14. Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery in Elderly Patients: A Propensity Score Match Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de'Angelis, Nicola; Abdalla, Solafah; Bianchi, Giorgio; Memeo, Riccardo; Charpy, Cecile; Petrucciani, Niccolo; Sobhani, Iradj; Brunetti, Francesco

    2018-05-31

    Minimally invasive surgery in elderly patients with colorectal cancer remains controversial. The study aimed to compare the operative, postoperative, and oncologic outcomes of robotic (robotic colorectal resection surgery [RCRS]) versus laparoscopic colorectal resection surgery (LCRS) in elderly patients with colorectal cancer. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to compare patients aged 70 years and more undergoing elective RCRS or LCRS for colorectal cancer between 2010 and 2017. Overall, 160 patients underwent elective curative LCRS (n = 102) or RCRS (n = 58) for colorectal cancer. Before PSM, the mean preoperative Charlson score and the tumor size were significantly lower in the robotic group. After matching, 43 RCRSs were compared with 43 LCRSs. The RCRS group showed longer operative times (300.6 versus 214.5 min, P = .03) compared with LCRS, but all other operative variables were comparable between the two groups. No differences were found for postoperative morbidity, mortality, time to flatus, return to regular diet, and length of hospital stay. R0 resection was obtained in 95.3% of procedures. The overall and disease-free survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were similar between RCRS and LCRS patients. The presence of more than one comorbidity before surgery was significantly associated with the incidence of postoperative complications. In patients aged 70 years or more, robotic colorectal surgery showed operative and oncologic outcomes similar to those obtained by laparoscopy, despite longer operative times. Randomized trials are awaited to reliably assess the clinical and oncological noninferiority and the costs/benefits ratio of robotic colorectal surgery in elderly populations.

  15. Marital Dissolution and Major Depression in Midlife: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Emery, Robert E; Beam, Christopher R; Ocker, Bailey L

    2014-05-01

    Marital dissolution is commonly assumed to cause increased depression among adults, but causality can be questioned based on directionality and third variable concerns. The present study improves upon past research by using a propensity score matching algorithm to identify a sub-sample of continuously married participants equivalent in divorce risk to participants who actually experienced separation/divorce between two waves of the nationally representative study, Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). After correcting for participants' propensity to separate/divorce, increased rates of depression at the second assessment were observed only among participants who were (a) depressed at the initial assessment, and (b) experienced a separation/divorce. Participants who were not depressed at the initial assessment but who experienced a separation/divorce were not at increased risk for a later major depressive disorder (MDE). Thus, both social selection and social causation contribute to the increased risk for a MDE found among separated/divorced adults.

  16. No impact of perioperative blood transfusion on prognosis after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T; Zhao, G; Wang, L; Wu, J; Cui, H; Liang, Y; Zhou, R; Liu, Z; Wang, Q

    2017-10-27

    The relationship between perioperative blood transfusion and long-term survival after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of blood transfusion on the long-term prognosis of HCC patients. Patients with primary HCC who underwent a curative hepatectomy from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled and then retrospectively studied. The clinicopathologic characteristics between patients in the blood transfusion and non-transfusion groups were matched using a propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify whether perioperative blood transfusion affects long-term survival after resection for HCC. A total of 374 patients were enrolled and 113 patients received perioperative transfusions. The 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates of the entire cohort were 65.0, 37.3 and 23.9%, and 90.9, 70.7 and 57.5%, respectively. The disease-free and overall survival rates of the blood transfusion group were significantly worse than the disease-free and overall survival rates of the non-transfusion group in the entire cohort (p blood transfusion was not an independent predictor of disease-free and overall survival in the propensity-matched cohort (p = 0.154, p = 0.667). The present study demonstrates that perioperative blood transfusion has no impact on disease-free and overall survival after curative resection for HCC.

  17. Surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy for elderly stage I lung cancer? A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takuro; Yamazaki, Takuya; Nakamura, Daisuke; Sato, Shuntaro; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Kamohara, Ryotaro; Hatachi, Go; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of surgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for elderly clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Patients ≥80 years of age with clinical stage I NSCLC between August 2008 and December 2014 were treated either surgery or SBRT. Propensity score matching was performed to reduce bias in various clinicopathological factors. Surgery was performed in 57 cases and SBRT in 41 cases. In the surgery group, the operations included 34 lobectomies and 23 sublobar resections. In the SBRT group, 27 cases were given 48 Gy in 4 fractions, and 14 were given 60 Gy in 10 fractions. Similar characteristics were identified in age (82 years), gender (male:female ratio 2:1), tumor size (2.2 cm), carcinoembryonic antigen (3.6 ng/ml), Charlson comorbidity index (1), Glasgow prognostic scale (0), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (1.7 L) after matching. Before matching, the 5-year overall survival (OS) in surgery (68.3%) was significantly better than that in SBRT (47.4%, p = 0.02), and the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) (94.1%, 78.2%, p = 0.17) was not significantly different between the groups. The difference in the 5-year OS became non-significant between the matched pairs (57.0%, 49.1%, p = 0.56). The outcomes of surgery and SBRT for elderly patients with the early stage NSCLC were roughly the same.

  18. Estimating the palliative effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in an observational registry using principal stratification and generalized propensity scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra-Kalyani, Pallavi S.; Johnson, Brent A.; Glass, Jonathan D.; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Clinical disease registries offer a rich collection of valuable patient information but also pose challenges that require special care and attention in statistical analyses. The goal of this paper is to propose a statistical framework that allows for estimating the effect of surgical insertion of a percutaneous endogastrostomy (PEG) tube for patients living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using data from a clinical registry. Although all ALS patients are informed about PEG, only some patients agree to the procedure which, leads to the potential for selection bias. Assessing the effect of PEG is further complicated by the aggressively fatal disease, such that time to death competes directly with both the opportunity to receive PEG and clinical outcome measurements. Our proposed methodology handles the “censoring by death” phenomenon through principal stratification and selection bias for PEG treatment through generalized propensity scores. We develop a fully Bayesian modeling approach to estimate the survivor average causal effect (SACE) of PEG on BMI, a surrogate outcome measure of nutrition and quality of life. The use of propensity score methods within the principal stratification framework demonstrates a significant and positive effect of PEG treatment, particularly when time of treatment is included in the treatment definition.

  19. A Case Study About Why It Can Be Difficult To Test Whether Propensity Score Analysis Works in Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Shadish

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peikes, Moreno and Orzol (2008 sensibly caution researchers that propensity score analysis may not lead to valid causal inference in field applications. But at the same time, they made the far stronger claim to have performed an ideal test of whether propensity score matching in quasi-experimental data is capable of approximating the results of a randomized experiment in their dataset, and that this ideal test showed that such matching could not do so. In this article we show that their study does not support that conclusion because it failed to meet a number of basic criteria for an ideal test. By implication, many other purported tests of the effectiveness of propensity score analysis probably also fail to meet these criteria, and are therefore questionable contributions to the literature on the effects of propensity score analysis. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i2.16475

  20. A Case Study About Why It Can Be Difficult To Test Whether Propensity Score Analysis Works in Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Cook

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peikes, Moreno and Orzol (2008 sensibly caution researchers that propensity score analysis may not lead to valid causal inference in field applications. But at the same time, they made the far stronger claim to have performed an ideal test of whether propensity score matching in quasi-experimental data is capable of approximating the results of a randomized experiment in their dataset, and that this ideal test showed that such matching could not do so. In this article we show that their study does not support that conclusion because it failed to meet a number of basic criteria for an ideal test. By implication, many other purported tests of the effectiveness of propensity score analysis probably also fail to meet these criteria, and are therefore questionable contributions to the literature on the effects of propensity score analysis.

  1. Empirical Benchmarks of Hidden Bias in Educational Research: Implication for Assessing How well Propensity Score Methods Approximate Experiments and Conducting Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo; Lipsey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    When randomized control trials (RCT) are not feasible, researchers seek other methods to make causal inference, e.g., propensity score methods. One of the underlined assumptions for the propensity score methods to obtain unbiased treatment effect estimates is the ignorability assumption, that is, conditional on the propensity score, treatment…

  2. Observation Versus Embolization in Patients with Blunt Splenic Injury After Trauma: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, Dominique C; Joosse, Pieter; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; de Rooij, Philippe P; Leenen, Loek P H; Wendt, Klaus W; Bloemers, Frank W; Goslings, J Carel

    2016-05-01

    Non-operative management (NOM) is the standard of care in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic injury after trauma. Splenic artery embolization (SAE) is reported to increase observation success rate. Studies demonstrating improved splenic salvage rates with SAE primarily compared SAE with historical controls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SAE improves success rate compared to observation alone in contemporaneous patients with blunt splenic injury. We included adult patients with blunt splenic injury admitted to five Level 1 Trauma Centers between January 2009 and December 2012 and selected for NOM. Successful treatment was defined as splenic salvage and no splenic re-intervention. We calculated propensity scores, expressing the probability of undergoing SAE, using multivariable logistic regression and created five strata based on the quintiles of the propensity score distribution. A weighted relative risk (RR) was calculated across strata to express the chances of success with SAE. Two hundred and six patients were included in the study. Treatment was successful in 180 patients: 134/146 (92 %) patients treated with observation and 48/57 (84 %) patients treated with SAE. The weighted RR for success with SAE was 1.17 (0.94-1.45); for complications, the weighted RR was 0.71 (0.41-1.22). The mean number of transfused blood products was 4.4 (SD 9.9) in the observation group versus 9.1 (SD 17.2) in the SAE group. After correction for confounders with propensity score stratification technique, there was no significant difference between embolization and observation alone with regard to successful treatment in patients with blunt splenic injury after trauma.

  3. Five Steps to Successfully Implement and Evaluate Propensity Score Matching in Clinical Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffa, Steven J; Zurakowski, David

    2018-01-09

    In clinical research, the gold standard level of evidence is the randomized controlled trial (RCT). The availability of nonrandomized retrospective data is growing; however, a primary concern of analyzing such data is comparability of the treatment groups with respect to confounding variables. Propensity score matching (PSM) aims to equate treatment groups with respect to measured baseline covariates to achieve a comparison with reduced selection bias. It is a valuable statistical methodology that mimics the RCT, and it may create an "apples to apples" comparison while reducing bias due to confounding. PSM can improve the quality of anesthesia research and broaden the range of research opportunities. PSM is not necessarily a magic bullet for poor-quality data, but rather may allow the researcher to achieve balanced treatment groups similar to a RCT when high-quality observational data are available. PSM may be more appealing than the common approach of including confounders in a regression model because it allows for a more intuitive analysis of a treatment effect between 2 comparable groups.We present 5 steps that anesthesiologists can use to successfully implement PSM in their research with an example from the 2015 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program: a validated, annually updated surgery and anesthesia pediatric database. The first step of PSM is to identify its feasibility with regard to the data at hand and ensure availability of data on any potential confounders. The second step is to obtain the set of propensity scores from a logistic regression model with treatment group as the outcome and the balancing factors as predictors. The third step is to match patients in the 2 treatment groups with similar propensity scores, balancing all factors. The fourth step is to assess the success of the matching with balance diagnostics, graphically or analytically. The fifth step is to apply appropriate statistical methodology using the propensity

  4. Perceived fairness of pay among people with and without disabilities: a propensity score matched analysis of working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; Bentley, Rebecca; Blakely, Tony; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-09-01

    Equity and fairness at work are associated with a range of organizational and health outcomes. Past research suggests that workers with disabilities experience inequity in the workplace. It is difficult to conclude whether the presence of disability is the reason for perceived unfair treatment due to the possible confounding of effect estimates by other demographic or socioeconomic factors. The data source was the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey (2001-2012). Propensity for disability was calculated from logistic models including gender, age, education, country of birth, and father's occupational skill level as predictors. We then used nearest neighbor (on propensity score) matched analysis to match workers with disabilities to workers without disability. Results suggest that disability is independently associated with lower fairness of pay after controlling for confounding factors in the propensity score matched analysis; although results do suggest less than half a standard deviation difference, indicating small effects. Similar results were apparent in standard multivariable regression models and alternative propensity score analyses (stratification, covariate adjustment using the propensity score, and inverse probability of treatment weighting). Whilst neither multivariable regression nor propensity scores adjust for unmeasured confounding, and there remains the potential for other biases, similar results for the two methodological approaches to confounder adjustment provide some confidence of an independent association of disability with perceived unfairness of pay. Based on this, we suggest that the disparity in the perceived fairness of pay between people with and without disabilities may be explained by worse treatment of people with disabilities in the workplace.

  5. The effects of breastfeeding on childhood BMI: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Hernández Alava, Mónica; Kelly, Michael P; Campbell, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have found a statistical association between breastfeeding and childhood adiposity. This paper investigates whether breastfeeding has an effect on subsequent childhood body mass index (BMI) using propensity scores to account for confounding. We use data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative UK cohort survey, which contains detailed information on infant feeding and childhood BMI. Propensity score matching is used to investigate the mean BMI in children breastfed exclusively and partially for different durations of time. We find statistically significant influences of breastfeeding on childhood BMI, particularly in older children, when breastfeeding is prolonged and exclusive. At 7 years, children who were exclusively breastfed for 16 weeks had a BMI 0.28 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.49) lower than those who were never breastfed, a 2% reduction from the mean BMI of 16.6 kg/m2. For this young cohort, even small effects of breastfeeding on BMI could be important. In order to reduce BMI, breastfeeding should be encouraged as part of wider lifestyle intervention. This evidence could help to inform public health bodies when creating public health guidelines and recommendations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  6. Effect of dextran-70 on outcome in severe sepsis; a propensity-score matching study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzer, Peter; Broman, Marcus; Kander, Thomas

    2017-07-06

    Albumin may be beneficial in patients with septic shock but availability is limited and cost is high. The objective of the present study was to investigate if the use of dextran-70 in addition to albumin and crystalloids influences organ failure or mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (n = 778) admitted to a university hospital intensive care unit (ICU) between 2007 and 2015 that received dextran-70 during resuscitation were propensity score matched to controls at a 1 to 1 ratio. Outcomes were highest acute kidney injury network (AKIN) score the first 10 days in the ICU, use of renal replacement therapy, days alive and free of organ support the first 28 days after admission to ICU, mortality and events of severe bleeding. Outcomes were assessed using paired hypothesis testing. Propensity score matching resulted in two groups of patients with 245 patients in each group. The dextran group received a median volume of 1483 ml (interquartile range, 1000-2000 ml) of dextran-70 during the ICU stay. Highest AKIN score did not differ between the control- and dextran groups (1 (0-3) versus 2 (0-3), p = 0.06). Incidence of renal replacement therapy in the control- and dextran groups was similar (19% versus 22%, p = 0.42, absolute risk reduction -2.9% [95% CI: -9.9 to 4.2]). Days alive and free of renal replacement, vasopressors and mechanical ventilation did not differ between the control- and dextran groups. The 180-day mortality was 50.2% in the control group and 41.6% in the dextran group (p = 0.046, absolute risk reduction 8.6% [-0.2 to 17.4]). Fraction of patients experiencing a severe bleeding in the first 10 days in the ICU did not differ between the control and dextran groups (14% versus 18%, p = 0.21). There is a paucity of high quality data regarding effects of dextran solutions on outcome in sepsis. In the present study, propensity score matching was used in attempt to reduce bias. No

  7. Second-Line Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian, Tubal and Peritoneal Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matching Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chang, Yen-Hou; Lee, Wai-Hou; Chang, Yi; Peng, Chia-Wen; Chuang, Chi-Mu

    2016-01-01

    The superiority of frontline intraperitoneal (IP) over intravenous (IV) chemotherapy is well established in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the role of IP chemotherapy in the second-line setting has rarely been investigated. Consecutive patients diagnosed with recurrent epithelial, tubal and peritoneal cancers between January 2000 and December 2012 were recruited using a propensity score-matching technique to adjust relevant risk factors. In total, 310 patients were included in the final analysis (94 for platinum-refractory/resistant disease and 216 for platinum-sensitive disease). IP chemotherapy demonstrated significantly longer median progression-free survival than IV chemotherapy (4.9 vs. 2.4 months, p chemotherapy confers longer progression-free survival than IV chemotherapy. Large-scale clinical trials should be conducted to validate the true efficacy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Best (but oft-forgotten) practices: propensity score methods in clinical nutrition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Sanni; Groenwold, Rolf Hh; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-08-01

    In observational studies, treatment assignment is a nonrandom process and treatment groups may not be comparable in their baseline characteristics, a phenomenon known as confounding. Propensity score (PS) methods can be used to achieve comparability of treated and nontreated groups in terms of their observed covariates and, as such, control for confounding in estimating treatment effects. In this article, we provide a step-by-step guidance on how to use PS methods. For illustrative purposes, we used simulated data based on an observational study of the relation between oral nutritional supplementation and hospital length of stay. We focused on the key aspects of PS analysis, including covariate selection, PS estimation, covariate balance assessment, treatment effect estimation, and reporting. PS matching, stratification, covariate adjustment, and weighting are discussed. R codes and example data are provided to show the different steps in a PS analysis. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Something from nothing: Estimating consumption rates using propensity scores, with application to emissions reduction policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Bardsley

    Full Text Available Consumption surveys often record zero purchases of a good because of a short observation window. Measures of distribution are then precluded and only mean consumption rates can be inferred. We show that Propensity Score Matching can be applied to recover the distribution of consumption rates. We demonstrate the method using the UK National Travel Survey, in which c.40% of motorist households purchase no fuel. Estimated consumption rates are plausible judging by households' annual mileages, and highly skewed. We apply the same approach to estimate CO2 emissions and outcomes of a carbon cap or tax. Reliance on means apparently distorts analysis of such policies because of skewness of the underlying distributions. The regressiveness of a simple tax or cap is overstated, and redistributive features of a revenue-neutral policy are understated.

  10. Do family dinners reduce the risk for early adolescent substance use? A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P; Warnick, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The risks of early adolescent substance use on health and well-being are well documented. In recent years, several experts have claimed that a simple preventive measure for these behaviors is for families to share evening meals. In this study, we use data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (n = 5,419) to estimate propensity score models designed to match on a set of covariates and predict early adolescent substance use frequency and initiation. The results indicate that family dinners are not generally associated with alcohol or cigarette use or with drug use initiation. However, a continuous measure of family dinners is modestly associated with marijuana frequency, thus suggesting a potential causal impact. These results show that family dinners may help prevent one form of substance use in the short term but do not generally affect substance use initiation or alcohol and cigarette use.

  11. A Propensity Score Matching Analysis of the Effects of Special Education Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L; Frisco, Michelle; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob

    2010-02-01

    We sought to quantify the effectiveness of special education services as naturally delivered in U.S. schools. Specifically, we examined whether children receiving special education services displayed (a) greater reading or mathematics skills, (b) more frequent learning-related behaviors, or (c) less frequent externalizing or internalizing problem behaviors than closely matched peers not receiving such services. To do so, we used propensity score matching techniques to analyze data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal-Study Kindergarten Cohort, 1998-1999, a large scale, nationally representative sample of U.S. schoolchildren. Collectively, results indicate that receipt of special education services has either a negative or statistically non-significant impact on children's learning or behavior. However, special education services do yield a small, positive effect on children's learning-related behaviors.

  12. Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jin; Jang, Hye Min; Lee, Youngjo; Lee, Donghwan; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2018-04-25

    The associations of Internet addiction (IA) and smartphone addiction (SA) with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional web-based survey including socio-demographic items, the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Items-Revised. The participants were classified into IA, SA, and normal use (NU) groups. To reduce sampling bias, we applied the propensity score matching method based on genetics matching. The IA group showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.207; p smartphone use.

  13. A Propensity Score Matching Analysis of the Effects of Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Frisco, Michelle; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We sought to quantify the effectiveness of special education services as naturally delivered in U.S. schools. Specifically, we examined whether children receiving special education services displayed (a) greater reading or mathematics skills, (b) more frequent learning-related behaviors, or (c) less frequent externalizing or internalizing problem behaviors than closely matched peers not receiving such services. To do so, we used propensity score matching techniques to analyze data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal—Study Kindergarten Cohort, 1998–1999, a large scale, nationally representative sample of U.S. schoolchildren. Collectively, results indicate that receipt of special education services has either a negative or statistically non-significant impact on children’s learning or behavior. However, special education services do yield a small, positive effect on children’s learning-related behaviors. PMID:23606759

  14. A practical guide to propensity score analysis for applied clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Little, Todd D

    2017-11-01

    Observational studies are often the only viable options in many clinical settings, especially when it is unethical or infeasible to randomly assign participants to different treatment régimes. In such case propensity score (PS) analysis can be applied to accounting for possible selection bias and thereby addressing questions of causal inference. Many PS methods exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their conduct and evaluation of a PS analysis. In this article we give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and application, balance diagnostic, treatment effect estimation, and sensitivity assessment, as well as recent advances. We also offer a tutorial that can be used to emulate the steps of PS analysis. Our goal is to provide information that will bring PS analysis within the reach of applied clinical researchers and practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective Lung Ventilation and Morbidity After Pulmonary Resection: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, David; Zhang, Hao; Pedoto, Alessia; Desiderio, Dawn P; Shi, Weiji; Tan, Kay See

    2017-07-01

    Protective lung ventilation (PLV) during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for thoracic surgery is frequently recommended to reduce pulmonary complications. However, limited outcome data exist on whether PLV use during OLV is associated with less clinically relevant pulmonary morbidity after lung resection. Intraoperative data were prospectively collected in 1080 patients undergoing pulmonary resection with OLV, intentional crystalloid restriction, and mechanical ventilation to maintain inspiratory peak airway pressure volume. The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumonia and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Propensity score matching was used to generate PLV and non-PLV groups with comparable characteristics. Associations between outcomes and PLV status were analyzed by exact logistic regression, with matching as cluster in the anatomic and nonanatomic lung resection cohorts. In the propensity score-matched analysis, the incidence of pneumonia and/or ARDS among patients who had an anatomic lung resection was 9/172 (5.2%) in the non-PLV compared to the PLV group 7/172 (4.1%; odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-3.45, P= .62). The incidence of pneumonia and/or ARDS in patients who underwent nonanatomic resection was 3/118 (2.5%) in the non-PLV compared to the PLV group, 1/118 (0.9%; odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-28.84, P= .34). In this prospective observational study, we found no differences in the incidence of pneumonia and/or ARDS between patients undergoing lung resection with tidal volumes volume strategy during OLV on clinically important outcomes.

  16. Freedom Solo Versus Trifecta Bioprotheses: Clinical and Hemodynamic Evaluation after Propensity Score Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Cerqueira, Rui; Melo, Renata; Moreira, Soraia; A Saraiva, Francisca; Andrade, Marta; Salgueiro, Elson; Almeida, Jorge; J Amorim, Mário; Pinho, Paulo; Lourenço, André; F Leite-Moreira, Adelino

    2017-01-01

    To compare stentless Freedom Solo and stented Trifecta aortic bioprostheses regarding hemodynamic profile, left ventricular mass regression, early and late postoperative outcomes and survival. Longitudinal cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (from 2009 to 2016) with either Freedom Solo or Trifecta at one centre. Local databases and national records were queried. Postoperative echocardiography (3-6 months) was obtained for hemodynamic profile (mean transprosthetic gradient and effective orifice area) and left ventricle mass determination. After propensity score matching (21 covariates), Kaplan-Meier analysis and cumulative incidence analysis were performed for survival and combined outcome of structural valve deterioration and endocarditis, respectively. Hemodynamics and left ventricle mass regression were assessed by a mixed- -effects model including propensity score as a covariate. From a total sample of 397 Freedom Solo and 525 Trifecta patients with a median follow-up time of 4.0 (2.2- 6.0) and 2.4 (1.4-3.7) years, respectively, a matched sample of 329 pairs was obtained. Well-balanced matched groups showed no difference in survival (hazard ratio=1.04, 95% confidence interval=0.69-1.56) or cumulative hazards of combined outcome (subhazard ratio=0.54, 95% confidence interval=0.21-1.39). Although Trifecta showed improved hemodynamic profile compared to Freedom Solo, no differences were found in left ventricle mass regression. Trifecta has a slightly improved hemodynamic profile compared to Freedom Solo but this does not translate into differences in the extent of mass regression, postoperative outcomes or survival, which were good and comparable for both bioprostheses. Long-term follow-up is needed for comparisons with older models of bioprostheses.

  17. Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-12-27

    The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.

  18. Multisystemic Therapy and Functional Family Therapy Compared on their Effectiveness Using the Propensity Score Method.

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    Eeren, Hester V; Goossens, Lucas M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Busschbach, Jan J V; van der Rijken, Rachel E A

    2018-01-09

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and Functional Family Therapy (FFT) have overlapping target populations and treatment goals. In this study, these interventions were compared on their effectiveness using a quasi-experimental design. Between October, 2009 and June, 2014, outcome data were collected from 697 adolescents (mean age 15.3 (SD 1.48), 61.9% male) assigned to either MST or FFT (422 MST; 275 FFT). Data were gathered during Routine Outcome Monitoring. The primary outcome was externalizing problem behavior (Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report). Secondary outcomes were the proportion of adolescents living at home, engaged in school or work, and who lacked police contact during treatment. Because of the non-random assignment, a propensity score method was used to control for observed pre-treatment differences. Because the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model guided treatment assignment, effectiveness was also estimated in youth with and without a court order as an indicator of their risk level. Looking at the whole sample, no difference in effect was found with regard to externalizing problems. For adolescents without a court order, effects on externalizing problems were larger after MST. Because many more adolescents with a court order were assigned to MST compared to FFT, the propensity score method could not balance the treatment groups in this subsample. In conclusion, few differences between MST and FFT were found. In line with the RNR model, higher risk adolescents were assigned to the more intensive treatment, namely MST. In the group with lower risk adolescents, this more intensive treatment was more effective in reducing externalizing problems.

  19. Antenatal Maternity Leave and Childbirth Using the First Baby Study: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julia M; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kjerulff, Kristen H

    Most employed American women work during pregnancy and continue working through the month they deliver. Yet, few studies estimate the relationship between maternity leave taken during pregnancy and maternal health. We evaluate the association of antenatal leave (ANL) uptake with obstetric outcomes, assessing the potential role of protective and adverse selection pathways on this relationship. We sample 1,740 employed women who delivered at term from the First Baby Study, a prospective cohort of nulliparous women in Pennsylvania. We use propensity scores to estimate the relationship between ANL and negative delivery outcomes (labor induction, long labor duration, unplanned cesarean delivery, and self-reported negative birth experience). We estimated propensity scores using a range of employment, health, and sociodemographic variables. One-half of the sampled women worked until the day before or day of delivery. Women who stopped working at least 2 days before delivery experienced 16% more negative delivery outcomes, on average, than women who worked until delivery, driven largely by a 25% higher predicted probability of unplanned cesarean section deliveries. These robust findings hold up to a range of sensitivity analyses and demonstrate selective mechanisms operating in ANL uptake. Our findings suggest that, even after controlling for an extensive set of observable employment, health, and sociodemographic characteristics, women who take ANL continue to differ in unobserved characteristics that lead to negative delivery outcomes. Like most U.S. states, Pennsylvania does not grant paid maternity leave. In a context of limited maternity leave availability, only relatively unhealthy women take ANL. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Costs of Clostridium difficile infection in pediatric operations: A propensity score-matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaylat, Afif N; Rocourt, Dorothy V; Podany, Abigail B; Engbrecht, Brett W; Twilley, Marianne; Santos, Mary C; Cilley, Robert E; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Dillon, Peter W

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the hospitalized pediatric surgical population and to characterize its influence on the costs of care. There were 313,664 patients age 1-18 years who underwent a general thoracic or abdominal procedure in the Kids' Inpatient Database during 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. Logistic regression was used to model factors associated with the development of C difficile infection. A propensity score-matching analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of C difficile infection on mortality, duration of stay, and costs in similar patient cohorts. Population weights were used to estimate the national excess burden of C difficile infection on these outcomes. The overall prevalence of C difficile infection in the sampled cohort was 0.30%, with an increasing trend of C difficile infection over time in non-children's hospitals (P difficile infection was associated with younger age, nonelective procedures, increasing comorbidities, and urban teaching hospital status (P difficile infection after operation. After propensity score matching, the mean excess duration of stay and costs attributable to C difficile infection were 5.8 days and $12,801 (P difficile infection is a relatively uncommon but costly complication after pediatric operative procedures. Given the increasing trend of C difficile infection among hospitalized surgical patients, there is substantial opportunity for reduction of inpatient burden and associated costs in this potentially preventable nosocomial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of prognostic differences in elderly patients with pneumonia treated by between pulmonologists and non-pulmonologists: a propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Kosaku; Oka, Hiroaki; Ohama, Minoru; Uchida, Masahiro; Miyajima, Hajime; Iwashita, Tomohiko; Okabe, Eiji; Shuto, Osamu; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pneumonia among elderly people is increasing in aged countries, and both pulmonologists and non-pulmonologists treat such patients. The aim of this study was to assess prognostic differences between elderly patients treated by pulmonologists and those treated by non-pulmonologists. This study was a retrospective cohort using a propensity score analysis. Patients 65 years of age or over with pneumonia were consecutively included. The propensity score was estimated based on the patient's background and severity of pneumonia. The difference in 30-day and 90-day mortality depending on the attending physician's specialty was analyzed after adjusting for other variables, including the propensity score. We assessed 68 and 182 patients treated by pulmonologists and non-pulmonologists, respectively. The pulmonologists tended to be in charge of patients with hypoxemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or dementia without aspiration pneumonia or renal dysfunction (area under receiver operating characteristic curve to predict treatment by a pulmonologist according to the propensity score = 0.737, P bedridden status (3.000, P = 0.013) and the serum albumin level (0.382, P elderly patients may not necessarily improve, irrespective of treatment by pulmonologists, and host factors seemed to be associated with mortality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The feasibility of matching on a propensity score for acupuncture in a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Johnson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propensity scores are typically applied in retrospective cohort studies. We describe the feasibility of matching on a propensity score derived from a retrospective cohort and subsequently applied in a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain before the start of acupuncture or usual care treatment and enrollment in a comparative effectiveness study that required patient reported pain outcomes. Methods We assembled a retrospective cohort study using data from 2010 to develop a propensity score for acupuncture versus usual care based on electronic healthcare record and administrative data (e.g., pharmacy from an integrated health plan, Kaiser Permanente Northwest. The propensity score’s probabilities allowed us to match acupuncture-referred and non-referred patients prospectively in 2013-14 after a routine outpatient visit for pain. Among the matched patients, we collected patient-reported pain before treatment and during follow-up to assess the comparative effectiveness of acupuncture. We assessed balance in patient characteristics with the post-matching c-statistic and standardized differences. Results Based on the propensity score and other characteristics (e.g., patient-reported pain, we were able to match all 173 acupuncture-referred patients to 350 non-referred (usual care patients. We observed a residual imbalance (based on the standardized differences for some characteristics that contributed to the score; for example, age, -0.283, and the Charlson comorbidity score, -0.264, had the largest standardized differences. The overall balance of the propensity score appeared more favorable according to the post-matching c-statistic, 0.503. Conclusion The propensity score matching was feasible statistically and logistically and allowed approximate balance on patient characteristics, some of which will require adjustment in the comparative effectiveness regression model. By transporting propensity

  3. Longer-term Baerveldt to Trabectome glaucoma surgery comparison using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Tigran; Shazly, Tarek; Kaplowitz, Kevin B; Wang, Steven Z; Kola, Sushma; Brown, Eric N; Loewen, Nils A

    2017-12-01

    To apply propensity score matching to compare Baerveldt glaucoma drainage implant (BGI) to Trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT). Recent data suggests that AIT can produce results similar to BGI which is traditionally reserved for more severe glaucoma. BGI and AIT patients with at least 1 year of follow-up were included. The primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, and a Glaucoma Index (GI) score. GI reflected glaucoma severity based on visual field, the number of preoperative medications, and preoperative IOP. Score matching used a genetic algorithm consisting of age, gender, type of glaucoma, concurrent phacoemulsification, baseline number of medications, and baseline IOP. Patients with neovascular glaucoma, with prior glaucoma surgery, or without a close match were excluded. Of 353 patients, 30 AIT patients were matched to 29 BGI patients. Baseline characteristics including, IOP, the number of glaucoma medications, type of glaucoma, the degree of VF loss and GI were not significantly different between AIT and BGI. BGI had a preoperative IOP of 21.6 ± 6.3 mmHg compared to 21.5 ± 7.4 for AIT on 2.8 ± 1.1 medications and 2.5 ± 2.3 respectively. At 30 months, the mean IOP was 15.0 ± 3.9 mmHg for AIT versus 15.0 ± 5.7 mmHg for BGI (p > 0.05), while the number of drops was 1.5 ± 1.3 for AIT (change: p = 0.001) versus 2.4 ± 1.2 for BGI (change: p = 0.17; AIT vs BGI: 0.007). Success, defined as IOP  0.05) and 50% versus 52% at 2.5 years. A propensity score matched comparison of AIT and BGI demonstrated a similar IOP reduction through 1 year. AIT required fewer medications.

  4. Propensity score estimation to address calendar time-specific channeling in comparative effectiveness research of second generation antipsychotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie B Dusetzina

    Full Text Available Channeling occurs when a medication and its potential comparators are selectively prescribed based on differences in underlying patient characteristics. Drug safety advisories can provide new information regarding the relative safety or effectiveness of a drug product which might increase selective prescribing. In particular, when reported adverse effects vary among drugs within a therapeutic class, clinicians may channel patients toward or away from a drug based on the patient's underlying risk for an adverse outcome. If channeling is not identified and appropriately managed it might lead to confounding in observational comparative effectiveness studies.To demonstrate channeling among new users of second generation antipsychotics following a Food and Drug Administration safety advisory and to evaluate the impact of channeling on cardiovascular risk estimates over time.Florida Medicaid data from 2001-2006.Retrospective cohort of adults initiating second generation antipsychotics. We used propensity scores to match olanzapine initiators with other second generation antipsychotic initiators. To evaluate channeling away from olanzapine following an FDA safety advisory, we estimated calendar time-specific propensity scores. We compare the performance of these calendar time-specific propensity scores with conventionally-estimated propensity scores on estimates of cardiovascular risk.Increased channeling away from olanzapine was evident for some, but not all, cardiovascular risk factors and corresponded with the timing of the FDA advisory. Covariate balance was optimized within period and across all periods when using the calendar time-specific propensity score. Hazard ratio estimates for cardiovascular outcomes did not differ across models (Conventional PS: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.81-3.18 versus calendar time-specific PS: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.77-3.04.Changes in channeling over time was evident for several covariates but had limited impact on cardiovascular risk

  5. Propensity-score matching in the cardiovascular surgery literature from 2004 to 2006: a systematic review and suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C

    2007-11-01

    I conducted a systematic review of the use of propensity score matching in the cardiovascular surgery literature. I examined the adequacy of reporting and whether appropriate statistical methods were used. I examined 60 articles published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery, European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, and the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006. Thirty-one of the 60 studies did not provide adequate information on how the propensity score-matched pairs were formed. Eleven (18%) of studies did not report on whether matching on the propensity score balanced baseline characteristics between treated and untreated subjects in the matched sample. No studies used appropriate methods to compare baseline characteristics between treated and untreated subjects in the propensity score-matched sample. Eight (13%) of the 60 studies explicitly used statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of matched data when estimating the effect of treatment on the outcomes. Two studies used appropriate methods for some outcomes, but not for all outcomes. Thirty-nine (65%) studies explicitly used statistical methods that were inappropriate for matched-pairs data when estimating the effect of treatment on outcomes. Eleven studies did not report the statistical tests that were used to assess the statistical significance of the treatment effect. Analysis of propensity score-matched samples tended to be poor in the cardiovascular surgery literature. Most statistical analyses ignored the matched nature of the sample. I provide suggestions for improving the reporting and analysis of studies that use propensity score matching.

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Root Reimplantation and Bentall Procedure: Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heemoon; Cho, Yang Hyun; Sung, Kiick; Kim, Wook Sung; Park, Kay-Hyun; Jeong, Dong Seop; Park, Pyo Won; Lee, Young Tak

    2018-03-26

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of aortic root replacement(ARR) surgery:Root reimplantation as valve-sparing root replacement(VSR) and the Bentall procedure. We retrospectively reviewed 216 patients who underwent ARR between 1995 and 2013 at Samsung Medical Center. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the procedure they underwent: Bentall(n=134) and VSR(n=82). The mean follow-up duration was 100.9±56.4 months. There were 2 early deaths in the Bentall group and none in the VSR group(p=0.53). Early morbidities were not different between the groups. Overall mortality was significantly lower in the VSR group (HR=0.12,p=0.04). Despite the higher reoperation rate in the VSR group(p=0.03), major adverse valve-related events(MAVRE) did not differ between the groups(p=0.28). Bleeding events were significantly higher in the Bentall group during follow-up(10 in Bentall group, 0 in VSR group, p=0.04). here were 6 thromboembolic events only in the Bentall group(p=0.11). We performed a propensity score matching analysis comparing the groups(134 Bentall vs 43 VSR). Matched analysis gave similar results, i.e. HR=0.17 and p=0.10 for overall mortality and HR=1.01 and p=0.99 for MAVRE. Although there was marginal significance in the propensity matched analysis, it is plausible to anticipate a survival benefit with VSR during long-term follow-up. Despite a higher reoperation for aortic valves, VSR can be a viable option in patients who decline life-long anticoagulation, especially the young or the patients in whom anticoagulation is contraindicated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A propensity score approach to correction for bias due to population stratification using genetic and non-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huaqing; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Mitra, Nandita

    2009-12-01

    Confounding due to population stratification (PS) arises when differences in both allele and disease frequencies exist in a population of mixed racial/ethnic subpopulations. Genomic control, structured association, principal components analysis (PCA), and multidimensional scaling (MDS) approaches have been proposed to address this bias using genetic markers. However, confounding due to PS can also be due to non-genetic factors. Propensity scores are widely used to address confounding in observational studies but have not been adapted to deal with PS in genetic association studies. We propose a genomic propensity score (GPS) approach to correct for bias due to PS that considers both genetic and non-genetic factors. We compare the GPS method with PCA and MDS using simulation studies. Our results show that GPS can adequately adjust and consistently correct for bias due to PS. Under no/mild, moderate, and severe PS, GPS yielded estimated with bias close to 0 (mean=-0.0044, standard error=0.0087). Under moderate or severe PS, the GPS method consistently outperforms the PCA method in terms of bias, coverage probability (CP), and type I error. Under moderate PS, the GPS method consistently outperforms the MDS method in terms of CP. PCA maintains relatively high power compared to both MDS and GPS methods under the simulated situations. GPS and MDS are comparable in terms of statistical properties such as bias, type I error, and power. The GPS method provides a novel and robust tool for obtaining less-biased estimates of genetic associations that can consider both genetic and non-genetic factors. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. A propensity score analysis of the impact of surgical intervention on unexpected 30-day readmission following admission for subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Lynze R; Sheehan, Kyle M; Roark, Christopher D; Joseph, Jacob R; Burke, James F; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Williamson, Craig A

    2017-12-22

    OBJECTIVE Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common disease that is increasingly being managed nonoperatively. The all-cause readmission rate for SDH has not previously been described. This study seeks to describe the incidence of unexpected 30-day readmission in a cohort of patients admitted to an academic neurosurgical center. Additionally, the relationship between operative management, clinical outcome, and unexpected readmission is explored. METHODS This is an observational study of 200 consecutive adult patients with SDH admitted to the neurosurgical ICU of an academic medical center. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies were compared between readmitted and nonreadmitted patients. Multivariable logistic regression, weighted by the inverse probability of receiving surgery using propensity scores, was used to evaluate the association between operative management and unexpected readmission. RESULTS Of 200 total patients, 18 (9%) died during hospitalization and were not included in the analysis. Overall, 48 patients (26%) were unexpectedly readmitted within 30 days. Sixteen patients (33.3%) underwent SDH evacuation during their readmission. Factors significantly associated with unexpected readmission were nonoperative management (72.9% vs 54.5%, p = 0.03) and female sex (50.0% vs 32.1%, p = 0.03). In logistic regression analysis weighted by the inverse probability of treatment and including likely confounders, surgical management was not associated with likelihood of a good outcome at hospital discharge, but was associated with significantly reduced odds of unexpected readmission (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08-0.49). CONCLUSIONS Over 25% of SDH patients admitted to an academic neurosurgical ICU were unexpectedly readmitted within 30 days. Nonoperative management does not affect outcome at hospital discharge but is significantly associated with readmission, even when accounting for the probability of treatment by propensity score weighted

  9. Association between long work hours and depressive state: a pilot study of propensity score matched Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mitsuo; Morita, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    Although long work hours have been associated with various physical health problems, studies of their association with mental health have yielded inconsistent results, due to differences in study settings, study outcome and/or unmeasured background factors. In this study, we used a propensity score method to evaluate the association between work hours and depressive state. A total of 467 Japanese white-collar workers were surveyed and divided into long and regular work hour groups according to overtime work records. Propensity score matching was performed based on 32 individual background and workplace factors, yielding 74 pairs of propensity-matched subjects. CES-D score, an indicator of depressive state, did not differ significantly among the two groups (p=0.203). However, work motivation, work control, social support and emotional stability correlated with CES-D score. These findings suggest that work control and social support factors are more associated with depressive state than control of work hours. These results also suggest that it is possible to use propensity score matching to evaluate the association between work hours and mental health in occupational study settings. Further studies, in larger populations, are required to determine the association between work hours and mental health parameters.

  10. Tocolysis after preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal outcome: a propensity-score analysis.

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    Lorthe, Elsa; Goffinet, François; Marret, Stéphane; Vayssiere, Christophe; Flamant, Cyril; Quere, Mathilde; Benhammou, Valérie; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Kayem, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    There are conflicting results regarding tocolysis in cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Delaying delivery may reduce neonatal morbidity because of prematurity and allow for prenatal corticosteroids and, if necessary, in utero transfer. However, that may increase the risks of maternofetal infection and its adverse consequences. The objective of the study was to investigate whether tocolytic therapy in cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with improved neonatal or obstetric outcomes. Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels 2 is a French national prospective, population-based cohort study of preterm births that occurred in 546 maternity units in 2011. Inclusion criteria in this analysis were women with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 24-32 weeks' gestation and singleton gestations. Outcomes were survival to discharge without severe morbidity, latency prolonged by ≥48 hours and histological chorioamnionitis. Uterine contractions at admission, individual and obstetric characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared by tocolytic treatment or not. Propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting for each woman were used to minimize indication bias in estimating the association of tocolytic therapy with outcomes. The study population consisted of 803 women; 596 (73.4%) received tocolysis. Women with and without tocolysis did not differ in neonatal survival without severe morbidity (86.7% vs 83.9%, P = .39), latency prolonged by ≥48 hours (75.1% vs 77.4%, P = .59), or histological chorioamnionitis (50.0% vs 47.6%, P = .73). After applying propensity scores and assigning inverse probability of treatment weighting, tocolysis was not associated with improved survival without severe morbidity as compared with no tocolysis (odds ratio, 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.09], latency prolonged by ≥48 hours (1.03 [95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.11]), or histological chorioamnionitis

  11. Comparative effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on hematological parameters using propensity score matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaka M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Hayasaka,1 Yasuo Takahashi,2 Yayoi Nishida,2 Yoshikazu Yoshida,1 Shinji Hidaka,3 Satoshi Asai41Department of Pharmacy, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, 2Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, 4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in real-world clinical settings. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters.Methods: We used data from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse obtained between November 2004 and May 2011 to identify cohorts of new users (n = 130 of clopidogrel (75 mg/day plus aspirin (100 mg/day and a propensity score matched sample of new users (n = 130 of aspirin alone (100 mg/day. We used a multivariate regression model to compare serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts up to 2 months after the start of administration of the study drugs.Results: There were no significant differences for any characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters between users of clopidogrel plus aspirin and users of aspirin alone. Reductions in white blood cell and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and

  12. Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Concomitant Ostomy-Associated Hernia Repair: Outcomes and Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericli, Alexander F; Garvey, Patrick B; Giordano, Salvatore; Liu, Jun; Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E

    2017-03-01

    The optimal strategy for abdominal wall reconstruction in the presence of a stomal-site hernia is unclear. We hypothesized that the rate of ventral hernia recurrence in patients undergoing a combined ventral hernia repair and stomal-site herniorraphy would not differ clinically from the ventral hernia recurrence rate in patients undergoing an isolated ventral hernia repair. We also hypothesized that bridged ventral hernia repairs result in worse outcomes compared with reinforced repairs, regardless of stomal hernia. We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from consecutive abdominal wall reconstructions performed with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) at a single center between 2000 and 2015. We compared patients who underwent a ventral hernia repair alone (AWR) and those who underwent both a ventral hernia repair and ostomy-associated herniorraphy (AWR+O). We conducted a propensity score matched analysis to compare the outcomes between the 2 groups. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to study associations between potential predictive or protective reconstructive strategies and surgical outcomes. We included 499 patients (median follow-up 27.2 months; interquartile range [IQR] 12.4 to 46.6 months), 118 AWR+O and 381 AWR. After propensity score matching, 91 pairs were obtained. Ventral hernia recurrence was not statistically associated with ostomy-associated herniorraphy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.7; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.5; p = 0.34). However, the AWR+O group experienced a significantly higher percentage of surgical site occurrences (34.1%) than the AWR group (18.7%; adjusted odds ratio 2.3; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.7; p < 0.001). In the AWR group, there were significantly fewer ventral hernia recurrences when the repair was reinforced compared with bridged (5.3% vs 38.5%; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ventral hernia recurrence between the AWR and AWR+O groups. Bridging was associated

  13. Propensity score method for analyzing the effect of labor induction in prolonged pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykönen, Aura; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Gissler, Mika; Haukka, Jari; Petäjä, Jari; Lehtonen, Lasse

    2018-04-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the optimal time of labor induction to reduce the risks associated with prolonged pregnancy. Registry-based study of 212 716 term, singleton cephalic deliveries between 2006 and 2012 in Finland comparing the outcomes of labor induction with those of expectant management in five, three-day gestational age periods between 40 and 42 weeks (group 1: 40 +0 -40 +2 ; group 2: 40 +3 -40 +5 ; group 3: 40 +6 -41 +1 ; group 4: 41 +2 -41 +4 ; group 5: 41 +5 -42 +0 ). Using Poisson regression, induced deliveries in each of the gestational age periods were compared with all ongoing pregnancies. Propensity score matching was applied to reduce confounding by indication. In the gestational age groups 1 and 2, labor induction significantly decreased the risk of meconium aspiration syndrome [relative risk (RR) 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.91 (group 1), RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.91 (group 2)] but increased the risk for prolonged hospitalization of a neonate [RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.10-1.54 (group 1) and RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.47 (group 2)]. In groups 3 and 4, labor induction significantly increased the risk for emergency cesarean section [RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.28 (group 3) and RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.29 (group 4)] but still reduced the risk for meconium aspiration syndrome. In group 5, labor induction did not affect the risk for any of the studied outcomes (operative delivery, obstetric trauma, neonatal mortality, respirator treatment, Apgar <7). Propensity score matching is a novel approach to studying the effect of labor induction. It highlighted the conflicting maternal and neonatal risks and benefits of the intervention, and supported expectant management as a valid option, at least until close to 42 weeks. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Are There Adverse Consequences to Being a Sibling of a Person with a Disability? A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether siblings of children with disabilities have increased mental health problems, behavioral difficulties, or greater mental health service use as compared to siblings of children without disabilities. Data come from the 2006 National Health Interview Survey. Propensity score matching was used to complete the analysis.…

  15. Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jin Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The associations of Internet addiction (IA and smartphone addiction (SA with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional web-based survey including socio-demographic items, the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Items-Revised. The participants were classified into IA, SA, and normal use (NU groups. To reduce sampling bias, we applied the propensity score matching method based on genetics matching. The IA group showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.207; p < 0.001 and anxiety (relative risk 1.264; p < 0.001 compared to NUs. The SA group also showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.337; p < 0.001 and anxiety (relative risk 1.402; p < 0.001 compared to NCs. These findings show that both, IA and SA, exerted significant effects on depression and anxiety. Moreover, our findings showed that SA has a stronger relationship with depression and anxiety, stronger than IA, and emphasized the need for prevention and management policy of the excessive smartphone use.

  16. Double-adjustment in propensity score matching analysis: choosing a threshold for considering residual imbalance.

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    Nguyen, Tri-Long; Collins, Gary S; Spence, Jessica; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Devereaux, P J; Landais, Paul; Le Manach, Yannick

    2017-04-28

    Double-adjustment can be used to remove confounding if imbalance exists after propensity score (PS) matching. However, it is not always possible to include all covariates in adjustment. We aimed to find the optimal imbalance threshold for entering covariates into regression. We conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations on virtual populations of 5,000 subjects. We performed PS 1:1 nearest-neighbor matching on each sample. We calculated standardized mean differences across groups to detect any remaining imbalance in the matched samples. We examined 25 thresholds (from 0.01 to 0.25, stepwise 0.01) for considering residual imbalance. The treatment effect was estimated using logistic regression that contained only those covariates considered to be unbalanced by these thresholds. We showed that regression adjustment could dramatically remove residual confounding bias when it included all of the covariates with a standardized difference greater than 0.10. The additional benefit was negligible when we also adjusted for covariates with less imbalance. We found that the mean squared error of the estimates was minimized under the same conditions. If covariate balance is not achieved, we recommend reiterating PS modeling until standardized differences below 0.10 are achieved on most covariates. In case of remaining imbalance, a double adjustment might be worth considering.

  17. Role of breastfeeding in childhood cognitive development: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, James C

    2012-09-01

    To examine whether the association between breastfeeding and childhood cognitive development is direct or whether the association is spurious owing to confounding variables. The current study conducted a propensity score matching (PSM) analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort.   The results of PSM models revealed that prior to matching, the association between breastfeeding and cognitive functioning was significant (mean difference = 3.20, t-value = 7.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.40-4.00, P ≤ 0.05). After controlling for a range of confounding factors, the mean difference was reduced by 40% (mean difference = 1.92, t-value = 3.75, 95% CI = 0.92-2.93, P ≤ 0.05); however, significant differences remained between groups. The results produced in the current study provide tentative evidence that breastfeeding may have an influence on the development of cognitive abilities in children. Additional research is necessary, however, in order to further evaluate the causal impact and exact developmental pathway of breastfeeding on childhood cognitive growth. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Reappraising the Impact of Offending on Victimization: A Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posick, Chad

    2017-05-01

    Existing evidence clearly supports an empirical connection between offending and victimization. Often called the "victim-offender overlap," this relationship holds for both sexes, across the life course, and across a wide range of countries and cultural environments. In addition, the relationship is sustained regardless of the study sample and statistical methods applied in the analyses of the sample data. However, there has yet to be a study that examines this relationship for violent and property crime using quasi-experimental methods accounting for a wide range of potential confounders including individual differences and cultural contexts. This study subjects the victim-offender relationship to testing through propensity score matching for both violent and property crimes using an international dataset. The results show that previous violent and theft offending increases the odds of victimization when matching on individual and contextual factors. This finding supports previous literature and suggests that delinquent behavior may act as a "switch" that exposes one to subsequent violent and theft victimization.

  19. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Matthew D.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Coffman, Donna L.; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  20. Effect of Prophylactic Antifungal Protocols on the Prognosis of Liver Transplantation: A Propensity Score Matching and Multistate Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whether routine antifungal prophylaxis decreases posttransplantation fungal infections in patients receiving orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of antifungal prophylaxis for patients receiving OLT. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of a database at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. We have been administering routine antibiotic and prophylactic antifungal regimens to recipients with high model for end-stage liver disease scores (>20 since 2009. After propensity score matching, 402 patients were enrolled. We conducted a multistate model to analyze the cumulative hazards, probability of fungal infections, and risk factors. Results. The cumulative hazards and transition probability of “transplantation to fungal infection” were lower in the prophylaxis group. The incidence rate of fungal infection after OLT decreased from 18.9% to 11.4% (p=0.052; overall mortality improved from 40.8% to 23.4% (p<0.001. In the “transplantation to fungal infection” transition, prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced hazards for fungal infection (hazard ratio: 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.34–0.96, p=0.033. Massive ascites, cadaver transplantation, and older age were significantly associated with higher risks for mortality. Conclusion. Prophylactic antifungal regimens in high-risk recipients might decrease the incidence of posttransplant fungal infections.

  1. Testosterone and Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Sung Won

    2016-07-01

    A recent study investigated the role of testosterone (T) in chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, only a small amount of data is available to date, and the results are inconsistent. To evaluate the relation between total T (TT) and CP/CPPS. We conducted a propensity-matched study by identifying men with a TT level lower than 3.5 ng/mL among 8,336 men in their 40s and 50s. A control group of men with a TT level of at least 3.5 ng/mL matched for age, metabolic syndrome, and body mass index at a 5:1 ratio was selected for comparison. Using the same cohort and methods, another case group (TT Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) was administered. A χ(2) test, a t-test and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relation between TT and prostatitis-like symptoms. Association of TT with NIH-CPSI score. After propensity score matching, 948 cases (TT prostatitis-like symptoms was higher in the case group than in the control group (24.0% vs 27.4%, P = .001). The ratio of moderate to severe prostatitis-like symptoms also was higher in the case group than in the control group (6.2% vs 9.2%, P = .028). The pain domain of the NIH-CPSI, quality of life, and total NIH-CPSI scores also were higher in the case group. Ratios of severe lower urinary tract symptoms (12.6% vs 15.1%, P = .044) to maximal flow rate no higher than 10 mL/sec (3.8% vs 5.3%, P = .044) and postvoid residual urine volume of at least 100 mL (4.0% vs 5.6%, P = .035), which suggest high pressure in the prostate urethra, were higher in the case group. After adjusting for voided volume during uroflowmetry and total prostate volume, the relations of a TT level lower than 3.5 ng/mL to a maximal flow rate no higher than 10 mL/sec (odds ratio = 1.402, 95% CI = 1.017-1.934, P = .039) and to a postvoid residual urine volume of at least 100 mL (odds ratio = 1.410, 95% CI = 1.031-1.927, P = .031) were maintained. Using the cutoff TT value of 3.0 ng/mL, 437 cases

  2. Effectiveness of penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime for penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: a retrospective, propensity-score-adjusted case-control and cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Jette Lindbjerg; Skov, Robert; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Benfield, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates account for a fifth of cases of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in Denmark, but little is known about treatment outcomes with penicillins or other antimicrobials. Here we compare penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime as definitive treatments in relation to 30 day mortality. A retrospective chart review of 588 penicillin-susceptible S. aureus cases at five centres from January 1995 to December 2010. Data on demographics, antimicrobial treatment, clinical signs and symptoms, and mortality at day 30 were collected. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs associated with mortality were modelled using propensity-score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Propensity-score-matched case-control studies were carried out. Definitive therapy with cefuroxime was associated with an increased risk of 30 day mortality compared with penicillin (adjusted HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.49-4.32). Other variables that were statistically significantly associated with 30 day mortality included increasing age, disease severity and a primary respiratory focus. Osteomyelitis/arthritis was associated with a lower risk of death than were other secondary manifestations. Propensity-score-matched case-control studies confirmed an increased risk of 30 day mortality: cefuroxime treatment (39%) versus penicillin treatment (20%), P = 0.037; and cefuroxime treatment (38%) versus dicloxacillin treatment (10%), P = 0.004. Definitive therapy for penicillin-susceptible SAB with cefuroxime was associated with a significantly higher mortality than was seen with therapy with penicillin or dicloxacillin.

  3. Perinatal mortality disparities between public care and private obstetrician-led care: a propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tudehope, D; Gibbons, K S; Flenady, V

    2018-01-01

    To examine whether disparities in stillbirth, and neonatal and perinatal mortality rates, between public and private hospitals are the result of differences in population characteristics and/or clinical practices. Retrospective cohort study. A metropolitan tertiary centre encompassing public and private hospitals. Women accessed care from either a private obstetrician or from public models of care - predominantly midwife-led care or care shared between midwives, general practitioners, and obstetricians. A total of 131 436 births during 1998-2013: 69 037 public and 62 399 private. Propensity score matching was used to select equal-sized public and private cohorts with similar characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was then used to explore the impact of public-private differences in the use of assisted reproductive technologies, plurality, major congenital anomalies, birth method, and gestational age. Stillbirth, and neonatal and perinatal mortality rates. After controlling for maternal and pregnancy factors, perinatal mortality rates were higher in the public than in the private cohort (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.29-1.80; stillbirth aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.26-1.94; neonatal death aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15-1.89). These disparities reduced by 15.7, 20.5, and 19.6%, respectively, after adjusting for major congenital anomalies, birth method, and gestational age. Perinatal mortality occurred more often among public than private births, and this disparity was not explained by population differences. Differences in clinical practices seem to be partly responsible. The impact of differences in clinical practices on maternal and neonatal morbidity was not examined. Further research is required. Private obstetrician-led care: more obstetric intervention and earlier births reduce perinatal mortality. Background Babies born in Australian public hospitals tend to die more often than those born in private hospitals. Our aim was to determine

  4. Radiofrequency ablation vs. surgery for perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma: Propensity score analyses of long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung; Kang, Tae Wook; Cha, Dong Ik; Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Min Woo; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Kyunga

    2018-07-01

    The therapeutic outcomes of surgical resection (SR) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been compared. The aim of this study was to compare SR with RFA as first-line treatment in patients with perivascular HCC and to evaluate the long-term outcomes of both therapies. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement for informed consent was waived. Between January 2006 and December 2010, a total of 283 consecutive patients with small perivascular HCCs (≤3 cm, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A) underwent SR (n = 182) or RFA (n = 101) as a first-line treatment. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were compared by propensity score matching. Subgroup analysis of these outcomes was conducted according to the type of hepatic vessels. The median follow-up was 7.8 years. Matching yielded 62 pairs of patients. In the two matched groups, the PFS rates at 5 and 10 years were 58.0% and 17.8%, respectively, in the SR group, and 25.4% and 14.1%, respectively, in the RFA group (p radiofrequency ablation are both treatment options for perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma. We compared outcomes in patients treated with either method. Surgical resection provided better long-term tumor control and overall survival than radiofrequency ablation for patients with a small perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma (≤3 cm) as a first-line treatment, particularly for periportal tumors. The location of the tumor and the type of peritumoral hepatic vessels need to be considered when choosing between surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation for small HCCs. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spanking and subsequent behavioral problems in toddlers: A propensity score-matched, prospective study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuzono, Sakurako; Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Harsh or frequent spanking in early childhood is an established risk factor for later childhood behavioral problems as well as mental disorder in adulthood in Western societies. However, few studies have been conducted in Asian populations, where corporal punishment is relatively accepted. Moreover, the impacts of occasional spanking on subsequent behavioral problems remain uncertain. This study sought to investigate prospectively the association between the frequency of spanking of toddlers and later behavioral problems in Japanese children using national birth cohort data. We used data from the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century, a population-based birth cohort data set collected by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (N=29,182). Frequency of spanking ("never", "sometimes" and "always") and child behavioral problems were assessed via a caregiver questionnaire when the child was 3.5 years old and again at 5.5 years. Propensity score matching was used to examine the association between frequency of spanking and child behavioral problems, adjusting for parental socioeconomic status, child temperament and parenting behaviors. Compared to children who were never spanked, occasional spanking ("sometimes") showed a higher number of behavioral problems (on a 6-point scale) (coefficient: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.07-0.15), and frequent spanking ("always") showed an even larger number of behavioral problems compared with "sometimes" (coefficient: 0.08, 95% CI:0.01-0.16). Spanking of any self-reported frequency was associated with an increased risk for later behavioral problems in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Propensity score analysis of recurrence for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balde, Alpha I; Fang, Suzhen; He, Linyun; Cai, Zhai; Han, Shuai; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Zhou; Kang, Liang

    2017-11-01

    The perioperative serum neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed to predict adverse prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its interpretation remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of NLR in predicting survival among CRC patients. A single-centre, retrospective, propensity score-matched study of adenocarcinoma patients who underwent D3 lymphadenectomy via laparoscopic or open surgery between 2010 and 2016 was conducted. A cutoff of 3.5 was used based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. To overcome selection biases, we performed a 1:1 match using six covariates. The high-preoperative NLR group had a higher recurrence rate than the low group (P analysis showed that increased NLR (P analysis showed that N2 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.492; P = 0.008) was an adverse prognostic factor for RFS. Univariate analysis for overall survival (OS) revealed that high perioperative NLR (P = 0.001), N1 (P = 0.01), N2 (P analysis showed that M1 (HR, 3.973; P < 0.001) and N2 (HR, 2.381; P = 0.013) were highly adverse factors for OS. Clinical assessments performed during a 21.14 (±16.20)-mo follow-up revealed that OS (P = 0.001) and RFS (P < 0.001) were worse in the high-perioperative group than in the low group between the matched groups. An elevated preoperative NLR is a strong predictor of worse RFS and OS in CRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Robotic versus laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: A propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Liu, Qu; Zhao, Zhi-Ming; Tan, Xiang-Long; Gao, Yuan-Xing; Zhao, Guo-Dong

    2017-09-01

    Robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) is considered a safe and feasible alternative to laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP). However, previous studies have some limitations including small sample size and selection bias. This study aimed to evaluate whether the robotic approach has advantages over laparoscopic surgery in distal pancreatectomy. Demographics and perioperative outcomes among patients undergoing RDP (n = 102) and LDP (n = 102) between January 2011 and December 2015 were reviewed. A 1:1 propensity score matched analysis was performed between both groups. Both groups displayed no significant differences in perioperative outcomes including operative time, blood loss, transfusion rate, and rates of overall morbidities and pancreatic fistula. Robotic approach reduced the rate of conversion to laparotomy (2.9% vs 9.8%, P = 0.045), especially in patients with large tumors (0% vs 22.2%, P = 0.042). RDP improved spleen (SP) and splenic vessels preservation (SVP) rates in patients with moderate tumors (60.0% vs 35.5%, P = 0.047; 37.1% vs 12.9%, P = 0.025), especially in patients without malignancy (95.5% vs 52.4%, P = 0.001; 59.1% vs 19.0%, P = 0.007). RDP also reduced postoperative hospital stay (PHS) significantly (7.67% vs 8.58, P = 0.032). RDP is associated with less rate of conversion to laparotomy, shorter PHS, and improved SP and SVP rates in selected patients than LDP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy versus observation in thick melanoma: A multicenter propensity score matching study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Aram; Tejera-Vaquerizo, Antonio; Ribero, Simone; Puig, Susana; Moreno-Ramírez, David; Descalzo-Gallego, Miguel A; Fierro, María T; Quaglino, Pietro; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Bennássar, Antoni; Rull, Ramón; Alos, Llucìa; Requena, Celia; Bolumar, Isidro; Traves, Víctor; Pla, Ángel; Fernández-Figueras, María T; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Pascual, Iciar; Manzano, José L; Sánchez-Lucas, Marina; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Ferrandiz, Lara; Nagore, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    The clinical value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in thick melanoma patients (Breslow >4 mm) has not been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether SLN biopsy increases survival in patients with thick cutaneous melanoma, and, as a secondary objective, to investigate correlations between survival and lymph node status. We included 1,211 consecutive patients with thick melanomas (>4 mm) registered in the participating hospitals' melanoma databases between 1997 and 2015. Median follow-up was 40 months. Of these patients, 752 were matched into pairs by propensity scores based on sex, age, tumor location, histologic features of melanoma, year of diagnosis, hospital and adjuvant interferon therapy. The SLN biopsy vs. observation was associated with better DFS [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.90); p = 0.002] and OS (AHR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.94; p = 0.013) but not MSS (AHR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.65-1.08; p = 0.165). SLN-negative patients had better 5- and 10-year MSS compared with SLN-positive patients (65.4 vs. 51.9% and 48.3 vs. 38.8%; p = 0.01, respectively). As a conclusion, SLN biopsy was associated with better DFS but not MSS in thick melanoma patients after adjustment for classic prognostic factors. SLN biopsy is useful for stratifying these patients into different prognostic groups. © 2017 UICC.

  9. Superior metastasis-free survival for patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy compared to radical prostatectomy: A propensity score-matched analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Markovina, MD, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: For high-risk prostate cancer (HR-PCa in men with a life expectancy of at least 10 years, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends radiation therapy (RT plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT with category 1 evidence or radical prostatectomy (RP as an acceptable initial therapy. Randomized evidence regarding which therapy is optimal for disease control is lacking for men with HR-PCa. We performed a propensity-score-matched comparison of outcomes for men with localized HR-PCa treated with primary RT or RP. Methods and materials: The medical records of patients with localized HR-PCa who were treated at our institution between 2002 and 2011 were reviewed. Patient and disease characteristics, treatment details, and outcomes were collected. A combination of nearest-neighbor propensity score matching on age, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 comorbidity index, prostate-specific antigen, biopsy Gleason scores, and clinical T-stage as well as exact matching on prostate-specific antigen, biopsy Gleason scores, and clinical T-stage was performed. Outcomes were measured from diagnosis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare metastasis-free and overall survival. Results: A total of 246 patients were identified with 62 propensity-score-matched pairs. ADT was administered to 6.5% and 80.6% of patients receiving RP and RT, respectively. Five-year rates of metastasis for RP and RT were 33% and 8.9%, respectively (P = .003. Overall survival was not different. Delay of salvage therapy was longer for patients undergoing primary RT (P < .001. Findings were similar when only those patients who did not receive ADT were compared. Conclusions: At our institution, treatment with primary RT resulted in superior metastasis-free survival over RP. This was not accompanied by an improvement in OS.

  10. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in real-world patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction: 1-year results by propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Matteo; Sànchez, Federico Ariel; Boasi, Valentina; Perri, Dino; Tacchi, Chiara; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Cattunar, Stefano; Pistis, Gianfranco; Mascelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-05

    European guidelines recommend the use of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This recommendation is based on inconclusive results and subanalyses from clinical trials. Few data are available on the effects of ticagrelor in a real-world population. To compare the effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in a real-world STEMI population, we conducted a pre-post case-control study examining all patients with STEMI included in the Cardio-STEMI Sanremo registry between February 2011 and June 2013. Cases and controls were defined according to P2Y 12 inhibitors, correcting the bias due to lack of randomization by propensity score analysis. Ticagrelor was introduced in 2012 in both in-hospital and pre-hospital settings independently of this study. Of the 416 patients enrolled in the Cardio-STEMI registry, 401 with a definite diagnosis of STEMI were included in this study. One hundred forty-two patients received ticagrelor and 259 received clopidogrel. Regarding clinical presentation and procedural data, those in the ticagrelor group had lower CRUSADE scores (23 [14-36] vs 27 [18-38]; p = 0.015] but a higher proportion of radial access (33% vs 14%; p word propensity score analysis, ticagrelor did not affect the risk of MACE during the hospital phase, or the incidence of hospital bleeding in patients with STEMI. However, in this mono-centric experience, ticagrelor resulted in improved 1-year survival, even after correction by propensity score.

  11. Laparoscopic Versus Open Right Posterior Sectionectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a High-Volume Center: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhu, Jinsoo; Kim, Sung Joo; Choi, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Man; Joh, Jae-Won; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David

    2018-02-09

    While minimal invasive surgery is becoming popular in liver resection, right posterior sectionectomy (RPS) is still considered as a difficult procedure. We summarize the clinical data and investigate the feasibility of laparoscopic right posterior sectionectomy (LRPS) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by comparing its outcomes with those of open right posterior sectionectomy (ORPS). We retrospectively reviewed 191 patients who underwent RPS for HCC during January 2009 to August 2016 at Samsung Medical Center. After 1:2 propensity score matching, 53 patients in LRPS group were matched to 97 patients in ORPS group. There was no statistical difference in preoperative data. While operation time was significantly longer in LRPS group (381.1 ± 118.7 vs. 234.4 ± 63.7 min, P < 0.001), transfusion rate (13.2 vs. 2.1%, P = 0.061) and complication rate (9.4 vs. 8.3%, P = 0.709) were not statistically different between groups. Clustered Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for matched paired data showed no difference in both disease-free survival (P = 0.607) and overall survival (P = 0.858). In HCC, LRPS can be performed safely compared to ORPS, regarding the operative outcome, patient recovery, and oncological outcomes.

  12. Combination of post-operative radiotherapy and cetuximab for high-risk cutaneous squamous cell cancer of the head and neck: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Joshua D; Schneider, Charles J; Hockstein, Neil; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Silberg, Jordan; Strasser, Jon; Mauer, Elizabeth A; Dzeda, Michael; Witt, Robert; Raben, Adam

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of radiotherapy plus cetuximab in high risk CSCC patients. Patients with high-risk CSCC diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus cetuximab. Among 68 patients meeting study criteria, we identified 29 treated with cetuximab plus RT and 39 with RT alone. Primary analysis examined disease-free and overall survival, freedom from local and distant recurrence in the propensity score matched cohort. Propensity score analysis was performed with weighted factors including: Charlson Comorbidity Index score, age. KPS, primary location, T and N stage, recurrent status, margin status, LVSI, PNI and grade. Toxicity was assessed using the CTCAE v4.0. Median follow-up for living patients was 30 months. Patients in the cetuximab group were more likely to have advanced N stage, positive margins and recurrent disease. After propensity score matching the groups were well balanced. Six patients experienced ≥ grade 3 acute toxicity in the cetuximab group. The 1-year, 2-year and 5-year progression free survival (PFS) for patients in the cetuximab group were 86%, 72% and 66%, respectively. The 1-year, 2-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) for patients in the cetuximab group was 98%, 80% and 80%, respectively. Although limited by small numbers, the combination of cetuximab and radiotherapy in CSCC appears well tolerated there were more long-term survivors and less distant metastasis in the cetuximab group. These promising finding warrant further studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oncological and functional outcomes of elderly men treated with HIFU vs. minimally invasive radical prostatectomy: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Barret, Eric; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    To assess outcomes of whole gland high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as compared with minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) in elderly patients. Patients aged ≥70 years with, cT1-cT2 disease, biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3 + 3 or 3 + 4 and preoperative PSA ≤10 ng/mL were submitted to either whole-gland HIFU or MIRP. Propensity-score matching analysis was performed to ensure the baseline equivalence of groups. Follow-up visits were routinely performed assessing PSA and urinary function according to the International Continence Score (ICS) and the International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS) questionnaires. Estimated rates of salvage-treatment free survival (SFS) overall-survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and metastasis-free survival (MTS) were assessed and compared. Overall, 84 (33.3%) and 168 (66.7%) patients were treated with HIFU and MIRP, respectively. MIRP was associated with a 5-yrs SFS of 93.4% compared to 74.8% for HIFU (p < 0.01). The two groups did not differ in terms of OS and MTS. No cancer-related deaths were registered. Patients treated with HIFU showed better short-term (6-mos) continence outcomes [mean-ICS: 1.7 vs. 4.8; p = 0.005] but higher IPSS mean scores at 12-mos assessment. A comparable rate of patients experiencing post-treatment Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III complications was observed within the two groups. Whole-gland HIFU is a feasible treatment in elderly men with low-to intermediate-risk PCa and could be considered for patients either unfit for surgery, or willing a non-invasive treatment with a low morbidity burden, although a non-negligible risk of requiring subsequent treatment for recurrence should be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  14. Ulinastatin administration is associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: a propensity score matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xin; Xie, Xiangcheng; Gendoo, Yasser; Chen, Xin; Ji, Xiaobing; Cao, Changchun

    2016-02-17

    Systemic inflammation is involved in the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Ulinastatin, a urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), possesses a variety of anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the administration of ulinastatin would reduce the occurrence of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. A retrospective propensity score matched analysis was used to evaluate the effect of ulinastatin on the development of AKI in patients undergoing first documented cardiac surgery with CPB between January 2008 and December 2012 in our hospital. Multiple logistic regression models were also employed to identify the association between UTI administration and development of AKI. A total of 2072 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB met the inclusion criteria. Before propensity score matching, variables such as age, baseline creatinine, CPB duration, red blood cells transfused, and hematocrit were statistically different between the ulinastatin (UTI) group and the control group. On the basis of propensity scores, 409 UTI patients were successfully matched to the 409 patients from among those 1663 patients without UTI administration. After propensity score matching, no statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics were found between the UTI group and the control group. The propensity score matched cohort analysis revealed that AKI and the need for renal replacement therapy occurred more frequently in the control group than in the UTI group (40.83% vs. 30.32%, P = 0.002; 2.44% vs. 0.49%, P = 0.02, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in mortality, length of intensive care unit stay, and length of hospital stay between the UTI group and the control group. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found ulinastatin played a protective role in the development of AKI after cardiac surgery (odds ratio 0.71, 95% confidence

  15. Thyrotropin Suppressive Therapy for Low-Risk Small Thyroid Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suyeon; Kim, Won Gu; Han, Minkyu; Jeon, Min Ji; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Mijin; Sung, Tae-Yon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Bae; Hong, Suck Joon; Shong, Young Kee

    2017-09-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) suppression has improved the clinical outcomes of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the efficacy of TSH suppressive therapy (TST) is unclear in patients with low-risk DTC. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TST and optimal TSH levels of patients with low-risk DTC. This retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study included DTC patients (n = 446) who underwent lobectomy from 2002 to 2008 with or without TST (TST group and No-TST group). Disease-free survival (DFS) and dynamic risk stratification were compared between both groups using serum TSH levels. Approximately 74% of TST patients and 11% of No-TST patients had suppressed serum TSH levels (<2 mIU/L). The median follow-up period was 8.6 years. During follow-up, the disease recurred in 10 (2.7%) patients, with no significant difference in DFS between the groups (p = 0.63). The proportion of patients with excellent treatment response was similar between the TST (65.2%) and No-TST (64.4%) groups. Incomplete biochemical response was noted in 17.2% of the TST group patients and 9.4% of the No-TST group patients. No significant difference was observed in the DFS between both groups by comparing serum TSH level (p = 0.57). TST did not improve clinical outcomes, and serum TSH levels were not associated with recurrence in patients with low-risk small DTC. No clinical benefits were shown for TSH suppression in low-risk patients who underwent lobectomy. Thus, levothyroxine is not necessary for patients without evidence of hypothyroidism.

  16. Surgery vs. radiotherapy in patients with uveal melanoma. Analysis of the SEER database using propensity score matching and weighting

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    Jang, Bum-Sup [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ji Hyun [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sohee [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yu Jin [Kyunghee University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    The treatment modalities for uveal melanoma (UM) include surgery and radiotherapy (RT). The utilization of RT as a strategy for organ preservation has been increasing, but the survival difference between the two aforementioned treatment modalities has not been reported. An observational and cohort study was performed using a propensity score with an already existing public database. Patients diagnosed with UM within the period from 2004-2013 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. One-to-one matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score were used to estimate and compare survival rates. Overall, 3291 patients were treated: 2503 received RT only (RT group) and 788 received surgical resection only (surgery group). The RT group had an improved crude 5-year overall survival (OS) rate compared with the surgery group (76% vs. 60%, P < 0.001), and an improved 5-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS) rate (89% vs. 73%, P < 0.001). Compared to the surgery group, the RT group was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.73, P < 0.001) and MSS (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.35-0.65, P < 0.001) in the matched cohort. The survival benefit of the RT group maintained after adjustment with IPTW, both in OS and MSS. To our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate the survival difference between the two treatment modalities for UM using both the propensity score matching and weighting methods with the SEER database. The current study suggests that RT may provide a survival advantage over surgery in the treatment of UM. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlungsmodalitaeten fuer das Uveamelanom (UM) sind die Chirurgie und Strahlentherapie (RT). Die Nutzung der RT als Strategie zum Organerhalt hat zugenommen, aber der Unterschied in der Ueberlebensrate zwischen den beiden zuvor genannten Behandlungsmodalitaeten wurde nicht berichtet. Beobachtungs- und

  17. Cold snare polypectomy reduced delayed postpolypectomy bleeding compared with conventional hot polypectomy: a propensity score-matching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Takeshi; Fukuhara, Manabu; Maruo, Takanori; Tanke, Gensho; Marui, Saiko; Sada, Ryota; Taki, Mio; Ohara, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Azusa; Henmi, Shinichiro; Sawai, Yugo; Saito, Sumio; Nishijima, Norihiro; Nasu, Akihiro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Sekikawa, Akira; Asada, Masanori; Tumura, Takehiko; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Osaki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims  Cold snare polypectomy (CSP) for small colorectal polyps has lower incidence of adverse events, especially delayed postpolypectomy bleeding (DPPB). However, few data are available on comparisons of the incidence of DPPB of CSP and hot polypectomy (HP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of DPPB after CSP and compare it with that of HP. A propensity score model was used as a secondary analysis. Patients and methods  This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in a single municipal hospital. We identified 539 patients with colorectal polyps from 2 mm to 11 mm in size who underwent CSP (804 polyps in 330 patients) or HP (530 polyps in 209 patients) between July 2013 and June 2015. Results  There were no cases of DPPB in the CSP group. Conversely, DPPB occurred in 4 patients (1.9 %) after HP, resulting in a significant difference between the CSP and HP groups (0.008 % vs 0 %, P  = 0.02). Propensity score-matching analysis created 402 matched pairs, yielding a significantly higher DPPB rate in the HP group than CSP group (0.02 % vs 0 %, P  = 0.04). However, significantly more patients in the CSP group had unclear horizontal margins that precluded assessment (83 vs 38 cases, P  < 0.001). The retrieval failure rate was significantly higher in the CSP group than in the HP group (3 % vs 0.7 %, P  = 0.01). Conclusions  DPPB was less frequent with CSP than HP, as selected by the propensity score-matching model. Our findings indicate that CSP is recommended polypectomy in daily clinical setting. However, special care should be taken during polyp retrieval and horizontal margin assessment, and these issues could be taken into account in follow-up after CSP. PMID:28670615

  18. Health related quality of life among myocardial infarction survivors in the United States: a propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Lea; Bhattacharjee, Sandipan

    2017-12-04

    Little is known regarding the health-related quality of life among myocardial infarction (MI) survivors in the United States. The purpose of this population-based study was to identify differences in health-related quality of life domains between MI survivors and propensity score matched controls. This retrospective, cross-sectional matched case-control study examined differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among MI survivors of myocardial infarction compared to propensity score matched controls using data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Propensity scores were generated via logistic regression for MI survivors and controls based on gender, race/ethnicity, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and comorbidities. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences between MI survivors to controls for demographic variables. A multivariate analysis of HRQoL domains estimated odds ratios. Life satisfaction, sleep quality, and activity limitations were estimated using binary logistic regression. Social support, perceived general health, perceived physical health, and perceived mental health were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Significance was set at p 15 days in the month (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.46-1.83) and poor mental health >15 days in the month (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.07-1.46) compared to matched controls. There was no difference in survivors compared to controls in level of emotional support (rarely/never: AOR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.48-1.18; sometimes: AOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.41-1.28), hours of recommended sleep (AOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.94-1.38), or life satisfaction (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 0.99-2.63). MI survivors experienced lower HRQoL on domains of general health, physical health, daily activity, and mental health compared to the general population.

  19. Propensity scores-potential outcomes framework to incorporate severity probabilities in the highway safety manual crash prediction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Donnell, Eric T

    2014-10-01

    Accurate estimation of the expected number of crashes at different severity levels for entities with and without countermeasures plays a vital role in selecting countermeasures in the framework of the safety management process. The current practice is to use the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Highway Safety Manual crash prediction algorithms, which combine safety performance functions and crash modification factors, to estimate the effects of safety countermeasures on different highway and street facility types. Many of these crash prediction algorithms are based solely on crash frequency, or assume that severity outcomes are unchanged when planning for, or implementing, safety countermeasures. Failing to account for the uncertainty associated with crash severity outcomes, and assuming crash severity distributions remain unchanged in safety performance evaluations, limits the utility of the Highway Safety Manual crash prediction algorithms in assessing the effect of safety countermeasures on crash severity. This study demonstrates the application of a propensity scores-potential outcomes framework to estimate the probability distribution for the occurrence of different crash severity levels by accounting for the uncertainties associated with them. The probability of fatal and severe injury crash occurrence at lighted and unlighted intersections is estimated in this paper using data from Minnesota. The results show that the expected probability of occurrence of fatal and severe injury crashes at a lighted intersection was 1 in 35 crashes and the estimated risk ratio indicates that the respective probabilities at an unlighted intersection was 1.14 times higher compared to lighted intersections. The results from the potential outcomes-propensity scores framework are compared to results obtained from traditional binary logit models, without application of propensity scores matching. Traditional binary logit analysis suggests that

  20. Household Financial Management and Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in the Philippines: A Study Using Propensity Score Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco

    2016-04-27

    This study explores the causal impact of independent management of household finances upon women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the Philippines. Propensity score matching is used to generate a casual estimate of the impact of women's roles as household financial managers on their experiences of IPV. Findings demonstrate that managing household finances independently significantly increased the severity of IPV women experienced from their partners compared with women who managed finances jointly with partners. Findings reinforce the importance of explicit attention to intrahousehold power dynamics and gender norms in the implementation of microfinance interventions intended to empower women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Early administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) in patients with cardiac arrest with initial shockable rhythm in hospital: propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars W; Kurth, Tobias; Chase, Maureen; Berg, Katherine M; Cocchi, Michael N; Callaway, Clifton; Donnino, Michael W

    2016-04-06

    To evaluate whether patients who experience cardiac arrest in hospital receive epinephrine (adrenaline) within the two minutes after the first defibrillation (contrary to American Heart Association guidelines) and to evaluate the association between early administration of epinephrine and outcomes in this population. Prospective observational cohort study. Analysis of data from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, which includes data from more than 300 hospitals in the United States. Adults in hospital who experienced cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, including patients who had a first defibrillation within two minutes of the cardiac arrest and who remained in a shockable rhythm after defibrillation. Epinephrine given within two minutes after the first defibrillation. Survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge with a good functional outcome. A propensity score was calculated for the receipt of epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, based on multiple characteristics of patients, events, and hospitals. Patients who received epinephrine at either zero, one, or two minutes after the first defibrillation were then matched on the propensity score with patients who were "at risk" of receiving epinephrine within the same minute but who did not receive it. 2978 patients were matched on the propensity score, and the groups were well balanced. 1510 (51%) patients received epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, which is contrary to current American Heart Association guidelines. Epinephrine given within the first two minutes after the first defibrillation was associated with decreased odds of survival in the propensity score matched analysis (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.82; P<0.001). Early epinephrine administration was also associated with a decreased odds of return of spontaneous circulation

  2. Primer on statistical interpretation or methods report card on propensity-score matching in the cardiology literature from 2004 to 2006: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C

    2008-09-01

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used in the cardiology literature. Recent systematic reviews have found that this method is, in general, poorly implemented in the medical literature. The study objective was to examine the quality of the implementation of propensity-score matching in the general cardiology literature. A total of 44 articles published in the American Heart Journal, the American Journal of Cardiology, Circulation, the European Heart Journal, Heart, the International Journal of Cardiology, and the Journal of the American College of Cardiology between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006, were examined. Twenty of the 44 studies did not provide adequate information on how the propensity-score-matched pairs were formed. Fourteen studies did not report whether matching on the propensity score balanced baseline characteristics between treated and untreated subjects in the matched sample. Only 4 studies explicitly used statistical methods appropriate for matched studies to compare baseline characteristics between treated and untreated subjects. Only 11 (25%) of the 44 studies explicitly used statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of matched data when estimating the effect of treatment on the outcomes. Only 2 studies described the matching method used, assessed balance in baseline covariates by appropriate methods, and used appropriate statistical methods to estimate the treatment effect and its significance. Application of propensity-score matching was poor in the cardiology literature. Suggestions for improving the reporting and analysis of studies that use propensity-score matching are provided.

  3. Oncologic outcomes of single-incision versus conventional laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer: a propensity-score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Cho, Min Soo; Baek, Se Jin; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Kang, Jeonghyun; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oncologic outcomes, as well as perioperative and pathologic outcomes, of single-incision laparoscopic anterior resection (SILAR) compared with conventional laparoscopic anterior resection (CLAR) for sigmoid colon cancer using propensity-score matching analysis. From July 2009 through April 2012, a total of 407 patients underwent laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer. Data on short- and long-term outcomes were collected prospectively and reviewed. Propensity-score matching was applied at a ratio of 1:2 comparing the SILAR (n = 60) and CLAR (n = 120) groups. There was no difference in operation time, estimated blood loss, time to soft diet, and length of hospital stay; however, the SILAR group showed less pain on postoperative day 2 (mean 2.6 vs. 3.6; p = 0.000) and shorter length of incision (3.3 vs. 7.7 cm; p = 0.000) compared with the CLAR group. Morbidity, mortality, and pathologic outcomes were similar in both groups. The 3-year overall survival rates were 94.5 versus 97.1% (p = 0.223), and disease-free survival rates were 89.5 versus 87.4% (p = 0.751) in the SILAR and CLAR groups, respectively. The long-term oncologic outcomes, as well as short-term outcomes, of SILAR are comparable with those of CLAR. Although SILAR might have some technical difficulties, it appears to be a safe and feasible option, with better cosmetic results.

  4. Effectiveness of surgery and individualized high-dose hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy on survival in clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer. A propensity score matched analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Marcelo F.; Baardwijk, Angela van; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Novoa, Nuria M.; Varela, Gonzalo; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Surgery is considered the treatment of choice for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with poor pulmonary function or other comorbidities are treated with radiotherapy. The objective of this investigation is to compare the 3-year survival of two early-stage NSCLC populations treated in two different hospitals, either by surgical resection (lobectomy) or by individualized high-dose accelerated radiotherapy, after matching patients by propensity scoring analysis. Methods: A retrospective comparative study has been performed on two series of consecutive patients with cytohistological diagnosis of NSCLC, clinically staged IA by means of PET-scan (radiotherapy group) and pathologically staged IA (surgery group). Results: A total of 157 cases were initially selected for the analysis (110 operated and 47 treated by radiotherapy). Patients in the radiotherapy group were older, with higher comorbidity and lower FEV1% with 3-years probability of survival for operated patients higher than that found for patients treated by radiotherapy. After matching by propensity scoring (using age and FEV1%), differences disappear and 3-years probability of survival had no statistical differences. Conclusions: Although this is a non-randomized retrospective analysis, we have not found 3-years survival differences after matching cases between surgery and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, data presented here support the continuous investigation for non-surgical alternatives in this disease.

  5. Use of an online smoking cessation community promotes abstinence: Results of propensity score weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Papandonatos, George D; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A

    2015-12-01

    We estimated the causal effects of use of an online smoking cessation community on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months. Participants (N = 492) were adult current smokers in the enhanced Internet arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a Web-based smoking-cessation program that included a large, established online community. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading forum posts, viewing member profiles) and active (e.g., writing forum posts, sending private messages) community use were extracted from the site at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: "None," "Passive," and "Both" (passive + active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, psychosocial, and medical history variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Patterns of community use were: None = 198 (40.2%), Passive = 110 (22.4%), and Both = 184 (37.4%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None = 4.2% (95% CI = 1.5-6.9); Passive = 15.1% (95% CI = 8.4-21.9); Both = 20.4% (95% CI = 13.9-26.8). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of community use. Community users were more likely to quit smoking at 3 months than nonusers. The estimated benefit from use of online community resources was even larger among subjects with high propensity to use them. No differences in abstinence emerged between passive and passive/active users. Results suggest that lurking in online communities confers specific abstinence benefits. Implications of these findings for online cessation communities are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Anesthesia Technique and Mortality after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective, Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlas, Anahi; Chan, Vincent W S; Beattie, Scott

    2016-10-01

    This propensity score-matched cohort study evaluates the effect of anesthetic technique on a 30-day mortality after total hip or knee arthroplasty. All patients who had hip or knee arthroplasty between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2014, were evaluated. The principal exposure was spinal versus general anesthesia. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were (1) perioperative myocardial infarction; (2) a composite of major adverse cardiac events that includes cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, or newly diagnosed arrhythmia; (3) pulmonary embolism; (4) major blood loss; (5) hospital length of stay; and (6) operating room procedure time. A propensity score-matched-pair analysis was performed using a nonparsimonious logistic regression model of regional anesthetic use. We identified 10,868 patients, of whom 8,553 had spinal anesthesia and 2,315 had general anesthesia. Ninety-two percent (n = 2,135) of the patients who had general anesthesia were matched to similar patients who did not have general anesthesia. In the matched cohort, the 30-day mortality rate was 0.19% (n = 4) in the spinal anesthesia group and 0.8% (n = 17) in the general anesthesia group (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.83; P = 0.0045). Spinal anesthesia was also associated with a shorter hospital length of stay (5.7 vs. 6.6 days; P anesthesia and lower 30-day mortality, as well as a shorter hospital length of stay, after elective joint replacement surgery.

  7. Infectious complications in head and neck cancer patients treated with cetuximab: propensity score and instrumental variable analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chih Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To compare the infection rates between cetuximab-treated patients with head and neck cancers (HNC and untreated patients. METHODOLOGY: A national cohort of 1083 HNC patients identified in 2010 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was established. After patients were followed for one year, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis were performed to assess the association between cetuximab therapy and the infection rates. RESULTS: HNC patients receiving cetuximab (n = 158 were older, had lower SES, and resided more frequently in rural areas as compared to those without cetuximab therapy. 125 patients, 32 (20.3% in the group using cetuximab and 93 (10.1% in the group not using it presented infections. The propensity score analysis revealed a 2.3-fold (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.27; 95% CI, 1.46-3.54; P = 0.001 increased risk for infection in HNC patients treated with cetuximab. However, using IVA, the average treatment effect of cetuximab was not statistically associated with increased risk of infection (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.61-1.14. CONCLUSIONS: Cetuximab therapy was not statistically associated with infection rate in HNC patients. However, older HNC patients using cetuximab may incur up to 33% infection rate during one year. Particular attention should be given to older HNC patients treated with cetuximab.

  8. Survival benefit of TIPS versus serial paracentesis in patients with refractory ascites: a single institution case-control propensity score analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaba, R.C.; Parvinian, A.; Casadaban, L.C.; Couture, P.M.; Zivin, S.P.; Lakhoo, J.; Minocha, J.; Ray, C.E.; Knuttinen, M.G.; Bui, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the impact of covered stent-graft transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus serial paracentesis on survival of patients with medically refractory ascites. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, cirrhotic patients who underwent covered stent-graft TIPS for refractory ascites from 2003–2013 were compared with similar patients who underwent serial paracentesis during 2009–2013. Demographic and liver disease data, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, and survival outcomes were obtained from hospital electronic medical records and the social security death index. After propensity score weighting to match study group characteristics, survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan–Meier statistics with log-rank analysis. Results: Seventy TIPS (70% men, mean age 55.7 years, mean MELD 15.1) and 80 paracentesis (58% men, mean age 53.5 years, mean MELD 22.5) patients were compared. The TIPS haemodynamic success rate was 100% (mean portosystemic pressure gradient reduction 13 mmHg). Paracentesis patients underwent a mean of 7.9 procedures. After propensity score weighting to balance group features, TIPS patients showed a trend toward enhanced survival compared with paracentesis patients (median survival 1037 versus 262 days, p = 0.074). TIPS conferred a significant increase or trend toward improved survival compared with paracentesis at 1 (66% versus 44%, p = 0.018), 2 (56% versus 38%, p = 0.057), and 3 year (49% versus 32%, p = 0.077) time points. Thirty and 90 day mortality rates were not statistically increased by TIPS. Conclusion: Covered stent-graft TIPS improves intermediate- to long-term survival without significantly increasing short-term mortality of ascites patients, and suggests a greater potential role for TIPS in properly selected ascitic patients when medical management fails. - Highlights: • The survival benefit of TIPS for patients with refractory ascites remains unproven. • A case

  9. Clinical Signatures of Mucinous and Poorly Differentiated Subtypes of Colorectal Adenocarcinomas by a Propensity Score Analysis of an Independent Patient Database from Three Phase III Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Oba, Koji; Aoyama, Toru; Kashiwabara, Kosuke; Mayanagi, Shuhei; Maeda, Hiromichi; Honda, Michitaka; Hamada, Chikuma; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Sakamoto, Junichi; Saji, Shigetoyo; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2018-04-01

    Although colorectal cancer comprises several histological subtypes, the influences of histological subtypes on disease progression and treatment responses remain controversial. We sought to evaluate the prognostic relevance of mucinous and poorly differentiated histological subtypes of colorectal cancer by the propensity score weighting analysis of prospectively collected data from multi-institute phase III trials. Independent patient data analysis of a pooled database from 3 phase III trials was performed. An integrated database of 3 multicenter prospective clinical trials (the Japanese Foundation for Multidisciplinary Treatment of Cancer 7, 15, and 33) was the source of study data. Surgery alone or postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was offered in patients with resectable colorectal cancer. To balance essential variables more strictly for the comparison analyses, propensity score weighting was conducted with the use of a multinomial logistic regression model. We evaluated the clinical signatures of mucinous and poorly differentiated subtypes with regard to postoperative survival, recurrence, and chemosensitivity. Of 5489 patients, 136 (2.5%) and 155 (2.8%) were pathologically diagnosed with poorly differentiated and mucinous subtypes. The poorly differentiated subtypes were associated with a poorer prognosis than the "others" group (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.00-2.87; p = 0.051), particularly in the patient subgroup of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 2.16). Although the mucinous subtype had a marginal prognostic impact among patients with stage I to III colorectal cancer (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.90-1.96), it was found to be an independent prognostic factor in the subpopulation of patients with stage II disease, being associated with a higher prevalence of peritoneal recurrence. The treatment regimens of postoperative chemotherapy are now somewhat outdated. Both mucinous and poorly differentiated subtypes have distinct clinical characteristics. Patients with the mucinous subtype

  10. Adding concurrent chemotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy improves locoregional control but Not overall survival in patients with salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma—a propensity score matched study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Cheng-En; Lin, Chien-Yu; Lee, Li-Yu; Yang, Lan-Yan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wang, Hung-Ming; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Ku-Hao; Tsang, Yan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term outcomes in patients with salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SGACC) treated with post-operative chemoradiotherapy (POCRT) versus post-operative radiotherapy (PORT). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 91 SGACC patients treated with surgery followed by PORT (n = 58) or POCRT (n = 33) between 2000 and 2013. Treatment outcomes between groups were compared using propensity score matching (1:1 nearest neighbor). The median radiation dose was 66 Gy, and patients were followed up for a median of 71 months. Cisplatin-based concurrent regimens were the most commonly used chemotherapy schedules. In the entire study cohort, patients undergoing POCRT showed a trend toward higher locoregional control (LRC) rates than those treated with PORT alone at both 5 and 8 years (97 and 97 % versus 84 and 79 %, respectively; P = .066). Distant metastases were the most common form of treatment failure and occurred in 31 (34 %) patients (PORT, n = 17; POCRT, n = 14). After propensity score matching (33 pairs), patients receiving POCRT had 5- and 8 year LRC rates of 97 and 97 %, respectively, compared with 79 and 67 % for patients treated with PORT alone (P = .017). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). However, a significantly better opioid-requiring pain-free survival (ORPFS) was achieved in POCRT group (P = .038). Subgroup analyses revealed that patients with stage III − IV disease (P = .040 and .017), positive surgical margins (P = .011 and .050), or perineural invasion (P = .013 and .035) had significantly higher 5- and 8 year LRC and ORPFS when treated with POCRT, respectively. In SGACC patients, adding concurrent chemotherapy to PORT may increase LRC and ORPFS rates, particularly in presence of stage III − IV disease, positive surgical margins, or perineural invasion. However, no significant differences in DMFS, DFS, and OS were

  11. A comparison of risperidone and haloperidol for the risk of ischemic stroke in the elderly: a propensity score-matched cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju-Young; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub; Park, Mi-Ju; Lee, Shin Haeng; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-08-01

    With an increase in antipsychotic use in the elderly, the safety profile of antipsychotics has been emphasized. Strong concerns have been raised about whether the risk of ischemic stroke differs between risperidone and haloperidol. This study compared the risk of ischemic stroke between elderly patients taking risperidone and haloperidol. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, applying a propensity-matched analysis. The cohort consisted of elderly patients who were newly prescribed haloperidol or risperidone between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009. Patients with prior cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-10, I60-I69), transient ischemic attack (ICD-10, G45), or cerebral tumors (ICD-10, C31) during 365 days prior to the initiation date were excluded. The study subjects were selected by propensity score matching. The outcome was defined as the first hospitalization for ischemic stroke (ICD-10, I63). Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for ischemic stroke with haloperidol compared with risperidone use. A total of 14,103 patients were included in the propensity-matched cohort for each drug. Overall, the incidence rate was higher for haloperidol users compared to the risperidone users (6.43 per 1000 person-years vs. 2.88 per 1000 person-years). A substantially increased risk was observed in haloperidol users (adjusted HR = 2.02, 95% CI, 1.12-3.62). The evidence showed that haloperidol should be prescribed in the elderly with caution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Propensity-score matching in economic analyses: comparison with regression models, instrumental variables, residual inclusion, differences-in-differences, and decomposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, William H

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines the use of propensity score matching in economic analyses of observational data. Several excellent papers have previously reviewed practical aspects of propensity score estimation and other aspects of the propensity score literature. The purpose of this paper is to compare the conceptual foundation of propensity score models with alternative estimators of treatment effects. References are provided to empirical comparisons among methods that have appeared in the literature. These comparisons are available for a subset of the methods considered in this paper. However, in some cases, no pairwise comparisons of particular methods are yet available, and there are no examples of comparisons across all of the methods surveyed here. Irrespective of the availability of empirical comparisons, the goal of this paper is to provide some intuition about the relative merits of alternative estimators in health economic evaluations where nonlinearity, sample size, availability of pre/post data, heterogeneity, and missing variables can have important implications for choice of methodology. Also considered is the potential combination of propensity score matching with alternative methods such as differences-in-differences and decomposition methods that have not yet appeared in the empirical literature.

  13. Venous thromboembolism after induced abortion: a population-based, propensity-score-matched cohort study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-06-08

    A woman's risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy is estimated to be two-to-six times higher than her risk when she is not pregnant. Such risk estimates are largely based on pregnancies that result in delivery of a newborn baby; no estimates exist for the risk of venous thromboembolism after induced abortion, another common pregnancy outcome. To fill this knowledge gap, we aimed to assess the risk of venous thromboembolism in women whose first pregnancy ended with induced abortion. We did this propensity score-matched cohort study using data from the universal health-care system of Ontario, Canada. We included primigravid women who had an induced abortion between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2015, and used a propensity score to match them to primigravid women who had a livebirth (1:1) or nulligravid women who were not pregnant on the procedure date of their matched counterpart and who did not conceive within 1 year afterwards (5:1). We excluded from our analysis women younger than 15 years or older than 49 years and individuals who had missing or invalid information about their sex, area of residence, residential income, or world region of origin. The primary outcome was risk of any venous thromboembolism within 42 days of the index date (defined as the date of an induced abortion, delivery date for livebirth, or for non-pregnant women the induced abortion date of their matched counterpart). We compared the rate of venous thromboembolism in primigravid women who had an induced abortion with the rate of venous thromboembolism in propensity-score-matched non-pregnant women and propensity-score-matched primigravid women whose pregnancy ended with a livebirth. We generated hazard ratios (HRs) of 42-day risk of venous thromboembolism after induced abortion using Cox proportional hazard models. We identified 194 086 eligible women whose first pregnancy ended with induced abortion, of whom 176 001 (90·7%) could be matched with women whose first pregnancy ended in

  14. Do preschool special education services make a difference in kindergarten reading and mathematics skills?: A propensity score weighting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L; Field, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the average treatment effect of preschool special education services on children's kindergarten academic skills. Using data from a nationally representative sample of United States children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we examined the effectiveness of preschool special education services by comparing reading and math outcomes for children who received special education services at preschool-age to a propensity-score-weighted sample of children who did not receive these services. Results indicated that the receipt of these special education services had a statistically significant moderate negative effect on children's kindergarten skills in both reading (d=-0.21) and mathematics (d=-0.29). These findings have implications for the implementation and evaluation of services for young children experiencing developmental delays or disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inadvertent Splenectomy During Resection for Colorectal Cancer Does Not Increase Long-term Mortality in a Propensity Score Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Ida; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Schefte, David F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that long-term mortality is increased in patients who undergo splenectomy during surgery for colorectal cancer. The reason for this association remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between inadvertent...... splenectomy attributed to iatrogenic lesion to the spleen during colorectal cancer resections and long-term mortality in a national cohort of unselected patients. DESIGN: This was a retrospective, nationwide cohort study. SETTINGS: Data were collected from the database of the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group...... for patients surviving 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and risk factors for inadvertent splenectomy. Multivariable and propensity-score matched Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. RESULTS: In total, 23,727 patients were included, of which 277...

  16. What is the effect of unemployment on all-cause mortality? A cohort study using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Tom; Popham, Frank; Boyle, Paul

    2015-02-01

    There is a strong association between unemployment and mortality, but whether this relationship is causal remains debated. This study utilizes population-level administrative data from Scotland within a propensity score framework to explore whether the association between unemployment and mortality may be causal. The study examined a sample of working men and women aged 25-54 in 1991. Subsequent employment status in 2001 was observed (in work or unemployed) and the relative all-cause mortality risk of unemployment between 2001 and 2010 was estimated. To account for potential selection into unemployment of those in poor health, a propensity score matching approach was used. Matching variables were observed prior to unemployment and included health status up to the year of unemployment (hospital admissions and self-reported limiting long-term illness), as well as measures of socioeconomic position. Unemployment was associated with a significant all-cause mortality risk relative to employment for men (hazard ratio [HR] 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-2.55). This effect was robust to controlling for prior health and sociodemographic characteristics. Effects for women were smaller and statistically insignificant (HR 1.51; 95% CI 0.68-3.37). For men, the findings support the notion that the often-observed association between unemployment and mortality may contain a significant causal component; although for women, there is less support for this conclusion. However, female employment status, as recorded in the census, is more complex than for men and may have served to underestimate any mortality effect of unemployment. Future work should examine this issue further. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term consequences of adolescent parenthood among African-American urban youth: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assini-Meytin, Luciana C; Green, Kerry M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of long-term socioeconomic consequences of teen parenting for men and women. Analysis is based on the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal study of an African-American cohort from a socially disadvantaged community in Chicago; data were collected at childhood (N = 1,242), adolescence (N = 705), young adulthood (age 32 years, N = 952), and midlife (age 42 years, N = 833). This analysis focused on the 1,050 individuals with data on teen parenting. We used propensity score matching to account for differences in background characteristics between teenage parents and their peers and used multiple imputation to account for differential attrition. The regression models after propensity score matching showed that at the age of 32 years, in comparison to nonteen mothers, teenage mothers were more likely to be unemployed, live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have earned a GED or completed high school compared to finishing college. At the age of 32 years, teen fathers were more likely to be without a job than nonteen fathers. At the age of 42 years, the effect of teen parenting for women remained statistically significant for education and income. There were no significant associations between teen parenting and outcomes for men at the age of 42 years. Socioeconomic consequences of teenage parenting among African-Americans from disadvantaged background seem to be primarily concentrated in women and persist throughout adulthood. In addition to promoting the delay of parenting after the teenage years, it is critical to provide programs at early stages in the life course to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of teenage motherhood as effects for women are broad. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early onset hyperuricemia is a prognostic marker for kidney graft failure: Propensity score matching analysis in a Korean multicenter cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeun Han

    Full Text Available It remains inconclusive whether hyperuricemia is a true risk factor for kidney graft failure. In the current study, we investigated the association of hyperuricemia and graft outcome. We performed a multi-center cohort study that included 2620 kidney transplant recipients. The patients were classified as either normouricemic or hyperuricemic at 3 months after transplantation. Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum uric acid level ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥ 6.0 mg/dL in females or based on the use of urate-lowering medications. The two groups were compared before and after propensity score matching. A total of 657 (25.1% patients were classified as hyperuricemic. The proportion of hyperuricemic patients increased over time, reaching 44.2% of the total cohort at 5 years after transplantation. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and donor type were independently associated with hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia was associated with graft loss according to multiple Cox regression analysis before propensity score matching (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-2.13, P = 0.005 as well as after matching (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.13-2.42, p = 0.010. Cox regression models using time-varying hyperuricemia or marginal structural models adjusted with time-varying eGFR also demonstrated significant hazards of hyperuricemia for graft loss. Cardiovascular events and recipient survival were not associated with hyperuricemia. Overall, hyperuricemia, especially early onset after transplantation, showed an increased risk for graft failure. Further studies are warranted to determine whether lowering serum uric acid levels would be beneficial to graft survival.

  19. Freedom Solo® versus Trifecta® bioprostheses: clinical and haemodynamic evaluation after propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Rui J; Raimundo, Renata; Moreira, Soraia; Saraiva, Francisca A; Andrade, Marta; Salgueiro, Elson; Almeida, Jorge; Amorim, Mário Jorge; Pinho, Paulo; Lourenço, André P; Leite-Moreira, Adelino

    2018-01-16

    The goal of this study was to compare the stentless Freedom Solo® (FS) and the stented Trifecta® (TF) aortic bioprostheses with regard to haemodynamic profile, left ventricular mass regression and early and late postoperative outcomes and survival. A longitudinal cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (2009-16) with either the FS or TF at 1 centre was performed. Local databases and national records were queried. Prosthesis haemodynamics and left ventricular dimensions were obtained from postoperative echocardiograms. After propensity score matching (21 covariates), the Kaplan-Meier and competing risk analyses were performed for survival and the combined outcome of structural valve deterioration and endocarditis, respectively. Haemodynamics and mass regression were assessed by a mixed-effects model including propensity score as a covariate. From a total sample of 397 patients with the FS and 525 TF bioprostheses with a median follow-up time of 4.0 (2.2-6.0) and 2.4 (1.4-3.7) years, respectively, a matched sample of 329 pairs was obtained. Matched groups showed no differences in survival (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval = 0.69-1.56) or cumulative hazards of combined outcome (subdistribution hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.21-1.39). Although the TF showed an improved haemodynamic profile, no difference was found in mass regression. Patients with TF bioprostheses had higher rates of prolonged mechanical ventilation, whereas patients with the FS bioprosthesis showed higher rates of thrombocytopenia. The TF showed an improved haemodynamic profile compared to the FS, but this did not translate into further reverse remodelling. Postoperative outcomes and survival rates were comparable for both bioprostheses. Long-term follow-up is needed for comparisons with classical bioprosthesis models. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for

  20. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis of Xp11.2 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Multicenter, Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Min Soo; Jeong, Chang Wook; Song, Cheryn; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Seo, Seong Il; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Chung, Jin Soo; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Kwak, Cheol

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of Xp11.2 translocation (Xp11.2t) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from a multicenter study and compare them with clear-cell RCC using a propensity score matching analysis. Between 2004 and 2013, 8384 consecutive patients from 7 institutions who were diagnosed with RCC were reviewed, and the pathologically confirmed Xp11.2t cases were enrolled. The oncological outcomes of Xp11.2t were compared with those of clear-cell RCC by selecting matched cases using 1:3 propensity score matching methods in a precollected clear-cell RCC data set from our hospital. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of age of onset, either before (early) or after (late) 45 years old. Xp11.2t was found in 61 cases, corresponding to 0.72% of RCC cases for the 10 years. The mean age was 38.2 ± 19.4 years, and the mean tumor size was 6.2 ± 3.9 cm. The Xp11.2t cases were at more advanced stages and showed tendencies to involve lymph nodes at diagnosis. After the matching, there were no significant differences in recurrence-free and overall survival compared with clear-cell RCC. The age of incidence for Xp11.2t had a bimodal distribution, which was most common in the 30s and smaller peak in the 60s. Xp11.2t corresponded to a significantly worse prognosis for overall survival in late onset (after 45 years) subgroup (P = .038; hazard ratio, 3.199; 95% confidence interval, 1.065-9.609). This neoplasm has more aggressive clinicopathologic features at diagnosis. In older patients with onset age > 45 years, Xp11.2t showed a significantly worse prognosis than clear-cell RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Care needs and clinical outcomes of older people with dementia: a population-based propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Yuan Hsiao

    Full Text Available To explore the healthcare resource utilization, psychotropic drug use and mortality of older people with dementia.A nationwide propensity score-matched cohort study.National Health Insurance Research database.A total of 32,649 elderly people with dementia and their propensity-score matched controls (n=32,649.Outpatient visits, inpatient care, psychotropic drug use, in-hospital mortality and all-cause mortality at 90 and 365 days.Compared to the non-dementia group, a higher proportion of patients with dementia used inpatient services (1 year after index date: 20.91% vs. 9.55%, and the dementia group had more outpatient visits (median [standard deviation]: 7.00 [8.87] vs. 3.00 [8.30]. Furthermore, dementia cases with acute admission had the highest psychotropic drug utilization both at baseline and at the post-index dates (difference-in-differences: all <0.001. Dementia was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (90 days, Odds ratio (OR=1.85 [95%CI 1.67-2.05], p<0.001; 365 days, OR=1.59 [1.50-1.69], p<0.001 and in-hospital mortality (90 days, OR=1.97 [1.71-2.27], p<0.001; 365 days, OR=1.82 [1.61-2.05], p<0.001 compared to matched controls.When older people with dementia are admitted for acute illnesses, they may increase their use of psychotropic agents and their risk of death, particularly in-hospital mortality.

  2. Polytrauma Defined by the New Berlin Definition: A Validation Test Based on Propensity-Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-09-11

    Background: Polytrauma patients are expected to have a higher risk of mortality than that obtained by the summation of expected mortality owing to their individual injuries. This study was designed to investigate the outcome of patients with polytrauma, which was defined using the new Berlin definition, as cases with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 3 for two or more different body regions and one or more additional variables from five physiologic parameters (hypotension [systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg], unconsciousness [Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8], acidosis [base excess ≤ -6.0], coagulopathy [partial thromboplastin time ≥ 40 s or international normalized ratio ≥ 1.4], and age [≥70 years]). Methods: We retrieved detailed data on 369 polytrauma patients and 1260 non-polytrauma patients with an overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 18 who were hospitalized between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015 for the treatment of all traumatic injuries, from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center. Patients with burn injury or incomplete registered data were excluded. Categorical data were compared with two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests. The unpaired Student t -test and the Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Propensity-score matched cohort in a 1:1 ratio was allocated using the NCSS software with logistic regression to evaluate the effect of polytrauma on patient outcomes. Results: The polytrauma patients had a significantly higher ISS than non-polytrauma patients (median (interquartile range Q1-Q3), 29 (22-36) vs. 24 (20-25), respectively; p Polytrauma patients had a 1.9-fold higher odds of mortality than non-polytrauma patients (95% CI 1.38-2.49; p polytrauma patients, polytrauma patients had a substantially longer hospital length of stay (LOS). In addition, a higher proportion of polytrauma patients were admitted to the intensive

  3. Estimating the Effectiveness of Health-Risk Communications with Propensity-Score Matching: Application to Arsenic Groundwater Contamination in Four US Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Leidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a demonstration of propensity-score matching estimation methods to evaluate the effectiveness of health-risk communication efforts. This study develops a two-stage regression model to investigate household and respondent characteristics as they contribute to aversion behavior to reduce exposure to arsenic-contaminated groundwater. The aversion activity under study is a household-level point-of-use filtration device. Since the acquisition of arsenic contamination information and the engagement in an aversion activity may be codetermined, a two-stage propensity-score model is developed. In the first stage, the propensity for households to acquire arsenic contamination information is estimated. Then, the propensity scores are used to weight observations in a probit regression on the decision to avert the arsenic-related health risk. Of four potential sources of information, utility, media, friend, or others, information received from a friend appears to be the source of information most associated with aversion behavior. Other statistically significant covariates in the household’s decision to avert contamination include reported household income, the presence of children in household, and region-level indicator variables. These findings are primarily illustrative and demonstrate the usefulness of propensity-score methods to estimate health-risk communication effectiveness. They may also be suggestive of areas for future research.

  4. Estimating the Effectiveness of Health-Risk Communications with Propensity-Score Matching: Application to Arsenic Groundwater Contamination in Four US Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a demonstration of propensity-score matching estimation methods to evaluate the effectiveness of health-risk communication efforts. This study develops a two-stage regression model to investigate household and respondent characteristics as they contribute to aversion behavior to reduce exposure to arsenic-contaminated groundwater. The aversion activity under study is a household-level point-of-use filtration device. Since the acquisition of arsenic contamination information and the engagement in an aversion activity may be codetermined, a two-stage propensity-score model is developed. In the first stage, the propensity for households to acquire arsenic contamination information is estimated. Then, the propensity scores are used to weight observations in a probit regression on the decision to avert the arsenic-related health risk. Of four potential sources of information, utility, media, friend, or others, information received from a friend appears to be the source of information most associated with aversion behavior. Other statistically significant covariates in the household's decision to avert contamination include reported household income, the presence of children in household, and region-level indicator variables. These findings are primarily illustrative and demonstrate the usefulness of propensity-score methods to estimate health-risk communication effectiveness. They may also be suggestive of areas for future research. PMID:25349622

  5. A propensity scoring approach to characterizing the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring's initial responses to cigarettes and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Palmer, Rohan H.C.; Brick, Leslie; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2016-01-01

    When examining the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on later offspring substance use, it is critical to consider familial environments confounded with MSDP. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of MSDP on offspring's initial reactions to cigarettes and alcohol, which are indicators of future substance-use related problems. We tested these effects using two propensity score approaches (1) by controlling for confounding using the MSDP propensity score and 2) examining effects of MSDP across the MSDP risk distribution by grouping individuals into quantiles based on their MSDP propensity score. This study used data from 829 unrelated mothers with a reported lifetime history of smoking to determine the propensity for smoking only during their first trimester (MSDP-E) or throughout their entire pregnancy (MSDP-T). Propensity score analyses focused on the offspring (N=1616 female twins) of a large subset of these mothers. We examined the effects of levels of MSDP-E/T on offspring initial reactions to their first experiences with alcohol and cigarettes, across the distribution of liability for MSDP-E/T. MSDP-E/T emerged as significant predictors of offspring reactions to alcohol and cigarettes, but the effects were confounded by the familial liability for MSDP. Further, the unique MSDP effects that emerged were not uniform across the MSDP familial risk distribution. Our findings underscore the importance of properly accounting for correlated familial risk factors when examining the effects of MSDP on substance related outcomes. PMID:27098899

  6. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available. PMID:20976298

  7. The association between the availability of sugar-sweetened beverage in school vending machines and its consumption among adolescents in California: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  8. Role of postoperative radiotherapy in the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma. A propensity score matching of the SEER database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar [Ain Shams University, Clinical Oncology department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-04-15

    This study assessed the prognostic impact of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with surgically resected malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MPM patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 were identified from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. A propensity-matched analysis was performed considering baseline characteristics (age, gender, race, histology, TNM stage, and type of surgery). A total of 2166 patients were identified. The median age was 60 years (range 25-85 years), and 469 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Both before and after propensity score matching, overall survival (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.012, respectively) was better in the postoperative radiotherapy group. When the overall survival was stratified by histology, postoperative radiotherapy did not improve the survival in sarcomatoid histology patients both before and after matching (P = 0.424 and P = 0.281, respectively). In multivariate analysis of the matched population, not receiving postoperative radiotherapy did not correlate with worse survival (hazard ratio: 1.175; P = 0.12). Factors associated with worse survival include sarcomatoid histology, nodal positivity, and age ≥70. Evidence from this analysis is insufficient on its own to routinely recommend postoperative radiotherapy for surgically resected MPM. However, large-scale prospective clinical trials are warranted to further evaluate this intervention in nonsarcomatoid histology. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Studie wurde der prognostische Einfluss der postoperativen Strahlentherapie bei Patienten mit chirurgisch reseziertem malignem Pleuramesotheliom (MPM) untersucht. In der SEER-Datenbank (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) wurden Patienten ermittelt, bei denen zwischen 2000 und 2013 die Diagnose eines MPM gestellt worden war. Unter Beruecksichtigung der Ausgangsmerkmale (Alter, Geschlecht, Ethnizitaet, Histologie, TNM-Stadium und Art des chirurgischen Eingriffs) wurde eine

  9. Long-term results after lung transplantation using organs from circulatory death donors: a propensity score-matched analysis†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabashnikov, Anton; Patil, Nikhil P; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Soresi, Simona; Zych, Bartlomiej; Weymann, Alexander; Mohite, Prashant N; García Sáez, Diana; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Wahlers, Thorsten; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Wippermann, Jens; Wittwer, Thorsten; De Robertis, Fabio; Bahrami, Toufan; Amrani, Mohamed; Simon, André R

    2016-01-01

    Due to organ shortage in lung transplantation (LTx), donation after circulatory death (DCD) has been implemented in several countries, contributing to an increasing number of organs transplanted. We sought to assess long-term outcomes after LTx with organs procured following circulatory death in comparison with those obtained from donors after brain death (DBD). Between January 2007 and November 2013, 302 LTxs were performed in our institution, whereby 60 (19.9%) organs were retrieved from DCD donors. We performed propensity score matching (DCD:DBD = 1:2) based on preoperative donor and recipient factors that were significantly different in univariate analysis. After propensity matching, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of demographics and preoperative donor and recipient characteristics. There were no significant differences regarding intraoperative variables and total ischaemic time. Patients from the DCD group had significantly higher incidence of primary graft dysfunction grade 3 at the end of the procedure (P = 0.014), and significantly lower pO2/FiO2 ratio during the first 24 h after the procedure (P = 0.018). There was a trend towards higher incidence of the need for postoperative extracorporeal life support in the DCD group. Other postoperative characteristics were comparable. While the overall cumulative survival was not significantly different, the DCD group had significantly poorer results in terms of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS)-free survival in the long-term follow-up. Long-term results after LTx with organs procured following DCD are in general comparable with those obtained after DBD LTx. However, patients transplanted using organs from DCD donors have a predisposition for development of BOS in the longer follow-up. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of aggregation of drug and diagnostic codes on the performance of the high-dimensional propensity score algorithm: an empirical example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoa V; Poole, Charles; Brookhart, M Alan; Schoenbach, Victor J; Beach, Kathleen J; Layton, J Bradley; Stürmer, Til

    2013-11-19

    The High-Dimensional Propensity Score (hd-PS) algorithm can select and adjust for baseline confounders of treatment-outcome associations in pharmacoepidemiologic studies that use healthcare claims data. How hd-PS performance is affected by aggregating medications or medical diagnoses has not been assessed. We evaluated the effects of aggregating medications or diagnoses on hd-PS performance in an empirical example using resampled cohorts with small sample size, rare outcome incidence, or low exposure prevalence. In a cohort study comparing the risk of upper gastrointestinal complications in celecoxib or traditional NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen) initiators with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, we (1) aggregated medications and International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) diagnoses into hierarchies of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (ATC) and the Clinical Classification Software (CCS), respectively, and (2) sampled the full cohort using techniques validated by simulations to create 9,600 samples to compare 16 aggregation scenarios across 50% and 20% samples with varying outcome incidence and exposure prevalence. We applied hd-PS to estimate relative risks (RR) using 5 dimensions, predefined confounders, ≤ 500 hd-PS covariates, and propensity score deciles. For each scenario, we calculated: (1) the geometric mean RR; (2) the difference between the scenario mean ln(RR) and the ln(RR) from published randomized controlled trials (RCT); and (3) the proportional difference in the degree of estimated confounding between that scenario and the base scenario (no aggregation). Compared with the base scenario, aggregations of medications into ATC level 4 alone or in combination with aggregation of diagnoses into CCS level 1 improved the hd-PS confounding adjustment in most scenarios, reducing residual confounding compared with the RCT findings by up to 19%. Aggregation of codes using hierarchical coding systems may improve the performance of

  11. Clinical impact of preoperative brain MR angiography and MR imaging in candidates for liver transplantation: a propensity score-matching study in a single institution

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    Chung, Mi Sun; Kim, Ho Sung; Jung, Seung Chai; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Song pa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young-Suk [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Sang-Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon-Ok [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Jung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Shin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Division of Liver Transplantation and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To investigate the prevalence of cerebrovascular stenosis and white matter lesions on preoperative magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in liver transplantation candidates. This retrospective study included 1,460 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) who underwent MRA with/without brain MRI for pretransplantation evaluation. These patients were matched with 5,331 controls using propensity scores, and the prevalences of significant cerebrovascular stenosis and white matter lesions were compared. A matched analysis of 1,264 pairs demonstrated that the prevalence of significant stenosis was comparable between LC patients and controls (2.2% vs. 1.4%, P = 0.143). LC and most of LC-related parameters were not associated with stenosis. Significant white matter lesions were more common in LC patients (2.8% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.036). A high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (OR 1.11, CI 1.03-1.20, P = 0.008, for infarction; OR 1.1, CI 1.04-1.16, P = 0.001, for haemorrhage) and stroke history (OR 179.06, CI 45.19-709.45, P < 0.001) were predictors of perioperative stroke. LC patients and control subjects demonstrated similar cerebrovascular stenosis prevalences, whereas white matter lesions were more common in LC patients. A high MELD score and stroke history contribute as predictors of perioperative stroke. (orig.)

  12. Risk of poor neonatal outcome at term after medically assisted reproduction: a propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, Sabine; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Roseboom, Tessa J; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J; Ravelli, Anita C J

    2015-08-01

    To study risk of birth asphyxia and related morbidity among term singletons born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). Population cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 1,953,932 term singleton pregnancies selected from a national registry for 1999-2011. None. Primary outcome Apgar score score score matching analysis was performed with matching on multiple maternal baseline covariates (maternal age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, year of birth, and preexistent diseases). Each MAR pregnancy was matched to three SC controls. Relative to SC, the MAR singletons had an increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes including Apgar score score matching, the risk of an Apgar score Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of IVC Injury: Repair or Ligation? A Propensity Score Matching Analysis Using the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shokei; Jung, Kyoungwon; Smith, Alan; Coimbra, Raul

    2018-03-01

    Ligation can be used as part of damage-control operations under critical conditions after IVC injury. Inferior vena cava ligation could potentially yield greater survival benefit compared with repair after injury. We hypothesized that ligation significantly improves outcomes compared with repair. The National Trauma Data Bank dataset for 2007-2014 was reviewed. Eligible patients included those sustaining IVC injury who underwent surgical ligation or repair. Data on demographics, outcomes, and complications were collected. Comparative analysis of demographic characteristics, complications and outcomes were performed. There were 4,865 patients identified in the National Trauma Data Bank with IVC injury. A total of 1,316 patients met inclusion criteria. Four hundred and forty-seven patients (34.0%) underwent ligation and 869 (66.0%) underwent repair. Before matching, the ligation group was sicker than the repair group and the in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the ligation group (43.8% vs 36.2%; odds ratio [OR] 1.37; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.73). One to one propensity score matching generated 310 pairs. After propensity score matching, in-hospital mortality was similar (41.3% vs 39.0%; OR 1.10; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.52). However, IVC ligation was associated with significantly higher complication rates of extremity compartment syndrome (OR 5.23; 95% CI 1.50 to 18.24), pneumonia (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.86), deep venous thrombosis (OR 2.83 95% CI 1.70 to 4.73), pulmonary embolism (OR 3.63; 95% CI 1.18 to 11.17), and longer hospital length of stay (17.0 days [interquartile range 1.0 to 35.0 days] vs 9.0 days [interquartile range 1.0 to 22.0 days]; p = 0.002). Inferior vena cava ligation is not superior to repair in terms of decreasing mortality in patients with IVC injury, but it is associated with higher complication rates and hospital LOS. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of the polysaccharide hemostatic powder in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Yeong Jin; Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Jinae; Yang, Hyun Su; Kim, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Kyu Yeon; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan

    2018-02-07

    Recently, the application of hemostatic powder to the bleeding site has been used to treat active upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the polysaccharide hemostatic powder (PHP) in patients with non-variceal UGIB. We reviewed prospectively collected 40 patients with UGIB treated with PHP therapy between April 2016 and January 2017 (PHP group) and 303 patients with UGIB treated with conventional therapy between April 2012 and October 2014 (conventional therapy group). We compared the rate of successful hemostasis and the rebleeding between the two groups after as well as before propensity score matching using the Glasgow-Blatchford score and Forrest classification. Thirty patients treated with the PHP and 60 patients treated with conventional therapy were included in the matched groups. Baseline patient characteristics including comorbidities, vital signs, and bleeding scores were similar in the matched groups. The rate of immediate hemostasis and 7-day and 30-day rebleeding were also similar in the two groups before and after matching. In the subgroup analysis, no significant differences in immediate hemostasis or rebleeding rate were noted between PHP in monotherapy and PHP combined with a conventional hemostatic method. At 30 days after the therapy, there were no significant PHP-related complications or mortality. Given its safety, the PHP proved feasible for endoscopic treatment of UGIB, having similar effectiveness as that of conventional therapy. The PHP may become a promising hemostatic method for non-variceal UGIB. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. The Effects of Head Start on Children's Kindergarten Retention, Reading and Math Achievement in Fall Kindergarten--An Application of Propensity Score Method and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…

  16. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

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    Lu Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (<.05. Kernel-based propensity score matching shows the SSB consumption difference to be 0.158 on the prior day (<.05. This paper strengthens the evidence for the association between SSB availability via school vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  17. Methodological comparison of marginal structural model, time-varying Cox regression, and propensity score methods : the example of antidepressant use and the risk of hip fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M Sanni; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Belitser, Svetlana V; Souverein, Patrick C; Martín, Elisa; Gatto, Nicolle M; Huerta, Consuelo; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Roes, Kit C B; Hoes, Arno W; de Boer, Antonius; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies including time-varying treatments are prone to confounding. We compared time-varying Cox regression analysis, propensity score (PS) methods, and marginal structural models (MSMs) in a study of antidepressant [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)] use and

  18. Propensity Score Matching Helps to Understand Sources of DIF and Mathematics Performance Differences of Indonesian, Turkish, Australian, and Dutch Students in PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Serkan; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2018-01-01

    We examined Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and the size of cross-cultural performance differences in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 mathematics data before and after application of propensity score matching. The mathematics performance of Indonesian, Turkish, Australian, and Dutch students on released items was…

  19. Effect of Age on Glasgow Coma Scale in Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: An Approach with Propensity Score-Matched Population

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    Cheng-Shyuan Rau

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most widely used methods of describing traumatic brain injury (TBI are the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS. Recent evidence suggests that presenting GCS in older patients may be higher than that in younger patients for an equivalent anatomical severity of TBI. This study aimed to assess these observations with a propensity-score matching approach using the data from Trauma Registry System in a Level I trauma center. Methods: We included all adult patients (aged ≥20 years old with moderate to severe TBI from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2016. Patients were categorized into elderly (aged ≥65 years and young adults (aged 20–64 years. The severity of TBI was defined by an AIS score in the head (AIS 3‒4 and 5 indicate moderate and severe TBI, respectively. We examined the differences in the GCS scores by age at each head AIS score. Unpaired Student’s t- and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Categorical data were compared using either the Pearson chi-square or two-sided Fisher’s exact tests. Matched patient populations were allocated in a 1:1 ratio according to the propensity scores calculated using NCSS software with the following covariates: sex, pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, sodium, glucose, and alcohol level. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effects of age on the GCS score in each head AIS stratum. Results: The study population included 2081 adult patients with moderate to severe TBI. These patients were categorized into elderly (n = 847 and young adults (n = 1234: each was exclusively further divided into three groups of patients with head AIS of 3, 4, or 5. In the 162 well-balanced pairs of TBI patients with head AIS of 3, the elderly demonstrated a significantly higher GCS score than the young adults (14.1 ± 2.2 vs. 13.1 ± 3

  20. Bias due to sample selection in propensity score matching for a supportive housing program evaluation in New York City.

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    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Little is known about influences of sample selection on estimation in propensity score matching. The purpose of the study was to assess potential selection bias using one-to-one greedy matching versus optimal full matching as part of an evaluation of supportive housing in New York City (NYC. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Data came from administrative data for 2 groups of applicants who were eligible for an NYC supportive housing program in 2007-09, including chronically homeless adults with a substance use disorder and young adults aging out of foster care. We evaluated the 2 matching methods in their ability to balance covariates and represent the original population, and in how those methods affected outcomes related to Medicaid expenditures. RESULTS: In the population with a substance use disorder, only optimal full matching performed well in balancing covariates, whereas both methods created representative populations. In the young adult population, both methods balanced covariates effectively, but only optimal full matching created representative populations. In the young adult population, the impact of the program on Medicaid expenditures was attenuated when one-to-one greedy matching was used, compared with optimal full matching. CONCLUSION: Given covariate balancing with both methods, attenuated program impacts in the young adult population indicated that one-to-one greedy matching introduced selection bias.

  1. Alternative Payment Models Should Risk-Adjust for Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Propensity Score-Matched Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Schairer, William W; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Halsey, David A; Iorio, Richard; Padgett, Douglas E

    2017-12-06

    For Medicare beneficiaries, hospital reimbursement for nonrevision hip arthroplasty is anchored to either diagnosis-related group code 469 or 470. Under alternative payment models, reimbursement for care episodes is not further risk-adjusted. This study's purpose was to compare outcomes of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) vs conversion THA to explore the rationale for risk adjustment for conversion procedures. All primary and conversion THAs from 2007 to 2014, excluding acute hip fractures and cancer patients, were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Conversion and primary THA patients were matched 1:1 using propensity scores, based on preoperative covariates. Multivariable logistic regressions evaluated associations between conversion THA and 30-day outcomes. A total of 2018 conversions were matched to 2018 primaries. There were no differences in preoperative covariates. Conversions had longer operative times (148 vs 95 minutes, P reimbursement models shift toward bundled payment paradigms, conversion THA appears to be a procedure for which risk adjustment is appropriate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Propensity score to detect baseline imbalance in cluster randomized trials: the role of the c-statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrat, Clémence; Caille, Agnès; Foucher, Yohann; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2016-01-22

    Despite randomization, baseline imbalance and confounding bias may occur in cluster randomized trials (CRTs). Covariate imbalance may jeopardize the validity of statistical inferences if they occur on prognostic factors. Thus, the diagnosis of a such imbalance is essential to adjust statistical analysis if required. We developed a tool based on the c-statistic of the propensity score (PS) model to detect global baseline covariate imbalance in CRTs and assess the risk of confounding bias. We performed a simulation study to assess the performance of the proposed tool and applied this method to analyze the data from 2 published CRTs. The proposed method had good performance for large sample sizes (n =500 per arm) and when the number of unbalanced covariates was not too small as compared with the total number of baseline covariates (≥40% of unbalanced covariates). We also provide a strategy for pre selection of the covariates needed to be included in the PS model to enhance imbalance detection. The proposed tool could be useful in deciding whether covariate adjustment is required before performing statistical analyses of CRTs.

  3. The Impact of Relative Poverty on Norwegian Adolescents’ Subjective Health: A Causal Analysis with Propensity Score Matching

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    Jon Ivar Elstad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510 and their parents, combined with register data on the family’s economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents’ subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed.

  4. Labor Union Effects on Innovation and Commercialization Productivity: An Integrated Propensity Score Matching and Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongphil Chun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research and development (R&D is a critical factor in sustaining a firm’s competitive advantage. Accurate measurement of R&D productivity and investigation of its influencing factors are of value for R&D productivity improvements. This study is divided into two sections. The first section outlines the innovation and commercialization stages of firm-level R&D activities. This section analyzes the productivity of each stage using a propensity score matching (PSM and two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA integrated model to solve the selection bias problem. Second, this study conducts a comparative analysis among subgroups categorized as labor unionized or non-labor unionized on productivity at each stage. We used Korea Innovation Survey (KIS data for analysis using a sample of 400 Korean manufacturers. The key findings of this study include: (1 firm innovation and commercialization productivity are balanced and show relatively low innovation productivity; and (2 labor unions have a positive effect on commercialization productivity. Moreover, labor unions are an influential factor in determining manufacturing firms’ commercialization productivity.

  5. Assessment of Patient-Specific Surgery Effect Based on Weighted Estimation and Propensity Scoring in the Re-Analysis of the Sciatica Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Bart J. A.; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Brand, Ronald; Peul, Wilco C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a re-analysis of the wait-and-see (control) arm of a recent clinical trial on sciatica. While the original randomised trial was designed to evaluate the public policy effect of a conservative wait-and-see approach versus early surgery, we investigate the impact of surgery at the individual patient level in a re-analysis of the wait-and-see group data. Both marginal structural model re-weighted estimates as well as propensity score adjusted analyses are presented. Results indicate that patients with high propensity to receive surgery may have beneficial effects at 2 years from delayed disc surgery. PMID:25353633

  6. Assessment of patient-specific surgery effect based on weighted estimation and propensity scoring in the re-analysis of the sciatica trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart J A Mertens

    Full Text Available We consider a re-analysis of the wait-and-see (control arm of a recent clinical trial on sciatica. While the original randomised trial was designed to evaluate the public policy effect of a conservative wait-and-see approach versus early surgery, we investigate the impact of surgery at the individual patient level in a re-analysis of the wait-and-see group data. Both marginal structural model re-weighted estimates as well as propensity score adjusted analyses are presented. Results indicate that patients with high propensity to receive surgery may have beneficial effects at 2 years from delayed disc surgery.

  7. An Objective Fluctuation Score for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Malcolm K.; McGregor, Sarah; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson’s Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system. Methods The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm. Results This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations. Conclusion The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges. PMID:25928634

  8. Effectiveness of the clinical pharmacist in reducing mortality in hospitalized cardiac patients: a propensity score-matched analysis

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    Zhai XB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-bo Zhai,1 Zhi-chun Gu,2 Xiao-yan Liu2 1Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai East Hospital, Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacy, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Pharmacist-led medication review services have been assessed in the meta-analyses in hospital. Of the 135 relevant articles located, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria; however, there was no statistically significant difference found between pharmacists’ interventions and usual care for mortality (odds ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 0.65, 3.46, P=0.34. These analyses may not have found a statistically significant effect because they did not adequately control the wide variation in the delivery of care and patient selection parameters. Additionally, the investigators did not conduct research on the cases of death specifically and did not identify all possible drug-related problems (DRPs that could cause or contribute to mortality and then convince physicians to correct. So there will be a condition to use a more precise approach to evaluate the effect of clinical pharmacist interventions on the mortality rates of hospitalized cardiac patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of the clinical pharmacist as a direct patient-care team member on the mortality of all patients admitted to the cardiology unit. Methods: A comparative study was conducted in a cardiology unit of a university-affiliated hospital. The clinical pharmacists did not perform any intervention associated with improper use of medications during Phase I (preintervention and consulted with the physicians to address the DRPs during Phase II (postintervention. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome, and propensity score (PS matching was applied to enhance the comparability. The primary endpoint of the study was the composite of all-cause mortality during Phase I and Phase II

  9. Can Propensity Score Analysis Approximate Randomized Experiments Using Pretest and Demographic Information in Pre-K Intervention Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo; Lipsey, Mark W

    2017-01-01

    It is unclear whether propensity score analysis (PSA) based on pretest and demographic covariates will meet the ignorability assumption for replicating the results of randomized experiments. This study applies within-study comparisons to assess whether pre-Kindergarten (pre-K) treatment effects on achievement outcomes estimated using PSA based on a pretest and demographic covariates can approximate those found in a randomized experiment. Data-Four studies with samples of pre-K children each provided data on two math achievement outcome measures with baseline pretests and child demographic variables that included race, gender, age, language spoken at home, and mother's highest education. Research Design and Data Analysis-A randomized study of a pre-K math curriculum provided benchmark estimates of effects on achievement measures. Comparison samples from other pre-K studies were then substituted for the original randomized control and the effects were reestimated using PSA. The correspondence was evaluated using multiple criteria. The effect estimates using PSA were in the same direction as the benchmark estimates, had similar but not identical statistical significance, and did not differ from the benchmarks at statistically significant levels. However, the magnitude of the effect sizes differed and displayed both absolute and relative bias larger than required to show statistical equivalence with formal tests, but those results were not definitive because of the limited statistical power. We conclude that treatment effect estimates based on a single pretest and demographic covariates in PSA correspond to those from a randomized experiment on the most general criteria for equivalence.

  10. Comparison of endoscopic and open resection of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: a propensity score-matched analysis of 652 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Suat; Kılıç, Sarah S; Baredes, Soly; Chan Woo Park, Richard; Mahmoud, Omar; Suh, Jeffrey D; Gray, Stacey T; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2018-03-01

    The use of endoscopic resection as an alternative to open surgery for sinonasal malignancies has increased in the past 20 years. The National Cancer Database was queried for cases of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) without cervical or distant metastases that were treated surgically between 2010 and 2014. They were split into 2 groups based on surgical approach: open or endoscopic. Demographics, facility and insurance type, stage, tumor characteristics, postoperative treatment, 30-day readmission rate, 30- and 90-day mortality, and overall survival (OS) were compared between the 2 groups. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to mimic a randomized, controlled trial. A total of 1,483 patients were identified: 353 (23.8%) received endoscopic and 1130 (76.2%) received open surgery. Age, gender, race, geographic region, tumor size, surgical margins, postoperative chemoradiation, and 30-day readmissions did not vary significantly between the 2 groups. Open surgery was more common in academic centers (62.8% vs 54.2%; p = 0.004), less common for tumors of the ethmoid and sphenoid sinus (p open: 5Y-OS, 56.5%; 95% confidence interval, 51.3% to 61.6%; endoscopic: 5Y-OS, 46.0%; 95% confidence interval, 33.2% to 58.8%). In the PSM cohort of 652 patients, there was also no significant difference in OS (p = 0.850). Endoscopic surgery is an effective alternative to open surgery, even after accounting for confounding factors that may favor its use over the open approach. It is also associated with a shorter hospital stay. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. Evaluation of efficacy and indications of surgical fixation for multiple rib fractures: a propensity-score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Nishimura, T; Takesada, H; Morioka, T; Hagawa, N; Yamamoto, T; Kaga, S; Terada, T; Shinyama, N; Yamamoto, H; Mizobata, Y

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of recent surgical rib fixation and establish its indications not only for flail chest but also for multiple rib fractures. Between 2007 and 2015, 187 patients were diagnosed as having multiple rib fractures in our institution. After the propensity score matching was performed, ten patients who had performed surgical rib fixation and ten patients who had treated with non-operative management were included. Categorical variables were analyzed with Fischer's exact test and non-parametric numerical data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for comparison of pre- and postoperative variables. All statistical data are presented as median (25-75 % interquartile range [IQR]) or number. The surgically treated patients extubated significantly earlier than non-operative management patients (5.5 [1-8] vs 9 [7-12] days: p = 0.019). The duration of continuous intravenous narcotic agents infusion days (4.5 [3-6] vs 12 [9-14] days: p = 0.002) and the duration of intensive care unit stay (6.5 [3-9] vs 12 [8-14] days: p = 0.008) were also significantly shorter in surgically treated patients. Under the same ventilating conditions, the postoperative values of tidal volume and respiratory rate improved significantly compared to those values measured just before the surgery. The incidence of pneumonia as a complication was significantly higher in non-operative management group (p = 0.05). From the viewpoints of early respiratory stabilization and intensive care unit disposition without any complications, surgical rib fixation is a sufficiently acceptable procedure not only for flail chest but also for repair of severe multiple rib fractures.

  12. Long-Term Outcomes After Percutaneous Lower Extremity Arterial Interventions With Atherectomy vs. Balloon Angioplasty - Propensity Score-Matched Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Adam; Buszman, Piotr P; Milewski, Krzysztof P; Wiernek, Szymon; Janas, Ksenia; Pruski, Maciej; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Błachut, Aleksandra; Picheta, Wojciech; Buszman, Pawel; Kiesz, Stefan

    2017-02-24

    The impact of endovascular revascularization of the lower extremity arteries with atherectomy (AT) compared with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare long-term outcomes after percutaneous PTA and AT in patients requiring endovascular revascularization.Methods and Results:This was a single-center, retrospective registry of obstructive and symptomatic PAD patients who underwent endovascular revascularization. PTA was performed in 215 patients, and AT in 204 (Silver Hawk, EV3, n=125; CSI 360°, n=66; Pathway Medical Technologies, n=13). There were no significant between-group differences in baseline characteristics except for increased CAD, dialysis and CLI prevalence in the PTA group. Following propensity score analysis 131 well-matched pairs were included in analysis. Bail-out stenting was more frequent in the reference group (PTA, 6.1% vs. AT, 0%; P=0.004). At 6- and 12-month follow-up there were no differences in TLR between the groups (PTA, 8.3% vs. AT, 5.3%; P=0.47; and PTA, 16.7% vs. AT, 13.7%; P=0.73, respectively). The difference was in favor of AT at 24-month follow-up (PTA, 29.0% vs. AT, 16.7%; P=0.05). No difference was observed in amputation rate (PTA, 0.7% vs AT, 1.5%; P=0.62). On Kaplan-Meier analysis there were no significant differences between groups in time to TLR, amputation or death. AT was associated with lower risk of TLR, and this should be confirmed in randomized controlled trials.

  13. Naturally occurring workplace facilities to increase the leisure time physical activity of workers: A propensity-score weighted population study.

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    Biswas, Aviroop; Smith, Peter M; Gignac, Monique A M

    2018-06-01

    The benefit of providing access to physical activity facilities at or near work to support the leisure time physical activity (LTPA) of workers is uncertain. We examined the association between access to physical activity facilities at or near work and the LTPA of workers after adjusting for a range of individual and occupational characteristics. Data was obtained from 60,650 respondents to the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey. Participants were employed adults ≥18 years of age who had no long-term health condition which reduced their participation in physical activity. Latent class analysis determined naturally occurring combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work. Each combination was balanced by 19 individual and occupational covariate characteristics using inverse probability of treatment weights derived from propensity scores. The association between combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work on LTPA level was estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Five different combinations of physical activity facilities were available to respondents at or near work. Data were analyzed in 2017. All possible physical facilities increased the likelihood for LTPA (OR, 2.08, 95% CI, 1.03-4.20) and other combinations were also positively associated. Respondents with no physical activity facilities were characterized as having a low education, low income, high physically demanding work, poor health and mental health, non-white racial background, and being an immigrant. Access to supportive workplace environments can help workers be physically active. Future research should assess a range of personal, social and environmental factors that may be driving this relationship.

  14. Noise reduction technology reduces radiation dose in chronic total occlusions percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagni, Davide; Benincasa, Susanna; Bellini, Barbara; Candilio, Luciano; Poletti, Enrico; Carlino, Mauro; Colombo, Antonio; Azzalini, Lorenzo

    2018-03-23

    Chronic total occlusions (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with high radiation dose. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of the implementation of a noise reduction technology (NRT) on patient radiation dose during CTO PCI. A total of 187 CTO PCIs performed between February 2016 and May 2017 were analyzed according to the angiographic systems utilized: Standard (n = 60) versus NRT (n = 127). Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control for differences in baseline characteristics. Primary endpoints were Cumulative Air Kerma at Interventional Reference Point (AK at IRP), which correlates with patient's tissue reactions; and Kerma Area Product (KAP), a surrogate measure of patient's risk of stochastic radiation effects. An Efficiency Index (defined as fluoroscopy time/AK at IRP) was calculated for each procedure. Image quality was evaluated using a 5-grade Likert-like scale. After PSM, n = 55 pairs were identified. Baseline and angiographic characteristics were well matched between groups. Compared to the Standard system, NRT was associated with lower AK at IRP [2.38 (1.80-3.66) vs. 3.24 (2.04-5.09) Gy, p = 0.035], a trend towards reduction for KAP [161 (93-244) vs. 203 (136-363) Gycm 2 , p = 0.069], and a better Efficiency Index [16.75 (12.73-26.27) vs. 13.58 (9.92-17.63) min/Gy, p = 0.003]. Image quality was similar between the two groups (4.39 ± 0.53 Standard vs. 4.34 ± 0.47 NRT, p = 0.571). In conclusion, compared with a Standard system, the use of NRT in CTO PCI is associated with lower patient radiation dose and similar image quality.

  15. Naturally occurring workplace facilities to increase the leisure time physical activity of workers: A propensity-score weighted population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviroop Biswas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of providing access to physical activity facilities at or near work to support the leisure time physical activity (LTPA of workers is uncertain. We examined the association between access to physical activity facilities at or near work and the LTPA of workers after adjusting for a range of individual and occupational characteristics. Data was obtained from 60,650 respondents to the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey. Participants were employed adults ≥18 years of age who had no long-term health condition which reduced their participation in physical activity. Latent class analysis determined naturally occurring combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work. Each combination was balanced by 19 individual and occupational covariate characteristics using inverse probability of treatment weights derived from propensity scores. The association between combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work on LTPA level was estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Five different combinations of physical activity facilities were available to respondents at or near work. Data were analyzed in 2017. All possible physical facilities increased the likelihood for LTPA (OR, 2.08, 95% CI, 1.03–4.20 and other combinations were also positively associated. Respondents with no physical activity facilities were characterized as having a low education, low income, high physically demanding work, poor health and mental health, non-white racial background, and being an immigrant. Access to supportive workplace environments can help workers be physically active. Future research should assess a range of personal, social and environmental factors that may be driving this relationship. Keywords: Physical activity, Workplace, Built environment, Health promotion, Exercise

  16. Which Propensity Score Method Best Reduces Confounder Imbalance? An Example From a Retrospective Evaluation of a Childhood Obesity Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Krista; Jia, Haomiao; Smaldone, Arlene

    Propensity score (PS) methods are increasingly being employed by researchers to reduce bias arising from confounder imbalance when using observational data to examine intervention effects. The purpose of this study was to examine PS theory and methodology and compare application of three PS methods (matching, stratification, weighting) to determine which best improves confounder balance. Baseline characteristics of a sample of 20,518 school-aged children with severe obesity (of whom 1,054 received an obesity intervention) were assessed prior to PS application. Three PS methods were then applied to the data to determine which showed the greatest improvement in confounder balance between the intervention and control group. The effect of each PS method on the outcome variable-body mass index percentile change at one year-was also examined. SAS 9.4 and Comprehensive Meta-analysis statistical software were used for analyses. Prior to PS adjustment, the intervention and control groups differed significantly on seven of 11 potential confounders. PS matching removed all differences. PS stratification and weighting both removed one difference but created two new differences. Sensitivity analyses did not change these results. Body mass index percentile at 1 year decreased in both groups. The size of the decrease was smaller in the intervention group, and the estimate of the decrease varied by PS method. Selection of a PS method should be guided by insight from statistical theory and simulation experiments, in addition to observed improvement in confounder balance. For this data set, PS matching worked best to correct confounder imbalance. Because each method varied in correcting confounder imbalance, we recommend that multiple PS methods be compared for ability to improve confounder balance before implementation in evaluating treatment effects in observational data.

  17. Splash M-knife versus Flush Knife BT in the technical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Sho; Hayashi, Yasuyo; Yokoyama, Azusa; Abe, Shuichi; Hosokawa, Taizo; Ogino, Haruei; Akiho, Hirotada; Ihara, Eikichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-27

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a standard treatment for early gastric cancer. A new multi-functional ESD device was developed to achieve complete ESD with a single device. A metal plate attached to its distal sheath achieves better hemostasis during the procedure than the other needle-knife device, Flush Knife BT®, that has been conventionally used. The aim of this study was to compare the technical outcomes of ESD for early gastric cancer using the Splash M-Knife® with those using the Flush Knife BT. We conducted a retrospective review of the case records of 149 patients with early gastric cancer treated with ESD using the needle-type ESD knives between January 2012 and August 2016 at Kitakyushu Municipal Medical Center. Lesions treated with ESD using the Splash M-knife (ESD-M) and the Flush Knife BT (ESD-F) were compared. Multivariate analyses and propensity score matching were used to compensate for the differences in age, gender, underlying disease, antithrombotic drug use, lesion location, lesion position, macroscopic type, tumor size, presence of ulceration, operator level and types of electrosurgical unit used. The primary endpoint was the requirement to use hemostatic forceps in the two groups. The secondary endpoints of procedure time, en bloc and complete resection rates, and adverse events rates were evaluated for the two groups. There were 73 patients in the ESD-M group, and 76 patients in the ESD-F group. Propensity score matching analysis created 45 matched pairs. Adjusted comparisons between the two groups showed a significantly lower usage rate of hemostatic forceps in the ESD-M group than in the ESD-F group (6.7% vs 84.4%, p < 0.001). Treatment outcomes showed an en bloc resection rate of 100% in both groups; complete resection rate of 95.6% vs 100%, p = 0.49; median procedure time of 74.0 min vs 71.0 min, p = 0.90; post-procedure bleeding of 2.2% vs 2.2%, p = 1, in the ESD-M and ESD-F groups, respectively. There were

  18. Yttrium-90 radioembolization vs sorafenib for intermediate-locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a cohort study with propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramenzi, Annagiulia; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Cappelli, Alberta; Granito, Alessandro; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Marinelli, Sara; Pettinato, Cinzia; Erroi, Virginia; Fiumana, Silvia; Bolondi, Luigi; Bernardi, Mauro; Trevisani, Franco

    2015-03-01

    Sorafenib and transarterial (90) Y-radioembolization (TARE) are possible treatments for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) intermediate-advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). No study directly comparing sorafenib and TARE is currently available. This single-centre retrospective study compares the outcomes achieved with sorafenib and TARE in HCC patients potentially amenable to either therapy. Seventy-four sorafenib (71 ± 10 years, male 87%, BCLC B/C 53%/47%) and 63 TARE HCC patients (66 ± 9 years, male 79%, BCLC B/C 41%/59%) were included based on the following criteria: Child-Pugh class A/B, performance status ≤1, HCC unfit for other effective therapies, no metastases and no previous systemic chemotherapy. Median overall survivals of the two groups were comparable, being 14.4 months (95% CI: 4.3-24.5) in sorafenib and 13.2 months (95% CI: 6.1-20.2) in TARE patients, with 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates of 52.1%, 29.3% and 14.7% vs 51.8%, 27.8% and 21.6% respectively. Two TARE patients underwent liver transplantation after successful down-staging. To minimize the impact of confounding factors on survival analysis, propensity model matched 32 patients of each group for median age, tumour gross pathology and the independent prognostic factors (portal vein thrombosis, performance status, Model for End Liver Disease). Even after matching, the median survival did not differ between sorafenib (13.1 months; 95% CI: 1.2-25.9) and TARE patients (11.2 months; 95% CI: 6.7-15.7), with comparable 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates. In cirrhotic patients with intermediate-advanced or not-otherwise-treatable HCC, sorafenib and TARE provide similar survivals. Down-staging allowing liver transplantation only occurred after TARE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of Retention in First Grade on Children’s Achievement Trajectories Over 4 Years: A Piecewise Growth Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the relatively short-term and longer term effects of grade retention in 1st grade on the growth of mathematics and reading achievement over 4 years. The authors initially identified a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance. From this sample, the authors closely matched 1 retained with 1 promoted child (n = 97 pairs) on the basis of propensity scores constructed from 72 background variables and compared g...

  20. The healthcare utilization and cost of treating patients experiencing inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks: a propensity score study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Sanjeev P; Giedrimiene, Dalia; Coleman, Craig I; Guertin, Danette; Azeem, Meena; Kluger, Jeffrey

    2014-10-01

    Inappropriate shocks (IASs) from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are associated with decreased quality of life, but whether they increase healthcare utilization and treatment costs is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of IASs on subsequent healthcare utilization and treatment costs. We conducted a case-control analysis of ICD patients at a single institution from 1997 to 2010 and who had ≥12 months of post-ICD implant follow-up. Cases included all patients experiencing an IAS during the first 12 months after implantation. Eligible control patients did not receive a shock of any kind during the 12 months after implantation. Propensity scores based on 36 covariates (area under curve = 0.78) were used to match cases to controls. We compared the rate (occurrences/person year [PY]) of healthcare utilization immediately following IAS to the end of the 12-month follow-up period to the rate in the no-shock group over 12 months of follow-up. We also compared 12-month postimplant treatment (outpatient clinic, emergency room, and hospitalization) costs in both groups. A total of 76 patients experiencing ≥1 IAS during the first 12 months after implant (contributing 48 PYs) were matched to 76 no-shock patients (contributing 76 PYs). Cardiovascular (CV)-related clinic visit and hospitalization rates were increased following an IAS compared to those not receiving a shock (4.0 vs 3.3 and 0.7 vs 0.5, respectively, P = 0.02 for both). CV-related emergency room visitation (0.15 vs 0.08) rates were also numerically higher following an IAS, but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.26). Patients experiencing an IAS accrued greater treatment costs during the 12 months postimplant compared to no-shock patients ($13,973 ± $46,345 vs $6,790 ± $19,091, P = 0.001). Recipients of IAS utilize the healthcare system more frequently following an IAS than patients not experiencing a shock. This increased utilization results in higher costs of treating IAS

  1. Toxicity After Central versus Peripheral Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched-Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangona, Victor S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Aneese, Andrew M. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Marina, Ovidiu; Hymas, Richard V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Ionascu, Dan; Robertson, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Gallardo, Lori J. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Grills, Inga Siiner, E-mail: igrills@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for “central” tumors—within 2 cm of the proximal bronchial tree or with planning tumor volume (PTV) touching mediastinum—versus noncentral (“peripheral”) lung tumors. Methods and Materials: From November 2005 to January 2011, 229 tumors (110 central, 119 peripheral; T1-3N0M0 non–small-cell lung cancer and limited lung metastases) in 196 consecutive patients followed prospectively at a single institution received moderate-dose SBRT (48-60 Gy in 4-5 fractions [biologic effective dose=100-132 Gy, α/β=10]) using 4-dimensional planning, online image-guided radiation therapy, and institutional dose constraints. Clinical adverse events (AEs) were graded prospectively at clinical and radiographic follow-up using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Pulmonary function test (PFT) decline was graded as 2 (25%-49.9% decline), 3 (50.0%-74.9% decline), or 4 (≥75.0% decline). Central/peripheral location was assessed retrospectively on planning CT scans. Groups were compared after propensity score matching. Characteristics were compared with χ{sup 2} and 2-tailed t tests, adverse events with χ{sup 2} test-for-trend, and cumulative incidence using competing risks analysis (Gray's test). Results: With 79 central and 79 peripheral tumors matched, no differences in AEs were observed after 17 months median follow-up. Two-year cumulative incidences of grade ≥2 pain, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, and skin AEs were 14%, 5%, 6%, and 10% (central) versus 19%, 10%, 10%, and 3% (peripheral), respectively (P=.31, .38, .70, and .09). Grade ≥2 cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system AEs were rare (<1%). Two-year incidences of grade ≥2 clinical AEs (28% vs 25%, P=.79), grade ≥2 PFT decline (36% vs 34%, P=.94), grade ≥3 clinical AEs (3% vs 7%, P=.48), and grade ≥3 PFT decline (0 vs 10%, P=.11) were similar for central versus peripheral

  2. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as an independent predictor for survival in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tieshi; Wang, Wei; Guo, Hongqian

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic indicator in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radiofrequency ablation. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent radiofrequency ablation from 2006 to 2013. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves according to different categories of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Relationships between preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio or the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and survival were evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A propensity score matching analysis was carried out to avoid confounding bias. A total of 185 patients were included in present study. When stratified by preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cutoff value of 2.79, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio analysis, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ratio with the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, patients with both preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥2.79 and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥0.40 had the worst disease-free survival. Results of multivariable analysis showed that preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated with cancer relapse remarkably. High preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and elevated postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are associated with significant increase in risk of local recurrence as well as distant metastasis. The combination of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio with the other prognostic indicators can be applied in the evaluation of relapse risk in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation.

  3. Comparison of Anterior and Posterior Surgery for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: An MRI-Based Propensity-Score-Matched Analysis Using Data from the Prospective Multicenter AOSpine CSM North America and International Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, So; Nouri, Aria; Wu, Dongjin; Nori, Satoshi; Tetreault, Lindsay; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-06-21

    Surgeons often choose between 2 different approaches (anterior and posterior) for surgical treatment of degenerative cervical myelopathy on the basis of imaging features of spinal cord compression, the number of levels affected, and the spinal alignment. However, there is a lack of consensus on which approach is preferable. The objective of the present study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based propensity-score-matched analysis to compare postoperative outcomes between the anterior and posterior surgical approaches for degenerative cervical myelopathy. A total of 757 patients were enrolled in 2 prospective multicenter AOSpine studies, which involved 26 international sites. Preoperative MRIs were reviewed to characterize the causes of the cord compression, including single-level disc disease, multilevel disc disease, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, enlargement of the ligamentum flavum, vertebral subluxation/spondylolisthesis, congenital fusion, number of compressed levels, or kyphosis. The propensity to choose anterior decompression was calculated using demographic data, preoperative MRI findings, and the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores in a logistic regression model. We then performed 1-to-1 matching of patients who had received anterior decompression with those who had the same propensity score but had received posterior decompression to compare 2-year postoperative outcomes and 30-day perioperative complication rates between the 2 groups after adjustment for background characteristics. A total of 435 cases were included in the propensity score calculation, and 1-to-1 matching resulted in 80 pairs of anterior and posterior surgical cases; 99% of these matched patients had multilevel compression. The anterior and posterior groups did not differ significantly in terms of the postoperative mJOA score (15.1 versus 15.3, p = 0.53), Neck Disability Index (20.5 versus 24.1, p = 0.44), or Short Form-36 (SF-36

  4. Association between spironolactone added to beta-blockers and ACE inhibition and survival in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction: a propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, L; Katus, H A; Grundtvig, M; Hole, T; de Blois, J; Schellberg, D; Atar, D; Zugck, C; Agewall, S

    2013-10-01

    Heart failure (CHF) guidelines recommend mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for all symptomatic patients treated with a combination of ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers. As opposed to both eplerenone trials, patients in RALES (spironolactone) received almost no beta-blockers. Since pharmacological properties differ between eplerenone and spironolactone, the prognostic benefit of spironolactone added to this baseline combination therapy needs clarification. We included 4,832 CHF patients with chronic systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry and the heart failure outpatients' clinic of the University of Heidelberg. Propensity scores for spironolactone receipt were calculated for each patient and used for matching to patients without spironolactone. During a total follow-up of 17,869 patient-years, 881 patients (27.0 %) died in the non-spironolactone group and 445 (28.4 %) in the spironolactone group. Spironolactone was not associated with improved survival, neither in the complete sample (HR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.64-1.07; HR 1.03; 95 % CI 0.88-1.20; multivariate and propensity score adjusted respectively), nor in the propensity-matched cohort (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.82-1.18). In CHF outpatients we were unable to observe an association between the use of spironolactone and improved survival when administered in addition to a combination of ACE/ARB and beta-blockers.

  5. Postoperative Functional Outcome After Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using Gated Myocardial SPECT: A Comparison by Propensity Score Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Bong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kang, Won Jun

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the short-term and mid-term differences in perfusion and function after off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. A total of 70 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent CABG were included based on the propensity score matching results from 165 patients. Thirty-five patients underwent off-pump and 35 patients on-pump CABG. Rest 201 TI/dipyridamole stress 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile gated single photon emission computed thermographs were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at short-term (103±23 days after surgery) and mid-term follow-up (502±111 days after surgery). Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, end systolic volume, stress and rest segmental perfusion, and segmental wall thickening were compared between the two groups. The segments with preoperative rest 201 T1 uptake under 60% of maximum uptake were included in the segmental analysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.001) and end systolic volume (P=0.008) showed significant improvement in both groups. There were no significant short-term and mid-term differences between the two groups in terms of left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.309) and end systolic volume (P=0.938). Likewise, segmental rest (P=0.178) and stress perfusion (P=0.071), and systolic wall thickening (P=0.241) showed significant improvement in both groups with similar time courses. Off-pump CABG resulted in significant improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction, end systolic volume, and regional myocardial perfusion and function that are comparable to on-pump CABG at short-term and mid-term. Gated myocardial SPECT successfully revealed that off-pump CABG is as good as on-pump CABG from the viewpoint of myocardial perfusion and function.

  6. DMARD use is associated with a higher risk of dementia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A propensity score-matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Jong-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chung, Wei-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit an increased risk of dementia. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are commonly used to slow RA progression, but studies investigating the relationship between DMARDs and dementia in patients with RA are lacking. We investigated the relationship between DMARDs and dementia in patients with RA. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database, patients aged ≥20years, who were newly diagnosed with RA between 2000 and 2011 were identified. Patients with RA who had dementia comprised the dementia group, and patients with RA who did not have dementia comprised the control group. The groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio by the propensity score. DMARDs were categorized into conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) and biological DMARDs (bDMARDs). Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the association between DMARD use and the risk of dementia in patients with RA. A total of 957 patients with RA and dementia, and 957 patients with RA but not dementia, were enrolled. The risk of dementia was determined to be 1.63-fold higher in patients with RA with csDMARD use than in those without csDMARD use (95% CI=1.33-2.00). No significant risk of dementia was observed in patients with RA who used bDMARDs compared with their counterparts. However, patients with RA who used hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine exhibited significant risks of dementia, irrespective of cumulative exposure days. Patients with RA who used csDMARDs exhibit significant association with dementia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Intraluminal Brachytherapy on Survival Outcome for Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Biliary Tract Cancer: A Propensity-Score Matched-Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Oikawa, Hirobumi [Department of Radiology, Iwate Medical University, Iwate (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi (Japan); Kanesaka, Naoto [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Tamamoto, Tetsuro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nara Medical University of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Kosugi, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Hatano, Kazuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Kobayashi, Masao [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takayama, Makoto [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takemoto, Mitsuhiro [Department of Radiology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nagakura, Hisayasu [Department of Radiology, KKR Sapporo Medical Center, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, Michiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Iwata City Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Kosaka, Yasuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Yamazaki, Hideya [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Nishimura, Yasumasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether adding intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT) to definitive radiation therapy (RT) for unresectable biliary tract cancer has a positive impact on survival outcome. Methods and Materials: The original cohort comprised 209 patients, including 153 who underwent external beam RT (EBRT) alone and 56 who received both ILBT and EBRT. By matching propensity scores, 56 pairs (112 patients) consisting of 1 patient with and 1 patient without ILBT were selected. They were well balanced in terms of sex, age, performance status, clinical stage, jaundice, and addition of chemotherapy. The impact of ILBT on overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and local control (LC) was investigated. Results: The 2-year OS rates were 31% for the ILBT+ group and 40% for theILBT– group (P=.862). The 2-year DSS rates were 42% for the ILBT+ group and 41% for the ILBT– group (P=.288). The 2-year LC rates were 65% for the ILBT+ group and 35% for the ILBT– group (P=.094). Three of the 4 sensitivity analyses showed a significantly better LC for the ILBT+ group (P=.010, .025, .049), and another showed a marginally better LC (P=.068), and none of the sensitivity analyses showed any statistically significant differences in OS or DSS. Conclusions: In the treatment for unresectable biliary tract cancer, the addition of ILBT to RT has no impact on OS or DSS but is associated with better LC. Therefore, the role of ILBT should be addressed by other measures than survival benefit, for example, by less toxicity, prolonged biliary tract patency decreasing the need for further palliative interventions, or patient quality of life.

  8. Impact of Intraluminal Brachytherapy on Survival Outcome for Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Biliary Tract Cancer: A Propensity-Score Matched-Pair Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Oikawa, Hirobumi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kanesaka, Naoto; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Kosugi, Takashi; Hatano, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masao; Ito, Yoshinori; Takayama, Makoto; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Imai, Michiko; Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hideya; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Nemoto, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether adding intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT) to definitive radiation therapy (RT) for unresectable biliary tract cancer has a positive impact on survival outcome. Methods and Materials: The original cohort comprised 209 patients, including 153 who underwent external beam RT (EBRT) alone and 56 who received both ILBT and EBRT. By matching propensity scores, 56 pairs (112 patients) consisting of 1 patient with and 1 patient without ILBT were selected. They were well balanced in terms of sex, age, performance status, clinical stage, jaundice, and addition of chemotherapy. The impact of ILBT on overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and local control (LC) was investigated. Results: The 2-year OS rates were 31% for the ILBT+ group and 40% for theILBT– group (P=.862). The 2-year DSS rates were 42% for the ILBT+ group and 41% for the ILBT– group (P=.288). The 2-year LC rates were 65% for the ILBT+ group and 35% for the ILBT– group (P=.094). Three of the 4 sensitivity analyses showed a significantly better LC for the ILBT+ group (P=.010, .025, .049), and another showed a marginally better LC (P=.068), and none of the sensitivity analyses showed any statistically significant differences in OS or DSS. Conclusions: In the treatment for unresectable biliary tract cancer, the addition of ILBT to RT has no impact on OS or DSS but is associated with better LC. Therefore, the role of ILBT should be addressed by other measures than survival benefit, for example, by less toxicity, prolonged biliary tract patency decreasing the need for further palliative interventions, or patient quality of life

  9. Novel Longitudinal and Propensity Score Matched Analysis of Hands-On Cooking and Nutrition Education versus Traditional Clinical Education among 627 Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J. Monlezun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physicians are inadequately equipped to respond to the global obesity and nutrition-associated chronic disease epidemics. We investigated superiority of simulation-based medical education with deliberate practice (SBME-DP hands-on cooking and nutrition elective in a medical school-based teaching kitchen versus traditional clinical education for medical students. Materials and Methods. A 59-question panel survey was distributed to an entire medical school twice annually from September 2012 to May 2014. Student diet and attitudes and competencies (DACs counseling patients on nutrition were compared using conditional multivariate logistic regression, propensity score-weighted, and longitudinal panel analyses. Inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (IVWM was used for planned subgroup analysis by year and treatment estimates across the three methods. Results. Of the available 954 students, 65.72% (n=627 unique students were followed to produce 963 responses. 11.32% (n=109 of responses were from 84 subjects who participated in the elective. SBME-DP versus traditional education significantly improved fruit and vegetable diet (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07–1.79, p=0.013 and attitudes (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.40–2.35, p<0.001 and competencies (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.54–1.92, p<0.001. Conclusions. This study reports for the first time superiority longitudinally for SBME-DP style nutrition education for medical students which has since expanded to 13 schools.

  10. Association between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians Score and Mortality in Patients with Isolated Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-12-03

    Background: The purpose of this study was to use a propensity score-matched analysis to investigate the association between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) scores and clinical outcomes of patients with isolated moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: The study population comprised 7855 patients aged ≥40 years who were hospitalized for treatment of isolated moderate and severe TBI (an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥3 points only in the head and not in other regions of the body) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Patients were categorized as high-risk (OSTA score -1; n = 5359). Two-sided Pearson's chi-squared, or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare categorical data. Unpaired Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to analyze normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Propensity score-matching in a 1:1 ratio was performed using NCSS software, with adjustment for covariates. Results: Compared to low-risk patients, high- and medium-risk patients were significantly older and injured more severely. The high- and medium-risk patients had significantly higher mortality rates, longer hospital length of stay, and a higher proportion of admission to the intensive care unit than low-risk patients. Analysis of propensity score-matched patients with adjusted covariates, including gender, co-morbidity, blood alcohol concentration level, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score revealed that high- and medium-risk patients still had a 2.4-fold (odds ratio (OR), 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39-4.15; p = 0.001) and 1.8-fold (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.19-2.86; p = 0.005) higher mortality, respectively, than low-risk patients. However, further addition of age as a covariate for the propensity score-matching demonstrated that there was no significant difference between high-risk and low-risk patients or between medium-risk and low-risk patients, implying that older age

  11. The Incidence of Complications in Single-stage Endoscopic Stone Removal for Patients with Common Bile Duct Stones: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirokazu; Kadono, Yoshihiro; Kamikawa, Kentaro; Urata, Atsushi; Imamura, Haruo; Matsushita, Ikuo; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tada, Shuji

    2018-02-15

    Objective Single-stage endoscopic stone removal for choledocholithiasis is an advantageous approach because it is associated with a shorter hospital stay; however, few studies have reported the incidence of complications related to this procedure in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of complications and efficacy of this procedure. Methods This retrospective study investigated the incidence of complications in 345 patients with naive papilla who underwent therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for choledocholithiasis at three institutions between April 2014 and March 2016 by a propensity score analysis. The efficacy of single-stage endoscopic stone removal was assessed based on a hospital stay of within 7 days and the number of ERCP attempts. Results Among 114 patients who underwent single-stage endoscopic stone removal, 15 patients (13.2%) experienced complications. Among the remaining 231 patients in the two-stage endoscopic stone removal group, complications were observed in 17 patients (7.4%). The propensity score analysis, which was adjusted for confounding factors, revealed that single-stage endoscopic stone removal was not a significant risk factor for complications (p=0.52). In patients in whom >10 min was required for deep cannulation, single-stage endoscopic stone removal was not a significant risk factor for complications in the propensity score analysis (p=0.37). In the single-stage group, the proportion of patients with a hospital stay of within 7 days was significantly higher and the number of ERCP attempts was significantly lower in comparison to the two-stage group (p <0.0001 and <0.0001, respectively). Conclusion Single-stage endoscopic stone removal did not increase the incidence of complications associated with ERCP and was effective for reducing the hospital stay and the number of ERCP attempts.

  12. Survival after Abdominoperineal and Sphincter-Preserving Resection in Nonmetastatic Rectal Cancer: A Population-Based Time-Trend and Propensity Score-Matched SEER Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Warschkow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominoperineal resection (APR has been associated with impaired survival in nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients. It is unclear whether this adverse outcome is due to the surgical procedure itself or is a consequence of tumor-related characteristics. Study Design. Patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The impact of APR compared to coloanal anastomosis (CAA on survival was assessed by Cox regression and propensity-score matching. Results. In 36,488 patients with rectal cancer resection, the APR rate declined from 31.8% in 1998 to 19.2% in 2011, with a significant trend change in 2004 at 21.6% (P<0.001. To minimize a potential time-trend bias, survival analysis was limited to patients diagnosed after 2004. APR was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality after unadjusted analysis (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.28–2.03, P<0.01 and multivariable adjustment (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10–1.76, P<0.01. After optimal adjustment of highly biased patient characteristics by propensity-score matching, APR was not identified as a risk factor for cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.56–1.29, P=0.456. Conclusions. The current propensity score-adjusted analysis provides evidence that worse oncological outcomes in patients undergoing APR compared to CAA are caused by different patient characteristics and not by the surgical procedure itself.

  13. Effects of statin therapy on clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in patients with advanced renal dysfunction: A propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sug; Kim, Weon; Park, Ji Yoon; Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Yang Gyun; Moon, Ju-Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Lipid lowering therapy is widely used for the prevention of cardiovascular complications after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, some studies show that this benefit is uncertain in patients with renal dysfunction, and the role of statins is based on the severity of renal dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the impact of statin therapy on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality in patients with advanced renal dysfunction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after AMI. This study was based on the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry database. We included 861 patients with advanced renal dysfunction from among 33,205 patients who underwent PCI after AMI between November 2005 and July 2012. Patients were divided into two groups: a statin group (n = 537) and a no-statin group (n = 324). We investigated the 12-month MACEs (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, repeated PCI or coronary artery bypass grafting) and all-cause mortality of each group. Subsequently, a propensity score-matched analysis was performed. In the total population studied, no significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to the rate of recurrent MI, repeated PCI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or all-cause mortality. However, the cardiac death rate was significantly lower in the statin group (p = 0.009). Propensity score-matched analysis yielded 274 pairs demonstrating, results similar to those obtained from the total population. However, there was no significant difference in the cardiac death rate in the propensity score-matched population (p = 0.103). Cox-regression analysis revealed only left ventricular ejection fraction to be an independent predictor of 12-month MACEs (Hazard ratio [HR] of 0.979, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0962-0.996, p = 0.018). Statin therapy was not significantly associated with a reduction in the 12-month MACEs or all-cause mortality in patients with advanced renal dysfunction

  14. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Grove, Erik; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2011-01-01

    : All aspirin treated patients surviving 30 days after a first myocardial infarction from 1997 to 2006, with follow-up for one year. Patients treated with clopidogrel were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke...... associated with use of proton pump inhibitors was analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazard models, and propensity score matched Cox proportional hazard models. Results 3366 of 19 925 (16.9%) aspirin treated patients experienced recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular...

  15. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Grove, Erik; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS...... analysis showed no increase in risk related to use of H(2) receptor blockers (1.04, 0.79 to 1.38; P=0.78). Conclusion In aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction, treatment with proton pump inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events....

  16. Continued Inpatient Care After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Increases 30-Day Post-Discharge Complications: A Propensity Score-Adjusted Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Fu, Michael C; Schairer, William W; Sculco, Peter K; MacLean, Catherine H; Padgett, Douglas E

    2017-09-01

    Discharge destination, either home or skilled care facility, after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may be associated with significant variation in postacute care outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the 30-day postdischarge outcomes after primary TKA relative to discharge destination. All primary unilateral TKAs performed for osteoarthritis from 2011-2014 were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Propensity scores based on predischarge characteristics were used to adjust for selection bias in discharge destination. Propensity-adjusted multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine associations between discharge destination and postdischarge complications. Among 101,256 primary TKAs identified, 70,628 were discharged home and 30,628 to skilled care facilities. Patients discharged to facilities were more frequently were female, older, higher body mass index class, higher Charlson comorbidity index and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, had predischarge complications, received general anesthesia, and classified as nonindependent preoperatively. Propensity adjustment accounted for this selection bias. Patients discharged to skilled care facilities after TKA had higher odds of any major complication (odds ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.37) and readmission (odds ratio = 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-2.18). Skilled care was associated with increased odds for respiratory, septic, thromboembolic, and urinary complications. Associations with death, cardiac, and wound complications were not significant. After controlling for predischarge characteristics, discharge to skilled care facilities vs home after primary TKA is associated with higher odds of numerous complications and unplanned readmission. These results support coordination of care pathways to facilitate home discharge after hospitalization for TKA whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term survival in laparoscopic vs open resection for colorectal liver metastases: inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Joel W; O'Rourke, Nicholas A; Chiow, Adrian K H; Bryant, Richard; Martin, Ian; Nathanson, Leslie K; Cavallucci, David J

    2016-02-01

    This study compares long-term outcomes between intention-to-treat laparoscopic and open approaches to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity scores to control for selection bias. Patients undergoing liver resection for CLM by 5 surgeons at 3 institutions from 2000 to early 2014 were analysed. IPTW based on propensity scores were generated and used to assess the marginal treatment effect of the laparoscopic approach via a weighted Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 298 operations were performed in 256 patients. 7 patients with planned two-stage resections were excluded leaving 284 operations in 249 patients for analysis. After IPTW, the population was well balanced. With a median follow up of 36 months, 5-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) for the cohort were 59% and 38%. 146 laparoscopic procedures were performed in 140 patients, with weighted 5-year OS and RFS of 54% and 36% respectively. In the open group, 138 procedures were performed in 122 patients, with a weighted 5-year OS and RFS of 63% and 38% respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of OS or RFS. In the Brisbane experience, after accounting for bias in treatment assignment, long term survival after LLR for CLM is equivalent to outcomes in open surgery. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Latent Binary Variables on the Uncertainty of the Prediction of a Dichotomous Outcome Using Logistic Regression Based Propensity Score Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekér, Szabolcs; Vathy-Fogarassy, Ágnes

    2018-01-01

    Logistic regression based propensity score matching is a widely used method in case-control studies to select the individuals of the control group. This method creates a suitable control group if all factors affecting the output variable are known. However, if relevant latent variables exist as well, which are not taken into account during the calculations, the quality of the control group is uncertain. In this paper, we present a statistics-based research in which we try to determine the relationship between the accuracy of the logistic regression model and the uncertainty of the dependent variable of the control group defined by propensity score matching. Our analyses show that there is a linear correlation between the fit of the logistic regression model and the uncertainty of the output variable. In certain cases, a latent binary explanatory variable can result in a relative error of up to 70% in the prediction of the outcome variable. The observed phenomenon calls the attention of analysts to an important point, which must be taken into account when deducting conclusions.

  19. Sociodemographic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Stress: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based studies have used an econometric approach to understand the association between two cancer risk factors, obesity and stress. This study investigated sociodemographic differences in the association between obesity and stress among Korean adults (6,546 men and 8,473 women). Data were drawn from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008, 2009, and 2010. Ordered logistic regression models and propensity score matching methods were used to examine the associations between obesity and stress, stratified by gender and age groups. In women, the stress level of the obese group was found to be 27.6% higher than the nonobese group in the ordered logistic regression; the obesity effect on stress was statistically significant in the propensity score-matched analysis. Corresponding evidence for the effect of obesity on stress was lacking among men. Participants who were young, well-educated, and working were more likely to report stress. In Korea, obesity causes stress in women but not in men. Young women are susceptible to a disproportionate level of stress. More cancer prevention programs targeting young and obese women are encouraged in developed Asian countries.

  20. Effect of perioperative oral care on prevention of postoperative pneumonia associated with esophageal cancer surgery: A multicenter case-control study with propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutome, Sakiko; Yanamoto, Souichi; Funahara, Madoka; Hasegawa, Takumi; Komori, Takahide; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Chika; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Yuka; Nakahara, Hirokazu; Oho, Takahiko; Umeda, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral care in prevention of postoperative pneumonia associated with esophageal cancer surgery.Postoperative pneumonia is a severe adverse event associated with esophageal cancer surgery. It is thought to be caused by aspiration of oropharyngeal fluid containing pathogens. However, the relationship between oral health status and postoperative pneumonia has not been well investigated.This study included 539 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing surgery at 1 of 7 university hospitals. While 306 patients received perioperative oral care, 233 did not. Various clinical factors as well as occurrence of postoperative pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated. Propensity-score matching was performed to minimize selection biases associated with comparison of retrospective data between the oral care and control groups. Factors related to postoperative pneumonia were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.Of the original 539 patients, 103 (19.1%) experienced postoperative pneumonia. The results of multivariate analysis of the 420 propensity score-matched patients revealed longer operation time, postoperative dysphagia, and lack of oral care intervention to be significantly correlated with postoperative pneumonia.The present findings demonstrate that perioperative oral care can reduce the risk of postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery.

  1. Psychological autopsy study comparing suicide decedents, suicide ideators, and propensity score matched controls: results from the study to assess risk and resilience in service members (Army STARRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, M K; Dempsey, C L; Aliaga, P A; Brent, D A; Heeringa, S G; Kessler, R C; Stein, M B; Ursano, R J; Benedek, D

    2017-11-01

    The suicide rate has increased significantly among US Army soldiers over the past decade. Here we report the first results from a large psychological autopsy study using two control groups designed to reveal risk factors for suicide death among soldiers beyond known sociodemographic factors and the presence of suicide ideation. Informants were next-of-kin and Army supervisors for: 135 suicide cases, 137 control soldiers propensity-score-matched on known sociodemographic risk factors for suicide and Army history variables, and 118 control soldiers who reported suicide ideation in the past year. Results revealed that most (79.3%) soldiers who died by suicide have a prior mental disorder; mental disorders in the prior 30-days were especially strong risk factors for suicide death. Approximately half of suicide decedents tell someone that they are considering suicide. Virtually all of the risk factors identified in this study differed between suicide cases and propensity-score-matched controls, but did not significantly differ between suicide cases and suicide ideators. The most striking difference between suicides and ideators was the presence in the former of an internalizing disorder (especially depression) and multi-morbidity (i.e. 3+ disorders) in the past 30 days. Most soldiers who die by suicide have identifiable mental disorders shortly before their death and tell others about their suicidal thinking, suggesting that there are opportunities for prevention and intervention. However, few risk factors distinguish between suicide ideators and decedents, pointing to an important direction for future research.

  2. Brachytherapy Improves Biochemical Failure–Free Survival in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Compared With Conventionally Fractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham D.; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Cury, Fabio L.; Morris, Jim; Catton, Charles; Lukka, Himu; Warner, Andrew; Yang, Ying; Rodrigues, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Methods and Materials: Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2) intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Results: Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Conclusions: Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT options led

  3. Risk of poor neonatal outcome at term after medically assisted reproduction: a propensity score-matched study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Sabine; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2015-01-01

    To study risk of birth asphyxia and related morbidity among term singletons born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). Population cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 1,953,932 term singleton pregnancies selected from a national registry for 1999-2011. None. Primary outcome Apgar score

  4. Combined CT-guided radiofrequency ablation with systemic chemotherapy improves the survival for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with oligometastasis in liver: Propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Bai, Yutong; Wu, Ming; Shen, Lujun; Shi, Feng; Sun, Xuqi; Lin, Caijin; Chang, Boyang; Pan, Changchuan; Li, Zhiwen; Wu, Peihong

    2017-08-08

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the treatment efficacy of systemic chemotherapy combined with sequential CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (Chemo-RFA) to chemotherapy alone (Chemo-only) in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with liver metastasis. Between 2003 and 2011, 328 NPC patients diagnosed with liver metastasis at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were enrolled. One-to-one matched pairs between Chemo-RFA group with the Chemo-only group were generated using propensity score matching. The associations of treatment modality with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were determined by Cox regression. Of the patients enrolled, 37 patients (11.8 %) received combined treatment, 291 (82.2) received chemotherapy alone. The patients in Chemo-RFA group were more frequently classified as lower number (≤3) of liver metastatic lesions (Poligometastasis in liver, and should be considered if the ablation is technically feasible.

  5. Costs and outcomes associated with alternative discharge strategies following joint replacement surgery: analysis of an observational study using a propensity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyte, P C; Young, W; Croxford, R

    2000-11-01

    We estimated the impact of alternative discharge strategies, following joint replacement (JR) surgery, on acute care readmission rates and the total cost of a continuum of care. Following surgery, patients were discharged to one of four destinations. Propensity scores were used to adjust costs and outcomes for potential bias in the assignment of discharge destinations. We demonstrated that the use of rehabilitation hospitals may lower readmission rates, but at a prohibitive incremental cost of each saved readmission, that patients discharged with home care had longer acute care stays than other patients, that the provision of home care services increased health system costs, and that acute care readmission rates were greatest among patients discharged with home care. Our study should be seen as one important stepping stone towards a full economic evaluation of the continuum of care for patients.

  6. Impact of the branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio and branched-chain amino acid granule therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kiriyama, Seiki; Tanikawa, Makoto; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Akira; Kitabatake, Shusuke; Yama, Tsuyoki

    2015-09-01

    It has been reported that the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) to tyrosine ratio (BTR) is a useful indicator of liver function and BCAA therapy is associated with a decreased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there has not been sufficient research on the relationship between BTR and the effects of BCAA therapy after initial treatment of HCC. We investigated the impact of BTR and BCAA therapy on survival in patients with HCC. A total of 315 patients with HCC who were treated (n = 66) or not treated (n = 249) with BCAA were enrolled; of these, 66 were selected from each group using propensity score matching. Survival from liver-related mortality was analyzed. In patients who did not receive BCAA therapy (n = 249), multivariate analysis for factors associated with survival indicated that low BTR (≤ 4.4) was independently associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC (hazard ratio, 1.880; 95% confidence interval, 1.125-3.143; P = 0.016). In addition, among patients selected by propensity score matching (n = 132), multivariate analysis indicated that BCAA therapy was independently associated with good prognosis in patients with HCC (hazard ratio, 0.524; 95% confidence interval, 0.282-0.973; P = 0.041). BTR was not significantly associated with survival. Intervention involving BCAA therapy improved survival in patients with HCC versus untreated controls, regardless of BTR. In addition, low BTR was associated with poor prognosis in patients who did not receive BCAA therapy. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Usefulness of a traction method using dental floss and a hemoclip for gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection: a propensity score matching analysis (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sho; Gotoda, Takuji; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Kono, Shin; Iwatsuka, Kunio; Yagi-Kuwata, Naoko; Kusano, Chika; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2016-02-01

    Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a significant advancement in therapeutic endoscopy, it is a complicated technique and requires considerable expertise. In this exploratory study, we evaluated the efficacy of a simple traction method that uses dental floss and a hemoclip (DFC) and was developed to overcome the technical difficulties of ESD. In total, 238 early gastric cancers treated by ESD between May 2012 and December 2014 at Tokyo Medical University were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions treated by conventional ESD (n = 185) and by ESD with DFC (ESD-DFC) (n = 53) were compared. Multivariable analyses and propensity score matching were used to compensate for the differences in age, sex, resected specimen size, lesion location, lesion position, presence of ulceration, and operator level. The procedure time, rate of en bloc and complete resection, and rates of adverse events were evaluated between the 2 groups. Propensity score matching analysis created 43 matched pairs. Adjusted comparisons between ESD-DFC and conventional ESD showed similar treatment outcomes (en bloc resection rate: 97.7% vs 100%, P = .315; complete resection rate: 90.7% vs 95.3%, P = .397; perforation during ESD rate: 2.3% vs 2.3%, P = 1.000; post-ESD bleeding rate: 4.7% vs 4.7%, P = 1.000) but a significantly shorter procedure time for ESD-DFC (82.2 ± 79.5 minutes vs 118.2 ± 71.6 minutes, P = .002). ESD-DFC facilitated rapid ESD with good visualization and traction while ensuring high curability and safety. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The protective effect of helmet use in motorcycle and bicycle accidents: a propensity score-matched study based on a trauma registry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-08-07

    Transportation by motorcycle and bicycle has become popular in Taiwan, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of helmet use during motorcycle and bicycle accidents by using a propensity score-matched study based on trauma registry system data. Data of adult patients hospitalized for motorcycle or bicycle accidents between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. These included 7735 motorcyclists with helmet use, 863 motorcyclists without helmet use, 76 bicyclists with helmet use, and 647 bicyclists without helmet use. The primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and ICU LOS. Normally distributed continuous data were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio using optimal method with a 0.2 caliper width) was performed using NCSS software, adjusting for the following covariates: sex, age, and comorbidities. Further logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of helmet use on mortality rates of motorcyclists and bicyclists, respectively. The mortality rate for motorcyclists with helmet use (1.1%) was significantly lower than for motorcyclists without helmet use (4.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.37; p Motorcycle helmets provide protection to adult motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents and their use is associated with a decrease in mortality rates and the risk of head injuries. However, no such protective effect of helmet use was observed for bicyclists involved in collisions.

  9. Propensity Score Matching Analysis of Changes in Alpha-Fetoprotein Levels after Combined Radiotherapy and Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Jeong

    Full Text Available To investigate the value of changes in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels for the prediction of radiologic response and survival outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT who received combined treatment of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE.A database of 154 HCC patients with PVTT and elevated AFP levels (>20 ng/mL treated with 3D-CRT and TACE as an initial treatment between August 2002 and August 2008 was retrospectively reviewed. AFP levels were determined 1 month after radiotherapy, and AFP response was defined as an AFP level reduction of >20% from the initial level. Radiologic response, overall survival (OS, and progression-free survival (PFS rates were compared between AFP responders and non-responders. Propensity-score based matching analysis was performed to minimize the effect of potential confounding bias.The median follow-up period was 11.1 months (range, 3.1-82.7 months. In the propensity-score matching cohort (92 pairs, a best radiologic response of CR or PR occurred in more AFP responders than AFP non-responders (41.3% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.001. OS and PFS were also longer in AFP responders than in non-responders (median OS 13.2 months vs. 5.6 months, p < 0.001; median PFS 8.7 months vs. 3.5 months, p < 0.001.AFP response is a significant predictive factor for radiologic response. Furthermore, AFP response is significant for OS and PFS outcomes. AFP evaluation after combined radiotherapy and TACE appears to be a useful predictor of clinical outcomes in HCC patients with PVTT.

  10. Comparison of the effect of endodontic-periodontal combined lesion on the outcome of endodontic microsurgery with that of isolated endodontic lesion: survival analysis using propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Kang, Minji; Kang, Dae Ryong; Jung, Hoi In; Kim, Euiseong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the effect of lesion types related to endodontic microsurgery on the clinical outcome. Patients who underwent endodontic microsurgery between March 2001 and March 2014 with a postoperative follow-up period of at least 1 year were included in the study. Survival analyses were conducted to compare the clinical outcomes between isolated endodontic lesion group (endo group) and endodontic-periodontal combined lesion group (endo-perio group) and to evaluate other clinical variables. To reduce the effect of selection bias in this study, the estimated propensity scores were used to match the cases of the endo group with those of the endo-perio group. Among the 414 eligible cases, the 83 cases in the endo-perio group were matched to 166 out of the 331 cases in the endo group based on propensity score matching (PSM). The cumulated success rates of the endo and endo-perio groups were 87.3 and 72.3%, respectively. The median success period of the endo-perio group was 12 years (95% CI: 5.507, 18.498). Lesion type was found to be significant according to both Log-rank test (P = 0.002) and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis (P = 0.001). Among the other clinical variables, sex (female or male), age, and tooth type (anterior, premolar, or molar) were determined to be significant in Cox regression analysis (P lesions had a negative effect on the clinical outcome based on an analysis that utilized PSM, a useful statistical matching method for observational studies. Lesion type is a significant predictor of the outcome of endodontic microsurgery.

  11. The Influence of the Japanese Nationwide Cardiovascular Prevention System Health Guidance on Smoking Cessation Among Smokers: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Watanabe, Makoto; Okuda, Nagako; Yoshita, Katsushi; Kabayama, Mai; Torii, Sayuki; Kuribayashi, Toru; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Kamide, Kei; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okayama, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We investigated whether 2 types of personalized health guidance (repeated and single counseling) in the Japanese nationwide cardiovascular prevention system promoted smoking cessation among smokers. The study included 47,745 Japanese smokers aged 40 to 74 years classified into 2 personalized health guidance schemes. After a 1-year follow-up, we compared the rates of smoking cessation between individuals who had received counseling ("supported") and those who had not received counseling ("unsupported"). Using propensity score matching analysis, we estimated the average treatment effect (ATE) of each approach on smoking cessation after balancing out the characteristics between the supported and unsupported groups. The propensity score regression model included age, medical insurance type, weight gain since the age of 20 years, exercise, eating habits, alcohol intake, quality of sleep, readiness to modify lifestyle, willingness to receive support, and body mass index. In the repeated counseling scheme, the age-adjusted rates of smoking cessation in the supported and unsupported groups were 8.8% and 6.3% for males, and 9.8% and 9.1% for females respectively. In the single counseling scheme, the corresponding rates were 8.4% and 7.3% for supported and unsupported males, and 11.0% and 11.7% for supported and unsupported females respectively. The ATE of repeated counseling was +2.64% (95% confidence interval: +1.51% to +3.77%) for males and +3.11% (-1.85% to +8.07%) for females. The ATE of single counseling was +0.61% (-1.17% to +2.38%) for males and -1.06% (-5.96% to +3.85%) for females. In the Japanese cardiovascular prevention system, repeated counseling may promote smoking cessation among male smokers.

  12. A Retrospective Propensity Score-Matched Early Thromboembolic Event Analysis of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate vs Fresh Frozen Plasma for Warfarin Reversal Prior to Emergency Neurosurgical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Prateek; Abdullah, Kalil G; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Nayak, Nikhil R; Lucas, Timothy H

    2017-06-29

    Reversal of therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures is required in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage. Multifactor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) promises rapid efficacy but may increase the probability of thrombotic complications compared to fresh frozen plasma (FFP). To compare the rate of thrombotic complications in patients treated with PCC or FFP to reverse therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage at a level I trauma center. Sixty-three consecutive patients on warfarin therapy presenting with intracranial hemorrhage who received anticoagulation reversal prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures were retrospectively identified between 2007 and 2016. They were divided into 2 cohorts based on reversal agent, either PCC (n = 28) or FFP (n = 35). The thrombotic complications rates within 72 h of reversal were compared using the χ 2 test. A multivariate propensity score matching analysis was used to limit the threat to interval validity from selection bias arising from differences in demographics, laboratory values, history, and clinical status. Thrombotic complications were uncommon in this neurosurgical population, occurring in 1.59% (1/63) of treated patients. There was no significant difference in the thrombotic complication rate between groups, 3.57% (1/28; PCC group) vs 0% (0/35; FFP group). Propensity score matching analysis validated this finding after controlling for any selection bias. In this limited sample, thrombotic complication rates were similar between use of PCC and FFP for anticoagulation reversal in the management of intracranial hemorrhage prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  13. The Role of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Patients Bridged to Transplantation with a Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J.; Topkara, Veli K.; Mancini, Donna M.; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Dizon, Jose M.; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Colombo, Paolo C.; Garan, A. Reshad

    2016-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) provide a significant mortality benefit for appropriately selected patients with advanced heart failure. ICDs are associated with a mortality benefit when used in patients with a pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD). However it is unclear whether patients with a continuous flow LVAD (CF-LVAD) derive the same benefit. This study sought to determine if the presence of an ICD provided a mortality benefit during CFLVAD support as a bridge to transplantation. Methods Patients were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry that underwent LVAD implantation as bridge to transplantation from May 2004 and April 2014, with follow-up through June 2014. The primary outcome was freedom from death while on CF-LVAD support with adjustment for complications requiring UNOS listing status upgrade. Secondary endpoints included freedom from delisting while on CF-LVAD support and incidence of transplantation. Results 2,990 patients composed the study cohort and propensity score matching identified 1,012 patients with similar propensity scores. There was no difference in survival during device support between patients with and without an ICD (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.20, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.66-2.17, p=0.55). Adjusting for device complications requiring a UNOS listing status upgrade had minimal influence (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.60-2.05, p=0.74). There was no increased risk of delisting due to being too sick for those with an ICD (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.63-1.86, p=0.78). Likewise, the probability of transplantation was similar (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.87-1.27, p=0.62). Conclusions Among patients bridged to transplantation with a CF-LVAD, the presence of an ICD did not reduce mortality. PMID:28089072

  14. The role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients bridged to transplantation with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device: A propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J; Topkara, Veli K; Mancini, Donna M; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Demmer, Ryan T; Dizon, Jose M; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Colombo, Paolo C; Garan, A Reshad

    2017-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) provide a significant mortality benefit for appropriately selected patients with advanced heart failure. ICDs are associated with a mortality benefit when used in patients with a pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD). It is unclear whether patients with a continuous-flow LVAD (CF-LVAD) derive the same benefit. We sought to determine if the presence of an ICD provided a mortality benefit during CF-LVAD support as a bridge to transplantation. Patients were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry who underwent LVAD implantation as bridge to transplantation between May 2004 and April 2014, with follow-up through June 2014. Primary outcome was freedom from death while on CF-LVAD support with adjustment for complications requiring UNOS listing status upgrade. Secondary end-points included freedom from delisting while on CF-LVAD support and incidence of transplantation. The study cohort comprised 2,990 patients, and propensity score matching identified 1,012 patients with similar propensity scores. There was no difference in survival during device support between patients with and without an ICD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-2.17; p = 0.55). Adjusting for device complications requiring a UNOS listing status upgrade had minimal influence (HR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.60-2.05; p = 0.74). There was no increased risk of delisting owing to being too sick for patients with an ICD (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.63-1.86; p = 0.78). Likewise, the probability of transplantation was similar (HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.87-1.27; p = 0.62). Among patients bridged to transplantation with a CF-LVAD, the presence of an ICD did not reduce mortality. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Propensity score matching for selection of local areas as controls for evaluation of effects of alcohol policies in case series and quasi case-control designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Campbell, R; Brennan, A; Mooney, J; Angus, C; Hickman, M

    2016-03-01

    Area-level public health interventions can be difficult to evaluate using natural experiments. We describe the use of propensity score matching (PSM) to select control local authority areas (LAU) to evaluate the public health impact of alcohol policies for (1) prospective evaluation of alcohol policies using area-level data, and (2) a novel two-stage quasi case-control design. Ecological. Alcohol-related indicator data (Local Alcohol Profiles for England, PHE Health Profiles and ONS data) were linked at LAU level. Six LAUs (Blackpool, Bradford, Bristol, Ipswich, Islington, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne) as sample intervention or case areas were matched to two control LAUs each using PSM. For the quasi case-control study a second stage was added aimed at obtaining maximum contrast in outcomes based on propensity scores. Matching was evaluated based on average standardized absolute mean differences (ASAM) and variable-specific P-values after matching. The six LAUs were matched to suitable control areas (with ASAM 0.05 indicating good matching) for a prospective evaluation study that sought areas that were similar at baseline in order to assess whether a change in intervention exposure led to a change in the outcome (alcohol related harm). PSM also generated appropriate matches for a quasi case-control study--whereby the contrast in health outcomes between cases and control areas needed to be optimized in order to assess retrospectively whether differences in intervention exposure were associated with the outcome. The use of PSM for area-level alcohol policy evaluation, but also for other public health interventions, will improve the value of these evaluations by objective and quantitative selection of the most appropriate control areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Inadvertent Splenectomy During Resection for Colorectal Cancer Does Not Increase Long-term Mortality in a Propensity Score Model: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolle, Ida; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Schefte, David F; Bulut, Orhan; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Rosenstock, Steffen J

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that long-term mortality is increased in patients who undergo splenectomy during surgery for colorectal cancer. The reason for this association remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between inadvertent splenectomy attributed to iatrogenic lesion to the spleen during colorectal cancer resections and long-term mortality in a national cohort of unselected patients. This was a retrospective, nationwide cohort study. Data were collected from the database of the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group and merged with data from the National Patient Registry and the National Pathology Databank. Danish patients with colorectal cancer undergoing curatively intended resection between 2001 and 2011 were included in the study. The primary outcome was long-term mortality for patients surviving 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and risk factors for inadvertent splenectomy. Multivariable and propensity-score matched Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. In total, 23,727 patients were included, of which 277 (1.2%) underwent inadvertent splenectomy. There was no association between inadvertent splenectomy and long-term mortality (adjusted HR = 1.15 (95% CI, 0.95-1.40); p = 0.16) in the propensity score-matched model, whereas 30-day mortality was significantly increased (adjusted HR = 2.31 (95% CI, 1.71-3.11); p splenectomy was most often seen during left hemicolectomy (left hemicolectomy vs right hemicolectomy: OR = 24.76 (95% CI, 15.30-40.06); p splenectomy during resection for colorectal cancer does not seem to increase long-term mortality. The previously reported reduced overall survival after inadvertent splenectomy may be explained by excess mortality in the immediate postoperative period.

  17. Night-eating syndrome and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms from the Korea Nurses' Health Study: analysis of propensity score matching and ordinal regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, O-S; Kim, M S; Lee, J E; Jung, H

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of night-eating syndrome (NES) and depression is increasing worldwide. Although nurses, in particular, are exposed to work in an environment of irregular eating, shift work, and stressful settings, limited research exist. In fact, the prevalence of NES among Korean nurses has never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NES as well as the association between NES and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among South Korean female nurses. The Korea Nurses' Health Study, following the protocols of the Nurses' Health Study led by the Harvard University, collected data on Korean female nurses. Survey responses from 3617 participants were included, and 404 responses were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using propensity score matching. Descriptive, Spearman's and Cramer's correlations, propensity score matching, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression were conducted as statistical analysis. The prevalence of both NES and self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses were higher compared with nurses in prior studies. Nurses with NES were 1.65 times more likely to have greater severity of depressive symptoms than those without NES (95% confidence interval [1.19-2.10], odds ratio = 1.65) after adjusting for covariates including sociodemographic characteristics, health behavioural factors, and shift work. This study suggests significant association between NES and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses after adjusting for covariates. Policy makers and hospital managers need to develop strategies to reduce depression and NES among nurses for enhancement of nurses' mental and physical health as well as for improvement of care quality. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Education and coronary heart disease risk associations may be affected by early-life common prior causes: a propensity matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Buka, Stephen L; Rogers, Michelle L; Liu, Tao; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D; Martin, Laurie T; Gilman, Stephen E

    2012-04-01

    Education is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD); however whether this is attributable to causal effects of schooling rather than potential confounders existing before school entry (eg, childhood intelligence, childhood economic circumstances, childhood chronic illness, parental mental health) remains unknown. We evaluated whether education is associated with 10-year CHD risk independent of 21 prospectively assessed childhood conditions, in participants ages 38-47 years. Using linear regression analyses, we evaluated associations of education with 10-year CHD risk, the latter calculated by use of the validated Framingham risk algorithm incorporating diabetes, blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, age, and sex. Propensity score matching incorporated 21 early-life potential confounders. Regression analyses demonstrated college graduation was associated with -27.9% lower (95% CI, -36.2, -18.6%) 10-year CHD risk compared with ≤high school after matching on propensity score that included age, sex and race (n = 272); addition of 21 early life potential confounders resulted in effect size of -13.1% (95% CI, -33.4, 13.4; mean n = 110). Participants with college degree had substantially lower risk of CHD (27.9%) after accounting for demographics; the addition of early life potential confounders resulted in a moderate effect size (13.1%), suggesting potential importance of early life factors in explaining observed associations between education and CHD risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-wide association analysis accounting for environmental factors through propensity-score matching: application to stressful live events in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert A; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Ng, Mandy Y; Butler, Amy W; Craddock, Nick; Korszun, Ania; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gill, Michael; Rice, John P; Maier, Wolfgang; Zobel, Astrid; Mors, Ole; Placentino, Anna; Rietschel, Marcella; Aitchison, Katherine J; Tozzi, Federica; Muglia, Pierandrea; Breen, Gerome; Farmer, Anne E; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Uher, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    Stressful life events are an established trigger for depression and may contribute to the heterogeneity within genome-wide association analyses. With depression cases showing an excess of exposure to stressful events compared to controls, there is difficulty in distinguishing between "true" cases and a "normal" response to a stressful environment. This potential contamination of cases, and that from genetically at risk controls that have not yet experienced environmental triggers for onset, may reduce the power of studies to detect causal variants. In the RADIANT sample of 3,690 European individuals, we used propensity score matching to pair cases and controls on exposure to stressful life events. In 805 case-control pairs matched on stressful life event, we tested the influence of 457,670 common genetic variants on the propensity to depression under comparable level of adversity with a sign test. While this analysis produced no significant findings after genome-wide correction for multiple testing, we outline a novel methodology and perspective for providing environmental context in genetic studies. We recommend contextualizing depression by incorporating environmental exposure into genome-wide analyses as a complementary approach to testing gene-environment interactions. Possible explanations for negative findings include a lack of statistical power due to small sample size and conditional effects, resulting from the low rate of adequate matching. Our findings underscore the importance of collecting information on environmental risk factors in studies of depression and other complex phenotypes, so that sufficient sample sizes are available to investigate their effect in genome-wide association analysis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Small Versus Large-Sized Drug-Eluting Beads (DEBIRI) for the Treatment of Hepatic Colorectal Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinwande, Olaguoke K., E-mail: gokeakin@gmail.com [University of Louisville Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Philips, Prejesh, E-mail: prejesh.philips@louisville.edu [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States); Duras, Petr, E-mail: durasp@seznam.cz [Fakultní nemocnice Plzeň (Czech Republic); Pluntke, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.pluntke@t-online.de [Onkologe bei Kliniken Essen-Mitte (Germany); Scoggins, Charles, E-mail: charles.scoggins@louisville.edu; Martin, Robert C. G., E-mail: Robert.Martin@louisville.edu [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy with small and large irinotecan drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI) for treating hepatic colorectal metastases.MethodsUsing our prospectively maintained, multi-center, intra-arterial therapy registry, we identified 196 patients treated with a combination of large beads (100–300 to 500–700 μm) and patients treated with a combination of small beads (70–150 to 100–300 μm). To minimize selection bias, a propensity score analysis was performed to compare both groups.ResultsUnadjusted analysis consisted of 196 and 30 patients treated with large and small beads, respectively. The adjusted analysis consisted of 19 patients each. Unadjusted analysis showed decreased all-grade (p = <0.001) and high-grade adverse effects (p = 0.02) in the small bead group, with a persisting trend toward decreased overall side effects in the adjusted analysis favoring small beads (p = 0.09) The adjusted analysis showed the percentage dose delivered (delivered dose/intended dose) was significantly greater in the small bead group compared to the large bead group (96 vs 79 %; p = 0.005). There were also a lower percentage of treatments terminating in complete stasis in the adjusted analysis (0.0035). Adjusted analysis also showed increased objective response rate (ORR) at 12 months (p = 0.04), with a corresponding trend also seen in the unadjusted analysis (0.09).ConclusionSmaller beads result in increased dose delivery probably due to less propensity to reach complete stasis. It may also lead to more durable long-term efficacy. Smaller beads also demonstrate similarly low toxicity compared to large-sized beads with a trend toward less toxicity.

  1. Small Versus Large-Sized Drug-Eluting Beads (DEBIRI) for the Treatment of Hepatic Colorectal Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinwande, Olaguoke K.; Philips, Prejesh; Duras, Petr; Pluntke, Stefan; Scoggins, Charles; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy with small and large irinotecan drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI) for treating hepatic colorectal metastases.MethodsUsing our prospectively maintained, multi-center, intra-arterial therapy registry, we identified 196 patients treated with a combination of large beads (100–300 to 500–700 μm) and patients treated with a combination of small beads (70–150 to 100–300 μm). To minimize selection bias, a propensity score analysis was performed to compare both groups.ResultsUnadjusted analysis consisted of 196 and 30 patients treated with large and small beads, respectively. The adjusted analysis consisted of 19 patients each. Unadjusted analysis showed decreased all-grade (p = <0.001) and high-grade adverse effects (p = 0.02) in the small bead group, with a persisting trend toward decreased overall side effects in the adjusted analysis favoring small beads (p = 0.09) The adjusted analysis showed the percentage dose delivered (delivered dose/intended dose) was significantly greater in the small bead group compared to the large bead group (96 vs 79 %; p = 0.005). There were also a lower percentage of treatments terminating in complete stasis in the adjusted analysis (0.0035). Adjusted analysis also showed increased objective response rate (ORR) at 12 months (p = 0.04), with a corresponding trend also seen in the unadjusted analysis (0.09).ConclusionSmaller beads result in increased dose delivery probably due to less propensity to reach complete stasis. It may also lead to more durable long-term efficacy. Smaller beads also demonstrate similarly low toxicity compared to large-sized beads with a trend toward less toxicity

  2. Impact of Serum Apolipoprotein A-I on Prognosis and Bevacizumab Efficacy in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: a Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Quan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the role of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I as a predictor of prognosis and treatment efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on consecutive patients who were diagnosed with mCRC at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. According to their pretreatment ApoA-I level, patients were divided into low– and high–ApoA-I groups. Propensity score-matched method was performed to balance baseline characteristics between two groups. Based on whether they accepted bevacizumab as a first-line therapy, patients were further divided into the chemo + bevacizumab group and the chemo group. Overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS were assessed with Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff value for the ApoA-I level was determined to be 1.105 g/l. In the propensity-matched cohort of 508 patients, low ApoA-I was significantly associated with inferior OS (P < .001 and PFS (P < .001 than high ApoA-I. Multivariate analysis showed that ApoA-I level was an independent prognostic maker of OS (P < .001 and PFS (P = .001. PFS (P < .001 in either the high– or low–ApoA-I groups could be extended significantly after the administration of bevacizumab, and patients with a high ApoA-I level also had a better OS in the chemo + bevacizumab group than the chemo group (P = .049. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a low ApoA-I level have poor prognoses, and they did not display an OS benefit from bevacizumab.

  3. The Quality of Toddler Child Care and Cognitive Skills at 24 Months: Propensity Score Analysis Results from the ECLS-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik; Burchinal, Margaret; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.

    2013-01-01

    Over half of the toddlers in the U.S. experience routine nonparental care, but much less is known about early care than about preschool care. This study analyzed 2-year-old child care and child outcome data from the nationally representative ECLS-B sample of children born in 2001. At two-years of age, 51% of children experienced exclusive parental care, 18% relative care, 15% family child care, and 16% center care. More children in nonparental care were in medium quality care (61%) than in high quality (26%) or low quality (13%) care. Low-income children were more likely than non-low income children to be cared for by their parents and, when in care, were more often in lower quality care. The impact of toddler care quality on cognitive skills was estimated using propensity score adjustments to account for potential selection confounds due to family and child characteristics. Children’s cognitive scores were higher in high or medium quality care than in low quality care, but no evidence emerged suggesting that poverty moderated the quality effects. Nevertheless, this suggests that increasing the proportion of low-income children in high quality care could reduce the achievement gap because low-income children are very unlikely to experience high quality care. PMID:24347815

  4. Is Intermediate Radiation Dose Escalation With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Beneficial? A Multi-Institutional Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, George, E-mail: george.rodrigues@lhsc.on.ca [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Oberije, Cary [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tsujino, Kayoko [Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (Japan); Wiersma, Terry [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Moreno-Jimenez, Marta [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Kim, Tae Hyun [National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gy eonggi (Korea, Republic of); Marks, Lawrence B. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); De Petris, Luigi [Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramella, Sara [Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); DeRuyck, Kim [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Dios, Núria Rodriguez [Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Warner, Andrew [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Palma, David A. [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical benefits and risks of dose escalation (DE) for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain uncertain despite the results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0617. There is significant heterogeneity of practice, with many clinicians prescribing intermediate dose levels between the 0617 study arms of 60 and 74 Gy. This study investigated whether this strategy is associated with any survival benefits/risks by analyzing a large multi-institutional database. Methods and Materials: An individual patient database of stage III NSCLC patients treated with radical intent concurrent chemoradiation therapy was created (13 institutions, n=1274 patients). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor Biological Effective Dose at 10 Gy (BED 10): those receiving standard dose (SD; n=552), consisting of 72Gy ≤ BED 10 ≤ 76.8 Gy (eg 60-64 Gy/30-32 fractions [fr]), and those receiving intermediate dose (ID; n=497), consisting of 76.8Gy < BED 10 < 100.8 Gy (eg >64 Gy/32 fr and <74 Gy/37 fr), with lower-dose patients (n=225) excluded from consideration. Patients were then matched using propensity scores, leading to 2 matched groups of 196 patients. Outcomes were compared using various statistics including interquartile range (IQR), Kaplan-Meier curves, and adjusted Cox regression analysis. Results: Matched groups were found to be balanced except for N stage (more N3 disease in SD), median treatment year (SD in 2003; ID in 2007), platinum and taxane chemotherapy (SD in 28%; ID in 39%), and median follow-up (SD were 89 months; ID were 40 months). Median dose fractionation was 60 Gy/30 fr in SD (BED 10 IQR: 72.0-75.5 Gy) and 66 Gy/33 fr (BED 10 IQR: 78.6-79.2 Gy) in ID. Survival curves for SD and ID matched cohorts were statistically similar (P=.27); however, a nonstatistically significant trend toward better survival for ID was observed after 15 months (median survival SD: 19.3 months; ID: 21.0

  5. The Adherence Estimator: a brief, proximal screener for patient propensity to adhere to prescription medications for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHorney, Colleen A

    2009-01-01

    or high risk by the Adherence Estimator. The three risk groups differed on theoretically-relevant variables external to the Adherence Estimator in ways consistent with the hypothesized proximal-distal continuum of adherence drivers. The three-item Adherence Estimator measures three proximal beliefs related to intentional non-adherence (medication non-fulfillment and non-persistence). Preliminary evidence of the validity of the Adherence Evidence supports its intended use to segment patients on their propensity to adhere to a newly-prescribed prescription medication. The Adherence Estimator is readily scored and is easily interpretable. Due to its brevity and transparency, it should prove to be practical for use in everyday clinical practice and in disease management for adherence quality improvement. Study limitations related to sample representation and self reports of chronic disease and adherence behaviors were discussed.

  6. Smartphone-based reminder system to promote pelvic floor muscle training for the management of postnatal urinary incontinence: historical control study with propensity score-matched analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kinouchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a smartphone-based reminder system in promoting pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT to help postpartum women manage urinary incontinence (UI. Methods Forty-nine and 212 postpartum women in the intervention and control groups, respectively, received PFMT guidance using a leaflet and verbal instruction as the standard care at an obstetrics clinic in Japan. Women in the intervention group also received PFMT support using the smartphone-based reminder system between January and August 2014. For analysis, they were compared with historical controls between February 2011 and January 2012, who did not receive such support and were chosen by propensity score matching. The outcomes examined were PFMT adherence and UI prevalence. The former consisted of implementation rate (i.e., the percentage of women who reported performing PFMT during the intervention period, training intensity (i.e., the number of pelvic floor muscle contractions (PFMCs per day, and training frequency (i.e., the number of days PFMT was performed per week; the latter consisted of self-reported UI prevalence at baseline and at the end of the eight-week intervention period. Result Propensity score matching resulted in 58 postpartum women (n = 29 per group. The intervention group exhibited better PFMT adherence than the control group, in terms of PFMT implementation rate (69 vs. 31%, p = 0.008, median training intensity (15 vs. 1 PFMC reps/day, p = 0.006, and training frequency (7 vs. 3 days/week, p < 0.001. UI prevalence was not different between the groups at baseline, but was significantly reduced in the intervention group at eight weeks (0 vs. 24%, p = 0.004. Conclusion Our smartphone-based reminder system appears promising in enhancing PFMT adherence and managing postpartum UI in postpartum women. By enhancing PFMT adherence and improving women’s ability to manage the condition, the reminder system could

  7. Propensity Score-based Comparison of Long-term Outcomes With 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy vs Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Steven H.; Wang Lu; Myles, Bevan; Thall, Peter F.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Although 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is the worldwide standard for the treatment of esophageal cancer, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) improves dose conformality and reduces the radiation exposure to normal tissues. We hypothesized that the dosimetric advantages of IMRT should translate to substantive benefits in clinical outcomes compared with 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 676 nonrandomized patients (3D-CRT, n=413; IMRT, n=263) with stage Ib-IVa (American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) esophageal cancers treated with chemoradiotherapy at a single institution from 1998-2008. An inverse probability of treatment weighting and inclusion of propensity score (treatment probability) as a covariate were used to compare overall survival time, interval to local failure, and interval to distant metastasis, while accounting for the effects of other clinically relevant covariates. The propensity scores were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results: A fitted multivariate inverse probability weighted-adjusted Cox model showed that the overall survival time was significantly associated with several well-known prognostic factors, along with the treatment modality (IMRT vs 3D-CRT, hazard ratio 0.72, P<.001). Compared with IMRT, 3D-CRT patients had a significantly greater risk of dying (72.6% vs 52.9%, inverse probability of treatment weighting, log-rank test, P<.0001) and of locoregional recurrence (P=.0038). No difference was seen in cancer-specific mortality (Gray's test, P=.86) or distant metastasis (P=.99) between the 2 groups. An increased cumulative incidence of cardiac death was seen in the 3D-CRT group (P=.049), but most deaths were undocumented (5-year estimate, 11.7% in 3D-CRT vs 5.4% in IMRT group, Gray's test, P=.0029). Conclusions: Overall survival, locoregional control, and noncancer-related death were significantly better after IMRT than after 3D-CRT. Although these results need

  8. Development of the Crohn's disease digestive damage score, the Lémann score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pariente, Benjamin; Cosnes, Jacques; Danese, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    is to outline the methods to develop an instrument that can measure cumulative bowel damage. The project is being conducted by the International Program to develop New Indexes in Crohn's disease (IPNIC) group. This instrument, called the Crohn's Disease Digestive Damage Score (the Lémann score), should take...

  9. Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy with non-absorbable hemostatic sealant (Quikclot®) versus nephrostomy tube placement: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Park, Sang Un; Jang, Ho Sung; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) using a non-absorbable hemostatic sealant (Quikclot(®)) as an adjunct compared to nephrostomy tube placement in patients exhibiting significant parenchymal bleeding following PNL. We identified 113 PNL cases performed between May 2011 and October 2014. For patients with insignificant parenchymal bleeding following stone removal, defined as a clear visualization of the surgical field at full irrigation of the nephroscope, tubeless PNL was performed. For patients with significant parenchymal bleeding, we introduced the tubeless Quikclot(®) technique as of September 2013 and have performed it ever since. Formerly, nephrostomy placement PNL was performed. In this study, 40 Quikclot(®) applied PNL cases were matched with an equal number of nephrostomy placement cases by propensity scoring based on body mass index, stone size, and Guy's stone score. The mean postoperative drop in hematocrit was comparative between the Quikclot(®) group and the nephrostomy group on both postoperative days 1 (p = 0.459) and 2 (p = 0.325). Quikclot(®) application was associated with lower VAS scores throughout the postoperative period, lower cumulative analgesic requirement (p = 0.025), and with shorter hospitalization (p = 0.002). Complication rates were comparable with no need for blood transfusions in any patients. Tubeless Quikclot(®) PNL was safe and provided effective hemostasis of significant parenchymal bleeding. By avoiding nephrostomy placement, we were able to reduce postoperative pain, analgesic requirements, and hospitalization. Application of Quikclot(®) may be considered prior to nephrostomy placement in patients with significant parenchymal bleeding.

  10. The importance of extent of choroid plexus cauterization in addition to endoscopic third ventriculostomy for infantile hydrocephalus: a retrospective North American observational study using propensity score-adjusted analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Aria; Weil, Alexander G; Juraschka, Kyle; Ibrahim, George M; Wang, Anthony C; Crevier, Louis; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Ragheb, John; Bhatia, Sanjiv

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETC) and choroid plexus cauterization (CPC)-ETV/CPC- is being investigated to increase the rate of shunt independence in infants with hydrocephalus. The degree of CPC necessary to achieve improved rates of shunt independence is currently unknown. METHODS Using data from a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study involving patients who underwent ETV/CPC for treatment of infantile hydrocephalus, comparative statistical analyses were performed to detect a difference in need for subsequent CSF diversion procedure in patients undergoing partial CPC (describes unilateral CPC or bilateral CPC that only extended from the foramen of Monro [FM] to the atrium on one side) or subtotal CPC (describes CPC extending from the FM to the posterior temporal horn bilaterally) using a rigid neuroendoscope. Propensity scores for extent of CPC were calculated using age and etiology. Propensity scores were used to perform 1) case-matching comparisons and 2) Cox multivariable regression, adjusting for propensity score in the unmatched cohort. Cox multivariable regression adjusting for age and etiology, but not propensity score was also performed as a third statistical technique. RESULTS Eighty-four patients who underwent ETV/CPC had sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Subtotal CPC was performed in 58 patients (69%) and partial CPC in 26 (31%). The ETV/CPC success rates at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were 49% and 41% for patients undergoing subtotal CPC and 35% and 31% for those undergoing partial CPC. Cox multivariate regression in a 48-patient cohort case-matched by propensity score demonstrated no added effect of increased extent of CPC on ETV/CPC survival (HR 0.868, 95% CI 0.422-1.789, p = 0.702). Cox multivariate regression including all patients, with adjustment for propensity score, demonstrated no effect of extent of CPC on ETV/CPC survival (HR 0.845, 95% CI 0.462-1.548, p = 0.586). Cox multivariate

  11. Propensity score matching in estimating the effect of managerial education on academic planning behavior. Study design: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many academic settings teaching a particular topic is applied to every student enrolled in the same academic year, it is a difficult task for researchers to design a randomized control group study. This research aimed to estimate the effect of teaching management and planning on increasing academic planning behavior (APB, using propensity score matching (PSM. Methods In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 students in Hanoi Medical University, one of the eight medical schools in Vietnam, this evaluation study adopted regression procedures to assess model fit, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of management education. Results The study showed both direct and indirect effects of the education on behavior. After PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups - with and without management education, there is statistically a significant difference in APB between these two groups, making a net difference of 18.60% (p Conclusions The study provided theoretical as well as practical implications to guide the design of the education and evaluation of teaching.

  12. The Role of Family Orientations in Shaping the Effect of Fertility on Subjective Well-being: A Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Nicoletta; Arpino, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates whether and how having a child impacts an individual's subjective well-being, while taking into account heterogeneity in family attitudes. People with different family orientations have different values, gender attitudes, preferences toward career and family, and expectations about how childbearing can affect their subjective well-being. These differences impact fertility decisions and the effect of parenthood on an individual's life satisfaction. We define three groups of people based on their family orientations: Traditional, Mixed, and Modern. Applying propensity score matching on longitudinal data (British Household Panel Survey), we create groups of individuals with very similar socioeconomic characteristics and family orientations before childbearing. We then compare those who have one child with those who are childless, and those who have two children with those who have only one child. We show that parents are significantly more satisfied than nonparents, and this effect is stronger among men than among women. For men, we do not find significant differences across family orientations groups in the effect of the birth of the first child on life satisfaction. Among women, only Traditional mothers seem to be more satisfied than their childless counterparts. Women who have a second child are never more satisfied than those who have only one child, regardless of their family orientations. Traditional and Mixed men experience a gain in life satisfaction when they have a second child, but this effect is not found for Modern men.

  13. Effect of the Japanese Herbal Kampo Medicine Dai-Kenchu-To on Postoperative Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction Requiring Long-Tube Decompression: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Yasunaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO is an adverse consequence of abdominal surgery. Although the Kampo medicine Dai-kenchu-to is widely used in Japan for treatment of postoperative ASBO, rigorous clinical studies for its use have not been performed. In the present retrospective observational study using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination inpatient database, we selected 288 propensity-score-matched patients with early postoperative ASBO following colorectal cancer surgery, who received long-tube decompression (LTD with or without Dai-kenchu-to administration. The success rates of LTD were not significantly different between Dai-kenchu-to users and nonusers (84.7% versus 78.5%; P=.224, while Dai-kenchu-to users showed a shorter duration of LTD (8 versus 10 days; P=.012, shorter duration between long-tube insertion and discharge (23 versus 25 days; P=.018, and lower hospital charges ($23,086 versus $26,950; P=.018 compared with Dai-kenchu-to nonusers. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Dai-kenchu-to is effective for reducing the duration of LTD and saving costs.

  14. Duodenal localization is a negative predictor of survival after small bowel adenocarcinoma resection: A population-based, propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Alexander; Galata, Christian; Beutner, Ulrich; Schmied, Bruno M; Warschkow, Rene; Steffen, Thomas; Brunner, Walter; Post, Stefan; Marti, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the influence of tumor localization of small bowel adenocarcinoma on survival after surgical resection. Patients with resected small bowel adenocarcinoma, ACJJ stage I-III, were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2004 to 2013. The impact of tumor localization on overall and cancer-specific survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models with and without risk-adjustment and propensity score methods. Adenocarcinoma was localized to the duodenum in 549 of 1025 patients (53.6%). There was no time trend for duodenal localization (P = 0.514). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 48.2% (95%CI: 43.3-53.7%) for patients with duodenal carcinoma and 66.6% (95%CI: 61.6-72.1%) for patients with cancer located in the jejunum or ileum. Duodenal localization was associated with worse overall and cancer-specific survival in univariable (HR = 1.73; HR = 1.81, respectively; both P matrimonial status were positive, independent prognostic factors. Duodenal localization is an independent risk factor for poor survival after resection of adenocarcinoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Comparison liver resection with transarterial chemoembolization for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B hepatocellular carcinoma patients on long-term survival after SPSS propensity score matching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yang; Zhong, Jianhong; Guo, Zhe; Liang, Yongrong; Li, Lequn; Xiang, Bangde

    2014-03-18

    To compare the long-term survival of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing either liver resection or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) after propensity score matching (PSM). One hundred sixty-seven and 70 BCLC-B HCC patients undergoing liver resection and TACE were retrospectively collected. PSM function of SPSS software was conducted to reduce confounding bias between the groups. And then survival analysis was performed for the matched data. Fifty-three pairs of patients were successfully matched. And then survival analysis showed that the median survival periods and their 95% confidence intervals were 35.0 (26.3-43.7)months in the liver resection group versus 20.0(15.0-25.0) months in the TACE group. The 1, 3, 5 and 7-year survival rates were 91.0%, 49.0%, 30.0% and 17.0% in the liver resection group versus 73.0%, 25.0%, 8.0% and 5.0% respectively in the TACE group (P = 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that TACE, total bilirubin ≥ 34.2 µmol/L, alpha fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/ml and tumor number ≥ 3 were independent risk factors of survival (hazard ratio >1, P < 0.05). The balance of covariates may be achieved through PSM. And for patients with BCLC-B HCC, liver resection provides better long-term overall survival than TACE.

  16. A propensity score matching analysis of dasatinib and nilotinib as a frontline therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Yang, Yulong; Sasaki, Koji; Jain, Preetesh; DellaSala, Sara; Ravandi, Farhad; Kadia, Tapan; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval; Borthakur, Gautam; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Jabbour, Elias; Cortes, Jorge E

    2016-11-15

    Both dasatinib and nilotinib are approved frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) based on randomized trials compared with imatinib. However, no head-to-head comparison of dasatinib and nilotinib has been conducted in patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP. The authors conducted a propensity score (PS) matched comparison of patients with CML-CP who received frontline therapy with either dasatinib (N = 102) or nilotinib (N = 104) under the respective phase 2 trials conducted in parallel. PS matching resulted in 87 patients from each trial being matched for pretreatment characteristics. The 3-month BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio treatment cohorts. The 3-year probability of event-free survival was 89% among the patients who received dasatinib and 87% among those who received nilotinib (P = .99), and the corresponding 3-year overall survival probabilities were 99% and 93%, respectively (P = .95). No statistical difference was observed between the dasatinib and nilotinib groups in any of the other survival endpoints. The treatment discontinuation rate also was similar between the 2 cohorts (dasatinib group, 18%; nilotinib group, 19%; P = .82). In a PS-matched cohort of patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP, dasatinib and nilotinib offer similar response and survival outcomes. Both drugs can be considered reasonable standard-of-care options as first-line therapy for patients with CML-CP. Cancer 2016;122:3336-3343. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Impact of marital status at diagnosis on survival and its change over time between 1973 and 2012 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Xu; Chen, Yu-Pei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2017-12-01

    The impact of marital status at diagnosis on survival outcomes and its change over time in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are unclear. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify patients diagnosed with NPC in the United States from 1973 to 2012. A primary comparison (married vs. unmarried) was implemented with 1:1 propensity score matching. Secondary comparisons were performed individually between three unmarried subgroups (single, separated/divorced, widowed) and married group. The effect of marital status on cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using univariate/multivariate analysis. Moreover, we investigated the change over time (1973-2012) in the effect of marital status on NPC survival. Married patients had better 5-year CSS/OS than unmarried patients (61.1% vs. 52.6%, P vs. 45.3%, P unmarried patients had significantly poorer CSS/OS than married patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.35, P married was only detected in non-Hispanic white and Chinese American patients. Single, separated/divorced, and widowed patients had significantly poorer CSS/OS than married patients (aHR = 1.37 and 1.37; 1.46 and 1.42; 1.43 and 1.48, respectively; all P married status. Single and widowed patients are regarded as high-risk population. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Propensity Score Matched Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy vs Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Survival Analysis from the National Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ricco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available PurposeNo direct comparisons between extreme hypofractionation and conventional fractionation have been reported in randomized trials for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. The goal of this study is to use a propensity score matched (PSM analysis with the National Cancer Database (NCDB for the comparison of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT for organ confined prostate cancer.MethodsMen with localized prostate cancer treated with radiation dose ≥72 Gy for IMRT and ≥35 Gy for SBRT to the prostate only were abstracted from the NCDB. Men treated with previous surgery, brachytherapy, or proton therapy were excluded. Matching was performed to eliminate confounding variables via PSM. Simple 1–1 nearest neighbor matching resulted in a matched sample of 5,430 (2,715 in each group. Subset analyses of men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA > 10, GS = 7, and GS > 7 yielded matched samples of 1,020, 2,194, and 247, respectively.ResultsNo difference in survival was noted between IMRT and SBRT at 8 years (p = 0.65. Subset analyses of higher risk men with PSA > 10 or GS = 7 histology or GS > 7 histology revealed no difference in survival between IMRT and SBRT (p = 0.58, p = 0.68, and p = 0.62, respectively. Variables significant for survival for the matched group included: age (p < 0.0001, primary payor (p = 0.0001, Charlson/Deyo Score (p = 0.0002, PSA (p = 0.0013, Gleason score (p < 0.0001, and use of hormone therapy (p = 0.02.ConclusionUtilizing the NCDB, there is no difference in survival at 8 years comparing IMRT to SBRT in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Subset analysis confirmed no difference in survival even for intermediate- and high-risk patients based on Gleason Score and PSA.

  19. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  20. Safety, efficacy, and response predictors of anticoagulation for the treatment of nonmalignant portal-vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis: a propensity score matching analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Wha Chung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsPortal-vein thrombosis (PVT develops in 10-25% of cirrhotic patients and may aggravate portal hypertension. There are few data regarding the effects of anticoagulation on nonmalignant PVT in liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the safety, efficacy, and predictors of response to anticoagulation therapy in cirrhotic patients.MethodsPatients with liver cirrhosis and nonmalignant PVT were identified by a hospital electronic medical record system (called BESTCARE. Patients with malignant PVT, Budd-Chiari syndrome, underlying primary hematologic disorders, or preexisting extrahepatic thrombosis were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into two groups (treatment and nontreatment, and propensity score matching analysis was performed to identify control patients. The sizes of the thrombus and spleen were evaluated using multidetector computed tomography.ResultsTwenty-eight patients were enrolled in this study between 2003 and 2014: 14 patients who received warfarin for nonmalignant PVT and 14 patients who received no anticoagulation. After 112 days of treatment, 11 patients exhibited significantly higher response rates (complete in 6 and partial in 5 compared to the control patients, with decreases in thrombus size of >30%. Compared to nonresponders, the 11 responders were older, and had a thinner spleen and fewer episodes of previous endoscopic variceal ligations, whereas pretreatment liver function and changes in prothrombin time after anticoagulation did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two patients died after warfarin therapy, but the causes of death were not related to anticoagulation.ConclusionsWarfarin can be safely administered to cirrhotic patients with nonmalignant PVT. The presence of preexisting portal hypertension is a predictor of nonresponse to anticoagulation.

  1. Use of Renal Replacement Therapy May Influence Graft Outcomes following Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure: A Propensity-Score Matched Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Stephen R; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Devey, Luke; Simpson, Kenneth J; Wigmore, Stephen J; Harrison, Ewen M

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is associated with a poor prognosis in acute liver failure but little is known of outcomes in patients undergoing transplantation for acute liver failure who require renal replacement therapy. A retrospective analysis of the United Kingdom Transplant Registry was performed (1 January 2001-31 December 2011) with patient and graft survival determined using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were used together with propensity-score based full matching on renal replacement therapy use. Three-year patient and graft survival for patients receiving renal replacement therapy were 77.7% and 72.6% compared with 85.1% and 79.4% for those not requiring renal replacement therapy (Prenal replacement therapy was a predictor of both patient death (hazard ratio (HR) 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.50, P = 0.044) but not graft loss (HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.92-2.10, P = 0.114). In groups fully matched on baseline covariates, those not receiving renal replacement therapy with a serum creatinine greater than 175 μmol/L had a significantly worse risk of graft failure than those receiving renal replacement therapy. In patients being transplanted for acute liver failure, use of renal replacement therapy is a strong predictor of patient death and graft loss. Those not receiving renal replacement therapy with an elevated serum creatinine may be at greater risk of early graft failure than those receiving renal replacement therapy. A low threshold for instituting renal replacement therapy may therefore be beneficial.

  2. Comparison of treatment effect estimates of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin between observational studies using propensity score methods and randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guowei; Holbrook, Anne; Jin, Yanling; Zhang, Yonghong; Levine, Mitchell A. H.; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Witt, Daniel M.; Crowther, Mark; Connolly, Stuart; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; Wan, Zhongxiao; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Emerging observational studies using propensity score (PS) methods assessed real-world comparative effectiveness of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) versus warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to compare treatment effect estimates of NOACs between PS studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Electronic databases and conference proceedings were searched systematically. Primary outcomes included stroke or systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the data by pooling the PS- and RCT-derived hazard ratios (HRs) separately. The ratio of HRs (RHR) from the ratio of PS-derived HRs relative to RCT-derived HRs was used to determine whether there was a difference between estimates from PS studies and RCTs. There were 10 PS studies and 5 RCTs included for analysis. No significant difference of treatment effect estimates between the PS studies and RCTs was observed: RHR 1.11, 95 % CI 0.98–1.23 for stroke or SE; RHR 1.07, 95 % CI 0.87–1.34 for major bleeding. A significant association between NOACs and risk of stroke or SE was observed: HR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.83–0.94 for the PS studies; HR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.72–0.87 for the RCTs. However, no relationship between NOACs and risk of major bleeding was found: HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.79–1.05 for the PS studies; HR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.73–1.00 for the RCTs. In this study, treatment effect estimates of NOACs versus warfarin in patients with non-valvular AF from PS studies are found to be in agreement with those from RCTs.

  3. Evaluation of a hepatitis C clinical care coordination programme's effect on treatment initiation and cure: A surveillance-based propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, R; Ford, M M; Moore, M S; Lim, S; Perumalswami, P; Weiss, J; Wyatt, B; Shukla, S; Litwin, A; Reynoso, S; Laraque, F

    2018-05-14

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is a viral infection that if left untreated can severely damage the liver. Project INSPIRE was a 3 year HCV care coordination programme in New York City (NYC) that aimed to address barriers to treatment initiation and cure by providing patients with supportive services and health promotion. We examined whether enrolment in Project INSPIRE was associated with differences in HCV treatment and cure compared with a demographically similar group not enrolled in the programme. INSPIRE participants in 2015 were matched with a cohort of HCV-infected persons identified in the NYC surveillance registry, using full optimal matching on propensity scores and stratified by INSPIRE enrolment status. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess group differences in the two treatment outcomes. Two follow-up sensitivity analyses using individual pair-matched sets and the full unadjusted cohort were also conducted. Treatment was initiated by 72% (790/1130) of INSPIRE participants and 36% (11 960/32 819) of study-eligible controls. Among initiators, 65% (514/790) of INSPIRE participants compared with 47% (5641/11 960) of controls achieved cure. In the matched analysis, enrolment in INSPIRE increased the odds of treatment initiation (OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 4.47-6.17) and cure (OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 2.00-3.16). Results from the sensitivity analyses showed agreement with the results from the full optimal match. Participation in the HCV care coordination programme significantly increased the probability of treatment initiation and cure, demonstrating that care coordination for HCV-infected individuals improves treatment outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect on healthcare utilization and costs of spinal manual therapy for acute low back pain in routine care: A propensity score matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jochen; Mertens, Ulf Kai; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Chenot, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    Spinal manual therapy (SMT) is a popular treatment option for low back pain (LBP). The aim of our analysis was to evaluate the effects of manual therapy delivered by general practitioners and ambulatory orthopedic surgeons in routine care on follow up consultations, sick leave, health service utilization and costs for acute LBP compared to matched patients not receiving manual therapy. This is a propensity score matched cohort study based on health claims data. We identified a total of 113.652 adult patients with acute LBP and no coded red flags of whom 21.021 (18%) received SMT by physicians. In the final analysis 17.965 patients in each group could be matched. Balance on patients' coded characteristics, comorbidity and prior health service utilization was achieved. The provision of SMT for acute LBP had no relevant impact on follow up visits and days of sick leave for LBP in the index billing period and the following year. SMT was associated with a higher proportion of imaging studies for LBP (30.6% vs. 23%, SMD: 0.164 [95% CI 0.143-0.185]). SMT did not lead to meaningful savings by replacing other health services for LBP. SMT for acute non-specific LBP in routine care was not clinically meaningful effective to reduce sick leave and reconsultation rates compared to no SMT and did not lead to meaningful savings by replacing other health services from the perspective of health insurance. This does not imply that SMT is ineffective but might reflect a problem with selection of suitable patients and the quality and quantity of SMT in routine care. National Manual Medicine societies should state clearly that imaging is not routinely needed prior to SMT in patients with low suspicion of presence of red flags and monitor the quality of provided services.

  5. Effectiveness of Cetuximab in Combination with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A 1:2 Propensity Score-matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Rong; Zhu, Huan-Feng; Xu, Jianhua; Jiang, Xue-Song; Yin, Li; Jiang, Ning; Zong, Dan; Wang, Fei-Jiang; Huang, Sheng-Fu; Bian, Xiu-Hua; Wu, Jian-Feng; Song, Dan; Guo, Wen-Jie; Liu, Ju-Ying; He, Xia

    2018-01-01

    Background : This study aimed to compare concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) plus cetuximab (C) with CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC). Methods : A total of 682 locoregionally advanced NPC patients who had undergone chemoradiotherapy with or without cetuximab were included. Propensity score-matching method was used to match patients. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were compared between the two treatment arms. Results : After matching, 225 patients were identified for the analysis. Compared to CCRT, CCRT plus C was associated with significantly improved 3-year PFS (83.7% vs 71.9%, P = 0.036), LRFS (98.6% vs 90.2%, P = 0.034) but not OS (91.4% vs 85.4%, P = 0.117). Among patients with T4 and/or N3 category, CCRT plus C significantly prolonged 3-year PFS (81.0% vs 61.4%, P = 0.022) and increased 3-year OS (88.0% vs 77.9%, P = 0.086). No significant differences were observed between CCRT plus C and CCRT alone groups with regard to 3-year PFS, OS, LRFS and DMFS rates in stage III patients. Acute oral and oropharyngeal mucositis during radiotherapy were more common in the CCRT plus C than that in CCRT, but late toxicities were comparable. Conclusions: This study reveals that patients with locoregionally advanced NPC could benefit from the addition of cetuximab to CCRT, and this therapeutic gain mainly originated from T4 and/or N3 subgroup although suffering more acute moderate to severe toxicities.

  6. Does breastfeeding help to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity? A propensity score analysis of data from the KiGGS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Miriam Grube

    Full Text Available Current studies suggest that the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on overweight and obesity may have been largely overestimated. We examined the relationship between >4 months of full breastfeeding and overweight/obesity in children living in Germany.We analyzed retrospectively collected data on breastfeeding from children aged 3-17 years who participated in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS baseline study between 2003 and 2006 (n = 13163. To minimize confounding, we applied propensity score matching and multivariate logistic regression analyses to estimate the effect of breastfeeding on childhood overweight and obesity.Adjusted analyses of the matched dataset (n = 8034 indicated that children who were breastfed for >4 months had a significant reduction in the odds of overweight (OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.71–0.92] and obesity (OR 0.75 [95% CI 0.61–0.92] compared to children who were not breastfed or who were breastfed for a shorter duration [corrected].Further analyses stratified by age group showed that the association was strongest in children aged 7-10 years (OR 0.67 [95% CI 0.53-0.84] for overweight and OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.39-0.81] for obesity, while no significant effect could be seen in other age groups.Our findings support the hypothesis that breastfeeding does have a beneficial effect on childhood overweight and obesity, although the effect seems to be strongest in children of primary school age.

  7. Effect on healthcare utilization and costs of spinal manual therapy for acute low back pain in routine care: A propensity score matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Walker

    Full Text Available Spinal manual therapy (SMT is a popular treatment option for low back pain (LBP. The aim of our analysis was to evaluate the effects of manual therapy delivered by general practitioners and ambulatory orthopedic surgeons in routine care on follow up consultations, sick leave, health service utilization and costs for acute LBP compared to matched patients not receiving manual therapy. This is a propensity score matched cohort study based on health claims data. We identified a total of 113.652 adult patients with acute LBP and no coded red flags of whom 21.021 (18% received SMT by physicians. In the final analysis 17.965 patients in each group could be matched. Balance on patients' coded characteristics, comorbidity and prior health service utilization was achieved. The provision of SMT for acute LBP had no relevant impact on follow up visits and days of sick leave for LBP in the index billing period and the following year. SMT was associated with a higher proportion of imaging studies for LBP (30.6% vs. 23%, SMD: 0.164 [95% CI 0.143-0.185]. SMT did not lead to meaningful savings by replacing other health services for LBP. SMT for acute non-specific LBP in routine care was not clinically meaningful effective to reduce sick leave and reconsultation rates compared to no SMT and did not lead to meaningful savings by replacing other health services from the perspective of health insurance. This does not imply that SMT is ineffective but might reflect a problem with selection of suitable patients and the quality and quantity of SMT in routine care. National Manual Medicine societies should state clearly that imaging is not routinely needed prior to SMT in patients with low suspicion of presence of red flags and monitor the quality of provided services.

  8. Comprehensive Support for Family Caregivers of Post-9/11 Veterans Increases Veteran Utilization of Long-term Services and Supports: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Smith, Valerie A.; Stechuchak, Karen M.; Miller, Katherine E. M.; Hastings, Susan Nicole; Wieland, Gilbert Darryl; Olsen, Maren K.; Kabat, Margaret; Henius, Jennifer; Campbell-Kotler, Margaret; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2018-01-01

    Family caregivers are an important component of the long-term services and supports (LTSS) system. However, caregiving may have negative consequences for caregiver physical and emotional health. Connecting caregivers to formal short-term home- and community-based services (HCBS), through information resources and referrals, might alleviate family caregiver burden and delay nursing home entry for the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early impact of the Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers (PCAFC) (established by P.L. 111-163 for family caregivers of seriously injured post-9/11 Veterans) on Veteran use of LTSS. A two-cohort pre-post design with a nonequivalent comparison group (treated n = 15 650; comparison n = 8339) was used to (1) examine the association between caregiver enrollment in PCAFC and any VA-purchased or VA-provided LTSS use among Veterans and (2) describe program-related trends in HCBS and institutional LTSS use. The comparison group was an inverse-propensity-score weighted sample of Veterans whose caregivers applied for, but were not accepted into, the program. From baseline through 24 months post application, use of any LTSS ranged from 13.1% to 17.8% for Veterans whose caregivers were enrolled in PCAFC versus from 3.8% to 5.3% for Veterans in the comparison group. Participation in PCAFC was associated with a statistically significant increased use of any LTSS from 1 to 24 months post application (over time odds ratios ranged from 2.71 [95% confidence interval: 2.31-3.17] to 4.86 [3.93-6.02]). Support for family caregivers may enhance utilization of LTSS for Veterans with physical, emotional, and/or cognitive conditions. PMID:29591540

  9. First-line chemotherapy with S-1 alone or S-1 plus cisplatin for elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer: a multicenter propensity score matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiyama, Akitaka; Kunieda, Kenji; Noguchi, Masaaki; Kajiwara, Takeshi; Tamura, Takao; Takeda, Koji; Sugiyama, Junko; Minashi, Keiko; Moriwaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Nagase, Michitaka; Negoro, Yuji; Tsuda, Takashi; Shimodaira, Hideki; Okano, Naohiro; Tsuji, Akihito; Sakai, Daisuke; Yanagihara, Kazuhiro; Ueda, Shinya; Tamura, Shingo; Otsu, Satoshi; Honda, Takuya; Matsushita, Yuzo; Okuno, Tatsuya; Kashiwada, Tomomi; Nozaki, Akira; Ebi, Masahide; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Hironaka, Shuichi; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Baba, Eishi; Boku, Narikazu; Muro, Kei; Esaki, Taito

    2018-01-20

    Fluoropyrimidine and platinum combination is the standard treatment for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer (AGC). However, fluoropyrimidine monotherapy is commonly used for elderly patients with AGC because of its good tolerability. In this multicenter retrospective study, we collected clinical data of AGC patients aged 70 years or older, treated with S-1 alone or S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) as the first-line treatment between January 2009 and December 2011. Propensity score matched cohorts (PSMC) were used for reducing the confounding effects to compare efficacy and safety between the two treatment groups. Cox regression analysis was performed to clarify the prognostic factors. PSMC (n = 109 in each group) were selected from among 444 eligible patients (S-1 group, 210; SP group, 234); the S-1 group included more patients deemed unfit for intensive chemotherapy than the SP group (e.g., higher age, poorer PS, poor renal function). In the PSMC, patients' characteristics were comparable between groups, except the male ratio (S-1 group, 64.2%; SP group, 77.1%; p = 0.04). No significant differences were observed in either overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, p = 0.63] or progression-free survival (HR 1.09, p = 0.61). Severe adverse events (AEs) and hospitalization due to AEs were more frequent in the SP group than in the S-1 group (p strategy and explore applicability of the geriatric assessment for these patients.

  10. Effects of continuous administration of clopidogrel before off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with acute coronary syndrome. A propensity score analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Suk-Won; Youn, Young-Nam; Yi, Gijong; Lee, Sak; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Clopidogrel has become standard treatment after urgent percutaneous coronary revascularization. Due to its enhanced and irreversible platelet inhibition, patients undergoing urgent surgical revascularization have a higher risk of bleeding complications and transfusions. Therefore, the effect of preoperative continuous administration of clopidogrel on the incidence of hemorrhagic complications in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery with acute coronary syndrome was evaluated. From March 2004 to September 2006, 172 patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery; 70 (40.7%) and 102 (59.3%) of these patients did or did not take clopidogrel before surgery respectively. Seventy patients in each group were matched using propensity scores and associations between preoperative continuous administration of clopidogrel and postoperative bleeding, hemostatic reoperation, blood products received, the need for multiple transfusions and early graft patency by coronary computed tomography were assessed. Univariate analysis showed the continuous clopidogrel group had similar levels of postoperative bleeding for 24 h (601.4±312.6 ml vs 637.2±452.4 ml, p=0.616) and rates of reexploration (1.4% vs 1.4%), perioperative blood transfusion (33.3% vs 34.3%, p>0.05) and platelet transfusion (2.9% vs 7.1%, p=0.44) compared with the non-continuous group. Preoperative continuous administration of clopidogrel did not increase the risk of hemorrhagic complications in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. These findings indicate that surgery after clopidogrel treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome should not be delayed until platelet function returns to normal because they may have a higher risk of recurrent myocardial ischemic events. (author)

  11. The Association of Individual and Regional Socioeconomic Status on Initial Peritonitis and Outcomes in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Hu, Ke-Jie; Ren, Ye-Ping; Dong, Jie; Han, Qing-Feng; Zhu, Tong-Ying; Chen, Jiang-Hua; Zhao, Hui-Ping; Chen, Meng-Hua; Xu, Rong; Wang, Yue; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Mei; Tian, Na; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Research indicates that the socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the area where they live are related to initial peritonitis and outcomes in peritoneal dialysis (PD). We conducted a retrospective, multi-center cohort study in China to examine these associations. ♦ Data on 2,171 PD patients were collected from 7 centers, including baseline demographic, socioeconomic, and laboratory data. We explored the potential risk factors for initial peritonitis and outcomes using univariate Cox regression and unadjusted binary logistic regression. Then, we used propensity score matching to balance statistically significant risk factors for initial peritonitis and outcomes, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to compare differences in peritonitis-free rates between different groups of participants after matching. ♦ A total of 563 (25.9%) initial episodes of peritonitis occurred during the study period. The Kaplan-Meier peritonitis-free rate curve showed high-income patients had a significantly lower risk than low-income patients (p = 0.007) after matching for age, hemoglobin, albumin, and regional SES and PD center. The risk of treatment failure was significantly lower in the high-income than the low-income group after matching for the organism causing peritonitis and PD center: odds ratio (OR) = 0.27 (0.09 - 0.80, p = 0.018). Regional SES and education were not associated with initial peritonitis and outcomes. ♦ Our study demonstrates low individual income is a risk factor for the initial onset of peritonitis and treatment failure after initial peritonitis. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  12. Is precarious employment damaging to self-rated health? Results of propensity score matching methods, using longitudinal data in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Chang-Yup; Park, Jin-Kyung; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2008-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the health effects of precarious employment based on a counterfactual framework, using the Korea Labor and Income Panel Survey data. At the 4th wave (2001), information was obtained on 1991 male and 1378 female waged workers. Precarious work was defined on the basis of workers employed on a temporary or daily basis, part-time, or in a contingent (fixed short-term) job. The outcome was self-rated health with five response categories. Confounding factors included age, marital status, education, industry and occupation of current employment, household income, residential area, and prior health status. Propensity scores for each individual to be a precarious worker were calculated from logistic models including those covariates, and based on them, precarious workers were matched to non-precarious workers. Then, we examined the effects of precarious employment on health and explored the potential intermediary variables, using ordered logistic Generalized Estimating Equations models. All analyses were performed separately by gender. Precarious workers were found to be in a lower socioeconomic position and to have worse health status. Univariate matched analyses showed that precarious employment was associated with worse health in both men and women. By further controlling for socio-demographic covariates, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant. Job satisfaction, especially as related to job insecurity, and monthly wage further attenuated the effects. This suggests that to improve health status of precarious workers in Korea, policy strategies need to tackle the channeling of the socially disadvantaged into precarious jobs. Also, regulations to eliminate discrimination against precarious workers in working conditions or material reward should be introduced and enforced. There is no doubt that job insecurity, which is pervasive among workers in Korea, should be minimized by suspending market-oriented labor policies which rely on

  13. A rapid and sustained improvement of calcification propensity score (serum T50 ) after successful kidney transplantation: Reanalysis of a randomized controlled trial of ibandronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerud, Knut T; Åsberg, Anders; Kile, Håkon; Pasch, Andreas; Dahle, Dag O; Bollerslev, Jens; Godang, Kristin; Hartmann, Anders

    2017-12-01

    A serum test called T 50 assesses the overall propensity for calcification of the blood and is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to examine T 50 over time in kidney transplant recipients and also address any effects of ibandronate. Serum samples taken from kidney transplant patients included in a prospective, randomized placebo controlled study of ibandronate were analyzed in retrospect. Adequate analyses were performed at baseline (approximately 3 weeks after transplantation) in 129 patients, at 10 weeks in 127 patients and at 1 year in 123 patients. There were no statistical differences between ibandronate and placebo treatment in terms of T 50 at 10 weeks (P = .094) or at 1 year (P = .116). Baseline T 50 was a significant covariate (P < .0001) for T 50 scores at 10 weeks and 1 year. In the total cohort, there was a highly significant (P < .0001) increase in T 50 of 26.6% after 10 weeks and T 50 remained stable after 1 year. T 50 change was inversely correlated to phosphate of -0.515 (P < .0001) and to change in serum albumin (P < .03). We found that T 50 increased from baseline to 10 weeks after transplantation with no further change after 1 year. Ibandronate had no effect on T 50 . © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. DK mini-culotte stenting in the treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions: a propensity score matching comparison with T-provisional stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin; Chen, Lianglong; Luo, Yukun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhong, Wenliang; Lin, Chaogui; Chen, Zhaoyang; Peng, Yafei; Zhen, Xingchun; Dong, Xianfeng

    2016-03-01

    The conventional culotte technique remains not to be widely used for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions due to its inherent drawbacks. Here, we developed a double kissing mini-culotte stenting (DK mini-culotte) and assessed its efficacy and safety by a propensity score matching comparison (PSM) with T-provisional stenting. From June 2010 to June 2012, a total of 223 consecutive patients with true coronary bifurcation lesions (TCBLs) were treated with DK mini-culotte (91 patients with 92 lesions) or T-provisional stenting (132 patients with 135 lesions). We performed a PSM to correct the confounders from clinical and lesion's characteristics. The primary endpoint was cumulative major adverse cardiac event (MACE) at 1 year including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization or target lesion revascularization (TVR/TLR). The secondary endpoint was the rate of side branch (SB) restenosis at 12 months. After a PSM, there were 66 patients in each group. Additional SB stenting in the T-provisional group was performed in 10 (15.2 %) lesions. The incidence of 1-year cumulative MACE was 4.55 % for the DK mini-culotte versus 13.6 % for T-provisional stenting (P = 0.127), the rate of TVR/TLR was 1.52 % for DK mini-culotte versus 12.12 % for T-provisional stenting (P = 0.033). The SB binary restenosis rate was 5.6 % in the DK mini-culotte group and 22.4 % in the T-provisional group (P = 0.014). In summary, despite that there is no difference in MACE between groups, DK mini-culotte significantly reduce TVR/TLR and SB restenosis in the treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions.

  15. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score)

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Shroff; Petra Hopf-Seidel

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NF...

  16. The Veterans Affairs Cardiac Risk Score: Recalibrating the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Score for Applied Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Jeremy B; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Zawistowski, Matthew; Hofer, Timothy P; Bentley, Douglas; Hayward, Rodney A

    2017-09-01

    Accurately estimating cardiovascular risk is fundamental to good decision-making in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, but risk scores developed in one population often perform poorly in dissimilar populations. We sought to examine whether a large integrated health system can use their electronic health data to better predict individual patients' risk of developing CVD. We created a cohort using all patients ages 45-80 who used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ambulatory care services in 2006 with no history of CVD, heart failure, or loop diuretics. Our outcome variable was new-onset CVD in 2007-2011. We then developed a series of recalibrated scores, including a fully refit "VA Risk Score-CVD (VARS-CVD)." We tested the different scores using standard measures of prediction quality. For the 1,512,092 patients in the study, the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score had similar discrimination as the VARS-CVD (c-statistic of 0.66 in men and 0.73 in women), but the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease model had poor calibration, predicting 63% more events than observed. Calibration was excellent in the fully recalibrated VARS-CVD tool, but simpler techniques tested proved less reliable. We found that local electronic health record data can be used to estimate CVD better than an established risk score based on research populations. Recalibration improved estimates dramatically, and the type of recalibration was important. Such tools can also easily be integrated into health system's electronic health record and can be more readily updated.

  17. Propensity score matching and persistence correction to reduce bias in comparative effectiveness: the effect of cinacalcet use on all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Iain A; Floege, Jürgen; Gioni, Ioanna; Drüeke, Tilman B; de Francisco, Angel L; Anker, Stefan D; Kubo, Yumi; Wheeler, David C; Froissart, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The generalisability of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) may be limited by restrictive entry criteria or by their experimental nature. Observational research can provide complementary findings but is prone to bias. Employing propensity score matching, to reduce such bias, we compared the real-life effect of cinacalcet use on all-cause mortality (ACM) with findings from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events (EVOLVE) RCT in chronic haemodialysis patients. Incident adult haemodialysis patients receiving cinacalcet, recruited in a prospective observational cohort from 2007-2009 (AROii; n = 10,488), were matched to non-exposed patients regardless of future exposure status. The effect of treatment crossover was investigated with inverse probability of censoring weighted and lag-censored analyses. EVOLVE ACM data were analysed largely as described for the primary composite endpoint. AROii patients receiving cinacalcet (n = 532) were matched to 1790 non-exposed patients. The treatment effect of cinacalcet on ACM in the main AROii analysis (hazard ratio 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.35]) was closer to the null than for the Intention to Treat (ITT) analysis of EVOLVE (0.94 [95%CI 0.85-1.04]). Adjusting for non-persistence by 0- and 6-month lag-censoring and by inverse probability of censoring weight, the hazard ratios in AROii (0.76 [95%CI 0.51-1.15], 0.84 [95%CI 0.60-1.18] and 0.79 [95%CI 0.56-1.11], respectively) were comparable with those of EVOLVE (0.82 [95%CI 0.67-1.01], 0.83 [95%CI 0.73-0.96] and 0.87 [95%CI 0.71-1.06], respectively). Correcting for treatment crossover, we observed results in the 'real-life' setting of the AROii observational cohort that closely mirrored the results of the EVOLVE RCT. Persistence-corrected analyses revealed a trend towards reduced ACM in haemodialysis patients receiving cinacalcet therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Revisiting a dogma: similar survival of patients with small bowel and gastric GIST. A population-based propensity score SEER analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guller, Ulrich; Tarantino, Ignazio; Cerny, Thomas; Ulrich, Alexis; Schmied, Bruno M; Warschkow, Rene

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present analysis was to assess whether small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is associated with worse cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) compared with gastric GIST on a population-based level. Data on patients aged 18 years or older with histologically proven GIST was extracted from the SEER database from 1998 to 2011. OS and CSS for small bowel GIST were compared with OS and CSS for gastric GIST by application of adjusted and unadjusted Cox regression analyses and propensity score analyses. GIST were located in the stomach (n = 3011, 59 %), duodenum (n = 313, 6 %), jejunum/ileum (n = 1288, 25 %), colon (n = 139, 3 %), rectum (n = 172, 3 %), and extraviscerally (n = 173, 3 %). OS and CSS of patients with GIST in the duodenum [OS, HR 0.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.19; CSS, HR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.76-1.29] and in the jejunum/ileum (OS, HR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.85-1.10; CSS, HR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.81-1.10) were similar to those of patients with gastric GIST in multivariate analyses. Conversely, OS and CSS of patients with GIST in the colon (OS, HR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.07-1.83; CSS, HR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.41-2.54) and in an extravisceral location (OS, HR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.14-1.77; CSS, HR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.11-1.84) were significantly worse than those of patients with gastric GIST. Contrary to common belief, OS and CSS of patients with small bowel GIST are not statistically different from those of patients with gastric GIST when adjustment is made for confounding variables on a population-based level. The prognosis of patients with nongastric GIST is worse because of a colonic and extravisceral GIST location. These findings have implications regarding adjuvant treatment of GIST patients. Hence, the dogma that small bowel GIST patients have worse prognosis than gastric GIST patients and therefore should receive adjuvant treatment to a greater extent must be revisited.

  19. Work-related medical rehabilitation in patients with musculoskeletal disorders: the protocol of a propensity score matched effectiveness study (EVA-WMR, DRKS00009780

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Neuderth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the most important causes of work disability. Various rehabilitation services and return-to-work programs have been developed in order to reduce sickness absence and increase sustainable return-to-work. As the effects of conventional medical rehabilitation programs on sickness absence duration were shown to be slight, work-related medical rehabilitation programs have been developed and tested. While such studies proved the efficacy of work-related medical rehabilitation compared with conventional medical rehabilitation in well-conducted randomized controlled trials, its effectiveness under real-life conditions has yet to be proved. Methods/Design The cohort study will be performed under real-life conditions with two parallel groups. Participants will receive either a conventional or a work-related medical rehabilitation program. Propensity score matching will be used to identify controls that are comparable to treated work-related medical rehabilitation patients. Over a period of three months, about 18,000 insured patients with permission to undergo a musculoskeletal rehabilitation program will be contacted. Of these, 15,000 will receive a conventional and 3,000 a work-related medical rehabilitation. We expect a participation rate of 40 % at baseline. Patients will be aged 18 to 65 years and have chronic musculoskeletal disorders, usually back pain. The control group will receive a conventional medical rehabilitation program without any explicit focus on work, work ability and return to work in diagnostics and therapy. The intervention group will receive a work-related medical rehabilitation program that in addition to common rehabilitation treatments contains 11 to 25 h of work-related treatment modules. Follow-up data will be assessed three and ten months after patients’ discharge from the rehabilitation center. Additionally, department characteristics will be assessed and

  20. Radiation Segmentectomy versus TACE Combined with Microwave Ablation for Unresectable Solitary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Up to 3 cm: A Propensity Score Matching Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Derek M; Titano, Joseph J; Bishay, Vivian L; Durrani, Raisa J; Dayan, Etan; Tabori, Nora; Patel, Rahul S; Nowakowski, Francis S; Fischman, Aaron M; Kim, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To compare the outcomes of radiation segmentectomy (RS) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of unresectable solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) up to 3 cm. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. From January 2010 to June 2015, a total of 417 and 235 consecutive patients with HCC underwent RS and TACE MWA, respectively. A cohort of 121 patients who had not previously undergone local-regional therapy (RS, 41; TACE MWA, 80; mean age, 65.4 years; 84 men [69.4%]) and who had solitary HCC up to 3 cm without vascular invasion or metastasis was retrospectively identified. Outcomes analyzed included procedure-related complications, laboratory toxicity levels, imaging response, time to progression (TTP), 90-day mortality, and survival. Propensity score matching was conducted by using a nearest-neighbor algorithm (1:1) to account for pretreatment clinical, laboratory, and imaging covariates. Postmatching statistical analysis was performed with conditional logistic regression for binary outcomes and the stratified log-rank test for time-dependent outcomes. Results Before matching, the complication rate was 8.9% and 4.9% in the TACE MWA and RS groups, respectively (P = .46). The overall complete response (CR) rate was 82.9% for RS and 82.5% for TACE MWA (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4, 2.8; P = .95). There were 41 (RS, 11; TACE MWA, 30) instances of progression occurring after an initial CR, of which 10 (24%) were classified as target progression (RS, one; TACE MWA, nine). Median overall TTP was 11.1 months (95% CI: 8.8 months, 25.6 months) in the RS group and 12.1 months (95% CI: 7.7 months, 19.1 months) in the TACE MWA group (P > .99). After matching, the overall CR rate (P = .94), TTP (P = .83), and overall survival (P > .99) were not significantly different between

  1. Methodological comparison of marginal structural model, time-varying Cox regression, and propensity score methods: the example of antidepressant use and the risk of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Sanni; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Belitser, Svetlana V; Souverein, Patrick C; Martín, Elisa; Gatto, Nicolle M; Huerta, Consuelo; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Roes, Kit C B; Hoes, Arno W; de Boer, Antonius; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-03-01

    Observational studies including time-varying treatments are prone to confounding. We compared time-varying Cox regression analysis, propensity score (PS) methods, and marginal structural models (MSMs) in a study of antidepressant [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)] use and the risk of hip fracture. A cohort of patients with a first prescription for antidepressants (SSRI or tricyclic antidepressants) was extracted from the Dutch Mondriaan and Spanish Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria (BIFAP) general practice databases for the period 2001-2009. The net (total) effect of SSRI versus no SSRI on the risk of hip fracture was estimated using time-varying Cox regression, stratification and covariate adjustment using the PS, and MSM. In MSM, censoring was accounted for by inverse probability of censoring weights. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of SSRI use versus no SSRI use on hip fracture was 1.75 (95%CI: 1.12, 2.72) in Mondriaan and 2.09 (1.89, 2.32) in BIFAP. After confounding adjustment using time-varying Cox regression, stratification, and covariate adjustment using the PS, HRs increased in Mondriaan [2.59 (1.63, 4.12), 2.64 (1.63, 4.25), and 2.82 (1.63, 4.25), respectively] and decreased in BIFAP [1.56 (1.40, 1.73), 1.54 (1.39, 1.71), and 1.61 (1.45, 1.78), respectively]. MSMs with stabilized weights yielded HR 2.15 (1.30, 3.55) in Mondriaan and 1.63 (1.28, 2.07) in BIFAP when accounting for censoring and 2.13 (1.32, 3.45) in Mondriaan and 1.66 (1.30, 2.12) in BIFAP without accounting for censoring. In this empirical study, differences between the different methods to control for time-dependent confounding were small. The observed differences in treatment effect estimates between the databases are likely attributable to different confounding information in the datasets, illustrating that adequate information on (time-varying) confounding is crucial to prevent bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Comparative effectiveness of enalapril, lisinopril, and ramipril in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure: a propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Henning, Felix; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Grundtvig, Morten; Goode, Kevin; Corletto, Anna; Kazmi, Syed; Hole, Torstein; Katus, Hugo A; Atar, Dan; Cleland, John G F; Agewall, Stefan; Frankenstein, Lutz; Clark, Andrew L

    2018-04-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are recommended as first-line therapy in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The comparative effectiveness of different ACEIs is not known. A total of 4723 outpatients with stable HFrEF prescribed enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril were identified from three registries in Norway, England, and Germany. In three separate matching procedures, patients were individually matched with respect to both dose equivalents and their respective propensity scores for ACEI treatment. During a follow-up of 21 939 patient-years, 360 (49.5%), 337 (52.4%), and 1119 (33.4%) patients died among those prescribed enalapril, lisinopril, and ramipril, respectively. In univariable analysis of the general sample, enalapril and lisinopril were both associated with higher mortality when compared with ramipril treatment [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-1.65, P < 0.001 and HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.22-1.56, P < 0.001, respectively). Patients prescribed enalapril or lisinopril had similar mortality (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.92-1.24, P = 0.41). However, there was no significant association between ACEI choice and all-cause mortality in any of the matched samples (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.91-1.25, P = 0.40; HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.96-1.32, P = 0.16; and HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.31, P = 0.25 for enalapril vs. ramipril, lisinopril vs. ramipril, and enalapril vs. lisinopril, respectively). Results were confirmed in subgroup analyses with respect to age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Class Association functional class, cause of HFrEF, rhythm, and systolic blood pressure. Our results suggest that enalapril, lisinopril, and ramipril are equally effective in the treatment of patients with HFrEF when given at equivalent doses.

  3. Application of propensity scores to explore the effect of public reporting of medicine use information on rational drug use in China: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Xinping

    2014-11-11

    Transparency has become a hottest topic and a growing movement in the health care system worldwide. This study used a quasi-experimental design method to explore whether public reporting of medicine use information can improve rational drug use. 20 township hospitals and 274 doctors of City Y in Hubei Province, China were divided into the intervention and control groups on the basis of their characteristics. In the intervention group, the values and rankings of the average expenditure per prescription, percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics and percentage of prescriptions requiring injections of each hospital and doctor were publicly released to patients and doctors in an appropriate format monthly. Data were gathered both four months before and after the intervention. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to minimize the observed covariate (gender, age, experience, education level, title, and monthly income) differences in the doctors' characteristics. 108 pairs of doctors were obtained after PSM. Chi-square test and t-test were employed to explore the effect of public reporting of medicine use information on rational drug use. The study was approved by the Committee of Tongji Medical College, Hua Zhong University of Science and Technology (IORG No: IORG0003571). In baseline, the average expenditure per prescription of the 274 doctors was 42.82 RMB yuan (USD 6.97), the percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics was 63.00%, and the percentage of prescriptions requiring injections was 70.79%, all higher than the average of Hubei Province and the standard recommended by WHO. Before the intervention all the three indicators were all comparable (p > 0.05), whereas after the intervention, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found for the percentage of prescriptions requiring injections between the intervention (64.66%) and control groups (70.52%). Irrational drug use remains a policy issue in township hospitals in the study area. We demonstrated

  4. Parthenium dermatitis severity score to assess clinical severity of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal K Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parthenium dermatitis is the most common type of airborne contact dermatitis in India. It is a chronic disease of a remitting and relapsing course with significant morbidity and distress, but there is no scoring system to assess its severity. Aim: To design a scoring system for the assessment of clinical severity of disease in Parthenium dermatitis and to use this scoring system in various studies to determine its sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. Methods and Results: In our first few studies on Parthenium dermatitis, we designed and used a basic clinical severity scoring system based on itching, morphology of the lesions, and areas involved. However, in subsequent studies, we modified it to the present scoring system as Parthenium dermatitis severity score (PDSS. Our studies showed the high sensitivity of PDSS in characterization of the disease severity at the given point of time, as well as to determine the efficacy of a prescribed treatment modality which was reliable and reproducible. Conclusion: Thus, PDSS may be used by clinicians for appropriate scoring of the clinical severity of Parthenium dermatitis and in monitoring the disease response to therapy.

  5. Perioperative and mid-term oncologic outcomes of robotic assisted radical cystectomy with totally intracorporeal neobladder: Results of a propensity score matched comparison with open cohort from a single-centre series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Giuseppe; Tuderti, Gabriele; Misuraca, Leonardo; Anceschi, Umberto; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Minisola, Francesco; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Gallucci, Michele

    2018-04-17

    In this study, we compared perioperative and oncologic outcomes of patients treated with either open or robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder at a tertiary care center. The institutional prospective bladder cancer database was queried for "cystectomy with curative intent" and "neobladder". All patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder or open radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder for high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer or muscle invasive bladder cancer with a follow-up length ≥2 years were included. A 1:1 propensity score matching analysis was used. Kaplan-Meier method was performed to compare oncologic outcomes of selected cohorts. Survival rates were computed at 1,2,3 and 4 years after surgery and the log rank test was applied to assess statistical significance between the matched groups. Overall, 363 patients (299 open and 64 robotic) were included. Open radical cystectomy patients were more frequently male (p = 0.08), with higher pT stages (p = 0.003), lower incidence of urothelial histologies (p = 0.05) and lesser adoption of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (open radical cystectomy cases (all p ≥ 0.22). Open cohort showed a higher rate of perioperative overall complications (91.3% vs 42.2%, p 0.001). At Kaplan-Meier analysis robotic and open cohorts displayed comparable disease-free survival (log-rank p = 0.746), cancer-specific survival (p = 0.753) and overall-survival rates (p = 0.909). Robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder provides comparable oncologic outcomes of open radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder at intermediate term survival analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  6. Two studies in one: A propensity-score-matched comparison of fingolimod versus interferons and glatiramer acetate using real-world data from the independent German studies, PANGAEA and PEARL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Jonathan; Medin, Jennie; Cornelissen, Christian; Vormfelde, Stefan Viktor; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2017-01-01

    This study compared outcomes following fingolimod or BRACE treatments (beta-interferons/glatiramer acetate) in patients with active MS (≥ 1 relapse in the previous year) following previous BRACE treatment. Patients with active MS who previously received BRACE were identified from German prospective, observational studies, PANGAEA and PEARL. A novel methodology was developed to compare outcomes between propensity-score-matched cohorts (3:1 ratio) from the independent single-arm studies. Patients in PANGAEA (n = 1287) experienced 48% fewer relapses per year than those in PEARL (n = 429; annualized relapse rate ratio: 0.52; p PANGAEA versus PEARL (3-month: 37% reduction; hazard ratio [HR], 0.63; p PANGAEA (n = 1234) than PEARL (n = 401) were free from relapses and 3-month (65.7% vs 38.7%; p PANGAEA (n = 1163) than PEARL (n = 372; 3-month: 175% increase; HR, 2.75; p PANGAEA (n = 149) were less likely than those in PEARL (n = 307) to have taken sick leave (proportion with 0 days off work: 62.4% vs 44.6%; p = 0.0005). For change in disease severity from baseline (assessed by clinicians using the Clinical Global Impressions scale; PANGAEA, n = 1207; PEARL, n = 427), a larger proportion of patients had subjective improvement and a smaller proportion had worsening status in PANGAEA than PEARL (improvement: 28.2% vs 15.2%; worsening: 16.4% vs 30.4%; p < 0.0001). Fingolimod appears to be more effective than BRACE in improving clinical and physician-/patient-reported outcomes in individuals with active MS.

  7. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity of both the objective and subjective parameters used in these systems and the lack of acceptance of one of these systems for uniform use, there is a need for an international, authorized consensus meeting on this subject. Because of the natural course of OLP characterized by remissions and exacerbations and also due to the varying distribution pattern and the varying clinical types, e.g. reticular and erosive, the relevance of a DSS based on morphologic parameters is somewhat questionable. Instead, one may consider to only look for a quality of life scoring system adapted for use in OLP patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, disease scoring system, classification. PMID:25681372

  8. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; van der Waal, I.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity

  9. Efficacy of a Self-expanding Tract Sealant Device in the Reduction of Pneumothorax and Chest Tube Placement Rates After Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: A Matched Controlled Study Using Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrar, Judy U; Gupta, Sanjay; Ensor, Joe E; Mahvash, Armeen; Sabir, Sharjeel H; Steele, Joseph R; McRae, Stephen E; Avritscher, Rony; Huang, Steven Y; Odisio, Bruno C; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J; Tam, Alda L

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the use of a self-expanding tract sealant device (BioSentry™) on the rates of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion after percutaneous lung biopsy. In this retrospective study, we compared 318 patients who received BioSentry™ during percutaneous lung biopsy (treated group) with 1956 patients who did not (control group). Patient-, lesion-, and procedure-specific variables, and pneumothorax and chest tube insertion rates were recorded. To adjust for potential selection bias, patients in the treated group were matched 1:1 to patients in the control group using propensity score matching based on the above-mentioned variables. Patients were considered a match if the absolute difference in their propensity scores was ≤equal to 0.02. Before matching, the pneumothorax and chest tube rates were 24.5 and 13.1% in the control group, and 21.1 and 8.5% in the treated group, respectively. Using propensity scores, a match was found for 317 patients in the treatment group. Chi-square contingency matched pair analysis showed the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (20.8 vs. 32.8%; p = 0.001) and chest tube (8.2 vs. 20.8%; p 30 cases of both treatment and control cases demonstrated similar findings: the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (17.6 vs. 30.2%; p = 0.002) and chest tube (7.2 vs. 18%; p = 0.001) rates. The self-expanding tract sealant device significantly reduced the pneumothorax rate, and more importantly, the chest tube placement rate after percutaneous lung biopsy.

  10. Efficacy of a Self-expanding Tract Sealant Device in the Reduction of Pneumothorax and Chest Tube Placement Rates After Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: A Matched Controlled Study Using Propensity Score Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrar, Judy U., E-mail: judy.ahrar@mdanderson.org; Gupta, Sanjay [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Ensor, Joe E. [Houston Methodist Research Institute, The Houston Methodist Cancer Center (United States); Mahvash, Armeen; Sabir, Sharjeel H.; Steele, Joseph R.; McRae, Stephen E.; Avritscher, Rony; Huang, Steven Y.; Odisio, Bruno C.; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J.; Tam, Alda L. [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the use of a self-expanding tract sealant device (BioSentry™) on the rates of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion after percutaneous lung biopsy.Materials and MethodsIn this retrospective study, we compared 318 patients who received BioSentry™ during percutaneous lung biopsy (treated group) with 1956 patients who did not (control group). Patient-, lesion-, and procedure-specific variables, and pneumothorax and chest tube insertion rates were recorded. To adjust for potential selection bias, patients in the treated group were matched 1:1 to patients in the control group using propensity score matching based on the above-mentioned variables. Patients were considered a match if the absolute difference in their propensity scores was ≤equal to 0.02.ResultsBefore matching, the pneumothorax and chest tube rates were 24.5 and 13.1% in the control group, and 21.1 and 8.5% in the treated group, respectively. Using propensity scores, a match was found for 317 patients in the treatment group. Chi-square contingency matched pair analysis showed the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (20.8 vs. 32.8%; p = 0.001) and chest tube (8.2 vs. 20.8%; p < 0.0001) rates compared to the control group. Sub-analysis including only faculty who had >30 cases of both treatment and control cases demonstrated similar findings: the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (17.6 vs. 30.2%; p = 0.002) and chest tube (7.2 vs. 18%; p = 0.001) rates.ConclusionsThe self-expanding tract sealant device significantly reduced the pneumothorax rate, and more importantly, the chest tube placement rate after percutaneous lung biopsy.

  11. Validating the EXCEL hypothesis: a propensity score matched 3-year comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass graft in left main patients with SYNTAX score ≤32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodanno, Davide; Caggegi, Anna; Capranzano, Piera; Cincotta, Glauco; Miano, Marco; Barrano, Gionbattista; Monaco, Sergio; Calvo, Francesco; Tamburino, Corrado

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the study hypothesis of the EXCEL trial by comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in an EXCEL-like population of patients. The upcoming EXCEL trial will test the hypothesis that left main patients with SYNTAX score ≤ 32 experience similar rates of 3-year death, myocardial infarction (MI), or cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) following revascularization by PCI or CABG. We compared the 3-year rates of death/MI/CVA and death/MI/CVA/target vessel revascularization (MACCE) in 556 patients with left main disease and SYNTAX score ≤ 32 undergoing PCI (n = 285) or CABG (n = 271). To account for confounders, outcome parameters underwent extensive statistical adjustment. The unadjusted incidence of death/MI/CVA was similar between PCI and CABG (12.7% vs. 8.4%, P = 0.892), while MACCE were higher in the PCI group compared to the CABG group (27.0% vs. 11.8%, P EXCEL-like cohort of patients with left main disease, there seems to be a clinical equipoise between PCI and CABG in terms of death/MI/CVA. However, even in patients with SYNTAX score ≤ 32, CABG is superior to PCI when target vessel revascularization is included in the combined endpoint. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta; Hopf-Seidel, Petra

    2018-01-01

    A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Nutech functional Score (NFS), which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position) and directional (moves in direction bad to good) scoring system that assesses the patient's condition. The grades of the scoring system have been converted into numeric values for conducting probability based studies. Each symptom is graded from 1 to 5 that runs in direction BAD → GOOD. NFS is a unique tool that can be used universally to assess the condition of patients with LD.

  13. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Shroff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NFS, which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position and directional (moves in direction bad to good scoring system that assesses the patient's condition. Results: The grades of the scoring system have been converted into numeric values for conducting probability based studies. Each symptom is graded from 1 to 5 that runs in direction BAD → GOOD. Conclusion: NFS is a unique tool that can be used universally to assess the condition of patients with LD.

  14. In elective arch surgery with circulatory arrest, does the arterial cannulation site really matter? A propensity score analysis of right axillary and innominate artery cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventza, Ourania; Price, Matt D; Spiliotopoulos, Konstantinos; Amarasekara, Hiruni S; Cornwell, Lorraine D; Omer, Shuab; de la Cruz, Kim I; Zhang, Qianzi; Green, Susan Y; LeMaire, Scott A; Rosengart, Todd K; Coselli, Joseph S

    2018-05-01

    The preferred arterial cannulation site for elective proximal aortic procedures requiring circulatory arrest varies, and different sites have been tried. We evaluated the relationships between arterial cannulation site and adverse outcomes, including stroke, in patients undergoing elective aortic arch surgery. We reviewed the records of 938 patients who underwent elective hemiarch or total arch surgery with circulatory arrest between 2006 and 2016. Five cannulation sites were used: the right axillary (n = 515; 54.9%), innominate (n = 376; 40.1%), and right common carotid arteries (n = 15; 1.6%), each with a side graft; the ascending aorta (n = 19; 2.0%); and the femoral artery (n = 13; 1.4%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to model the effects of cannulation site on adverse outcomes for the entire cohort and for a subcohort of 891 patients who underwent innominate or axillary artery cannulation. Propensity-matching yielded 564 patients (282 pairs) from the right axillary and innominate artery groups. For the entire cohort, mortality, stroke, and composite adverse outcome (operative death or persistent stroke or renal failure at hospital discharge) rates were 7.0%, 4.1%, and 9.8%. In the multivariable analysis of the axillary/innominate subcohort, cannulation site did not independently predict operative mortality, persistent stroke, or composite adverse event. These results were confirmed with the propensity-matched analysis, where both axillary and innominate artery cannulation provided equivalent composite adverse event rates, operative death rates, and overall stroke rates. During elective arch surgery, right axillary artery cannulation and innominate artery cannulation (both via a side graft) produce excellent results and can be used interchangeably. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: I. Long-term prognostic scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain F

    2013-10-16

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD will probably be in the year 2020 the third cause of death in the world. It appears therefore appropriate to try to make available tools capable of assessing the prognosis of patients with this disease. In the first part of this series of two papers, the question of the prognosis of stable COPD over several years is addressed. Eight prognostic scores are discussed, all of them published between 2004 and 2012. Their components and characteristics are analysed and commented upon, with, in particular, emphasis on their discriminating power. An Internet program (www.medhyg. ch/scoredoc) supplements this review.

  16. Comparing the therapeutic efficacies of third-generation cephalosporins and broader-spectrum β-lactams as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: a propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) was compared with that of broader-spectrum β-lactams (BSBLs) [fourth-generation cephalosporins (4GCs) and carbapenems] as empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Compared with those in the 3GC group (n = 477), a significantly higher proportion of patients in the BSBL group (n = 141) had initial presentation with severe sepsis or septic shock, critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) at bacteraemia onset and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). For propensity score matching, 318 of the 477 patients in the 3GC group were matched with 106 patients in the BSBL group with the closest propensity scores on the basis of five independent predictors of 28-day mortality. After appropriate matching, no significant differences were observed in major baseline characteristics between the 3GC and BSBL groups in terms of causative micro-organism, bacteraemia severity, major source of bacteraemia, major co-morbidities and severity of co-morbidity. Consequently, the early clinical failure rate (12.9% vs. 12.3%; P = 0.87), bacteraemia severity (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4; 4.6% vs. 8.2%; P = 0.17) at Day 3, and 3-day (3.8% vs. 7.5%; P = 0.11) and 28-day (13.2% vs. 17.0%; P = 0.33) crude mortality rates between the two groups were similar. These data suggest that the efficacy of 3GCs is similar to that of 4GCs or carbapenems when used as empirical antimicrobial therapy for community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct power comparisons between simple LOD scores and NPL scores for linkage analysis in complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P C; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    1999-09-01

    Several methods have been proposed for linkage analysis of complex traits with unknown mode of inheritance. These methods include the LOD score maximized over disease models (MMLS) and the "nonparametric" linkage (NPL) statistic. In previous work, we evaluated the increase of type I error when maximizing over two or more genetic models, and we compared the power of MMLS to detect linkage, in a number of complex modes of inheritance, with analysis assuming the true model. In the present study, we compare MMLS and NPL directly. We simulated 100 data sets with 20 families each, using 26 generating models: (1) 4 intermediate models (penetrance of heterozygote between that of the two homozygotes); (2) 6 two-locus additive models; and (3) 16 two-locus heterogeneity models (admixture alpha = 1.0,.7,.5, and.3; alpha = 1.0 replicates simple Mendelian models). For LOD scores, we assumed dominant and recessive inheritance with 50% penetrance. We took the higher of the two maximum LOD scores and subtracted 0.3 to correct for multiple tests (MMLS-C). We compared expected maximum LOD scores and power, using MMLS-C and NPL as well as the true model. Since NPL uses only the affected family members, we also performed an affecteds-only analysis using MMLS-C. The MMLS-C was both uniformly more powerful than NPL for most cases we examined, except when linkage information was low, and close to the results for the true model under locus heterogeneity. We still found better power for the MMLS-C compared with NPL in affecteds-only analysis. The results show that use of two simple modes of inheritance at a fixed penetrance can have more power than NPL when the trait mode of inheritance is complex and when there is heterogeneity in the data set.

  18. Diffusion abnormality maps in demyelinating disease: Correlations with clinical scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onu, Mihaela; Roceanu, Adina; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Bendic, Robert; Tarta, Eugen; Preoteasa, Florentin; Bajenaru, Ovidiu

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been explored as a noninvasive tool to assess pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, the correlation between classical MRI measures and physical disability is modest in MS. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI technique holds particular promise in this regard. The present study shows brain regions where FA and individual diffusivities abnormalities are present and check their correlations with physical disability clinical scores. Methods: Eight patients and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite was administered. For MR-DTI acquisitions, a Genesis Signa 1.5T MR system, an EP/SE scanning sequence, 25 gradient directions were used. Results: Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) group comparisons showed reduced FA and increased individual diffusivities in several brain regions in patients. Significant correlations were found between FA and: EDSS, 9-HPT(NON)DOM and 25FW score; between λ 2 and: P100 (r and l), 9-HPT(NON)DOM and 25FW; between λ 3 and: 9-HPT(NON)DOM and 25FW score. Conclusions: Fractional anisotropy and individual radial diffusivities proved to be important markers of motor disabilities in MS patients when the disease duration mean and the disability scores values range are relatively high.

  19. Propensity Score Analysis of Regorafenib Versus Trifluridine/Tipiracil in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Refractory to Standard Chemotherapy (REGOTAS): A Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum Multicenter Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Toshikazu; Fukuoka, Shota; Taniguchi, Hiroya; Takashima, Atsuo; Kumekawa, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Esaki, Taito; Makiyama, Chinatsu; Denda, Tadamichi; Satake, Hironaga; Suto, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Enomoto, Masanobu; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Kashiwada, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Komatsu, Yoshito; Okuyama, Hiroyuki; Baba, Eishi; Sakai, Daisuke; Watanabe, Tomoki; Tamura, Takao; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Gosho, Masahiko; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who are refractory to standard chemotherapy, because despite their clinical approval, it still remains unclear which of these two drugs should be used as initial treatment. The clinical data of patients with mCRC who were treated with regorafenib or TFTD and those of drug-naive patients, between June 2014 and September 2015, were retrospectively collected from 24 institutions in Japan. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated using the Cox's proportional hazard models based on propensity score adjustment for baseline characteristics. A total of 550 patients (223 patients in the regorafenib group and 327 patients in the TFTD group) met all criteria. The median OS was 7.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.8-9.2) in the regorafenib group and 7.4 months (95% CI, 6.6-8.3) in the TFTD group. The propensity score adjusted analysis showed that OS was similar between the two groups (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.18). In the subgroup analysis, a significant interaction with age was observed. Regorafenib showed favorable survival in patients aged regorafenib and TFTD was observed in patients with mCRC. Although the choice of the drug by age might affect survival, a clearly predictive biomarker to distinguish the two drugs should be identified in further studies. Previous studies of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy had demonstrated that both regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil could result in increased overall survival compared with placebo, but there are no head-to-head trials. This large, multicenter, observational study retrospectively compared the efficacy of regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil in 550 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy who had access to both drugs. Although no difference in overall survival was found between

  20. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Seemed Not to Have Survival Benefit in Rectal Cancer Patients with ypTis-2N0 After Preoperative Radiotherapy and Surgery from a Population-Based Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Li, Ya-Qi; Li, Qing-Guo; Ma, Yan-Lei; Peng, Jun-Jie; Cai, San-Jun

    2018-04-19

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently offered routinely, as standard, after radical resection for patients with rectal cancer receiving neo-adjuvant chemoradiation. However, the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with ypTis-2N0M0 has not been documented to the same extent, and the survival benefit remained controversial. The purpose of this work was to determine the role of chemotherapy in patients with ypTis-2N0M0 classification. Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database ( n  = 4,217). A propensity score model was utilized to balance baseline covariates. Of the 4,217 included patients, 335 with ypTis-2N0M0 did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. There were comparable cancer-specific survivals (CSS) between those undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or not (log-rank test = 0.136, p  = .712) in the overall sample. After propensity score matching, the cancer-specific survival did not differ between the chemotherapy and observation groups (log-rank test = 0.089, p  = .765). Additionally, the Cox model did not demonstrate adjuvant chemotherapy as the prognostic factor, with hazard ratio = 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.32) for CSS. Furthermore, the 10-year cumulative CSS was 78.7% and 79.4% between the chemotherapy and observation groups, indicating no significance, and no impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on survival was observed in different subgroups stratified by T stage, histological grade, histology, lymph nodes, and tumor size. Patients with ypTis-2N0 rectal cancer did not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative radiology and radical surgery in this cohort study. These results provided new insight into the routine use of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer with completed neo-adjuvant radiotherapy and curative surgery. Inconsistent recommendations for patients with rectal cancer receiving neo-adjuvant chemoradiation are offered by clinical guidelines. Adjuvant

  1. Short-term and long-term effects of psychosocial therapy for people after deliberate self-harm: a register-based, nationwide multicentre study using propensity score matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Bertel; Erlangsen, Anette; Stuart, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Although deliberate self-harm is a strong predictor of suicide, evidence for effective interventions is missing. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychosocial therapy after self-harm was linked to lower risks of repeated self-harm, suicide, and general mortality. Methods...... In this matched cohort study all people who, after deliberate self-harm, received a psychosocial therapy intervention at suicide prevention clinics in Denmark during 1992—2010 were compared with people who did not receive the psychosocial therapy intervention after deliberate self-harm. We applied propensity...... score matching with a 1:3 ratio and 31 matching factors, and calculated odds ratios for 1, 5, 10, and 20 years of follow-up. The primary endpoints were repeated self-harm, death by suicide, and death by any cause. Findings 5678 recipients of psychosocial therapy (followed up for 42·828 person...

  2. Propensity score matched lesion-based comparison of long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes after placement of sirolimus (Cypher Bx Velocity) and paclitaxel (TAXUS Express)-eluting stents for de novo native coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Hino, Shoryoku; Mutoh, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes after sirolimus (SES: Cypher Bx Velocity) and paclitaxel (PES: TAXUS Express)-eluting stent implantation were firstly compared in Japan. During PES-available period from May 2007 to February 2009, 1068 nonrandomized consecutive de novo native coronary lesions treated either with a PES (682 lesions) or SES were enrolled in this study, and a retrospective examination was conducted in April 2013. During that interval, the use ratio of drug-eluting stent (i.e. SES plus PES) was 94.2 %. By adjusting the baselines with a propensity score matching analysis produced 383 lesions in each arm, the incidence of the clinical endpoint (1500-day cardiac death, nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction, and definite stent thrombosis) after placement of SES (2.1 %; mean follow-up, 1400 ± 290 days) was not significantly different from that in the PES group (2.6 %; 1394 ± 325 days, p = 0.637). SES did not relate to the clinical endpoint (hazard ratio 1.04; 95 % CI 0.29-3.76; p = 0.949). In the baseline-adjusted angiographic followed up lesions (n = 234 in each arm), the incidence of binary restenosis (percent diameter stenosis [%DS] >50 %) in the SES group (12.0 %; mean follow-up, 477 ± 281 days) was not significantly different from that in the PES group (14.5 %; 497 ± 341 days, p = 0.431). SES did not relate to binary restenosis (Odds ratio 0.73; 95 % CI 0.40-1.32; p = 0.295). In conclusion, the present propensity score matched lesion-based analysis firstly showed the statistical equivalent long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes after either SES or PES placement for de novo native coronary lesion in Japanese patients in a daily practice environment.

  3. How to calculate an MMSE score from a MODA score (and vice versa) in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, R; Francescani, A; Saetti, C; Spinnler, H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a statistically sound way of reciprocally converting scores of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Milan overall dementia assessment (MODA). A consecutive series of 182 patients with "probable" Alzheimer's disease patients was examined with both tests. MODA and MMSE scores proved to be highly correlated. A formula for converting MODA and MMSE scores was generated.

  4. Risk scoring for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Kunal N; Persell, Stephen D; Perel, Pablo; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berendsen, Mark A; Huffman, Mark D

    2017-03-14

    The current paradigm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasises absolute risk assessment to guide treatment decisions in primary prevention. Although the derivation and validation of multivariable risk assessment tools, or CVD risk scores, have attracted considerable attention, their effect on clinical outcomes is uncertain. To assess the effects of evaluating and providing CVD risk scores in adults without prevalent CVD on cardiovascular outcomes, risk factor levels, preventive medication prescribing, and health behaviours. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library (2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to March week 1 2016), Embase (embase.com) (1974 to 15 March 2016), and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) (1990 to 15 March 2016). We imposed no language restrictions. We searched clinical trial registers in March 2016 and handsearched reference lists of primary studies to identify additional reports. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing the systematic provision of CVD risk scores by a clinician, healthcare professional, or healthcare system compared with usual care (i.e. no systematic provision of CVD risk scores) in adults without CVD. Three review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and evaluated study quality. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess study limitations. The primary outcomes were: CVD events, change in CVD risk factor levels (total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and multivariable CVD risk), and adverse events. Secondary outcomes included: lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication prescribing in higher-risk people. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous data using 95% confidence intervals. We used a fixed-effects model when heterogeneity (I²) was at least 50% and a random-effects model for substantial heterogeneity

  5. Prion disease susceptibility is affected by β-structure folding propensity and local side-chain interactions in PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Qasim; Sweeting, Braden; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Arslan, Pharhad Eli; Cashman, Neil R.; Pai, Emil F.; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases occur when the normally α-helical prion protein (PrP) converts to a pathological β-structured state with prion infectivity (PrPSc). Exposure to PrPSc from other mammals can catalyze this conversion. Evidence from experimental and accidental transmission of prions suggests that mammals vary in their prion disease susceptibility: Hamsters and mice show relatively high susceptibility, whereas rabbits, horses, and dogs show low susceptibility. Using a novel approach to quantify conformational states of PrP by circular dichroism (CD), we find that prion susceptibility tracks with the intrinsic propensity of mammalian PrP to convert from the native, α-helical state to a cytotoxic β-structured state, which exists in a monomer–octamer equilibrium. It has been controversial whether β-structured monomers exist at acidic pH; sedimentation equilibrium and dual-wavelength CD evidence is presented for an equilibrium between a β-structured monomer and octamer in some acidic pH conditions. Our X-ray crystallographic structure of rabbit PrP has identified a key helix-capping motif implicated in the low prion disease susceptibility of rabbits. Removal of this capping motif increases the β-structure folding propensity of rabbit PrP to match that of PrP from mouse, a species more susceptible to prion disease. PMID:21041683

  6. Prion disease susceptibility is affected by beta-structure folding propensity and local side-chain interactions in PrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Qasim; Sweeting, Braden; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Arslan, Pharhad Eli; Cashman, Neil R; Pai, Emil F; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2010-11-16

    Prion diseases occur when the normally α-helical prion protein (PrP) converts to a pathological β-structured state with prion infectivity (PrP(Sc)). Exposure to PrP(Sc) from other mammals can catalyze this conversion. Evidence from experimental and accidental transmission of prions suggests that mammals vary in their prion disease susceptibility: Hamsters and mice show relatively high susceptibility, whereas rabbits, horses, and dogs show low susceptibility. Using a novel approach to quantify conformational states of PrP by circular dichroism (CD), we find that prion susceptibility tracks with the intrinsic propensity of mammalian PrP to convert from the native, α-helical state to a cytotoxic β-structured state, which exists in a monomer-octamer equilibrium. It has been controversial whether β-structured monomers exist at acidic pH; sedimentation equilibrium and dual-wavelength CD evidence is presented for an equilibrium between a β-structured monomer and octamer in some acidic pH conditions. Our X-ray crystallographic structure of rabbit PrP has identified a key helix-capping motif implicated in the low prion disease susceptibility of rabbits. Removal of this capping motif increases the β-structure folding propensity of rabbit PrP to match that of PrP from mouse, a species more susceptible to prion disease.

  7. Histologic scoring indices for evaluation of disease activity in Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novak, Gregor; Parker, Claire E.; Pai, Rish K.; Macdonald, John K.; Feagan, Brian G.; Sandborn, William J.; D'Haens, Geert; Jairath, Vipul; Khanna, Reena

    2017-01-01

    Histologic assessment of mucosal disease activity has been increasingly used in clinical trials of treatment for Crohn's disease. However, the operating properties of the currently existing histologic scoring indices remain unclear. A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the development and

  8. Chest compression-only versus conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for bystander-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of medical origin: A propensity score-matched cohort from 143,500 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Nishiyama, Chika; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku

    2018-05-01

    Current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines do not define the optimal type of CPR (chest compression-only CPR [CCCPR] or conventional CPR with rescue breathing [CCRB]) to be performed by bystanders when they witness someone collapse. Using a nationwide database of 1.17 million patients who underwent out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Japan, we enrolled consecutive bystander-witnessed OHCAs of medical origin with resuscitation attempts from January 2005 through December 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the type of bystander CPR and the OHCA outcome after one-to-one propensity score matching for CCCPR versus CCRB. The primary outcome measure was one-month survival with a favorable neurological outcome, defined as a cerebral performance category of 1 or 2. Among 143,500 eligible patients with bystander-witnessed OHCAs receiving bystander-initiated CPR, 71.4% received CCCPR and 28.6% received CCRB. In the univariate analysis, the proportion of one-month survival cases with favorable neurological outcome was lower in the CCCPR group than the CCRB group (5.6% [5749/102,487] vs. 6.5% [2682/41,013], odds ratio [OR]; 0.85 [95% confidence interval {CI}; 0.81-0.89]). However, in the multivariate analysis, the CCCPR group showed a more favorable neurological outcome than the CCRB group (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI; 1.06-1.19). In the propensity-matched cohort, the CCCPR group also showed a more favorable neurological outcome than the CCRB group (7.2% [2894/40,096] vs. 6.5% [2610/40,096], adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI; 1.09-1.22). CCCPR is an acceptable resuscitation technique for lay-rescuers responding to bystander witnessed OHCA of presumed medical origin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Propensity score-matched analysis comparing the therapeutic efficacies of cefazolin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of cefazolin was compared with that of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial bacteraemia caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. or Proteus mirabilis (EKP). Compared with cefazolin-treated patients (n = 135), significantly higher proportions of patients in the ESC treatment group (n = 456) had critical illness at bacteraemia onset (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). Of the 591 patients, 121 from each group were matched using propensity score matching (PSM) based on the following independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification); Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4 at bacteraemia onset; initial syndrome of septic shock; and bacteraemia due to pneumonia. After appropriate PSM, no significant differences were observed in the early clinical failure rate (10.7% vs. 7.4%; P = 0.37), the proportion of critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) (0% vs. 0%; P = 1.00) and defervescence (52.6% vs. 42.6%; P = 0.13) on Day 3 between the cefazolin and ESC treatment groups. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the mean of time to defervescence (4.1 days vs. 4.9 days; P = 0.15), late clinical failure rate (18.2% vs. 10.7%; P = 0.10) and 28-day crude mortality rate (0.8% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.37) between the two groups. These data suggest that the efficacy of cefazolin is similar to that of ESCs when used as appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment for community-onset EKP bacteraemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Histologic scoring indices for evaluation of disease activity in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Gregor; Parker, Claire E; Pai, Rish K; MacDonald, John K; Feagan, Brian G; Sandborn, William J; D'Haens, Geert; Jairath, Vipul; Khanna, Reena

    2017-07-21

    Histologic assessment of mucosal disease activity has been increasingly used in clinical trials of treatment for Crohn's disease. However, the operating properties of the currently existing histologic scoring indices remain unclear. A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the development and operating characteristics of available histologic disease activity indices in Crohn's disease. Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases from inception to 20 July 2016 were supplemented by manual reviews of bibliographies and abstracts submitted to major gastroenterology meetings (Digestive Disease Week, United European Gastroenterology Week, European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation). Any study design (e.g. randomised controlled trial, cohort study, case series) that evaluated a histologic disease activity index in patients with Crohn's disease was considered for inclusion. Study participants included adult patients (> 16 years), diagnosed with Crohn's disease using conventional clinical, radiographic or endoscopic criteria. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of the studies identified from the literature search. The full text of potentially relevant citations were reviewed for inclusion and the study investigators were contacted as needed for clarification. Any disagreements regarding study eligibility were resolved by discussion and consensus with a third author.Two authors independently extracted and recorded data using a standard form. The following data were recorded from each eligible study: number of patients enrolled; number of patients per treatment arm; patient characteristics: age and gender distribution; description of histologic disease activity index utilized; and outcomes such as content validity, construct validity, criterion validity, responsiveness, intra-rater reliability, inter-rater reliability, and feasibility. Sixteen reports of 14 studies describing 14 different numerical

  11. A procalcitonin-based algorithm to guide antibiotic therapy in secondary peritonitis following emergency surgery: a prospective study with propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Shuo; Huang, Shie-Shian; Shyu, Yu-Chiau; Lee, Chun-Hui; Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Huang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT)-based algorithms have been used to guide antibiotic therapy in several clinical settings. However, evidence supporting PCT-based algorithms for secondary peritonitis after emergency surgery is scanty. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a PCT-based algorithm could safely reduce antibiotic exposure in this population. From April 2012 to March 2013, patients that had secondary peritonitis diagnosed at the emergency department and underwent emergency surgery were screened for eligibility. PCT levels were obtained pre-operatively, on post-operative days 1, 3, 5, and 7, and on subsequent days if needed. Antibiotics were discontinued if PCT was Advanced age, coexisting pulmonary diseases, and higher severity of illness were significantly associated with longer durations of antibiotic use. The PCT-based algorithm safely reduces antibiotic exposure in this study. Further randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings and incorporate cost-effectiveness analysis. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000601831.

  12. Effect of preoperatively continued aspirin use on early and mid-term outcomes in off-pump coronary bypass surgery: a propensity score-matched study of 1418 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucheng Xiao

    Full Text Available To date, effect of preoperatively continued aspirin administration in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG is less known. We aimed to assess the effect of preoperatively continued aspirin use on early and mid-term outcomes in patients receiving off-pump CABG.From October 2009 to September 2013 at the Fuwai Hospital, 709 preoperative aspirin users were matched with unique 709 nonaspirin users using propensity score matching to obtain risk-adjusted outcome comparisons between the two groups. Early outcomes were in-hospital death, stroke, intra- and post-operative blood loss, reoperation for bleeding and blood product transfusion. Major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction or repeat revascularization, angina recurrence and cardiogenic readmission were considered as mid-term endpoints.There were no significant differences among the groups in baseline characteristics after propensity score matching. The median intraoperative blood loss (600 ml versus 450 ml, P = 0.56, median postoperative blood loss (800 ml versus 790 ml, P = 0.60, blood transfusion requirements (25.1% versus 24.4%, P = 0.76 and composite outcome of in-hospital death, stroke and reoperation for bleeding (2.8% versus 1.6%, P = 0.10 were similar in aspirin and nonaspirin use group. At about 4 years follow-up, no significant difference was observed among the aspirin and nonaspirin use group in major adverse cardiac events free survival estimates (95.7% versus 91.5%, P = 0.23 and freedom from cardiogenic readmission (88.5% versus 85.3%, P = 0.77 whereas the angina recurrence free survival rates was 83.7% and 73.9% in the aspirin and nonaspirin use group respectively (P = 0.02, with odd ratio for preoperative aspirin estimated at 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.49-1.04, P = 0.08.Preoperatively continued aspirin use was not associated with increased risk of intra- and post-operative blood loss, blood transfusion requirements and composite outcome of in

  13. A comparison between the administration of oral prolonged-release oxycodone-naloxone and transdermal fentanyl in patients with moderate-to-severe cancer pain: a propensity score analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Roberto,1 MT Greco,2 L Legramandi,3 F Galli,3 M Galli,4 O Corli1 1Pain and Palliative Care Research Unit, Oncology Department, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy, 2Department of Clinical Sciences and Community, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, 3Methodology for Clinical Research Laboratory, Oncology Department, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy, 4Scientific Medical Communication srl, Novara, Italy Background: Opioids are the most important pharmacological treatment for moderate-to-severe cancer pain, but side effects limit their use. Transdermal fentanyl (TDF and oral prolonged-release oxycodone-naloxone (OXN-PR are effective in controlling chronic pain, with less constipation compared to other opioids. However, TDF and OXN-PR have never been directly compared.Patients and methods: Cancer patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain were consecutively enrolled in two prospective 28-day trials, received either TDF or OXN-PR, and were assessed at baseline and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The primary endpoint was 28-day analgesic response rate (average pain intensity decrease ≥30% from baseline. Other outcome measures included opioid daily dose changes over time; need for adjuvant analgesics; number of switches; premature discontinuation; presence and severity of constipation; and other adverse drug reactions. To compare the efficacy and the safety of TDF and OXN-PR, we used the propensity score analysis to adjust for heterogeneity between the two patient groups.Results: Three hundred ten out of 336 patients originally treated (119 TDF and 191 OXN-PR were included in the comparative analysis. The amount of responders was comparable after TDF (75.3% and OXN-PR administration (82.9%, not significant [NS]. The final opioid daily dose expressed as morphine equivalent was 113.6 mg for TDF and 44.5 mg for OXN-PR (p<0.0001. A daily opioid dose escalation >5% was less common after

  14. Impact Evaluation of a System-Wide Chronic Disease Management Program on Health Service Utilisation: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billot, Laurent; Corcoran, Kate; McDonald, Alina; Powell-Davies, Gawaine; Feyer, Anne-Marie

    2016-06-01

    The New South Wales Health (NSW Health) Chronic Disease Management Program (CDMP) delivers interventions to adults at risk of hospitalisation for five target chronic conditions that respond well to ambulatory care: diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease. The intervention consists of two main components: (1) care coordination across sectors (acute, ambulatory, and community care from both public and private sectors) and clinical specialties, facilitated by program care coordinators, and (2) health coaching including management of lifestyle risk factors and medications and self-management. These components were broadly prescribed by the head office of NSW Health, which funded the program, and were implemented by regional health services (local health districts) in ways that best suited their own history, environment, workforce, and patient need. We used a propensity-matched cohort study to evaluate health service utilisation after enrolment in the CDMP. The evaluation cohort included 41,303 CDMP participants enrolled between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 who experienced at least one hospital admission or emergency department (ED) presentation for a target condition in the 12 mo preceding enrolment. Potential controls were selected from patients not enrolled in the CDMP but experiencing at least one hospital admission or ED presentation over the same period. Each CDMP patient in the evaluation cohort was matched to one control using 1:1 propensity score matching. The primary outcome was avoidable hospitalisations. Secondary outcomes included avoidable readmissions, avoidable bed days, unplanned hospitalisations, unplanned readmissions, unplanned bed days, ED presentations, and all-cause death. The primary analysis consisted of 30,057 CDMP participants and 30,057 matched controls with a median follow-up of 15 mo. Of those, 25,638 (85.3%) and 25,597 (85.2%) were alive by the end of

  15. Parents' reported preference scores for childhood atopic dermatitis disease states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Emmanuel B

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to elicit preference weights from parents for health states corresponding to children with various levels of severity of atopic dermatitis. We also evaluated the hypothesis that parents with children who had been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis would assign different preferences to the health state scenarios compared with parents who did not have a child with atopic dermatitis. Methods Subjects were parents of children aged 3 months to 18 years. The sample was derived from the General Panel, Mommies Sub-Panel, and Chronic Illness Sub-Panel of Harris Interactive. Participants rated health scenarios for atopic dermatitis, asthma, and eyeglasses on a visual analog scale, imagining a child was experiencing the described state. Results A total of 3539 parents completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent had a child with a history of atopic dermatitis. Mean preference scores for atopic dermatitis were as follows: mild, 91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 91.5; mild/moderate, 84 (95%CI, 83.5 to 84.4; moderate, 73 (95%CI, 72.5 to 73.6; moderate/severe, 61 (95%CI, 60.6 to 61.8; severe, 49 (95% CI, 48.7 to 50.1; asthma, 58 (95%CI, 57.4 to 58.8; and eyeglasses, 87(95%CI, 86.3 to 87.4. Conclusions Parents perceive that atopic dermatitis has a negative effect on quality of life that increases with disease severity. Estimates of parents' preferences can provide physicians with insight into the value that parents place on their children's treatment and can be used to evaluate new medical therapies for atopic dermatitis.

  16. Epidemiology of Functional abdominal bloating and its impact on health related quality of life: male-female stratified propensity score analysis in a population based survey in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meijing; Zhao, Yanfang; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Wenxin; Guo, Xiaojing; Wu, Shunquan; Ma, Xiuqiang; He, Jia

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of Functional abdominal bloating (FAB) and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese people remains unclear. Randomised, stratified, multi-stage sampling methodology was used to select a representative sample of the general population from five cities in China (n = 16,078). All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire; 20% were asked to complete the 36-item Short Form (SF-36). The associated factors of FAB were analyzed. The effects of FAB on HRQoL were estimated with gender stratification using propensity score techniques in 20% subsample. Overall, 643 individuals (4.00%) had FAB and it was more prevalent in males than in females (4.87% vs. 3.04%, Pproblems (P = 0.030) and bodily pain (PChina was lower than previous reports. Males who had ever been diagnosed with dyspepsia and females who were in a poor self-reported health status were correlated with a higher prevalence of FAB. FAB affected only physical health in females, but impaired both physical and mental health in males.

  17. Single freeze per vein strategy with the second-generation cryoballoon for atrial fibrillation: a propensity score-matched study between 180- and 240-s application time in a large cohort of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regibus, Valentina; Abugattas, Juan-Pablo; Iacopino, Saverio; Mugnai, Giacomo; Storti, Cesare; Conte, Giulio; Auricchio, Angelo; Ströker, Erwin; Coutiño, Hugo-Enrique; Takarada, Ken; Salghetti, Francesca; Lusoc, Ian; Capulzini, Lucio; Brugada, Pedro; de Asmundis, Carlo; Chierchia, Gian-Battista

    2017-11-02

    The single-freeze strategy using the second-generation cryoballoon (CB-A, Arctic Front Advance, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) has been reported to be as effective as the recommended double-freeze approach in several single-centre studies. In this retrospective, international, multicentre study, we compare the 3-min single-freeze strategy with the 4-min single-freeze strategy. Four hundred and thirty-two patients having undergone pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by means of CB-A using a single-freeze strategy were considered for this analysis. A cohort of patients who were treated with a 3-min strategy (Group 1) was compared with a propensity score-matched cohort of patients who underwent a 4-min strategy (Group 2). Pulmonary vein isolation was successfully achieved in all the veins using the 28-mm CB-A. The procedural and fluoroscopy times were lower in Group 1 (67.8 ± 17 vs. 73.8 ± 26.3, P strategies. The procedural and fluoroscopy times were significantly shorter in 3-min per vein strategy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  19. Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia, but Not Diabetic Hyperglycemia, Is Associated with Higher Mortality in Patients with Isolated Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Analysis of a Propensity Score-Matched Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-11-03

    Background : Admission hyperglycemia is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH), a form of hyperglycemia induced by the stress response, is associated with increased patient mortality following TBI. However, admission hyperglycemia occurs not only in SIH but also in patients with diabetic hyperglycemia (DH). Current information regarding whether trauma patients with SIH represent a distinct group with differential outcomes compared to those with DH remains limited. Methods : Serum glucose concentration ≥200 mg/dL upon arrival at the emergency department was defined as hyperglycemia. Presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was determined by patient history and/or admission glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥6.5%. In the present study, the patient cohort included those with moderate and severe TBI, as defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥3 points in the head, and excluded those who had additional AIS scores ≥3 points in any other region of the body. A total of 1798 adult patients with isolated moderate to severe TBI were allocated into four groups: SIH ( n = 140), DH ( n = 187), diabetic normoglycemia (DN, n = 186), and non-diabetic normoglycemia (NDN, n = 1285). Detailed patient information was retrieved from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center between 1 January 2009, and 31 December 2015. Unpaired Student's t - and Mann-Whitney U -tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Categorical data were compared using the Pearson chi-square or two-sided Fisher's exact tests. Matched patient populations were allocated in a 1:1 ratio according to propensity scores calculated by NCSS software. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of SIH and DH on the adjusted mortality outcome. Results : In patients with isolated moderate to severe TBI, the presence of SIH and DH led to 9.1-fold and 2

  20. Improving Propensity Score Methods in Pharmacoepidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Inferences about intended effects of treatments are ideally investigated using randomized control trials (RCTs). Randomization leads to comparability of treated and comparison groups on measured and unmeasured prognostic factors, except the treatment, thereby preventing confounding. RCTs, however,

  1. Epidemiology of Functional abdominal bloating and its impact on health related quality of life: male-female stratified propensity score analysis in a population based survey in mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijing Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Functional abdominal bloating (FAB and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Chinese people remains unclear. METHODS: Randomised, stratified, multi-stage sampling methodology was used to select a representative sample of the general population from five cities in China (n = 16,078. All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire; 20% were asked to complete the 36-item Short Form (SF-36. The associated factors of FAB were analyzed. The effects of FAB on HRQoL were estimated with gender stratification using propensity score techniques in 20% subsample. RESULTS: Overall, 643 individuals (4.00% had FAB and it was more prevalent in males than in females (4.87% vs. 3.04%, P<0.001. For males, self-reported history of dyspepsia was most strongly associated with FAB (OR = 2.78; 95% CI: 1.59, 4.72. However, the most strongly associated factor was self-reported health status for females (moderate health vs. good health: OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.96. P = 0.030; poor health vs. good health: OR = 5.71, 95% CI: 2.06, 15.09. Concerning HRQoL, FAB was found to be related to two domains: role limitation due to physical problems (P = 0.030 and bodily pain (P<0.001 in females. While, in males, there were significant differences in multiple domains between those with and without FAB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of FAB in China was lower than previous reports. Males who had ever been diagnosed with dyspepsia and females who were in a poor self-reported health status were correlated with a higher prevalence of FAB. FAB affected only physical health in females, but impaired both physical and mental health in males.

  2. Risk and timing of clinical events according to diabetic status of patients treated with everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds versus everolimus-eluting stent: 2-year results from a propensity score matched comparison of ABSORB EXTEND and SPIRIT trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos M; Caixeta, Adriano; Franken, Marcelo; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Whitbourn, Robert J; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Li Paul Kao, Hsien; Rosli, Mohd Ali; Carrie, Didier; De Bruyne, Bernard; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W; Abizaid, Alexandre

    2018-02-15

    to compare the occurrence of clinical events in diabetics treated with the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) versus everolimus-eluting metal stents (EES; XIENCE V; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) BACKGROUND: There are limited data dedicated to clinical outcomes of diabetic patients treated with bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) at 2-year horizon. The present study included 812 patients in the ABSORB EXTEND study in which a total of 215 diabetic patients were treated with Absorb BVS. In addition, 882 diabetic patients treated with EES in pooled data from the SPIRIT clinical program (SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III and SPIRIT IV trials) were used for comparison by applying propensity score matching using 29 different variables. The primary endpoint was ischemia driven major adverse cardiac events (ID-MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemia driven target lesion revascularization (ID-TLR). After 2 years, the ID-MACE rate was 6.5% in the Absorb BVS vs. 8.9% in the Xience group (P = 0.40). There was no difference for MACE components or definite/probable device thrombosis (HR: 1.43 [0.24,8.58]; P = 0.69). The occurrence of MACE was not different for both diabetic status (insulin- and non-insulin-requiring diabetes) in all time points up to the 2-year follow-up for the Absorb and Xience groups. In this largest ever patient-level pooled comparison on the treatment of diabetic patients with BRS out to two years, individuals with diabetes treated with the Absorb BVS had a similar rate of MACE as compared with diabetics treated with the Xience EES. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of retrograde intrarenal surgery versus a single-session percutaneous nephrolithotomy for lower-pole stones with a diameter of 15 to 30 mm: A propensity score-matching study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gyoo Hwan; Jung, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Tae Sik; Lee, Joong Sub; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Lee, Seung Bae; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Oh, Seung-June

    2015-07-01

    To investigate surgical outcomes between retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) groups for a main stone sized 15 to 30 mm and located in the lower-pole calyx. Patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for a main stone sized 15 to 30 mm and located in the lower-pole calyx were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient in the RIRS group was matched to one in the PNL group on the basis of calculated propensity scores by use of age, sex, body mass index, previous treatment history, stone site, maximum stone size, and stone volume. We compared perioperative outcomes between the unmatched and matched groups. Patients underwent PNL (n=87, 66.4%) or RIRS (n=44, 33.6%). After matching, 44 patients in each group were included. Mean patient age was 54.4 ± 13.7 years. Perioperative hemoglobin drop was significantly higher and the hospital stay was longer in the PNL group than in the RIRS group. The operative time was significantly longer in the RIRS group than in the PNL group. Stone-free rates were higher and complications rates were lower in the RIRS group than in the PNL group without statistical significance. The presence of a stone located in the lower-anterior minor calyx was a predictor of stone-free status. RIRS and single-session PNL for patients with a main stone of 15 to 30 mm located in the lower-pole calyx showed comparable surgical results. However, RIRS can be performed more safely than PNL with less bleeding. Stones in the lower-anterior minor calyx should be carefully removed during these procedures.

  4. Propensity Score-Based Analysis of Percutaneous Closure Versus Medical Therapy in Patients With Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale: The IPSYS Registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Zini, Andrea; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Sessa, Maria; Cavallini, Anna; Marcheselli, Simona; Marco Bonifati, Domenico; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Tancredi, Lucia; Chiti, Alberto; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Spalloni, Alessandra; Giorli, Elisa; Costa, Paolo; Giacalone, Giacomo; Ferrazzi, Paola; Poli, Loris; Morotti, Andrea; Piras, Valeria; Rasura, Maurizia; Simone, Anna Maria; Gamba, Massimo; Cerrato, Paolo; Zedde, Maria Luisa; Micieli, Giuseppe; Melis, Maurizio; Massucco, Davide; Guido, Davide; De Giuli, Valeria; Bonaiti, Silvia; D'Amore, Cataldo; La Starza, Sara; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We sought to compare the benefit of percutaneous closure to that of medical therapy alone for the secondary prevention of embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and otherwise unexplained ischemic stroke, in a propensity scored study. Between 2000 and 2012, we selected consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 45 years with PFO and no other cause of brain ischemia, as part of the IPSYS registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults), who underwent either percutaneous PFO closure or medical therapy for comparative analysis. Primary end point was a composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral embolism. Secondary end point was brain ischemia. Five hundred and twenty-one patients qualified for the analysis. The primary end point occurred in 15 patients treated with percutaneous PFO closure (7.3%) versus 33 patients medically treated (10.5%; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.32; P=0.285). The rates of the secondary end point brain ischemia were also similar in the 2 treatment groups (6.3% in the PFO closure group versus 10.2% in the medically treated group; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.21; P=0.168). Closure provided a benefit in patients aged 18 to 36 years (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.81; P=0.026) and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.68; P=0.011). PFO closure seems as effective as medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Whether device treatment might be more effective in selected cases, such as in patients younger than 37 years and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size, deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Intra-arterial therapy of neuroendocrine tumour liver metastases: comparing conventional TACE, drug-eluting beads TACE and yttrium-90 radioembolisation as treatment options using a propensity score analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Duc Do; Gorodetski, Boris; Smolka, Susanne; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Wainstejn, David [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Chapiro, Julius; Schlachter, Todd [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Huang, Qiang [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Capital Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Cuihong [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, The Ultrasound Department, Jinan (China); Lin, MingDe [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Philips Research North America, U/S Imaging and Interventions (UII), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gebauer, Bernhard [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Geschwind, Jean-Francois [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-12-15

    To compare efficacy, survival outcome and prognostic factors of conventional transarterial chemoembolisation (cTACE), drug-eluting beads TACE (DEB-TACE) and yttrium-90 radioembolisation (Y90) for the treatment of liver metastases from gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NELM). This retrospective analysis included 192 patients (58.6 years mean age, 56% men) with NELM treated with cTACE (N = 122), DEB-TACE (N = 26) or Y90 (N = 44) between 2000 and 2014. Radiologic response to therapy was assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria using periprocedural MR imaging. Survival analysis included propensity score analysis (PSA), median overall survival (MOS), hepatic progression-free survival, Kaplan-Meier using log-rank test and the uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model (MVA). MOS of the entire study population was 28.8 months. As for cTACE, DEB-TACE and Y90, MOS was 33.8 months, 21.7 months and 23.6 months, respectively. According to the MVA, cTACE demonstrated a significantly longer MOS as compared to DEB-TACE (p <.01) or Y90 (p =.02). The 5-year survival rate after initial cTACE, DEB-TACE and Y90 was 28.2%, 10.3% and 18.5%, respectively. Upon PSA, our study suggests significant survival benefits for patients treated with cTACE as compared to DEB-TACE and Y90. This data supports the therapeutic decision for cTACE as the primary intra-arterial therapy option in patients with unresectable NELM until proven otherwise. (orig.)

  6. Different patterns in the risk of newly developed fatty liver and lipid changes with tamoxifen versus aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: A propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Namki; Yoon, Han Gyul; Seo, Da Hea; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il; Sohn, Joo Hyuk; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-09-01

    Management of metabolic complications of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy in early breast cancer remained an unmet need. We aimed to compare the effects of tamoxifen (TMX) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on the risk of fatty liver in conjunction with longitudinal changes in the serum lipid parameters. Among 1203 subjects who were taking adjuvant TMX or AI (anastrozole or letrozole) without fatty liver at baseline, those taking TMX or AI were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. The primary outcome was newly developed fatty liver detected on annual liver ultrasonography. Among 328 matched subjects (mean age 53.5 years, body mass index 22.9 kg/m 2 ), 62 cases of fatty liver in the TMX group and 41 cases in the AI group were detected in a total of 987.4 person-years. The incidence rate of fatty liver was higher in the TMX group than in the AI group (128.7 versus 81.1 per 1000 person-years, P = 0.021), particularly within the first 2 years of therapy. TMX was associated with an increased 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, P = 0.030) compared with AI independent of obesity and cholesterol level. Subjects who developed fatty liver had higher triglycerides (TGs) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level at baseline than those without, which was sustained during follow-up despite the serum cholesterol-lowering effect of TMX. TMX independently increased the 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver compared with AI in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Our findings suggest the need for considering the risk of fatty liver as a different adverse event profile between AI and TMX, particularly in patients with obesity, high TGs and low HDL-C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Apixaban 5 and 2.5 mg twice-daily versus warfarin for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients: Comparative effectiveness and safety evaluated using a propensity-score-matched approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Keshishian, Allison; Hamilton, Melissa; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Gupta, Kiran; Luo, Xuemei; Mardekian, Jack; Friend, Keith; Nadkarni, Anagha; Pan, Xianying; Lip, Gregory Y H; Deitelzweig, Steve

    2018-01-01

    Prior real-world studies have shown that apixaban is associated with a reduced risk of stroke/systemic embolism (stroke/SE) and major bleeding versus warfarin. However, few studies evaluated the effectiveness and safety of apixaban according to its dosage, and most studies contained limited numbers of patients prescribed 2.5 mg twice-daily (BID) apixaban. Using pooled data from 4 American claims database sources, baseline characteristics and outcomes for patients prescribed 5 mg BID and 2.5 mg BID apixaban versus warfarin were compared. After 1:1 propensity-score matching, 31,827 5 mg BID apixaban-matched warfarin patients and 6600 2.5 mg BID apixaban-matched warfarin patients were identified. Patients prescribed 2.5 mg BID apixaban were older, had clinically more severe comorbidities, and were more likely to have a history of stroke and bleeding compared with 5 mg BID apixaban patients. Compared with warfarin, 5 mg BID apixaban was associated with a lower risk of stroke/SE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60-0.81) and major bleeding (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.53-0.66). Compared with warfarin, 2.5 mg BID apixaban was also associated with a lower risk of stroke/SE (HR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.81) and major bleeding (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.49-0.71). In this real-world study, both apixaban doses were assessed in 2 patient groups differing in age and clinical characteristics. Each apixaban dose was associated with a lower risk of stroke/SE and major bleeding compared with warfarin in the distinct population for which it is being prescribed in United States clinical practice. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier: NCT03087487.

  8. Risk score for first-screening of prevalent undiagnosed chronic kidney disease in Peru: the CRONICAS-CKD risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio A; Muñoz-Retamozo, Paola V; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2017-11-29

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) represents a great burden for the patient and the health system, particularly if diagnosed at late stages. Consequently, tools to identify patients at high risk of having CKD are needed, particularly in limited-resources settings where laboratory facilities are scarce. This study aimed to develop a risk score for prevalent undiagnosed CKD using data from four settings in Peru: a complete risk score including all associated risk factors and another excluding laboratory-based variables. Cross-sectional study. We used two population-based studies: one for developing and internal validation (CRONICAS), and another (PREVENCION) for external validation. Risk factors included clinical- and laboratory-based variables, among others: sex, age, hypertension and obesity; and lipid profile, anemia and glucose metabolism. The outcome was undiagnosed CKD: eGFR anemia were strongly associated with undiagnosed CKD. In the external validation, at a cut-off point of 2, the complete and laboratory-free risk scores performed similarly well with a ROC area of 76.2% and 76.0%, respectively (P = 0.784). The best assessment parameter of these risk scores was their negative predictive value: 99.1% and 99.0% for the complete and laboratory-free, respectively. The developed risk scores showed a moderate performance as a screening test. People with a score of ≥ 2 points should undergo further testing to rule out CKD. Using the laboratory-free risk score is a practical approach in developing countries where laboratories are not readily available and undiagnosed CKD has significant morbidity and mortality.

  9. Comparison and Limitations of DVH-Based NTCP Models Derived From 3D-CRT and IMRT Data for Prediction of Gastrointestinal Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients by Using Propensity Score Matched Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeller, Almut [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany); Yan, Di, E-mail: dyan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Marina, Ovidiu; Schulze, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Parodi, Katia [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany); Belka, Claus; Söhn, Matthias [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: This study compared normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling of chronic gastrointestinal toxicities following prostate cancer treatment for 2 treatment modalities. Possible factors causing discrepancies in optimal NTCP model parameters between 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated RT (IMRT) were analyzed and discussed, including the impact of patient characteristics, image guidance, toxicity scoring bias, and NTCP model limitations. Methods and Materials: Rectal wall dose-volume histograms of 1115 patients treated for prostate cancer under an adaptive radiation therapy protocol were used to model gastrointestinal toxicity grade ≥2 (according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). A total of 457 patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 658 with IMRT. 3D-CRT patients were matched to IMRT patients based on various patient characteristics, using a propensity score–based algorithm. Parameters of the Lyman equivalent uniform dose and cut-off dose logistic regression NTCP models were estimated for the 2 matched treatment modalities and the combined group. Results: After they were matched, the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups contained 275 and 550 patients with a large discrepancy of 28.7% versus 7.8% toxicities, respectively (P<.001). For both NTCP models, optimal parameters found for the 3D-CRT groups did not fit the IMRT patients well and vice versa. Models developed for the combined data overestimated NTCP for the IMRT patients and underestimated NTCP for the 3D-CRT group. Conclusions: Our analysis did not reveal a single definitive cause for discrepancies of model parameters between 3D-CRT and IMRT. Patient characteristics and bias in toxicity scoring, as well as image guidance alone, are unlikely causes of the large discrepancy of toxicities. Whether the cause was inherent to the specific NTCP models used in this study needs to be verified by future investigations. Because IMRT is increasingly used

  10. Dengue infection severity score – improvised disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood SU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Syed Uzair Mahmood,1 Maryam Jamil Syed,1 Aisha Jamal,1 Maria Shoaib2 1Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PakistanWe would like to add our views regarding the paper “Validation of Dengue infection severity score” by Pongpan et al.1 As the paper outlines, the purpose of the Dengue Severity Score is to classify individuals with dengue infection into three levels of severity with clinically acceptable underestimation or overestimation. View the original paper by Pongpan and colleagues. 

  11. Development and validation of modified disease activity scores in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Joshua F; Conaghan, Philip G; Smolen, Josef S

    2014-01-01

    -CDAI) were generated for each subject in the validation cohort. The M-DAS28, M-SDAI, and M-CDAI scores were compared to conventional scores of disease activity with regard to associations with MRI measures of synovitis and radiographic progression, assessed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlations, linear......OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate composite disease activity scores, based on widely available clinical measures, that would demonstrate improved correlation with detection of synovitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic progression, in comparison with conventional measures.......15 × SJC28 + 0.22 × EvGA + 1 and M-SDAI = CRP + SJC28 + EvGA. Both modified and conventional disease activity scores correlated significantly with MRI measures of synovitis. Modified scores showed superior correlation with synovitis, as compared to conventional scores, at all time points (P

  12. Effects of a Community-Based Program for Oral Health and Nutrition on Cost-Effectiveness by Preventing Disability in Japanese Frail Elderly: A Quasi-Experimental Study Using Propensity Score Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Zhang, Shu; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    In the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system, a community-based program for oral health and nutrition (OHN program) has been implemented with the aim of reducing incident disability and care costs. However, the effectiveness of this program has not been confirmed epidemiologically. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the OHN program does reduce incident disability and care costs. A prospective study with a 28-month follow-up period was conducted using data from administrative databases at Tagajo City, Japan. Among frail elderly persons (aged 65 years or more) who were enrolled in the LTCI program in Tagajo, 64 participants in the OHN program and 128 controls (nonparticipants) were selected by propensity score matching. We used 2 types of outcome measure: composite outcome (incident disability and death) and care cost. Data on incident disability were retrieved from the public LTCI database. Care cost was defined as the total amount of LTCI service cost added to medical care cost. The hazard ratio of composite outcome was significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.82). Even when we set incident disability as an outcome, the hazard ratio for the intervention group did not change (hazard ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.97). The mean cumulative care cost during the 28 months tended to be lower for the intervention group ($4893) than that for the control group ($5770), but this was not statistically significant by the gamma regression model (cost ratio = 0.85, P = .513). The mean care cost per unit follow-up period (1 month) for the intervention group was significantly lower (cost ratio = 0.54, P = .027). The results of this study suggest that the OHN program is effective for preventing incident disability and, consequently, for saving care costs per unit survival period. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post

  13. Anaortic off-pump versus clampless off-pump using the PAS-Port device versus conventional coronary artery bypass grafting: mid-term results from a matched propensity score analysis of 5422 unselected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Nobuyuki; Kuss, Oliver; Preindl, Konstantin; Renner, André; Aboud, Anas; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Benzinger, Michael; Pühler, Thomas; Ensminger, Stephan; Fujita, Buntaro; Becker, Tobias; Gummert, Jan F; Börgermann, Jochen

    2017-10-01

    Meta-analyses from observational and randomized studies have demonstrated benefits of off-pump surgery for hard and surrogate endpoints. In some of them, increased re-revascularization was noted in the off-pump groups, which could impact their long-term survival. Therefore, we analyzed the course of all patients undergoing isolated coronary surgery regarding the major cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) criteria. A prospective register was taken from a high-volume off-pump center recording all anaortic off-pump (ANA), clampless off-pump (PAS-Port) and conventional (CONV) coronary artery bypass operations between July 2009 and June 2015. Propensity Score Matching was performed based on 28 preoperative risk variables. We identified 935 triplets (N = 2805). Compared with CONV, in-hospital mortality of both the ANA group (OR for ANA [95% CI] 0.25 [0.06; 0.83], P = 0.021), and the PAS-Port group was lower (OR for PAS-Port [95% CI] 0.50 [0.17; 1.32], P = 0.17). In the mid-term follow-up there were no significant differences between the groups regarding mortality (HR for ANA [95%-CI] 0.83 [0.55-1.26], P = 0.38; HR for PAS-Port [95%-CI] 1.06 [0.70-1.59], P = 0.79), incidence of stroke (HR for ANA 0.81 [0.43-1.53], P = 0.52; HR for PAS-Port 0.78 [0.41-1.50], P = 0.46), myocardial infarction (HR for ANA 0.53 [0.22-1.31], P = 0.17; HR for PAS-Port 0.78 [0.37-1.66], P = 0.52) or re-revascularization rate (HR for ANA 0.99 [0.67-1.44], P = 0.94; HR for PAS-Port 0.95 [0.65-1.38], P = 0.77). Both off-pump clampless techniques were associated with lower in-hospital mortality compared with conventional CABG. The mid-term course showed no difference with regard to the MACCE criteria between anaortic off-pump, clampless off-pump using PAS-Port and conventional CABG. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. CERAD Neuropsychological Total Scores Reflect Cortical Thinning in Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paajanen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sensitive cognitive global scores are beneficial in screening and monitoring for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD. Early cortical changes provide a novel opportunity for validating established cognitive total scores against the biological disease markers. Methods: We examined how two different total scores of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD battery and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE are associated with cortical thickness (CTH in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prodromal AD. Cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data of 22 progressive MCI, 78 stable MCI, and 98 control subjects, and MRI data of 103 AD patients of the prospective multicenter study were analyzed. Results: CERAD total scores correlated with mean CTH more strongly (r = 0.34-0.38, p Conclusion: CERAD total scores are sensitive to the CTH signature of prodromal AD, which supports their biological validity in detecting early disease-related cognitive changes.

  15. A summary risk score for the prediction of Alzheimer disease in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane; Tang, Ming-Xin; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J; Mayeux, Richard; Luchsinger, José A

    2010-07-01

    To develop a simple summary risk score for the prediction of Alzheimer disease in elderly persons based on their vascular risk profiles. A longitudinal, community-based study. New York, New York. Patients One thousand fifty-one Medicare recipients aged 65 years or older and residing in New York who were free of dementia or cognitive impairment at baseline. We separately explored the associations of several vascular risk factors with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) using Cox proportional hazards models to identify factors that would contribute to the risk score. Then we estimated the score values of each factor based on their beta coefficients and created the LOAD vascular risk score by summing these individual scores. Risk factors contributing to the risk score were age, sex, education, ethnicity, APOE epsilon4 genotype, history of diabetes, hypertension or smoking, high-density lipoprotein levels, and waist to hip ratio. The resulting risk score predicted dementia well. According to the vascular risk score quintiles, the risk to develop probable LOAD was 1.0 for persons with a score of 0 to 14 and increased 3.7-fold for persons with a score of 15 to 18, 3.6-fold for persons with a score of 19 to 22, 12.6-fold for persons with a score of 23 to 28, and 20.5-fold for persons with a score higher than 28. While additional studies in other populations are needed to validate and further develop the score, our study suggests that this vascular risk score could be a valuable tool to identify elderly individuals who might be at risk of LOAD. This risk score could be used to identify persons at risk of LOAD, but can also be used to adjust for confounders in epidemiologic studies.

  16. Morphologic and functional scoring of cystic fibrosis lung disease using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Optazaite, Daiva-Elzbieta; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hintze, Christian; Biederer, Jürgen; Niemann, Anne; Mall, Marcus A.; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains increasing importance in the assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The aim of this study was to develop a morpho-functional MR-scoring-system and to evaluate its intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and clinical practicability to monitor CF lung disease over a broad severity range from infancy to adulthood. 35 CF patients with broad age range (mean 15.3 years; range 0.5–42) were examined by morphological and functional MRI. Lobe based analysis was performed for parameters bronchiectasis/bronchial-wall-thickening, mucus plugging, abscesses/sacculations, consolidations, special findings and perfusion defects. The maximum global score was 72. Two experienced radiologists scored the images at two time points (interval 10 weeks). Upper and lower limits of agreement, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), total deviation index and coverage probability were calculated for global, morphology, function, component and lobar scores. Global scores ranged from 6 to 47. Intra- and inter-reader agreement for global scores were good (CCC: 0.98 (R1), 0.94 (R2), 0.97 (R1/R2)) and were comparable between high and low scores. Our results indicate that the proposed morpho-functional MR-scoring-system is reproducible and applicable for semi-quantitative evaluation of a large spectrum of CF lung disease severity. This scoring-system can be applied for the routine assessment of CF lung disease and maybe as endpoint for clinical trials.

  17. Modifications of the National Early Warning Score for patients with chronic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N. E.; Rasmussen, L. S.; Petersen, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    System (CROS), the Chronic Respiratory Early Warning Score (CREWS) and the Salford NEWS (S-NEWS) affected NEWS total scores and NEWS performance. METHODS: In an observational study, we included patients with chronic respiratory disease. The frequency of use of CROS and the NEWS total score changes caused...... and specialist consultation' total score intervals to lower intervals. CONCLUSION: Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System was frequently used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS reduced sensitivity for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Using the methodology prevalent......BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) uses physiological variables to detect deterioration in hospitalized patients. However, patients with chronic respiratory disease may have abnormal variables not requiring interventions. We studied how the Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override...

  18. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  19. Relationship between calcium score and myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Fabio Paiva Rossini; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M. Damas dos; Nacif, Marcelo Souto, E-mail: fabioprs@gmail.com, E-mail: fabioprs@outlook.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Half the patients with coronary artery disease present with sudden death - or acute infarction as first symptom, making early diagnosis pivotal. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is frequently used in the assessment of these patients, but it does not detect the disease without flow restriction, exposes the patient to high levels of radiation and is costly. On the other hand, with less radiological exposure, calcium score is directly correlated to the presence and extension of coronary atherosclerosis, and also to the risk of cardiovascular events. Even though calcium score is a tried-and-true method for stratification of asymptomatic patients, its use is still reduced in this context, since current guidelines are contradictory to its use on symptomatic diseases. The aim of this review is to identify, on patients under investigation for coronary artery disease, the main evidence of the use of calcium score associated with functional evaluation and scintigraphy. (author)

  20. Validation of patient determined disease steps (PDDS) scale scores in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M; Pula, John H; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-04-25

    The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, despite its sound conceptual development and broad inclusion in MS research. This study examined the validity of the PDDS based on (1) the association with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and (2) the pattern of associations between PDDS and EDSS scores with Functional System (FS) scores as well as ambulatory and other outcomes. 96 persons with MS provided demographic/clinical information, completed the PDDS and other PROs including the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and underwent a neurological examination for generating FS and EDSS scores. Participants completed assessments of cognition, ambulation including the 6-minute walk (6 MW), and wore an accelerometer during waking hours over seven days. There was a strong correlation between EDSS and PDDS scores (ρ = .783). PDDS and EDSS scores were strongly correlated with Pyramidal (ρ = .578 &ρ = .647, respectively) and Cerebellar (ρ = .501 &ρ = .528, respectively) FS scores as well as 6 MW distance (ρ = .704 &ρ = .805, respectively), MSWS-12 scores (ρ = .801 &ρ = .729, respectively), and accelerometer steps/day (ρ = -.740 &ρ = -.717, respectively). This study provides novel evidence supporting the PDDS as valid PRO of disability in MS.

  1. Scoring the full extent of periodontal disease in the dog: development of a total mouth periodontal score (TMPS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin E; Laster, Larry; Shofer, Frances; Miller, Bonnie

    2008-09-01

    The development of a total mouth periodontal scoring system is described. This system uses methods to score the full extent of gingivitis and periodontitis of all tooth surfaces, weighted by size of teeth, and adjusted by size of dog.

  2. Coronary artery calcification scores improve contrast-induced nephropathy risk assessment in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Naohiro; Suzuki, Susumu; Shibata, Yohei; Tatami, Yosuke; Harata, Shingo; Ota, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Mutsuharu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Ishii, Hideki; Shimizu, Atsuya; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-06-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of CAC scores for the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after cardiac catheterization in non-dialyzed CKD patients. The present study evaluated a total of 140 CKD patients who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients were stratified into two groups based on the optimal cut-off value of the CAC score, which was graded by a non-triggered, routine diagnostic chest computed tomography scan: CAC score ≥8 (high CAC group); and CAC score 10 % in the baseline serum cystatin C level at 24 h after contrast administration. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate levels were 41.1 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and the mean contrast dose administered was 37.5 mL. Patients with high CAC scores exhibited a higher incidence of CIN than patients with low CAC scores (25.5 vs. 3.2 %, p < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment for confounders, the CAC score predicted CIN (odds ratio 1.68, 95 % confidence interval 1.28-2.21, p < 0.001). Moreover, the C-index for CIN prediction significantly increased when the CAC scores were added to the Mehran risk score (0.855 vs. 0.760, p = 0.023). CAC scores, as evaluated using semi-quantitative methods, are a simple and powerful predictor of CIN. Incorporating the CAC score in the Mehran risk score significantly improved the predictive ability to predict CIN incidence.

  3. The power to detect linkage in complex disease by means of simple LOD-score analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, D A; Abreu, P; Hodge, S E

    1998-09-01

    Maximum-likelihood analysis (via LOD score) provides the most powerful method for finding linkage when the mode of inheritance (MOI) is known. However, because one must assume an MOI, the application of LOD-score analysis to complex disease has been questioned. Although it is known that one can legitimately maximize the maximum LOD score with respect to genetic parameters, this approach raises three concerns: (1) multiple testing, (2) effect on power to detect linkage, and (3) adequacy of the approximate MOI for the true MOI. We evaluated the power of LOD scores to detect linkage when the true MOI was complex but a LOD score analysis assumed simple models. We simulated data from 14 different genetic models, including dominant and recessive at high (80%) and low (20%) penetrances, intermediate models, and several additive two-locus models. We calculated LOD scores by assuming two simple models, dominant and recessive, each with 50% penetrance, then took the higher of the two LOD scores as the raw test statistic and corrected for multiple tests. We call this test statistic "MMLS-C." We found that the ELODs for MMLS-C are >=80% of the ELOD under the true model when the ELOD for the true model is >=3. Similarly, the power to reach a given LOD score was usually >=80% that of the true model, when the power under the true model was >=60%. These results underscore that a critical factor in LOD-score analysis is the MOI at the linked locus, not that of the disease or trait per se. Thus, a limited set of simple genetic models in LOD-score analysis can work well in testing for linkage.

  4. Risk of surgical site infection, acute kidney injury, and Clostridium difficile infection following antibiotic prophylaxis with vancomycin plus a beta-lactam versus either drug alone: A national propensity-score-adjusted retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westyn Branch-Elliman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimal regimen for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial. Use of combination prophylaxis with a beta-lactam plus vancomycin is increasing; however, the relative risks and benefits associated with this strategy are unknown. Thus, we sought to compare postoperative outcomes following administration of 2 antimicrobials versus a single agent for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs. Potential harms associated with combination regimens, including acute kidney injury (AKI and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI, were also considered.Using a multicenter, national Veterans Affairs (VA cohort, all patients who underwent cardiac, orthopedic joint replacement, vascular, colorectal, and hysterectomy procedures during the period from 1 October 2008 to 30 September 2013 and who received planned manual review of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis regimen and manual review for the 30-day incidence of SSI were included. Using a propensity-adjusted log-binomial regression model stratified by type of surgical procedure, the association between receipt of 2 antimicrobials (vancomycin plus a beta-lactam versus either single agent alone (vancomycin or a beta-lactam and SSI was evaluated. Measures of association were adjusted for age, diabetes, smoking, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA status, and receipt of mupirocin. The 7-day incidence of postoperative AKI and 90-day incidence of CDI were also measured. In all, 70,101 procedures (52,504 beta-lactam only, 5,089 vancomycin only, and 12,508 combination with 2,466 (3.5% SSIs from 109 medical centers were included. Among cardiac surgery patients, combination prophylaxis was associated with a lower incidence of SSI (66/6,953, 0.95% than single-agent prophylaxis (190/12,834, 1.48%; crude risk ratio [RR] 0.64, 95% CI 0.49, 0.85; adjusted RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46, 0.83. After adjusting for SSI risk, no

  5. Risk of surgical site infection, acute kidney injury, and Clostridium difficile infection following antibiotic prophylaxis with vancomycin plus a beta-lactam versus either drug alone: A national propensity-score-adjusted retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Ripollone, John E; O'Brien, William J; Itani, Kamal M F; Schweizer, Marin L; Perencevich, Eli; Strymish, Judith; Gupta, Kalpana

    2017-07-01

    The optimal regimen for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial. Use of combination prophylaxis with a beta-lactam plus vancomycin is increasing; however, the relative risks and benefits associated with this strategy are unknown. Thus, we sought to compare postoperative outcomes following administration of 2 antimicrobials versus a single agent for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Potential harms associated with combination regimens, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), were also considered. Using a multicenter, national Veterans Affairs (VA) cohort, all patients who underwent cardiac, orthopedic joint replacement, vascular, colorectal, and hysterectomy procedures during the period from 1 October 2008 to 30 September 2013 and who received planned manual review of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis regimen and manual review for the 30-day incidence of SSI were included. Using a propensity-adjusted log-binomial regression model stratified by type of surgical procedure, the association between receipt of 2 antimicrobials (vancomycin plus a beta-lactam) versus either single agent alone (vancomycin or a beta-lactam) and SSI was evaluated. Measures of association were adjusted for age, diabetes, smoking, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status, and receipt of mupirocin. The 7-day incidence of postoperative AKI and 90-day incidence of CDI were also measured. In all, 70,101 procedures (52,504 beta-lactam only, 5,089 vancomycin only, and 12,508 combination) with 2,466 (3.5%) SSIs from 109 medical centers were included. Among cardiac surgery patients, combination prophylaxis was associated with a lower incidence of SSI (66/6,953, 0.95%) than single-agent prophylaxis (190/12,834, 1.48%; crude risk ratio [RR] 0.64, 95% CI 0.49, 0.85; adjusted RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46, 0.83). After adjusting for SSI risk, no association

  6. The Value of Calcium-scoring CT for Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Hoan; An, Sung Min

    2009-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease has been known as a common cause of death for a long time in the west. The eating habits of Asia, including Korea, have changed recently, so that this disease is also a problem in Asia now. Annual Report on the Cause of Death Statistics from 1996 to 2006 reported that the cardiovascular disease would become the number one cause of death in the next years. Therefore we realize that more accurate examination is required. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of Calcium-scoring CT and the relationship between risk factor and quantitative scores of Calcium-scoring CT. Through this study we expect that the national public health will be improved. Seventy patients with chest pain were chosen at random. The patients were undergone both coronary CT antigraphy and Calcium - scoring CT at G hospital in Incheon from February 1 to June 30, 2008. The result of the Calcium-scoring CT showed its usefulness for Ischemic cardiovascular disease, with an accuracy similar to that of exercise/pharmacologic stress or ECG when it is difficult for a patient to exercise due to joint problems, aging or for other reasons.

  7. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2. Short-term prognostic scores for acute exacerbations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain F

    2014-01-22

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is a slowly progressive disease whose course is frequently the subject of acute episodes, of variable severity, although, in general, reversible, called acute exacerbations. In the past five years (between 2008 and 2013), seven prognostic scores have been published to try to assess the short-term risk of these acute exacerbations. Their components and characteristics are analysed and commented upon. An Internet program with a detailed compilation of the main features of these scores (www.medhyg.ch/scoredoc) supplements this review.

  8. Prehospital score for acute disease: a community-based observational study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara Hidekazu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulance usage in Japan has increased consistently because it is free under the national health insurance system. The introduction of refusal for ambulance transfer is being debated nationally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between prehospital data and hospitalization outcome for acute disease patients, and to develop a simple prehospital evaluation tool using prehospital data for Japan's emergency medical service system. Methods The subjects were 9,160 consecutive acute disease patients aged ≥ 15 years who were transferred to hospital by Kishiwada City Fire Department ambulance between July 2004 and March 2006. The relationship between prehospital data (age, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, level of consciousness, SpO2 level and ability to walk and outcome (hospitalization or non-hospitalization was analyzed using logistic regression models. The prehospital score component of each item of prehospital data was determined by beta coefficients. Eligible patients were scored retrospectively and the distribution of outcome was examined. For patients transported to the two main hospitals, outcome after hospitalization was also confirmed. Results A total of 8,330 (91% patients were retrospectively evaluated using a prehospital score with a maximum value of 14. The percentage of patients requiring hospitalization rose from 9% with score = 0 to 100% with score = 14. With a cut-off point score ≥ 2, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97%, 16%, 39% and 89%, respectively. Among the 6,498 patients transported to the two main hospitals, there were no deaths at scores ≤ 1 and the proportion of non-hospitalization was over 90%. The proportion of deaths increased rapidly at scores ≥ 11. Conclusion The prehospital score could be a useful tool for deciding the refusal of ambulance transfer in Japan's emergency medical

  9. A risk prediction score for invasive mold disease in patients with hematological malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stanzani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A risk score for invasive mold disease (IMD in patients with hematological malignancies could facilitate patient screening and improve the targeted use of antifungal prophylaxis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1,709 hospital admissions of 840 patients with hematological malignancies (2005-2008 to collect data on 17 epidemiological and treatment-related risk factors for IMD. Multivariate regression was used to develop a weighted risk score based on independent risk factors associated with proven or probable IMD, which was prospectively validated during 1,746 hospital admissions of 855 patients from 2009-2012. RESULTS: Of the 17 candidate variables analyzed, 11 correlated with IMD by univariate analysis, but only 4 risk factors (neutropenia, lymphocytopenia or lymphocyte dysfunction in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, malignancy status, and prior IMD were retained in the final multivariate model, resulting in a weighted risk score 0-13. A risk score of 5% of IMD, with a negative predictive value (NPV of 0.99, (95% CI 0.98-0.99. During 2009-2012, patients with a calculated risk score at admission of 6 (0.9% vs. 10.6%, P <0.001. CONCLUSION: An objective, weighted risk score for IMD can accurately discriminate patients with hematological malignancies at low risk for developing mold disease, and could possibly facilitate "screening-out" of low risk patients less likely to benefit from intensive diagnostic monitoring or mold-directed antifungal prophylaxis.

  10. Enlistment Propensities of University Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moskos, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Enlistment propensities of undergraduates were assessed through surveys conducted at Northwestern University, University of Arizona, University of California-Los Angeles, and University of Illinois-Chicago...

  11. Machine Learning-Augmented Propensity Score-Adjusted Multilevel Mixed Effects Panel Analysis of Hands-On Cooking and Nutrition Education versus Traditional Curriculum for Medical Students as Preventive Cardiology: Multisite Cohort Study of 3,248 Trainees over 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Lyn; Vanbeber, Anne; Smith-Barbaro, Peggy; Costilla, Vanessa; Samuel, Charlotte; Terregino, Carol A.; Abali, Emine Ercikan; Dollinger, Beth; Baumgartner, Nicole; Kramer, Nicholas; Seelochan, Alex; Taher, Sabira; Deutchman, Mark; Evans, Meredith; Ellis, Robert B.; Oyola, Sonia; Maker-Clark, Geeta; Budnick, Isadore; Tran, David; DeValle, Nicole; Shepard, Rachel; Chow, Erika; Petrin, Christine; Razavi, Alexander; McGowan, Casey; Grant, Austin; Bird, Mackenzie; Carry, Connor; McGowan, Glynis; McCullough, Colleen; Berman, Casey M.; Dotson, Kerri; Sarris, Leah; Harlan, Timothy S.; Co-investigators, on behalf of the CHOP

    2018-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) annually claims more lives and costs more dollars than any other disease globally amid widening health disparities, despite the known significant reductions in this burden by low cost dietary changes. The world's first medical school-based teaching kitchen therefore launched CHOP-Medical Students as the largest known multisite cohort study of hands-on cooking and nutrition education versus traditional curriculum for medical students. Methods This analysis provides a novel integration of artificial intelligence-based machine learning (ML) with causal inference statistics. 43 ML automated algorithms were tested, with the top performer compared to triply robust propensity score-adjusted multilevel mixed effects regression panel analysis of longitudinal data. Inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis pooled the individual estimates for competencies. Results 3,248 unique medical trainees met study criteria from 20 medical schools nationally from August 1, 2012, to June 26, 2017, generating 4,026 completed validated surveys. ML analysis produced similar results to the causal inference statistics based on root mean squared error and accuracy. Hands-on cooking and nutrition education compared to traditional medical school curriculum significantly improved student competencies (OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.00–2.28, p < 0.001) and MedDiet adherence (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07–1.84, p = 0.015), while reducing trainees' soft drink consumption (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37–0.85, p = 0.007). Overall improved competencies were demonstrated from the initial study site through the scale-up of the intervention to 10 sites nationally (p < 0.001). Discussion This study provides the first machine learning-augmented causal inference analysis of a multisite cohort showing hands-on cooking and nutrition education for medical trainees improves their competencies counseling patients on nutrition, while improving students' own diets. This study suggests that

  12. Machine Learning-Augmented Propensity Score-Adjusted Multilevel Mixed Effects Panel Analysis of Hands-On Cooking and Nutrition Education versus Traditional Curriculum for Medical Students as Preventive Cardiology: Multisite Cohort Study of 3,248 Trainees over 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monlezun, Dominique J; Dart, Lyn; Vanbeber, Anne; Smith-Barbaro, Peggy; Costilla, Vanessa; Samuel, Charlotte; Terregino, Carol A; Abali, Emine Ercikan; Dollinger, Beth; Baumgartner, Nicole; Kramer, Nicholas; Seelochan, Alex; Taher, Sabira; Deutchman, Mark; Evans, Meredith; Ellis, Robert B; Oyola, Sonia; Maker-Clark, Geeta; Dreibelbis, Tomi; Budnick, Isadore; Tran, David; DeValle, Nicole; Shepard, Rachel; Chow, Erika; Petrin, Christine; Razavi, Alexander; McGowan, Casey; Grant, Austin; Bird, Mackenzie; Carry, Connor; McGowan, Glynis; McCullough, Colleen; Berman, Casey M; Dotson, Kerri; Niu, Tianhua; Sarris, Leah; Harlan, Timothy S; Co-Investigators, On Behalf Of The Chop

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) annually claims more lives and costs more dollars than any other disease globally amid widening health disparities, despite the known significant reductions in this burden by low cost dietary changes. The world's first medical school-based teaching kitchen therefore launched CHOP-Medical Students as the largest known multisite cohort study of hands-on cooking and nutrition education versus traditional curriculum for medical students. This analysis provides a novel integration of artificial intelligence-based machine learning (ML) with causal inference statistics. 43 ML automated algorithms were tested, with the top performer compared to triply robust propensity score-adjusted multilevel mixed effects regression panel analysis of longitudinal data. Inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis pooled the individual estimates for competencies. 3,248 unique medical trainees met study criteria from 20 medical schools nationally from August 1, 2012, to June 26, 2017, generating 4,026 completed validated surveys. ML analysis produced similar results to the causal inference statistics based on root mean squared error and accuracy. Hands-on cooking and nutrition education compared to traditional medical school curriculum significantly improved student competencies (OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.00-2.28, p < 0.001) and MedDiet adherence (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.84, p = 0.015), while reducing trainees' soft drink consumption (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.85, p = 0.007). Overall improved competencies were demonstrated from the initial study site through the scale-up of the intervention to 10 sites nationally ( p < 0.001). This study provides the first machine learning-augmented causal inference analysis of a multisite cohort showing hands-on cooking and nutrition education for medical trainees improves their competencies counseling patients on nutrition, while improving students' own diets. This study suggests that the public health and medical sectors can

  13. Machine Learning-Augmented Propensity Score-Adjusted Multilevel Mixed Effects Panel Analysis of Hands-On Cooking and Nutrition Education versus Traditional Curriculum for Medical Students as Preventive Cardiology: Multisite Cohort Study of 3,248 Trainees over 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J. Monlezun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD annually claims more lives and costs more dollars than any other disease globally amid widening health disparities, despite the known significant reductions in this burden by low cost dietary changes. The world’s first medical school-based teaching kitchen therefore launched CHOP-Medical Students as the largest known multisite cohort study of hands-on cooking and nutrition education versus traditional curriculum for medical students. Methods. This analysis provides a novel integration of artificial intelligence-based machine learning (ML with causal inference statistics. 43 ML automated algorithms were tested, with the top performer compared to triply robust propensity score-adjusted multilevel mixed effects regression panel analysis of longitudinal data. Inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis pooled the individual estimates for competencies. Results. 3,248 unique medical trainees met study criteria from 20 medical schools nationally from August 1, 2012, to June 26, 2017, generating 4,026 completed validated surveys. ML analysis produced similar results to the causal inference statistics based on root mean squared error and accuracy. Hands-on cooking and nutrition education compared to traditional medical school curriculum significantly improved student competencies (OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.00–2.28, p<0.001 and MedDiet adherence (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07–1.84, p=0.015, while reducing trainees’ soft drink consumption (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37–0.85, p=0.007. Overall improved competencies were demonstrated from the initial study site through the scale-up of the intervention to 10 sites nationally (p<0.001. Discussion. This study provides the first machine learning-augmented causal inference analysis of a multisite cohort showing hands-on cooking and nutrition education for medical trainees improves their competencies counseling patients on nutrition, while improving students’ own diets. This

  14. A stepwise composite echocardiographic score predicts severe pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Simon; Bredy, Charlene; Kempny, Aleksander; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Devaraj, Anand; Walsh, Simon; Jacob, Joseph; Nair, Arjun; Kokosi, Maria; Keir, Gregory; Kouranos, Vasileios; George, Peter M; McCabe, Colm; Wilde, Michael; Wells, Athol; Li, Wei; Wort, Stephen John; Price, Laura C

    2018-04-01

    European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines recommend the assessment of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), as defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥35 mmHg at right heart catheterisation (RHC). We developed and validated a stepwise echocardiographic score to detect severe PH using the tricuspid regurgitant velocity and right atrial pressure (right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP)) and additional echocardiographic signs. Consecutive ILD patients with suspected PH underwent RHC between 2005 and 2015. Receiver operating curve analysis tested the ability of components of the score to predict mPAP ≥35 mmHg, and a score devised using a stepwise approach. The score was tested in a contemporaneous validation cohort. The score used "additional PH signs" where RVSP was unavailable, using a bootstrapping technique. Within the derivation cohort (n=210), a score ≥7 predicted severe PH with 89% sensitivity, 71% specificity, positive predictive value 68% and negative predictive value 90%, with similar performance in the validation cohort (n=61) (area under the curve (AUC) 84.8% versus 83.1%, p=0.8). Although RVSP could be estimated in 92% of studies, reducing this to 60% maintained a fair accuracy (AUC 74.4%). This simple stepwise echocardiographic PH score can predict severe PH in patients with ILD.

  15. Lowering risk score profile during PCI in multiple vessel disease is associated with low adverse events: The ERACI risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo E; Fernandez-Pereira, Carlos; Mieres, Juan; Pavlovsky, Hernan; Del Pozo, Juan; Rodriguez-Granillo, Alfredo M; Antoniucci, David

    2018-02-13

    In recent years angiographic risk scores have been introduced in clinical practice to stratify different levels of risk after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). The SYNTAX score included all intermediate lesions in vessels ≥1.5 mm, consequently, multiple stent implantation was required. Four years ago, we built a new angiographic score in order to guide PCI strategy avoiding stent deployment both in intermediate stenosis as in small vessels, therefore these were not scored (ERACI risk score). The purpose of this mini review is to validate the strategy of PCI guided by this scoring, taking into account long term follow up outcomes of two observational and prospective registries where this policy was used. With this new risk score we have modified risk profile of our patient's candidates for PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery lowering the risk and PCI. The simple exclusion of small vessels and intermediate stenosis from the revascularization approach resulted in clinical outcome comparable with the one of fractional flow reserve guided revascularization. Low events rate at late follow up observed in both studies was also in agreement with guided PCI by functional lesion assessment observed by Syntax II registry, where investigators found lower events rate in spite of a few number of stents implanted per patient. use of ERACI risk scores may significantly reclassify patients into a lower risk category and be associated with low adverse events rate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Assessing pediatric ileocolonic Crohn's disease activity based on global MR enterography scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerri, Fabio; Zuliani, Monica; Giorgi, Benedetta; Muzzio, Pier Carlo [University of Padova, Department of Medicine-DIMED, Padova (Italy); Al Bunni, Faise [Rovigo Hospital, Radiology Unit, S. Maria della Misericordia, Rovigo (Italy); Guariso, Graziella; Gasparetto, Marco; Cananzi, Mara [University of Padova, Department of Women and Child Health, Padova (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    This study was aimed at correlating a magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) and a magnetic resonance enterography global score (MEGS) with activity indexes in a paediatric population with Crohn's disease (CD). This retrospective study included 32 paediatric patients (median age 14.5 years, 18 male) with proven CD who underwent magnetic resonance enterography (MRE). A correlation analysis was performed on the MRE-based scores, the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD), the paediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Based on PCDAI, comparison of both global MaRIA and MEGS was made between patients with mild and moderate/severe disease activity. Global MaRIA correlated with SES-CD (r = 0.70, p = 0.001) and PCDAI (r = 0.42, p = 0.016). MEGS correlated with PCDAI (r = 0.46, p = 0.007) and CRP levels (r = 0.35, p = 0.046). MEGS differed significantly (p = 0.027) between patients grouped by clinical disease severity. MRE-based global scores correlated with clinical indexes of CD activity. Therefore, they represent a potential useful tool to predict CD activity and severity, as well as a possible promising alternative to endoscopy, to monitor paediatric patients with CD during their follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Validation of the grown-ups with congenital heart disease score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörer, Jürgen; Roussin, Régine; LeBret, Emanuel; Ly, Mohamed; Abdullah, Jarrah; Marzullo, Rafaella; Pabst von Ohain, Jelena; Belli, Emre

    2018-06-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease in need of heart surgery frequently present with significant comorbidity. Furthermore, additional technical difficulties often related to redo operations increase the risk for postoperative mortality and morbidity. Hence, next to the type of the procedure, additional procedure-dependent and procedure-independent factors have to be considered for risk evaluation. The recently proposed grown-ups with congenital heart disease (GUCH) mortality and morbidity scores account for these additional risk factors. We sought to validate their predictive power in a large population operated in a single centre. Data of all consecutive patients aged 18 years or more, who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease between 2005 and 2016, were collected. Mortality was defined as hospital mortality or mortality within 30 days following surgery. Morbidity was defined as occurrence of one or more of the following complications: renal failure requiring dialysis, neurologic deficit persisting at discharge, atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker implantation, mechanical circulatory support, phrenic nerve injury and unplanned reoperation. The discriminatory power of the GUCH scores was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (c-index, including 95% CI). Eight hundred and twenty-four operations were evaluated. Additional procedure-dependent and procedure-independent factors, as defined in the GUCH scores, were present in 165 patients (20.0%) and 544 patients (66.0%), respectively. Hospital mortality and morbidity was 3.4% and 10.0%, respectively. C-index for GUCH mortality score was 0.809 (0.742-0.877). C-index for GUCH morbidity score was 0.676 (0.619-0.734). We could confirm the good predictive power of the GUCH mortality score for postoperative mortality in a large population of adults with congenital heart disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  18. Dynamic Measurement of Disease Activity in Acute Pancreatitis: The Pancreatitis Activity Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bechien U; Batech, Michael; Quezada, Michael; Lew, Daniel; Fujikawa, Kelly; Kung, Jonathan; Jamil, Laith H; Chen, Wansu; Afghani, Elham; Reicher, Sonya; Buxbaum, James; Pandol, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a highly variable course. Currently there is no widely accepted method to measure disease activity in patients hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. We aimed to develop a clinical activity index that incorporates routine clinical parameters to assist in the measurement, study, and management of acute pancreatitis. We used the UCLA/RAND appropriateness method to identify items for inclusion in the disease activity instrument. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by two sets of iterative modified Delphi meetings including a panel of international experts between November 2014 and November 2015. The final instrument was then applied to patient data obtained from five separate study cohorts across Southern California to assess profiles of disease activity. From a list of 35 items comprising 6 domains, we identified 5 parameters for inclusion in the final weighted clinical activity scoring system: organ failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, abdominal pain, requirement for opiates and ability to tolerate oral intake. We applied the weighted scoring system across the 5 study cohorts comprising 3,123 patients. We identified several distinct patterns of disease activity: (i) overall there was an elevated score at baseline relative to discharge across all study cohorts, (ii) there were distinct patterns of disease activity related to duration of illness as well as (iii) early and persistent elevation of disease activity among patients with severe acute pancreatitis defined as persistent organ failure. We present the development and initial validation of a clinical activity score for real-time assessment of disease activity in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  19. Genetic Risk Score Modelling for Disease Progression in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsson, Caroline A; Nielsen, Lotte B; Andersen, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 type 1 diabetes risk loci. The clinical impact of these loci on β-cell function during disease progression is unknown. We aimed at testing whether a genetic risk score could predict glycemic control and residual β-cell function in type...... 1 diabetes (T1D). As gene expression may represent an intermediate phenotype between genetic variation and disease, we hypothesized that genes within T1D loci which are expressed in islets and transcriptionally regulated by proinflammatory cytokines would be the best predictors of disease...... constructed a genetic risk score based on the cumulative number of risk alleles carried in children with newly diagnosed T1D. With each additional risk allele carried, HbA1c levels increased significantly within first year after diagnosis. Network and gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that several...

  20. Association of metabolic syndrome and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehey, Maureen; Luo, Sheng; Sharma, Saloni; Wills, Anne-Marie A; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Wong, Pei Shieen; Simon, David K; Schneider, Jay; Zhang, Yunxi; Pérez, Adriana; Dhall, Rohit; Christine, Chadwick W; Singer, Carlos; Cambi, Franca; Boyd, James T

    2017-10-24

    To explore the association between metabolic syndrome and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and, secondarily, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). This is a secondary analysis of data from 1,022 of 1,741 participants of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Clinical Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-Term Study 1, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of creatine. Participants were categorized as having or not having metabolic syndrome on the basis of modified criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Those who had the same metabolic syndrome status at consecutive annual visits were included. The change in UPDRS and SDMT scores from randomization to 3 years was compared in participants with and without metabolic syndrome. Participants with metabolic syndrome (n = 396) compared to those without (n = 626) were older (mean [SD] 63.9 [8.1] vs 59.9 [9.4] years; p metabolic syndrome experienced an additional 0.6- (0.2) unit annual increase in total UPDRS ( p = 0.02) and 0.5- (0.2) unit increase in motor UPDRS ( p = 0.01) scores compared with participants without metabolic syndrome. There was no difference in the change in SDMT scores. Persons with Parkinson disease meeting modified criteria for metabolic syndrome experienced a greater increase in total UPDRS scores over time, mainly as a result of increases in motor scores, compared to those who did not. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. NCT00449865. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. The Relationship Between the Gensini Score and Complete Blood Count Parameters in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Raşit Sayın

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the extend andseverity of coronary artery disease (CAD determined by the Gensini score and complete bloodcount parameters (white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelet, mean platelet volume, lymphocyte,neutrophil.Patients and Methods: Ninety patients with CAD underwent coronary angiography (40 females,mean age 61 ± 1.2 years were included in this study. Patients with acute coronary syndrome andprior cardiovascular disease excluded from the study. The association between the extent andseverity of CAD, which were assessed by the Gensini score, and complete blood count parameterswas analyzed by a correlation analysis.Results: Coronary angiography revealed, 6 (6.7% patients had three, 16 (17.8% patients hadtwo, and 24 (26.7% patients had single-vessel disease; 44 (48.9% patients had non-criticalstenosis. The mean Gensini score was 19.1 ± 2.1. We found a relationship between white bloodcell and neutrophil counts and the Gensini score. There was no relationship between Gensiniscore and the mean platelet volume and other parameters.Conclusion: The present study supports the hypothesis that inflammation is one of the maincomponent in the pathogenesis of CAD.

  2. Polygenic Risk Score for Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Memory Performance and Hippocampal Volumes in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrud, Luiza K; Santoro, Marcos L; Pine, Daniel S; Talarico, Fernanda; Gadelha, Ary; Manfro, Gisele G; Pan, Pedro M; Jackowski, Andrea; Picon, Felipe; Brietzke, Elisa; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Rohde, Luis A; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pausova, Zdenka; Belangero, Sintia; Paus, Tomas; Salum, Giovanni A

    2018-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder in which early-life precursors may manifest in cognition and brain structure. The authors evaluate this possibility by examining, in youths, associations among polygenic risk score for Alzheimer's disease, cognitive abilities, and hippocampal volume. Participants were children 6-14 years of age in two Brazilian cities, constituting the discovery (N=364) and replication samples (N=352). As an additional replication, data from a Canadian sample (N=1,029), with distinct tasks, MRI protocol, and genetic risk, were included. Cognitive tests quantified memory and executive function. Reading and writing abilities were assessed by standardized tests. Hippocampal volumes were derived from the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT) multi-atlas segmentation brain algorithm. Genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease was quantified using summary statistics from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project. Analyses showed that for the Brazilian discovery sample, each one-unit increase in z-score for Alzheimer's polygenic risk score significantly predicted a 0.185 decrement in z-score for immediate recall and a 0.282 decrement for delayed recall. Findings were similar for the Brazilian replication sample (immediate and delayed recall, β=-0.259 and β=-0.232, both significant). Quantile regressions showed lower hippocampal volumes bilaterally for individuals with high polygenic risk scores. Associations fell short of significance for the Canadian sample. Genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease may affect early-life cognition and hippocampal volumes, as shown in two independent samples. These data support previous evidence that some forms of late-life dementia may represent developmental conditions with roots in childhood. This result may vary depending on a sample's genetic risk and may be specific to some types of memory tasks.

  3. A review of scoring systems for ocular involvement in chronic cutaneous bullous diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendon W H; Tan, Jeremy C K; Radjenovic, Melissa; Coroneo, Minas T; Murrell, Dedee F

    2018-05-22

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) describe a group of rare chronic dermatoses characterized by cutaneous fragility and blistering. Although uncommon, significant ocular surface disease (OSD) may occur in both and require ophthalmological assessment. Disease scoring systems have a critical role in providing objective and accurate assessment of disease severity. The objectives of this report were, firstly, to document the prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD. Secondly, to review and evaluate existing ocular and systemic scoring systems for EB/AIBD. Finally, to identify areas where further development of ocular specific tools in EB/AIBD could be pursued. A literature search was performed in October 2017 utilising Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases. The results were restricted by date of publication, between 01.01.1950 and 31.10.2017. The reference lists of these articles were then reviewed for additional relevant publications. Articles of all languages were included if an English translation was available. Articles were excluded if they were duplicates, had no reference to ocular involvement in EB/AIBD or described ocular involvement in other diseases. Descriptions of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD were identified in 88 peer-reviewed journal articles. Findings reported include but are not limited to: cicatrising conjunctivitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease, trichiasis, symblepharon, fornix fibrosis, keratopathy, ectropion/entropion, ankyloblepharon, corneal ulceration, visual impairment and blindness. Although scoring systems exist for assessment of OSD in mucous membrane pemphigoid, no such tools exist for the other AIBD subtypes or for EB. Several systemic scoring systems exist in the dermatological literature that are efficacious in grading overall EB/AIBD severity, but have limited inclusion of ocular features. To the best of our knowledge, there is no recognised or validated scoring systems

  4. S-MRI score: A simple method for assessing bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Mota, J.; Alfonso, P.; Pocovi, M.; Giraldo, P.

    2007-01-01

    Semi quantitative MRI is a very useful procedure for evaluating the bone marrow burden (BMB) in Gaucher disease (GD). Score systems have been applied to obtain a parameter for evaluating the severity of bone disease. Our purpose was to test a simple, reproducible and accurate score to evaluate bone marrow involvement in GD patients. MRI was performed in spine, pelvis and femora at diagnosis in 54 adult GD1 patients, 61.1% of whom were female. Three MRI patterns and punctuation in each location were defined: normal, 0; non-homogeneous infiltration subtypes reticular, 1; mottled, 2; diffuse, 3; and homogeneous infiltration, 4. This score was called Spanish-MRI (S-MRI). Two independent observers applied the S-MRI and bone marrow burden score and compared the differences using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Correlation rank test was calculated. In 46 patients (85.2%), bone involvement was observed. Thirty-nine (72.3%) had their spine affected, 35 (64.8%) pelvis and 33 (61.2%) femora. Fourteen patients had bone infarcts, 14 avascular necrosis, 2 vertebral fractures and 2 bone crises. Correlation analysis between S-MRI and BMB was (r 2 = .675; p = .0001). No evidence of correlation was observed between CT activity and S-MRI nor between CT activity and BMB. We have found a relationship between genotype and bone infiltration according to S-MRI site and complications. S-MRI is a simple method that provides useful information to evaluate bone infiltration and detect silent complications. Our results correlated with the BMB score but offer higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for classifying the extent of bone disease

  5. S-MRI score: A simple method for assessing bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M. [Radiology (Magnetic Resonance) Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud (I-CS), Zaragoza (Spain); Mota, J. [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medimagen, Barcelona (Spain); Alfonso, P. [Radiology (Magnetic Resonance) Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud (I-CS), Zaragoza (Spain); Pocovi, M. [Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology Department, Zaragoza University (Spain); Giraldo, P. [Haematology Department, Miguel Servet University Hospital, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: pgiraldo@salud.aragon.es

    2007-04-15

    Semi quantitative MRI is a very useful procedure for evaluating the bone marrow burden (BMB) in Gaucher disease (GD). Score systems have been applied to obtain a parameter for evaluating the severity of bone disease. Our purpose was to test a simple, reproducible and accurate score to evaluate bone marrow involvement in GD patients. MRI was performed in spine, pelvis and femora at diagnosis in 54 adult GD1 patients, 61.1% of whom were female. Three MRI patterns and punctuation in each location were defined: normal, 0; non-homogeneous infiltration subtypes reticular, 1; mottled, 2; diffuse, 3; and homogeneous infiltration, 4. This score was called Spanish-MRI (S-MRI). Two independent observers applied the S-MRI and bone marrow burden score and compared the differences using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Correlation rank test was calculated. In 46 patients (85.2%), bone involvement was observed. Thirty-nine (72.3%) had their spine affected, 35 (64.8%) pelvis and 33 (61.2%) femora. Fourteen patients had bone infarcts, 14 avascular necrosis, 2 vertebral fractures and 2 bone crises. Correlation analysis between S-MRI and BMB was (r {sup 2} = .675; p = .0001). No evidence of correlation was observed between CT activity and S-MRI nor between CT activity and BMB. We have found a relationship between genotype and bone infiltration according to S-MRI site and complications. S-MRI is a simple method that provides useful information to evaluate bone infiltration and detect silent complications. Our results correlated with the BMB score but offer higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for classifying the extent of bone disease.

  6. A hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism underlying dietary soy-induced effects on seizure propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Jean Westmark

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism and Alzheimer’s disease are comorbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold.

  7. The soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320) in relation to Alzheimer's disease and cognitive scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Combrinck, Marc; Smith, A David

    2017-01-01

    The soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320) is present in cerebrospinal fluid and correlates with the dementia-related biomarkers phospho-tau and total-tau. Here we present data on the relation of sCD320 to Alzheimer's disease and scores of cognitive tests. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid samples from...... 42 pathologically-confirmed cases of Alzheimer's disease and 25 non-demented controls were analyzed for sCD320 employing an in-house ELISA. The participants' cognitive functions were tested using the Cambridge Cognition Examination (CAMCOG) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE...... be employed as a biomarker for differentiating Alzheimer dementia patients from controls. Further studies are warranted to explore the non-linear correlations between sCD320 and scores of cognitive function....

  8. Agreement in the assessment of metastatic spine disease using scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Kovacs, Francisco M; Royuela, Ana; Asenjo, Beatriz; Pérez-Ramírez, Ursula; Zamora, Javier

    2015-04-01

    To assess variability in the use of Tomita and modified Bauer scores in spine metastases. Clinical data and imaging from 90 patients with biopsy-proven spinal metastases, were provided to 83 specialists from 44 hospitals. Spinal levels involved and the Tomita and modified Bauer scores for each case were determined twice by each clinician, with a minimum of 6-week interval. Clinicians were blinded to every evaluation. Kappa statistic was used to assess intra and inter-observer agreement. Subgroup analyses were performed according to clinicians' specialty (medical oncology, neurosurgery, radiology, orthopedic surgery and radiation oncology), years of experience (⩽7, 8-13, ⩾14), and type of hospital (four levels). For metastases identification, intra-observer agreement was "substantial" (0.600.80) at the other levels. Inter-observer agreement was "almost perfect" at lumbar spine, and "substantial" at the other levels. Intra-observer agreement for the Tomita and Bauer scores was almost perfect. Inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for the Tomita score and substantial for the Bauer one. Results were similar across specialties, years of experience and type of hospital. Agreement in the assessment of metastatic spine disease is high. These scoring systems can improve communication among clinicians involved in oncology care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Agreement in the assessment of metastatic spine disease using scoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Kovacs, Francisco M.; Royuela, Ana; Asenjo, Beatriz; Pérez-Ramírez, Ursula; Zamora, Javier; Abraira, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess variability in the use of Tomita and modified Bauer scores in spine metastases. Materials and methods: Clinical data and imaging from 90 patients with biopsy-proven spinal metastases, were provided to 83 specialists from 44 hospitals. Spinal levels involved and the Tomita and modified Bauer scores for each case were determined twice by each clinician, with a minimum of 6-week interval. Clinicians were blinded to every evaluation. Kappa statistic was used to assess intra and inter-observer agreement. Subgroup analyses were performed according to clinicians’ specialty (medical oncology, neurosurgery, radiology, orthopedic surgery and radiation oncology), years of experience (⩽7, 8–13, ⩾14), and type of hospital (four levels). Results: For metastases identification, intra-observer agreement was “substantial” (0.60 < k < 0.80) at sacrum, and “almost perfect” (k > 0.80) at the other levels. Inter-observer agreement was “almost perfect” at lumbar spine, and “substantial” at the other levels. Intra-observer agreement for the Tomita and Bauer scores was almost perfect. Inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for the Tomita score and substantial for the Bauer one. Results were similar across specialties, years of experience and type of hospital. Conclusion: Agreement in the assessment of metastatic spine disease is high. These scoring systems can improve communication among clinicians involved in oncology care

  10. Sparse Learning of the Disease Severity Score for High-Dimensional Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stojkovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning disease severity scores automatically from collected measurements may aid in the quality of both healthcare and scientific understanding. Some steps in that direction have been taken and machine learning algorithms for extracting scoring functions from data have been proposed. Given the rapid increase in both quantity and diversity of data measured and stored, the large amount of information is becoming one of the challenges for learning algorithms. In this work, we investigated the direction of the problem where the dimensionality of measured variables is large. Learning the severity score in such cases brings the issue of which of measured features are relevant. We have proposed a novel approach by combining desirable properties of existing formulations, which compares favorably to alternatives in accuracy and especially in the robustness of the learned scoring function. The proposed formulation has a nonsmooth penalty that induces sparsity. This problem is solved by addressing a dual formulation which is smooth and allows an efficient optimization. The proposed approach might be used as an effective and reliable tool for both scoring function learning and biomarker discovery, as demonstrated by identifying a stable set of genes related to influenza symptoms’ severity, which are enriched in immune-related processes.

  11. Verbal or Visual Memory Score and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD. In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units. Verbal and visual memory scores were evaluated using the Wechsler Memory Scale – revised. The patients underwent brain SPECT with 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer. Results: After removing the effects of age, sex, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, correlation analysis showed a significant correlation of verbal memory scores to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the bilateral cingulate gyrus and left precuneus. Similarly, a significant correlation of visual memory scores to rCBF was found in the right precuneus and right cingulate gyrus. Conclusion: The posterior medial cortices (PMC are very important areas in episodic memory among patients with mild AD. Verbal memory is more closely related to the both sides of the PMC, while visual memory is more closely related to the right PMC.

  12. Reliability of the CMT neuropathy score (second version) in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2011-09-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy score (CMTNS) is a reliable and valid composite score comprising symptoms, signs, and neurophysiological tests, which has been used in natural history studies of CMT1A and CMT1X and as an outcome measure in treatment trials of CMT1A. Following an international workshop on outcome measures in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the CMTNS was modified to attempt to reduce floor and ceiling effects and to standardize patient assessment, aiming to improve its sensitivity for detecting change over time and the effect of an intervention. After agreeing on the modifications made to the CMTNS (CMTNS2), three examiners evaluated 16 patients to determine inter-rater reliability; one examiner evaluated 18 patients twice within 8 weeks to determine intra-rater reliability. Three examiners evaluated 63 patients using the CMTNS and the CMTNS2 to determine how the modifications altered scoring. For inter- and intra-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were ≥0.96 for the CMT symptom score and the CMT examination score. There were small but significant differences in some of the individual components of the CMTNS compared with the CMTNS2, mainly in the components that had been modified the most. A longitudinal study is in progress to determine whether the CMTNS2 is more sensitive than the CMTNS for detecting change over time.

  13. Verbal or Visual Memory Score and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoshi; Terada, Seishi; Oshima, Etsuko; Sato, Shuhei; Kurisu, Kairi; Takenoshita, Shintaro; Yokota, Osamu; Yamada, Norihito

    2018-01-01

    Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD). In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units. Verbal and visual memory scores were evaluated using the Wechsler Memory Scale - revised. The patients underwent brain SPECT with 99m Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer. After removing the effects of age, sex, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, correlation analysis showed a significant correlation of verbal memory scores to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral cingulate gyrus and left precuneus. Similarly, a significant correlation of visual memory scores to rCBF was found in the right precuneus and right cingulate gyrus. The posterior medial cortices (PMC) are very important areas in episodic memory among patients with mild AD. Verbal memory is more closely related to the both sides of the PMC, while visual memory is more closely related to the right PMC.

  14. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  15. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Muranen, Taru A.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittom?ki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breas...

  16. [Clinical scores for the venous thromboembolic disease: an aid for the diagnosis and the treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A

    2015-03-04

    The venous thromboembolic disease includes a wide range of conditions from well defined medical entities (pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis), their diagnosis and prognosis, as well as the risk of developping a venous thromboembolic disease in association with hospitalisation for acute medical illness and with cancer. The assessment of the risk of treatment with anticoagulants is also itaken into account. For all these medical situations, numerous (approximately 50) clinical scores have been reported. They will be presented and critically analysed in the next series of 6 articles.

  17. The cost-effectiveness of using chronic kidney disease risk scores to screen for early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnoff, Benjamin O; Hoerger, Thomas J; Simpson, Siobhan K; Leib, Alyssa; Burrows, Nilka R; Shrestha, Sundar S; Pavkov, Meda E

    2017-03-13

    Better treatment during early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may slow progression to end-stage renal disease and decrease associated complications and medical costs. Achieving early treatment of CKD is challenging, however, because a large fraction of persons with CKD are unaware of having this disease. Screening for CKD is one important method for increasing awareness. We examined the cost-effectiveness of identifying persons for early-stage CKD screening (i.e., screening for moderate albuminuria) using published CKD risk scores. We used the CKD Health Policy Model, a micro-simulation model, to simulate the cost-effectiveness of using CKD two published risk scores by Bang et al. and Kshirsagar et al. to identify persons in the US for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria. Alternative risk score thresholds were tested (0.20, 0.15, 0.10, 0.05, and 0.02) above which persons were assigned to receive screening at alternative intervals (1-, 2-, and 5-year) for follow-up screening if the first screening was negative. We examined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), incremental lifetime costs divided by incremental lifetime QALYs, relative to the next higher screening threshold to assess cost-effectiveness. Cost-effective scenarios were determined as those with ICERs less than $50,000 per QALY. Among the cost-effective scenarios, the optimal scenario was determined as the one that resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. ICERs ranged from $8,823 per QALY to $124,626 per QALY for the Bang et al. risk score and $6,342 per QALY to $405,861 per QALY for the Kshirsagar et al. risk score. The Bang et al. risk score with a threshold of 0.02 and 2-year follow-up screening was found to be optimal because it had an ICER less than $50,000 per QALY and resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. This study indicates that using these CKD risk scores may allow clinicians to cost-effectively identify a broader population for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria

  18. Disease activity score in rheumatoid arthritis with or without secondary fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammurrad, S.; Munir, W.; Farooqi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To correlate disease activity score (DAS-28) in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with and without secondary fibromyalgia. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Rheumatology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November 2011 to April 2012. Methodology: Patients aged above 16 years diagnosed to have rheumatoid arthritis according to ACR/EULAR criteria 2010 were included in the study. Fibromyalgia (FM) was diagnosed by ACR 1990 criteria. Patients of other autoimmune diseases or psychiatric illnesses were excluded. DAS was determined and compared using t-test with significance at p < 0.05. Results: The mean age of study subjects was 42.9 years. Thirty one out of total 138 patients had fibromyalgia (22.4%). Female gender was predominant (92.0%); being 96.8% in patients with and in 88.2% without fibromyalgia. The average DAS score was high (5.3 + 1.5) in fibromyalgia patients compared to those without fibromyalgia (3.9 + 1.2); this difference in mean value was statistically significant (p = < 0.001). Conclusion: DAS-28 is a useful tool for assessing rheumatoid arthritis disease status in outpatient setting, however, increased disease activity must be assessed for possible co-existence of fibromyalgia which can spuriously give high DAS value and adversely affect treatment decision. (author)

  19. Histological scoring and associated risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, N; Ali, Z; Rahman, M R; Akhter, A; Rajib, R C; Ahmad, F; Sharmin, S; Akond, A K; Huq, N

    2013-10-01

    Non alcoholic steatohepatitis is a hepatic disorder with histological features of alcohol induced liver disease that occurs in individual who do not consume significant alcohol. Liver biopsy is an important part of the evaluation in term of both grade & stage. A cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Pathology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka & department of Hepatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from July 2007 to June 2009. Total 55 adult subjects of both sex were included on the basis of predefined inclusion & exclusion criteria in this study to evaluate the histological pattern of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its correlation with risk factors. Liver biopsy was done and H & E and Masson's Trichrome stain slides were examined to evaluate the grade and stage of NAFLD. Scoring and semiquantitative assessment of steatosis and NAFLD severity was done according to Kleiner scale known as NAFLD activity score (NAS). The results of Pearson correlation showed only BMI and triglyceride level significantly correlated with NAS score. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that BMI, central obesity, triglyceridaemia and age significantly correlated with staging of fibrosis. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that variation of NAS depend on BMI and triglyceride level. The study also revealed that risk factors contributed about 29% risk for the occurrence of non alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  20. Relação entre plano de saúde e a realização do exame Papanicolaou: uma aplicação de escore de propensão usando um inquérito amostral complexo Relationship between health care insurance and Papanicolaou exam: a propensity score application using a complex sample inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo de Moraes

    2011-12-01

    with Papanicolaou smear screening. We analyzed data from 6,299 women aged 35 years or older, resident in Rio de Janeiro state, who had been interviewed in the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD in 2003. In order to minimize the occurrence of biases, we utilized the propensity score matching method, considering all information from sample design in the scores estimation (sample weights, strata and primary sampling units. A sub-sample of 2,348 women was then obtained, with socioeconomic and biological covariates equally distributed between the groups with and without private health insurance coverage (1,174 pairs. Logistic regression model was then used and the results showed that the chance of Papanicolaou smear screening is 26.1% higher (OR=1.261; p=0,096; CI 95%= [0.96;1.66] for women with health insurance coverage when compared to women without health insurance coverage at 10% of significance. The results indicate the need of extending periodic cervical cancer screening for all women, reducing the inequalities still present nowadays.

  1. Propensity, Probability, and Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, Leslie E.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum mechanics and probability theory share one peculiarity. Both have well established mathematical formalisms, yet both are subject to controversy about the meaning and interpretation of their basic concepts. Since probability plays a fundamental role in QM, the conceptual problems of one theory can affect the other. We first classify the interpretations of probability into three major classes: (a) inferential probability, (b) ensemble probability, and (c) propensity. Class (a) is the basis of inductive logic; (b) deals with the frequencies of events in repeatable experiments; (c) describes a form of causality that is weaker than determinism. An important, but neglected, paper by P. Humphreys demonstrated that propensity must differ mathematically, as well as conceptually, from probability, but he did not develop a theory of propensity. Such a theory is developed in this paper. Propensity theory shares many, but not all, of the axioms of probability theory. As a consequence, propensity supports the Law of Large Numbers from probability theory, but does not support Bayes theorem. Although there are particular problems within QM to which any of the classes of probability may be applied, it is argued that the intrinsic quantum probabilities (calculated from a state vector or density matrix) are most naturally interpreted as quantum propensities. This does not alter the familiar statistical interpretation of QM. But the interpretation of quantum states as representing knowledge is untenable. Examples show that a density matrix fails to represent knowledge.

  2. A clinically useful risk-score for chronic kidney disease in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 nadir, hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted CKD and were included in the risk score (Figure 1). The incidence of CKD in those at low, medium and high risk was 0.8/1000 PYFU (95% CI 0.6-1.0), 5.6 (95% CI 4.5-6.7) and 37.4 (95% CI 34.......0-40.7) (Figure 1). The risk score showed good discrimination (Harrell's c statistic 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.93). The number needed to harm (NNTH) in patients starting ATV or LPV/r was 1395, 142 or 20, respectively, among those with low, medium or high risk. NNTH were 603, 61 and 9 for those with a low, medium...

  3. Detection and Severity Scoring of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Volumetric Analysis of Lung CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Parsa; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease.While there is no cure for COPD and the lung damage associated with this disease cannot be reversed, it is still very important to diagnose it as early as possible. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on the measurement of air trapping in the lungs from CT images to detect COPD and to evaluate its severity. Twenty-five patients and twelve normal adults were included in this study. The proposed method found volumetric changes of the lungs from inspiration to expiration. To this end, trachea CT images at full inspiration and expiration were compared and changes in the areas and volumes of the lungs between inspiration and expiration were used to define quantitative measures (features). Using these features,the subjects were classified into two groups of normal and COPD patients using a Bayesian classifier. In addition, t-tests were applied to evaluate discrimination powers of the features for this classification. For the cases studied, the proposed method estimated air trapping in the lungs from CT images without human intervention. Based on the results, a mathematical model was developed to relate variations of lung volumes to the severity of the disease. As a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, the proposed method may assist radiologists in the detection of COPD. It quantifies air trapping in the lungs and thus may assist them with the scoring of the disease by quantifying the severity of the disease

  4. Longitudinal AddiQoL scores may identify higher risk for adrenal crises in Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gesine; Koch, Maike; Herrmann, Eva; Bojunga, Jörg; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced quality of life (QoL) in patients with Addison's disease (AD), but investigations of QoL over a long-term course are lacking. Adrenal crises (AC) are life-threatening complications in AD. The purpose of this prospective study was to test whether the repeated use of QoL-questionnaires can detect prodromal periods of an AC. 110 patients with AD were asked to complete the disease specific-QoL questionnaire AddiQoL and a short questionnaire about adverse events once monthly over a period of ten months. AC was defined if at least two of the following symptoms were reported: (a) hypotension, (b) nausea or vomiting, (c) severe fatigue, (d) documented hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, or hypoglycemia, and subsequent parenteral glucocorticoid administration was carried out. Prevalence of AC was 10.9/100 patient years. AddiQoL scores in patients with AC showed a trend (p = 0,08) to a wider fluctuation over time. Subjective precrises not meeting the criteria for AC were reported by 31 patients who had significantly lower AddiQoL scores (p = 0,018). These are the first data showing the course of QoL during a period of ten months in patients with AD. Incidence of AC exceeds previous data. Our data show, that subjective precrises in AD associate with lower QoL. AC, as well as precrises affect intraindividual AddiQol-scores over time with a trend to a stronger fluctuation. Longitudinal AddiQol scores and self-reporting of precrises via patient diaries are additional clinical tools to identify higher risk for critical events.

  5. Surgical apgar score in patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chien-Yu; Hsu, Shih-Yuan; Huang, Jian-Hao; Huang, Yu-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar fusion is a procedure broadly performed for degenerative diseases of spines, but it is not without significant morbidities. Surgical Apgar Score (SAS), based on intraoperative blood loss, blood pressure, and heart rate, was developed for prognostic prediction in general and vascular operations. We aimed to examine whether the application of SAS in patients undergoing fusion procedures for degeneration of lumbar spines predicts in-hospital major complications. One hundred and ninety-nine patients that underwent lumbar fusion operation for spine degeneration were enrolled in this retrospective study. Based on whether major complications were present (N=16) or not (N=183), the patients were subdivided. We identified the intergroup differences in SAS and clinical parameters. The incidence of in-hospital major complications was 8%. The duration of hospital stay for the morbid patents was significantly prolonged (p=0.04). In the analysis of multivariable logistic regression, SAS was an independent predicting factor of the complications after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases [p=0.001; odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.35 (0.19-0.64)]. Lower scores were accompanied with higher rates of major complications, and the area was 0.872 under the receiver operating characteristic curve. SAS is an independent predicting factor of major complications in patients after fusion surgery for degenerative diseases of lumbar spines, and provides good risk discrimination. Since the scoring system is relatively simple, objective, and practical, we suggest that SAS be included as an indicator in the guidance for level of care after lumbar fusion surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between a model of end stage liver disease score (MELD score) and the occurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, A A Ayu Yuli; Suryadharma, I G A; Purwadi, N; Wibawa, I D N

    2007-01-01

    To determine relationship between MELD score and the occurrence of SBP, prevalence of SBP, pattern of bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility of causative bacteria of liver cirrhotic patients at Sanglah Hospital. Study design was a cross-sectional analytic study. The population in this study consists of liver cirrhotic patients admitted at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar from June 2005 to February 2006. This result confirmed that the MELD score is a reliable index of disease severity and that higher MELD scores had a significantly more frequent SBP prevalence in patients with a MELD score of 18 or more compared with that in patients with a MELD score of 17 or less (p=0.01; 95% CI = 1.379-15.537). Prevalence of SBP was 30.6%. Thirteen patients (68.4%) had monomicrobial positive culture of Aerob bacteria, consisting of Gram negative bacterias in 10 (77%), with Escherichia coli and Acinettobacter baumanii being the most frequent, and 3 (23%) had Gram positive bacteria. High sensitivity to Cefoperazone, Cefotaxim, Ceftazidime, Cefpirome, Ciprofloxacin, Fosfomicin, Meropenem, Streptomycin, Gentamycin, Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole, were shown. Based on this study we concluded that severe liver cirrhosis with MELD score > or = 18 was associated with an increase risk of SBP, with a prevalence of 30.6%. Common causes of SBP mostly were Escherichia coli and Acinettobacter baumanii, which were sensitive to antibiotic treatment of Cefoperazone, Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin.

  7. Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Polygenic Risk Profile Score Predicts Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ena; Chen, Qiang; Goldman, Aaron L; Tan, Hao Yang; Healy, Kaitlin; Zoltick, Brad; Das, Saumitra; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Callicott, Joseph H; Dickinson, Dwight; Berman, Karen F; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2017-11-01

    We explored the cumulative effect of several late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk loci using a polygenic risk profile score (RPS) approach on measures of hippocampal function, cognition, and brain morphometry. In a sample of 231 healthy control subjects (19-55 years of age), we used an RPS to study the effect of several LOAD risk loci reported in a recent meta-analysis on hippocampal function (determined by its engagement with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic memory) and several cognitive metrics. We also studied effects on brain morphometry in an overlapping sample of 280 subjects. There was almost no significant association of LOAD-RPS with cognitive or morphometric measures. However, there was a significant negative relationship between LOAD-RPS and hippocampal function (familywise error [small volume correction-hippocampal region of interest] p risk score based on APOE haplotype, and for a combined LOAD-RPS + APOE haplotype risk profile score (p risk genes on hippocampal function even in healthy volunteers. The effect of LOAD-RPS on hippocampal function in the relative absence of any effect on cognitive and morphometric measures is consistent with the reported temporal characteristics of LOAD biomarkers with the earlier manifestation of synaptic dysfunction before morphometric and cognitive changes. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  8. Using prediction markets of market scoring rule to forecast infectious diseases: a case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chen-yuan; Chou, Tzu-chuan; Lin, Jih-wen

    2015-08-11

    The Taiwan CDC relied on the historical average number of disease cases or rate (AVG) to depict the trend of epidemic diseases in Taiwan. By comparing the historical average data with prediction markets, we show that the latter have a better prediction capability than the former. Given the volatility of the infectious diseases in Taiwan, historical average is unlikely to be an effective prediction mechanism. We designed and built the Epidemic Prediction Markets (EPM) system based upon the trading mechanism of market scoring rule. By using this system, we aggregated dispersed information from various medical professionals to predict influenza, enterovirus, and dengue fever in Taiwan. EPM was more accurate in 701 out of 1,085 prediction events than the traditional baseline of historical average and the winning ratio of EPM versus AVG was 64.6 % for the target week. For the absolute prediction error of five diseases indicators of three infectious diseases, EPM was more accurate for the target week than AVG except for dengue fever confirmed cases. The winning ratios of EPM versus AVG for the confirmed cases of severe complicated influenza case, the rate of enterovirus infection, and the rate of influenza-like illness in the target week were 69.6 %, 83.9 and 76.0 %, respectively; instead, for the prediction of the confirmed cases of dengue fever and the confirmed cases of severe complicated enterovirus infection, the winning ratios of EPM were all below 50 %. Except confirmed cases of dengue fever, EPM provided accurate, continuous and real-time predictions of four indicators of three infectious diseases for the target week in Taiwan and outperformed the historical average data of infectious diseases.

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk score prediction models for women and its applicability to Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh LGH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise GH Goh,1 Satvinder S Dhaliwal,1 Timothy A Welborn,2 Peter L Thompson,2–4 Bruce R Maycock,1 Deborah A Kerr,1 Andy H Lee,1 Dean Bertolatti,1 Karin M Clark,1 Rakhshanda Naheed,1 Ranil Coorey,1 Phillip R Della5 1School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia; 5School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: Although elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are associated with a higher risk of developing heart conditions across all ethnic groups, variations exist between groups in the distribution and association of risk factors, and also risk levels. This study assessed the 10-year predicted risk in a multiethnic cohort of women and compared the differences in risk between Asian and Caucasian women. Methods: Information on demographics, medical conditions and treatment, smoking behavior, dietary behavior, and exercise patterns were collected. Physical measurements were also taken. The 10-year risk was calculated using the Framingham model, SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation risk chart for low risk and high risk regions, the general CVD, and simplified general CVD risk score models in 4,354 females aged 20–69 years with no heart disease, diabetes, or stroke at baseline from the third Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Country of birth was used as a surrogate for ethnicity. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare risk levels between ethnic groups. Results: Asian women generally had lower risk of CVD when compared to Caucasian women. The 10-year predicted risk was, however, similar between Asian and Australian women, for some models. These findings were

  10. A combined pulmonary function and emphysema score prognostic index for staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroditi K Boutou

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone.To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach.Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used.169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2. 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04-1.252 and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007-1.07 were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted. This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR = 3.123; 95% CI = 1.094-10.412 than either individual component alone.Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients

  11. Assessment of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis using hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI: comparison with Shwachman score, Chrispin-Norman score and spirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, Edwin J.R. van [University of Sheffield, Unit of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Fichele, Stanislao; Fleming, Sally; Wild, Jim M. [University of Sheffield, Unit of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Howe, Bridget; Bott, Sandra; Taylor, Christopher J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This study assesses the feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and correlates the findings with standard clinical parameters based on chest radiograph (CXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). An uncontrolled, observational study in eighteen children with cystic fibrosis aged 5 - 17 years (median 12.1 years), with different severity of disease was carried out. All subjects underwent routine clinical assessment including PFT and standard auxology; CXR was obtained and Shwachman and Chrispin-Norman scores calculated. Hyperpolarized 3-He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out using a spin-exchange polarizer and a whole body 1.5 T scanner. Ventilation distribution images were obtained during a 21-second breath-hold and scored according to previously defined criteria. Spearman's non-parametric correlations test was performed to assess for statistical significance at the p<0.05 level. The children tolerated the procedure well. No desaturation events were observed during 3-He MRI. A significant, albeit moderate, correlation was found between MRI score and FEV1% predicted (r=-0.41; p=0.047) and FVC% predicted (r=-0.42; p=0.04), while there were trends of correlations between Shwachman score and MRI score (r=-0.38; p=0.06) and Shwachman score and FEV1% predicted (r=0.39; p=0.055). The feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-He MRI in children with CF was demonstrated. MRI appears to be able to demonstrate functional lung changes, although correlations with routine clinical tests are only moderate to poor. This non-ionising radiation technique could be useful for monitoring lung disease and assessing therapy in this patient population. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis using hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI: comparison with Shwachman score, Chrispin-Norman score and spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Fichele, Stanislao; Fleming, Sally; Wild, Jim M.; Howe, Bridget; Bott, Sandra; Taylor, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and correlates the findings with standard clinical parameters based on chest radiograph (CXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). An uncontrolled, observational study in eighteen children with cystic fibrosis aged 5 - 17 years (median 12.1 years), with different severity of disease was carried out. All subjects underwent routine clinical assessment including PFT and standard auxology; CXR was obtained and Shwachman and Chrispin-Norman scores calculated. Hyperpolarized 3-He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out using a spin-exchange polarizer and a whole body 1.5 T scanner. Ventilation distribution images were obtained during a 21-second breath-hold and scored according to previously defined criteria. Spearman's non-parametric correlations test was performed to assess for statistical significance at the p<0.05 level. The children tolerated the procedure well. No desaturation events were observed during 3-He MRI. A significant, albeit moderate, correlation was found between MRI score and FEV1% predicted (r=-0.41; p=0.047) and FVC% predicted (r=-0.42; p=0.04), while there were trends of correlations between Shwachman score and MRI score (r=-0.38; p=0.06) and Shwachman score and FEV1% predicted (r=0.39; p=0.055). The feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-He MRI in children with CF was demonstrated. MRI appears to be able to demonstrate functional lung changes, although correlations with routine clinical tests are only moderate to poor. This non-ionising radiation technique could be useful for monitoring lung disease and assessing therapy in this patient population. (orig.)

  13. Nintendo Wii assessment of Hoehn and Yahr score with Parkinson's disease tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Abdulkadir; Oktay, Ayse Betul

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) by analyzing the resting tremor were much studied by using different accelerometer based methods, however the quantitative assessment of Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HYS) score with a machine learning based system has not been previously addressed. In this study, we aimed to propose a system to automatically assess the HYS score of patients with PD. The system was evaluated and tested on a dataset containing 55 subjects where 35 of them were patients and 20 of them were healthy controls. The resting tremor data were gathered with the 3 axis accelerometer of the Nintendo Wii (Wiimote). The clinical disability of the PD was graded from 1 to 5 by the HYS and tremor was recorded twice from the more affected side in each patient and from the dominant extremity in each control for a 60 seconds period. The HYS scores were learned with Support Vector Machines (SVM) from the features of the tremor data. Thirty-two of the subjects with PD were classified correctly and 18 of the normal subjects were also classified correctly by our system. The system had average 0.89 accuracy rate (Range: 81-100% changing according to grading by HYS). We compared quantitative measurements of hand tremor in PD patients, with staging of PD based on accelerometer data gathered using the Wii sensor. Our results showed that the machine learning based system with simple features could be helpful for diagnosis of PD and estimate HYS score. We believed that this portable and easy-to-use Wii sensor measure might also be applicable in the continuous monitoring of the resting tremor with small modifications in routine clinical use.

  14. Framingham coronary heart disease risk score can be predicted from structural brain images in elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maryam Rondina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymptomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: Is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardiovascular risk from structural brain images enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: i we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease. ii When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. iii We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed.

  15. [Severity of disease scoring systems and mortality after non-cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro Videira; Sousa, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana Martins; Costa, Ana Vera; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando José

    2018-04-05

    Mortality after surgery is frequent and severity of disease scoring systems are used for prediction. Our aim was to evaluate predictors for mortality after non-cardiac surgery. Adult patients admitted at our surgical intensive care unit between January 2006 and July 2013 was included. Univariate analysis was carried using Mann-Whitney, Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression was performed to assess independent factors with calculation of odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). 4398 patients were included. Mortality was 1.4% in surgical intensive care unit and 7.4% during hospital stay. Independent predictors of mortality in surgical intensive care unit were APACHE II (OR=1.24); emergent surgery (OR=4.10), serum sodium (OR=1.06) and FiO 2 at admission (OR=14.31). Serum bicarbonate at admission (OR=0.89) was considered a protective factor. Independent predictors of hospital mortality were age (OR=1.02), APACHE II (OR=1.09), emergency surgery (OR=1.82), high-risk surgery (OR=1.61), FiO 2 at admission (OR=1.02), postoperative acute renal failure (OR=1.96), heart rate (OR=1.01) and serum sodium (OR=1.04). Dying patients had higher scores in severity of disease scoring systems and longer surgical intensive care unit stay. Some factors influenced both surgical intensive care unit and hospital mortality. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. APACHE II SCORING SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CHILDREN WHO UNDERWENT POLYCHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term disease prognosis should be considered for the appropriate treatment policy based on the assessment of disease severity in patients with acute disease. The adequate assessment of disease severity and prognosis allows the indications for transferring patients to the resuscitation and intensive care department to be defined more precisely. Disease severity of patients who underwent polychemotherapy was assessed using APACHE II scoring system.

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  18. MR score system on spatium perilymphaticum gadolinium opacification and its application for diagnosis of Meniere's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheming; Liu Ying; Cao Dairong; Chen Xi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a MR scoring methods for spatium perilymphaticum gadolinium opacification and explore the value of their diagnosis of Meniere's disease. Methods: Fifty-one asymptomatic and 65 symptomatic patients with Meniere's disease were enrolled in this study. MR imaging of spatium perilymphaticum after intratypanic gadolinium injection were analyzed with following scoring method. (1) Semicircular canal not visualized equal to score 0; some visualized equal score 1; full visualized equal score 2.(2)There were high-signal and low-signal in the vestibule, low-signal areas above the lateral semicircular canal plane equal score 6; low signal areas down to lateral semicircular canal plane equal score 3; no higher signal in the vestibule area equal score 0. (3) Basal turn of cochlea: full visualized equal score 3; part visualized equal score 2; scala vestibule of basal turn smaller than scala tympani equal score 1 regardless of full or visualized in basal turn; no visualized equal score 0. Medial turn of cochlea: full visualized equal score 2; part visualized equal score 1; no visualized equal score 0. Apical turn of cochlea: visualized equal score 1; no visualized equal score 0. One radiologist scored all cases with double blind. SPSS 17.0 software was used to conduct multiple independent-samples nonparametric tests, multivariate Logistic regression, and ROC curve analysis. Evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of Meniere's disease with the scoring system. Results: (1) Meniere's disease summation score 0 to 12, median 9 (quarter spacing 4.5); no symptoms group summation score 15 to 18,median 17 (quarter spacing 3), two group differences has statistics significance (Wilcoxon rank and inspection U=-9.118, P=0.00). (2) Based on summation score for the diagnosis of Meniere's disease, tangent point was 14.5, Youden index 0.969, specificity 100.0%, sensitivity 96.9%.(3) Let cochlear, vestibular, semicircular canal scoring

  19. Periodontitis and early mortality among adults treated with hemodialysis: a multinational propensity-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Petruzzi, Massimo; De Benedittis, Michele; Ford, Pauline; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Natale, Patrizia; Saglimbene, Valeria; Pellegrini, Fabio; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Leal, Miguel R; Torok, Marietta; Stroumza, Paul; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Frantzen, Luc; Del Castillo, Domingo; Schon, Staffan; Bernat, Amparo G; Hegbrant, Jorgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Gargano, Letizia; Bots, Casper P; Strippoli, Giovanni Fm

    2017-05-22

    Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular mortality in the general population and adults with chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether periodontitis predicts survival in the setting of kidney failure. ORAL-D was a propensity matched analysis in 3338 dentate adults with end-stage kidney disease treated in a hemodialysis network in Europe and South America designed to examine the association between periodontitis and all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality in people on long-term hemodialysis. Participants were matched 1:1 on their propensity score for moderate to severe periodontitis assessed using the World Health Organization Community Periodontal Index. A random-effects Cox proportional hazards model was fitted with shared frailty to account for clustering of mortality risk within countries. Among the 3338 dentate participants, 1355 (40.6%) had moderate to severe periodontitis at baseline. After using propensity score methods to generate a matched cohort of participants with periodontitis similar to those with none or mild periodontal disease, moderate to severe periodontitis was associated with a lower risk of all-cause (9.1 versus 13.0 per 100 person years, hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.90) and cardiovascular (4.3 versus 6.9 per 100 person years, hazard ratio 0.67, 0.51 to 0.88) mortality. These associations were not changed substantially when participants were limited to those with 12 or more natural teeth and when accounting for competing causes of cardiovascular death. In contrast to the general population, periodontitis does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of early death in adults treated with hemodialysis.

  20. Evaluation of model for end-stage liver disease score cut off values in patients with hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Qayyum, W.; Umar, M.; Abedin, Z.U.; Bushra, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) is scoring system used for prioritization of patients waiting liver transplantation. Patients with decompensated chronic liver disease (DCLD) with higher MELD score and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have poor outcome. We planned to note association between short term mortality and various cut-off values of at admission MELD score in HCV related DCLD patients presenting with HE. Methods: In this descriptive case series, 208 Hepatitis C (HCV) related chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with HE were included. At admission serum bilirubin, creatinine and INR were sought to calculate MELD score. Patients who improved were discharged and kept under regular follow up. Outcome was categorized into alive or expired in 3 months after admission. Based on MELD score cut off values of >15, >20, >25 and >30, association with outcome was determined using Chi-square test. Results: One hundred and six (51%) patients were female. Mean patient age was 55.3±10.6 years. Outcome wise, 128 (61.5%) were alive and 80 (38.5%) expired. Mean MELD score of expired was 22.17±9.14. 55 (51%) patients with MELD score >15, 44 (65.7%) patients with >20, 30 (73.2%) patients with >25, and 21 (72.5%) patients with >30 expired. MELD score >20 had strongest association with outcome, p value less than o.01. Conclusion: At admission MELD score >20 are most significantly associated with poor outcome in DCLD patients with HE. (author)

  1. Quality of Life Score as a Predictor of Death in Dogs with Degenerative Mitral Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Célia M C; Marcondes-Santos, Mário; Takada, Julio Yoshio; Fragata, Fernanda S; Mansur, Antônio de Pádua

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of the variables predicting mortality is important in clinical practice and for therapeutic monitoring in mitral valve disease. To determine whether a quality of life score evaluated with the Functional Evaluation of Cardiac Health questionnaire would predict mortality in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD). Thirty-six client-owned dogs with mitral valve disease underwent clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic evaluations at baseline and were monitored for 6 months. Cardiovascular death was the primary outcome. The 36 dogs were classified as survivors or nonsurvivors. Higher values of the following variables were obtained at baseline in the nonsurviving group (12 dogs): amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, plasma norepinephrine, heart rate, quality of life score, diastolic left ventricular internal dimension to aortic root ratio, systolic left ventricular internal dimension to aortic root ratio, and left atrium to aortic root ratio. NT-proBNP levels and quality life score were independently associated with death in the multivariable analysis. The quality life score was an independent variable for cardiac death in dogs with DMVD. This result is encouraging, as this score is easy to apply and does not require any technology, only a veterinarian and an observant owner. O conhecimento das variáveis preditoras de mortalidade é importante para a prática clínica e para o acompanhamento terapêutico na doença da valva mitral. Determinar se um escore de qualidade de vida avaliado com o Functional Evaluation of Cardiac Health poderia auxiliar na predição de mortalidade em cães com doença degenerativa da valva mitral (DDVM). Trinta e seis cães de estimação com doença valvar mitral foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, laboratorial e ecocardiográfica no início do estudo e monitorizados durante 6 meses. A morte cardiovascular foi o desfecho primário. Os 36 cães foram classificados como

  2. Gait profile score and movement analysis profile in patients with Parkinson's disease during concurrent cognitive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciali, Danielli S.; Oliveira, Elaine M.; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Correa, João C. F.; Baker, Richard; Lucareli, Paulo R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gait disorders are common in individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the concurrent performance of motor and cognitive tasks can have marked effects on gait. The Gait Profile Score (GPS) and the Movement Analysis Profile (MAP) were developed in order to summarize the data of kinematics and facilitate understanding of the results of gait analysis. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of the GPS and MAP in the quantification of changes in gait during a concurrent cognitive load while walking in adults with and without PD. Method: Fourteen patients with idiopathic PD and nine healthy subjects participated in the study. All subjects performed single and dual walking tasks. The GPS/MAP was computed from three-dimensional gait analysis data. Results: Differences were found between tasks for GPS (PGait Variable Score (GVS) (pelvic rotation, knee flexion-extension and ankle dorsiflexion-plantarflexion) (Pgait impairment during the dual task and suggest that GPS/MAP may be used to evaluate the effects of concurrent cognitive load while walking in patients with PD. PMID:25054382

  3. A quantitative assessment of alkaptonuria: testing the reliability of two disease severity scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor F; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan

    2011-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is due to excessive homogentisic acid accumulation in body fluids due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to varied clinical manifestations mainly by a process of conversion of HGA to a polymeric melanin-like pigment known as ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, successful demonstration of its efficacy in modifying the natural history of AKU requires an effective quantitative assessment tool. We have described two potential tools that could be used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires used in 44 people with AKU. Statistical analyses were carried out on the two patient datasets to assess the AKU tools; these included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, multidimensional scaling and simple linear regression analysis. The conclusion was that there was good evidence that the tools could be adopted as AKU assessment tools, but perhaps with further refinement before being used in the practical setting of a clinical trial.

  4. Demographic determinants of risk, colon distribution and density scores of diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Mark; Ster, Irina Chis; Babu, Pratusha; Sharma, Amita; Bayat, Muhammad; Farah, Abdulkadir

    2011-02-28

    To investigate associations between ethnicity, age and sex and the risk, colon distribution and density scores of diverticular disease (DD). Barium enemas were examined in 1000 patients: 410 male, 590 female; 760 whites, 62 Asians, 44 black africans (BAs), and 134 other blacks (OBs). Risks and diverticula density of left-sided DD (LSDD) and right-sided-component DD (RSCDD = right-sided DD + right and left DD + Pan-DD) were compared using logistic regression. Four hundred and forty-seven patients had DD (322 LSDD and 125 RSCDD). Adjusted risks: (1) LSDD: each year increase in age increased the odds by 6% (95% CI: 5-8, SE: 0.8%, P colonic DD might be more common and has higher diverticula density in the west than previously reported. BAs appear predisposed to DD, whereas other ethnic differences appear conserved following migration.

  5. Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Propensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); M. Minniti (Maria); C. Schade (Christian)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUsing data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident

  6. Gender differences in entrepreneurial propensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koellinger, P.; Minniti, M.; Schade, C.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident in their

  7. Non-laboratory-based self-assessment screening score for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: development, validation and comparison with other scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ho Lee

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent and rapidly increasing disease worldwide; however, no widely accepted screening models to assess the risk of NAFLD are available. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for NAFLD in the general population using two independent cohorts.The development cohort comprised 15676 subjects (8313 males and 7363 females who visited the National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital in Korea in 2008-2010. Anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data were examined during regular health check-ups and fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of prevalent NAFLD and to derive risk scores/models. We validated our models and compared them with other existing methods using an external cohort (N = 66868.The simple self-assessment score consists of age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index, history of diabetes and dyslipidemia, alcohol intake, physical activity and menopause status, which are independently associated with NAFLD, and has a value of 0-15. A cut-off point of ≥ 8 defined 58% of males and 36% of females as being at high-risk of NAFLD, and yielded a sensitivity of 80% in men (77% in women, a specificity of 67% (81%, a positive predictive value of 72% (63%, a negative predictive value of 76% (89% and an AUC of 0.82 (0.88. Comparable results were obtained using the validation dataset. The comprehensive NAFLD score, which includes additional laboratory parameters, has enhanced discrimination ability, with an AUC of 0.86 for males and 0.91 for females. Both simple and comprehensive NAFLD scores were significantly increased in subjects with higher fatty liver grades or severity of liver conditions (e.g., simple steatosis, steatohepatitis.The new non-laboratory-based self-assessment score may be useful for identifying individuals at high-risk of NAFLD. Further studies are warranted to evaluate

  8. Japanese scoring systems to predict resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in Kawasaki disease were unreliable for Caucasian Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arane, Karen; Mendelsohn, Kerry; Mimouni, Michael; Mimouni, Francis; Koren, Yael; Simon, Dafna Brik; Bahat, Hilla; Helou, Mona Hanna; Mendelson, Amir; Hezkelo, Nofar; Glatstein, Miguel; Berkun, Yackov; Eisenstein, Eli; Aviel, Yonatan Butbul; Brik, Riva; Hashkes, Philip J; Uziel, Yosef; Harel, Liora; Amarilyo, Gil

    2018-05-24

    This study assessed the validity of using established Japanese risk scoring methods to predict intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance to Kawasaki disease in Israeli children. We reviewed the medical records of 282 patients (70% male) with Kawasaki disease from six Israeli medical centres between 2004-2013. Their mean age was 2.5 years. The risk scores were calculated using the Kobayashi, Sano and Egami scoring methods and analysed to determine if a higher risk score predicted IVIG resistance in this population. Factors that predicted a lack of response to the initial IVIG dose were identified. We found that 18% did not respond to the first IVIG dose. The three scoring methods were unable to reliably predict IVIG resistance, with sensitivities of 23-32% and specificities of 67-87%. Calculating a predictive score that was specific for this population was also unsuccessful. The factors that predicted a lacked of response to the first IVIG dose included low albumin, elevated total bilirubin and ethnicity. The established risk scoring methods created for Japanese populations with Kawasaki disease were not suitable for predicting IVIG resistance in Caucasian Israeli children and we were unable to create a specific scoring method that was able to do this. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Right mini-parasternotomy may be a good minimally invasive alternative to full sternotomy for cardiac valve operations-a propensity-adjusted analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, K M; Chen, R J; Lin, T Y; Chen, J S; Huang, J H; Huang, C Y; Chu, S H

    2014-03-26

    Limited realworld data existed for miniparasternotomy approach with good sample size in Asian cohorts and most previous studies were eclipsed by case heterogeneity. The goal of this study was to compare safety and quality outcomes of cardiac noncoronary valve operations by miniparasternotomy and full sternotomy approaches on riskadjusted basis. From our hospital database, we retrieved the cases of non-coronary valve operations from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2012, including re-do, emergent, and combined procedures. Estimated EuroScore-II and propensity score for choosing mini-parasternotomy were adjusted for in the regression models on hospital mortality, complications (pneumonia, stroke, sepsis, etc.), and quality parameters (length of stay, ICU time, ventilator time, etc.). Non-complicated cases, defined as survival to discharge, ventilator use not over one week, and intensive care unit stay not over two weeks, were used for quality parameters. There were 283 miniparasternotomy and 177 full sternotomy cases. EuroScore-II differed significantly (medians 2.1 vs. 4.7, p<0.001). Propensity scores for choosing miniparasternotomy were higher with lower EuroScore-II (OR=0.91 per 1%, p<0.001), aortic regurgitation (OR=2.3, p=0.005), and aortic non-mitral valve disease (OR=3.9, p<0.001). Adjusted for propensity score and EuroScore-II, mini-parasternotomy group had less pneumonia (OR=0.32, p=0.043), less sepsis (OR=0.31, p=0.045), and shorter non-complicated length of stay (coefficient=7.2 (day), p<0.001) than full sternotomy group, whereas Kaplan-Meier survival, non-complicated ICU time, non-complicated ventilator time, and 30-day mortality did not differ significantly. The propensity-adjusted analysis demonstrated encouraging safety and quality outcomes for mini-parasternotomy valve operation in carefully selected patients.

  10. Predicting Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease at a North American Center: An Assessment of Baseline z Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mary Beth F; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Kim, Susan; Tang, Alexander; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Fulton, David R; Lo, Mindy S; Baker, Annette L; Sundel, Robert P; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-05-31

    Accurate risk prediction of coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in North American children with Kawasaki disease remains a clinical challenge. We sought to determine the predictive utility of baseline coronary dimensions adjusted for body surface area ( z scores) for future CAAs in Kawasaki disease and explored the extent to which addition of established Japanese risk scores to baseline coronary artery z scores improved discrimination for CAA development. We explored the relationships of CAA with baseline z scores; with Kobayashi, Sano, Egami, and Harada risk scores; and with the combination of baseline z scores and risk scores. We defined CAA as a maximum z score (zMax) ≥2.5 of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery at 4 to 8 weeks of illness. Of 261 patients, 77 patients (29%) had a baseline zMax ≥2.0. CAAs occurred in 15 patients (6%). CAAs were strongly associated with baseline zMax ≥2.0 versus Baseline zMax ≥2.0 had a C statistic of 0.77, good sensitivity (80%), and excellent negative predictive value (98%). None of the risk scores alone had adequate discrimination. When high-risk status per the Japanese risk scores was added to models containing baseline zMax ≥2.0, none were significantly better than baseline zMax ≥2.0 alone. In a North American center, baseline zMax ≥2.0 in children with Kawasaki disease demonstrated high predictive utility for later development of CAA. Future studies should validate the utility of our findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. The Use of Propensity Scores in Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Booil; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; MacKinnon, David P.; Vinokur, Amiram D.

    2011-01-01

    Mediation analysis uses measures of hypothesized mediating variables to test theory for how a treatment achieves effects on outcomes and to improve subsequent treatments by identifying the most efficient treatment components. Most current mediation analysis methods rely on untested distributional and functional form assumptions for valid…

  12. The Use of Propensity Score Methods in Psychotherapy Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak (Anna); M.D. Spreeuwenberg (Marieke); H. Andrea (Helene); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); M.A. Croon (Marcel); R. Verheul (Roel); P.M.G. Emmelkamp (Paul); Th. Stijnen (Theo)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are considered the best scientific proof of effectiveness. There is increasing concern, though, about their feasibility in psychotherapy research. We discuss a quasi-experimental study design for situations in which a randomized

  13. A propensity score analysis of public incentives: The Italian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Affuso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Public support to firms has been a traditional and important industrial policy measure in many countries for several decades. One of the reasons for public intervention is the existence of market failures or imperfections. Informational asymmetries between borrowers and lenders of funds in particular are used to justify subsidies to firms, especially small and medium-sized enterprises. Within this framework, the main purpose of public subsidies is offsetting market imperfections. This paper makes a contribution to current empirical literature by examining the effects of public funding on credit rationing of small and medium-sized Italian firms. The results suggest that public subsidies reduce the probability of a firm being credit rationing.

  14. Ezetimibe decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score but not hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Young; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Oh, Hyunwoo; Saeed, Waqar Khalid; Ahn, Hyeongsik; Cheung, Ramsey C; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2018-03-20

    A number of clinical trials reported varying effects of cholesterol lowering agents in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We, therefore, assessed the changes in hepatic steatosis and NAFLD activity score (NAS) after treatment with cholesterol lowering agents in NAFLD patients by metaanalysis. The Cochrane Library, the MEDLINE, and the Embase databases were searched until May 2015, without any language restrictions, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRSs). Additional references were obtained from review of bibliography of relevant articles. The quality of evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation guidelines. Three RCTs (n = 98) and two NRSs (n = 101) met our study inclusion criteria (adult, NAFLD, liver biopsy). Liver biopsy was performed in all five studies, but only the three studies reported NAS. Ezetimibe significantly decreased NAS (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.57 to -0.03) but not hepatic steatosis in RCT (SMD, -0.1; 95% CI, -0.53 to 0.32), while the effect was significant for both NAS and intrahepatic content in NRSs (SMD, -3.0; 95% CI, -6.9 to 0.91). Ezetimibe decreased NAS without improving hepatic steatosis.

  15. Incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score for the prediction of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, Tessa S.S. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pugliese, Francesca; Mollet, Nico R.; Meijboom, W. Bob; Weustink, Annick C.; Mieghem, Carlos A.G. van; Feyter, Pim J. de [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hunink, M.G.M. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harvard University, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States)

    2010-10-15

    To validate published prediction models for the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with new onset stable typical or atypical angina pectoris and to assess the incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score (CTCS). We searched the literature for clinical prediction rules for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD, defined as {>=}50% stenosis in at least one vessel on conventional coronary angiography. Significant variables were re-analysed in our dataset of 254 patients with logistic regression. CTCS was subsequently included in the models. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess diagnostic performance. Re-analysing the variables used by Diamond and Forrester yielded an AUC of 0.798, which increased to 0.890 by adding CTCS. For Pryor, Morise 1994, Morise 1997 and Shaw the AUC increased from 0.838 to 0.901, 0.831 to 0.899, 0.840 to 0.898 and 0.833 to 0.899. CTCS significantly improved model performance in each model. Validation demonstrated good diagnostic performance across all models. CTCS improves the prediction of the presence of obstructive CAD, independent of clinical predictors, and should be considered in its diagnostic work-up. (orig.)

  16. Incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score for the prediction of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, Tessa S.S.; Pugliese, Francesca; Mollet, Nico R.; Meijboom, W. Bob; Weustink, Annick C.; Mieghem, Carlos A.G. van; Feyter, Pim J. de; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    To validate published prediction models for the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with new onset stable typical or atypical angina pectoris and to assess the incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score (CTCS). We searched the literature for clinical prediction rules for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD, defined as ≥50% stenosis in at least one vessel on conventional coronary angiography. Significant variables were re-analysed in our dataset of 254 patients with logistic regression. CTCS was subsequently included in the models. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess diagnostic performance. Re-analysing the variables used by Diamond and Forrester yielded an AUC of 0.798, which increased to 0.890 by adding CTCS. For Pryor, Morise 1994, Morise 1997 and Shaw the AUC increased from 0.838 to 0.901, 0.831 to 0.899, 0.840 to 0.898 and 0.833 to 0.899. CTCS significantly improved model performance in each model. Validation demonstrated good diagnostic performance across all models. CTCS improves the prediction of the presence of obstructive CAD, independent of clinical predictors, and should be considered in its diagnostic work-up. (orig.)

  17. Treatment in a Preventive Cardiology Clinic Utilizing Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) Effectively Closes Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) Risk Management Gaps Amongst a Primary Prevention Population Compared with a Propensity-Matched Primary Care Cohort: A Team Based Care Model and its Impact on Lipid and Blood Pressure Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanes, Emilio; Vande Hei, Anthony G; Holuby, R Scott; Suarez, Norma; Slim, Yousif; Slim, Jennifer N; Slim, Ahmad M; Thomas, Dustin

    2018-04-17

    Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) can fill access to care gaps created by physician shortages and improve adherence/compliance with preventive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) interventions. We retrospectively reviewed data on 595 patients enrolled in a preventive cardiology clinic (PCC) utilizing APPs compared with a propensity-matched cohort (PMC) of 595 patients enrolled in primary care clinics alone. PCC patients were risk stratified using Framingham risk scoring (FRS) and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and treated based on published guideline-based algorithms. Baseline demographics were well balanced between the groups. CACS was more commonly obtained in PCC patients (p<0.001) resulting in reclassification of 30.6% patients to a higher risk category, including statin therapy in 26.6% of low FRS PCC patients with CACS ≥75 th MESA percentile. Aspirin initiation was higher for high and intermediate FRS patients in the PCC (p <0.001). Post-intervention mean LDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (all p<0.05) were lower in the PCC group. Compliance with appropriate lipid treatment was higher in intermediate to high FRS patients (p=0.004) in the PCC group. Aggressive LDL and non-HDL treatment goals <70mg/dL (p=0.005) and <130mg/dL (p<0.001), respectively, were more commonly achieved in high FRS PCC patients. Median post-intervention SBP was lower amongst intermediate and low FRS patients (p=0.001 & p<0.001, respectively). Cumulatively, this resulted in a reduction in median post-intervention PCC FRS across all initial FRS risk categories (p<0.001 for all). APPs within a preventive cardiology clinic effectively risk stratify and aggressively manage ASCVD risk factors resulting in a reduction in post-intervention FRS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. A computational method for computing an Alzheimer’s Disease Progression Score; experiments and validation with the ADNI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedynak, Bruno M.; Liu, Bo; Lang, Andrew; Gel, Yulia; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the time-dependent changes of biomarkers related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a key to assessing disease progression and to measuring the outcomes of disease-modifying therapies. In this paper, we validate an Alzheimer’s disease progression score model which uses multiple biomarkers to quantify the AD progression of subjects following three assumptions: (1) there is a unique disease progression for all subjects, (2) each subject has a different age of onset and rate of progression, and (3) each biomarker is sigmoidal as a function of disease progression. Fitting the parameters of this model is a challenging problem which we approach using an alternating least squares optimization algorithm. In order to validate this optimization scheme under realistic conditions, we use the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that most of the global parameters of the model are tightly estimated, thus enabling an ordering of the biomarkers that fit the model well, ordered as: the Rey auditory verbal learning test with 30 minutes delay, the sum of the two lateral hippocampal volumes divided by the intra-cranial volume, followed by (the clinical dementia rating sum of boxes score and the mini mental state examination score) in no particular order and lastly the Alzheimer’s disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale. PMID:25444605

  19. A genetic risk score combining ten psoriasis risk loci improves disease prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyan Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin disease affecting 2-3% of Caucasians. Recent genetic association studies have identified multiple psoriasis risk loci; however, most of these loci contribute only modestly to disease risk. In this study, we investigated whether a genetic risk score (GRS combining multiple loci could improve psoriasis prediction. Two approaches were used: a simple risk alleles count (cGRS and a weighted (wGRS approach. Ten psoriasis risk SNPs were genotyped in 2815 case-control samples and 858 family samples. We found that the total number of risk alleles in the cases was significantly higher than in controls, mean 13.16 (SD 1.7 versus 12.09 (SD 1.8, p = 4.577×10(-40. The wGRS captured considerably more risk than any SNP considered alone, with a psoriasis OR for high-low wGRS quartiles of 10.55 (95% CI 7.63-14.57, p = 2.010×10(-65. To compare the discriminatory ability of the GRS models, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC. The AUC for wGRS was significantly greater than for cGRS (72.0% versus 66.5%, p = 2.13×10(-8. Additionally, the AUC for HLA-C alone (rs10484554 was equivalent to the AUC for all nine other risk loci combined (66.2% versus 63.8%, p = 0.18, highlighting the dominance of HLA-C as a risk locus. Logistic regression revealed that the wGRS was significantly associated with two subphenotypes of psoriasis, age of onset (p = 4.91×10(-6 and family history (p = 0.020. Using a liability threshold model, we estimated that the 10 risk loci account for only 11.6% of the genetic variance in psoriasis. In summary, we found that a GRS combining 10 psoriasis risk loci captured significantly more risk than any individual SNP and was associated with early onset of disease and a positive family history. Notably, only a small fraction of psoriasis heritability is captured by the common risk variants identified to date.

  20. Evaluation of a daily practice composite score for the assessment of Crohn's disease: the treatment impact of certolizumab pegol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagan, B G; Hanauer, S B; Coteur, G; Schreiber, S

    2011-05-01

    Successful treatment of systemic inflammatory symptoms is essential for improving health-related quality of life in patients with active Crohn's disease. Patient-reported outcomes provide unique perspectives on the impact of chronic disease. It is unknown whether a combination of different instruments might improve sensitivity to clinically relevant changes in health status. To develop a composite score based upon Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) items. Patients from the PRECiSE 2 trial who responded at week 6 to certolizumab pegol (CZP) were randomised to receive treatment with CZP 400 mg or placebo for up to 26 weeks. IBDQ and CDAI scores were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 16 and 26. A 'daily practice' composite score (DP-6) containing two items from the CDAI and four items from IBDQ was constructed. Correlation coefficients between the CDAI score and IBDQ total score at baseline and at week 26 were -0.344 and -0.603, respectively (Pimpact of different treatments on patient-reported outcomes, and to determine if the use of the DP-6 improves the care of patients in clinical practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Epistaxis grading in Osler's disease: comparison of comprehensive scores with detailed bleeding diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Thomas; Wolf, Axel; Frei, Klemens; Kaider, Alexandra; Riss, Dominik

    2017-03-01

    Use of reliable grading scores to measure epistaxis severity in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is essential in clinical routine and for scientific purposes. For practical reasons, visual analog scale (VAS) scoring and the Epistaxis Severity Score (ESS) are widely used. VAS scores are purely subjective, and a potential shortcoming of the ESS is that it is based on self-reported anamnestic bleeding data. The aim of this study was to validate the level of correlation between VAS scores, the ESS, and actual bleeding events, based on detailed epistaxis diaries of patients. Records from daily epistaxis diaries maintained by 16 HHT patients over 112 consecutive days were compared with the monthly ESS and daily VAS scores in the corresponding time period. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient, analysis of variance models, and multiple R 2 measures were used for statistical analysis. Although the ESS and VAS scores generally showed a high degree of correlation with actual bleeding events, mild events were underrepresented in both scores. Our results highlight the usefulness of the ESS as a standard epistaxis score in cohorts with moderate to severe degrees of epistaxis. The use of detailed epistaxis diaries should be considered when monitoring patients and cohorts with mild forms of HHT. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  3. Obesity phenotype and coronary heart disease risk as estimated by the Framingham risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Soon; Kim, Jun-Su

    2012-03-01

    There are conflicting data as to whether general or abdominal obesity is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk. This cross-sectional study involved 4,573 subjects aged 30 to 74 yr who participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2008. Obesity phenotype was classified by means of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and participants were categorized into 4 groups. Individuals' 10-yr risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) was determined from the Framingham risk score. Subjects with obese WC had a higher proportion of high risk for CHD compared to the normal WC group, irrespective of BMI level. Relative to subjects with normal BMI/normal WC, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of normal BMI/obese WC group (OR 2.93 [1.70, 5.04] and OR 3.10 [1.49, 6.46]) for CHD risk in male were higher than obese BMI/obese WC group (OR 1.91 [1.40, 2.61] and OR 1.70 [1.16, 2.47]), whereas the adjusted ORs of obese BMI/obese WC group (OR 1.94 [1.24, 3.04] and OR 3.92 [1.75, 8.78]) were higher than the others in female. Subjects with obese BMI/normal WC were not significantly associated with 10-yr CHD risk in men (P = 0.449 and P = 0.067) and women (P = 0.702 and P = 0.658). WC is associated with increased CHD risk regardless of the level of BMI. Men with normal BMI and obese WC tend to be associated with CHD risk than those with obese BMI and obese WC.

  4. Association of malnutrition-inflammation score, dialysis-malnutrition score and serum albumin with novel risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'habi, Atefeh; Tabibi, Hadi; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Nozary-Heshmati, Behnaz

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the associations between malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), dialysis-malnutrition score (DMS) and serum albumin with novel risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study, 291 HD patients were randomly selected from among 2302 adult HD patients in Tehran HD centers. The MIS and DMS were determined during one of the dialysis sessions in these patients. In addition, 4 mL blood was obtained before dialysis and analyzed for serum albumin and novel risk factors for CVD, including C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1), sE-selectin, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)]. MIS and DMS were significantly positively correlated with serum CRP (p protein-energy wasting indicators in HD patients are associated with serum CRP and sICAM-1, as two CVD risk factors.

  5. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  6. Intraobserver and interobserver variability of the bone marrow burden (BMB) score for the assessment of disease severity in Gaucher disease. Possible impact of reporting experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jeffrey K C; Robertson, Patricia L; Goh, Christine; Szer, Jeff

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver agreement for bone marrow burden (BMB) scores for individual examinations and for the change in BMB score over time in the same patient. A total of 119 sets of MR images of the lumbar spine and femora from 60 patients with Gaucher disease were included. Each set of MR images was scored using the BMB score independently by two experienced MSK radiologists. One radiologist performed a second read four weeks later. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and weighted kappa scores. BMB scores (n=119) demonstrated fair intraobserver agreement (weighted kappa=0.53) with a mean difference of -0.20 and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) of (-3.41, 3.01). Inter observer agreement was poor with weighted kappa 0.28 with mean difference of -0.16 and 95% LOA of (-4.45, 4.11). Change in BMB scores over time (n=59) demonstrated poor/fair intraobserver agreement (weighted kappa 0.41, mean difference-0.20 and 95% LOA (-4.35, 3.94)). Interobserver agreement was poor (weighted kappa 0.25, mean difference -0.12 with wide 95% LOA (-6.23, 5.99)). Significant interobserver, and to a lesser extent intraobserver, variation occurs with blinded BMB scoring of Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Circadian Rhythms in Socializing Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Phang, Chee Wei; Zeng, Xiaohua; Wang, Ximeng; Xu, Yunjie; Huang, Yun; Contractor, Noshir

    2015-01-01

    Using large-scale interaction data from a virtual world, we show that people’s propensity to socialize (forming new social connections) varies by hour of the day. We arrive at our results by longitudinally tracking people’s friend-adding activities in a virtual world. Specifically, we find that people are most likely to socialize during the evening, at approximately 8 p.m. and 12 a.m., and are least likely to do so in the morning, at approximately 8 a.m. Such patterns prevail on weekdays and weekends and are robust to variations in individual characteristics and geographical conditions. PMID:26353080

  8. Circadian Rhythms in Socializing Propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Phang, Chee Wei; Zeng, Xiaohua; Wang, Ximeng; Xu, Yunjie; Huang, Yun; Contractor, Noshir

    2015-01-01

    Using large-scale interaction data from a virtual world, we show that people's propensity to socialize (forming new social connections) varies by hour of the day. We arrive at our results by longitudinally tracking people's friend-adding activities in a virtual world. Specifically, we find that people are most likely to socialize during the evening, at approximately 8 p.m. and 12 a.m., and are least likely to do so in the morning, at approximately 8 a.m. Such patterns prevail on weekdays and weekends and are robust to variations in individual characteristics and geographical conditions.

  9. Discriminative Power of the HEART Score for Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Acute Chest Pain Patients Referred for CCTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolff, Adriana Q; Bom, Michiel J; Knol, Remco J J; van de Zant, Friso M; van der Zee, Petrus M; Cornel, Jan H

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the ability of the HEART score to predict the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) determined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its ability to predict the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients referred for CCTA after emergency department (ED) presentation. From December 2011 to August 2014, 710 ED patients with chest pain who underwent CCTA within 30 days were included. The HEART score was retrospectively calculated and patients were followed for MACE, comprised of death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization. Association of CAD at CCTA in the different categories of the HEART score was analyzed using χ test. The performance of the HEART score in discriminating between those with and without obstructive CAD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess MACE-free survival stratified by HEART-score categories. During median follow-up of 826 days (interquartile range: 563-1056), MACE occurred in 46 (6.5%) patients; 3 (0.4%) myocardial infarction, 8 (1.1%) death, and 36 (5.1%) revascularizations. A low HEART score was a significant predictor for MACE-free survival (P = 0.010). CCTA revealed obstructive CAD in 11.7% of patients, with no significant difference between patients with a low and intermediate/high HEART score, respectively 10.7% and 13.2% (P = 0.29). The ability of the HEART score to identify obstructive CAD was poor with an AUC of the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.53. The HEART score does not adequately identify patients with obstructive CAD at CCTA. It does however predict occurrence of MACE in medium-term follow-up. Excluding patients from additional testing based solely on a low HEART score may lead to suboptimal patient management. CCTA had important implications on patient management and may be a more appropriate tool to further stratify risk in ED chest pain patients.

  10. Correlation between overactive bladder symptom score and neuropsychological parameters in Alzheimer’s disease patients with lower urinary tract symptom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores. PMID:27802001

  11. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  12. Classification of Airflow Limitation Based on z-Score Underestimates Mortality in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Elena; Prats, Eva; Casitas, Raquel; Galera, Raúl; Pardo, Paloma; Gavilán, Adelaida; Martínez-Cerón, Elisabet; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Del Peso, Luis; García-Río, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Global Lung Function Initiative recommends reporting lung function measures as z-score, and a classification of airflow limitation (AL) based on this parameter has recently been proposed. To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the AL classifications based on z-score or percentage predicted of FEV 1 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 2,614 patients with COPD recruited outside the hospital setting was examined after a mean (± SD) of 57 ± 13 months of follow-up, totaling 10,322 person-years. All-cause mortality was analyzed, evaluating the predictive capacity of several AL staging systems. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, 461 patients (17.6%) had mild, 1,452 (55.5%) moderate, 590 (22.6%) severe, and 111 (4.2%) very severe AL. According to z-score classification, 66.3% of patients remained with the same severity, whereas 23.7% worsened and 10.0% improved. Unlike other staging systems, patients with severe AL according to z-score had higher mortality than those with very severe AL (increase of risk by 5.2 and 3.9 times compared with mild AL, respectively). The predictive capacity for 5-year survival was slightly higher for FEV 1 expressed as percentage of predicted than as z-score (area under the curve: 0.714-0.760 vs. 0.649-0.708, respectively). A severity-dependent relationship between AL grades by z-score and mortality was only detected in patients younger than age 60 years. In patients with COPD, the AL classification based on z-score predicts worse mortality than those based on percentage of predicted. It is possible that the z-score underestimates AL severity in patients older than 60 years of age with severe functional impairment.

  13. Prognostic Value of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Compared with Risk Scores in Stable Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Moritz; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Kuhner, Manuel; Zelniker, Thomas; Mueller-Hennessen, Matthias; Vafaie, Mehrshad; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Hochholzer, Willibald; Katus, Hugo A

    2017-05-01

    Risk stratification of patients with cardiovascular disease remains challenging despite consideration of risk scores. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in a low-risk outpatient population presenting for nonsecondary and secondary prevention. All-cause mortality, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke (end point 2), and a composite of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke and rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, and decompensated heart failure (end point 3) were defined. The prognostic performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T on index visit was compared with the PROCAM score and 3 FRAMINGHAM subscores. In 693 patients with a median follow-up of 796 days, we observed 16 deaths, 32 patients with end point 2, and 83 patients with end point 3. All risk scores performed better in the prediction of all-cause mortality in nonsecondary prevention (area under the curve [AUC]: PROCAM: 0.922 vs 0.523, P = .001, consistent for all other scores). In secondary prevention, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T outperformed all risk scores in the prediction of all-cause mortality (ΔAUC: PROCAM: 0.319, P risk scores. Our findings on the prediction of all-cause mortality compared with the FRAMINGHAM-Hard Coronary Heart Disease score were confirmed in an independent validation cohort on 2046 patients. High-sensitivity troponin T provides excellent risk stratification regarding all-cause mortality and all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke in a secondary prevention cohort in whom risk scores perform poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Finger Tapping Clinimetric Score Prediction in Parkinson's Disease Using Low-Cost Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Stamatakis

    2013-01-01

    algorithm were used to identify the most relevant features in the prediction of MDS-UPDRS FT scores, given by 3 specialists in movement disorders (SMDs. The Goodman-Kruskal Gamma index obtained (0.961, depicting the predictive performance of the model, is similar to those obtained between the individual scores given by the SMD (0.870 to 0.970. The automatic prediction of MDS-UPDRS scores using the proposed system may be valuable in clinical trials designed to evaluate and modify motor disability in PD patients.

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores corresponding to modified Medical Research Council grades among COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus COPD patients, the percentages of patients classified into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores COPD patients.

  16. A Study of Correlation of Neck Circumference with Framingham Risk Score as a Predictor of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppad, Anand K; Kaulgud, Ram S; Arun, B S

    2017-09-01

    It has been observed that metabolic syndrome is risk factor for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and exerts its effects through fat deposition and vascular aging. CAD has been acknowledged as a leading cause of death. In earlier studies, the metabolic risk has been estimated by Framingham risk score. Recent studies have shown that Neck Circumference (NC) has a good correlation with other traditional anthropometric measurements and can be used as marker of obesity. It also correlates with Framingham risk score, which is slightly more sophisticated measure of CAD risk. To assess the risk of CAD in a subject based on NC and to correlate the NC to Framingham risk score. The present cross-sectional study, done at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, Karnataka, India, includes 100 subjects. The study duration was of one year from 1 st January 2015 to 31 st December 2015. Anthropometric indices Body Mass Index (BMI) and NC were correlated with 10 year CAD risk as calculated by Framingham risk score. The correlation between BMI, NC, vascular age and Framingham risk score was calculated using Karl Pearson's correlation method. NC has a strong correlation with 10 year CAD risk (p≤0.001). NC was significantly greater in males as compared to females (p≤0.001). Males had greater risk of cardiovascular disease as reflected by higher 10 year Framingham risk score (p≤0.0035). NC gives simple and easy prediction of CAD risk and is more reliable than traditional risk markers like BMI. NC correlates positively with 10 year Framingham risk score.

  17. Depressive symptoms predict future simple disease activity index scores and simple disease activity index remission in a prospective cohort of patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc-Trudeau, Charlotte; Dobkin, Patricia L; Carrier, Nathalie; Cossette, Pierre; de Brum-Fernandes, Artur J; Liang, Patrick; Masetto, Ariel; Boire, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether depressive symptoms assessed in treated patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis (EPA) influence disease activity during follow-up. Consecutively recruited EPA patients were actively treated to remission. Simple disease activity index (SDAI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores were calculated at inclusion and up to 42 months into disease. SDAI scores were log-transformed to compute univariate and multivariate linear regressions. Parametric interval-censored Kaplan-Meier and survival regressions using Weibull distribution were used to assess time to and predictors of SDAI remission. A total of 275 EPA patients were recruited at a median of 4 months into disease. In multivariate linear regression models, accounting for baseline demographic, clinical, serological and functional variables and 12-month inflammation markers, CES-D scores at 12 months into disease were correlated (r(2) = 0.14) with subsequent SDAI scores. Patients with 12-month high CES-D (≥19; suggestive of depression) had a lower proportion of SDAI remission (31.3% vs 84.3%; P < 0.001) and reached SDAI remission less rapidly [hazard ratio = 0.25 (95% CI 0.12, 0.53); P < 0.001]. Each follow-up SDAI correlated significantly with 12-month depressive symptoms, a median of 7 months after initiation of treatment. CES-D scores suggestive of depression at 12 months were strongly correlated with delay and failure to reach remission later on. Depressive symptoms in treated EPA patients represent important clinical issues with long-term association with disease activity. Interventions to alleviate persistent depressive symptoms in treated EPA warrant careful evaluation of their potential to improve disease remission rates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A novel risk score to predict cardiovascular disease risk in national populations (Globorisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Ueda, Peter; Lu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors based on disease risk depends on valid risk prediction equations. We aimed to develop, and apply in example countries, a risk prediction equation for cardiovascular disease (consisting here of coronary heart disease and stroke) that can be reca...

  19. Neuropsychological profile in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jin; Zheng, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Cao, Hongmei; Qin, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments have been reported to be more common in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and education levels play an important role in intelligence. The studies on cognitive impairments in Chinese PD patients with higher education levels and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score (MMSE) have not been reported. We enrolled 69 consecutive PD patients with over 6 years education levels and a MMSE score above 24 (of 30) and performed a battery of neuropsychological scales. There are extensive cognitive domain impairments in PD patients with "normal" global cognitive according to MMSE. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a highly sensitive scale to screen cognitive impairments in PD. The cutoff score of 28 on the MMSE screening for cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients with high education levels may be more appropriate.

  20. Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold versus everolimus-eluting metallic stent in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 1-year results of a propensity score matching comparison: the BVS-EXAMINATION Study (bioresorbable vascular scaffold-a clinical evaluation of everolimus eluting coronary stents in the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugaletta, Salvatore; Gori, Tommaso; Low, Adrian F; Tousek, Petr; Pinar, Eduardo; Gomez-Lara, Josep; Scalone, Giancarla; Schulz, Eberhard; Chan, Mark Y; Kocka, Viktor; Hurtado, Jose; Gomez-Hospital, Juan Antoni; Münzel, Thomas; Lee, Chi-Hang; Cequier, Angel; Valdés, Mariano; Widimsky, Petr; Serruys, Patrick W; Sabaté, Manel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the 1-year outcome between bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) and everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. The Absorb BVS (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) is a polymeric scaffold approved for treatment of stable coronary lesions. Limited and not randomized data are available on its use in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. This study included 290 consecutive STEMI patients treated by BVS, compared with either 290 STEMI patients treated with EES or 290 STEMI patients treated with bare-metal stents (BMS) from the EXAMINATION (A Clinical Evaluation of Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stents in the Treatment of Patients With ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction) trial, by applying propensity score matching. The primary endpoint was a device-oriented endpoint (DOCE), including cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization, at 1-year follow-up. Device thrombosis, according to the Academic Research Consortium criteria, was also evaluated. The cumulative incidence of DOCE did not differ between the BVS and EES or BMS groups either at 30 days (3.1% vs. 2.4%, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48 to 3.52], p = 0.593; vs. 2.8%, HR: 1.15 [95% CI: 0.44 to 2.30], p = 0.776, respectively) or at 1 year (4.1% vs. 4.1%, HR: 0.99 [95% CI: 0.23 to 4.32], p = 0.994; vs. 5.9%, HR: 0.50 [95% CI: 0.13 to 1.88], p = 0.306, respectively). Definite/probable BVS thrombosis rate was numerically higher either at 30 days (2.1% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.059; vs. 1.0%, p = 0.324, respectively) or at 1 year (2.4% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.948; vs. 1.7%, p = 0.825, respectively), as compared with EES or BMS. At 1-year follow-up, STEMI patients treated with BVS showed similar rates of DOCE compared with STEMI patients treated with EES or BMS, although rate of scaffolds thrombosis, mostly clustered in the early phase

  1. Conversion between mini-mental state examination, montreal cognitive assessment, and dementia rating scale-2 scores in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenoven, Inger; Aarsland, Dag; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E; Rick, Jacqueline; Chahine, Lama M; Dahodwala, Nabila; Trojanowski, John Q; Roalf, David R; Moberg, Paul J; Weintraub, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest, most common, and most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, routine screening of global cognitive abilities is important for the optimal management of PD patients. Few global cognitive screening instruments have been developed for or validated in PD patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) have been used extensively for cognitive screening in both clinical and research settings. Determining how to convert the scores between instruments would facilitate the longitudinal assessment of cognition in clinical settings and the comparison and synthesis of cognitive data in multicenter and longitudinal cohort studies. The primary aim of this study was to apply a simple and reliable algorithm for the conversion of MoCA to MMSE scores in PD patients. A secondary aim was to apply this algorithm for the conversion of DRS-2 to both MMSE and MoCA scores. The cognitive performance of a convenience sample of 360 patients with idiopathic PD was assessed by at least two of these cognitive screening instruments. We then developed conversion scores between the MMSE, MoCA, and DRS-2 using equipercentile equating and log-linear smoothing. The conversion score tables reported here enable direct and easy comparison of three routinely used cognitive screening assessments in PD patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated With Cognitive Decline In Executive Function In Patients With Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Uiterwijk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a total SVD score was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4 in each patient. Results: Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (p=0.017, executive functioning (p<0.001 and information processing speed (p=0.037, but not with memory (p=0.911. The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group and baseline cognitive performance.Conclusions: Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.

  3. Serum interleukin-18 and interleukin-10 levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with SLEDAI score and disease activity parameters