WorldWideScience

Sample records for disease mortality rates

  1. Gumboro Disease Outbreaks Cause High Mortality Rates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectious bursal disease is a disease of economic importance which affects all types of chickens and causes variable mortality. ... Thirty nine outbreak farms (5 keeping broilers, 19 keeping layers and 15 keeping indigenous flock) were visited; vaccination history collected, clinical signs observed, flock size and number of ...

  2. Geographic Variability in Liver Disease Related Mortality Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Archita P; Mohan, Prashanthinie; Roubal, Anne M; Bettencourt, Ricki; Loomba, Rohit

    2018-02-26

    Liver disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (US). Geographic variations in the burden of chronic liver disease may have significant impact on public health policies but have not been explored at the national level. The objective of this study is to examine inter-state variability in liver disease mortality in the US. We compared liver disease mortality from the 2010 National Vital Statistics Report on a state level. States in each quartile of liver disease mortality were compared with regard to viral hepatitis death rates, alcohol consumption, obesity, ethnic and racial composition, and household income. Race, ethnicity, and median household income data was derived from the 2010 US Census. Alcohol consumption and obesity data was obtained from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. We found significant inter-state variability in liver disease mortality, ranging from 6.4 to 17.0 per 100,000. The South and Mid-West carry the highest rates of liver disease mortality. In addition to viral hepatitis death rates, there is a strong correlation between higher percent Hispanic population and a state's liver disease mortality rate (r = 0.538, p< 0.001). Greater racial diversity (p < 0.001) and lower household income (r = 0.405, p=0.003) was associated with the higher liver disease mortality. While there was a trend between higher obesity rates and higher liver disease mortality, the correlation was not strong and there was no clear association between alcohol consumption and liver disease mortality rates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Contribution of climate and air pollution to variation in coronary heart disease mortality rates in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999-2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment--temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (pclimate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England.

  4. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2018-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.

  5. Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration-related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.; Egenvall, A.; Hagman, R.; Gustas, P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.; Meij, B.P.; Lagerstedt, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association June 1, 2012, Vol. 240, No. 11, Pages 1300-1309 doi: 10.2460/javma.240.11.1300 Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration–related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs Niklas Bergknut, Dr med vet, PhD; Agneta Egenvall, Dr

  6. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in New Zealand 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maize C; Chancellor, Andrew; Charleston, Alison; Dragunow, Mike; Scotter, Emma L

    2018-05-01

    We determined the mortality rates of motor neuron disease (MND) in New Zealand over 22 years from 1992 to 2013. Previous studies have found an unusually high and/or increasing incidence of MND in certain regions of New Zealand; however, no studies have examined MND rates nationwide to corroborate this. Death certificate data coded G12.2 by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 coding, or 335.2 by ICD-9 coding were obtained. These codes specify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar palsy, or other motor neuron diseases as the underlying cause of death. Mortality rates for MND deaths in New Zealand were age-standardized to the European Standard Population and compared with rates from international studies that also examined death certificate data and were age-standardized to the same standard population. The age-standardized mortality from MND in New Zealand was 2.3 per 100,000 per year from 1992-2007 and 2.8 per 100,000 per year from 2008-2013. These rates were 3.3 and 4.0 per 100,000 per year, respectively, for the population 20 years and older. The increase in rate between these two time periods was likely due to changes in MND death coding from 2008. Contrary to a previous regional study of MND incidence, nationwide mortality rates did not increase steadily over this time period once aging was accounted for. However, New Zealand MND mortality rate was higher than comparable studies we examined internationally (mean 1.67 per 100,000 per year), suggesting that further analysis of MND burden in New Zealand is warranted.

  7. Self-rated Health and Mortality due to Kidney Diseases: Racial Differences in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the role of self-rated health (SRH on all-cause mortality is known, we still do not know whether SRH predicts death due to specific causes (e.g., kidney disease. The current study aimed to compare Blacks and Whites on the association between SRH and mortality due to kidney diseases. A nationally representative sample of adults in the United States was used to provide generalizable results to the United States population. Materials and Methods: The Americans' Changing Lives study is a nationally representative cohort, conducted from 1986–2011. The study followed 3361 Blacks (n = 1156 and Whites (n = 2205 for up to 25 years. The outcome was time to death due to kidney diseases, derived from death certificates and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether race and baseline SRH interact on mortality due to kidney diseases. Results: In the pooled sample, poor SRH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24–4.24 was associated with an increased risk of death due to kidney diseases over the follow-up period. Baseline SRH also showed a significant interaction with race on the outcome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25–0.96, suggesting a stronger effect of SRH on deaths due to kidney diseases for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, poor SRH at baseline increased risk of death due to kidney diseases among Whites (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.14–4.34 but not Blacks (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.54–2.41. Conclusions: Blacks and Whites differ regarding the predictive role of baseline SRH on death due to kidney diseases over time. Factors such as SRH better predict risk of mortality for Whites than for Blacks.

  8. Self-rated Health and Mortality due to Kidney Diseases: Racial Differences in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2018-01-01

    Although the role of self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality is known, we still do not know whether SRH predicts death due to specific causes (e.g., kidney disease). The current study aimed to compare Blacks and Whites on the association between SRH and mortality due to kidney diseases. A nationally representative sample of adults in the United States was used to provide generalizable results to the United States population. The Americans' Changing Lives study is a nationally representative cohort, conducted from 1986-2011. The study followed 3361 Blacks ( n = 1156) and Whites ( n = 2205) for up to 25 years. The outcome was time to death due to kidney diseases, derived from death certificates and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether race and baseline SRH interact on mortality due to kidney diseases. In the pooled sample, poor SRH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24-4.24) was associated with an increased risk of death due to kidney diseases over the follow-up period. Baseline SRH also showed a significant interaction with race on the outcome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.96), suggesting a stronger effect of SRH on deaths due to kidney diseases for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, poor SRH at baseline increased risk of death due to kidney diseases among Whites (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.14-4.34) but not Blacks (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.54-2.41). Blacks and Whites differ regarding the predictive role of baseline SRH on death due to kidney diseases over time. Factors such as SRH better predict risk of mortality for Whites than for Blacks.

  9. Self-rated Health and Mortality due to Kidney Diseases: Racial Differences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although the role of self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality is known, we still do not know whether SRH predicts death due to specific causes (e.g., kidney disease). The current study aimed to compare Blacks and Whites on the association between SRH and mortality due to kidney diseases. A nationally representative sample of adults in the United States was used to provide generalizable results to the United States population. Materials and Methods: The Americans’ Changing Lives study is a nationally representative cohort, conducted from 1986–2011. The study followed 3361 Blacks (n = 1156) and Whites (n = 2205) for up to 25 years. The outcome was time to death due to kidney diseases, derived from death certificates and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether race and baseline SRH interact on mortality due to kidney diseases. Results: In the pooled sample, poor SRH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24–4.24) was associated with an increased risk of death due to kidney diseases over the follow-up period. Baseline SRH also showed a significant interaction with race on the outcome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25–0.96), suggesting a stronger effect of SRH on deaths due to kidney diseases for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, poor SRH at baseline increased risk of death due to kidney diseases among Whites (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.14–4.34) but not Blacks (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.54–2.41). Conclusions: Blacks and Whites differ regarding the predictive role of baseline SRH on death due to kidney diseases over time. Factors such as SRH better predict risk of mortality for Whites than for Blacks. PMID:29456975

  10. Coronary artery disease is associated with an increased mortality rate following video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandri, Alberto; Petersen, Rene Horsleben; Decaluwé, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy in patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Multicentre retrospective analysis of 1699 patients undergoing VATS lobectomy...

  11. Community-based incidence rate of cardiovascular disease and mortality in 50-75 year old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, A; Bascuñana-Quirell, A; Elvira-González, J; Beltrán-Robles, M; Aboza-Lobatón, A; Solís-Díaz, R

    2013-01-01

    Updated information on the incidence of the principal cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality is not available in Spain. We have studied the incidence rate of new cases of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke and cardiovascular mortality in the adult population in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain). A community-based prospective follow-up study was conducted. The study enrolled 858 participants aged 50-75 years who were randomly selected from the population and followed-up for 5 years. Age and gender-adjusted incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality were calculated, obtaining complete information for 855 participants. Prognostic risk factors of new cases of cardiovascular disease were obtained using Cox proportional hazard modeling. The community-based incidence rate of heart failure was 455/100.000 persons-year. The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality (506, 216 and 225/100.000 persons-year, respectively) was also very elevated. Male gender, family history of early cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and sedentary life style were independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The community-based incidence rate of heart failure in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain) is very high, and it is the first to be reported in Spain. The incidence of myocardial infarction is among the highest in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Pesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age–period–cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men or increasing (in women, the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was −3.6% in men and −2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy.

  13. Gallstone disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cohort study was to determine whether subjects with gallstone disease identified by screening of a general population had increased overall mortality when compared to gallstone-free participants and to explore causes of death. METHODS: The study population (N...... built. RESULTS: Gallstone disease was present in 10%. Mortality was 46% during median 24.7 years of follow-up with 1% lost. Overall mortality and death from cardiovascular diseases were significantly associated to gallstone disease. Death from unknown causes was significantly associated to gallstone...... disease and death from cancer and gastrointestinal disease was not associated. No differences in mortality for ultrasound-proven gallstones or cholecystectomy were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Gallstone disease is associated with increased overall mortality and to death from cardiovascular disease. Gallstones...

  14. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astor, Brad C; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2011-01-01

    We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected...

  15. Resting Heart Rate is a Predictor of Mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of high heart rate in COPD is unexplored.We investigated the association between resting heart rate (RHR), pulmonary function, and prognosis in subjects with COPD.16,696 subjects above 40 years from The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective study of the general...... population, followed for 35.3 years, 10,986 deaths occurring. Analyses were performed using time-dependent Cox-models and net reclassification index (NRI).RHR increased with severity of COPD (pcardiovascular and all-cause mortality across all stages of COPD (p... stage, (categorical NRI 4.9%, p=0.01; categoryless NRI 23.0%, pvariable that improves risk prediction in patients with COPD...

  16. Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in the Slovak Republic between 1993-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Psota

    Full Text Available Between the years 1993 and 2008, mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD in the Slovak Republic have decreased by almost one quarter. However, this was a smaller decline than in neighbouring countries. The aim of this modelling study was therefore to quantify the contributions of risk factor changes and the use of evidence-based medical therapies to the CHD mortality decline between 1993 and 2008.We identified, obtained and scrutinised the data required for the model. These data detailed trends in the major population cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes prevalence, body mass index (BMI and physical activity levels, and also the uptake of all standard CHD treatments. The main data sources were official statistics (National Health Information Centre and Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic and national representative studies (AUDIT, SLOVAKS, SLOVASeZ, CINDI, EHES, EHIS. The previously validated IMPACT policy model was then used to combine and integrate these data with effect sizes from published meta-analyses quantifying the effectiveness of specific evidence-based treatments, and population-wide changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Results were expressed as deaths prevented or postponed (DPPs attributable to risk factor changes or treatments. Uncertainties were explored using sensitivity analyses.Between 1993 and 2008 age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in the Slovak Republic (SR decreased by 23% in men and 26% in women aged 25-74 years. This represented some 1820 fewer CHD deaths in 2008 than expected if mortality rates had not fallen. The IMPACT model explained 91% of this mortality decline. Approximately 50% of the decline was attributable to changes in acute phase and secondary prevention treatments, particularly acute and chronic treatments for heart failure (≈12%, acute coronary syndrome treatments (≈9% and secondary prevention following AMI and revascularisation (≈8

  17. Amniotic fluid embolism mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) using population-based studies and case series. A literature search was conducted using the two key words: 'amniotic fluid embolism (AFE)' AND 'mortality rate'. Thirteen population-based studies were evaluated, as well as 36 case series including at least two patients. The mortality rate from population-based studies varied from 11% to 44%. When nine population-based studies with over 17 000 000 live births were aggregated, the maternal mortality rate was 20.4%. In contrast, the mortality rate of AFE in case series varies from 0% to 100% with numerous rates in between. The AFE mortality rate in population-based studies varied from 11% to 44% with the best available evidence supporting an overall mortality rate of 20.4%. Data from case series should no longer be used as a basis for describing the lethality of AFE. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Is Predictive of Interstitial Lung Disease and Mortality in Dermatomyositis: a Korean Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of death in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). This study was aimed to examine the utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as a predictor of ILD and prognostic marker of mortality in patients with DM. One hundred-and-fourteen patients with DM were examined, including 28 with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM). A diagnosis of ILD was made based on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. The association between elevated ESR and pulmonary impairment and mortality was then examined. ILD was diagnosed in 53 (46.5%) of 114 DM patients. Cancer was diagnosed in 2 (3.8%) of 53 DM patients with ILD and in 24 (92.3%) of those without ILD (P < 0.001). The median ESR (50.0 mm/hour) in patients with ILD was significantly higher than that in patients without ILD (29.0 mm/hour; P < 0.001). ESR was inversely correlated with forced vital capacity (Spearman ρ = - 0.303; P = 0.007) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (ρ = - 0.319; P = 0.006). DM patients with baseline ESR ≥ 30 mm/hour had significantly higher mortality than those with ESR < 30 mm/hour (P = 0.002, log-rank test). Patients with a persistently high ESR despite immunosuppressive therapy was associated with higher mortality than those with a normalized ESR (P = 0.039, log-rank test). Elevated ESR is associated with increased mortality in patients with DM due to respiratory failure. Thus, monitoring ESR should be an integral part of the clinical care of DM patients. PMID:26955239

  19. Mortality rate in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in Crisis at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haematology Day Care Unit (HDCU) of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was established in 1975 with the main goal of providing immediate and specialized care to haematological emergencies, particularly sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Since inception, a systematic analysis of its effectiveness has ...

  20. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    increased non-significantly with 7% for every 10 beats/minute increase in resting heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.07 [0.96-1.18], p = 0.208). CONCLUSIONS: Increased resting heart rate is a strong and independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in elderly patients with COPD. An increased resting heart rate...... did not result in an increased risk of exacerbations or pneumonia. This may indicate that the increased mortality risk of COPD is related to non-pulmonary causes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate whether heart-rate lowering agents are worthwhile for COPD patients....... and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia) by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: During the follow-up 132 (33%) patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42-59). The major causes of death were...

  1. Differences in coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer mortality rates between England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: the role of diet and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Morgan, Robert David; Webster, Premila; Rayner, Mike

    2011-11-03

    Introduction It is unclear how much of the geographical variation in coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cancer mortality rates within the UK is associated with diet. The aim of this study is to estimate how many deaths from CHD, stroke and cancer would be delayed or averted if Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland adopted a diet equivalent in nutritional quality to the English diet. Methods Mortality data for CHD, stroke and 10 diet-related cancers for 2007-2009 were used to calculate the mortality gap (the difference between actual mortality and English mortality rates) for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Estimates of mean national consumption of 10 dietary factors were used as baseline and counterfactual inputs in a macrosimulation model (DIETRON). An uncertainty analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation with 5000 iterations. Results The mortality gap in the modelled scenario (achieving the English diet) was reduced by 81% (95% credible intervals: 62% to 108%) for Wales, 40% (33% to 51%) for Scotland and 81% (67% to 99%) for Northern Ireland, equating to approximately 3700 deaths delayed or averted annually. For CHD only, the mortality gap was reduced by 88% (69% to 118%) for Wales, 58% (47% to 72%) for Scotland, and 88% (70% to 111%) for Northern Ireland. Conclusion Improving the average diet in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to a level already achieved in England could have a substantial impact on reducing geographical variations in chronic disease mortality rates in the UK. Much of the mortality gap between Scotland and England is explained by non-dietary risk factors.

  2. Diabetic foot ulcer carries high amputation and mortality rates, particularly in the presence of advanced age, peripheral artery disease and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael Henrique Rodrigues; Cardoso, Natália Anício; Procópio, Ricardo Jayme; Navarro, Túlio Pinho; Dardik, Alan; de Loiola Cisneros, Ligia

    2017-12-01

    Foot ulcer is also a clinical marker for limb amputation and for death in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine amputation and mortality rates and its associated factors in patients with diabetic foot ulcerations in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Retrospective medical records from 654 diabetic foot patients were reviewed. The risk factors were determined using the conditional logistic regression model analysis. The mean patient age was 63.1 years (SD 12.20). Peripheral arterial disease was present in 160 patients (24.5%). Major amputations were performed in 135 (21%). The in-hospital mortality rate was 12% and the mortality rate of the amputees was 22.2%. The lowest hemoglobin level, the median value was 9.50g/dL, (4.0-17.0). Anemia was detected in 89.6% of patients submitted to amputation and in 82,1% of those who died. Hemoglobin foot ulcer is associated with high amputation and mortality rates. Old age, peripheral arterial disease and low hemoglobin level are risk factor for major amputation. Old age, major amputation and low hemoglobin level are risk factors for death. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Stenager, E; Stenager, E

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: After the introduction of L-dopa the mortality rate in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has changed, but is still higher than in the background population. MATERIAL & METHODS: Mortality, age at death and cause of death in a group of PD patients compared with the background population...

  4. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Proteinuria, and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-cause Mortality in Diabetic Population: a Community-based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anxin; Chen, Guojuan; Cao, Yibin; Liu, Xiaoxue; Su, Zhaoping; Luo, Yanxia; Zhao, Zhan; Li, Xia; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Xiuhua

    2017-01-01

    Data about associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and all-cause mortality among diabetic population is less described. We aimed to describe these associations in Chinese diabetic population, and investigate the difference between sexes. The study was based on 8,301 diabetic participants in the Kailuan study, who was free of CVDs at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the associations of eGFR ...

  5. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  6. Glucose patterns during an oral glucose tolerance test and associations with future diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Vistisen, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: In addition to blood glucose concentrations measured in the fasting state and 2 h after an OGTT, intermediate measures during an OGTT may provide additional information regarding a person’s risk of future diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). First, we aimed to characterise...... heterogeneity of glycaemic patterns based on three time points during an OGTT. Second, we compared the incidences of diabetes and CVD and all-cause mortality rates among those with different patterns. Methods: Our cohort study included 5861 participants without diabetes at baseline from the Danish Inter99 study....... At baseline, all participants underwent an OGTT with measurements of plasma glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min. Latent class mixed-effects models were fitted to identify distinct patterns of glycaemic response during the OGTT. Information regarding incident diabetes, CVD and all-cause mortality rates during...

  7. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  8. Trends in Hospitalization and Mortality Rates Due to Acute Cardiovascular Disease in Castile and León, 2001 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Messa, Juan B; Andrés-de Llano, Jesús M; López-Fernández, Laura; García-Cruces, Jesús; García-Crespo, Julio; Prieto González, Miryam

    2018-02-01

    To analyze hospitalization and mortality rates due to acute cardiovascular disease (ACVD). We conducted a cross-sectional study of the hospital discharge database of Castile and León from 2001 to 2015, selecting patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina, heart failure, or acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Trends in the rates of hospitalization/100 000 inhabitants/y and hospital mortality/1000 hospitalizations/y, overall and by sex, were studied by joinpoint regression analysis. A total of 239 586 ACVD cases (AMI 55 004; unstable angina 15 406; heart failure 111 647; AIS 57 529) were studied. The following statistically significant trends were observed: hospitalization: ACVD, upward from 2001 to 2007 (5.14; 95%CI, 3.5-6.8; P < .005), downward from 2011 to 2015 (3.7; 95%CI, 1.0-6.4; P < .05); unstable angina, downward from 2001 to 2010 (-12.73; 95%CI, -14.8 to -10.6; P < .05); AMI, upward from 2001 to 2003 (15.6; 95%CI, 3.8-28.9; P < .05), downward from 2003 to 2015 (-1.20; 95%CI, -1.8 to -0.6; P < .05); heart failure, upward from 2001 to 2007 (10.70; 95%CI, 8.7-12.8; P < .05), upward from 2007 to 2015 (1.10; 95%CI, 0.1-2.1; P < .05); AIS, upward from 2001 to 2007 (4.44; 95%CI, 2.9-6.0; P < .05). Mortality rates: downward from 2001 to 2015 in ACVD (-1.16; 95%CI, -2.1 to -0.2; P < .05), AMI (-3.37, 95%CI, -4.4 to -2, 3, P < .05), heart failure (-1.25; 95%CI, -2.3 to -0.1; P < .05) and AIS (-1.78; 95%CI, -2.9 to -0.6; P < .05); unstable angina, upward from 2001 to 2007 (24.73; 95%CI, 14.2-36.2; P < .05). The ACVD analyzed showed a rising trend in hospitalization rates from 2001 to 2015, which was especially marked for heart failure, and a decreasing trend in hospital mortality rates, which were similar in men and women. These data point to a stabilization and a decline in hospital mortality, attributable to established prevention measures. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by

  9. Incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of malaria in Ethiopia from 1990 to 2015: analysis of the global burden of diseases 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribew, Amare; Dejene, Tariku; Kebede, Biruck; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Misganaw, Awoke; Gebre, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Shafi, Oumer; Abera, Semaw F; Negussu, Nebiyu; Mengistu, Belete; Amare, Azmeraw T; Mulugeta, Abate; Mengistu, Birhan; Tadesse, Zerihun; Sileshi, Mesfin; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Glenn, Scott D; Deribe, Kebede; Stanaway, Jeffrey D

    2017-07-04

    In Ethiopia there is no complete registration system to measure disease burden and risk factors accurately. In this study, the 2015 global burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors (GBD) data were used to analyse the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of malaria in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. GBD 2015 used verbal autopsy surveys, reports, and published scientific articles to estimate the burden of malaria in Ethiopia. Age and gender-specific causes of death for malaria were estimated using cause of death ensemble modelling. The number of new cases of malaria declined from 2.8 million [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 1.4-4.5 million] in 1990 to 621,345 (95% UI 462,230-797,442) in 2015. Malaria caused an estimated 30,323 deaths (95% UI 11,533.3-61,215.3) in 1990 and 1561 deaths (95% UI 752.8-2660.5) in 2015, a 94.8% reduction over the 25 years. Age-standardized mortality rate of malaria has declined by 96.5% between 1990 and 2015 with an annual rate of change of 13.4%. Age-standardized malaria incidence rate among all ages and gender declined by 88.7% between 1990 and 2015. The number of disability-adjusted life years lost (DALY) due to malaria decreased from 2.2 million (95% UI 0.76-4.7 million) in 1990 to 0.18 million (95% UI 0.12-0.26 million) in 2015, with a total reduction 91.7%. Similarly, age-standardized DALY rate declined by 94.8% during the same period. Ethiopia has achieved a 50% reduction target of malaria of the millennium development goals. The country should strengthen its malaria control and treatment strategies to achieve the sustainable development goals.

  10. Mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Stenager, E; Stenager, E

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: After the introduction of L-dopa the mortality rate in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has changed, but is still higher than in the background population. MATERIAL & METHODS: Mortality, age at death and cause of death in a group of PD patients compared with the background population....... In the background population the median age at death was 80.69 years for men and 84.37 years for women. The SMR for men was 1.92 and for women 2.47. Infections, in particular lung infections, and heart diseases were the most common causes of death. Seventy percent of the death certificates had PD as a diagnosis....... CONCLUSION: It is likely that several factors can influence the changed mortality of PD: more effective treatment, changing diagnostic practice, and inter-disease competition....

  11. Production constraints and mortality rate in poultry farms in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that farmers faced severe production limitations particularly disease infestation with a mean value of 4.64, high feed cost (x = 3.98), prevalence of ineffective drugs (x = 3.74) and seasonal glut (x = 3.70). Mortality rate in the poultry farms was high with a percentage of 47%, largely caused by disease infection (x ...

  12. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates consists of estimates of infant mortality rates for the year 2000. The infant mortality rate for a region or country is...

  13. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Investigation Of Obesity-Related Mortality Rates In Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Wentzien, Derald E; Bautista, Riza C; Gross, Catherine C

    2017-06-01

    As Delaware's adult obesity crisis continues to be a leading public health concern, we evaluated Delaware's 1999-2014 vital records to examine the association between obesity and mortality. We used the Delaware population death records from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database and the Delaware Health Statistics Center (DHSC). Together with the vital records, we incorporated Microsoft Excel, SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and GIS (geographic information system) tools to analyze obesity influences from county residence, economic status, education, gender, and race. Using the 15-year (1999-2014) time span with the CDC WONDER database, we observed a statistically significant 28.7% increase in the age-adjusted Delaware obesity-related mortality rates (where obesity was a contributory factor). Furthermore, obesity influenced death counts in all three Delaware counties (New Castle, Kent, and Sussex). Kent County experienced the largest increase (66.0%), followed by New Castle County (47.4%), and Sussex County (25.2%). The DHSC mortality rates for all leading causes of death from 2000 to 2011 indicated relatively stable mortality rates for Delaware. However, using CDC WONDER data, the Delaware mortality rate for obesity as a single underlying cause in 2011 was 56.9% higher than mortality rate in 2000.

  15. Poor self-rated health did not increase risk of permanent nursing placement or mortality in people with mild Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) has in many population-based studies predicted adverse health outcomes, e.g. morbidity, permanent nursing home (NH) placement, and mortality. However, the predictive value of SRH to NH placement and mortality among elderly people is not consistent. This may...... analysis: In the fully adjusted models HR was 0.63 (95 % CI 0.38-1.05) and 1.28 (95 % CI 0.67-2.45), respectively. Conclusions. When poor SRH was present we found no increased risk for NH placement or death among elderly people with mild AD. SRH is a widely used parameter in clinical and epidemiological...

  16. Cohort-specific trends in stroke mortality in seven European countries were related to infant mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess, in a population-based study, whether secular trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in seven European countries were correlated with past trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in these countries. Study Design and Setting: Data on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke

  17. Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60 Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells

  18. Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007. The prognostic impact of this universal definition, with particular focus on type 2 myocardial infarction, has not been studied prospectively in unselected hospital patients. METHODS: During a 1-year period......, all hospitalized patients having cardiac troponin I measured were considered. The diagnosis of a myocardial infarction was according to the universal definition, and specified criteria were used in the classification of type 2 myocardial infarction. Follow-up was at least 1 year, with mortality...... as the end point. RESULTS: A total of 3762 consecutive patients were studied, of whom 488 (13%) had a myocardial infarction. In 119 patients a type 2 myocardial infarction was diagnosed. After a median of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.6-2.5 years), 150 patients had died, with a mortality rate of 49% (58...

  19. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Rozing, Maarten P; Kramer, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    , they do not fit mortality rates at young and old ages. Therefore, we developed a method to calculate senescence rates from the acceleration of mortality directly without modeling the mortality rates. We applied the different methods to age group-specific mortality data from the European Renal Association-European...

  20. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-07

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...

  3. Mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Giovanna Abadia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Letícia Pinto; Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    This work aimed to characterize mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil. The MEDLINE electronic database was searched using the terms 'mortality' and 'sickle cell disease' and 'Brazil' for articles published in the last five years aiming to provide a current analysis of the subject in question. Eight studies on mortality by sickle cell disease were carried out in the Brazilian states of Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul. The majority of the deaths occurred in patients with sickle cell anemia, which is the most common genotype and causes the most severe clinical manifestation of the disease. In summary, there are few published studies on mortality related to sickle cell disease in Brazil, and most are from the state of Minas Gerais. This study emphasizes the importance of developing more studies on sickle cell disease mortality, so that it may be possible to profile gene carriers and give health professionals more data to strategize the delivery of more effective assistance to these individuals. Despite the early diagnosis of sickle cell disease by the Neonatal Screening Program and the use of preventive and therapeutic measures (penicillin, immunization and hydroxyurea), mortality by sickle cell disease on the world stage is still significant. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Mortality in patients with pituitary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary disease is associated with increased mortality predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and GH hypersecretion (and cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the reduction of mortality in patients with Cushing\\'s disease and acromegaly, retrospectively. For patients with acromegaly, the role of IGF-I is less clear-cut. Confounding pituitary hormone deficiencies such as gonadotropins and particularly ACTH deficiency (with higher doses of hydrocortisone replacement) may have a detrimental effect on outcome in patients with pituitary disease. Pituitary radiotherapy is a further factor that has been associated with increased mortality (particularly cerebrovascular). Although standardized mortality ratios in pituitary disease are falling due to improved treatment, mortality for many conditions are still elevated above that of the general population, and therefore further measures are needed. Craniopharyngioma patients have a particularly increased risk of mortality as a result of the tumor itself and treatment to control tumor growth; this is a key area for future research in order to optimize the outcome for these patients.

  5. Is the association between optimistic cardiovascular risk perceptions and lower rates of cardiovascular disease mortality explained by biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial function? A case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramling Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More optimistic perceptions of cardiovascular disease risk are associated with substantively lower rates of cardiovascular death among men. It remains unknown whether this association represents causality (i.e. perception leads to actions/conditions that influence cardiovascular disease occurrence or residual confounding by unmeasured factors that associate with risk perceptions and with physiological processes that promote cardiovascular disease (i.e. inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Purpose To evaluate whether previously unmeasured biological markers of inflammation or endothelial dysregulation confound the observed association between cardiovascular disease risk perceptions and cardiovascular disease outcomes; Methods We conducted a nested case-cohort study among community-dwelling men from Southeastern New England (USA who were interviewed between 1989 and 1990 as part of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF levels from stored sera for a random sample of the parent cohort (control sample, n = 127 and all cases of cardiovascular death observed through 2005 (case sample, n = 44. We evaluated potential confounding using stratified analyses and logistic regression modeling. Results Optimistic ratings of risk associated with lower odds of dying from cardiovascular causes among men (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.91. Neither CRP nor VEGF confounded these findings. Conclusions The strong cardio-protective association between optimistic ratings of cardiovascular disease risk and lower rates of cardiovascular mortality among men is not confounded by baseline biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial dysfunction.

  6. The effects of counseling spouse caregivers of people with Alzheimer disease taking donepezil and of country of residence on rates of admission to nursing homes and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Mittelman, Mary; Gibson, Louisa; Seeher, Katrin; Burns, Alistair

    2009-09-01

    Does psychosocial intervention for caregivers whose spouses with Alzheimer disease (AD) are taking donepezil delay nursing home (NH) placement or death of patients? Randomized controlled trial with 2 years of active treatment and up to 8.5 years of follow-up (mean: 5.4 years, SD: 2.4). Outpatients of research clinics in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. One hundred and fifty-five persons with AD and their spouses. Five sessions of individual and family counseling (+ prn ad hoc counseling) or usual care. Time to institutionalization and death using Cox proportional hazards methods. Over a mean of 5.4 years (SD: 2.4), there were no differences in NH placement or mortality by intervention group, but there were by country, with Australian patients admitted to NHs earlier than U.S. than U.K. patients. Earlier NH admission of Australian compared to U.K. and U.S. subjects may be due to differences in health care, NH systems, availability, and affordability.

  7. Thirty-Year Trends in Mortality from Cerebrovascular Diseases in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Hye Sun; Suh, Il

    2016-07-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Korea. Understanding of cerebrovascular disease mortality trends is important to reduce the health burden from cerebrovascular diseases. We examined the changing pattern of mortality related to cerebrovascular disease in Korea over 30 years from 1983 to 2012. Numbers of deaths from cerebrovascular disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and cerebral infarction were obtained from the national Cause of Death Statistics. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated for men and women for each year. Penalized B-spline methods, which reduce bias and variability in curve fitting, were used to identify the trends of 30-year mortality and identify the year of highest mortality. During the 30 years, cerebrovascular disease mortality has markedly declined. The age-adjusted cerebrovascular disease mortality rate has decreased by 78% in men and by 68% in women. In the case of hemorrhagic stroke, crude mortality peaked in 2001 but age-adjusted mortality peaked in 1994. Between 1994 and 2012, age-adjusted mortality from hemorrhagic stroke has decreased by 68% in men and 59% in women. In the case of cerebral infarction, crude and age-adjusted mortality rates steeply increased until 2004 and 2003, respectively, and both rates decreased rapidly thereafter. Cerebrovascular disease mortality rate has significantly decreased over the last 30 years in Korea, but remains a health burden. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors are still highly prevalent in Korea.

  8. Causes and rates of mortality of swift foxes in western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Bright, J.B.; Gillis, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of mortality factors is important for developing strategies to conserve the swift fox (Vulpes velox), a species being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act, but available information about swift fox mortality is inadequate. We used radiotelemetry techniques to examine the magnitude and causes of mortality of swift fox populations in 2 study areas in western Kansas. One study area was predominantly cropland, the other rangeland. Mortality rates, calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimation techniques in a staggered entry design, were 0.55 ?? 0.08 (5 ?? SE) for adult and 0.67 ?? 0.08 for juvenile swift foxes. We did not detect differences between study areas in mortality rates for adults or juveniles. Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) was the major cause of mortality for adult and juvenile swift foxes in both study areas, and vehicle collision was an important mortality factor for juveniles in the cropland study area. No mortality was attributed to starvation or disease.

  9. Studies of the mortality rate of Culicoides imicola in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, M; Touti, J; Bouayoune, H; Moudni, L; Taoufiq, B; el Hasnaoui, H

    1998-01-01

    Daily mortality rates of female Culicoides imicola were found for eight sites in Morocco in 1994 and for six sites in 1995. The mortality rates were found by operating Pirbright-type light traps for a number of consecutive nights in late summer or autumn and finding the parous rate assuming a feeding interval of 3 to 5 days. The mortality rates were calculated according to established methods. In Morocco the daily mortality rates were found to vary from about 5% per day (Arbaoua, 1994, 1995 and Sidi Moussa 1995) up to 20-25% per day (Berkane, Marrakech, Tangier). In general, estimates of daily mortality rate were consistent between the two years of study. Among sites, daily mortality rate was significantly correlated with the average night-time minimum wind speed but not mean or maximum night-time wind speeds, or with temperature, humidity or saturation deficit. The observed mortality rates suggest that at Arbaoua, were 1,000 flies to become infected with African horse sickness virus, at least 330 would live long enough to take 3 or more infective blood meals on hosts. At Berkane, the survival rate per 1,000 is less than 10. In general, the pattern observed for daily mortality rate, combined with the relative population sizes of C. imicola in Morocco, agree well with the observed distribution of African horse sickness in the country during the 1989-1991 epizootic.

  10. Mortality of marine planktonic copepods : global rates and patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, A.G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using life history theory we make predictions of mortality rates in marine epi-pelagic copepods from field estimates of adult fecundity, development times and adult sex ratios. Predicted mortality increases with temperature in both broadcast and sac spawning copepods, and declines with body weight...... in broadcast spawners, while mortality in sac spawners is invariant with body size. Although the magnitude of copepod mortality does lie close to the overall general pattern for pelagic animals, copepod mortality scaling is much weaker, implying that small copepods are avoiding some mortality agent....../s that other pelagic animals of a similar size do not, We compile direct in situ estimates of copepod mortality and compare these with our indirect predictions; we find the predictions generally match the field measurements well with respect to average rates and patterns. Finally, by comparing in situ adult...

  11. Onset of mortality increase with age and age trajectories of mortality from all diseases in the four Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejs, Josef; Marešová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The answer to the question "At what age does aging begin?" is tightly related to the question "Where is the onset of mortality increase with age?" Age affects mortality rates from all diseases differently than it affects mortality rates from nonbiological causes. Mortality increase with age in adult populations has been modeled by many authors, and little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth. Nonbiological causes are excluded, and the category "all diseases" is studied. It is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1994-2011, and all possible models are screened. Age trajectories of mortality are analyzed separately: before the age category where mortality reaches its minimal value and after the age category. Resulting age trajectories from all diseases showed a strong minimum, which was hidden in total mortality. The inverse proportion between mortality and age fitted in 54 of 58 cases before mortality minimum. The Gompertz model with two parameters fitted as mortality increased with age in 17 of 58 cases after mortality minimum, and the Gompertz model with a small positive quadratic term fitted data in the remaining 41 cases. The mean age where mortality reached minimal value was 8 (95% confidence interval 7.05-8.95) years. The figures depict an age where the human population has a minimal risk of death from biological causes. Inverse proportion and the Gompertz model fitted data on both sides of the mortality minimum, and three parameters determined the shape of the age-mortality trajectory. Life expectancy should be determined by the two standard Gompertz parameters and also by the single parameter in the model c/x. All-disease mortality represents an alternative tool to study the impact of age. All results are based on published data.

  12. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  13. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  14. Association between periodontitis and mortality in stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease: NHANES III and linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Dietrich, Thomas; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul; Chapple, Iain L C

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis may add to the systemic inflammatory burden in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), thereby contributing to an increased mortality rate. This study aimed to determine the association between periodontitis and mortality rate (all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related) in individuals with stage 3-5 CKD, hitherto referred to as "CKD". Survival analysis was carried out using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and linked mortality data. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to assess the association between periodontitis and mortality, in individuals with CKD. This association was compared with the association between mortality and traditional risk factors in CKD mortality (diabetes, hypertension and smoking). Of the 13,784 participants eligible for analysis in NHANES III, 861 (6%) had CKD. The median follow-up for this cohort was 14.3 years. Adjusting for confounders, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate for individuals with CKD increased from 32% (95% CI: 29-35%) to 41% (36-47%) with the addition of periodontitis. For diabetes, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate increased to 43% (38-49%). There is a strong, association between periodontitis and increased mortality in individuals with CKD. Sources of chronic systemic inflammation (including periodontitis) may be important contributors to mortality in patients with CKD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  16. Family aggregation of cardiovascular disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Möller, Sören

    2017-01-01

    Background: Familial factors play an important role in the variation of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but less is known about how they affect the risk of death from CVD. We estimated familial aggregation of CVD mortality for twins offering the maximum level of risk due to genetic...... and other familial factors. Methods: Altogether, 132 771 twin individuals, including 65 196 complete pairs from Denmark, Finland and Sweden born in 1958 or earlier, participated in this study. During the register-based follow-up, 11 641 deaths occurred from coronary heart disease (CHD), including 6280...

  17. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  18. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  19. Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer disease mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously reported that the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is related to lower risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). Whether MeDi is associated with subsequent AD course and outcomes has not been investigated. Objectives To examine the association between MeDi and mortality in patients with AD. Methods A total of 192 community-based individuals in New York who were diagnosed with AD were prospectively followed every 1.5 years. Adherence to the MeDi (0- to 9-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence) was the main predictor of mortality in Cox models that were adjusted for period of recruitment, age, gender, ethnicity, education, APOE genotype, caloric intake, smoking, and body mass index. Results Eighty-five patients with AD (44%) died during the course of 4.4 (±3.6, 0.2 to 13.6) years of follow-up. In unadjusted models, higher adherence to MeDi was associated with lower mortality risk (for each additional MeDi point hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.91; p = 0.001). This result remained significant after controlling for all covariates (0.76; 0.65 to 0.89; p = 0.001). In adjusted models, as compared with AD patients at the lowest MeDi adherence fertile, those at the middle fertile had lower mortality risk (0.65; 0.38 to 1.09; 1.33 years’ longer survival), whereas subjects at the highest fertile had an even lower risk (0.27; 0.10 to 0.69; 3.91 years’ longer survival; p for trend = 0.003). Conclusion Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) may affect not only risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) but also subsequent disease course: Higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with lower mortality in AD. The gradual reduction in mortality risk for higher MeDi adherence tertiles suggests a possible dose–response effect. PMID:17846408

  20. [Congenital heart disease mortality in Spain during a 10 year period (2003-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lescure Picarzo, Javier; Mosquera González, Margarita; Latasa Zamalloa, Pello; Crespo Marcos, David

    2017-07-12

    Congenital heart disease is a major cause of infant mortality in developed countries. In Spain, there are no publications at national level on mortality due to congenital heart disease. The aim of this study is to analyse mortality in infants with congenital heart disease, lethality of different types of congenital heart disease, and their variation over a ten-year period. A retrospective observational study was performed to evaluate mortality rate of children under one year old with congenital heart disease, using the minimum basic data set, from 2003 to 2012. Mortality rate and relative risk of mortality were estimated by Poisson regression. There were 2,970 (4.58%) infant deaths in a population of 64,831 patients with congenital heart disease, with 73.8% of deaths occurring during first week of life. Infant mortality rate in patients with congenital heart disease was 6.23 per 10,000 live births, and remained constant during the ten-year period of the study, representing 18% of total infant mortality rate in Spain. The congenital heart diseases with highest mortality rates were hypoplastic left heart syndrome (41.4%), interruption of aortic arch (20%), and total anomalous pulmonary drainage (16.8%). Atrial septal defect (1%) and pulmonary stenosis (1.1%) showed the lowest mortality rate. Congenital heart disease was a major cause of infant mortality with no variations during the study period. The proportion of infants who died in our study was similar to other similar countries. In spite of current medical advances, some forms of congenital heart disease show very high mortality rates. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Morbidity and mortality rates in a NOVA SCOTIA First Nations Community, 1996-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Stevens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Despite an abundance of data and analysis of First Nations morbidity and mortality rates, accurate data have not been available to serve the First Nations community in Eastern Canada. Data for Eskasoni, the largest Mi'kmaq community, were obtained for 1996 through 1999 and Cape Breton and Nova Scotia were used as regional and provincial reference populations respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks (AARR) were calculated for overall mortality and disease-specific hospital admissions. Eskasoni's mortality AARR was greater than 1.0 in 3 of the 4 years studied, although the data may understate Eskasoni's mortality rates. Eskasoni's total admission AARRs were significantly greater than the two reference populations. Neoplasm admission rates were generally lower, while circulatory disease admission AARRs were significantly higher. A rise in diabetic admission rates was noted with the AARR reaching statistical significance in the final years of the study. Respiratory disease was the leading cause of hospitalization with significantly greater rates of admission than regional or provincial rates. Pneumonia and influenza accounted for more than one half of respiratory admissions. Infectious disease admissions were more prevalent in Eskasoni while rates of liver disease were generally low. Results suggest that members of the largest Mi'kmaq band are at greater risk for a number of disease categories and health promotion should be targeted toward respiratory ailments, circulatory disease and diabetic management. Further analysis, however, remains an important priority.

  2. Disease Human - MDC_CardiovascularMortality2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the rate of deaths due to major cardiovascular diseases per 1000 residents of Miami-Dade County in 2006.

  3. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality, South Korea, 1983–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Choe, Seung-Ah

    2018-01-01

    We used national statistics from 1983–2015 to evaluate trends in mortality caused by infectious diseases in South Korea. Age-standardized mortality from infectious disease decreased from 43.5/100,000 population in 1983 to 16.5/100,000 in 1996, and then increased to 44.6/100,000 in 2015. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of death in 1983 and respiratory tract infections in 2015. We observed a significant decline in infant deaths caused by infectious diseases, but mortality in persons age >65 years increased from 135 deaths/100,000 population in 1996 to 307/100,000 in 2015. The relative inequality indices for respiratory tract infections, sepsis, and tuberculosis tended to increase over time. Although substantial progress has been achieved in terms of infant mortality, death rates from infectious disease has not decreased overall. Elderly populations with lower education levels and subgroups susceptible to respiratory infections and sepsis should be the focus of preventive policies. PMID:29350153

  4. Renal resistive index and mortality in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Clarisse; Thomas, George; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L; Nally, Joseph V; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2015-08-01

    Renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive, diabetic, and elderly patients. We studied the factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its associations with mortality in chronic kidney disease patients without renal artery stenosis. We included 1962 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) who also had RRI measured (January 1, 2005, to October 2011) from an existing chronic kidney disease registry. Participants with renal artery stenosis (60%-99% or renal artery occlusion) were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70), and its association with mortality was studied using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards model. Hypertension was prevalent in >90% of the patients. In the multivariable logistic regression, older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, higher systolic blood pressure, and the use of β blockers were associated with higher odds of having RRI≥0.70. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 428 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, RRI≥0.70 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.65; Pchronic kidney disease. Noncardiovascular/non-malignancy-related deaths were higher in those with RRI≥0.70. RRI≥0.70 is associated with higher mortality in hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients without clinically significant renal artery stenosis after accounting for other significant risk factors. Its evaluation may allow early identification of those who are at risk thereby potentially preventing or delaying adverse outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. MORTALITY FROM CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES AT THE TERRITORY OF DOLJEVAC MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Antic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to establish the basic descriptive epidemiological characteristics of the individuals having died of cerebrovascular diseases, at the territory of Doljevac Municipality. The data about the deceased were obtained after the population registration, as well as by the physician on duty. The research included all of them who died of cerebrovascular diseases at the territory of Doljevac Municipality, in the period from 2002 to 2006. The descriptive epidemiological study was applied. Specific and general rates of mortality were being calculated, and the population data were obtained from the 2002 census. The rates were calculated per 100,000 residents. The total registered number was: 306 deceased, 180 females (59% and 126 males (41%. Average annual specific rate of mortality based on cerebrovascular diseases was 311.2 per 100,000 residents (251.3 in men and 368.1 in women. Average annual rate of mortality in the population over 30 years of age in the same period was higher and reached 484,0 (389.7 in men and 577.2 in women. Women died 1.5 times more than men. The mortality rate was 1.3 times higher in the upland area of the municipality (349.3 than in the plain area (276.4. Cerebrovascular diseases-based death was reported in both sexes after 30 years of age. The youngest man was 32, and the youngest woman was 48. After 59 years of age, the death-rate abruptly increased and reached the maximum after 70 years of age. The highest number of the deceased women was reported in the age group 70-79 years , while the highest number of the deceased men was noted in the age group 80-89 years . The lowest mortality rates in both sexes were registered in the 30-39 years age group (m/w rate – 44.9:16.3, and the highest in 80-89 years age group (m/w rate – 2138.7:1921.5. Almost 1/3 of the deceased was under 65 years of age. The mean age was 70.3 years in men and 76.1 years in women. In younger population, under 65 years of age, the

  6. The current mortality rates of a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Mine, Mariko; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi

    1980-01-01

    The causes of death for 9814 a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city from '70 to '76 were investigated. The mortality rates of the survivors in the aged group were slightly lower than those of both unexposed citizens in Nagasaki and the national average. No difference of the mortality ratios with respect to sex and the distance from a-bomb at exposure was observed. For the cause of death, the cerebrovascular diseases came next to malignant neoplasms in the a-bomb survivors, which order was reverse in the non-exposed population. The mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases in the survivors was lower than the expected value. The mortality rate of survivors due to neoplasms was slightly higher than the national average, although almost the same as that of unexposed citizens in Nagasaki. (Nakanishi, T.)

  7. High mortality rates after non-elective colon cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, I S; Snijders, H S; Grossmann, Irene

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Colon cancer resection in a non-elective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on non-elective resection. METHOD: Data were...... obtained from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colon cancer resection in the Netherlands between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. Patient, treatment and tumour factors were analyzed in relation to the urgency of surgery. The primary outcome was the thirty day...... postoperative mortality. RESULTS: The study included 30,907 patients. In 5934 (19.2%) of patients, a non-elective colon cancer resection was performed. There was a 4.4% overall mortality rate, with significantly more deaths after non-elective surgery (8.5% vs 3.4%, P

  8. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  9. Trends in Mortality From Ischemic Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease in Europe: 1980 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Adam; Marshall, Dominic C; Salciccioli, Justin D; Sikkel, Markus B; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph

    2016-05-17

    Trends in cardiovascular mortality across Europe demonstrate significant geographical variation, and an understanding of these trends has a central role in global public health. Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease age-standardized death rates (as per International Classification of Diseases, ninth and tenth revisions) were collated from the World Health Organization mortality database for member states of the European Union. Trends were characterized by using Joinpoint regression analysis. An overall trend for reduction in ischemic heart disease mortality was observed, most pronounced in Western Europe (>60% for the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Ireland) for both sexes from 1980 to 2009. Eastern European states, Romania, Croatia, and Slovakia, had modest mortality reductions. Most recently (2009), Lithuania had the highest mortality for males and females (318.1/100 000 and 166.1/100 000, respectively), followed by Latvia and Slovakia. France had the lowest mortality: 39.8/100 000 for males and 14.7/100 000 for females. Analysis of cerebrovascular disease mortality revealed that Austria had the largest reduction for both sexes (76.8% males, 76.5% females) from 1980 to 2009. The smallest improvement over this period was seen in Lithuania, Poland, and Cyprus (-5% to +20% approximately). France has the lowest present-day cerebrovascular disease mortality for both males and females (23.9/100 000 and 17.3/100 000, respectively). There is a growing disparity in cardiovascular mortality between Western and Eastern Europe, for which diverse explanations are discussed. The need for population-wide health promotion and primary prevention policies is emphasized. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Temperature-dependent rate models of vascular cambium cell mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Edward A. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    We use two rate-process models to describe cell mortality at elevated temperatures as a means of understanding vascular cambium cell death during surface fires. In the models, cell death is caused by irreversible damage to cellular molecules that occurs at rates that increase exponentially with temperature. The models differ in whether cells show cumulative effects of...

  11. Improving estimates of tree mortality probability using potential growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth rate is frequently used to estimate mortality probability. Yet, growth metrics can vary in form, and the justification for using one over another is rarely clear. We tested whether a growth index (GI) that scales the realized diameter growth rate against the potential diameter growth rate (PDGR) would give better estimates of mortality probability than other measures. We also tested whether PDGR, being a function of tree size, might better correlate with the baseline mortality probability than direct measurements of size such as diameter or basal area. Using a long-term dataset from the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., as well as existing species-specific estimates of PDGR, we developed growth–mortality models for four common species. For three of the four species, models that included GI, PDGR, or a combination of GI and PDGR were substantially better than models without them. For the fourth species, the models including GI and PDGR performed roughly as well as a model that included only the diameter growth rate. Our results suggest that using PDGR can improve our ability to estimate tree survival probability. However, in the absence of PDGR estimates, the diameter growth rate was the best empirical predictor of mortality, in contrast to assumptions often made in the literature.

  12. Self-rated versus Caregiver-rated Health for Patients with Mild Dementia as Predictors of Patient Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Siersma, Volkert; Vogel, Asmus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-assessment of health is a strong and independent predictor of mortality for cognitively intact people. Because the ability of patients with dementia to rate their own health is questionable, caregiver-rated health for patients may serve as a proxy. The authors aimed to validate...... and compare self- and caregiver-rated health for patients with dementia as independent predictors of patient mortality. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of data from The Danish Alzheimer's Disease Intervention Study, a randomized controlled trial of psychosocial intervention for 330 patients with mild...... dementia and their caregivers with a 36-month follow-up. Patients and caregivers rated patients' health on the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The ability of self- and caregiver-rated health for the patient to predict patient mortality was analyzed as hazard...

  13. Contribution of Congenital Anomalies to Neonatal Mortality Rates in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Miriam; England, Kathleen; Grech, Victor; Calleja, Neville

    2015-09-01

    Neonatal mortality is a public health concern, and congenital anomalies contribute significantly to this mortality. This paper describes trends in neonatal mortality in Malta separately for congenital anomaly and non-congenital anomaly causes. Data for neonatal deaths of 22-week gestation onwards registered between 1994-2013 were obtained from the National Mortality Register. Chi-square tests were used to analyse 5-year time trends and differences in proportions of causes of neonatal deaths. Neonatal mortality was compared with other European countries. Between 1994 and 2013, 441 neonatal deaths and 84 821 livebirths were registered, giving a neonatal mortality of 5.2 per 1000 livebirths. Congenital anomalies accounted for 36.7% (n = 162) of the neonatal deaths, while the remaining 63.3% (n = 279) were attributed to non-congenital causes. During the 20-year period, neonatal mortality due to non-congenital causes decreased from 4.6 per 1000 livebirths in 1994-98 to 2.5 per 1000 in 2009-13, while that due to congenital anomalies remained stable (2.0 per 1000 livebirths in 1994-98 and 2.2 per 1000 in 2009-13). This has resulted in comparatively higher proportions of neonatal deaths attributed to congenital anomalies in recent years (45.9% in 2009-13 vs. 29.9% in 1994-98). Comparing neonatal mortality reported from European countries, Malta has a high rate most marked for deaths due to congenital anomalies. During 1994-2013, neonatal mortality has decreased due to a decline of non-congenital causes of death, possibly related to improved health care. The proportionate neonatal mortality attributed to congenital anomalies has increased and is the highest reported from Europe. This may be explained by the fact that termination of pregnancy is illegal in Malta. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported.

  15. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1–35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  16. Chronic cardiovascular disease mortality in mountaintop mining areas of central Appalachian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for counties in 4 Appalachian states where MTM occurs (N = 404) were linked with county coal mining data. Three groups of counties were compared: MTM, coal mining but not MTM, and nonmining. Covariates included smoking rate, rural-urban status, percent male population, primary care physician supply, obesity rate, diabetes rate, poverty rate, race/ethnicity rates, high school and college education rates, and Appalachian county. Linear regression analyses examined the association of mortality rates with mining in MTM areas and non-MTM areas and the association of mortality with quantity of surface coal mined in MTM areas. Prior to covariate adjustment, chronic CVD mortality rates were significantly higher in both mining areas compared to nonmining areas and significantly highest in MTM areas. After adjustment, mortality rates in MTM areas remained significantly higher and increased as a function of greater levels of surface mining. Higher obesity and poverty rates and lower college education rates also significantly predicted CVD mortality overall and in rural counties. MTM activity is significantly associated with elevated chronic CVD mortality rates. Future research is necessary to examine the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of MTM on health to reduce health disparities in rural coal mining areas. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Impact of opportunistic diseases on chronic mortality in HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate incidence rates of opportunistic diseases (ODs) and mortality for patients with and without a history of OD among HIV-infected patients in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods: Using incidence density analysis, we estimated rates of ODs and chronic mortality by CD4 count in patients in a cotrimoxazole prophylaxis ...

  18. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  19. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  20. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  1. Avian mortality rates on a power line near Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian mortality rates on a power line near Kampala, Uganda. Among the most spectacular birds in Uganda is the Marabou Stork Leptoptilos cru- meniferus, which nests very conspicuously in Kampala, and the Grey Crowned. Crane Balearica regulorum, the national bird and also globally red-listed by IUCN as. Endangered ...

  2. Population assessment of future trajectories in coronary heart disease mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Björk Thorolfsdottir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD mortality rates have been decreasing in Iceland since the 1980s, largely reflecting improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study was to predict future CHD mortality in Iceland based on potential risk factor trends. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The previously validated IMPACT model was used to predict changes in CHD mortality between 2010 and 2040 among the projected population of Iceland aged 25-74. Calculations were based on combining: i data on population numbers and projections (Statistics Iceland, ii population risk factor levels and projections (Refine Reykjavik study, and iii effectiveness of specific risk factor reductions (published meta-analyses. Projections for three contrasting scenarios were compared: (1 If the historical risk factor trends of past 30 years were to continue, the declining death rates of past decades would level off, reflecting population ageing. (2 If recent trends in risk factors (past 5 years continue, this would result in a death rate increasing from 49 to 70 per 100,000. This would reflect a recent plateau in previously falling cholesterol levels and recent rapid increases in obesity and diabetes prevalence. 3 Assuming that in 2040 the entire population enjoys optimal risk factor levels observed in low risk cohorts, this would prevent almost all premature CHD deaths before 2040. CONCLUSIONS: The potential increase in CHD deaths with recent trends in risk factor levels is alarming both for Iceland and probably for comparable Western populations. However, our results show considerable room for reducing CHD mortality. Achieving the best case scenario could eradicate premature CHD deaths by 2040. Public health policy interventions based on these predictions may provide a cost effective means of reducing CHD mortality in the future.

  3. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders: Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, Frédérique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increas...

  4. Income Inequality in Non-communicable Diseases Mortality among the Regions of the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavurová, Beáta; Kováč, Viliam; Šoltés, Michal; Kot, Sebastian; Majerník, Jaroslav

    2017-12-01

    A great amount of non-communicable disease deaths poses a threat for all people and therefore represents the challenge for health policy makers, health providers and other health or social policy actors. The aim of this study is to analyse regional differences in non-communicable disease mortality in the Slovak Republic, and to quantify the relationship between mortality and economic indicators of the Slovak regions. Standardised mortality rates adjusted for age, sex, region, and period were calculated applying direct standardisation methods with the European standard population covering the time span from 2005 to 2013. The impact of income indicators on standardised mortality rates was calculated using the panel regression models. The Bratislava region reaches the lowest values of standardised mortality rate for non-communicable diseases for both sexes. On the other side, the Nitra region has the highest standardised mortality rate for non-communicable diseases. Income quintile ratio has the highest effect on mortality, however, the expected positive impact is not confirmed. Gini coefficient at the 0.001 significance level and social benefits at the 0.01 significance level look like the most influencing variables on the standardised mortality rate. By addition of one percentage point of Gini coefficient, mortality rate increases by 148.19 units. When a share of population receiving social benefits increases by one percentage point, the standardised mortality rate will increase by 22.36 units. Non-communicable disease mortality together with income inequalities among the regions of the Slovak Republic highlight the importance of economic impact on population health. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.

  5. Childhood Albuminuria and Chronic Kidney Disease is Associated with Mortality and End-Stage Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Yuang Lin; Shiuh-Ming Huang

    2016-01-01

    We do not yet fully grasp the significance of childhood albuminuria. Based on mass urinary screening (MUS) using albumin-specific dipsticks in school children, we studied the independent association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A prospective cohort of 5351 children with albuminuria detected by school MSU during the period 1992–1996, followed up to 2009...

  6. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

    Full Text Available Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  7. Racial and geographic variation in coronary heart disease mortality trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnitudes, geographic and racial variation in trends in coronary heart disease (CHD mortality within the US require updating for health services and health disparities research. Therefore the aim of this study is to present data on these trends through 2007. Methods Data for CHD were analyzed using the US mortality files for 1999–2007 obtained from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Age-adjusted annual death rates were computed for non-Hispanic African Americans (AA and European Americans (EA aged 35–84 years. The direct method was used to standardize rates by age, using the 2000 US standard population. Joinpoint regression models were used to evaluate trends, expressed as annual percent change (APC. Results For both AA men and women the magnitude in CHD mortality is higher compared to EA men and women, respectively. Between 1999 and 2007 the rate declined both in AA and in EA of both sexes in every geographic division; however, relative declines varied. For example, among men, relative average annual declines ranged from 3.2% to 4.7% in AA and from 4.4% to 5.5% in EA among geographic divisions. In women, rates declined more in later years of the decade and in women over 54 years. In 2007, age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 for CHD ranged from 93 in EA women in New England to 345 in AA men in the East North Central division. In EA, areas near the Ohio and lower Mississippi Rivers had above average rates. Disparities in trends by urbanization level were also found. For AA in the East North Central division, the APC was similar in large central metro (−4.2, large fringe metro (−4.3, medium metro urbanization strata (−4.4, and small metro (−3.9. APC was somewhat higher in the micropolitan/non-metro (−5.3, and especially the non-core/non-metro (−6.5. For EA in the East South Central division, the APC was higher in large central metro (−5.3, large fringe metro (−4.3 and medium metro

  8. Mortalidade materna por cardiopatia Maternal mortality due to heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio N. Feitosa

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo da mortalidade materna por cardiopatia, no período de janeiro de 1979 a dezembro de 1989. Dentre um total de 16.423 internações, houve 694 gestantes com o diagnóstico de cardiopatia (4,2%. No mesmo período, ocorreram 51 óbitos maternos, correspondendo a um coeficiente de mortalidade materna de 428,2/100.000 nascidos vivos. Houve 12 óbitos maternos por cardiopatia. A análise estatística permitiu a identificação de alguns fatores associados a maior risco de morte nas pacientes cardiopatas: primeira gravidez, primiparidade, ausência de assistência pré-natal, realização de cirurgia cardíaca anterior à gravidez e/ou na gestação. O maior número de mortes ocorreu no puerpério. A classificação funcional (NYHA não se constituiu em parâmetro seguro para avaliar o prognóstico materno, pois 91,7% dos casos de óbito foram incluídos no grupo considerado favorável (classes I e II ao iniciar a gestação.A retrospective study on maternal mortality in pregnant women with cardiac disease over a period of eleven years (January 1979 to December 1989 was undertaken. The objetive was an analysis of the main aspects of this association. Cardiac disease was diagnosed in 694 patients (4.2% of a total of 16,423 admitted to the Obstetrics Department of the Escola Paulista de Medicina. As for etiology, rheumatic disease (52.3%; Chagas's disease (19.3% and congenital disease (8.1% were the most frequent causes. There were 51 maternal deaths, according to FIGO's definition (1967, corresponding to a maternal mortality rate of 428.2/100,000 livebirths during the same period. Twelve of these maternal deaths were due to cardiac disease (maternal mortality rate of 100.8/100,000 livebirths. The statistical analysis identified the following aspects associated with maternal mortality among patients with cardiac disease: primigravida, lack of adequate prenatal care, and cardiac surgery performed previously to and

  9. Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-05

    Diana Khuu discusses Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010.  Created: 1/5/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/7/2015.

  10. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  11. Ethnic differences in all-cause mortality rates in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletov, K; McKee, M; Berkinbayev, S; Battakova, Z; Zhussupov, B; Amirov, B; Junusbekova, G; Rechel, B

    2016-04-01

    This article explores mortality rates in Kazakhstan by ethnic group and some of the potential lifestyle factors that might help to explain the observed differences on a population level. Repeated cross-sectional data analysis. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates from all causes by ethnic group, gender and age for 2009-2012. We analysed data on self-reported alcohol and tobacco consumption and other lifestyle factors from the nationally representative 5th National Behavior Study, conducted in 2012. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates are generally much higher among ethnic Russians than among ethnic Kazakhs, both among women and men and in rural as well as urban areas. These differences are most pronounced in the age group 20-59 years. Information on self-reported alcohol consumption and smoking by ethnic group, gender and age shows major differences between ethnic groups, with consistently higher rates of alcohol consumption and smoking among ethnic Russians, both in women and men and across all adult age groups. Policies to improve the health of the population of Kazakhstan must take account of ethnic differences. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender Differentials and Disease-Specific Cause of Infant Mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    instance, in the CIA rankings, the national infant mortality rate in 2007 was 53.56 deaths per 1000 live births for Ghana with different rates for males. (56.64/1000) and females (47.85/1000)6. In. Ghana, there are also variations in infant mortality rates based on socio-economic factors especially rural-urban and regional ...

  13. Mortality in inherited cardiac diseases: directing care in affected families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannenberg, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with an inherited cardiac disease face a substantial mortality risk, due to arrhythmias (sudden cardiac death), heart failure or embolic stroke. Knowledge about the mortality of diseases can help doctors and patients to make decisions on (timing of) treatment, screening strategies,

  14. Prevalence of major sheep diseases and analysis of mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional and retrospective case study design were carried out from May 2008 to April 2012 in model sheep villages of Farta and Lay Gaint districts with the objective of identifying major sheep diseases, to assess the magnitude of sheep mortality and recommend disease and mortality control options in the study ...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  16. Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W

    2012-08-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increase in the high risk-group of 15-19 year old girls. It is unclear whether this reflects earlier detection of anorexia nervosa cases or an earlier age at onset. The occurrence of bulimia nervosa might have decreased since the early nineties of the last century. All eating disorders have an elevated mortality risk; anorexia nervosa the most striking. Compared with the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder is more common among males and older individuals.

  17. Mortality Rate and Predictive Factors for Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Experience in Siriraj Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premyot Ngaotepprutaram, M.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the mortality rate and prognostic factors in patients with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in Siriraj Hospital. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with a definitive diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis were recruited from October 2003 to September 2014. The mortality rate was retrieved, and the impacts of underlying diseases, clinical presentation, disease extension, fungal types, antifungal drugs, and time to treatment were statistically analyzed. Results: The overall mortality rate was 23.1%. All patients except one were immunocompromised. Cranial nerve involvement was the most common symptom. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected intranasal site (46.2%, and the majority of extranasal lesions were located in the orbit (17.9%. Most patients were affected by Aspergillus spp. (64.1%. Alteration of consciousness and periorbital pain were significant negative prognostic factors [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 10.37 (1.31–82.07 and 8.67 (1.30–57.88, respectively]. Other factors such as time to treatment, age, and central nervous system involvement had no effect on mortality. Conclusion: The mortality rate of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in this study was 23.1%. Negative prognostic factors were alteration of consciousness and periorbital pain. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, and aggressive treatment should be considered.

  18. Declining comorbidity-adjusted mortality rates in English patients receiving maintenance renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Benjamin C; Staplin, Natalie; Harper, Charlie H; Haynes, Richard; Winearls, Christopher G; Goldacre, Raph; Emberson, Jonathan R; Goldacre, Michael J; Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Herrington, William G

    2018-01-30

    We aimed to compare long-term mortality trends in end-stage renal disease versus general population controls after accounting for differences in age, sex and comorbidity. Cohorts of 45,000 patients starting maintenance renal replacement therapy (RRT) and 5.3 million hospital controls were identified from two large electronic hospital inpatient data sets: the Oxford Record Linkage Study (1965-1999) and all-England Hospital Episode Statistics (2000-2011). All-cause and cause-specific three-year mortality rates for both populations were calculated using Poisson regression and standardized to the age, sex, and comorbidity structure of an average 1970-2008 RRT population. The median age at initiation of RRT in 1970-1990 was 49 years, increasing to 61 years by 2006-2008. Over that period, there were increases in the prevalence of vascular disease (from 10.0 to 25.2%) and diabetes (from 6.7 to 33.9%). After accounting for age, sex and comorbidity differences, standardized three-year all-cause mortality rates in treated patients with end-stage renal disease between 1970 and 2011 fell by about one-half (relative decline 51%, 95% confidence interval 41-60%) steeper than the one-third decline (34%, 31-36%) observed in the general population. Declines in three-year mortality rates were evident among those who received a kidney transplant and those who remained on dialysis, and among those with and without diabetes. These data suggest that the full extent of mortality rate declines among RRT patients since 1970 is only apparent when changes in comorbidity over time are taken into account, and that mortality rates in RRT patients appear to have declined faster than in the general population. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Widening Geographical Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad; Williams, Shanita D

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in geographical disparities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD) mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2011. National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate regional, state, and county-level disparities in CVD mortality over time. Log-linear, weighted least squares, and Cox regression were used to analyze mortality trends and differentials. During 1969-2011, CVD mortality rates declined fastest in New England and Mid-Atlantic regions and slowest in the Southeast and Southwestern regions. In 1969, the mortality rate was 9% higher in the Southeast than in New England, but the differential increased to 48% in 2011. In 2011, Southeastern states, Mississippi and Alabama, had the highest CVD mortality rates, nearly twice the rates for Minnesota and Hawaii. Controlling for individual-level covariates reduced state differentials. State- and county-level differentials in CVD mortality rates widened over time as geographical disparity in CVD mortality increased by 50% between 1969 and 2011. Area deprivation, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes prevalence, urbanization, lack of health insurance, and lower access to primary medical care were all significant predictors of county-level CVD mortality rates and accounted for 52.7% of the county variance. Although CVD mortality has declined for all geographical areas in the United States, geographical disparity has widened over time as certain regions and states, particularly those in the South, have lagged behind in mortality reduction. Geographical disparities in CVD mortality reflect inequalities in socioeconomic conditions and behavioral risk factors. With the global CVD burden on the rise, monitoring geographical disparities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, could indicate the extent to which reductions in CVD mortality are achievable and may help identify effective policy strategies for CVD prevention and control.

  20. Widening Geographical Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined trends in geographical disparities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate regional, state, and county-level disparities in CVD mortality over time. Log-linear, weighted least squares, and Cox regression were used to analyze mortality trends and differentials. Results: During 1969-2011, CVD mortality rates declined fastest in New England and Mid-Atlantic regions and slowest in the Southeast and Southwestern regions. In 1969, the mortality rate was 9% higher in the Southeast than in New England, but the differential increased to 48% in 2011. In 2011, Southeastern states, Mississippi and Alabama, had the highest CVD mortality rates, nearly twice the rates for Minnesota and Hawaii. Controlling for individual-level covariates reduced state differentials. State- and county-level differentials in CVD mortality rates widened over time as geographical disparity in CVD mortality increased by 50% between 1969 and 2011. Area deprivation, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes prevalence, urbanization, lack of health insurance, and lower access to primary medical care were all significant predictors of county-level CVD mortality rates and accounted for 52.7% of the county variance. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although CVD mortality has declined for all geographical areas in the United States, geographical disparity has widened over time as certain regions and states, particularly those in the South, have lagged behind in mortality reduction. Geographical disparities in CVD mortality reflect inequalities in socioeconomic conditions and behavioral risk factors. With the global CVD burden on the rise, monitoring geographical disparities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, could indicate the extent to which reductions in CVD mortality are

  1. Mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Jason P; Gross, Cary P

    2014-01-01

    The mortality burden from nonneoplastic skin disease in the United States is unknown. We sought to estimate mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease as underlying and contributing causes of death. Population-based death certificate data detailing mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease for years 1999 to 2009 were used to calculate absolute numbers of death and age-adjusted mortality by year, patient demographics, and 10 most commonly reported diagnoses. Nonneoplastic skin diseases were reported as underlying and contributing causes of mortality for approximately 3948 and 19,542 patients per year, respectively. Age-adjusted underlying cause mortality (per 100,000 persons) were significantly greater (P deaths occurred in patients ages 65 years and older (34,248 total deaths). Common underlying causes of death included chronic ulcers (1789 deaths/y) and cellulitis (1348 deaths/y). Errors in death certificate data and inability to adjust for patient-level confounders may limit the accuracy and generalizability of our results. Mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease is uncommon yet potentially preventable. The elderly bear the greatest burden of mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease. Chronic ulcers and cellulitis constitute frequent causes of death. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkuk Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To verify the effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children and to identify the blood glucose level that influences prognosis. Methods : From July 2006 to June 2008, a total of 206 patients who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU at Asan Medical Center and who survived for more than 7 days were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed the maximum glucose value within 7 days in PICU, PRISM-III score and SOFA score within 24 hours, and mortality. We did not perform an adjustment analysis of drugs affecting glucose level. Results : The maximum glucose level within 7 days in PICU was higher in the nonsurvival group than in the survival group. Using 4 cutoff values (125, 150, 175, and 200 mg/dL, the mortality of patients with hyperglycemia was found to be 13.0 %, 14.4%, 19.8%, and 21.1%, respectively, and the cutoff values of 175 and 200 mg/dL revealed significant differences in mortalities between the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups. The PRISM-III score was not significantly different between the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups under a glucose cutoff value of 175 mg/dL, but the SOFA score was higher in the hyperglycemic group. Under a glucose cutoff value of 200 mg/dL, the PRISM-III score was higher in the hyperglycemic group, and the SOFA score did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusion : Hyperglycemia with a maximal glucose value ?#241;75 mg/dL during the first 7 days after PICU admission was associated with increased mortality in critically ill children.

  3. Morbidity and mortality rates after emergency abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Watt, Sara Kehlet; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    acute abdominal surgery over a 4-year period. METHODS: This observational study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 at Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark. All patients scheduled for emergency laparotomy or laparoscopy were included. Pre-, intra-, and post-operative data were collected from......PURPOSE: Emergency abdominal surgery results in a high rate of post-operative complications and death. There are limited data describing the emergency surgical population in details. We aimed to give a detailed analyses of complications and mortality in a consecutive group of patients undergoing...... medical records. Complications were registered according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4,346 patients underwent emergency surgery, of whom 14 % had surgical complications and 23 % medical complications...

  4. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers

  5. Trends in Mortality from Cerebrovascular and Hypertensive Diseases in Brazil Between 1980 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Blanco Villela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. Objective: To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. Methods: We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD, cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD, and hypertensive diseases (HD. We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC, external causes (EC, and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD. Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS. We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. Results: With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Conclusion: Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension.

  6. Elevated infant mortality rate among Dutch oral cleft cases: a retrospective analysis from 1997 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan Pieter Frederik Van Nunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: First, to determine the infant mortality rate for Dutch patients with isolated oral clefts as well as for patients with clefts seen in association with other malformations. Second, to conduct a similar analysis per cleft type: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate (including Robin sequence. Third, to examine the underlying causes of death. Material and methods: A retrospective review of the charts of patients with oral clefts born in the period 1997-2011 and treated in three regional cleft centers in the Netherlands. Results: 1530 patients with oral clefts were born during the study period and treated in the cleft centers. The overall infant mortality rate for all clefts was 2.09%, significantly higher than the general Dutch infant mortality rate of 0.45%. In a subanalysis per cleft type the infant mortality rates were 1.22%, 1.38%, 2.45% and 3.62% for cleft lip, cleft lip with cleft palate, cleft palate and Robin sequence. The mortality rates for isolated oral clefts did not differ significantly from the general Dutch rate. Causes of death were congenital malformations of the heart in 40.6%, airway / lungs in 15.6%, nervous system in 15.6%, infectious disease in 12.5% and other or unknown in 15.6%. Conclusion: The elevated infant mortality rate observed in Dutch patients with oral clefts is almost exclusively caused by associated congenital malformations. After diagnosis of an oral cleft an in-depth medical examination and a consult by the pediatrician and clinical geneticist is imperative to instigate the appropriate medical management.

  7. Impact of cerebrovascular disease mortality on life expectancy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo Qi; Fan, Jie; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Qi, Yue; Xie, Wu Xiang; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Fan; Li, Yan; Zhao, Dong

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of cerebrovascular disease mortality on life expectancy (LE) in China in 2010 compared with 2005, and to identify the high-risk population (age, sex, and region) where cerebrovascular disease mortality has had a major impact on LE. LE and cause-eliminated LE were calculated by using standard life tables which used adjusted mortality data from the Death Surveillance Data Sets in 2005 and 2010 from the National Disease Surveillance System. Decomposition was used to quantitate the impact of cerebrovascular disease in different age groups. LE in China was 73.24 years in 2010, which was higher in women and urban residents compared with men and rural residents. The loss of LE caused by cerebrovascular disease mortality was 2.26 years, which was higher in men and rural residents compared with women and urban residents. More than 30% of the loss of LE were attributed to premature death from cerebrovascular disease in people aged cerebrovascular disease mortality in urban residents contributed 0.45 years to the increase of LE, but the increase of cerebrovascular disease mortality caused a 0.12-year loss of LE in rural residents. Cerebrovascular disease mortality had a major impact on LE in China, with a significant difference between urban and rural residents. LE is likely to be further increased by reducing cerebrovascular disease mortality, and special attention should be paid to reducing premature deaths in people aged <65 years. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbleeds, Mortality, and Stroke in Alzheimer Disease The MISTRAL Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, M.R.; Prins, N.D.; Goos, J.D.C.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Microbleeds are more prevalent in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with the general elderly population. In addition, microbleeds have been found to predict mortality in AD. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether microbleeds in AD increase the risk for mortality, stroke (including

  9. Prevalence of major sheep diseases and analysis of mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the objective of identifying major sheep diseases, to assess the magnitude of sheep mortality and ... sheep mortality. A total of 242 fecal samples were collected for the analysis sheep internal parasites. The major identified internal parasites of sheep were Strongyle ..... 54.2%, respectively) and also pneumonia was the most.

  10. Mortality by Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Disease in Brazil from 1996 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Nagib Gaui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulatory system diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil. Objective: To analyze the evolution of mortality caused by heart failure, by ischemic heart diseases and by ill-defined causes, as well as their possible relations, in Brazil and in the geoeconomic regions of the country (North, Northeast, Center-West, South and Southeast, from 1996 to 2011. Methods: Data were obtained from DATASUS and death declaration records with codes I20 and I24 for acute ischemic diseases, I25 for chronic ischemic diseases, and I50 for heart failure, and codes in chapter XIII for ill-defined causes, according to geoeconomic regions of Brazil, from 1996 to 2011. Results: Mortality rates due to heart failure declined in Brazil and its regions, except for the North and the Northeast. Mortality rates due to acute ischemic heart diseases increased in the North and Northeast regions, especially from 2005 on; they remained stable in the Center-West region; and decreased in the South and in the Southeast. Mortality due to chronic ischemic heart diseases decreased in Brazil and in the Center-West, South and Southeast regions, and had little variation in the North and in the Northeast. The highest mortality rates due to ill-defined causes occurred in the Northeast until 2005. Conclusions: Mortality due to heart failure is decreasing in Brazil and in all of its geoeconomic regions. The temporal evolution of mortality caused by ischemic heart diseases was similar to that of heart failure. The decreasing number of deaths due to ill-defined causes may represent the improvement in the quality of information about mortality in Brazil. The evolution of acute ischemic heart diseases ranged according to regions, being possibly confused with the differential evolution of ill-defined causes.

  11. Mortality by Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Disease in Brazil from 1996 to 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes de; Klein, Carlos Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Circulatory system diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil. To analyze the evolution of mortality caused by heart failure, by ischemic heart diseases and by ill-defined causes, as well as their possible relations, in Brazil and in the geoeconomic regions of the country (North, Northeast, Center-West, South and Southeast), from 1996 to 2011. Data were obtained from DATASUS and death declaration records with codes I20 and I24 for acute ischemic diseases, I25 for chronic ischemic diseases, and I50 for heart failure, and codes in chapter XIII for ill-defined causes, according to geoeconomic regions of Brazil, from 1996 to 2011. Mortality rates due to heart failure declined in Brazil and its regions, except for the North and the Northeast. Mortality rates due to acute ischemic heart diseases increased in the North and Northeast regions, especially from 2005 on; they remained stable in the Center-West region; and decreased in the South and in the Southeast. Mortality due to chronic ischemic heart diseases decreased in Brazil and in the Center-West, South and Southeast regions, and had little variation in the North and in the Northeast. The highest mortality rates due to ill-defined causes occurred in the Northeast until 2005. Mortality due to heart failure is decreasing in Brazil and in all of its geoeconomic regions. The temporal evolution of mortality caused by ischemic heart diseases was similar to that of heart failure. The decreasing number of deaths due to ill-defined causes may represent the improvement in the quality of information about mortality in Brazil. The evolution of acute ischemic heart diseases ranged according to regions, being possibly confused with the differential evolution of ill-defined causes

  12. Mortality by Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Disease in Brazil from 1996 to 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib, E-mail: engaui@cardiol.br; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Klein, Carlos Henrique [Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    Circulatory system diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil. To analyze the evolution of mortality caused by heart failure, by ischemic heart diseases and by ill-defined causes, as well as their possible relations, in Brazil and in the geoeconomic regions of the country (North, Northeast, Center-West, South and Southeast), from 1996 to 2011. Data were obtained from DATASUS and death declaration records with codes I20 and I24 for acute ischemic diseases, I25 for chronic ischemic diseases, and I50 for heart failure, and codes in chapter XIII for ill-defined causes, according to geoeconomic regions of Brazil, from 1996 to 2011. Mortality rates due to heart failure declined in Brazil and its regions, except for the North and the Northeast. Mortality rates due to acute ischemic heart diseases increased in the North and Northeast regions, especially from 2005 on; they remained stable in the Center-West region; and decreased in the South and in the Southeast. Mortality due to chronic ischemic heart diseases decreased in Brazil and in the Center-West, South and Southeast regions, and had little variation in the North and in the Northeast. The highest mortality rates due to ill-defined causes occurred in the Northeast until 2005. Mortality due to heart failure is decreasing in Brazil and in all of its geoeconomic regions. The temporal evolution of mortality caused by ischemic heart diseases was similar to that of heart failure. The decreasing number of deaths due to ill-defined causes may represent the improvement in the quality of information about mortality in Brazil. The evolution of acute ischemic heart diseases ranged according to regions, being possibly confused with the differential evolution of ill-defined causes.

  13. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months......) a standardised rate of very preterm delivery and b) the existing death rate for babies born at this gestation in the individual region. This produced much greater homogeneity in terms of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the rate of very preterm delivery has a major influence on reported neonatal...

  14. Senescence rates in patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, J J E; Rozing, M P; Kramer, Ada

    2011-01-01

    The most frequently used model to describe the exponential increase in mortality rate over age is the Gompertz equation. Logarithmically transformed, the equation conforms to a straight line, of which the slope has been interpreted as the rate of senescence. Earlier, we proposed the derivative...... function of the Gompertz equation as a superior descriptor of senescence rate. Here, we tested both measures of the rate of senescence in a population of patients with end-stage renal disease. It is clinical dogma that patients on dialysis experience accelerated senescence, whereas those with a functional...... kidney transplant have mortality rates comparable to the general population. Therefore, we calculated the age-specific mortality rates for European patients on dialysis (n=274 221; follow-up=594 767 person-years), for European patients with a functioning kidney transplant (n=61 286; follow-up=345 024...

  15. Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly: Comparative Analysis of Two Five-year Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piuvezam, Grasiela; Medeiros, Wilton Rodrigues; Costa, Andressa Vellasco; Emerenciano, Felipe Fonseca; Santos, Renata Cristina; Seabra, Danilo Silveira

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil. The better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian elderly population is essential to support more appropriate health actions for each region of the country. To describe and to compare geospatially the rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals living in Brazil by gender in two 5-year periods: 1996 to 2000 and 2006 to 2010. This is an ecological study, for which rates of mortality were obtained from DATASUS and the population rates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). An average mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in elderly by gender was calculated for each period. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by TerraView 4.2.0 through global Moran index and the formation of clusters by the index of local Moran-LISA. There was an increase, in the second 5-year period, in the mortality rates in the Northeast and North regions, parallel to a decrease in the South, South-East and Midwest regions. Moreover, there was the formation of clusters with high mortality rates in the second period in Roraima among females, and in Ceará, Pernambuco and Roraima among males. The increase in mortality rates in the North and Northeast regions is probably related to the changing profile of mortality and improvement in the quality of information, a result of the increase in surveillance and health care measures in these regions.

  16. Emerging trends in non-communicable disease mortality in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke was the leading NCD cause of death, accounting for 17.5% of total NCD deaths. Compared with those for whites, NCD mortality rates for other population groups were higher at 1.3 for black Africans, 1.4 for Indians and 1.4 for coloureds, but varied by condition. Conclusions. NCDs contribute to premature mortality in ...

  17. Ischaemic heart disease mortality and the business cycle in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, A R

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Australian heart disease mortality were assessed for association with the business cycle. Correlation models of mortality and unemployment series were used to test for association. An indicator series of "national stress" was developed. The three series were analyzed in path models to quantify the links between unemployment, national stress, and heart disease. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and national stress were found to follow the business cycle. The two periods of accelerating IHD mortality coincided with economic recession. The proposed "wave hypothesis" links the trend in IHD mortality to the high unemployment of severe recession. The mortality trend describes a typical epidemic parabolic path from the Great Depression to 1975, with a smaller parabolic trend at the 1961 recession. These findings appear consistent with the hypothesis that heart disease is, to some degree, a point source epidemic arising with periods of severe economic recession. Forecasts under the hypothesis indicate a turning point in the mortality trend between 1976 and 1978. (Am J Public Health 69:772-781, 1979). PMID:453409

  18. Comparative Longterm Mortality Trends in Cancer vs. Ischemic Heart Disease in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, David; Pericchi, Luis R; Mattei, Hernando; Zevallos, Juan C

    2017-06-01

    Although contemporary mortality data are important for health assessment and planning purposes, their availability lag several years. Statistical projection techniques can be employed to obtain current estimates. This study aimed to assess annual trends of mortality in Puerto Rico due to cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD), and to predict shorterm and longterm cancer and IHD mortality figures. Age-adjusted mortality per 100,000 population projections with a 50% interval probability were calculated utilizing a Bayesian statistical approach of Age-Period-Cohort dynamic model. Multiple cause-of-death annual files for years 1994-2010 for Puerto Rico were used to calculate shortterm (2011-2012) predictions. Longterm (2013-2022) predictions were based on quinquennial data. We also calculated gender differences in rates (men-women) for each study period. Mortality rates for women were similar for cancer and IHD in the 1994-1998 period, but changed substantially in the projected 2018-2022 period. Cancer mortality rates declined gradually overtime, and the gender difference remained constant throughout the historical and projected trends. A consistent declining trend for IHD historical annual mortality rate was observed for both genders, with a substantial changepoint around 2004-2005 for men. The initial gender difference of 33% (80/100,00 vs. 60/100,000) in mortality rates observed between cancer and IHD in the 1994-1998 period increased to 300% (60/100,000 vs. 20/100,000) for the 2018-2022 period. The APC projection model accurately projects shortterm and longterm mortality trends for cancer and IHD in this population: The steady historical and projected cancer mortality rates contrasts with the substantial decline in IHD mortality rates, especially in men.

  19. Seasonal mortality variations of cardiovascular, respiratory and malignant diseases in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić-Stojić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine seasonal variations in mortality resulting from cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and cancer, as well as to provide a review of environmental factors underlying such phenomenon. The herein presented study was conducted on the territory of Belgrade based on the data on daily mortality rates obtained from the Institute of Public Health in Belgrade for the period 2009-2014, as well as the data on annual mortality rates provided by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia for the period 2000-2014. The analysis of mortality variations was performed by the use of Theil-Sen method, smooth trend method and cubic spline interpolation, whereas desriptive tools, such as winter/summer ratio and dissimilarity index, were used to examine the seasonal pattern. According to the Institute of Public Health, over 113430 deaths were registered in Belgrade area for the period 2009-2014, out of which 53.25% is attributed to cardiovascular diseases, 4.01% to respiratory diseases and 27.50% to cancer. The annual mortality rates caused by cardiovascular diseases and cancer on the territory of Belgrade are among the highest ranking in Europe. The leading causes of death in the observed period included: cardiomyopathy, heart attack and stroke with accompanying complications, breast cancer in women, prostate and colorectal cancer in men, lung and bronchus cancer for both genders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cardiovascular and respiratory mortality rates are significantly higher among people aged 65 and over, whereas more than one third of deaths caused by cancer is observed among younger people aged between 45 and 64 years. Research results show that seasonal variations were most pronounced in mortality resulting from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, with highest mortality rates recorded in February and March and lowest during the summer season. Also, the number of deaths due to

  20. Coral diseases are major contributors to coral mortality in Shingle Island, Gulf of Mannar, southeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinesh, T; Diraviya Raj, K; Mathews, G; Patterson Edward, J K

    2013-09-24

    The present study reports coral mortality, driven primarily by coral diseases, around Shingle Island, Gulf of Mannar (GOM), Indian Ocean. In total, 2910 colonies were permanently monitored to assess the incidence of coral diseases and consequent mortality for 2 yr. Four types of lesions consistent with white band disease (WBD), black disease (BD), white plaque disease (WPD), and pink spot disease (PSD) were recorded from 4 coral genera: Montipora, Pocillopora, Acropora, and Porites. Porites were affected by 2 disease types, while the other 3 genera were affected by only 1 disease type. Overall disease prevalence increased from 8% (n = 233 colonies) to 41.9% (n = 1219) over the 2 yr study period. BD caused an unprecedented 100% mortality in Pocillopora, followed by 20.4 and 13.1% mortality from WBD in Montipora and Acropora, respectively. Mean disease progression rates of 0.8 ± 1.0 and 0.6 ± 0.5 cm mo-1 over live coral colonies were observed for BD and WBD. Significant correlations between temperature and disease progression were observed for BD (r = 0.86, R2 = 0.75, p < 0.001) and WBD (R2 = 0.76, p < 0.001). This study revealed the increasing trend of disease prevalence and progression of disease over live coral in a relatively limited study area; further study should investigate the status of the entire coral reef in the GOM and the role of diseases in reef dynamics.

  1. Disease-Specific Mortality of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients in Korea: A Multicenter Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLittle is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients and its risk factors in Korea.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005.ResultsMean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97% and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%. Mean size of the primary tumor was 1.6±1.0 cm. Approximately 40% of patients had cervical lymph node (LN metastases and 1.3% had synchronous distant metastases. During 11.3 years of follow-up, 150 disease-specific mortalities (1.9% occurred; the 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rate was 98%. According to the year of diagnosis, the number of disease-specific mortality was not different. However, the rate of disease-specific mortality decreased during the study period (from 7.7% to 0.7%. Older age (≥45 years at diagnosis, male, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC versus PTC, larger tumor size (>2 cm, presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM stage were independent risk factors of disease-specific mortality of DTC patients.ConclusionThe rate of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients was 1.9%; the 10-year DSS rate was 98% during 1996 to 2005. Older age at diagnosis, male, FTC, larger tumor size, presence of ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages were significant risk factors of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients.

  2. A novel biomarker of laminin turnover is associated with mortality and disease progression in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Holm; Guldager Kring Rasmussen, Daniel; Fenton, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and a high mortality rate. One of the major underlying causes of progression of renal failure is renal fibrosis, which is caused by dysregulated extracellular...

  3. In-hospital Mortality from Cerebrovascular Disease in the Province of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Sánchez Lozano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: cerebrovascular disease is the second leading cause of death in some countries, causing 10 million annual deaths. In-hospital mortality from these diseases is high in our country. Objective: to describe mortality from cerebrovascular disease at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos during 2006-2010. Methods: a retrospective case series study involving all patients (4449 diagnosed with cerebrovascular disease discharged from the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital from January 1st, 2006 to December 31, 2010 was conducted. The variables analyzed included age, sex, status at discharge, types of cerebrovascular disease and hospital stay. Results: in-hospital mortality from cerebrovascular disease in the study period was 23.8 %. It was higher in men than in women (24.5 % and 22.9 %, respectively. According to the type of cerebrovascular disease, mortality rate of ischemic stroke was 20 %, subarachnoid hemorrhage, 22.4 % and intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 71.2 %. Conclusions: in-hospital mortality from cerebrovascular disease in Cienfuegos shows a downward trend, though it increased in 2010. It was more common in men. Death from stroke tends to decrease and, to a lesser extent, mortality due to brain hemorrhage, which remains high. There is also an increase in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  4. Geographic Variation in Morbidity and Mortality of Cerebrovascular Diseases in Korea during 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyeon; Bahk, Jinwook; Kim, Ikhan; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kang, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Jeehye; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon-Ae; Khang, Young-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about within-country variation in morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs). Geographic differences in CVD morbidity and mortality have yet to be properly examined. This study examined geographic variation in morbidity and mortality of CVD, neighborhood factors for CVD morbidity and mortality, and the association between CVD morbidity and mortality across the 245 local districts in Korea during 2011-2015. District-level health care utilization and mortality data were obtained to estimate age-standardized CVD morbidity and mortality. The bivariate Pearson correlation was used to examine the linear relationship between district-level CVD morbidity and mortality Z-scores. Simple linear regression and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate the associations of area characteristics with CVD morbidity, mortality, and discrepancies between morbidity and mortality. Substantial variation was found in CVD morbidity and mortality across the country, with 1074.9 excess CVD inpatients and 73.8 excess CVD deaths per 100,000 between the districts with the lowest and highest CVD morbidity and mortality, respectively. Higher rates of CVD admissions and deaths were clustered in the noncapital regions. A moderate geographic correlation between CVD morbidity and mortality was found (Pearson correlation coefficient = .62 for both genders). Neighborhood level indicators for socioeconomic disadvantages, undersupply of health care resources, and unhealthy behaviors were positively associated with CVD morbidity and mortality and the relative standing of CVD mortality vis-à-vis morbidity. Policy actions targeting life-course socioeconomic conditions, equitable distribution of health care resources, and behavioral risk factors may help reduce geographic differences in CVD morbidity and mortality in Korea. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Income Gradient in Renal Disease Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases and associated mortality follow a social gradient and chronic kidney disease is not an exception to this rule. Intermediate behavioral and medical factors that may explain such social gradients are, however, still unknown. Using nationally representative data in the United States, this study was conducted to investigate the mediating effect of medical and behavioral risk factors on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and renal disease mortality. Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL), 1986-2011, is a 25-year nationally representative prospective cohort study. ACL followed 3,361 adults for up to 25 years. Income, education, and unemployment were the main predictors of interest. Death due to renal disease was the main outcome. Health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) and medical risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity) were the mediators. Cox proportional hazards models were used for data analysis. Higher income (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62-0.89) was associated with lower risk of death due to renal disease over the 25-year follow-up period. Although health behaviors and medical risk factors at baseline were also predictors of the outcome, they failed to explain the effect of income on death due to renal disease. That is, income was associated with death due to renal disease above and beyond all potential mediators including behavioral and medical risk factors. Socioeconomic inequalities in the United States cause disparities in renal disease mortality; however, such differences are not due to health behaviors (smoking and drinking) and medical risk factors (hypertension and diabetes). To reduce disparities in renal disease mortality in the United States, policies should go beyond health behaviors and medical risk factors. While programs should help low-income individuals maintain exercise and avoid smoking, reduction of income disparities should be regarded as a strategy for reduction of disparities

  6. Hurricane Sandy (New Jersey): Mortality Rates in the Following Month and Quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Kulkarni, Prathit A; Rajan, Mangala; Thomas, Pauline; Tsai, Stella; Tan, Christina; Davidow, Amy

    2017-08-01

    To describe changes in mortality after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012. We used electronic death records to describe changes in all-cause and cause-specific mortality overall, in persons aged 76 years or older, and by 3 Sandy impact levels for the month and quarter following Hurricane Sandy compared with the same periods in earlier years adjusted for trends. All-cause mortality increased 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 11%) for the month, 5%, 8%, and 12% by increasing Sandy impact level; and 7% (95% CI = 5%, 10%) for the quarter, 5%, 8%, and 15% by increasing Sandy impact level. In elderly persons, all-cause mortality rates increased 10% (95% CI = 5%, 15%) and 13% (95% CI = 10%, 16%) in the month and quarter, respectively. Deaths that were cardiovascular disease-related increased by 6% in both periods, noninfectious respiratory disease-related by 24% in the quarter, infection-related by 20% in the quarter, and unintentional injury-related by 23% in the month. Mortality increased, heterogeneous by cause, for both periods after Hurricane Sandy, particularly in communities more severely affected and in the elderly, who may benefit from supportive services.

  7. Osteoprotegerin and mortality in hemodialysis patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Simon; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have an increased mortality, mainly caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the vascular calcification process. Previous studies have demonstrated that OPG.......08; in the adjusted analyses, the p-value for trend was 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-risk population of hemodialysis patients with previously documented cardiovascular disease, a high level of OPG was an independent risk marker of all-cause mortality....... is a prognostic marker of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate if OPG was a prognostic marker of all-cause mortality in high-risk patients with end-stage renal disease and CVD. METHODS: We prospectively followed 206 HD patients with CVD. OPG was measured at baseline and the patients were followed...

  8. Temporal and spatial evolution of maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Brazil, 1997–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Brazil's neonatal mortality rate has improved in recent times, but maternal mortality rates have stagnated, failing to meet the Millennium Development Goals. Public policies and intersectoral efforts may contribute to improvements in these health indicators.

  9. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mortality rates for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), congenital malformations, and unintentional injuries were also substantially higher for ... infant mortality rate. SIDS accounted for 6 percent, congenital malformations 5 percent, and unintentional injuries 4 percent of ...

  10. [Urban space and mortality from ischemic heart disease in the elderly in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périssé, Germana; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha

    2010-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil, especially among the elderly. In the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJC), ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the predominant cause of mortality. Studies show an association between the process of urbanization, socioeconomic conditions and changes in lifestyle with the occurrence of IHD. To describe the geographical distribution of the IHD mortality rates in the elderly of RJC in 2000 and its correlation with socioeconomic variables. This was an ecological study with a spatial analysis of the distribution of the IHD mortality rates in the elderly residing in RJC in 2000, standardized by gender and age, and its correlation with socioeconomic variables from the demographic census. There were no strong correlations between the socioeconomic variables and IHD mortality in the elderly in the districts. Some correlations, albeit weak, showed an association between higher socioeconomic status and higher mortality. After correcting the IHD mortality rate by adding ill-defined causes (IDC) of death, an association between low socioeconomic status and higher mortality from IHD was observed. The study showed spatial dependence for socioeconomic variables, but not for mortality from IHD. The spatial dependence observed in economic variables shows that the urban space in MRJ, although heterogeneous, has a certain amount of discrimination in the districts. Some correlations between IHD and socioeconomic variables were opposite to those found in the literature, and this may be partly related to the proportion of IDC, or to the exclusive profile of this age group.

  11. Trends and Patterns of Differences in Infectious Disease Mortality Among US Counties, 1980-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Mokdad, Ali H; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Stubbs, Rebecca W; Morozoff, Chloe; Shirude, Shreya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J L

    2018-03-27

    Infectious diseases are mostly preventable but still pose a public health threat in the United States, where estimates of infectious diseases mortality are not available at the county level. To estimate age-standardized mortality rates and trends by county from 1980 to 2014 from lower respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS, meningitis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. This study used deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the US Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database. Validated small-area estimation models were applied to these data to estimate county-level infectious disease mortality rates. County of residence. Age-standardized mortality rates of lower respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS, meningitis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis by county, year, and sex. Between 1980 and 2014, there were 4 081 546 deaths due to infectious diseases recorded in the United States. In 2014, a total of 113 650 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 108 764-117 942) deaths or a rate of 34.10 (95% UI, 32.63-35.38) deaths per 100 000 persons were due to infectious diseases in the United States compared to a total of 72 220 (95% UI, 69 887-74 712) deaths or a rate of 41.95 (95% UI, 40.52-43.42) deaths per 100 000 persons in 1980, an overall decrease of 18.73% (95% UI, 14.95%-23.33%). Lower respiratory infections were the leading cause of infectious diseases mortality in 2014 accounting for 26.87 (95% UI, 25.79-28.05) deaths per 100 000 persons (78.80% of total infectious diseases deaths). There were substantial differences among counties in death rates from all infectious diseases. Lower respiratory infection had the largest absolute mortality inequality among counties (difference between the 10th and 90th percentile of the distribution, 24.5 deaths per 100 000 persons). However, HIV/AIDS had the highest relative mortality inequality between counties (10.0 as the

  12. Estimation of mortality rates in stage-structured population

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Simon N

    1991-01-01

    The stated aims of the Lecture Notes in Biomathematics allow for work that is "unfinished or tentative". This volume is offered in that spirit. The problem addressed is one of the classics of statistical ecology, the estimation of mortality rates from stage-frequency data, but in tackling it we found ourselves making use of ideas and techniques very different from those we expected to use, and in which we had no previous experience. Specifically we drifted towards consideration of some rather specific curve and surface fitting and smoothing techniques. We think we have made some progress (otherwise why publish?), but are acutely aware of the conceptual and statistical clumsiness of parts of the work. Readers with sufficient expertise to be offended should regard the monograph as a challenge to do better. The central theme in this book is a somewhat complex algorithm for mortality estimation (detailed at the end of Chapter 4). Because of its complexity, the job of implementing the method is intimidating. Any r...

  13. Determinants of self rated health and mortality in Russia – are they the same?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobak Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into Russia's health crisis during the 1990s includes studies of both mortality and self-rated health, assuming that the determinants of the two are the same. In this paper, we tested this assumption, using data from a single study on both outcomes and socioeconomic, lifestyle and psychological predictor variables. Methods We analysed data from 7 rounds (1994–2001 of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a panel study of a general population sample (11,482 adults aged over 18 living in households of 2 or more people. Self-rated health was measured on a 5 point scale and dichotomised by combining responses "very poor" and "poor" into poor health. Deaths (n = 782 during a mean follow up of 4.1 years were reported by another household member. Associations between several predictor variables and poor or very poor self-rated health and mortality were measured using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis respectively. Results Poor self-rated health was significantly associated with mortality; hazard ratios, compared with very good, good or average health, were 1.69 (1.36-2.10 in men and 1.74 (1.38-2.20 in women. Low education predicted both mortality and poor self-rated health, but income predicted subjective health more strongly. Smoking doubled the risk of death but was unrelated to subjective wellbeing. Frequent drinkers experienced greater mortality than occasional drinkers, despite reporting better health. In contrast, dissatisfaction with life predicted poor self-rated health, but not mortality. Conclusion Differences between the predictors of subjective health and mortality, even though these outcomes were strongly associated, suggest that influences on subjective health are not restricted to serious disease. These findings also suggest the presence of risk factors for relatively sudden deaths in apparently well people, although further research is required. Meanwhile, caution is required

  14. Regional disparities in mortality after ischemic heart disease in a Brazilian state from 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luciano; Zanini, Vanessa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2013-01-01

    High technology in the field of interventional cardiology applied in tertiary hospitals has brought enormous benefits in the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, IHD mortality rates remain high. We analyzed the relationship between IHD mortality rate and the socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic conditions in 399 cities in Parana state, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and evaluated through Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. GeoDa™ was used to analyze 29.351 deaths across 399 cities. We found a positive spatial autocorrelation regarding IHD mortality (I = 0.5913, p = 0.001). There was a significant positive association between each of three socioeconomic and demographic indicators and IHD mortality rate: Population Elderly Index (I = 0.3436), Illiteracy Rate (I = 0.1873) and City Development Index (I = 0.0900). In addition, two indicators presented significant negative association with IHD mortality rate: Adjusted Population Size (I = -0.1216) and Gross Domestic Product (I = -0.0864). We also found a positive association between IHD mortality rates and the geographic distances between patients' city of residence and their corresponding regional referral centers in interventional cardiology (I = 0.3368). Cities located within Regional Health Units with Reference Interventional Cardiology Center presented a significantly lower average specific mortality rate by IHD. The high mortality rate by IHD within the Regional Health Units was not restricted to socioeconomic and demographic variables, but dependent on the distance between each city and their reference interventional cardiology center. We conclude that geographic factors play a significant role in IHD mortality within cities. These findings have important policy implications regarding the geographic distribution of cardiac health care networks in Latin

  15. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  16. An Investigation of the Mortality Rate and Risk Factors in Newborn Infants With Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the serious challenges facing neonatal medicine is meconium aspiration syndrome, delays in the treatment of which can lead to high mortality. Objectives This study was designed and conducted with the aim of determining the mortality rate and risk factors affecting this rate in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome. Methods This study was conducted as a retrospective descriptive research on newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Fatemieh and Be’sat hospitals in Hamadan city during a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Demographic information of the mother and the newborn, hospitalization course, the need for mechanical ventilation, and complications and outcomes of disease were extracted and were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. Results Sixty-three newborn infants, diagnosed with meconium aspiration syndrome, were entered in this study, 40% of them were male, 85.7% wighed more than 2500 g, and 17.5% were post term, 25.3% had a five-minute Apgar Score (AS5min of less than seven, 39.6% were nonvigorous at birth, 31.8% needed to be placed on mechanical ventilation, and 14.3% died during the hospitalization course. There was a significant relationship between the need for mechanical ventilation, nonvigorous state at the birth, complications of disease and mortality rate. Conclusions Despite the progress made in medicine, meconium aspiration syndrome is still one of the causes of newborn infants’ mortality. The mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced by improvement in perinatal care, prevention of post term delivery, timely caesarean and effective neonatal resuscitation at birth.

  17. Cancer mortality rates and spillover effects among different areas: A case study in Campania (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agovino, Massimiliano; Aprile, Maria Carmela; Garofalo, Antonio; Mariani, Angela

    2018-05-01

    The present study analyses the spatial distribution of cancer mortality rates in Campania (an Italian region with the highest population density), in which residents in several areas are exposed to major environmental health hazards. The paper has the methodological aims of verifying the existence, or otherwise, of a spatial correlation between mortality from different types of cancer and the occurrence of some specific area characteristics, using both Bayesian statistics and spatial econometrics. We show that the use of the Spatial Empirical Bayes Smoothed Rate, instead of the more commonly used Raw Rate, allows a more comprehensive analysis of the mortality rate, highlighting the existence of different cluster sizes throughout the region, according to the type of cancer mortality rate analysed. By using a Spatial Durbin model we verify that cancer mortality rates are related to the environmental characteristics of specific areas with spatial spillover effects. Our results validate the hypothesis that living along the coast by Mt Vesuvius and, to a lesser extent, along the Domitio-Flegreo coast NW of Naples and in more urbanised municipalities, increases the risk of dying of cancer. By contrast, living in less urbanised municipalities, with the presence of natural and historical attractions, has a positive effect on the residents' health, reducing their risk of disease. In both cases significant spillover effects (negative and positive) are found in municipalities close to the areas in question. Despite a number of reasonable limitations, our findings may provide useful information support for policy makers to foster knowledge, awareness and informed participation of citizens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resting heart rate is a predictor of mortality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen; Schnohr, Peter; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Jensen, Jan Skov; Jensen, Gorm B

    2013-08-01

    The clinical significance of high heart rate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unexplored. We investigated the association between resting heart rate, pulmonary function, and prognosis in subjects with COPD. 16 696 subjects aged ≥40 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective study of the general population, were followed for 35.3 years, 10 986 deaths occurred. Analyses were performed using time-dependent Cox-models and net reclassification index (NRI). Resting heart rate increased with severity of COPD (p85 bpm was 5.5 years without COPD, 9.8 years in mild (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I), 6.7 years in moderate (GOLD stage II) and 5.9 years in severe/very severe COPD (GOLD stage III/IV), (pNRI 4.9%, p = 0.01; category less NRI 23.0%, pNRI 7.8%, p = 0.002; category less NRI 24.1%, p<0.0001). Resting heart rate increases with severity of COPD. Resting heart rate is a readily available clinical variable that improves risk prediction in patients with COPD above and beyond that of pulmonary function alone. Resting heart rate may be a potential target for intervention in COPD.

  19. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD – a review of potential interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence AR Seemungal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Terence AR Seemungal1, John R Hurst2, Jadwiga A Wedzicha21Department of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago; 2Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, UKAbstract: COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, health burden, mortality, inhaled steroids, long-acting bronchodilators, long-acting antimuscarinic agents, macrolide, disease management program

  20. Disaggregation of Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Hispanic Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fatima; Hastings, Katherine G; Boothroyd, Derek B; Echeverria, Sandra; Lopez, Lenny; Cullen, Mark; Harrington, Robert A; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2017-03-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States and face a disproportionate burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and low socioeconomic position. However, Hispanics paradoxically experience lower all-cause mortality rates compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts. This phenomenon has been largely observed in Mexicans, and whether this holds true for other Hispanic subgroups or whether these favorable trends persist over time remains unknown. To disaggregate a decade of national CVD mortality data for the 3 largest US Hispanic subgroups. Deaths from CVD for the 3 largest US Hispanic subgroups-Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans-compared with NHWs were extracted from the US National Center for Health Statistics mortality records using the underlying cause of death based on coding from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (I00-II69). Mortality data were evaluated from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012. Population estimates were calculated using linear interpolation from the 2000 and 2010 US Census reports. Data were analyzed from November 2015 to July 2016. Mortality due to CVD. Participants included 688 074 Mexican, 163 335 Puerto Rican, 130 397 Cuban, and 19 357 160 NHW individuals (49.0% men and 51.0% women; mean [SD] age, 75 [15] years). At the time of CVD death, Mexicans (age, 67 [18] years) and Puerto Ricans (age, 68 [17] years) were younger compared with NHWs (age, 76 [15] years). Mortality rates due to CVD decreased from a mean of 414.2 per 100 000 in 2003 to 303.3 per 100 000 in 2012. Estimated decreases in mortality rate for CVD from 2003 to 2012 ranged from 85 per 100 000 for all Hispanic women to 144 per 100 000 for Cuban men, but rate differences between groups vary substantially, with Puerto Ricans exhibiting similar mortality patterns to NHWs, and Mexicans experiencing lower mortality. Puerto Ricans experienced higher

  1. Disaggregation of Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Hispanic Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fatima; Hastings, Katherine G.; Boothroyd, Derek B.; Echeverria, Sandra; Lopez, Lenny; Cullen, Mark; Harrington, Robert A.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States and face a disproportionate burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and low socioeconomic position. However, Hispanics paradoxically experience lower all-cause mortality rates compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts. This phenomenon has been largely observed in Mexicans, and whether this holds true for other Hispanic subgroups or whether these favorable trends persist over time remains unknown. OBJECTIVE To disaggregate a decade of national CVD mortality data for the 3 largest US Hispanic subgroups. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Deaths from CVD for the 3 largest US Hispanic subgroups—Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans—compared with NHWs were extracted from the US National Center for Health Statistics mortality records using the underlying cause of death based on coding from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (I00-II69). Mortality data were evaluated from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012. Population estimates were calculated using linear interpolation from the 2000 and 2010 US Census reports. Data were analyzed from November 2015 to July 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Mortality due to CVD. RESULTS Participants included 688 074 Mexican, 163 335 Puerto Rican, 130 397 Cuban, and 19 357 160 NHW individuals (49.0 % men and 51.0% women; mean [SD] age, 75 [15] years). At the time of CVD death, Mexicans (age, 67 [18] years) and Puerto Ricans (age, 68 [17] years) were younger compared with NHWs (age, 76 [15] years). Mortality rates due to CVD decreased from a mean of 414.2 per 100 000 in 2003 to 303.3 per 100 000 in 2012. Estimated decreases in mortality rate for CVD from 2003 to 2012 ranged from 85 per 100 000 for all Hispanic women to 144 per 100 000 for Cuban men, but rate differences between groups vary substantially, with Puerto Ricans exhibiting similar mortality patterns to NHWs

  2. Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease mortality in young adults: recent trends in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuccio, Paola; Levi, Fabio; Lucchini, Francesca; Chatenoud, Liliane; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Over the last two decades, mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) declined by about 30% in the European Union (EU). We analyzed trends in CHD (X ICD codes: I20-I25) and CVD (X ICD codes: I60-I69) mortality in young adults (age 35-44 years) in the EU as a whole and in 12 selected European countries, over the period 1980-2007. Data were derived from the World Health Organization mortality database. With joinpoint regression analysis, we identified significant changes in trends and estimated average annual percent changes (AAPC). CHD mortality rates at ages 35-44 years have decreased in both sexes since the 1980s for most countries, except for Russia (130/100,000 men and 24/100,000 women, in 2005-7). The lowest rates (around 9/100,000 men, 2/100,000 women) were in France, Italy and Sweden. In men, the steepest declines in mortality were in the Czech Republic (AAPC = -6.1%), the Netherlands (-5.2%), Poland (-4.5%), and England and Wales (-4.5%). Patterns were similar in women, though with appreciably lower rates. The AAPC in the EU was -3.3% for men (rate = 16.6/100,000 in 2005-7) and -2.1% for women (rate = 3.5/100,000). For CVD, Russian rates in 2005-7 were 40/100,000 men and 16/100,000 women, 5 to 10-fold higher than in most western European countries. The steepest declines were in the Czech Republic and Italy for men, in Sweden and the Czech Republic for women. The AAPC in the EU was -2.5% in both sexes, with steeper declines after the mid-late 1990s (rates = 6.4/100,000 men and 4.3/100,000 women in 2005-7). CHD and CVD mortality steadily declined in Europe, except in Russia, whose rates were 10 to 15-fold higher than those of France, Italy or Sweden. Hungary and Poland, and also Scotland, where CHD trends were less favourable than in other western European countries, also emerge as priorities for preventive interventions.

  3. Chagas disease in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil: analysis of admissions and mortality time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Suellen Carvalho de Moura; Melo, Myllena de Fátima Alheiros Dias; Lorena, Virginia Maria Barros de; Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Gomes, Yara de Miranda

    2011-01-01

    A time series study of admissions, deaths and acute cases was conducted in order to evaluate the context of Chagas disease in Pernambuco. Data reported to the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian National Health Service between 1980 and 2008 was collected for regions and Federal Units of Brazil; and microregions and municipalities of Pernambuco. Rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) of hospitalization, mortality and acute cases were calculated using a national hospital database (SIH), a national mortality database (SIM) and the national Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), respectively. The national average for Chagas disease admissions was 0.99 from 1995 to 2008. Pernambuco obtained a mean of 0.39 in the same period, with the highest rates being concentrated in the interior of the state. The state obtained a mean mortality rate of 1.56 between 1980 and 2007, which was lower than the national average (3.66). The mortality rate has tended to decline nationally, while it has remained relatively unchanged in Pernambuco. Interpolating national rates of admissions and deaths, mortality rates were higher than hospitalization rates between 1995 and 2007. The same occurred in Pernambuco, except for 2003. Between 2001 and 2006, rates for acute cases were 0.56 and 0.21 for Brazil and Pernambuco, respectively. Although a decrease in Chagas mortality has occurred in Brazil, the disease remains a serious public health problem, especially in the Northeast region. It is thus essential that medical care, prevention and control regarding Chagas disease be maintained and improved.

  4. Heterogeneity in national U.S. mortality trends within heart disease subgroups, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Stephen; Quesenberry, Charles P; Jaffe, Marc G; Sorel, Michael; Go, Alan S; Rana, Jamal S

    2017-07-18

    The long-term downward national U.S. trend in heart disease-related mortality slowed substantially during 2011-2014 before turning upward in 2015. Examining mortality trends in the major subgroups of heart disease may provide insight into potentially more targeted and effective prevention and treatment approaches to promote favorable trajectories. We examined national trends between 2000 and 2015 in mortality attributed to major heart disease subgroups including ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and all other types of heart disease. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) data system, we determined national trends in age-standardized mortality rates attributed to ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and other heart diseases from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011, and from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015. Annual rate of changes in mortality attributed to ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and other heart diseases for 2000-2011 and 2011-2015 were compared. Death attributed to ischemic heart disease declined from 2000 to 2015, but the rate of decline slowed from 4.96% (95% confidence interval 4.77%-5.15%) for 2000-2011 to 2.66% (2.00%-3.31%) for 2011-2015. In contrast, death attributed to heart failure and all other causes of heart disease declined from 2000 to 2011 at annual rates of 1.94% (1.77%-2.11%) and 0.64% (0.44%-0.82%) respectively, but increased from 2011 to 2015 at annual rates of 3.73% (3.21% 4.26%) and 1.89% (1.33-2.46%). Differences in 2000-2011 and 2011-2015 decline rates were statistically significant for all 3 endpoints overall, by sex, and all race/ethnicity groups except Asian/Pacific Islanders (heart failure only significant) and American Indian/Alaskan Natives. While the long-term decline in death attributed to heart disease slowed between 2011 and 2014 nationally before turning upward in 2015, heterogeneity existed in the trajectories attributed to

  5. Platelet count is associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    count (100-450×10(9)/L) and mortality, development of future cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or peripheral vascular disease), venous thromboembolism, bleeding or cancer in the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a register-based cohort study of 21...... as reference group, platelet count 301-450×10(9)/L was associated with mortality, adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.42(95% CI 1.06-1.90) and cardiovascular disease, adjusted HR=1.32 (95% CI 1.03-1.69). Platelet count 100-200×10(9)/L was associated with future cancer, adjusted HR=1.28(95% CI 1.......05-1.57), but not with future bleeding or venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet count is associated with mortality, future cardiovascular disease, and future cancer....

  6. Cause-Specific Mortality Among Spouses of Parkinson Disease Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Hansen, Jonni; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caring for a chronically ill spouse is stressful, but the health effects of caregiving are not fully understood. We studied the effect on mortality of being married to a person with Parkinson disease. METHODS: All patients in Denmark with a first-time hospitalization for Parkinson...... disease between 1986 and 2009 were identified, and each case was matched to five population controls. We further identified all spouses of those with Parkinson disease (n = 8,515) and also the spouses of controls (n = 43,432). All spouses were followed in nationwide registries until 2011. RESULTS: Among...... men, being married to a Parkinson disease patient was associated with a slightly higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.06 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.11]). Mortality was particularly high for death due to external causes (1.42 [1.09-1.84]) including suicide (1.89 [1...

  7. Mortality Trends for Neglected Tropical Diseases in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, 1980-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa de Albuquerque, Marcos Antônio; Dias, Danielle Menezes; Vieira, Lucas Teixeira; Lima, Carlos Anselmo; da Silva, Angela Maria

    2017-02-08

    Neglected Tropical Diseases are a set of communicable diseases that affect the population so low socioeconomic status, particularly 1.4 billion people who are living below the poverty level. This study has investigated the magnitude and mortality time trends for these diseases in the state of Sergipe, Northeast Region of Brazil. We conducted an ecological study of time series, based on secondary data derived from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health. The mortality rates (crude, age-standardized rates and proportional ratio) were calculated from the deaths due to Neglected Tropical Diseases in the state of Sergipe, from 1980 to 2013. The time trends were obtained using the Joinpoint regression model. Three hundred six thousand and eight hundred seventy-two deaths were certified in the state and Neglected Tropical Diseases were mentioned as the underlying cause in 1,203 certificates (0.39%). Mean number of deaths was 35.38 per year, and crude and age-standardized mortality rates were, respectively: 2.16 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI: 1.45-2.87) and 2.87 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI: 1.93-3.82); the proportional mortality ratio was 0.41% (95% CI: 0.27-0.54). In that period, Schistosomiasis caused 654 deaths (54.36%), followed by Chagas disease, with 211 (17.54%), and by Leishmaniases, with 142 (11.80%) deaths. The other diseases totalized 196 deaths (16.30%). There were increasing mortality trends for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Schistosomiasis and Chagas disease in the last 15 years, according to the age-standardized rates, and stability of the mortality trends for Leishmaniases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases show increasing trends and are a real public health problem in the state of Sergipe, since they are responsible for significant mortality rates. The following diseases call attention for showing greater number of deaths in the period of study: Schistosomiasis, Chagas disease and Leishmaniases. We finally suggest that public

  8. Racial Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the 50 Largest U.S. Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Maureen R; Hirschtick, Jana L; Hunt, Bijou R; Hughes, Michelle M; Hunter, Brittany

    2016-12-06

    Heart disease is not only the leading cause of death in the U.S. but also the main contributor to racial disparities in life expectancy. Despite this, heart disease mortality rates and racial disparities in these rates are not readily available at the city level where they can be the most quickly and effectively addressed. We calculated age-adjusted heart disease mortality rates and corresponding racial rate ratios (RRs) and rate differences (RDs) for the non-Hispanic Black (Black) and non-Hispanic White (White) populations for the years 1990-1994 and 2005-2009 for the U.S. and the 50 largest cities therein. We then examined relationships between the disparities and city-level population indicators. Nationally, mortality rates were significantly higher among Blacks than Whites at both time periods. Larger improvements in rates for Whites compared to Blacks resulted in a significant increase in disparities over the 20-year period for 11 cities. There were 19,448 excess Black deaths in the U.S. annually. City-level income inequality, as well as the overall city and White median household income, contributed to these disparities. By identifying city-specific disparities and trends, health care providers, public health agencies, and researchers can target the areas with the most need and can look at cities without disparities for clues on how to best advance health equity in heart disease morbidity and mortality.

  9. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases and Malformations in Children in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Thais Rocha; Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiological profile of mortality in a population is important for the institution of measures to improve health care and reduce mortality Objective: To estimate mortality rates and the proportional mortality from cardiovascular diseases and malformations of the circulatory system in children and adolescents. This is a descriptive study of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, malformations of the circulatory system, from all causes, ill-defined causes and external causes in children and adolescents in the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1996 to 2012. Populations were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE) and deaths obtained from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS)/Ministry of Health. There were 115,728 deaths from all causes, 69,757 in males. The annual mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 2.7/100,000 in men and 2.6/100,000 in women. The annual mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was 7.5/100,000 in men and 6.6/100,000 in women. Among the specific causes of circulatory diseases, cardiomyopathies had the highest rates of annual proportional mortality, and from malformations of the circulatory system, it occurred due to unspecified malformations of the circulatory system, at all ages and in both genders. Mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was most striking in the first years of life, while cardiovascular diseases were more relevant in adolescents. Low access to prenatal diagnosis or at birth probably prevented the proper treatment of malformations of the circulatory system.

  10. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases and Malformations in Children in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Thais Rocha; Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile of mortality in a population is important for the institution of measures to improve health care and reduce mortality Objective To estimate mortality rates and the proportional mortality from cardiovascular diseases and malformations of the circulatory system in children and adolescents. Methods This is a descriptive study of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, malformations of the circulatory system, from all causes, ill-defined causes and external causes in children and adolescents in the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1996 to 2012. Populations were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE) and deaths obtained from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS)/Ministry of Health. Results There were 115,728 deaths from all causes, 69,757 in males. The annual mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 2.7/100,000 in men and 2.6/100,000 in women. The annual mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was 7.5/100,000 in men and 6.6/100,000 in women. Among the specific causes of circulatory diseases, cardiomyopathies had the highest rates of annual proportional mortality, and from malformations of the circulatory system, it occurred due to unspecified malformations of the circulatory system, at all ages and in both genders. Conclusion Mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was most striking in the first years of life, while cardiovascular diseases were more relevant in adolescents. Low access to prenatal diagnosis or at birth probably prevented the proper treatment of malformations of the circulatory system. PMID:27192384

  11. Mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Stenager, E; Stenager, E

    1995-01-01

    . In the background population the median age at death was 80.69 years for men and 84.37 years for women. The SMR for men was 1.92 and for women 2.47. Infections, in particular lung infections, and heart diseases were the most common causes of death. Seventy percent of the death certificates had PD as a diagnosis...

  12. Modeling Human Mortality from All Diseases in the Five Most Populated Countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejs, Josef

    2017-11-01

    Age affects mortality from diseases differently than it affects mortality from external causes, such as accidents. Exclusion of the latter leads to the "all-diseases" category. The age trajectories of mortality from all diseases are studied in the five most populated countries of the EU, and the shape of these 156 age trajectories is investigated in detail. The arithmetic mean of ages where mortality reaches a minimal value is 8.47 years with a 95% confidence interval of [8.08, 8.85] years. Two simple deterministic models fit the age trajectories on the two sides of the mortality minimum. The inverse relationship is valid in all cases prior to this mortality minimum and death rates exactly decreased to three thousandths of its original size during the first 3000 days. After the mortality minimum, the standard Gompertz model fits the data in 63 cases, and the Gompertz model extended by a small quadratic element fits the remaining 93 cases. This analysis indicates that the exponential increase begins before the age of 15 years and that it is overshadowed by non-biological causes. Therefore, the existence of a mechanism switching that would explain the exponential increase in mortality after the age of 35 years is unlikely.

  13. Widespread recent increases in county-level heart disease mortality across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam S; Ritchey, Matthew D; Hannan, Judy; Kramer, Michael R; Casper, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. Using a Bayesian statistical model and National Vital Statistics Systems data, we estimated overall rates and percent change in heart disease mortality from 2010 through 2015 for four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years) in 3098 US counties. Nationally, heart disease mortality declined in every age group except ages 55-64 years. County-level trends by age group showed geographically widespread increases, with 52.3%, 58.5%, 69.1%, and 42.0% of counties experiencing increases with median percent changes of 0.6%, 2.2%, 4.6%, and -1.5% for ages 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years, respectively. Increases were more likely in counties with initially high heart disease mortality and outside large metropolitan areas. Recent national trends have masked local increases in heart disease mortality. These increases, especially among adults younger than age 65 years, represent challenges to communities across the country. Reversing these trends may require intensification of primary and secondary prevention-focusing policies, strategies, and interventions on younger populations, especially those living in less urban counties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection w...... pneumococcal disease. The limitations of the current polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine warrant the development of alternative vaccines. We suggest that the virulence of pneumococcal serotypes should be considered in the design of novel vaccines....

  15. A comparison of mortality rates in three prospective studies from Copenhagen with mortality rates in the central part of the city, and the entire country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Vestbo, Jørgen; Juel, Knud

    1998-01-01

    % in the three programmes. Standardized mortality rates (SMR) were calculated in relation to mortality rates in the municipality of Copenhagen and in the whole country in three age groups and the two genders. SMR values in the whole sample including non-participants were similar to rates for Copenhagen...... of Copenhagen. In two of the studies, subjects were randomly selected, using the Danish Central Population Registry, within certain age groups and area-restricted sectors of the Greater Copenhagen. In the third study, men employed in 14 companies participated. Participation rates were between 78% and 87...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, whereas mortality rates in the Glostrup Population Studies were similar to rates for the whole country. The mortality rates among participants were lower than in the whole sample, and differences existed in relation to region and selection criteria of the cohorts. The Copenhagen...

  16. The Icelandic and Nordic cervical screening programs: trends in incidence and mortality rates through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cervical screening and the UICC and EC screening recommendations based on the Nordic screening experience. The study analyzes the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programs and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries soon after 1960 and had nation-wide coverage in all these countries, except in Denmark (45% coverage in 1991), by around 1973 but in Norway screening was only spontaneous up to late in 1994. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland, followed by Finland, Sweden and Denmark. All countries except Finland lowered the lower age limit and intensified the screening intervals after 1985. Through the period 1986-1995 the reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland (mortality: 76% and incidence: 67%) and Finland (73% and 75%, respectively), intermediate in Sweden (60% and 55%, respectively) and Denmark (55% and 54%, respectively), and lowest in Norway (43% and 34%, respectively). The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland, where the yearly registered age-specific incidence has been increasing in the targeted 30-54 age group since 1991. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas. In fact the rate of adenocarcinoma has been increasing. Organized screening is more effective than spontaneous screening in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Although differences in environmental, biological and ethnic factors may call for different screening strategies, screening should preferably start soon after age 20 with a screening interval of 2

  17. Childhood Albuminuria and Chronic Kidney Disease is Associated with Mortality and End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yuang; Huang, Shiuh-Ming

    2016-08-01

    We do not yet fully grasp the significance of childhood albuminuria. Based on mass urinary screening (MUS) using albumin-specific dipsticks in school children, we studied the independent association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A prospective cohort of 5351 children with albuminuria detected by school MSU during the period 1992-1996, followed up to 2009. Cumulative mortality rate, prevalence of CKD, and ESRD were higher in children with albuminuria than those without. Albuminuria category was associated with the risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 3.4] and ESRD (HR 3.24). Lower eGFR and albuminuria predicted mortality and ESRD among children with albuminuria and CKD. We found that being below a threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was significantly associated with ESRD. The highest renal function decline, along with the steepest slope of cumulative ESRD number, occurred in Stage 3, the critical point in renal progression. Risk factors for renal progression among different age groups with albuminuria were hypercholesterolemia and low serum albumin at 7-17 years of age. Beyond 18 years of age, besides the risk factor, a higher fasting blood sugar (BS) was also noted. Childhood albuminuria is a risk factor for CKD in later life, albuminuria provides additional prognostic information, and complications of CKD should be defined in each case. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Reverse epidemiology, obesity and mortality in chronic kidney disease: modelling mortality expectations using energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a predisposing factor for chronic illnesses such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the effect of obesity on mortality is reversed. Obese patients appear protected. Two ideas have been advanced to explain this 'reverse epidemiology'. First, obesity may buffer patients from wasting. Second, fat may sequester uraemic toxins leading to a systematic error in the prescription of dialysis. Our aim was to use data on the scaling of daily energy expenditure, fat and lean tissue mass to predict the pattern of variation in mortality with obesity under the contrasting hypotheses. We used data on daily energy demands measured using the doubly labelled water technique and body composition collected on a cohort of 503 individuals to model the expected impacts of wasting and fat sequestration/underdialysis on mortality. A model predicting mortality due to wasting replicated the mortality pattern of the obesity paradox. However, quantitatively the beneficial effect of being fat was predicted to be much larger than that observed in the actual CKD population. Similar results were found for the fat sequestration/underdialysis hypothesis, but in this case the discrepancy was smaller. These models tend to support the fat sequestration and underdialysis idea more than the wasting hypothesis. In part (or in whole) this may be because of inadequacies in the model construction which are currently based on rather crude assumptions. Refinement of the models may enable better tests between alternative ideas for the obesity paradox. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Estimating global mortality from potentially foodborne diseases: an analysis using vital registration data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Laura A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foodborne diseases (FBD comprise a large part of the global mortality burden, yet the true extent of their impact remains unknown. The present study utilizes multiple regression with the first attempt to use nonhealth variables to predict potentially FBD mortality at the country level. Methods Vital registration (VR data were used to build a multiple regression model incorporating nonhealth variables in addition to traditionally used health indicators. This model was subsequently used to predict FBD mortality rates for all countries of the World Health Organization classifications AmrA, AmrB, EurA, and EurB. Results Statistical modeling strongly supported the inclusion of nonhealth variables in a multiple regression model as predictors of potentially FBD mortality. Six variables were included in the final model: percent irrigated land, average calorie supply from animal products, meat production in metric tons, adult literacy rate, adult HIV/AIDS prevalence, and percent of deaths under age 5 caused by diarrheal disease. Interestingly, nonhealth variables were not only more robust predictors of mortality than health variables but also remained significant when adding additional health variables into the analysis. Mortality rate predictions from our model ranged from 0.26 deaths per 100,000 (Netherlands to 15.65 deaths per 100,000 (Honduras. Reported mortality rates of potentially FBD from VR data lie within the 95% prediction interval for the majority of countries (37/39 where comparison was possible. Conclusions Nonhealth variables appear to be strong predictors of potentially FBD mortality at the country level and may be a powerful tool in the effort to estimate the global mortality burden of FBD. Disclaimer The views expressed in this document are solely those of the authors and do not represent the views of the World Health Organization.

  20. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working

  1. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E; Williams, Shanita D

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD), heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working-age population in low- and middle-income countries will likely experience increased cardiovascular-disease

  2. Disease-related nutritional risk and mortality in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Codullo, Veronica; Klersy, Catherine; Breda, Silvia; Crippa, Anna; Rava, Maria Luisa; Orlandi, Margherita; Bonardi, Chiara; Fiorentini, Maria Lina; Caporali, Roberto; Caccialanza, Riccardo

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mortality and nutritional risk associated with disease activity in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). A single-centre prospective cohort study involving 160 SSc outpatients (median age, 62 years [25th-75th, 54-68]). Nutritional risk was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), a screening tool that combines anthropometric parameters of nutritional status (body mass index [BMI] and percentage of unintentional weight loss [WL]) with the presence of an "acute disease" (as defined by a disease activity score ≥3 according to Valentini's criteria). Prevalence of high nutritional risk (MUST score ≥2) was 24.4% [95%CI, 17.4-31.3]. A low nutritional risk (MUST = 1) was detected in 30% of our study sample. In hazard analysis (median follow-up duration = 46 months [25th-75th percentile, 31-54]), high nutritional risk was significantly associated with mortality (HR = 8.3 [95%CI, 2.1-32.1]). The performance of the model based on nutritional risk including disease activity (Harrell's c = 0.74 [95%CI, 0.59-0.89]) was superior to that based on active disease alone (HR = 6.3 [95%CI, 1.8-21.7]; Harrell's c = 0.68 [95%CI, 0.53-0.84]). Risk scored only by anthropometric parameters (prevalence, 9.4% [95%CI, 4.6-14.2]) was not associated with mortality: HR = 2.8 [95%CI, 0.6-13.2]. In SSc outpatients MUST significantly predicts mortality. The combined assessment of nutritional parameters and disease activity significantly improves the evaluation of mortality risk. Disease-related nutritional risk screening should be systematically included in the clinical workup of every SSc patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Scale dependence of disease impacts on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on how disease impacts tree exposure to risk, both the prevalence of disease and disease effects on survival may contribute to patterns of mortality risk across a species' range. Disease may accelerate tree species' declines in response to global change factors, such as drought, biotic interactions, such as competition, or functional traits, such as allometry. To assess the role of disease in mediating mortality risk in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), we developed hierarchical Bayesian models for both disease prevalence in live aspen stems and the resulting survival rates of healthy and diseased aspen near the species' southern range limit using 5088 individual trees on 281 United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots in the southwestern United States.

  4. Income Gradient in Renal Disease Mortality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-communicable diseases and associated mortality follow a social gradient and chronic kidney disease is not an exception to this rule. Intermediate behavioral and medical factors that may explain such social gradients are, however, still unknown.ObjectivesUsing nationally representative data in the United States, this study was conducted to investigate the mediating effect of medical and behavioral risk factors on the association between socioeconomic status (SES and renal disease mortality.Patients and methodsAmericans’ Changing Lives Study (ACL, 1986–2011, is a 25-year nationally representative prospective cohort study. ACL followed 3,361 adults for up to 25 years. Income, education, and unemployment were the main predictors of interest. Death due to renal disease was the main outcome. Health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise and medical risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity were the mediators. Cox proportional hazards models were used for data analysis.ResultsHigher income (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62–0.89 was associated with lower risk of death due to renal disease over the 25-year follow-up period. Although health behaviors and medical risk factors at baseline were also predictors of the outcome, they failed to explain the effect of income on death due to renal disease. That is, income was associated with death due to renal disease above and beyond all potential mediators including behavioral and medical risk factors.ConclusionSocioeconomic inequalities in the United States cause disparities in renal disease mortality; however, such differences are not due to health behaviors (smoking and drinking and medical risk factors (hypertension and diabetes. To reduce disparities in renal disease mortality in the United States, policies should go beyond health behaviors and medical risk factors. While programs should help low-income individuals maintain exercise and avoid smoking, reduction of income

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality rate in children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the previous findings of carcinogenesis and mortality rate in children born to A-bomb survivors. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has collected 72,228 children born to A-bomb survivors from May 1946 through 1984. Of their parents, 31,159 parents had been exposed to significant doses (≥0.01 Sv), with a mean genital dose of 0.435 Sv. Among a hypothetic population of 100,000 children of A-bomb survivors exposed to an mean genital dose of 0.4 SV, radiation-induced diseases were considered to occur in only 250 children or less. An earlier large-scale survey during the period 1948-1956 has revealed an evidence of significant increase in stillborn, congenital malformation, and infantile death. In the 1946-1982 survey concerning carcinogenesis in 72,216 children of A-bomb survivors, cancer was found to be detected in 92 children, with no statistically significant increase in cancer risk with increasing radiation doses in their parents. The survey on mortality rate in 67,586 children of A-bomb survivors has revealed no evidence of significant increase in mortality rate from diseases, other than cancer, and in the incidence of lethal cancer. For A-bomb survivors, genetic doubling doses were considered to be 1 Sv or more. Further, when genetic doubling doses are calculated, the contribution rate of genital cell disturbance should be considered in the incidence of spontaneously induced disease. There is no supportive evidence of genetic effects of A-bomb radiation in children of A-bomb survivors; however, genetic effects of A-bomb radiation cannot be denied completely. Continuing survey is expected to be done for children of A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  6. Distal, intermediate, and proximal mediators of racial disparities in renal disease mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Kidney failure and associated mortality is one of the major components of racial disparities in the United States. The current study aimed to investigate the role of distal (socioeconomic status, SES), intermediate (chronic medical diseases), and proximal (health behaviors) factors that may explain Black-White disparities in mortality due to renal diseases. This is a nationally representative prospective cohort with 25 years of follow up. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, 1986 to 2011. The study included 3361 Black (n = 1156) or White (n = 2205) adults who were followed for up to 25 years. Race was the main predictor and death due to renal disease was the outcome. SES, chronic medical disease (diabetes, hypertension, obesity), and health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) at baseline were potential mediators. We used Cox proportional hazards models for data analysis. In age and gender adjusted models, Blacks had higher risk of death due to renal disease over the follow up period. Separate models suggested that SES, health behaviors and chronic medical disease fully explained the effect of race on renal disease mortality. Black-White disparities in rate of death due to renal diseases in the United States are not genuine but secondary to racial differences in income, health behaviors, hypertension, and diabetes. As distal, intermediate, and proximal factors contribute to racial disparities in renal disease mortality, elimination of such disparities requires a wide range of policies and programs that target income, medical conditions, and health behaviors.

  7. Distal, intermediate, and proximal mediators of racial disparities in renal disease mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kidney failure and associated mortality is one of the major components of racial disparities in the United States. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the role of distal (socioeconomic status, SES), intermediate (chronic medical diseases), and proximal (health behaviors) factors that may explain Black-White disparities in mortality due to renal diseases. Patients and Methods: This is a nationally representative prospective cohort with 25 years of follow up. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) study, 1986 to 2011. The study included 3361 Black (n = 1156) or White (n = 2205) adults who were followed for up to 25 years. Race was the main predictor and death due to renal disease was the outcome. SES, chronic medical disease (diabetes, hypertension, obesity), and health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) at baseline were potential mediators. We used Cox proportional hazards models for data analysis. Results: In age and gender adjusted models, Blacks had higher risk of death due to renal disease over the follow up period. Separate models suggested that SES, health behaviors and chronic medical disease fully explained the effect of race on renal disease mortality. Conclusions: Black-White disparities in rate of death due to renal diseases in the United States are not genuine but secondary to racial differences in income, health behaviors, hypertension, and diabetes. As distal, intermediate, and proximal factors contribute to racial disparities in renal disease mortality, elimination of such disparities requires a wide range of policies and programs that target income, medical conditions, and health behaviors. PMID:27047811

  8. Mortality Rate for Children under 5 Years of Age in Zhejiang Province, China from 1997 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Dingwan; Xu, Yanhua; Yang, Rulai; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    This is a population based descriptive study that examined the trends in childhood mortality among under five children and the major causes under five mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. A population-based survey was conducted through a province-level surveillance network. The mortality rate and leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age were analyzed. The trend in the mortality rate for children under five and cause-specific mortality rates were analyzed by chi-square with SPSS 13.0 software. In Zhejiang Province, during 1997-2012, mortality rates in neonates, postneonatal infants, and children under 5 years were reduced by 64.2% (from 7.85 to 2.81 per 1000 livebirths), 66.7% (from 12.73 to 4.24 per 1000 livebirths), and 63% (from 15.76 to 5.85 per 1000 livebirths), respectively. The mortality rates in children under 5 years of age decreased by 59.5% (from 11.09 to 4.49 per 1000 livebirths) and 65.8% (from 19.30 to 6.61 per 1000 livebirths) in urban and rural areas, respectively. Prematurity/low birth weight and congenital heart disease were in the top five causes of death in children under 5 years of age during 1997-2012. Zhejiang province has achieved great progress in the reduction of mortality rates in children under five-years-old during the past two decades. The future tasks on reduction of mortality rate still rely on how to improve the management of premature birth/low birth weight, reduce birth defects and prevent accidental deaths in Zhejiang Province.

  9. Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Czech Men, 1980-2004

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reissigová, Jindra; Tomečková, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 12-16 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : coronary heart disease * cardiovascular * mortality * 1980-2004 Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/articles/200812/33/1.html

  10. Malignancy and mortality in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ridder, Lissy; Turner, Dan; Wilson, David C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of the severity of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes and the need for intense medical treatment may increase the risk of malignancy and mortality, but evidence regarding the extent of the problem is scarce. Therefore, the Porto Pediatric IBD w...

  11. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Sine; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association betweenalcohol consumption and mortality in patients recentlydiagnosed with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design: A post hoc analysis study based on a clinicaltrial population. Setting: The data reported were collected as part ofthe Danish Alzheimer’s...

  12. Mortality from Respiratory Diseases Associated with Opium Use – A Population Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharavi, Samad; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul DP; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. Methods We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. Results During the follow-up period 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 95% CI; 3.13 (2.42-4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61-5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. never use (Ptrendopium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18-3.25) and 3.71 (2.76-4.96), respectively. Conclusion Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases. PMID:27885167

  13. Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagea, Mihai I; Bateman, Kenneth G; van Dreumel, Tony; McEwen, Beverly J; Carman, Susy; Archambault, Marie; Shanahan, Rachel A; Caswell, Jeff L

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

  14. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and mortality among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Harhay, Michael O; Harhay, Meera N

    2017-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may foster a tumor microenvironment that promotes cancer recurrence and progression. We examined the relationship between NAFLD and mortality among a sample of cancer survivors. Ultrasonography was used to assess hepatic steatosis, and standardized algorithms were used to define NAFLD. Study endpoints included all-cause, cancer-specific, and cardiovascular-specific mortality. Among 387 cancer survivors, 17.6% had NAFLD. During a median of 17.9 years of follow up, we observed 196 deaths from all causes. In multivariable-adjusted regression models, NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.47-4.34; P=0.001]. We observed 86 cancer-specific deaths. In multivariable-adjusted regression models, NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality [HR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.46-7.07; P=0.004]. We observed 46 cardiovascular-specific deaths. In multivariable-adjusted regression models, NAFLD was not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-specific mortality [HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.30-3.64, P=0.951]. NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortality among cancer survivors. This novel observation warrants replication. Evaluating the efficacy of interventions, such as lifestyle modification through weight loss and exercise, to improve NAFLD in this population may be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stroke subtypes, risk factors and mortality rate in northwest of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhoudi, Mehdi; Mehrvar, Kaveh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    data, risk factors, types and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study was done in two university tertiary referral hospitals in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, from March 2008 to April 2013. Patients diagnosed with stroke were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, stroke subtypes, duration...... of hospitalization, stroke risk factors and hospital mortality rate were recorded for all the patients. Results: A total number of 5355 patients were evaluated in the present study. Mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 13.8 years, and 50.6% were men. Final diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made in 76.......5% of the patients, intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with or without intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in 14.3% and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 9.2%. Stroke risk factors among the patients were hypertension in 68.8% of the patients, diabetes mellitus (DM) in 23.9%, smoking in 12.6% and ischemic heart diseases...

  16. Progression of Mortality due to Diseases of the Circulatory System and Human Development Index in Rio de Janeiro Municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza E; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de

    2016-10-01

    Diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) are the major cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. To correlate the compensated and adjusted mortality rates due to DCS in the Rio de Janeiro State municipalities between 1979 and 2010 with the Human Development Index (HDI) from 1970 onwards. Population and death data were obtained in DATASUS/MS database. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) and DCS adjusted by using the direct method and compensated for ill-defined causes. The HDI data were obtained at the Brazilian Institute of Applied Research in Economics. The mortality rates and HDI values were correlated by estimating Pearson linear coefficients. The correlation coefficients between the mortality rates of census years 1991, 2000 and 2010 and HDI data of census years 1970, 1980 and 1991 were calculated with discrepancy of two demographic censuses. The linear regression coefficients were estimated with disease as the dependent variable and HDI as the independent variable. In recent decades, there was a reduction in mortality due to DCS in all Rio de Janeiro State municipalities, mainly because of the decline in mortality due to CBVD, which was preceded by an elevation in HDI. There was a strong correlation between the socioeconomic indicator and mortality rates. The HDI progression showed a strong correlation with the decline in mortality due to DCS, signaling to the relevance of improvements in life conditions.

  17. Microbleeds, Mortality, and Stroke in Alzheimer Disease: The MISTRAL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedictus, Marije R; Prins, Niels D; Goos, Jeroen D C; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M

    2015-05-01

    Microbleeds are more prevalent in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with the general elderly population. In addition, microbleeds have been found to predict mortality in AD. To investigate whether microbleeds in AD increase the risk for mortality, stroke (including intracerebral hemorrhage), and cardiovascular events. The MISTRAL (do MIcrobleeds predict STRoke in ALzheimer's disease) Study is a longitudinal cohort study within the memory clinic-based Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. We selected all patients with AD with a baseline visit between January 2, 2002, and December 16, 2009, and microbleeds (n = 111) and matched those (1:2) for age, sex, and magnetic resonance imaging scanner to 222 patients with AD without microbleeds. After a minimal follow-up of 3 years, information on all-cause mortality, stroke-related mortality, and cardiovascular mortality was obtained between November 1, 2012, and May 1, 2014. In addition, we obtained information on the occurrence of incident stroke or transient ischemic attack, cardiovascular events, and nursing home admittance. Stroke-related mortality, incident stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients had a mean (SD) age of 71.2 (7.8) years and 127 (42%) were female. Compared with having no microbleeds, microbleeds in lobar locations were associated with an increased risk for stroke-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 33.9; 95% CI, 2.5-461.7), whereas nonlobar microbleeds were associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR, 12.0; 95% CI, 3.2-44.7). In addition, lobar microbleeds were associated with an increased risk for incident stroke (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1) and nonlobar microbleeds with an increased risk for cardiovascular events (HR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.5-25.0). Even higher risks for incident stroke and cardiovascular events were found in patients using antithrombotic medication. All 5 patients with an intracerebral hemorrhage had lobar microbleeds at baseline; 4 of them used antithrombotics

  18. Fine-particulate Air Pollution from Diesel Emission Control and Mortality Rates in Tokyo: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    Evidence linking air pollution with adverse health outcomes is accumulating. However, few studies have adopted a quasi-experimental design to evaluate whether decline in air pollution from regulatory action improves public health. We evaluated the effect of a diesel emission control ordinance introduced in 2003 on mortality rates in 23 wards of the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from October 2000 to September 2012, taking into account change in mortality rates in a reference population (Osaka) with a introduction of such a regulation in 2009. We obtained daily counts of all-cause and cause-specific mortality and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) during the study period. We employed interrupted time-series analysis to analyze the data. Decline in NO2 during the study period was similar in the two areas, while decline in PM2.5 and the improvement in age-standardized mortality rates were greater in Tokyo's 23 wards compared with Osaka. Even after adjusting for age-standardized mortality rates in Osaka, percent changes in mortality between the first 3-year interval (October 2000 to September 2003) and the last 3-year interval (October 2009 to September 2012) were -6.0% for all causes, -11% for cardiovascular disease, -10% for ischemic heart disease, -6.2% for cerebrovascular disease, -22% for pulmonary disease, and -4.9% for lung cancer. We did not observe a decline in mortality from other causes. This quasi-experimental study in Tokyo suggests that emission control was associated with improvements in both air quality and health outcomes.

  19. Diabetes mortality differs between registers due to various disease definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. A.; Christensen, Henry; Lund, Erik D.

    2014-01-01

    to prevalence, co-morbidity and five-year mortality rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The regional (County of Vejle) and national diabetes populations were compared per the inclusion date of 31 December 2006 limited to persons residing in four municipalities in the County of Vejle, Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 14...

  20. Long-term mortality rates and spatial patterns in an old-growth forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily J. Silver; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Tuomas Aakala; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Understanding natural mortality patterns and processes of forest tree species is increasingly important given projected changes in mortality owing to global change. With this need in mind, the rate and spatial pattern of mortality was assessed over an 89-year period in a natural-origin Pinus resinosa (Aiton)-dominated system to assess these processes...

  1. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  2. Regional variation in coronary heart disease mortality trends in Portugal, 1981-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carla; Pereira, Marta; Viana, Marta; Rocha, Olga Laszczyńska; Bennett, Kathleen; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana

    2016-12-01

    Information is scarce about the geographic variation in time trends of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). We aimed to describe trends in death rates, absolute number of deaths and years of life lost (YLL) due to CHD among men and women in Portugal, by region, from 1981 to 2012. The age-standardized mortality rates from CHD were estimated by sex and region. We used joinpoint regression analysis to calculate the annual percent change (APC) in mortality and to identify points of significant change in the trend. The YLL due to premature mortality for CHD were computed using the Global Burden of Disease method. The age-adjusted mortality from CHD decreased between 1981 and 2012, both in men and women, but with significantly different APC by region. Smaller declines in rates were observed in Alentejo (men: APC 1993-2012: -2.4%; women: APC 1991-2012: -2.4%). The greatest decline was observed in Madeira between 2003 and 2012, in men (APC: -7.6%) and women (APC: -9.7%). The decline in rates in Algarve started only after 2003, whereas it was consistent from 1981 in the North and started in the 1990s in most other regions. A decrease in the number of deaths was only observed after 2000. The YLL from CHD decreased from 1981 to 2012, mainly after 2000. In Portugal, between 1981 and 2012, relative declines of CHD mortality indicators were different by geographic region. Consistent decreases in mortality rates were only observed in the Centre, Lisbon and North, the most populated and urbanized regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  4. Soil Correlates and Mortality from Giraffe Skin Disease in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Monica L; Strauss, Megan K L; Lee, Derek E

    2016-10-01

    Giraffe skin disease (GSD) is a disorder of undetermined etiology that causes lesions on the forelimbs of Masai giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania, East Africa. We examined soil correlates of prevalence of GSD from 951 giraffe in 14 sites in Tanzania, and estimated mortality using 3 yr of longitudinal mark-recapture data from 382 giraffe with and without GSD lesions, in Tarangire National Park (TNP). Spatial variation in GSD prevalence was best explained by soil fertility, measured as cation exchange capacity. We found no mortality effect of GSD on adult giraffe in TNP. Based on our findings, GSD is unlikely to warrant immediate veterinary intervention, but continued monitoring is recommended to ensure early detection if GSD-afflicted animals begin to show signs of increased mortality or other adverse effects.

  5. The rise of mortality from mental and neurological diseases in Europe, 1979-2009: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Karanikolos, Marina; Looman, Caspar W N

    2014-08-13

    We studied recent trends in mortality from seven mental and neurological conditions and their determinants in 41 European countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were analysed using standard methods of descriptive epidemiology, and were related to cultural, economic and health care indicators using regression analysis. Rising mortality from mental and neurological conditions is seen in most European countries, and is mainly due to rising mortality from dementias. Mortality from psychoactive substance use and Parkinson's disease has also risen in several countries. Mortality from dementias has risen particularly strongly in Finland, Iceland, Malta, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, and is positively associated with self-expression values, average income, health care expenditure and life expectancy, but only the first has an independent effect. Although trends in mortality from dementias have probably been affected by changes in cause-of-death classification, the high level of mortality from these conditions in a number of vanguard countries suggests that it is now among the most frequent causes of death in high-income countries. Recognition of dementias as a cause of death, and/or refraining from life-saving treatment for patients with dementia, appear to be strongly dependent on cultural values.

  6. Trends in cardiovascular diseases and cancer mortality in 45 countries from five continents (1980-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Fábio; Gouvinhas, Cláudia; Fontes, Filipa; La Vecchia, Carlo; Azevedo, Ana; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer are worldwide main causes of death with mortality trends varying across countries with different levels of economic development. We analysed trends in CVD and cancer mortality for 37 European countries, five high-income non-European countries and four leading emerging economies (BRICS) using data from the World Health Organization database for the period 1980-2010. In high-income countries, CVD mortality trends are characterized by steep declines over the last decades, while a downward trend in cancer mortality started more recently and was less pronounced. This resulted in the gradual convergence of the CVD and cancer mortality rates, and the latter are already higher in some countries. The absolute number of CVD deaths decreased in most settings, while cancer deaths increased in nearly all countries. Among the BRICS, China and South Africa share a similar pattern of no meaningful variation in both CVD and cancer age-standardized mortality rates and an increase in the overall number of deaths by these causes. Brazil presents trends similar to those of high-income countries, except for the still increasing number of CVD deaths. The substantial decreases in CVD mortality over the last decades have overcome the impact of the growth and ageing of populations in the overall number of deaths, while stabilization in the number of cancer deaths was observed only in some of the high-income countries. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients tr...

  8. Did the Great Recession affect mortality rates in the metropolitan United States? Effects on mortality by age, gender and cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, Erin C; Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit

    2017-09-01

    Mortality rates generally decline during economic recessions in high-income countries, however gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. This study estimates the impacts of increases in unemployment rates on both all-cause and cause-specific mortality across U.S. metropolitan regions during the Great Recession. We estimate the effects of economic conditions during the recent and severe recessionary period on mortality, including differences by age and gender subgroups, using fixed effects regression models. We identify a plausibly causal effect by isolating the impacts of within-metropolitan area changes in unemployment rates and controlling for common temporal trends. We aggregated vital statistics, population, and unemployment data at the area-month-year-age-gender-race level, yielding 527,040 observations across 366 metropolitan areas, 2005-2010. We estimate that a one percentage point increase in the metropolitan area unemployment rate was associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality of 3.95 deaths per 100,000 person years (95%CI -6.80 to -1.10), or 0.5%. Estimated reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality contributed 60% of the overall effect and were more pronounced among women. Motor vehicle accident mortality declined with unemployment increases, especially for men and those under age 65, as did legal intervention and homicide mortality, particularly for men and adults ages 25-64. We find suggestive evidence that increases in metropolitan area unemployment increased accidental drug poisoning deaths for both men and women ages 25-64. Our finding that all-cause mortality decreased during the Great Recession is consistent with previous studies. Some categories of cause-specific mortality, notably cardiovascular disease, also follow this pattern, and are more pronounced for certain gender and age groups. Our study also suggests that the recent recession contributed to the growth in deaths from overdoses of prescription drugs in

  9. Mortality following operations for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracie C Collins

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracie C Collins1,2, David Nelson3, Jasjit S Ahluwalia1,21Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Center for Health Equity, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: We sought to identify risk factors associated with mortality following surgery for peripheral arterial disease (PAD.Methods: We evaluated the association between levels of control of atherosclerotic risk factors and time to mortality following either lower extremity bypass surgery or lower extremity amputation using Cox proportional hazards regression.Results: Among 796 patients with PAD (defined by an ankle-brachial index [ABI] < 0.9, 230 (28.9% underwent an operation for PAD (136, lower-extremity bypasses; 111, lower-extremity amputations. Participants were followed for up to six years after their diagnosis of PAD. A total of 107 (46.5% of the 230 died during the period of follow-up. Factors associated with mortality following lower extremity bypass surgery included age 70 years and older hazard ratio [HR] 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–3.51 and of African American race (HR 1.94; 95% CI: 1.04–3.62. Renal insufficiency was significantly associated with mortality following lower extremity amputation (HR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.16–4.13. Conclusion: Our data provide information on preoperative risk variables to consider when assessing long-term mortality in persons with PAD who are undergoing surgery for PAD.Keywords: risk factors, mortality, bypass surgery, ankle-brachial index

  10. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vidya M Raj; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B; Raphael, Kalani L; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) was 5.8%. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the odds of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels were decreased by 11% and 38% in those without and with kidney disease, respectively. Dietary total fiber intake was not significantly associated with mortality in those without but was inversely related to mortality in those with kidney disease. The relationship of total fiber with inflammation and mortality differed significantly in those with and without kidney disease. Thus, high dietary total fiber intake is associated with lower risk of inflammation and mortality in kidney disease and these associations are stronger in magnitude in those with kidney disease. Interventional trials are needed to establish the effects of fiber intake on inflammation and mortality in kidney disease.

  11. Rates and predictors of three-year mortality in older people in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William K; Dewhurst, Felicity; Dewhurst, Matthew J; Orega, Golda; Kissima, John; Chaote, Paul; Walker, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on mortality rates in the general elderly living in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to detail three-year mortality rates in a population of rural community-dwelling older adults in northern Tanzania. We performed a community-based study of 2232 people aged 70 years and over living in Hai district, Tanzania. At baseline, participants underwent clinical assessment for disability, neurological disorders, hypertension, atrial fibrillation and memory problems. At three-year follow-up mortality data were collected. Mortality rates were compared to UK estimates. At follow-up, data were available for 1873 subjects (83.9%). Of those, 208 (11.1%, 95% CI 9.7-12.5) had died. The age-standardised mortality rate was 10.2% (95% CI 8.8-11.6). Age-standardised mortality rates were lower than estimated for the UK (13.9%). In Cox regression analysis, greater age, higher levels of functional disability, use of a walking aid, subjective report of memory problems, being severely underweight and being normotensive were significant predictors of mortality. Those who survive to old age in Tanzania appear to have relatively low mortality rates. Physical and cognitive disabilities were strongly associated with mortality risk in this elderly community-dwelling population. The association between blood pressure and mortality merits further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low mortality rates after endovascular aortic repair expand use to high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Shaunak S; Turner, Megan C; Leraas, Harold J; Gilmore, Brian F; Nag, Uttara; Turley, Ryan S; Shortell, Cynthia K; Mureebe, Leila

    2018-02-01

    The 2010 endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) trial 2 (EVAR 2) reported that patients with comorbidity profiles rendering them unfit for open aneurysm repair who underwent EVAR did not experience a survival advantage compared with those who did not undergo intervention. These patients experienced a 30-day mortality of 7.3%, whereas reports from similar cohorts reported far lower mortality rates. The primary objective of our study was to compare the incidence of 30-day mortality in low- and high-risk patients undergoing EVAR in a contemporary data set, using patient risk stratification criteria from EVAR 2. Secondarily, we sought to identify risk factors associated with a disproportionate contribution to 30-day mortality risk. Data were obtained from the 2005 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Participant Use Data Files (N = 24,813). Patients were included in the high-risk cohort with the presence of renal, respiratory, or cardiac preoperative criteria alone or in combination. Renal impairment criteria were defined as dialysis and creatinine concentration >2.26 mg/dL. Respiratory impairment criteria included history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and preoperative ventilator support. Cardiac impairment criteria included history of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, angina, and prior coronary intervention. Patient and procedural characteristics and 30-day postoperative outcomes were compared using Pearson χ 2 tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. Among 24,813 patients undergoing EVAR, 12,043 (48%) patients were characterized as high risk (at least one impairment criterion); 12,770 (52%) patients were stratified as low risk. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.9% in the high-risk cohort compared with the 7.3% reported by EVAR 2, and it was higher in the high-risk cohort compared with the low-risk cohort (1.9% vs 0.9%; P < .001). Whereas the

  13. Space-Time Analysis to Identify Areas at Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany C. O. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying areas that were at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in residents aged 45 years or older of the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande between 2009 and 2011. We conducted an ecological study of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. Mortality rates were calculated for each census tract by the Local Empirical Bayes estimator. High- and low-risk clusters were identified by retrospective space-time scans for each year using the Poisson probability model. We defined the year and month as the temporal analysis unit and the census tracts as the spatial analysis units adjusted by age and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the socioeconomic and environmental variables by risk classification. High-risk clusters showed higher income ratios than low-risk clusters, as did temperature range and atmospheric particulate matter. Low-risk clusters showed higher humidity than high-risk clusters. The Eastern region of Várzea Grande and the central region of Cuiabá were identified as areas at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 45 years or older. High mortality risk was associated with socioeconomic and environmental factors. More high-risk clusters were observed at the end of the dry season.

  14. Avian mortality rates on a power line near Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    power line carried on tall metal pylons, and a smaller 33-kV line, with three conduc- tors supported on wooden poles, ... able literature on bird mortality associated with power lines (e.g. Lehman et al. 2005,. Jenkins et al. 2010, Edison .... the conductor wires would have been hard to see. Residents reported that other birds.

  15. Determinants of self-rated health: could health status explain the association between self-rated health and mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Chiyoe; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group, and functional status was also employed. Series of analysis found that factors associated with self-rated health and with mortality were not identical. Psychological factors such as perceived isolation at home or 'ikigai (one aspect of psychological well-being)' were associated with self-rated health only. Age, functional status, and social relations were associated both with self-rated health and mortality after controlling for possible confounders. Illnesses and functional status accounted for 35-40% of variances in the fair/poor self-rated health. Differences by gender and functional status were observed in the factors related to self-rated health. Overall, self-rated health effect on mortality was stronger for people with no functional impairment, for shorter follow-up period, and for young-old age group. Although, illnesses and functional status were major determinants of self-rated health, economical, psychological, and social factors were also related to self-rated health.

  16. Trends in Heart Disease Mortality among Mississippi Adults over Three Decades, 1980-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L Mendy

    Full Text Available Heart disease (HD remains the leading cause of death among Mississippians; however, despite the importance of the condition, trends in HD mortality in Mississippi have not been adequately explored. This study examined trends in HD mortality among adults in Mississippi from 1980 through 2013 and further examined these trends by race and sex. We used data from Mississippi Vital Statistics (1980-2013 to calculate age-adjusted HD mortality rates for Mississippians age 25 or older. Cases were identified using underlying cause of death codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9: 390-398, 402, 404-429 and Tenth Revision (ICD-10, including I00-I09, I11, I13, and I20-I51. Joinpoint software was used to calculate the average annual percent change in HD mortality rates for the overall population and by race and sex. Overall, the age-adjusted HD mortality rate among Mississippi adults decreased by 36.5% between 1980 and 2013, with an average annual percent change of -1.60% (95% CI -2.00 to -1.30. This trend varied across subgroups: HD mortality rates experienced an average annual change of -1.34% (95% CI -1.98 to -0.69 for black adults; -1.60% (95% CI -1.74 to -1.46 for white adults; -1.30% (95% CI -1.50 to -1.10 for all women, and -1.90% (95% -2.20 to -1.50 for all men. From 1980 to 2013, there was a continuous decrease in HD mortality among adult Mississippians. However, the magnitude of this reduction differed by race and sex.

  17. Mortality causes and outcomes in Indigenous populations of Canada, the United States, and Australia with rheumatic disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Kelle; Barnabe, Cheryl

    2018-02-01

    Indigenous populations of Canada, America, Australia, and New Zealand have increased rates and severity of rheumatic disease. Our objective was to summarize mortality outcomes and explore disease and social factors related to mortality. A systematic search was performed in medical (Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL), Indigenous and conference abstract databases (to June 2015) combining search terms for Indigenous populations and rheumatic diseases. Studies were included if they reported measures of mortality (crude frequency, mortality rate, survival, and potential years of life lost (PYLL)) in Indigenous populations from the four countries. Of 5269 titles and abstracts identified, 504 underwent full-text review and 12 were included. No studies from New Zealand were found. In five Canadian studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, First Nations ethnicity was associated with lower survival after adjusting for disease and social factors, and an increased frequency of death from lupus and its complications compared to Caucasians was found. All-cause mortality was higher in Native Americans (n = 2 studies) relative to Whites with SLE after adjusting for disease and social factors, but not in those with lupus nephritis alone. Australian Aborigines with SLE frequently developed infection and lupus complications leading to death (n = 3 studies). Mortality rates were increased in Pima Indians in the United States with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to those without RA. One study in Native Americans with scleroderma found nearly all deaths were related to progressive disease. Canadian and American Indigenous populations with SLE have increased mortality rates compared to Caucasian populations. Mortality in Canadian and Australian Indigenous populations with SLE, and in Native American populations with RA and scleroderma, is frequently attributed to disease progression or complications. The proportional attribution of rheumatic disease severity and social factors

  18. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY DUE TO AIDS: A STUDY OF BURDEN OF DISEASE AT A MUNICIPAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane DA SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of measuring the burden of disease involves aggregating morbidity and mortality components into a single indicator, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY, to measure how much and how people live and suffer the impact of a disease. Objective: To estimate the global burden of disease due to AIDS in a municipality of southern Brazil. Methods: An ecological study was conducted in 2009 to examine the incidence and AIDS-related deaths among the population residing in the city of Tubarao, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data from the Mortality Information System in the National Health System was used to calculate the years of life lost (YLL due to premature mortality. The calculation was based on the difference between a standardized life expectancy and age at death, with a discount rate of 3% per year. Data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases were used to calculate the years lived with disability (YLD. The DALY was estimated by the sum of YLL and YLD. Indicator rates were estimated per 100,000 inhabitants, distributed by age and gender. Results: A total of 131 records were examined, and a 572.5 DALYs were estimated, which generated a rate of 593.1 DALYs/100,000 inhabitants. The rate among men amounted to 780.7 DALYs/100,000, whereas among women the rate was 417.1 DALYs/100,000. The most affected age groups were 30-44 years for men and 60-69 years for women. Conclusion: The burden of disease due to AIDS in the city of Tubarao was relatively high when considering the global trend. The mortality component accounted for more than 90% of the burden of disease.

  19. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  20. Chronic liver disease related mortality pattern in northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, N.; Niazi, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the mortality pattern pertaining to chronic liver disease (CLD) in Northern Pakistan. Results: There were a total of 8529 admissions in twelve months period from August 2001 to July 2002. There were 283 (3.31%) total deaths. Out of these, 160 deaths were pertaining to medical causes. Out of these medical cases, 33 (20.6%) patients had died of chronic liver disease. Other major causes of death were cerebro-vascular accident (18.7%), malignancy (18.1%) and acute myocardial infarction (10.6%). Out of 33 patients of CLD, 12 (36%) presented with acute gastrointestinal (Gl) bleeding, 9(27%) presented with Ascites and 6(18%) presented with altered mental status due to hepatic encephalopathy. Rest of them had jaundice and fever as their initial presentation. Out of these 33 patients with CLD, 23 (70%) had hepatitis C virus (HCV) as cause of their liver disease, 4 (12%) had hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 3(9%) had both hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections and 3 (9%) had no known cause of their chronic liver disease. Conclusion: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of mortality in this part of Pakistan at a tertiary care hospital. HCV infection is the main cause of chronic liver disease followed by either HBV or a combination of these viruses. Major manifestations of CLD have been gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic failure and portal hypertension.(author)

  1. [Trend of premature mortality from chronic and non-communicable diseases in Tianjin, 1999-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Z; Zhang, H; Xu, Z L; Song, G D; Zhang, Y; Shen, C F; Zhang, S; Xue, X D; Wang, C; Jiang, G H

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To explore the trends and distribution of premature mortality caused by four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes in different sex and residential areas in Tianjin so as to provide basis for setting up prevention and control programs on premature mortality. Methods: Population data on premature mortality in 1999-2015 were from the 'Tianjin population based mortality surveillance system' maintained by Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data related to permanent residents was from the Tianjin Municipal Public Security Bureau. Standardized premature mortality rates were calculated and adjusted for age and gender according to the '2000 world standard population'. Premature mortality probabilities were analyzed according to the methods recommended by WHO. Joinpoint regression and Cochran-Armitage trend methods were used to determine the significance of differences on the trends of mortality. Results: From 1999 to 2015, the premature mortality appeared consistent ( P diseases with the APC of probabilities as-2.92%, -1.13%, -9.51% and -3.39%, respectively. The probabilities of premature mortality were all declining consistently in both men and women and in both urban and rural areas in Tianjin. From 1999 to 2015, the probabilities of the four main NCDs were between 19.67% and 12.85% (APC=-2.49%, P <0.001), higher in women (from 17.02% to 9.17%, APC=-3.84%, P <0.001) than that in men (from 22.27% to 16.47%, APC=-1.59%, P <0.001), in urban (from 21.04% to 12.34%, APC=-3.26%, P <0.001) than that in rural areas (from 17.80% to 13.54%, APC=-1.54%, P <0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggested that premature mortality in Tianjin was decreasing during 1999-2015 but attention should still be called for on males and people living in the rural areas to further reducing the premature mortality.

  2. Mortality rate and relative strain index in Buenos Aires city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garín, Alicia; Bejarán, Rubén

    2003-09-01

    Thermal stress may seriously affect human health to the extent of provoking death in those human groups at high risk such as little children and elderly persons. This research studies the climatology of the relative strain index (RSI) in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It is observed that the conditions at 1400 hours local time on more than 75% of summer days cause discomfort, though only on 25% of days are physiological failure levels reached. The nocturnal RSI values show 75% of nights to be comfortable, bringing relief and allowing physiological recuperation. Comparison between the RSI frequency distributions of different decades by the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows a possible urban heat-island effect that increases nocturnal RSI values. The relationship between the RSI and the daily number of interments is also analysed. Because of the large number of different causes of mortality, only about 10% of the variance of the daily number of interments can be explained by the RSI value at 1400 hours local time 1 or 2 days before. Comparison of mortality figures with these RSI values shows deaths to be at a minimum for the interval 0.0-0.1 (the RSI comfort range), slightly increasing for negative values that could represent unexpected Summer cold waves. For values of RSI over 0.2 the increment is more abrupt, indicating an impact of a thermal strain on mortality. The relationship between the joint occurrence of the 1400 hour and 0200 hour (local time) RSI values and mortality shows a clear impact of prolonged exposure to uncomfortable conditions.

  3. Mortality associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nanchen

    Full Text Available Current guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD recommend diabetes as a CVD risk equivalent. However, reports that have examined the risk of diabetes in comparison to pre-existing CVD are lacking among older women. We aimed to assess whether diabetes was associated with a similar risk of total and cause-specific mortality as a history of CVD in older women.We studied 9218 women aged 68 years or older enrolled in a prospective cohort study (Study of Osteoporotic Fracture during a mean follow-up period of 11.7 years and compared all-cause, cardiovascular and coronary heart disease mortality among 4 groups: non-diabetic women with and without existing CVD, diabetic women with and without existing CVD. Mean (SD age of the participants was 75.2 (5.3 years, 3.5% reported diabetes and 6.8% reported existing CVD. During follow-up, 5117 women died with 36% from CVD. The multivariate adjusted risk of cardiovascular mortality was increased among both non-diabetic women with CVD (hazard ratio (HR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.97-2.74, P<0.001 and diabetic women without CVD (HR 2.06, CI: 1.62-2.64, P<0.001 compared to non-diabetic women without existing CVD. All-cause, cardiovascular and coronary mortality of non-diabetic women with CVD were not significantly different from diabetic women without CVD.Older diabetic women without CVD have a similar risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-diabetic women with pre-existing CVD. The equivalence of diabetes and CVD seems to extend to older women, supporting current guidelines for cardiovascular prevention.

  4. Global skin disease morbidity and mortality an update from the global burden of disease study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Karimkhani (Chante); R.P. Dellavalle (Robert P.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); C. Flohr (Carsten); R.J. Hay (Roderick J.); S.M. Langan (Sinéad M.); E.O. Nsoesie (Elaine O.); A. Ferrari (Andrea); H. Erskine (Holly); J. Silverberg; T. Vos (Theo); M. Naghavi (Morteza)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIMPORTANCE Disability secondary to skin conditions is substantial worldwide. The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 includes estimates of global morbidity and mortality due to skin diseases. OBJECTIVE To measure the burden of skin diseases worldwide. DATA SOURCES For nonfatal

  5. Disparities in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil between 1980 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffo Freitas-Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil in its macro-regions and states between 1980 and 2009. METHODS: This was an ecological time-series study using data on breast cancer deaths registered in the Mortality Data System (SIM/WHO and census data on the resident population collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE/WHO. Joinpoint regression analyses were used to identify the significant changes in trends and to estimate the annual percentage change (APC in mortality rates. RESULTS: Female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize from 1994 onward (APC = 0.4%. Considering the Brazilian macro-regions, the annual mortality rates decreased in the Southeast, stabilized in the South and increased in the Northeast, North, and Midwest. Only the states of Sao Paulo (APC = -1.9%, Rio Grande do Sul (APC = -0.8% and Rio de Janeiro (APC = -0.6% presented a significant decline in mortality rates. The greatest increases were found in Maranhao (APC=12%, Paraiba (APC=11.9%, and Piaui (APC=10.9%. CONCLUSION: Although there has been a trend toward stabilization in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil, when the mortality rate of each macro-region and state is analyzed individually, considerable inequalities are found, with rate decline or stabilization in states with higher socioeconomic levels and a substantial increase in those with lower socioeconomic levels.

  6. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  7. [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2014-07-07

    Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing premature mortality from non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Christi

    2017-04-19

    Cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory disease, are a leading cause of premature death and disability worldwide. This article emphasises the importance of prevention in reducing death and disability from preventable non-communicable diseases, especially for individuals with established risk factors for these diseases. It reviews global initiatives to reduce morality rates from these diseases, identifies opportunities for nurses and other healthcare professionals to discuss risk factors with patients, and provides practical suggestions on how to provide advice on healthy lifestyles and enable behaviour change.

  9. Child mortality estimation: consistency of under-five mortality rate estimates using full birth histories and summary birth histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romesh Silva

    Full Text Available Given the lack of complete vital registration data in most developing countries, for many countries it is not possible to accurately estimate under-five mortality rates from vital registration systems. Heavy reliance is often placed on direct and indirect methods for analyzing data collected from birth histories to estimate under-five mortality rates. Yet few systematic comparisons of these methods have been undertaken. This paper investigates whether analysts should use both direct and indirect estimates from full birth histories, and under what circumstances indirect estimates derived from summary birth histories should be used.Usings Demographic and Health Surveys data from West Africa, East Africa, Latin America, and South/Southeast Asia, I quantify the differences between direct and indirect estimates of under-five mortality rates, analyze data quality issues, note the relative effects of these issues, and test whether these issues explain the observed differences. I find that indirect estimates are generally consistent with direct estimates, after adjustment for fertility change and birth transference, but don't add substantial additional insight beyond direct estimates. However, choice of direct or indirect method was found to be important in terms of both the adjustment for data errors and the assumptions made about fertility.Although adjusted indirect estimates are generally consistent with adjusted direct estimates, some notable inconsistencies were observed for countries that had experienced either a political or economic crisis or stalled health transition in their recent past. This result suggests that when a population has experienced a smooth mortality decline or only short periods of excess mortality, both adjusted methods perform equally well. However, the observed inconsistencies identified suggest that the indirect method is particularly prone to bias resulting from violations of its strong assumptions about recent mortality

  10. Trends and spatial patterns of mortality related to neglected tropical diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nationwide trends and spatial distribution of NTD-related mortality in Brazil. We included all death certificates in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which NTDs were recorded as any causes of death. A total of 100,814/12,491,280 (0.81% death certificates were identified, which mentioned at least one NTD. Age-adjusted NTD-related mortality rates showed a significant decrease over time (annual percent change [APC]: −2.1%; 95% CI: −2.8 to −1.3, with decreasing mortality rates in the Southeast, South, and Central-West regions, stability in the Northeast region, and increase in the North region. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk clusters for NTD-related mortality in all regions, with a major cluster covering a wide geographic range in central Brazil. Despite nationwide decrease of NTD-related mortality in the observation period, regional differences remain, with increasing mortality trends especially in the socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of the country. The existence of clearly defined high-risk areas for NTD-related deaths reinforces the need for integrated prevention and control measures in areas with highest disease burden.

  11. Aggregate level beverage specific effect of alcohol sale on myocardial infarction mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    The pronounced fluctuations in cardiovascular mortality in the countries of the former Soviet Union over the past decades have attracted considerable interest. The mounting evidence suggests that binge drinking pattern is a potentially important contributor to higher cardiovascular mortality rate in the former Soviet republics. There is assumption that if occasional heavy drinking of strong spirits increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality, countries where this is predominant drinking pattern should display positive association between spirits consumption and cardiovascular mortality at the aggregate level. To estimate the aggregate level beverage specific effect of alcohol sale on myocardial infarction mortality rate in drinking culture, which combine a higher level of spirits consumption per capita with the explosive drinking pattern. Trends in beverage specific alcohol sale per capita and myocardial infarction mortality rate from 1970 to 2005 in Belarus were analyzed employing ARIMA time series analysis. The results of time series analysis suggest positive relation between strong spirits (vodka) sale per capita and myocardial infarction mortality rate. The analysis suggests that a 1 liter increase in vodka sale per capita would result in a 7.2% increase in myocardial infarction mortality rate (8.2% increase in male mortality and 6.8% increase in female mortality). the results of the present study suggest a positive relation between vodka sale and myocardial infarction mortality rate at aggregate level and support the hypothesis that binge drinking of strong spirits is a risk factor of myocardial infarction at the individual level. Thus, from a public policy point of view, the outcome of this study suggests that cardiovascularrelated mortality prevention programs should put more focus on addressing alcohol consumption structure.

  12. Mortality forecast from gastroduodenal ulcer disease for different gender and age population groups in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzhiy I.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 2030 the ulcer mortality will have a growing trend as estimated by the World Health Organization. Detection of countries and population groups with high risks for the ulcer mortality is possible using forecast method. The authors made a forecast of mortality rate from complicated ulcer disease in males and females and their age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-54, 55-74, over 75, 15 - over 75 in our country. The study included data of the World Health Organization Database from 1991 to 2012. The work analyzed absolute all-Ukrainian numbers of persons of both genders died from the ulcer causes (К25-К27 coded by the 10th International Diseases Classification. The relative mortality per 100 000 of alive persons of the same age was calculated de novo. The analysis of distribution laws and their estimation presents a trend of growth of the relative mortality. A remarkable increase of deaths from the ulcer disease is observed in males and females of the age after 55 years old. After the age of 75 years this trend is more expressed.

  13. Age-period-cohort analysis of infectious disease mortality in urban-rural China, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Wang, Peigang; Gao, Ge; Xu, Chunling; Chen, Xinguang

    2016-03-31

    Although a number of studies on infectious disease trends in China exist, these studies have not distinguished the age, period, and cohort effects simultaneously. Here, we analyze infectious disease mortality trends among urban and rural residents in China and distinguish the age, period, and cohort effects simultaneously. Infectious disease mortality rates (1990-2010) of urban and rural residents (5-84 years old) were obtained from the China Health Statistical Yearbook and analyzed with an age-period-cohort (APC) model based on Intrinsic Estimator (IE). Infectious disease mortality is relatively high at age group 5-9, reaches a minimum in adolescence (age group 10-19), then rises with age, with the growth rate gradually slowing down from approximately age 75. From 1990 to 2010, except for a slight rise among urban residents from 2000 to 2005, the mortality of Chinese residents experienced a substantial decline, though at a slower pace from 2005 to 2010. In contrast to the urban residents, rural residents experienced a rapid decline in mortality during 2000 to 2005. The mortality gap between urban and rural residents substantially narrowed during this period. Overall, later birth cohorts experienced lower infectious disease mortality risk. From the 1906-1910 to the 1941-1945 birth cohorts, the decrease of mortality among urban residents was significantly faster than that of subsequent birth cohorts and rural counterparts. With the rapid aging of the Chinese population, the prevention and control of infectious disease in elderly people will present greater challenges. From 1990 to 2010, the infectious disease mortality of Chinese residents and the urban-rural disparity have experienced substantial declines. However, the re-emergence of previously prevalent diseases and the emergence of new infectious diseases created new challenges. It is necessary to further strengthen screening, immunization, and treatment for the elderly and for older cohorts at high risk.

  14. [Under-5-mortality rate and causes of death in China, 2000 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang; Yuan, Xiu-qin; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-hong; Miao, Lei; He, Chun-hua; Wang, Yan-ping

    2012-06-01

    To assess the changes and the leading cause of deaths for children under 5 years old, in China, during 2000 - 2010, with the aim of evaluation on the progress in achieving the relative goal set by "National Program of Action for Child Development in China (2001 - 2010)", and understanding the related challenges. Data used in this study were collected from the population-based National Maternal and Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Under-5-mortality rate (U5MR) and the leading cause of deaths for under-5 children were analyzed. Nationwide IMR and U5MR in 2010 dropped by 59.3% and 58.7% respectively, compared to that in 2000. Decreases by 50.8% and 47.1% in IMR and U5MR were observed in urban areas, and 56.5% and 56.0% in rural areas during this period. Compared with data from 2000, the leading causes-specific U5MR in 2010 had significantly declined. The top 5 leading causes of death in 2010 were premature birth/low birth weight, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease and accidental suffocation, but were different in urban and rural areas. In 2010, both IMR and U5MR from the rural areas were 2.8-folds than that of the urban areas. In addition, IMRs in the Middle and Western parts of China were 1.5 and 2.3-folds respectively of that in the East, and U5MR in Middle and West was 1.5 and 2.2-folds respectively of that in East. IMR, U5MR and the leading causes specific mortality rate in China declined remarkably from 2000 to 2010, and the goal set by "National Program of Action for Child Development in China (2001 - 2010)" had been successfully achieved. However, the disparity on child's health in regions and in urban or rural areas, still remained a challenge.

  15. Mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases in Tuscany: Ecological study comparing neighboring areas with substantial differences in environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabotti, Claudio; Piaggi, Paolo; Scarsi, Paolo; Venturini, Elio; Cecchi, Romina; Pingitore, Alessandro

    2017-06-19

    Environmental pollution is associated with morbidity and mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases. Recent data points out a relationship between proximity to industrial plants and mortality due to neoplasms. The aim of this study has been to compare mortality due to chronic-degenerative diseases in the area of Tuscany (Bassa Val di Cecina), Italy, characterized by the presence of 2 neighboring municipalities similar in terms of size but with substantial differences in industrial activities: Rosignano (the site of chemical, energy production and waste processing industries) and Cecina (with no polluting activity). Standardized mortality rates for the 2001-2010 decade were calculated; the data of the whole Tuscany was assumed as reference. Environmental levels of pollutants were obtained by databases of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale della Toscana - ARPAT). Maximum tolerated pollutant levels set by national laws were assumed as reference. In the whole Bassa Val di Cecina, significantly elevated standardized mortality rates due to mesothelioma, ischemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and Alzheimer and other degenerative diseases of nervous system were observed. In the municipality of Rosignano, a significant excess of mortality for all these groups of diseases was confirmed. On the contrary, the municipality of Cecina showed only significantly higher mortality rates for ischemic heart diseases. Elevated levels of heavy metals in sea water and of particulate matter which contains particles of diameter ≤ 10 mm (PM10) and ozone in air were detected in Rosignano. This study shows an excess of mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases in the area with elevated concentration of polluting factories. Proximity to industrial plants seems to represent a risk factor for those diseases. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):641-653. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed

  16. Association between height and coronary heart disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Skytthe, Axel

    2006-01-01

    An inverse association between height and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is well demonstrated, but it is not known whether this association is because of genetic factors, socioeconomic background, or other environmental factors. Four population-based twin cohorts with register-based follow.......99 million person-years of follow-up. Cox and conditional logistic regression models were used. Per 1-standard deviation decrease in height, height was inversely associated with CHD mortality in men (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.12) and in women (hazard ratio = 1.06, 95% CI: 1...... = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.28). The inverse association between height and CHD mortality found within monozygotic discordant twin pairs suggests that this association is because of environmental factors that directly affect height and CHD risk....

  17. Mortality trends for ischemic heart disease in China: an analysis of 102 continuous disease surveillance points from 1991 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Ren, Hongyan; Ma, Enbo; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-07-25

    In the past 20 years, the trends of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in China have been described in divergent claims. This research analyzes mortality trends for IHD by using the data from 102 continuous Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) from 1991 to 2009. The 102 continuous DSP covered 7.3 million people during the period 1991-2000, and then were expanded to a population of 52 million in the same areas for 2004-2009. The data were adjusted by using garbage code redistribution and underreporting rate, mapped from international classification of diseases ICD-9 to ICD-10. The mortality rates for IHD were further adjusted by the crude death proportion multiplied by the total number of deaths in the mortality envelope, which was calculated by using logr t  = a + bt. Age-standard death rates (ASDRs) were computed using China's 2010 census population structure. Trend in IHD was calculated from ASDRs by using a joinpoint regression model. The IHD ASDRs increased in total in regions with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) 4.96%, especially for the Southwest (AAPC = 7.97%) and Northeast areas (AAPC = 7.10%), and for male and female subjects (with 5% AAPC) as well. In rural areas, the year 2000 was a cut-off point for mortality rate with annual percentage change increasing from 3.52% in 1991-2000 to 9.02% in 2000-2009, which was much higher than in urban areas (AAPC = 1.05%). And the proportion of deaths increased in older adults, and more male deaths occurred before age 60 compared to female deaths. By observing a wide range of areas across China from 1991 to 2009, this paper concludes that the ASDR trend for IHD increased. These trends reflect changes in the Chinese standard of living and lifestyle with diets higher in fat, higher blood lipids and increased body weight.

  18. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Impact on Mortality and Hospitalization Rate in Predialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, N.; Grootendorst, D. C.; Urlings, T. A. J.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Sijpkens, Y. W.; Huisman, R. M.; Krediet, R. T.; Dekker, F. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Anemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in both early and very late stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to assess whether anemia is a risk factor for mortality or hospitalization in CKD stage 4-5 predialysis patients not yet on

  19. Increase in Parkinson's disease-related mortality among males in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Schievano, Elena

    2017-07-01

    According to standard mortality statistics based on the underlying cause of death (UCOD), mortality from Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing in most European countries. However, mortality trends are better investigated taking into account all the diseases reported in the death certificate (multiple causes of death approach, MCOD). All deaths of residents in the Veneto Region (Northern Italy) aged≥45 years with any mention of PD were extracted from 2008 to 2015. The Annual Percent Change (APC) in age-standardized mortality rates was computed both for PD as the UCOD, and by MCOD. The association with common chronic comorbidities and acute complications was investigated by log-binomial regression. The frequency of the mention of PD in death certificates was investigated through linkage with an archive of patients with a previous clinical diagnosis of the disease. PD was reported in 2.1% of all deaths, rising from 1.9% in 2008 to 2.4% in 2015. Among males, age-standardized rates increased over time both in analyses based on the UCOD (APC +4.1%; Confidence Interval +1.5%,+6.7%), and on MCOD (APC +2.2%; +0.2,+4.2%). Among females time trends were not significant. Mention of PD was associated with that of dementia/Alzheimer and acute infectious diseases. Among known PD patients, the disease was reported only in 60.2% of death certificates. Mortality associated to PD is steeply increasing among males in Northern Italy; further investigations on time trends for PD, both through all available electronic health archives and clinical studies, should be set as a priority for epidemiological research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maximal exercise electrocardiographic responses and coronary heart disease mortality among men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, G William; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Lavie, Carl J; Hand, Gregory A; Blair, Steven N

    2010-03-01

    To examine the association between abnormal exercise electrocardiographic (E-ECG) test results and mortality (all-cause and that resulting from coronary heart disease [CHD] or cardiovascular disease [CVD]) in a large population of asymptomatic men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 9191 men (mean age, 46.9 years) met the criteria of having MetS. All completed a maximal E-ECG treadmill test (May 14, 1979, through April 9, 2001) and were without a previous CVD event or diabetes at baseline. Main outcomes were all-cause mortality, mortality due to CHD, and mortality due to CVD. Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the mortality risk according to E-ECG responses. During a follow-up of 14 years, 633 deaths (242 CVD and 150 CHD) were identified. Mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) across E-ECG responses were the following: for all-cause mortality: HR, 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.70 for equivocal responses and HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.12-1.77 for abnormal responses (P(trend)<.001); for mortality due to CVD: HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.88-1.88 for equivocal responses and HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.46-2.84 for abnormal responses (P(trend)<.001); and for mortality due to CHD: HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.02-2.56 for equivocal responses and HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.62-3.69 for abnormal responses (P(trend)<.001). A positive gradient for CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality rates across E-ECG categories within 3, 4, or 5 MetS components was observed (P<.001 for all). Among men with MetS, an abnormal E-ECG response was associated with higher risk of all-cause, CVD, and CHD mortality. These findings underscore the importance of E-ECG tests to identify men with MetS who are at risk of dying.

  1. Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in Scotland in relation to social inequalities: time trend study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Martin; Bishop, Jennifer; Redpath, Adam; McLaughlin, Terry; Murphy, David; Chalmers, James; Capewell, Simon

    2009-07-14

    To examine recent trends and social inequalities in age specific coronary heart disease mortality. Time trend analysis using joinpoint regression. Scotland, 1986-2006. Men and women aged 35 years and over. Age adjusted and age, sex, and deprivation specific coronary heart disease mortality. Persistent sixfold social differentials in coronary heart disease mortality were seen between the most deprived and the most affluent groups aged 35-44 years. These differentials diminished with increasing age but equalised only above 85 years. Between 1986 and 2006, overall, age adjusted coronary heart disease mortality decreased by 61% in men and by 56% in women. Among middle aged and older adults, mortality continued to decrease fairly steadily throughout the period. However, coronary heart disease mortality levelled from 1994 onwards among young men and women aged 35-44 years. Rates in men and women aged 45-54 showed similar flattening from about 2003. Rates in women aged 55-64 may also now be flattening. The flattening of coronary heart disease mortality in younger men and women was confined to the two most deprived fifths. Premature death from coronary heart disease remains a major contributor to social inequalities. Furthermore, the flattening of the decline in mortality for coronary heart disease among younger adults may represent an early warning sign. The observed trends were confined to the most deprived groups. Marked deterioration in medical management of coronary heart disease seems implausible. Unfavourable trends in the major risk factors for coronary heart disease (smoking and poor diet) thus provide the most likely explanation for these inequalities.

  2. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  3. Differences in age-standardized mortality rates for avoidable deaths based on urbanization levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-02-05

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

  4. A comprehensive hip fracture program reduces complication rates and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Moltke, Finn Borgbjerg; Schousboe, B.

    2008-01-01

    to nutrition, fluid and oxygen therapy, and urinary retention. RESULTS: In the intervention group, the rate of any in-hospital postoperative complication Was reduced from 33% to 20% (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.9; P = .002). Rates of confusion (P = .02), pneumonia (P = .03), and urinary...

  5. Chronic low-dose exposure in the Techa River cohort. Risk of mortality from circulatory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestinina, Lyudmila Yurievna; Epifanova, Svetlana; Silkin, Stanislav; Mikryukova, Lyudmila; Degteva, Marina; Shagina, Natalia; Akleyev, Alexander [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the mortality from circulatory diseases for about 30,000 members of the Techa River cohort over the period 1950-2003, and to investigate how these rates depend on radiation doses. This population received both external and internal exposures from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and other uranium fission products as a result of waterborne releases from the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals region of the Russian Federation. The analysis included individualized estimates of the total (external plus internal) absorbed dose in muscle calculated based on the Techa River Dosimetry System 2009. The cohort-average dose to muscle tissue was 35 mGy, and the maximum dose was 510 mGy. Between 1950 and 2003, 7,595 deaths from circulatory diseases were registered among cohort members with 901,563 person years at risk. Mortality rates in the cohort were analyzed using a simple parametric excess relative risk (ERR) model. For all circulatory diseases, the estimated excess relative risk per 100 mGy with a 15-year lag period was 3.6 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.2-7.5 %, and for ischemic heart disease it was 5.6 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.1-11.9 %. A linear ERR model provided the best fit. Analyses with a lag period shorter than 15 years from the beginning of exposure did not reveal any significant risk of mortality from either all circulatory diseases or ischemic heart disease. There was no evidence of an increased mortality risk from cerebrovascular disease (p > 0.5). These results should be regarded as preliminary, since they will be updated after adjustment for smoking and alcohol consumption. (orig.)

  6. Unequal trends in coronary heart disease mortality by socioeconomic circumstances, England 1982-2006: an analytical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bajekal

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD remains a major public health burden, causing 80,000 deaths annually in England and Wales, with major inequalities. However, there are no recent analyses of age-specific socioeconomic trends in mortality. We analysed annual trends in inequalities in age-specific CHD mortality rates in small areas in England, grouped into deprivation quintiles.We calculated CHD mortality rates for 10-year age groups (from 35 to ≥ 85 years using three year moving averages between 1982 and 2006. We used Joinpoint regression to identify significant turning points in age- sex- and deprivation-specific time trends. We also analysed trends in absolute and relative inequalities in age-standardised rates between the least and most deprived areas.Between 1982 and 2006, CHD mortality fell by 62.2% in men and 59.7% in women. Falls were largest for the most deprived areas with the highest initial level of CHD mortality. However, a social gradient in the pace of fall was apparent, being steepest in the least deprived quintile. Thus, while absolute inequalities narrowed over the period, relative inequalities increased. From 2000, declines in mortality rates slowed or levelled off in the youngest groups, notably in women aged 45-54 in the least deprived groups. In contrast, from age 55 years and older, rates of fall in CHD mortality accelerated in the 2000s, likewise falling fastest in the least deprived quintile.Age-standardised CHD mortality rates have declined substantially in England, with the steepest falls in the most affluent quintiles. However, this concealed contrasting patterns in underlying age-specific rates. From 2000, mortality rates levelled off in the youngest groups but accelerated in middle aged and older groups. Mortality analyses by small areas could provide potentially valuable insights into possible drivers of inequalities, and thus inform future strategies to reduce CHD mortality across all social groups.

  7. Increasing mortality burden among adults with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greutmann, Matthias; Tobler, Daniel; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Greutmann-Yantiri, Mehtap; Haile, Sarah R; Held, Leonhard; Ivanov, Joan; Williams, William G; Oechslin, Erwin N; Silversides, Candice K; Colman, Jack M

    2015-01-01

    Progress in management of congenital heart disease has shifted mortality largely to adulthood. However, adult survivors with complex congenital heart disease are not cured and remain at risk of premature death as young adults. Thus, our aim was to describe the evolution and mortality risk of adult patient cohorts with complex congenital heart disease. Among 12,644 adults with congenital heart disease followed at a single center from 1980 to 2009, 176 had Eisenmenger syndrome, 76 had unrepaired cyanotic defects, 221 had atrial switch operations for transposition of the great arteries, 158 had congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, 227 had Fontan palliation, and 789 had repaired tetralogy of Fallot. We depict the 30-year evolution of these 6 patient cohorts, analyze survival probabilities in adulthood, and predict future number of deaths through 2029. Since 1980, there has been a steady increase in numbers of patients followed, except in cohorts with Eisenmenger syndrome and unrepaired cyanotic defects. Between 1980 and 2009, 308 patients in the study cohorts (19%) died. At the end of 2009, 85% of survivors were younger than 50 years. Survival estimates for all cohorts were markedly lower than for the general population, with important differences between cohorts. Over the upcoming two decades, we predict a substantial increase in numbers of deaths among young adults with subaortic right ventricles, Fontan palliation, and repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Anticipatory action is needed to prepare clinical services for increasing numbers of young adults at risk of dying from complex congenital heart disease. © 2014 The Authors. Congenital Heart Disease Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evolution of Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality in the Counties of the State of Rio de Janeiro from 1979 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in Brazil. To estimate total CVD, cerebrovascular disease (CBVD), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates in adults in the counties of the state of Rio de Janeiro (SRJ), from 1979 to 2010. The counties of the SRJ were analysed according to their denominations stablished by the geopolitical structure of 1950, Each new county that have since been created, splitting from their original county, was grouped according to their former origin. Population Data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), and data on deaths were obtained from DataSus/MS. Mean CVD, CBVD, and IHD mortality rates were estimated, compensated for deaths from ill-defined causes, and adjusted for age and sex using the direct method for three periods: 1979-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2010, Such results were spatially represented in maps. Tables were also constructed showing the mortality rates for each disease and year period. There was a significant reduction in mortality rates across the three disease groups over the the three defined periods in all the county clusters analysed, Despite an initial mortality rate variation among the counties, it was observed a homogenization of such rates at the final period (2000-2010). The drop in CBVD mortality was greater than that in IHD mortality. Mortality due to CVD has steadily decreased in the SRJ in the last three decades. This reduction cannot be explained by greater access to high technology procedures or better control of cardiovascular risk factors as these facts have not occurred or happened in low proportion of cases with the exception of smoking which has decreased significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to seek explanations for this decrease, which may be related to improvements in the socioeconomic conditions of the population.

  9. Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and other births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Abrar A; Wang, Alex Y; Hilder, Lisa; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Farquhar, Cindy; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2018-02-01

    Is perinatal mortality rate higher among births born following assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to non-ART births? Overall perinatal mortality rates in ART births was higher compared to non-ART births, but gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births was lower for very preterm and moderate to late preterm births. Births born following ART are reported to have higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to non-ART births. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 407 368 babies (391 952 non-ART and 15 416 ART)-393 491 singletons and 10 877 twins or high order multiples. All births (≥20 weeks of gestation and/or ≥400 g of birthweight) in five states and territories in Australia during the period 2007-2009 were included in the study, using National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC). Primary outcome measures were rates of stillbirth, neonatal and perinatal deaths. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the likelihood of perinatal death. Rates of multiple birth and low birthweight were significantly higher in ART group compared to the non-ART group (P ART births (16.5 per 1000 births, 95% CI 14.5-18.6), compared to non-ART births (11.3 per 1000 births, 95% CI 11.0-11.6) (AOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.26-1.68). However, gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births (including both singletons and multiples) was lower for very preterm (ART births. Congenital abnormality and spontaneous preterm were the most common causes of neonatal deaths in both ART and non-ART group. Due to different cut-off limit for perinatal period in Australia, the results of this study should be interpreted with cautions for other countries. Australian definition of perinatal period commences at 20 completed weeks (140 days) of gestation and ends 27 completed days after birth which is different from the definition by World Health Organisation (commences at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of

  10. Mortality from respiratory diseases associated with opium use: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharravi, Abdolsamad; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50 045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. During the follow-up period, 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to non-malignant aetiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted HR 95% CI 3.13 (2.42 to 4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61 to 5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use versus never use (P trend opium use and malignant and non-malignant causes of respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18 to 3.25) and 3.71 (2.76 to 4.96), respectively. Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. High infant mortality rate, high total fertility rate and very low female literacy in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuman, A Sathiya; Chialepeh, Wilson N; Bado, Aristide; Lailulo, Yishak

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the top 10 selected African countries with key interventions such as high infant mortality rate, high total fertility rate and female literacy rate. The World Bank's 2013 data were used. Descriptive analyses were performed. Findings show that Sierra Leone (107.2), Angola (102) and Central Africa Republic (96.1) reported the highest infant mortality rate per 1000 live births. The total fertility rates in Niger (7.6), Mali (6.8) and Somalia (6.6) were higher than other comparable countries. Health care service providers need to pay more attention during pregnancy periods, improve number of field visits, identify pregnant women and promote 100% antenatal care if this is done practically, these countries will reduce and ultimately eliminate infant mortality. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Characteristics and mortality rate of neonates with congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microcephaly (Table 3). There were no significant differences between the incidence of SGA among the congenital CMV infected and uninfected (p=0.49). The common reasons for suspecting CMV were hepato/ splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia. Other indications included jaundice, chronic lung disease, anaemia and ...

  13. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Johnni; Loft, Steffen; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-05

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Mean levels of NO₂ at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.51, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate causes. Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  14. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaschou-Nielsen Ole

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate  Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  15. High mortality rates after nonelective colon cancer resection : results of a national audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Snijders, H. S.; Grossmann, I.; Karsten, T. M.; Havenga, K.; Wiggers, T.

    AimColon cancer resection in a nonelective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on nonelective resection. MethodData were obtained from

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Mortality Rates A Appendix A to Part 4022 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4022, App. A Appendix A to Part 4022—Lump Sum Mortality...

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease in Panama: Results From the PREFREC Study and National Mortality Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Velásquez, Ilais; Castro, Franz; Gómez, Beatriz; Cuero, César; Motta, Jorge

    2017-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Panama has yet to be described. We investigated the association between sociodemographic and cardiovascular exposures with CKD in 2 Panamanian provinces. Further, we analyzed national trends of CKD mortality from 2001 to 2014. Data were derived from Prevalencia de Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiovascular (PREFREC [Survey on Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease]), a cross-sectional study designed to analyze the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Biomarkers of kidney function were measured in 3590 participants. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and/or albuminuria ≥30 mg/g creatinine. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CKD were calculated using logistic regression. We calculated age-standardized CKD mortality rates in the country using the National Mortality Register. Annual percentage change and 95% CIs were estimated to evaluate the trends over time. The prevalence of CKD was 12% (reduced eGFR: 3.3%; albuminuria; 9.9%). CKD was associated with hypertension (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), age 60 years or older (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), and previous myocardial infarction (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.0-5.7), whereas monthly family income was inversely associated with CKD (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) (adjusted). A sustained increase in the trend of CKD mortality was observed from 2001 to 2006, followed by a decreasing trend in subsequent years. Coclé province had the highest adjusted mortality rate. CKD poses a significant health problem for Panama. Health inequalities and an increase of cardiometabolic risk factors warrant robust epidemiological surveillance, improved diagnosis, and treatment. Further national studies aimed to address geographical disparities are necessary.

  18. Trends in Infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Barría-Pailaquilén, René Mauricio; Mendoza-Maldonado, Yessy; Urrutia-Toro, Yohana; Castro-Mora, Cristian; Santander-Manríquez, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at

  19. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastam Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD, mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. Methods The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Results Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81% of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Conclusion Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  20. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastam, Samer; Al Ali, Radwan; Maziak, Wasim; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-09-09

    Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD), mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81%) of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  1. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L

    2014-01-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia......, Sweden and Denmark to evaluate 30-day CFR and MR trends between 2000 and 2008. The CFR was 20.3% (MSSA 20.2%, MRSA 22.3%) and MR was 3.4 (MSSA 3.1, MRSA 0.3) per 100 000 per year. Although MSSA CFR was stable the MSSA MR increased; MRSA CFR decreased while its MR remained low during the study. Community......-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR....

  2. Socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease risk and mortality: A population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.

  3. Circulatory disease mortality in the Massachusetts tuberculosis fluoroscopy cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Brenner, Alina V.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    High-dose ionizing radiation is associated with circulatory disease. Risks from lower-dose fractionated exposures, such as from diagnostic radiation procedures, remain unclear. In this study we aimed to ascertain the relationship between fractionated low-to-medium dose radiation exposure and circulatory disease mortality in a cohort of 13,568 tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts, some with fluoroscopy screenings, between 1916 and 1961 and follow-up until the end of 2002. Analysis of mortality was in relation to cumulative thyroid (cerebrovascular) or lung (all other circulatory disease) radiation dose via Poisson regression. Over the full dose range, there was no overall radiation-related excess risk of death from circulatory disease (n = 3221; excess relative risk/Gy −0.023; 95 % CI −0.067, 0.028; p = 0.3574). Risk was somewhat elevated in hypertensive heart disease (n = 89; excess relative risk/Gy 0.357; 95 % CI −0.043, 1.030, p = 0.0907) and slightly decreased in ischemic heart disease (n = 1950; excess relative risk/Gy −0.077; 95 % CI −0.130, −0.012; p = 0.0211). However, under 0.5 Gy, there was a borderline significant increasing trend for all circulatory disease (excess relative risk/Gy 0.345; 95 % CI −0.032, 0.764; p = 0.0743) and for ischemic heart disease (excess relative risk/Gy 0.465; 95 % CI, −0.032, 1.034, p = 0.0682). Pneumolobectomy increased radiation–associated risk (excess relative risk/Gy 0.252; 95 % CI 0.024, 0.579). Fractionation of dose did not modify excess risk. In summary, we found no evidence of radiation-associated excess circulatory death risk overall, but there are indications of excess circulatory death risk at lower doses (<0.5 Gy). Although consistent with other radiation-exposed groups, the indications of higher risk at lower doses are unusual and should be confirmed against other data.

  4. Diabetes mellitus increased all-cause mortality rate among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis patients in an Asian population: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yen; Lin, Shi-Dou; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on all-cause mortality among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in an Asian population. We also identified risk factors for mortality in these patients. The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals and 1627 TB mortality cases in the period of 2000-2010. The mortality data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group. We measured the incidence density of mortality and identified the risk factors of mortality. The all-cause mortality of newly-diagnosed TB patients progressively increased with an average rate of 16.5% during 2000-2010. DM is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality with HRs 1.17-1.27 by various models. TB patients with ages above 75years had the highest risk of mortality (HR=11.93) compared with those under 45 years. TB patients with heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, pulmonary disease, liver disease, cancer, peptic ulcer disease, gout, and autoimmune disease had higher mortality compared to those without the aforementioned factors. The one-year all-cause mortality after TB diagnosis was high among TB patients in Taiwan and it tended to increase in the past decade. While treating these newly-diagnosed TB patients, it is crucial to detect the factors predisposing to death, such as old age, male gender, certain kinds of aforementioned factors and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janine E.; St. John, Freya A. V.; Griffiths, Richard A.; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates. PMID:26556237

  6. Forecasting selected specific age mortality rate of Malaysia by using Lee-Carter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri Kamaruddin, Halim; Ismail, Noriszura

    2018-03-01

    Observing mortality pattern and trend is an important subject for any country to maintain a good social-economy in the next projection years. The declining in mortality trend gives a good impression of what a government has done towards macro citizen in one nation. Selecting a particular mortality model can be a tricky based on the approached method adapting. Lee-Carter model is adapted because of its simplicity and reliability of the outcome results with approach of regression. Implementation of Lee-Carter in finding a fitted model and hence its projection has been used worldwide in most of mortality research in developed countries. This paper studies the mortality pattern of Malaysia in the past by using original model of Lee-Carter (1992) and hence its cross-sectional observation for a single age. The data is indexed by age of death and year of death from 1984 to 2012, in which are supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The results are modelled by using RStudio and the keen analysis will focus on the trend and projection of mortality rate and age specific mortality rate in the future. This paper can be extended to different variants extensions of Lee-Carter or any stochastic mortality tool by using Malaysia mortality experience as a centre of the main issue.

  7. Forecasting the mortality rates using Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R. I.; Ngataman, N.; Abrisam, W. N. A. Wan Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Improvement in life expectancies has driven further declines in mortality. The sustained reduction in mortality rates and its systematic underestimation has been attracting the significant interest of researchers in recent years because of its potential impact on population size and structure, social security systems, and (from an actuarial perspective) the life insurance and pensions industry worldwide. Among all forecasting methods, the Lee-Carter model has been widely accepted by the actuarial community and Heligman-Pollard model has been widely used by researchers in modelling and forecasting future mortality. Therefore, this paper only focuses on Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model. The main objective of this paper is to investigate how accurately these two models will perform using Malaysian data. Since these models involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 8.0 (MATLAB 8.0) software will be used to estimate the parameters of the models. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) procedure is applied to acquire the forecasted parameters for both models as the forecasted mortality rates are obtained by using all the values of forecasted parameters. To investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecasted results will be compared against actual data of mortality rates. The results indicate that both models provide better results for male population. However, for the elderly female population, Heligman-Pollard model seems to underestimate to the mortality rates while Lee-Carter model seems to overestimate to the mortality rates.

  8. QT prolongation is associated with increased mortality in end stage liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Moon; George, Bennet; Alcivar-Franco, Diego; Campbell, Charles L; Charnigo, Richard; Delisle, Brian; Hundley, Jonathan; Darrat, Yousef; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Samy-Claude; Bailey, Alison L

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of QT prolongation in a large series of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients and its association to clinical variables and mortality. METHODS The QT interval was measured and corrected for heart rate for each patient, with a prolonged QT cutoff defined as QT > 450 ms for males and QT > 470 ms for females. Multiple clinical variables were evaluated including sex, age, serum sodium, international normalized ratio, creatinine, total bilirubin, beta-blocker use, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), MELD-Na, and etiology of liver disease. RESULTS Among 406 ESLD patients analyzed, 207 (51.0%) had QT prolongation. The only clinical variable associated with QT prolongation was male gender (OR = 3.04, 95%CI: 2.01-4.60, P < 0.001). During the study period, 187 patients (46.1%) died. QT prolongation was a significant independent predictor of mortality (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.03-2.77, P = 0.039). In addition, mortality was also associated with viral etiology of ESLD, elevated MELD score and its components (P < 0.05 for all). No significant reversibility in the QT interval was seen after liver transplantation. CONCLUSION QT prolongation was commonly encountered in an ESLD population, especially in males, and served as a strong independent marker for increased mortality in ESLD patients. PMID:28515853

  9. The legacy of slavery and contemporary declines in heart disease mortality in the U.S. South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Black, Nyesha C; Matthews, Stephen A; James, Sherman A

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the role of county-specific legacy of slavery in patterning temporal (i.e., 1968-2014), and geographic (i.e., Southern counties) declines in heart disease mortality. In this context, the U.S. has witnessed dramatic declines in heart disease mortality since the 1960's, which have benefitted place and race groups unevenly, with slower declines in the South, especially for the Black population. Age-adjusted race- and county-specific mortality rates from 1968-2014 for all diseases of the heart were calculated for all Southern U.S. counties. Candidate confounding and mediating covariates from 1860, 1930, and 1970, were combined with mortality data in multivariable regression models to estimate the ecological association between the concentration of slavery in1860 and declines in heart disease mortality from 1968-2014. Black populations, in counties with a history of highest versus lowest concentration of slavery, experienced a 17% slower decline in heart disease mortality. The association for Black populations varied by region (stronger in Deep South than Upper South states) and was partially explained by intervening socioeconomic factors. In models accounting for spatial autocorrelation, there was no association between slave concentration and heart disease mortality decline for Whites. Nearly 50 years of declining heart disease mortality is a major public health success, but one marked by uneven progress by place and race. At the county level, progress in heart disease mortality reduction among Blacks is associated with place-based historical legacy of slavery. Effective and equitable public health prevention efforts should consider the historical context of place and the social and economic institutions that may play a role in facilitating or impeding diffusion of prevention efforts thereby producing heart healthy places and populations. Graphical abstract.

  10. Birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates among their offspring : a population-based study from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Siau-Wei; Liu, Jenny; Juay, Lester; Czene, Kamila; Miao, Hui; Salim, Agus; Verkooijen, Helena M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/213707705; Hartman, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With improvements in treatment of cancer, more men of fertile age are survivors of cancer. This study evaluates trends in birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates of their offspring. METHODS: From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and Cancer Register, we identified

  11. Annosus Root Disease Hazard Rating, Detection, and Management Strategies in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Alexander

    1989-01-01

    Annosus root disease (ARD), is the major root disease of pines in the southeastern United States where severely affected trees exhibit growth loss. Assessing the potential damage of ARD is essential for making effective disease control and management decisions. A soil hazard rating system developed to identify potential for tree mortality is described. The Annosus...

  12. Heart rate variability predicts 30-day all-cause mortality in intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HRV), has shown promise in predicting clinically important outcomes in the critical care setting; however, there is debate concerning its utility. ... Keywords: APACHE II, autonomic nervous system, critical care, heart rate variability, mortality ...

  13. NCHS - Infant and neonatal mortality rates: United States, 1915-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rates are infants (under 1 year) and neonatal (under 28 days) deaths per 1,000 live births. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data-visualization/mortality-trends/

  14. The Predictors of Mortality, Recurrence and Functional Recovery in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Türkel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: If the present data defining the prognostic predictors is examined carefully, a serious contradiction is noticed. In this study, we tried to determine which factors affect the sixth month mortality, recurrence and functional recovery measured quantitatively after ischemic stroke, among our own patients followed in a tertiary health care center. METHODS: Age, sex, the presence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, previous stroke, stroke subtype, admittance mean blood pressure, admittance blood sugar, hemotocrit, the presence of left ventricle hypertrophy and ejection fraction was recorded for 223 patients with ischemic stroke. The scores for National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale (mRS and Barthel Index (BI were recorded at the beginning and at the end of six months. The correlation of these 14 clinical and laboratory parameters with mortality, recurrence and recovery was examined statistically. RESULTS: Mortality rate was 33%, recurrence rate was 3.8%. Factors related with mortality were age, female gender, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, low ejection fraction, low hematocrit and high admittance blood glucose (p 0.05. In the multivariate analyses, only, the effect of age, gender and hyperlipidemia on mortality was persisting (p< 0.05. Considering NIHSS, patients with high mean admittance blood pressure, considering mRS and BI younger patients and patients with lacunar infarcts had better recovery levels, while patients with previous strokes had poorer recovery (p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: Higher age and high admittance blood sugar were the most important determinants of mortality after ischemic stroke. Hyperlipidemia reduces the risk of death after stroke probably because of the neuroprotective effects of lipid lowering drugs. None of these parameters clearly affect functional recovery at the end of six month

  15. The Predictors of Mortality, Recurrence and Functional Recovery in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Türkel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: If the present data defining the prognostic predictors is examined carefully, a serious contradiction is noticed. In this study, we tried to determine which factors affect the sixth month mortality, recurrence and functional recovery measured quantitatively after ischemic stroke, among our own patients followed in a tertiary health care center. METHODS: Age, sex, the presence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, previous stroke, stroke subtype, admittance mean blood pressure, admittance blood sugar, hemotocrit, the presence of left ventricle hypertrophy and ejection fraction was recorded for 223 patients with ischemic stroke. The scores for National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale (mRS and Barthel Index (BI were recorded at the beginning and at the end of six months. The correlation of these 14 clinical and laboratory parameters with mortality, recurrence and recovery was examined statistically. RESULTS: Mortality rate was 33%, recurrence rate was 3.8%. Factors related with mortality were age, female gender, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, low ejection fraction, low hematocrit and high admittance blood glucose (p 0.05. In the multivariate analyses, only, the effect of age, gender and hyperlipidemia on mortality was persisting (p< 0.05. Considering NIHSS, patients with high mean admittance blood pressure, considering mRS and BI younger patients and patients with lacunar infarcts had better recovery levels, while patients with previous strokes had poorer recovery (p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: Higher age and high admittance blood sugar were the most important determinants of mortality after ischemic stroke. Hyperlipidemia reduces the risk of death after stroke probably because of the neuroprotective effects of lipid lowering drugs. None of these parameters clearly affect functional recovery at the end of six month.

  16. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Verde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI and white band disease (WBD are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder, O. annularis (massive-columnar and Acropora cervicornis (branching. We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day. However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day. Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean.

  17. Use of Calcium Channel Blockers is Associated with Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik G. Haider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The use of antihypertensive medicines has been shown to reduce proteinuria, morbidity, and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. A specific recommendation for a class of antihypertensive drugs is not available in this population, despite the pharmacodynamic differences. We have therefore analysed the association between antihypertensive medicines and survival of patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: Out of 2687 consecutive patients undergoing kidney biopsy a cohort of 606 subjects with retrievable medical therapy was included into the analysis. Kidney function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR estimation at the time point of kidney biopsy. Main outcome variable was death. Results: Overall 114 (18.7% patients died. In univariate regression analysis the use of alpha-blockers and calcium channel antagonists, progression of disease, diabetes mellitus (DM type 1 and 2, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, male sex and age were associated with mortality (all pConclusion: The use of calcium channel blockers but not of other antihypertensive medicines is associated with mortality in primarily GN patients with CKD.

  18. Rate and time trend of perinatal, infant, maternal mortality, natality and natural population growth in kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    THE AIM OF WORK HAS BEEN THE PRESENTATION OF THE RATE AND TIME TRENDS OF SOME INDICATORS OF THE HEATH CONDITION OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN KOSOVO: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. THE DATA WERE TAKEN FROM: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a continuous decrease. Infant mortality

  19. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a

  20. Forecasting the mortality rates of Indonesian population by using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Lutfiani; Mardiyati, Sri; Rahim, Hendrisman

    2018-03-01

    A model that can represent a problem is required in conducting a forecasting. One of the models that has been acknowledged by the actuary community in forecasting mortality rate is the Lee-Certer model. Lee Carter model supported by Neural Network will be used to calculate mortality forecasting in Indonesia. The type of Neural Network used is feedforward neural network aligned with backpropagation algorithm in python programming language. And the final result of this study is mortality rate in forecasting Indonesia for the next few years

  1. Effects of local extrinsic mortality rate, crime and sex ratio on preventable death in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2015-09-03

    Individual investment in health varies greatly within populations and results in significant differences in the risk of preventable death. Life history theory predicts that individuals should alter their investment in health (somatic maintenance) in response to ecological cues that shift the perceived fitness payoffs to such investments. However, previous research has failed to isolate the effects of different ecological factors on preventable death, and has often relied on macro-level data without individual controls. Here, we test some key predictions concerning the local ecology-that higher extrinsic mortality rate (EMR), crime rate and mate-scarcity (male/female-biased sex ratio) at the ward-level-will be associated with a higher risk of preventable death. We use census-based data from Northern Ireland (n = 927 150) on preventable death during an 8.7-year period from the 2001 Census and run Cox regressions for (i) accident/suicide or alcohol-related death and (ii) deaths from preventable diseases, for men and women separately, controlling for a wide range of individual variables. We find evidence of ward-level EMR and crime rate being positively associated with preventable death among men, particularly men with low socioeconomic position. There was a tentative relationship between male-biased sex ratio and preventable death among women, but not among men. Both behaviours that might lead to 'risky' death and health neglect might be adaptive responses to local ecologies. Efforts to reduce crime might be as effective as those to reduce extrinsic mortality, and both could have positive effects on various health behaviours. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  2. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  3. Body size and mortality rates in coral reef fishes: a three-phase relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatley, Christopher Harry Robert; Bellwood, David Roy

    2016-10-26

    Body size is closely linked to mortality rates in many animals, although the overarching patterns in this relationship have rarely been considered for multiple species. A meta-analysis of published size-specific mortality rates for coral reef fishes revealed an exponential decline in mortality rate with increasing body size, however, within this broad relationship there are three distinct phases. Phase one is characterized by naive fishes recruiting to reefs, which suffer extremely high mortality rates. In this well-studied phase, fishes must learn quickly to survive the many predation risks. After just a few days, the surviving fishes enter phase two, in which small increases in body size result in pronounced increases in lifespan (estimated 11 d mm -1 ). Remarkably, approximately 50% of reef fish individuals remain in phase two throughout their lives. Once fishes reach a size threshold of about 43 mm total length (TL) they enter phase three, where mortality rates are relatively low and the pressure to grow is presumably, significantly reduced. These phases provide a clearer understanding of the impact of body size on mortality rates in coral reef fishes and begin to reveal critical insights into the energetic and trophic dynamics of coral reefs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Mortality from diseases other than cancer following low doses of ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Ashmore, P

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation at very high (radio-therapeutic) dose levels can cause diseases other than cancer, particularly heart diseases. There is increasing evidence that doses of the order of a few sievert (Sv) may also increase the risk of non-cancer diseases. It is not known, however......, whether such effects also occur following the lower doses and dose rates of public health concern. METHODS: We used data from an international (15-country) nuclear workers cohort study to evaluate whether mortality from diseases other than cancer is related to low doses of external ionizing radiation....... Analyses included 275 312 workers with adequate information on socioeconomic status, over 4 million person-years of follow-up and an average cumulative radiation dose of 20.7 mSv; 11 255 workers had died of non-cancer diseases. RESULTS: The excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv was 0.24 [95% CI (confidence...

  5. Long-term association between the intensity of cosmic rays and mortality rates in the city of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. L. Z.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Lage, C.; Pacini, A.; Koutrakis, P.; Cury, P. R.; Shaodan, H.; Pereira, L. A.; Saldiva, P. H. N.

    2018-02-01

    Human beings are constantly exposed to many kinds of environmental agents which affect their health and lifespan. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are the main source of ionizing radiation in the lower troposphere, in which secondary products can penetrate the ground and underground layers. GCRs affect the physical-chemical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere, as well as the biosphere. GCRs are modulated by solar activity and latitudinal geomagnetic field distribution. In our ecological/populational retrospective study, we analyzed the correlation between the annual flux of local secondary GCR-induced ionization (CRII) and mortality rates in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, between 1951-2012. The multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted by demographic and weather parameters showed that CRII are significantly correlated with total mortality, infectious disease mortality, maternal mortality, and perinatal mortality rates (p < 0.001). The underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Further cross-sectional and experimental cohort studies are necessary to understand the biophysical mechanisms of the association found here.

  6. Bird mortality following DDT spray for Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, D.H.; Wurster, C.F.; Strickland, W.N.

    1965-01-01

    Avian populations in Hanover, N. H., a town that has sprayed its elms with DDT for many years in an attempt to control Dutch elm disease, were compared with those in Norwich, Vt., a town 1 mile (1.6 km) west of Hanover that has never sprayed. Hanover applied 109 lb DDT/acre (2.1 kg/hectare) in April 1963, then used Methoxychlor in April 1964. Population surveys were taken regularly during spring and early summer of these years, dead birds were collected in both towns, and 106 birds were analyzed for DDT, DDE, and DDD. Severe mortality of both resident and migrant birds occurred in Hanover during spring 1963, and the evidence implicates DDT as its cause. Robin loss was estimated at 70% of the resident population, or 350 to 400 individuals, but mortality among other species of widely varied feeding habits was also substantial. Feeding habits suggest that some birds acquired the toxicant by eating living insects carrying DDT, presenting the paradox of survival of the intended DDT victims, and death, instead, of insectivorous birds. Organ and whole bird analyses are presented and criteria for establishing cause of death are discussed. Most of the DDT had been converted to DDE and DDD, and residues were found in all organs analyzed. Robin mortality was reduced, but not eliminated following Methoxychlor application in 1964; these losses were believed caused by residual DDT in the soil. There was no evidence DDT poisoning among other species in 1964, though the dead birds collected were not analyzed.

  7. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A. M.; Warner, Wayne A.; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y.; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Methods Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Results Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Conclusions Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation. PMID:28917021

  8. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A M; Warner, Wayne A; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2017-11-01

    To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation.

  9. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daping; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang

    2013-01-01

    Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on. PMID:24135822

  11. Variation in pediatric and adolescent firearm mortality rates in rural and urban US counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Michael L; Carr, Brendan G; Kallan, Michael J; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether firearm mortality rates among children varied across US counties along a rural-urban continuum. US vital statistics data were accessed for all pediatric (age: 0-19 years) firearm deaths from 1999 through 2006. Deaths were analyzed according to a modified rural-urban continuum code (based on population size and proximity to metropolitan areas) assigned to each county (3141 counties). In the 8-year study period, there were 23649 pediatric firearm deaths (15190 homicides, 7082 suicides, and 1377 unintentional deaths). Pediatric nonfirearm mortality rates were significantly higher in the most-rural counties (adjusted rate ratio: 1.36 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.64]), compared with the most-urban counties. The most-rural counties demonstrated virtually identical pediatric firearm mortality rates (adjusted rate ratio: 0.91 [95% CI: 0.63-1.32]), compared with the most-urban counties. The most-rural counties had higher rates of pediatric firearm suicide (adjusted rate ratio: 2.01 [95% CI: 1.43-2.83]) and unintentional firearm death (adjusted rate ratio: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.27-3.77]), compared with the most-urban counties. Pediatric firearm homicides rates were significantly higher in the most-urban counties (adjusted rate ratio: 3.69 [95% CI: 2.00-6.80]), compared with the most-rural counties. Children in the most-rural US counties had firearm mortality rates that were statistically indistinguishable from those for children in the most-urban counties. This finding reflects a greater homicide rate in urban counties counterbalanced by greater suicide and unintentional firearm death rates in rural counties. Nonfirearm mortality rates were significantly greater outside the most-urban US counties.

  12. [Severity of disease scoring systems and mortality after non-cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro Videira; Sousa, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana Martins; Costa, Ana Vera; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando José

    2018-04-05

    Mortality after surgery is frequent and severity of disease scoring systems are used for prediction. Our aim was to evaluate predictors for mortality after non-cardiac surgery. Adult patients admitted at our surgical intensive care unit between January 2006 and July 2013 was included. Univariate analysis was carried using Mann-Whitney, Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression was performed to assess independent factors with calculation of odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). 4398 patients were included. Mortality was 1.4% in surgical intensive care unit and 7.4% during hospital stay. Independent predictors of mortality in surgical intensive care unit were APACHE II (OR=1.24); emergent surgery (OR=4.10), serum sodium (OR=1.06) and FiO 2 at admission (OR=14.31). Serum bicarbonate at admission (OR=0.89) was considered a protective factor. Independent predictors of hospital mortality were age (OR=1.02), APACHE II (OR=1.09), emergency surgery (OR=1.82), high-risk surgery (OR=1.61), FiO 2 at admission (OR=1.02), postoperative acute renal failure (OR=1.96), heart rate (OR=1.01) and serum sodium (OR=1.04). Dying patients had higher scores in severity of disease scoring systems and longer surgical intensive care unit stay. Some factors influenced both surgical intensive care unit and hospital mortality. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Maximal exercise electrocardiography responses and coronary heart disease mortality among men with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, G William; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Lavie, Carl J; Hand, Gregory A; Blair, Steven N

    2008-05-27

    An abnormal ECG during maximal exercise testing has been shown to be a powerful predictor of future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in asymptomatic men. However, little is known about the relationship between exercise ECG responses and CHD risk in men with diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between exercise ECG responses and mortality in 2854 men with documented diabetes mellitus (mean age 49.5 years) who completed a maximal treadmill exercise test during the period from 1974 to 2001 and who were without a previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) event at baseline. Mortality due to all causes, CHD, and CVD were the main outcome measures across categories of exercise ECG responses, with stratification by cardiorespiratory fitness, quantified as treadmill test duration. During an average follow-up of 16 years, 441 deaths (210 CVD and 133 CHD) were identified. Across normal, equivocal, and abnormal exercise ECG groups, age- and examination year-adjusted CHD mortality rates per 10 000 person-years were 23.0, 48.6, and 69.0, respectively (P(trend)<0.001). After further adjustment for fasting plasma glucose level, smoking, body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, family history of CVD or diabetes mellitus, abnormal resting ECG responses, and cardiorespiratory fitness, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.00 (referent), 1.68 (1.01 to 2.77), and 2.21 (1.41 to 3.46; P(trend)<0.001). Similar patterns of associations were noted between exercise ECG testing and both CVD and all-cause mortality risk. Among men with diabetes mellitus, equivocal and abnormal exercise ECG responses were associated with higher risk of all-cause, CVD, and CHD mortality.

  14. Oral primary care: an analysis of its impact on the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Staton, Catherine Ann; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-10-30

    Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease, especially when diagnosed in advanced stages. In Brazil, the primary health care (PHC) system is responsible for promoting oral health in order to prevent oral diseases. However, there is insufficient evidence to assess whether actions of the PHC system have some effect on the morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of PHC structure and work processes on the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer after adjusting for contextual variables. An ecological, longitudinal and analytical study was carried out. Data were obtained from different secondary data sources, including three surveys that were nationally representative of Brazilian PHC and carried out over the course of 10 years (2002-2012). Data were aggregated at the state level at different times. Oral cancer incidence and mortality rates, standardized by age and gender, served as the dependent variables. Covariables (sociodemographic, structure of basic health units, and work process in oral health) were entered in the regression models using a hierarchical approach based on a theoretical model. Analysis of mixed effects with random intercept model was also conducted (alpha = 5%). The oral cancer incidence rate was positively association with the proportion of of adults over 60 years (β = 0.59; p = 0.010) and adult smokers (β = 0.29; p = 0.010). The oral cancer related mortality rate was positively associated with the proportion of of adults over 60 years (β = 0.24; p oral cancer (β = 0.02; p = 0.002). Mortality was inversely associated with the coverage of primary care teams (β = -0.01; p work processes have been shown to help reduce the mortality rate of oral cancer, but not the incidence rate of the disease. We recommend expanding investments in PHC in order to prevent oral cancer related deaths.

  15. Level of dependence in patients on haemodialysis in Catalonia and evolution of mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Periz, Lola; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Cases-Amenós, Aleix

    2012-01-01

    Age and the comorbidities associated with ESRD impair the functional autonomy of patients on haemodialysis (HD). Our objectives were to assess the level of dependence in patients on HD and their mortality rates after three years of treatment. To do so, we followed the criteria established by the "Ley de Promoción de la Autonomía Personal y Atención a las Personas en situación de dependencia", the Spanish Law of Dependence (LD). We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study between October 2007 and January 2008. From 3702 patients in 40 dialysis units in Catalonia, 806 were selected as potential dependent individuals according to the criteria of their healthcare providers. Variables studied included: level of dependence according to the LD criteria, age, time on HD, associated pathology, treatment characteristics, family circumstances, and survival from 2009 to 2011. According to the LD, 137 were not dependent, 350 had a grade 1 dependence level, 237 grade 2, and 82 grade 3. In addition, 121 were living in an institution. The mean age was 74.9 ± 18.2 years and the median time on HD was 36 months. The prevalence of common pathologies was: diabetes (35.7%) and cardiovascular disease (29.1%). Musculoskeletal alterations (87%) and neurological disorders (38%) were the main causes of dependence. 64.2% of patients had a catheter as a vascular access. 34.9% of patients survived after three years, and these had a lower level of dependence when compared to those patients who had died, with no statistically significant differences within those three years. According to the LD, the prevalence of dependent patients in Catalonia is substantial (18.07%). These patients have a high mortality rate after three years.

  16. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  17. Chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and mortality: A prospective cohort study in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cynthia C; Teo, Boon Wee; Ong, Peng Guan; Cheung, Carol Y; Lim, Su Chi; Chow, Khuan Yew; Meng, Chan Choon; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and deaths in Asian populations. We evaluated the associations of CKD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Prospective cohort study of 7098 individuals who participated in two independent population-based studies involving Malay adults (n = 3148) and a multi-ethnic cohort of Chinese, Malay and Indian adults (n = 3950). CKD was assessed from CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke and CVD mortality) and all-cause mortality were identified by linkage with national disease/death registries. Over a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 4.6% developed CVD and 6.1% died. Risks of both CVD and all-cause mortality increased with decreasing eGFR and increasing albuminuria (all p-trend <0.05). Adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% confidence interval)) of CVD and all-cause mortality were: 1.54 (1.05-2.27) and 2.21 (1.67-2.92) comparing eGFR <45 vs ≥60; 2.81 (1.49-5.29) and 2.34 (1.28-4.28) comparing UACR ≥300 vs <30. The association between eGFR <60 and all-cause mortality was stronger among those with diabetes (p-interaction = 0.02). PAR of incident CVD was greater among those with UACR ≥300 (12.9%) and that of all-cause mortality greater among those with eGFR <45 (16.5%). In multi-ethnic Asian adults, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were independently associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. These findings extend previously reported similar associations in Western populations to Asians and emphasize the need for early detection of CKD and intervention to prevent adverse outcomes. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  18. Mortality rates due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in São Paulo City from 2002 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Evangelista de Matos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS in the city of São Paulo as a function of demographics, year, and region. METHOD: This was a retrospective descriptive study. Information was obtained from death certificates registered at the Program for the Improvement of Mortality Information, Municipal Health Department (PRO-AIM/SMS, coded as G12.2 according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, from 2002 to 2006. RESULTS: Over the studied time, were found 326 deaths (51.6% women, overall mean age of 64.1 years. Highest deaths percentages happened in those from 60 to 69 and 70 to 79 years and in white individuals. ALS mortality rates ranged 0.44/100,000 in 2002 and 0.76/100,000 in 2006. No significant changes overtime in administrative districts were found. CONCLUSION: ALS mortality rates in São Paulo were lower in comparison to other countries, however any risk factor in our environment, lifestyle or genetic characteristics were found.

  19. ANALYSIS OF MORTALITY FROM MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES AS UNDERLYING AND MULTIPLE CAUSES IN THE RESIDENTS OF THE TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Vaysman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs are a topical medical, social, and economic problem. According to the 2015 data, MSDs in the structure of primary morbidity were 3.9% and those in the structure of mortality were 0.2% in the Russian Federation. Official mortality statistics is formed only by one (underlying cause of death. The study of multiple causes of death will enable the understanding of its mechanisms, the necessity of making changes in the management tactics for patients and in the standards of medical care, as well as the possibility of correcting the mortality reduction plans. Objective: to investigate the reliability of statistics on MSD mortality and the ways of its reduction, by analyzing the underlying and multiple causes of death. Materials and methods. This investigation used a database on medical death certificates of the residents of the Tula Region in 2015. Mortality rates were calculated by conventional statistical methods. Death rates for the Russian Federation and the Tula Region were taken from the book «Medico-demographic indicators of the Russian Federation in 2015» by the Ministry of Health of Russia and C52 tables by the Federal State Statistics Service. The 2012–2014 European mortality databases were used for international comparisons. Results and discussion. The mortality rates were analyzed using the underlying and multiple causes of death. Expert evaluation showed that the 2015 mortality rates from MSDs were underestimated by approximately 11%. The MSD mortality rates in the Tula Region were 2.4 and 2.7 times higher than those in the entire Russian Federation and in Europe, respectively. Defects were found in drawing up medical death certificates. The reliability of mortality statistics was shown to be related to monitoring, physician training, and introduction of an automated system. Emphasis is laid on the correction of treatment tactics for patients with MSD. 

  20. Association of allergic rhinitis, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crans Yoon, Angelina M; Chiu, Vicki; Rana, Jamal S; Sheikh, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation is implicated in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Allergic diseases also involve a systemic inflammatory state, which may potentiate cardiovascular disease. To examine the association of allergic rhinitis, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality. We conducted a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study comparing the incidence of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2012, in patients with International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, documented allergic rhinitis matched 1:1 by age, sex, and ethnicity to a reference cohort without allergic rhinitis within Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Further analyses for those with positive environmental allergen specific IgE (sIgE) test results within the allergic rhinitis cohort were also performed. Patients with physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis (N = 110, 207 in matched cohort) had significantly lower risk for myocardial infarction (HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.67; P allergic rhinitis was associated with decreased CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. This decreased risk was more pronounced after excluding patients with asthma. Patients with positive sIgE test results also had decreased risk of CHD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not from observed data

  2. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  3. Parasitic Diseases as a cause of Mortality in Commercial Chicken in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortalities in chickens brought to the postmortem facility of the veterinary school of the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Parasitic diseases caused deaths in 786(26%) chicken out of 2975 dead from a combination of diseases. The major contributor of mortalities was acute coccidiosis, ...

  4. Comparing the decline in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality in neighbouring countries with different healthcare systems.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, K

    2013-06-04

    OBJECTIVE: To examine age and gender specific trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality in two neighbouring countries, the Republic of Ireland (ROI) and Northern Ireland (NI). DESIGN: Epidemiological study of time trends in CHD and stroke mortality. SETTING\\/PATIENTS: The populations of the ROI and NI, 1985-2010. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Directly age standardised CHD and stroke mortality rates were calculated and analysed using joinpoint regression to identify years where the slope of the linear trend changed significantly. This was performed separately for specific age groups (25-54, 55-64, 65-74 and 75-84 years) and by gender. Annual percentage change (APC) and 95% CIs are presented. RESULTS: There was a striking similarity between the two countries, with percentage change between 1985 and 1989 and between 2006 and 2010 of 67% and 69% in CHD mortality, and 64% and 62% in stroke mortality for the ROI and NI, respectively. However, joinpoint analysis identified differences in the pace of change between the two countries. There was an accelerated pace of decline (negative APC) in mortality for both CHD and stroke in both countries from the mid-1990s (APC ROI -8% (95% CI -9.5 to 6.5) and NI -6.6% (-6.9 to -6.3)), but the accelerated decrease started later for CHD mortality in the ROI. In recent years, a levelling off in CHD mortality was observed in the 25-54 year age group in NI and in stroke mortality for men and women in the ROI. CONCLUSIONS: While differences in the pace of change in mortality were observed at different time points, similar, substantial decreases in CHD and stroke mortality were achieved between 1985 and 1989 and between 2006 and 2010 in the ROI and NI despite important differences in health service structures. There is evidence of a levelling in mortality rates in some groups in recent years.

  5. Predictors of mortality in the elderly after open repair for perforated peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Vijaya T; Wiseman, Jason T; Flahive, Julie; Santry, Heena P

    2017-07-01

    As the U.S. population ages and the number of emergent surgical repairs for perforated peptic ulcer disease (PUD) rise, contemporary national data evaluating operative outcomes for open surgical repair for perforated PUD among the elderly are lacking. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2007-2014) was queried for patients ≥65 y who underwent open surgical repair for perforated PUD. The primary outcome was 30-d mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-d postoperative complications. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed. Overall, 2131 patients underwent open surgical repair for perforated PUD. Among those who died, more used steroids preoperatively (15% versus 9%, P = 0.001) and fewer were independent preoperatively (55% versus 83%, P 85 y 24%, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for other factors, mortality was significantly associated with older age (85+ versus 65-74 y) (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8, 1.7), dependent functional status preoperatively ([OR], 0.2; 95% CI, 0.2, 0.3), and American Society of Anesthesiologist classification ≥4 (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.4, 4.3). At U.S. hospitals, open surgical repair, the accepted treatment of perforated PUD, among the elderly is associated with significant 30-d morbidity and mortality rates that are unacceptably high in our contemporary era. Furthermore, mortality rates are associated with older age. Therefore, as the elderly population continues to increase in the United States, preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative measures must be taken to reduce this high morbidity and mortality rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exceptionally high mortality rate of the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Brazilian naval fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Shanks, G Dennis; Almeida, Francisco E A; Alonso, Wladimir J

    2013-01-01

    The naval experience with the 1918 pandemic during World War I remains underexplored despite its key role on the pandemic's global diffusion and the epidemiological interest of isolated and relatively homogeneous populations. The pandemic outbreak in the Brazilian naval fleet is of particular interest both because of its severity and the fact that it was the only Latin American military force deployed to war. To study the mortality patterns of the pandemic in the Brazilian fleet sent to patrol the West African coast in 1918. We investigated mortality across vessels, ranks, and occupations based on official population and mortality records from the Brazilian Navy Archives. The outbreak that swept this fleet included the highest influenza mortality rate on any naval ship reported to date. Nearly 10% of the crews died, with death rates reaching 13-14% on two destroyers. While overall mortality was lower for officers, stokers and engineer officers were significantly more likely to die from the pandemic, possibly due to the pulmonary damage from constant exposure to the smoke and coal dust from the boilers. The fatality patterns observed provide valuable data on the conditions that can exacerbate the impact of a pandemic. While the putative lack of exposure to a first pandemic wave may have played a role in the excessive mortality observed in this fleet, our results indicate that strenuous labor conditions, dehydration, and exposure to coal dust were major risk factors. The unequal death rates among vessels remain an open question. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Dead reckoning: can we trust estimates of mortality rates in clinical databases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Steve; Stark, Jaroslav; Pagel, Christina; Williams, Gail; Williams, William G

    2008-03-01

    Databases almost invariably contain some errors and improvements to the quality of recorded data are costly. We sought to assess the extent to which given levels of error in a clinical database can lead to misleading mortality rates being derived. We deliberately seeded a large database concerning congenital heart surgery involving over 17,600 operations, which we assumed to be error free, with errors at known rates of 0-20%. The effects of three different types of random error were explored: data omission, outcome miscoding (alive or dead) and the miscoding of procedures. For each error type, we compared the mortality rates calculated from the 'seeded' database to those calculated from the pristine database. Outcome miscoding typically results in overestimated mortality rates which for low-risk procedures may well give estimates over double the true value. Random data omission has relatively little effect. If procedure types are miscoded, procedure-specific mortality estimates for high-risk operations tend to be underestimates and those for low-risk operations overestimates. A mathematical model developed to examine these effects accurately forecasted the results of such error-seeding experiments. Software to implement this model is available free of charge on the Internet. Even small levels of data error can substantially affect the accuracy of mortality rate estimates, especially for low-risk operations. Such inaccuracy could lead to misleading analysis of institutional and individual surgeons' results. Our results suggest that caution is warranted in interpreting the mortality estimates derived from clinical databases. Our analysis goes beyond the realms of surgical mortality and concerns all adverse events whose frequency is rare.

  8. Characterization of heat waves affecting mortality rates of broilers between 29 days and market age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Vale

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate may affect broiler production, especially where there are heat waves, which may cause high mortality rates due to the heat stress. Heat wave prediction and characterization may allow early mitigation actions to be taken. Data Mining is one of the tools used for such a characterization, particularly when a large number of variables is involved. The objective of this study was to classify heat waves that promote broiler chicken mortality in poultry houses equipped with minimal environmental control. A single day of heat, a heat-shock day, is capable of producing high broiler mortality. In poultry houses equipped with fans and evaporative cooling, the characterization of heat waves affecting broiler mortality between 29 days of age and market age presented 89.34% Model Accuracy and 0.73 Class Precision for high mortality. There was no influence on high mortality (HM of birds between 29 and 31 days of age. Maximum temperature humidity index (THI above 30.6 ºC was the main characteristic of days when there was a heat wave, causing high mortality in broilers older than 31 days. The high mortality of broilers between 31 and 40 days of age occurred when maximum THI was above 30.6 ºC and maximum temperature of the day was above 34.4 ºC. There were two main causes of high mortality of broilers older than 40 days: 1 maximum THI above 30.6 ºC and minimum THI equal or lower than 15.5 ºC; 2 maximum THI above 30.6 ºC, minimum THI lower than 15.5 ºC, and the time of maximum temperature later than 15:00h. The heat wave influence on broiler mortality lasted an average of 2.7 days.

  9. The Effect of Chronic Kidney Disease on Mortality with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, David D; Maran, Anbukarasi; Hyer, J Madison; Funke, Frederick; Waring, Ashley; Cuoco, Frank A; Sturdivant, J Lacy; Leman, Robert B; Gold, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves functional status, reduces heart failure hospitalizations, and decreases mortality. Several comorbidities including renal function affect outcomes with CRT. However, moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) was an exclusion criterion in the large randomized control trials. To evaluate the association of renal function on survival following CRT implantation. This was a retrospective analysis of 432 consecutive patients implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator with CRT (CRT-D). The primary end point was defined as death by any cause, and it was determined using hospital records and the U.S. Social Security Death Index. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed separating renal dysfunction into renal stage based on glomerular filtration rate. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the clinical predictors of mortality. Patients were followed for up to 12 years with a mean follow-up time of 4.3 ± 3.2 years. A total of 164 patients (39.3%) died over the course of the study. Patients with normal and mild renal diseases (Stages 1 and 2) had improved survival compared with those with moderate-, severe-, or end-stage (Stages 3-5) renal disease. This effect remained statistically significant after multivariate analysis. The estimated 5-year mortality was 36.3% for stage 1, 33.4% for stage 2, 40.6% for stage 3, and 62.1% for stage 4/5 kidney disease (P = 0.004 by log-rank test). CKD is a strong and an independent predictor of long-term mortality among patients undergoing CRT-D implantation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mortality trends for ischemic heart disease in China: an analysis of 102 continuous disease surveillance points from 1991 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past 20 years, the trends of ischemic heart disease (IHD mortality in China have been described in divergent claims. This research analyzes mortality trends for IHD by using the data from 102 continuous Disease Surveillance Points (DSP from 1991 to 2009. Method The 102 continuous DSP covered 7.3 million people during the period 1991–2000, and then were expanded to a population of 52 million in the same areas for 2004–2009. The data were adjusted by using garbage code redistribution and underreporting rate, mapped from international classification of diseases ICD-9 to ICD-10. The mortality rates for IHD were further adjusted by the crude death proportion multiplied by the total number of deaths in the mortality envelope, which was calculated by using logrt = a + bt. Age-standard death rates (ASDRs were computed using China’s 2010 census population structure. Trend in IHD was calculated from ASDRs by using a joinpoint regression model. Results The IHD ASDRs increased in total in regions with an average annual percentage change (AAPC 4.96%, especially for the Southwest (AAPC = 7.97% and Northeast areas (AAPC = 7.10%, and for male and female subjects (with 5% AAPC as well. In rural areas, the year 2000 was a cut-off point for mortality rate with annual percentage change increasing from 3.52% in 1991–2000 to 9.02% in 2000–2009, which was much higher than in urban areas (AAPC = 1.05%. And the proportion of deaths increased in older adults, and more male deaths occurred before age 60 compared to female deaths. Conclusion By observing a wide range of areas across China from 1991 to 2009, this paper concludes that the ASDR trend for IHD increased. These trends reflect changes in the Chinese standard of living and lifestyle with diets higher in fat, higher blood lipids and increased body weight.

  11. Impact of acute kidney injury on long-term mortality and progression to chronic kidney disease among critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa G. Al-Otaibi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the 2-year outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI following admission to pediatric critical care units (PICU. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2012 and December 2013. We followed 131 children admitted to PICU, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a diagnosis of AKI, based on pRIFLE (pediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease, for 2 years. During the study period, 46 children died and 38 of survivors completed the follow-up. Factors affecting long-term progression to chronic kidney disease were also evaluated. Results: The 2-year mortality was more than 40%. The main determinant of the 2-year mortality was the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM score, which increased the risk of mortality by 6% per each one score (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06: 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.11. By the end of the 2 years, 33% of survivors had reduction in the glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, and 73% were hypertensive. Patients with more severe renal impairment at admission, based on the pRIFLE criteria, had higher mortality rate. This association, however, was not independent since it was influenced by baseline disease severity (PRISM score. Conclusion: Large proportion of patients admitted to PICU with AKI either died during the first 2 months of follow-up or developed long-term complications. The severity of AKI, however, was not an independent risk factor for mortality.

  12. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; van Mantgem, Philip J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Bruner, Howard; Harmon, Mark E.; O'Connell, Kari B.; Urban, Dean L.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2011-01-01

    At global and regional scales, tree mortality rates are positively correlated with forest net primary productivity (NPP). Yet causes of the correlation are unknown, in spite of potentially profound implications for our understanding of environmental controls of forest structure and dynamics and, more generally, our understanding of broad-scale environmental controls of population dynamics and ecosystem processes. Here we seek to shed light on the causes of geographic patterns in tree mortality rates, and we consider some implications of the positive correlation between mortality rates and NPP. To reach these ends, we present seven hypotheses potentially explaining the correlation, develop an approach to help distinguish among the hypotheses, and apply the approach in a case study comparing a tropical and temperate forest.

  13. Increased mortality attributed to Chagas disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucunubá, Zulma M; Okuwoga, Omolade; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Nouvellet, Pierre

    2016-01-27

    The clinical outcomes associated with Chagas disease remain poorly understood. In addition to the burden of morbidity, the burden of mortality due to Trypanosoma cruzi infection can be substantial, yet its quantification has eluded rigorous scrutiny. This is partly due to considerable heterogeneity between studies, which can influence the resulting estimates. There is a pressing need for accurate estimates of mortality due to Chagas disease that can be used to improve mathematical modelling, burden of disease evaluations, and cost-effectiveness studies. A systematic literature review was conducted to select observational studies comparing mortality in populations with and without a diagnosis of Chagas disease using the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and LILACS databases, without restrictions on language or date of publication. The primary outcome of interest was mortality (as all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, heart transplant or cardiovascular deaths). Data were analysed using a random-effects model to obtain the relative risk (RR) of mortality, the attributable risk percent (ARP), and the annual mortality rates (AMR). The statistic I(2) (proportion of variance in the meta-analysis due to study heterogeneity) was calculated. Sensitivity analyses and publication bias test were also conducted. Twenty five studies were selected for quantitative analysis, providing data on 10,638 patients, 53,346 patient-years of follow-up, and 2739 events. Pooled estimates revealed that Chagas disease patients have significantly higher AMR compared with non-Chagas disease patients (0.18 versus 0.10; RR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.49-2.03). Substantial heterogeneity was found among studies (I(2) = 67.3%). The ARP above background mortality was 42.5%. Through a sub-analysis patients were classified by clinical group (severe, moderate, asymptomatic). While RR did not differ significantly between clinical groups, important differences in AMR were found: AMR = 0.43 in

  14. Time trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in Russia and Germany from 1980 to 2007 - are there migration effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deckert Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Large variations in CVD mortality between countries and also between population subgroups within countries have been observed. Previous studies showed significantly lower risks in German repatriates and Jews emigrating from Russia than in the general Russian population. We examined to what degree the migration of large subgroups influenced national CVD mortality rates. Methods We used WHO data to map the CVD mortality distribution in Europe in 2005. Supplemented by data of the Statistisches Bundesamt, the mortality trends in three major CVD groups between 1980 and 2007 in Russia and Germany are displayed, as well as demographic information. The effects of migration on demography were estimated and percentage changes in CVD mortality trends were calculated under the assumption that migration had not occurred. Results Cardiovascular disease mortality patterns within Europe showed a strong west-east gradient with ratios up to sixfold. In Germany, the CVD mortality levels were low and steadily decreasing, whereas in Russia they fluctuated at high levels with substantial differences between the sexes and strong correlations with political changes and health campaigns. The trends in both Russia and Germany were affected by the migration that occurred in both countries over recent decades. However, our restricted focus in only adjusting for the migration of German repatriates and Jews had moderate effects on the national CVD mortality statistics in Germany (+1.0% and Russia (-0.6%. Conclusions The effects on CVD mortality rates due to migration in Germany and Russia were smaller than those due to secular economical changes. However, migration should still be considered as a factor influencing national mortality trends.

  15. Forecasting the mortality rates of Malaysian population using Heligman-Pollard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Mohd, Razak; Ngataman, Nuraini; Abrisam, Wan Nur Azifah Wan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Actuaries, demographers and other professionals have always been aware of the critical importance of mortality forecasting due to declining trend of mortality and continuous increases in life expectancy. Heligman-Pollard model was introduced in 1980 and has been widely used by researchers in modelling and forecasting future mortality. This paper aims to estimate an eight-parameter model based on Heligman and Pollard's law of mortality. Since the model involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 7.0 (MATLAB 7.0) software will be used in order to estimate the parameters. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be applied to forecast all the parameters according to Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA). The empirical data sets of Malaysian population for period of 1981 to 2015 for both genders will be considered, which the period of 1981 to 2010 will be used as "training set" and the period of 2011 to 2015 as "testing set". In order to investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecast results will be compared against actual data of mortality rates. The result shows that Heligman-Pollard model fit well for male population at all ages while the model seems to underestimate the mortality rates for female population at the older ages.

  16. Meningococcal meningitis: clinical and laboratorial characteristics, fatality rate and variables associated with in-hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Strelow

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Meningococcal meningitis is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with meningococcal meningitis, and to identify associated factors with mortality. This was a retrospective study, between 2006 and 2011, at a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mortality. We included 316 patients. The median age was 16 years (IQR: 7–27 and 60% were male. The clinical triad: fever, headache and neck stiffness was observed in 89% of the patients. The cerebrospinal triad: pleocytosis, elevated protein levels and low glucose levels was present in 79% of patients. Factors associated with mortality in the multivariate model were age above 50 years, seizures, tachycardia, hypotension and neck stiffness. The classic clinical and laboratory triads of meningococcal meningitis were variable. The fatality rate was low. Age, seizures and shock signs were independently associated with mortality.

  17. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  18. Frailty Index and Incident Mortality, Hospitalization, and Institutionalization in Alzheimer's Disease: Data From the ICTUS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaiditi, Eirini; Andrieu, Sandrine; Cantet, Christelle; Vellas, Bruno; Cesari, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    The identification of an objective evaluation of frailty capable of predicting adverse outcomes in Alzheimer's disease is increasingly discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Frailty Index (FI) predicts hospitalization, institutionalization, and mortality in Alzheimer's disease patients. A prospective multicenter cohort study (follow-up = 2 years) that included 1,191 participants with Alzheimer's disease was carried out. The outcomes of interest were incident hospitalization, institutionalization, and mortality. The FI was calculated as the ratio of actual to thirty potential deficits, that is, deficits presented by the participant divided by 30. Severity of dementia was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating score. Cox proportional hazard models were performed. Mean age of the study sample was 76.2 (SD = 7.6) years. A quadratic relationship of the FI with age was reported at baseline (R (2) = .045, p institutionalization. When the Clinical Dementia Rating score was simultaneously included in the age- and gender-adjusted models, the FI confirmed its predictive capacity for hospitalization (HR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.006-1.032, p = .004), whereas the Clinical Dementia Rating score was the strongest predictor for mortality (HR = 1.922, 95% CI = 1.256-2.941, p = .003) and institutionalization (HR = 1.955, 95%CI = 1.427-2.679, p < .001). The FI is a robust predictor of adverse outcomes even after the stage of the underlying dementia is considered. Future work should evaluate the clinical implementation of the FI in the assessment of demented individuals in order to improve the personalization of care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Modelling Future Coronary Heart Disease Mortality to 2030 in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John; Kabir, Zubair; Bennett, Kathleen; Hotchkiss, Joel W; Kee, Frank; Leyland, Alastair H; Davies, Carolyn; Bandosz, Piotr; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Critchley, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Despite rapid declines over the last two decades, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in the British Isles are still amongst the highest in Europe. This study uses a modelling approach to compare the potential impact of future risk factor scenarios relating to smoking and physical activity levels, dietary salt and saturated fat intakes on future CHD mortality in three countries: Northern Ireland (NI), Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Scotland. CHD mortality models previously developed and validated in each country were extended to predict potential reductions in CHD mortality from 2010 (baseline year) to 2030. Risk factor trends data from recent surveys at baseline were used to model alternative future risk factor scenarios: Absolute decreases in (i) smoking prevalence and (ii) physical inactivity rates of up to 15% by 2030; relative decreases in (iii) dietary salt intake of up to 30% by 2030 and (iv) dietary saturated fat of up to 6% by 2030. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were then conducted. Projected populations in 2030 were 1.3, 3.4 and 3.9 million in NI, RoI and Scotland respectively (adults aged 25-84). In 2030: assuming recent declining mortality trends continue: 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 5.8-7.2%. 15% absolute reductions in physical inactivity levels could decrease CHD deaths by 3.1-3.6%. Relative reductions in salt intake of 30% could decrease CHD deaths by 5.2-5.6% and a 6% reduction in saturated fat intake might decrease CHD deaths by some 7.8-9.0%. These projections remained stable under a wide range of sensitivity analyses. Feasible reductions in four cardiovascular risk factors (already achieved elsewhere) could substantially reduce future coronary deaths. More aggressive polices are therefore needed in the British Isles to control tobacco, promote healthy food and increase physical activity.

  20. Modelling Future Coronary Heart Disease Mortality to 2030 in the British Isles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hughes

    Full Text Available Despite rapid declines over the last two decades, coronary heart disease (CHD mortality rates in the British Isles are still amongst the highest in Europe. This study uses a modelling approach to compare the potential impact of future risk factor scenarios relating to smoking and physical activity levels, dietary salt and saturated fat intakes on future CHD mortality in three countries: Northern Ireland (NI, Republic of Ireland (RoI and Scotland.CHD mortality models previously developed and validated in each country were extended to predict potential reductions in CHD mortality from 2010 (baseline year to 2030. Risk factor trends data from recent surveys at baseline were used to model alternative future risk factor scenarios: Absolute decreases in (i smoking prevalence and (ii physical inactivity rates of up to 15% by 2030; relative decreases in (iii dietary salt intake of up to 30% by 2030 and (iv dietary saturated fat of up to 6% by 2030. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were then conducted.Projected populations in 2030 were 1.3, 3.4 and 3.9 million in NI, RoI and Scotland respectively (adults aged 25-84. In 2030: assuming recent declining mortality trends continue: 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 5.8-7.2%. 15% absolute reductions in physical inactivity levels could decrease CHD deaths by 3.1-3.6%. Relative reductions in salt intake of 30% could decrease CHD deaths by 5.2-5.6% and a 6% reduction in saturated fat intake might decrease CHD deaths by some 7.8-9.0%. These projections remained stable under a wide range of sensitivity analyses.Feasible reductions in four cardiovascular risk factors (already achieved elsewhere could substantially reduce future coronary deaths. More aggressive polices are therefore needed in the British Isles to control tobacco, promote healthy food and increase physical activity.

  1. Pre-AIDS mortality and its association with HIV disease progression in haemophilic men, injecting drug users and homosexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M. [= Maria; Sabin, C. A.; Lee, C. A.; Devereux, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    To study pre-AIDS mortality and its association with HIV disease progression in different exposure groups with known intervals of HIV seroconversion. The type and rate of pre-AIDS deaths were assessed in 111 HIV-infected haemophilic men followed in London, and 118 injecting drug users and 158

  2. Tagging methods for estimating population size and mortality rates of inland striped bass populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis in inland reservoirs play an important role ecologically and in supporting recreational fishing. To manage these populations, biologists need information about abundance and mortality. Abundance estimates can be used to assess the effectiveness of stocking programs that maintain most reservoir striped bass populations. Mortality estimates can indicate the relative impact of fishing versus natural mortality and the need for harvest regulation. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate tagging studies as a way of obtaining information about abundance and mortality. These approaches can be grouped into three broad categories: tag recapture, tag return, and telemetry. Tag-recapture methods are typically used to estimate population size and other demographic parameters but are often difficult to apply in large systems. A fishing tournament can be an effective way of generating tagging or recapture effort in large systems, compared to using research sampling only. Tag-return methods that rely on angler harvest and catch and release can be used to estimate fishing (F) and natural (M) mortality rates and are a practical approach in large reservoirs. The key to success in tag-return studies is to build in auxiliary studies to estimate short-term tagging mortality, short- and longterm tag loss, reporting rate, and mortality associated with catch and release. F and M can also be estimated using telemetry tags. Advantages of this approach are that angler nonreporting does not bias estimates and fish with transmitters provide useful ecological data. Cost can be a disadvantage of telemetry studies; thus, combining telemetry tags with conventional tag returns in an integrated analysis is often the optimal approach. In summary, tagging methods can be a powerful tool for assessing the effectiveness of inland striped bass stocking programs and the relative impact of fishing versus natural mortality

  3. Forty-Five-Year Mortality Rate as a Function of the Number and Type of Psychiatric Diagnoses Found in a Large Danish Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madarasz, Wendy; Manzardo, Ann; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Central Psychiatric Research Registry for 8109 birth cohort members aged 45 years. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 10, group F codes, Mental and Behavioural Disorders, and one Z code) for identified subjects were organized into 14 mutually exclusive.......0, df = 1, P high mortality rates with no comorbidities. Conclusions: Risk of early mortality among psychiatric patients appears to be a function of both...

  4. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... weeks post hatching (age of ringing) and 47 %of the nestlings from ringing to fledging. Fifty-five percentage of the radio-tracked fledged young survived to dispersal, i.e. a total survival rate from egg to dispersal of 8 %. Analyses of combined ringing and radio tracking data showed a lower survival......Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...

  5. Gaussian and Affine Approximation of Stochastic Diffusion Models for Interest and Mortality Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus C. Christiansen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the actuarial literature, it has become common practice to model future capital returns and mortality rates stochastically in order to capture market risk and forecasting risk. Although interest rates often should and mortality rates always have to be non-negative, many authors use stochastic diffusion models with an affine drift term and additive noise. As a result, the diffusion process is Gaussian and, thus, analytically tractable, but negative values occur with positive probability. The argument is that the class of Gaussian diffusions would be a good approximation of the real future development. We challenge that reasoning and study the asymptotics of diffusion processes with affine drift and a general noise term with corresponding diffusion processes with an affine drift term and an affine noise term or additive noise. Our study helps to quantify the error that is made by approximating diffusive interest and mortality rate models with Gaussian diffusions and affine diffusions. In particular, we discuss forward interest and forward mortality rates and the error that approximations cause on the valuation of life insurance claims.

  6. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data: An Analysis of Data From the ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Jacob J. E.; Rozing, Maarten P.; Kramer, Anneke; Abad, José M.; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; de Meester, Johan M. J.; Palsson, Runolfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of senescence can be inferred from the acceleration by which mortality rates increase over age. Such a senescence rate is generally estimated from parameters of a mathematical model fitted to these mortality rates. However, such models have limitations and underlying assumptions. Notably,

  7. National mortality burden due to communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misganaw, Awoke; Haregu, Tilahun N; Deribe, Kebede; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribew, Amare; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Gedefaw, Molla; Dessalegn, Muluken; Lakew, Yihunie; Bekele, Tolesa; Mohammed, Mesoud; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Krohn, Kristopher J; Achoki, Tom; Blore, Jed; Assefa, Yibeltal; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries. We report numbers of deaths and rates of years of life lost (YLL) for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disorders, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and injuries with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) for Ethiopia from 1990 to 2015. CMNN causes of death have declined by 65% in the last two-and-a-half decades. Injury-related causes of death have also decreased by 70%. Deaths due to NCDs declined by 37% during the same period. Ethiopia showed a faster decline in the burden of four out of the five leading causes of age-standardized premature mortality rates when compared to the overall sub-Saharan African region and the Eastern sub-Saharan African region: lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and diarrheal diseases; however, the same could not be said for ischemic heart disease and other NCDs. Non-communicable diseases, together, were the leading causes of age-standardized mortality rates, whereas CMNN diseases were leading causes of premature mortality in 2015. Although lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and diarrheal disease were the leading causes of age-standardized death rates, they showed major declines from 1990 to 2015. Neonatal encephalopathy, iron-deficiency anemia, protein-energy malnutrition, and preterm birth complications also showed more than a 50% reduction in burden. HIV/AIDS-related deaths have also decreased by 70% since 2005. Ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke were among the top causes of premature mortality and age

  8. National mortality burden due to communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misganaw, Awoke; Haregu, Tilahun N; Deribe, Kebede; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribew, Amare; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Gedefaw, Molla; Dessalegn, Muluken; Lakew, Yihunie; Bekele, Tolesa; Mohammed, Mesoud; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Krohn, Kristopher J; Achoki, Tom; Blore, Jed; Assefa, Yibeltal; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-07-21

    Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries. We report numbers of deaths and rates of years of life lost (YLL) for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disorders, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and injuries with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) for Ethiopia from 1990 to 2015. CMNN causes of death have declined by 65% in the last two-and-a-half decades. Injury-related causes of death have also decreased by 70%. Deaths due to NCDs declined by 37% during the same period. Ethiopia showed a faster decline in the burden of four out of the five leading causes of age-standardized premature mortality rates when compared to the overall sub-Saharan African region and the Eastern sub-Saharan African region: lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and diarrheal diseases; however, the same could not be said for ischemic heart disease and other NCDs. Non-communicable diseases, together, were the leading causes of age-standardized mortality rates, whereas CMNN diseases were leading causes of premature mortality in 2015. Although lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and diarrheal disease were the leading causes of age-standardized death rates, they showed major declines from 1990 to 2015. Neonatal encephalopathy, iron-deficiency anemia, protein-energy malnutrition, and preterm birth complications also showed more than a 50% reduction in burden. HIV/AIDS-related deaths have also decreased by 70% since 2005. Ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke were among the top causes of premature mortality and age

  9. Plasma YKL-40 and total and disease-specific mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Increased plasma YKL-40 is associated with short-term survival in patients with cardiovascular disease and cancer. We tested the hypothesis that increased plasma YKL-40 is associated with total and disease-specific mortality in the general population....

  10. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

  11. Characteristics, outcome and predictors of one year mortality rate in patients with acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acute heart failure (AHF is one of the most common diseases in emergency medicine, associated with poor prognosis and high in-hospital and longterm mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics, outcomes and one year mortality of patients with AHF in the local population. Methods. This prospective study consisted of 64 consecutive unselected patients treated in the Coronary Care Unit of the Emergency Centre (Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade and were followed for one year after the discharge. Results. Mean age of the patients was 63.6 ± 12.6 years and 59.4% were males. Acute congestion (43.8% and pulmonary edema (39.1% were the most common presentations of AHF. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 39.7% ± 9.25%, while 44.4% of the patients had LVEF ≥ 50%. At discharge, 55.9% of the patients received therapy with β-blockers, 94.9% diuretics, out of which 47.7% spironolactone, 94.9% patients were given ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blokcers (ARB. The 12-month all-cause mortality was 26.5%. Independent predictors of one year mortality were previous hospitalization due to heart disease, reduced LVEF, reduced fraction of shortening (FS and a higher tricuspid velocity. Conclusion. One year mortality of our patients with AHF was high, similar to the known European studies. Independent predictors of one year mortality were previous hospitalization due to heart disease, reduced LVEF and LVFS and a higher tricuspid velocity.

  12. Prediction of hospital mortality by changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Berzan, E

    2015-03-01

    Deterioration of physiological or laboratory variables may provide important prognostic information. We have studied whether a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value calculated using the (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula) over the hospital admission, would have predictive value. An analysis was performed on all emergency medical hospital episodes (N = 61964) admitted between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2011. A stepwise logistic regression model examined the relationship between mortality and change in renal function from admission to discharge. The fully adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for 5 classes of GFR deterioration showed a stepwise increased risk of 30-day death with OR\\'s of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 1.59 (1.27, 1.99), 2.71 (2.24, 3.27), 5.56 (4.54, 6.81) and 11.9 (9.0, 15.6) respectively. The change in eGFR during a clinical episode, following an emergency medical admission, powerfully predicts the outcome.

  13. Cardiovascular disease mortality and its association with socioeconomic status: findings from a population-based cohort study in rural Vietnam, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Dao, Lan Huong; Wall, Stig; Nguyen, Thi Kim Chuc; Byass, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an emerging epidemic in Vietnam, but because cause of death and other routine data are not widely available, it is difficult to characterize community-based disease patterns. Using 5-year data from an ongoing cause-specific mortality study conducted within a demographic surveillance system in Vietnam's Bavi district, this article estimates the rates of adult cardiovascular disease mortality in relation to the mortality rates of other noncommunicable diseases in rural northern Vietnam and examines the association of cardiovascular disease with certain demographic and socioeconomic factors. All causes of death of adults aged 20 and older occurring from 1999 through 2003 (n = 1067) were determined by using an established demographic surveillance system and data collected by trained interviewers who asked caretakers or relatives of the deceased individuals about signs and symptoms of disease during quarterly household visits. Deaths were classified as cardiovascular disease, cancer, or other noncommunicable diseases. These records were linked to demographic and socioeconomic data. Of the 1067 adult deaths that were recorded, there was an overall noncommunicable disease mortality rate of 7.8 per 1000 person-years. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 33% of male and 31% of female deaths. Compared with cancer and other noncommunicable causes of death in a Cox proportional hazards model, higher cardiovascular disease mortality rates were observed among men, older age groups, and those without formal education. To date, cohort studies and population-based mortality data in Vietnam have been scarce; this study provides insights into the public health aspects of cardiovascular disease in transitional Vietnam. The rates of cardiovascular disease mortality in this rural Vietnamese community were high, suggesting the need for both primary prevention and secondary treatment initiatives. The demographic surveillance system is an important tool for

  14. Explaining the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in the Czech Republic between 1985 and 2007

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Cifková, R.; Lánská, V.; O'Flaherty, M.; Critchley, J.A.; Holub, J.; Janský, P.; Zvárová, Jana; Capewell, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2014), s. 829-839 ISSN 2047-4873 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : coronary heart disease * Czech MONICA and Czech post-MONICA * coronary heart disease management * coronary heart disease mortality * coronary heart disease risk factors Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.319, year: 2014

  15. Low serum leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rattensperger, Dirk; Zidek, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy.......Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy....

  16. Black-white differences in infectious disease mortality in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardus, J. H.; Kunst, A. E.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the degree to which Black-White differences in infectious disease mortality are explained by income and education and the extent to which infectious diseases contribute to Black-White differences in all-cause mortality. METHODS: A sample population of the National

  17. Black-white differences in infectious disease mortality in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: This study determined the degree to which Black-White differences in infectious disease mortality are explained by income and education and the extent to which infectious diseases contribute to Black-White differences in all-cause mortality. METHODS: A

  18. Prostate cancer trends in Latvia during 1990-2012: incidence, prevalence, mortality, and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonis, Juris; Bokums, Kristaps; Cauce, Vinita; Miklasevics, Edvins; Vaganovs, Peteris; Irmejs, Arvids; Gardovskis, Janis; Vjaters, Egils

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common form of cancer in males worldwide. One of the highest PCa-related mortality rates in the world is observed in Latvia. Our study included male patients diagnosed with PCa between 1990 and 2012. We analyzed incidence, prevalence and mortality trends using joinpoint analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates. A total of 14,083PCa patients with a mean age of initial PCa diagnosis being 70.1 (SD 8.6) was registered. The standardized incidence rates (per 100,000) increased from 18.9 in 1990 to 74.7 in 2012, while the standardized prevalence rates (per 100,000) increased from 69.9 in 1990 to 437.6 in 2012. Standardized PCa mortality rates (per 100,000) also rose from 13.2 in 1990 to 27.2 in 2006 followed by statistically insignificant decrease continuing up to 2012. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rates increased from 43.6% in 1990 to 70.7% in 2007, and the mean 10-year cancer-specific survival rates from 32.9% in 1990 to 40.5% in 2001. This study revealed that the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates increased between 1990 and 2012, and although the 5- and 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates improved over the reviewed period they still needed to get better. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. International variation in lung cancer mortality rates and trends among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-06-01

    There is no recent comprehensive global analysis of lung cancer mortality in women. We describe contemporary mortality rates and trends among women globally. We used the World Health Organization's Cancer Mortality Database covering 65 populations on six continents to calculate age-standardized (1960 Segi world standard) lung cancer death rates during 2006 to 2010 and annual percent change in rates for available years from 1985 to 2011 and for the most recent five data years by population and age group (30-49 and 50-74 years). Lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) among young women (30-49 years) during 2006 to 2010 ranged from 0.7 in Costa Rica to 14.8 in Hungary. Rates among young women were stable or declining in 47 of 52 populations examined. Rates among women 50 to 74 years ranged from 8.8 in Georgia and Egypt to 120.0 in Scotland. In both age groups, rates were highest in parts of Europe (Scotland, Hungary, Denmark) and North America and lowest in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Rates in older women were increasing for more than half (36/64) of populations examined, including most countries in Southern, Eastern, and Western Europe and South America. Although widespread reductions in lung cancer in young women provide evidence of tobacco control success, rates continue to increase among older women in many countries. More concentrated efforts to initiate or expand tobacco control programs in these countries globally will be required to attenuate the future lung cancer burden. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1025-36. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Parental mortality rates in a western country after the death of a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Smits, Luc J.M.; Li, Jiong

    2010-01-01

    to unnatural death (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.84–1.77). Bereaved fathers who had lost a son had similar mortality as those bereaved by the death of a daughter (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.86–1.40). Bereaved mothers who had lost a daughter had similar mortality as those bereaved by the death of a son (HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0...... fathers). Bereaved parents who had lost a child of the same sex had similar overall mortality as bereaved parents who had lost a child of the opposite sex (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.85–1.22). Similar findings were observed for mortality due to natural death (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78–1.18) or mortality due.......70–1.22). Bereaved parents who had lost a son had mortality rates similar to those who had lost a daughter (HR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.91–1.31). The interactions between grouping variable and sex of parents were not significant, indicating that the differential effect of losing a child based on sex of the child...

  1. Co-occurring woody species have diverse hydraulic strategies and mortality rates during an extreme drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Carter Berry, Z; Schwantes, Amanda M; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Wayne Polley, H; Wortemann, Remí; Swenson, Jennifer J; Scott Mackay, D; McDowell, Nate G; Jackson, Robert B

    2018-03-01

    From 2011 to 2013, Texas experienced its worst drought in recorded history. This event provided a unique natural experiment to assess species-specific responses to extreme drought and mortality of four co-occurring woody species: Quercus fusiformis, Diospyros texana, Prosopis glandulosa, and Juniperus ashei. We examined hypothesized mechanisms that could promote these species' diverse mortality patterns using postdrought measurements on surviving trees coupled to retrospective process modelling. The species exhibited a wide range of gas exchange responses, hydraulic strategies, and mortality rates. Multiple proposed indices of mortality mechanisms were inconsistent with the observed mortality patterns across species, including measures of the degree of iso/anisohydry, photosynthesis, carbohydrate depletion, and hydraulic safety margins. Large losses of spring and summer whole-tree conductance (driven by belowground losses of conductance) and shallower rooting depths were associated with species that exhibited greater mortality. Based on this retrospective analysis, we suggest that species more vulnerable to drought were more likely to have succumbed to hydraulic failure belowground. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of New York City Health Policy Initiatives in Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paulina; Lovasi, Gina S; Madsen, Ann; Van Wye, Gretchen; Demmer, Ryan T

    2017-09-01

    Beginning in 2002, New York City (NYC) implemented numerous policies and programs targeting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Using death certificates, we analyzed trends in NYC-specific and US mortality rates from 1990 to 2011 for all causes, any CVD, atherosclerotic CVD (ACVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke. Joinpoint analyses quantified annual percent change (APC) and evaluated whether decreases in CVD mortality accelerated after 2002 in either NYC or the total US population. Our analyses included 1,149,217 NYC decedents. The rates of decline in mortality from all causes, any CVD, and stroke in NYC did not change after 2002. Among men, the decline in ACVD mortality accelerated during 2002-2011 (APC = -4.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.1, -3.4) relative to 1990-2001 (APC = -2.3%, 95% CI: -3.1, -1.5). Among women, ACVD rates began declining more rapidly in 1993 (APC = -3.2%, 95% CI: -3.8, -2.7) and again in 2006 (APC = -6.6%, 95% CI: -8.9, -4.3) as compared with 1990-1992 (APC = 1.6%, 95% CI: -2.7, 6.0). In the US population, no acceleration of mortality decline was observed in either ACVD or CAD mortality rates after 2002. Relative to 1990-2001, atherosclerotic CVD and CAD rates began to decline more rapidly during the 2002-2011 period in both men and women-a pattern not observed in the total US population, suggesting that NYC initiatives might have had a measurable influence on delaying or reducing ACVD mortality. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The rise of mortality from mental and neurological diseases in Europe, 1979-2009: Observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, Johan; Karanikolos, Marina; Looman, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We studied recent trends in mortality from seven mental and neurological conditions and their determinants in 41 European countries. Methods. Age-standardized mortality rates were analysed using standard methods of descriptive epidemiology, and were related to cultural, economic and health care indicators using regression analysis. Results: Rising mortality from mental and neurological conditions is seen in most European countries, and is mainly due to rising mortality...

  4. The rise of mortality from mental and neurological diseases in Europe, 1979–2009: observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Karanikolos, Marina; Looman, Caspar WN

    2014-01-01

    Background We studied recent trends in mortality from seven mental and neurological conditions and their determinants in 41 European countries. Methods Age-standardized mortality rates were analysed using standard methods of descriptive epidemiology, and were related to cultural, economic and health care indicators using regression analysis. Results Rising mortality from mental and neurological conditions is seen in most European countries, and is mainly due to rising mortality from dementias...

  5. Trends in major risk factors and mortality from main non-communicable diseases in Lithuania, 1985-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Klumbiene, Jurate; Petkeviciene, Janina; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Vikhireva, Olga; Luksiene, Dalia; Virviciute, Dalia

    2016-08-04

    This study aimed to assess the trends in the prevalence and levels of risk factors and mortality from main non-communicable diseases in the Lithuanian population aged 45-64 years during 1985 to 2013. Data from four general population surveys conducted between 1985 and 2008 were used. All these surveys were carried out in Kaunas city and five randomly selected municipalities of Lithuania. Risk factors measured at each survey included regular smoking, overweight, obesity, arterial hypertension, and high levels of blood lipids. In total, data of 10,719 subjects (4,965 men and 5,754 women) aged 45-64 were analysed. Trends in standardized all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and malignant neoplasms were estimated for both sexes by joinpoint regression analysis. In 1985-2013, some favourable trends were observed in the age-standardized mean levels and prevalence of risk factors and mortality from main non-communicable diseases in the Lithuanian middle-aged population. The mean values of blood lipids (with the exception of triglycerides) and the prevalence of dyslipidemias declined. In women, mean levels of systolic blood pressure and body mass index decreased, while in men, the levels of these factors increased. The prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity increased in men. The proportion of obese women decreased. Smoking prevalence increased in both men and women. From 2007 to 2008, significant downward trends, which were steeper in women than in men, were observed in all-cause, CVD, and CHD mortality. Despite the favourable changes in some risk factors and mortality rates, the prevalence of risk factors and mortality from main non-communicable diseases in Lithuania are still high. This indicates the importance of the ongoing primary and secondary prevention and optimal treatment of these diseases.

  6. Economic values of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, S.K.; Janssen, K.; Besson, M.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to derive the economic value (s) (EVs) of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A smallholder production system where fish are cultured in earthen ponds and oxygen is a limiting factor for

  7. Nationwide Birth Weight and Gestational Age-specific Neonatal Mortality Rate in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Tse Hsu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: We have provided an easy-to-use birth weight/gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rate chart as a reference document that physicians and parents can use to make decisions based on ethical considerations relating to whether to give palliative care or further invasive management. The normative data are crucial for public health policies on neonatal care in Taiwan.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rates in old age in the World Health Organization Europe Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Read, S.; Towriss, C.A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Grundy, E.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic adversity is among the foremost fundamental causes of human suffering, and this is no less true in old age. Recent reports on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate in old age suggest that a low socioeconomic position continues to increase the risk of death even among the oldest

  9. The effect of public health spending on under-five mortality rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda's under-five mortality rate has remained high that is 68 per 1000 live birth in relation to MDGs target 56 per 1000 live birth in 2014 .The MDGs assessment report by United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) shows that the low level of public health expenditure is a major factor determining poor child health ...

  10. International Ranking of Infant Mortality Rates: Taiwan Compared with European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wen Liang

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The ranking of Taiwan was similar (11th vs. 12th according the two definitions. However, after consideration of the confidence interval, only six countries (Sweden, Finland, Czech Republic, Belgium, Austria, and Germany had infant mortality rates statistically significantly lower than those of Taiwan in 2004.

  11. Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Denjian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…

  12. Creatinine Excretion Rate and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkeler, Steef J.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Esmatjes, Enric; de Zeeuw, Dick; Navis, Gerjan; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers

    OBJECTIVE-The creatinine excretion rate (CER) is inversely associated with mortality in the general and renal transplant population. The CER is a marker for muscle mass. It is unknown whether the CER is associated with outcome in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the CER is a determinant

  13. Simplified model for end-stage liver disease score predicts mortality for tricuspid valve surgery†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kazumasa; Koide, Masaaki; Kunii, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazumasa; Miyairi, Satoshi; Ohashi, Yuko; Harada, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The model for end-stage liver disease score (MELD = 3.8*LN[total bilirubin] + 9.6*LN[creatinine] + 11.2*[PT-INR] + 6.4) predicts mortality for tricuspid valve surgery. However, the MELD is problematic in patients undergoing warfarin therapy, as warfarin affects the international normalized ratio (INR). This study aimed to determine whether a simplified MELD score that does not require the INR for calculation could predict mortality for patients undergoing tricuspid valve surgery. Simplified MELD METHODS A total of 172 patients (male: 66, female: 106; mean age, 63.8 ± 10.3 years) who underwent tricuspid replacement (n = 18) or repair (n = 154) from January 1991 to July 2011 at a single centre were included. Of them, 168 patients in whom the simplified MELD score could be calculated were retrospectively analysed. The relationship between in-hospital mortality and perioperative variables was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS The rate of in-hospital mortality was 6.4%. The mean admission simplified MELD score for the patients who died was significantly higher than for those surviving beyond discharge (11.3 ± 4.1 vs 5.8 ± 4.0; P = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality included higher simplified MELD score (P = 0.001) and tricuspid valve replacement (P = 0.023). In-hospital mortality and morbidity increased along with increasing simplified MELD score. Scores 14 were associated with mortalities of 0, 2.0, 8.3 and 66.7%, respectively. The incidence of serious complications (multiple organ failure, P = 0.005; prolonged ventilation, P = 0.01; need for haemodialysis; P = 0.002) was also significantly higher in patients with simplified MELD score ≥7. CONCLUSIONS The simplified MELD score predicts mortality in patients undergoing tricuspid valve surgery. This model requires only total bilirubin and creatinine and is therefore applicable in patients undergoing warfarin therapy. PMID:23403770

  14. Rates of very preterm birth in Europe and neonatal mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, D.; Draper, E. S.; Fenton, A.; Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Blondel, B.; Cuttini, M.; Maier, R. F.; Weber, T.; Carrapato, M.; Kollee, L.; Gadzin, J.; Van Reempts, P.

    Objective: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in 10 European regions. Design: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a 1-year period (7 months in one

  15. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months ...

  16. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M

    2013-04-01

    Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data.

  17. Epidemiological Study of Mortality Rate from Alcohol and Illicit Drug Abuse in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Mirtorabi, Seyed Davood; Ghadirzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed

    2017-10-14

    The estimate of mortality associated with illicit opiate use provides useful information to those directing and monitoring local, national and international policies and programs. This study investigated the epidemiology of mortality due to the illegal consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances in the Iran to provide evidence-based public health data for useful programs and actions aimed at preventing drug-related mortality. A cross-sectional study. The information regarding all cases of psychotropic positive was collected from Legal Medicine Organization, occurred on Mar 2015 to Feb 2016. Demographic and epidemiological data were extracted from recorded documents. Data were then analyzed in Stata software. Overall, 2306 died cases from opioid or psychotropic abuse were evaluated. The mean age of the subjects was 36.07±12.61 yr, they were mostly single male, and 88.64% of them had Iranian nationality. The mortality rate from opiate and psychotropic abuse in the whole country was 38.22 per 1000000 population. The most common location of death was at home or in another private residence. History of overdose, suicide, hospitalization in psychiatric hospital, staying in prison and substance abuse in the family observed in some people who died from drug abuse. Mortality rate from substance abuse is more among unmarried young men aged 30-39 yr with low education level also in self-employed. We suggest policies to prevent this person accessing and using drug.

  18. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  19. [Current aspects of the Russian Federation population's mortality from diseases of the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakorkina, E P; Efimov, D M; Chemiakina, S-D N

    2010-01-01

    Diseases of the respiratory system are in the lead of general mortality of population, they tend to increase, particularly with regard to pneumonias, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, bronchial asthma and others. The paper surveys the structure and levels of mortality from diseases of the respiratory system, sex and age indices with special reference to the working age, the mortality dynamics since 2000, levels of mortality by regions with special reference to subjects with the minimum and maximum levels both for the total and by the main nosologies (pneumonia, diseases of the lower respiratory tract, bronchial asthma); an attempt is made to carry out the correlation analysis of the level of mortality from diseases by the main nosologies.

  20. Explaining trends in Scottish coronary heart disease mortality between 2000 and 2010 using IMPACTSEC model: retrospective analysis using routine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Joel W; Davies, Carolyn A; Dundas, Ruth; Hawkins, Nathaniel; Jhund, Pardeep S; Scholes, Shaun; Bajekal, Madhavi; O'Flaherty, Martin; Critchley, Julia; Leyland, Alastair H; Capewell, Simon

    2014-02-06

    To quantify the contributions of prevention and treatment to the trends in mortality due to coronary heart disease in Scotland. Retrospective analysis using IMPACTSEC, a previously validated policy model, to apportion the recent decline in coronary heart disease mortality to changes in major cardiovascular risk factors and to increases in more than 40 treatments in nine non-overlapping groups of patients. Scotland. All adults aged 25 years or over, stratified by sex, age group, and fifths of Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Deaths prevented or postponed. 5770 fewer deaths from coronary heart disease occurred in 2010 than would be expected if the 2000 mortality rates had persisted (8042 rather than 13,813). This reflected a 43% fall in coronary heart disease mortality rates (from 262 to 148 deaths per 100,000). Improved treatments accounted for approximately 43% (95% confidence interval 33% to 61%) of the fall in mortality, and this benefit was evenly distributed across deprivation fifths. Notable treatment contributions came from primary prevention for hypercholesterolaemia (13%), secondary prevention drugs (11%), and chronic angina treatments (7%). Risk factor improvements accounted for approximately 39% (28% to 49%) of the fall in mortality (44% in the most deprived fifth compared with only 36% in the most affluent fifth). Reductions in systolic blood pressure contributed more than one third (37%) of the decline in mortality, with no socioeconomic patterning. Smaller contributions came from falls in total cholesterol (9%), smoking (4%), and inactivity (2%). However, increases in obesity and diabetes offset some of these benefits, potentially increasing mortality by 4% and 8% respectively. Diabetes showed strong socioeconomic patterning (12% increase in the most deprived fifth compared with 5% for the most affluent fifth). Increases in medical treatments accounted for almost half of the large recent decline in mortality due to coronary heart disease in

  1. Socioeconomic status and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates among the diverse population of California

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Iona; Witte, John S.; McClure, Laura A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Cockburn, Myles G.; John, Esther M.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer rates are well documented, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed among African-Americans followed by non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Whether socioeconomic status (SES) can account for these differences in risk has been investigated in previous studies, but with conflicting results. Furthermore, previous studies have focused primarily on the differences between African-Americans and non-H...

  2. The impact of musculoskeletal diseases on mortality-comparison with internal diseases: A 15-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Imagama, Shiro; Sakai, Tadahiro; Wakai, Kenji; Suzuki, Koji; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes (DM), hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia (HL), as well as musculoskeletal disorders, such as osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP). However, the impact of musculoskeletal disorders on mortality remains unclear. This study investigated the risk of mortality if having knee OA or OP. 601 participants (mean age 67.8 ± 5.3 years) who underwent musculoskeletal check-ups in Yakumo town were enrolled in this study, 248 were males and 353 were females. The following parameters were assessed: age, sex, body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol drinking habit, physical exercise habit, knee OA, OP, HT, DM and HL. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for smoking, drinking and physical exercise habits, knee OA, OP, HT, DM and HL were prepared, and the log-rank test was performed. Furthermore, the Cox hazard model was used for multivariate analysis of all variables. Knee OA, OP, HT, and DM were associated with a significantly higher mortality rate. Cox regression analysis results showed a hazard ratio of 1.972 for OA (95%CI: 1.356-2.867), 1.965 for DM (1.146-3.368), 1.706 for smoking habits (1.141-2.552), and 1.614 for OP (1.126-2.313). Cardiovascular diseases were the most common causes of death. Smoking, knee OA, OP and DM were all associated with increased risk of mortality. Knee OA had a high hazard ratio, comparable to that of DM. These findings suggest that interventions against smoking, knee OA, OP and DM may reduce the risk of mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Smoking on Mortality and Kidney Transplantation in End-Stage Kidney Disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-07

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tobacco use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and clinical impact of COPD on mortality and kidney transplantation among patients who begin dialysis therapy is unclear. Methods: We explored the clinical impact of COPD and continued tobacco use on overall mortality and kidney transplantation in a national cohort study of US dialysis patients. National data on all dialysis patients (n = 769,984), incident between May 1995 and December 2004 and followed until October 31, 2006, were analyzed from the United States Renal Data System. Prevalence and period trends were determined while multivariable Cox regression evaluated relative hazard ratios (RR) for death and kidney transplantation. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 7.5% overall and increased from 6.7 to 8.1% from 1995-2004. COPD correlated significantly with older age, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, malnutrition, poor functional status, and tobacco use. Adjusted mortality risks were significantly higher for patients with COPD (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.18-1.21), especially among current smokers (RR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.25-1.32), and varied inversely with advancing age. In contrast, the adjusted risks of kidney transplantation were significantly lower for patients with COPD (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.41-0.54, for smokers and RR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.50-0.58, for non-smokers) than without COPD [RR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, for smokers and RR = 1.00 for non-smokers (referent category)]. Conclusions: Patients with COPD who begin dialysis therapy in the US experience higher mortality and lower rates of kidney transplantation, outcomes that are far worse among current smokers.

  4. Pneumococcal vaccination rates in VHA patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, David J; Copeland, Laurel A; Stock, Eileen M; Herrera, Henry R; Pfanner, Timothy P

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract not caused by infectious agents. Symptoms of IBD, such as diarrhea and pain, diminish one's quality of life. Underlying immune dysregulation may put IBD patients at risk for severe infectious disease making preventative vaccination highly recommended. Therefore, this study sought to assess rates of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with IBD.A cross-sectional observational study was employed utilizing administrative data extracts from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify patients diagnosed with IBD per International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, Clinical Modification codes. Their pneumococcal vaccine histories were determined from Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data were aggregated to the patient level and subjected to multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with receipt of the vaccination and 1-year mortality; survival analyses extended follow-up to as much as 4 years following IBD diagnosis.From October 2004 to September 2009, 49,350 patients were diagnosed with IBD in the VHA. Incidence was approximately 6000 cases/y. Patients averaged 62 years (±15, range 19-98) with 45% aged 65 or older. Approximately 6% were women, 21% were highly disabled from a military service-connected condition, 46% had hypertension, 38% dyslipidemia, and 18% diabetes. Only 20% of the cohort received pneumococcal vaccination including 5% vaccinated prior to IBD diagnosis, 2% on the date of diagnosis, and 13% subsequently. Being married, living outside the Northeast, and having more comorbidities were associated with vaccination before IBD diagnosis; models of vaccination at or after diagnosis demonstrated poor fit: little better than chance. Vaccinations before, after, and at diagnosis were protective against 1-year mortality adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. Living in the South was an independent risk factor for death among IBD

  5. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    -rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus...... Study. Participants with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Participants themselves provided health ratings, as well as a visiting physician and a research nurse. Visual acuity, hearing loss, mobility, stability, urinal and faecal incontinence, cognitive function and mood (depressive symptoms...

  6. Risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates for stroke: evidence from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry (AuSCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kilkenny, Monique F; Levi, Christopher R; Lannin, Natasha A; Thrift, Amanda G; Kim, Joosup; Grabsch, Brenda; Churilov, Leonid; Dewey, Helen M; Hill, Kelvin; Faux, Steven G; Grimley, Rohan; Castley, Helen; Hand, Peter J; Wong, Andrew; Herkes, Geoffrey K; Gill, Melissa; Crompton, Douglas; Middleton, Sandy; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Anderson, Craig S

    2017-05-01

    Hospital data used to assess regional variability in disease management and outcomes, including mortality, lack information on disease severity. We describe variance between hospitals in 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) for stroke, comparing models that include or exclude stroke severity as a covariate. Cohort design linking Australian Stroke Clinical Registry data with national death registrations. Multivariable models using recommended statistical methods for calculating 30-day RAMRs for hospitals, adjusted for demographic factors, ability to walk on admission, stroke type, and stroke recurrence. Australian hospitals providing at least 200 episodes of acute stroke care, 2009-2014. Hospital RAMRs estimated by different models. Changes in hospital rank order and funnel plots were used to explore variation in hospital-specific 30-day RAMRs; that is, RAMRs more than three standard deviations from the mean. In the 28 hospitals reporting at least 200 episodes of care, there were 16 218 episodes (15 951 patients; median age, 77 years; women, 46%; ischaemic strokes, 79%). RAMRs from models not including stroke severity as a variable ranged between 8% and 20%; RAMRs from models with the best fit, which included ability to walk and stroke recurrence as variables, ranged between 9% and 21%. The rank order of hospitals changed according to the covariates included in the models, particularly for those hospitals with the highest RAMRs. Funnel plots identified significant deviation from the mean overall RAMR for two hospitals, including one with borderline excess mortality. Hospital stroke mortality rates and hospital performance ranking may vary widely according to the covariates included in the statistical analysis.

  7. The serum anion gap is altered in early kidney disease and associates with mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Melamed, Michal L.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that uremia causes an increase in the serum anion gap; however, whether changes in the anion gap occur earlier in the course of chronic kidney disease is not known. Here we investigated whether different measures of the anion gap, as a marker of kidney function, are associated with mortality. To do this we analyzed the available laboratory data of 11,957 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 to calculate anion gap using the traditional method, or one that was albumin-adjusted, as well as a full anion gap reflecting other electrolytes. A significant elevation in the traditional anion gap was seen only with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 45 mL/min/1.73m2, whereas increases in the albumin-adjusted and full anion gap were found with eGFRs less than 60 or 90mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. Higher levels of each anion gap were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality after adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and eGFR. After adjustment for additional covariates including body-mass index and comorbidities, higher levels of the albumin-adjusted and full anion gap were associated with mortality (relative hazard for highest compared to the lowest quartile were 1.62 and 1.64, respectively). Thus, higher levels of anion gap are present in individuals with less advanced kidney disease than previously recognized, and are associated with increased risk of mortality. Further study is needed to identify the unmeasured anions and to determine their physiologic significance. PMID:22622500

  8. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fritzell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  9. Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  10. The impact of changes in self-rated general health on 28-year mortality among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert; Kreiner, Svend

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-rated general health (SRH) predicts future mortality. SRH may change, and these changes may alter the mortality risk. All-cause mortality until the age of 68 and its association with changes in SRH from the age of 40-45, 45-51, and 51-60 years was examined in a cohort of Danes...

  11. Quantifying policy options for reducing future coronary heart disease mortality in England: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Shaun; Bajekal, Madhavi; Norman, Paul; O'Flaherty, Martin; Hawkins, Nathaniel; Kivimäki, Mika; Capewell, Simon; Raine, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the number of coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths potentially preventable in England in 2020 comparing four risk factor change scenarios. Using 2007 as baseline, the IMPACTSEC model was extended to estimate the potential number of CHD deaths preventable in England in 2020 by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 quintiles given four risk factor change scenarios: (a) assuming recent trends will continue; (b) assuming optimal but feasible levels already achieved elsewhere; (c) an intermediate point, halfway between current and optimal levels; and (d) assuming plateauing or worsening levels, the worst case scenario. These four scenarios were compared to the baseline scenario with both risk factors and CHD mortality rates remaining at 2007 levels. This would result in approximately 97,000 CHD deaths in 2020. Assuming recent trends will continue would avert approximately 22,640 deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 20,390-24,980). There would be some 39,720 (37,120-41,900) fewer deaths in 2020 with optimal risk factor levels and 22,330 fewer (19,850-24,300) in the intermediate scenario. In the worst case scenario, 16,170 additional deaths (13,880-18,420) would occur. If optimal risk factor levels were achieved, the gap in CHD rates between the most and least deprived areas would halve with falls in systolic blood pressure, physical inactivity and total cholesterol providing the largest contributions to mortality gains. CHD mortality reductions of up to 45%, accompanied by significant reductions in area deprivation mortality disparities, would be possible by implementing optimal preventive policies.

  12. Quantifying policy options for reducing future coronary heart disease mortality in England: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Scholes

    Full Text Available To estimate the number of coronary heart disease (CHD deaths potentially preventable in England in 2020 comparing four risk factor change scenarios.Using 2007 as baseline, the IMPACTSEC model was extended to estimate the potential number of CHD deaths preventable in England in 2020 by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 quintiles given four risk factor change scenarios: (a assuming recent trends will continue; (b assuming optimal but feasible levels already achieved elsewhere; (c an intermediate point, halfway between current and optimal levels; and (d assuming plateauing or worsening levels, the worst case scenario. These four scenarios were compared to the baseline scenario with both risk factors and CHD mortality rates remaining at 2007 levels. This would result in approximately 97,000 CHD deaths in 2020. Assuming recent trends will continue would avert approximately 22,640 deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 20,390-24,980. There would be some 39,720 (37,120-41,900 fewer deaths in 2020 with optimal risk factor levels and 22,330 fewer (19,850-24,300 in the intermediate scenario. In the worst case scenario, 16,170 additional deaths (13,880-18,420 would occur. If optimal risk factor levels were achieved, the gap in CHD rates between the most and least deprived areas would halve with falls in systolic blood pressure, physical inactivity and total cholesterol providing the largest contributions to mortality gains.CHD mortality reductions of up to 45%, accompanied by significant reductions in area deprivation mortality disparities, would be possible by implementing optimal preventive policies.

  13. Inequalities in noncommunicable disease mortality in the ten largest Japanese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Megumi; Hotta, Miyuki; Prasad, Amit

    2013-12-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases and social inequalities in health among urban populations is becoming a common problem around the world. This phenomenon is further compounded by population aging. Japan faces the task of maintaining its high level of population health while dealing with these challenges. This study focused on the ten largest cities in Japan and, using publicly available administrative data, analyzed standardized mortality ratios to examine inequalities in relative mortality levels due to major noncommunicable disease at both city and subcity levels. On average, the ten major cities had excess mortality due to cancer and lower mortality due to heart disease and cerebrovascular disease compared to the country as a whole. Substantial inequalities in relative mortality were observed both between and within cities, especially for heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among men. Inequalities in relative mortality levels within cities appear to be increasing over time even while relative mortality levels are decreasing overall. The widely observed health inequalities signal the need for actions to ensure health equity while addressing the burden of noncommunicable diseases. Increasingly, more countries will have to deal with these challenges of inequity, urbanization, aging, and noncommunicable diseases. Local health governance informed by locally specific data on health determinants and outcomes is essential for developing contextualized interventions to improve health and health equity in major urban areas.

  14. Relative risks of Chronic Kidney Disease for mortality and End Stage Renal Disease across races is similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Pang; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Islam, Muhammad; Katz, Ronit; McClellan, William; Peralta, Carmen A; Wang, HaiYan; de Zeeuw, Dick; Astor, Brad C; Gansevoort, Ron T; Levey, Andrew S; Levin, Adeera

    2014-01-01

    Some suggest race-specific cutpoints for kidney measures to define and stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), but evidence for race-specific clinical impact is limited. To address this issue, we compared hazard ratios of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and albuminuria across races using meta-regression in 1.1 million adults (75% Asians, 21% whites, and 4% blacks) from 45 cohorts. Results came mainly from 25 general population cohorts comprising 0.9 million individuals. The associations of lower eGFR and higher albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were largely similar across races. For example, in Asians, whites, and blacks, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for eGFR 45–59 vs. 90–104 ml/min/1.73m2 were 1.3 (1.2–1.3), 1.1 (1.0–1.2) and 1.3 (1.1–1.7) for all-cause mortality, 1.6 (1.5–1.8), 1.4 (1.2–1.7), and 1.4 (0.7–2.9) for cardiovascular mortality, and 27.6 (11.1–68.7), 11.2 (6.0–20.9), and 4.1 (2.2–7.5) for ESRD, respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30–299 mg/g or dipstick 1-positive vs. an albumin-to-creatinine ratio under 10 or dipstick negative were 1.6 (1.4–1.8), 1.7 (1.5–1.9) and 1.8 (1.7–2.1) for all-cause mortality, 1.7 (1.4–2.0), 1.8 (1.5–2.1), and 2.8 (2.2–3.6) for cardiovascular mortality, and 7.4 (2.0–27.6), 4.0 (2.8–5.9), and 5.6 (3.4–9.2) for ESRD, respectively. Thus, the relative mortality or ESRD risks of lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were largely similar among three major races, supporting similar clinical approach to CKD definition and staging, across races. PMID:24522492

  15. High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northern Nigeria: an 8-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrier G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles Guerrier,1 Bukola Oluyide,2 Maria Keramarou,1 Rebecca Grais1 1Epicentre, Paris, France; 2Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France Background: Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a 41-bed obstetric ward. From October 2010 to May 2011, demographic data, obstetric characteristics, and outcome were collected from all pregnant women admitted. The total number of live births during the study period was recorded in order to calculate the maternal mortality ratio. Results: There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. The most common causes of maternal mortality were hemorrhage (26%, puerperal sepsis (19%, and obstructed labor (5%. No significant difference (P = 0.07 in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6 and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4–1.5. Two hundred and sixty-six women were admitted presenting with stillbirth. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5–6.2, P < 0.0001. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. The main primary causes of neonatal deaths were prematurity (44% and birth asphyxia (22%. Conclusion: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Keywords: fetal mortality, maternal mortality, Nigeria, antenatal care

  16. The relationship of vitamin D status to risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is essential for bone mineralisation, but a growing body of evidence points at a broader role; vitamin D deficiency has been found to be associated with mortality and several diseases ranging from cardiovascular disease to autoimmune diseases and liver diseases. The evidence is, however...... or Mendelian randomisation studies, are needed to clarify whether low vitamin D status is a causal and reversible factor to prevent disease and mortality.......Vitamin D is essential for bone mineralisation, but a growing body of evidence points at a broader role; vitamin D deficiency has been found to be associated with mortality and several diseases ranging from cardiovascular disease to autoimmune diseases and liver diseases. The evidence is, however......, inconclusive and the possible pathways remain unresolved. The aims of the thesis were to investigate the association of vitamin D status to 5-year changes in cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure, lipid profile, the metabolic syndrome and urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR); the association...

  17. No evidence of nonlinear effects of predator density, refuge availability, or body size of prey on prey mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Richard M; Belk, Mark C

    2017-08-01

    Predator density, refuge availability, and body size of prey can all affect the mortality rate of prey. We assume that more predators will lead to an increase in prey mortality rate, but behavioral interactions between predators and prey, and availability of refuge, may lead to nonlinear effects of increased number of predators on prey mortality rates. We tested for nonlinear effects in prey mortality rates in a mesocosm experiment with different size classes of western mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis ) as the prey, different numbers of green sunfish ( Lepomis cyanellus ) as the predators, and different levels of refuge. Predator number and size class of prey, but not refuge availability, had significant effects on the mortality rate of prey. Change in mortality rate of prey was linear and equal across the range of predator numbers. Each new predator increased the mortality rate by about 10% overall, and mortality rates were higher for smaller size classes. Predator-prey interactions at the individual level may not scale up to create nonlinearity in prey mortality rates with increasing predator density at the population level.

  18. [Geographical distribution of mortality by Parkinson's disease and its association with air lead levels in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Villar, Alejandro; Riancho, Javier

    2016-12-02

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the etiology of its sporadic form is unknown. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by PD in Spain over a period of 14 years and its relationship with lead concentration levels in the atmosphere. An ecological study was performed, in which deaths by PD and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2013 were analyzed. The annual trend of PD mortality was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's Rho test. Finally, the relationship between lead concentration levels in the air and mortality by PD was evaluated. Between 2000 and 2013, 36,180 patients with PD died in Spain. There is an increasing trend in mortality through PD over the study period (P<.0001). La Rioja, Asturias, Basque Country and the Lower Ebro valley were the regions with the highest values of PD mortality. Those regions with the highest lead concentrations also showed higher mortality by this disease in people over 64 (P=.02). Over our period of study, there has been an increase in mortality through PD in Spain, with the northernmost half of the country registering the highest values. Mortality in men was higher than mortality in women. Moreover, a direct correlation was found between lead levels in the air and mortality through PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreased glomerular filtration rate is associated with mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies reported the associations between decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR and mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke in hypertensive patients. We aim to assess the associations between GFR and mortality, CHD, and stroke in hypertensive patients and to evaluate whether low GFR can improve the prediction of these outcomes in addition to conventional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is an observational prospective study and 3,711 eligible hypertensive patients aged ≥5 years from rural areas of China were used for the present analysis. The associations between eGFR and outcomes, followed by a median of 4.9 years, were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for other potential confounders. Low eGFR was independently associated with risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and incident stroke [multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2 relative to eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m(2 were 1.824 (1.047-3.365, 2.371 (1.109-5.068, and 2.493 (1.193-5.212, respectively]. We found no independent association between eGFR and the risk of CHD. For 4-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI was positive when eGFR were added to traditional risk factors (1.51%, P = 0.016, and 1.99%, P = 0.017, respectively. For stroke and CHD events, net reclassification improvements (NRI were 5.9% (P = 0.012 and 1.8% (P = 0.083 for eGFR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We have established an inversely independent association between eGFR and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and stroke in hypertensive patients in rural areas of China. Further, addition of eGFR significantly improved the prediction of 4-year mortality and stroke over and above that of conventional risk factors. We recommend that eGFR be incorporated into prognostic assessment for patients with hypertension in

  20. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global and regional projections of mortality and burden of disease by cause for the years 2000, 2010, and 2030 were published by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. These projections, which are based on 1990 data, continue to be widely quoted, although they are substantially outdated; in particular, they substantially underestimated the spread of HIV/AIDS. To address the widespread demand for information on likely future trends in global health, and thereby to support international health policy and priority setting, we have prepared new projections of mortality and burden of disease to 2030 starting from World Health Organization estimates of mortality and burden of disease for 2002. This paper describes the methods, assumptions, input data, and results. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Relatively simple models were used to project future health trends under three scenarios-baseline, optimistic, and pessimistic-based largely on projections of economic and social development, and using the historically observed relationships of these with cause-specific mortality rates. Data inputs have been updated to take account of the greater availability of death registration data and the latest available projections for HIV/AIDS, income, human capital, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and other inputs. In all three scenarios there is a dramatic shift in the distribution of deaths from younger to older ages and from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes to noncommunicable disease causes. The risk of death for children younger than 5 y is projected to fall by nearly 50% in the baseline scenario between 2002 and 2030. The proportion of deaths due to noncommunicable disease is projected to rise from 59% in 2002 to 69% in 2030. Global HIV/AIDS deaths are projected to rise from 2.8 million in 2002 to 6.5 million in 2030 under the baseline scenario, which assumes coverage with antiretroviral drugs

  1. FGF23 neutralization improves chronic kidney disease-associated hyperparathyroidism yet increases mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhoub, Victoria; Shatzen, Edward M; Ward, Sabrina C; Davis, James; Stevens, Jennitte; Bi, Vivian; Renshaw, Lisa; Hawkins, Nessa; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ching; Tsai, Mei-Mei; Cattley, Russell C; Wronski, Thomas J; Xia, Xuechen; Li, Xiaodong; Henley, Charles; Eschenberg, Michael; Richards, William G

    2012-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and serum elevations in the phosphaturic hormone FGF23, which may be maladaptive and lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To determine the role of FGF23 in the pathogenesis of CKD-MBD and development of secondary HPT, we developed a monoclonal FGF23 antibody to evaluate the impact of chronic FGF23 neutralization on CKD-MBD, secondary HPT, and associated comorbidities in a rat model of CKD-MBD. CKD-MBD rats fed a high-phosphate diet were treated with low or high doses of FGF23-Ab or an isotype control antibody. Neutralization of FGF23 led to sustained reductions in secondary HPT, including decreased parathyroid hormone, increased vitamin D, increased serum calcium, and normalization of bone markers such as cancellous bone volume, trabecular number, osteoblast surface, osteoid surface, and bone-formation rate. In addition, we observed dose-dependent increases in serum phosphate and aortic calcification associated with increased risk of mortality in CKD-MBD rats treated with FGF23-Ab. Thus, mineral disturbances caused by neutralization of FGF23 limited the efficacy of FGF23-Ab and likely contributed to the increased mortality observed in this CKD-MBD rat model.

  2. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology...... FHM had a 15% higher cesarean section rate (not planned) than units not using FHM (p ... a technology index was calculated for eight regions in Denmark, weighting the index of each unit in a region according to its number of deliveries. There was no association between the technology index in these eight regions in Denmark and their cesarean section rates. Use of FHM, technology index...

  3. Blood Transfusion and 30-Day Mortality in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Anemia Following Noncardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Robert H; Singletary, Brandon A; McMurtrie, James T; Graham, Laura A; Richman, Joshua S; Holcomb, Carla N; Itani, Kamal M; Maddox, Thomas M; Hawn, Mary T

    2016-02-01

    Although liberal blood transfusion thresholds have not been beneficial following noncardiac surgery, it is unclear whether higher thresholds are appropriate for patients who develop postoperative myocardial infarction (MI). To evaluate the association between postoperative blood transfusion and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease and postoperative MI following noncardiac surgery. Retrospective cohort study involving Veterans Affairs facilities from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2012. A total of 7361 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a nadir postoperative hematocrit between 20% and 30%. Patients with significant bleeding, including any preoperative blood transfusion or transfusion of greater than 4 units during the intraoperative or postoperative setting, were excluded. Mortality rates were compared using both logistic regression and propensity score matching. Patients were stratified by postoperative nadir hematocrit and the presence of postoperative MI. Initial postoperative blood transfusion. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate. Of the 7361 patients, 2027 patients (27.5%) received at least 1 postoperative blood transfusion. Postoperative mortality occurred in 267 (3.6%), and MI occurred in 271 (3.7%). Among the 5334 patients without postoperative blood transfusion, lower nadir hematocrit was associated with an increased risk for mortality (hematocrit of 20% to blood transfusion was associated with lower mortality, for those with hematocrit of 20% to 24% (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13-0.64). In patients without postoperative MI, transfusion was associated with significantly higher mortality for those with hematocrit of 27% to 30% (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.85-5.60). These findings support a restrictive postoperative transfusion strategy in patients with stable coronary artery disease following noncardiac surgery. However, interventional studies are needed to evaluate the use of a more

  4. Growth and mortality rates of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: Scombridae in the central Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters were estimated for bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839 sampled from China longline fisheries in the central Atlantic Ocean from October 2002 to July 2003 and from August 2004 to March 2005. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L8=217.9 cm fork length, k=0.23 year-1, and t0=-0.44 year. The total mortality rate (Z was estimated to be from 0.82 to 1.02, the fishing mortality (F and the natural mortality were 0.54 year-1 and 0.39 year-1, respectively. The exploitation ratio (E was 0.35. This study provides the detailed estimates of growth and mortality rate for bigeye tuna in the central Atlantic Ocean, which can be used as biological input parameters in further stock evaluations in this region. However, age analysis, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are needed for future studies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 79-88. Epub 2009 June 30.

  5. Air pollution in early life and adult mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Williams, Martin L; Jones, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD. They raised the possibility that early air pollution, which is known to be strongly linked with chest infection during infancy, may predispose to RHD. We related estimates of air pollution and social conditions developed by Daly in 1951-52 for 78 urban areas in England and Wales to their subsequent RHD mortality rates at ages 35-74 in men and women during 1993-2012. There were strong relationships between domestic air pollution and RHD [relative risk per standard deviation (SD) increase in pollution 1.168, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.128 to 1.210, P pollution association was independent of these; only overcrowding was separately linked with RHD. We present the first evidence of an association between air pollution in early life and RHD. Although there are several limitations to this study, the strength and consistency of the results, together with their biological plausibility, suggest a causal link. This deserves attention because it may have important consequences for the control of RHD in resource-poor countries where widespread use of biomass fuels and domestic pollution remain a problem. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  6. Disease Course and Surgery Rates in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Andersen, Marianne K; Prosberg, Michelle V; Jess, Tine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this population-based 7-year follow-up of incident patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD), we aimed to describe disease progression and surgery rates in an era influenced by the increased use of immunosuppressants and the introduction of biological therapy......, immunomodulators, and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in CD was 86.4%, 64.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. The rate of first-time intestinal resection in CD was 29.1% (n=62), and the 7-year cumulative risk was 28.5%. The cumulative risk of colectomy in UC was 12.5% at 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: UC and CD are dynamic....... METHODS: From 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2004, all incident cases (562) of patients diagnosed with UC, CD, or inflammatory bowel disease unclassified in a well-defined Copenhagen area were registered. Medical records were reviewed from 1 November 2011 to 30 November 2012, and clinical data were...

  7. Trends and inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality across 7932 English electoral wards, 1982-2006: Bayesian spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Perviz; Fortunato, Lea; Fecht, Daniela; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Abellan, Juan Jose; Hambly, Peter; de Hoogh, Kees; Ezzati, Majid; Elliott, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has more than halved in England since the 1980s, but there are few data on small-area trends. We estimated CVD mortality by ward in 5-year intervals between 1982 and 2006, and examined trends in relation to starting mortality, region and community deprivation. We analysed CVD death rates using a Bayesian spatial technique for all 7932 English electoral wards in consecutive 5-year intervals between 1982 and 2006, separately for men and women aged 30-64 years and ≥65 years. Age-standardized CVD mortality declined in the majority of wards, but increased in 186 wards for women aged ≥65 years. The decline was larger where starting mortality had been higher. When grouped by deprivation quintile, absolute inequality between most- and least-deprived wards narrowed over time in those aged 30-64 years, but increased in older adults; relative inequalities worsened in all four age-sex groups. Wards with high CVD mortality in 2002-06 fell into two groups: those in and around large metropolitan cities in northern England that started with high mortality in 1982-86 and could not 'catch up', despite impressive declines, and those that started with average or low mortality in the 1980s but 'fell behind' because of small mortality reductions. Improving population health and reducing health inequalities should be treated as related policy and measurement goals. Ongoing analysis of mortality by small area is essential to monitor local effects on health and health inequalities of the public health and healthcare systems.

  8. Trends and inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality across 7932 English electoral wards, 1982–2006: Bayesian spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Perviz; Fortunato, Lea; Fecht, Daniela; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Abellan, Juan Jose; Hambly, Peter; de Hoogh, Kees; Ezzati, Majid; Elliott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has more than halved in England since the 1980s, but there are few data on small-area trends. We estimated CVD mortality by ward in 5-year intervals between 1982 and 2006, and examined trends in relation to starting mortality, region and community deprivation. Methods We analysed CVD death rates using a Bayesian spatial technique for all 7932 English electoral wards in consecutive 5-year intervals between 1982 and 2006, separately for men and women aged 30–64 years and ≥65 years. Results Age-standardized CVD mortality declined in the majority of wards, but increased in 186 wards for women aged ≥65 years. The decline was larger where starting mortality had been higher. When grouped by deprivation quintile, absolute inequality between most- and least-deprived wards narrowed over time in those aged 30–64 years, but increased in older adults; relative inequalities worsened in all four age–sex groups. Wards with high CVD mortality in 2002–06 fell into two groups: those in and around large metropolitan cities in northern England that started with high mortality in 1982–86 and could not ‘catch up’, despite impressive declines, and those that started with average or low mortality in the 1980s but ‘fell behind’ because of small mortality reductions. Conclusions Improving population health and reducing health inequalities should be treated as related policy and measurement goals. Ongoing analysis of mortality by small area is essential to monitor local effects on health and health inequalities of the public health and healthcare systems. PMID:23129720

  9. Magnesium supplementation and the potential association with mortality rates among critically ill non-cardiac patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbagh, Ousama C.; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz S.; Arabi, Yaseen M.; Lone, Nazir A.; Brits, R.; Pillay, M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature showed that development of hypomagnesaemia is associated with higher mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of magnesium supplementation on mortality rates of critically ill patients. All patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of King Abadole-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia since September 2003 were included. We recorded the demographics data, APACHE score, daily magnesium levels and magnesium supplementation. We collected the data for 30 days or until discharge from ICU. Statistical analysis was performed using the student t-test for continuous data and the Fischers exact test for categorical data. Nothing was carried out to influence the behavior of intensivists in replacing magnesium. During the study period, 71 patients (45 males and 26 females) were admitted to the ICU, the mean age was 54 +/- 18 years for males and 56 +/- 19.2 years for females. The mean magnesium level on admission was 0.78 +/- 0.2 mmol/L and the majority of the patients were medical admissions. Approximately 39.4% had hypomagnesaemia on admission and the overall mortality rate was 31%. In able to standardize the supplementation of magnesium among groups, the daily magnesium supplementation index (DMSI = total magnesium supplement in grams/length of stay in days) was calculated. The mortality rates for DMSI with 1 grm/day (high group) (43.5% versus 17%, p=0.035). There was no statistically significant differences between magnesium levels of both groups of DMSI except at admission where DMSI group had higher magnesium levels (<1 grm/day). Daily magnesium supplementation index higher than 1 grm/day is associated with lower mortality rates for critically ill patients. This effect was not found to be independent and may be related to severity of illness. Given that magnesium levels were similar between the 2 groups of DMSI at almost all points of the study, magnesium supplementation per se may be beneficial in lowering mortality

  10. Penetrating abdominal injuries during the Syrian war: Patterns and factors affecting mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Shawqi; Alsabek, Mhd Belal; Ahmad, Mousa; Hamo, Iman; Munder, Eskander

    2017-05-01

    A large number of innocent Syrians were injured or killed during the years of war. This retrospective study investigates the differences in patterns of injury and factors affecting the mortality rate in 324 patients coming to Damascus Hospital with penetrating abdominal trauma, and illustrates the difficulties of diagnosis and decision making in crisis situations. A retrospective study was registered from patient's records between October 2012 and June 2013 in Damascus Hospital. All victims were injured either by explosions or gunshots. A total of 325 patients: 183 by explosion; 56.3%, 141 by gunshot; 43.3%, and one patient by other means; 0.3% were reviewed. The study focused on the two large groups with a total of 324 patients. Males were predominant (82.1%; n=266) and the majority of patients were between 19 and 35 years old. Patients suffering from multi abdominal organ injury were more common in gunshot group (n=72, 51.1%) compared to the explosion group (n=83, 45.3%). 264 patients (81.5%) underwent surgical operations and only 22 (8.3%) had normal laparotomy. The inpatient mortality rate was (17.0%; n=55), and there was no difference in mortality rate between the two groups. More than the half of deaths (n=42; 76.4%) had a P.A.T.I score≥25 where the death rate was 35.6% which is higher compared to 6.3% in those with a P.A.T.I<25. In the ICU 33 patients died, of these (87.9%; n=29) died after immediate admission to the ICU which is higher compared with a later admission (12.1%; n=4). The need for massive blood transfusion affected the mortality rate. Efforts must be directed toward training of medical staff to deal with crisis incidents. The need for massive blood transfusion and ICU admissions can affects mortality. P.A.T.I was found to be an effective predictor of mortality. Clinical experience in this field can produce better health care and faster judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Guasch-Ferré, M.; Bulló, M.; Estruch, R.; Corella, D.; Martínez-González, M.A.; Ros,E.; Covas, M.; Arós, F.; Gómez-Gracia, E.; Fiol, M.; Lapetra, J.; Muñoz, M.Á.; Serra-Majem, L.; Babio, N.; Pintó, X.

    2014-01-01

    10.3945/jn.113.183012 The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnes...

  12. Impact of primary health care on mortality from heart and cerebrovascular diseases in Brazil: a nationwide analysis of longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasella, Davide; Harhay, Michael O; Pamponet, Marina L; Aquino, Rosana; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-07-03

    To evaluate the impact of Brazil's recently implemented Family Health Program (FHP), the largest primary health care programme in the world, on heart and cerebrovascular disease mortality across Brazil from 2000 to 2009. Ecological longitudinal design, evaluating the impact of FHP using negative binomial regression models for panel data with fixed effects specifications. Nationwide analysis of data from Brazilian municipalities covering the period from 2000 to 2009. 1622 Brazilian municipalities with vital statistics of adequate quality. The annual FHP coverage and the average FHP coverage in previous years were used as main independent variables and classified as none (0%), incipient (cerebrovascular (ICD-10 codes I60-69), ischaemic (ICD-10 I20-25), and other forms of heart diseases (ICD-10 I30-52), which were included in the national list of ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, were calculated for each municipality for each year. They accounted for 40% of all deaths from these groups during the study period. FHP coverage was negatively associated with mortality rates from cerebrovascular and heart diseases (ambulatory care-sensitive conditions) in both unadjusted and adjusted models for demographic, social, and economic confounders. The FHP had no effect on the mortality rate for accidents, used as a control. The rate ratio for the effect of consolidated annual FHP coverage on cerebrovascular disease mortality and on heart disease mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 0.86) and 0.79 (0.75 to 0.80) respectively, reaching the value of 0.69 (0.66 to 0.73) and 0.64 (0.59 to 0.68) when the coverage was consolidated during all the previous eight years. Moreover, FHP coverage increased the number of health education activities, domiciliary visits, and medical consultations and reduced hospitalisation rates for cerebrovascular and heart disease. Several complementary analyses showed quantitatively similar results. Comprehensive and community based primary

  13. Homicide mortality rates in Canada, 2000-2009: Youth at increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, C Andrew; Snider, Carolyn

    2016-10-20

    To estimate and compare Canadian homicide mortality rates (HMRs) and trends in HMRs across age groups, with a focus on trends for youth. Data for the period of 2000 to 2009 were collected from Statistics Canada's CANSIM (Canadian Statistical Information Management) Table 102-0540 with the following ICD-10-CA coded external causes of death: X85 to Y09 (assault) and Y87.1 (sequelae of assault). Annual population counts from 2000 to 2009 were obtained from Statistics Canada's CANSIM Table 051-0001. Both death and population counts were organized into five-year age groups. A random effects negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to estimate age group-specific rates, rate ratios, and trends in homicide mortality. There were 9,878 homicide deaths in Canada during the study period. The increase in the overall homicide mortality rate (HMR) of 0.3% per year was not statistically significant (95% CI: -1.1% to +1.8%). Canadians aged 15-19 years and 20-24 years had the highest HMRs during the study period, and experienced statistically significant annual increases in their HMRs of 3% and 4% respectively (p < 0.05). A general, though not statistically significant, decrease in the HMR was observed for all age groups 50+ years. A fixed effects negative binomial regression model showed that the HMR for males was higher than for females over the study period [RRfemale/male = 0.473 (95% CI: 0.361, 0.621)], but no significant difference in sex-specific trends in the HMR was found. An increasing risk of homicide mortality was identified among Canadian youth, ages 15-24, over the 10-year study period. Research that seeks to understand the reasons for the increased homicide risk facing Canada's youth, and public policy responses to reduce this risk, are warranted.

  14. Fungal Infections Increase the Mortality Rate Three-Fold in Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher B; Wesp, Brendan M; Fiore, Nicholas B; Rasane, Rohit K; Torres, Marlon; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ilahi, Obeid N; Punch, Laurie J; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2017-10-01

    Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. Published data suggest NSTIs rarely involve fungal infections in immunocompetent patients. However, because of the recent recognition of fungal infections in our population, we hypothesized that such infections frequently complicate NSTIs and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. A prospectively maintained Acute and Critical Care Surgery (ACCS) database spanning 2008-2015 and including more than 7,000 patients was queried for patients with NSTIs. Microbiologic data, demographics, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Risk factors and outcomes associated with NSTI with positive intra-operative fungal cultures were determined. Frequencies were compared by χ 2 and continuous variables by the Student t-test using SPSS. Because the study included only archived data, no patient permission was needed. A total of 230 patients were found to have NSTIs; 197 had intra-operative cultures, and 21 (10.7%) of these were positive for fungi. Fungal infection was more common in women, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients who had had prior abdominal procedures. There were no significant differences in demographics, co-morbidities, or site of infection. The majority of patients (85.7%) had mixed bacterial and fungal infections; in the remaining patients, fungi were the only species isolated. Most fungal cultures were collected within 48 h of hospital admission, suggesting that the infections were not hospital acquired. Patients with positive fungal cultures required two more surgical interventions and had a three-fold greater mortality rate than patients without fungal infections. This is the largest series to date describing the impact of fungal infection in NSTIs. Our data demonstrate a three-fold increase in the mortality rate and the need for two additional operations

  15. The importance of age dependent mortality and the extrinsic incubation period in models of mosquito-borne disease transmission and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared across different extrinsic incubation periods. Compared to a more realistic age dependent model, constant mortality models overestimated the sensitivity of disease transmission to interventions that reduce mosquito survival. Interventions that reduce mosquito survival were also found to be slightly less effective when implemented in systems with shorter EIPs. Future transmission models that examine anti-vectorial interventions should incorporate realistic age dependent mortality rates.

  16. Nutritional Status Predicts 10-Year Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Sook Kang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy wasting (PEW is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis. The correct diagnosis of PEW is extremely important in order to predict clinical outcomes. However, it is unclear which parameters should be used to diagnose PEW. Therefore, this retrospective observational study investigated the relationship between mortality and nutritional parameters in ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 144 patients were enrolled. Nutritional parameters, including body mass index, serum albumin, dietary intake, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR, and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS, were measured at baseline. Fifty-three patients died during the study. Survivors had significantly higher nPCR (1.10 ± 0.24 g/kg/day vs. 1.01 ± 0.21 g/kg/day; p = 0.048, energy intake (26.7 ± 5.8 kcal/kg vs. 24.3 ± 4.2 kcal/kg; p = 0.009 and protein intake (0.91 ± 0.21 g/kg vs. 0.82 ± 0.24 g/kg; p = 0.020, and lower MIS (5.2 ± 2.3 vs. 6.1 ± 2.1, p = 0.039. In multivariable analysis, energy intake <25 kcal/kg (HR 1.860, 95% CI 1.018–3.399; p = 0.044 and MIS > 5 (HR 2.146, 95% CI 1.173–3.928; p = 0.013 were independent variables associated with all-cause mortality. These results suggest that higher MIS and lower energy intake are harmful to ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Optimal energy intake could reduce mortality in these patients.

  17. Nutritional Status Predicts 10-Year Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shin Sook; Chang, Jai Won; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-04-18

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis. The correct diagnosis of PEW is extremely important in order to predict clinical outcomes. However, it is unclear which parameters should be used to diagnose PEW. Therefore, this retrospective observational study investigated the relationship between mortality and nutritional parameters in ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 144 patients were enrolled. Nutritional parameters, including body mass index, serum albumin, dietary intake, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), were measured at baseline. Fifty-three patients died during the study. Survivors had significantly higher nPCR (1.10 ± 0.24 g/kg/day vs. 1.01 ± 0.21 g/kg/day; p = 0.048), energy intake (26.7 ± 5.8 kcal/kg vs. 24.3 ± 4.2 kcal/kg; p = 0.009) and protein intake (0.91 ± 0.21 g/kg vs. 0.82 ± 0.24 g/kg; p = 0.020), and lower MIS (5.2 ± 2.3 vs. 6.1 ± 2.1, p = 0.039). In multivariable analysis, energy intake 5 (HR 2.146, 95% CI 1.173-3.928; p = 0.013) were independent variables associated with all-cause mortality. These results suggest that higher MIS and lower energy intake are harmful to ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Optimal energy intake could reduce mortality in these patients.

  18. Smoking and its effects on mortality in adults with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Peter M.; Drenthen, Willem; Pieper, Petronella G.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Yap, Sing C.; Boersma, Eric; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To describe smoking habits in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) and to assess the relationship between smoking exposure and cardiovascular mortality. Methods: Data on smoking history and cardiovascular mortality were extracted from the Euro Heart Survey on adult congenital heart

  19. Smoking and its effects on mortality in adults with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Peter M.; Drenthen, Willem; Pieper, Petronella G.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Yap, Sing C.; Boersma, Eric; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To describe smoking habits in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) and to assess the relationship between smoking exposure and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: Data on smoking history and cardiovascular mortality were extracted from the Euro Heart Survey on adult congenital heart

  20. Urbanization and non-communicable disease mortality in Thailand: an ecological correlation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Wattanatchariya, Nisit; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2013-02-01

    This study provides strong evidence from an LMIC that urbanization is associated with mortality from three lifestyle-associated diseases at an ecological level. Furthermore, our data suggest that both average household income and number of doctors per population are important factors to consider in ecological analyses of mortality. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Sizable variations in circulatory disease mortality by region and country of birth in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafnsson, Snorri B.; Bhopal, Raj S.; Agyemang, Charles; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Harding, Seeromanie; Hammar, Niklas; Hedlund, Ebba; Juel, Knud; Primatesta, Paola; Rosato, Michael; Rey, Gregoire; Wild, Sarah H.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Stirbu, Irene; Kunst, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. We obtained national death and population data

  2. Mortality from circulatory diseases by specific country of birth across six European countries: test of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhopal, Raj S.; Rafnsson, Snorri B.; Agyemang, Charles; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Giampaoli, Simona; Hammar, Niklas; Harding, Seeromanie; Hedlund, Ebba; Juel, Knud; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Primatesta, Paola; Rey, Gregoire; Rosato, Michael; Wild, Sarah; Kunst, Anton E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Important differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality by country of birth have been shown within European countries. We now focus on CVD mortality by specific country of birth across European countries. Methods: For Denmark, England and Wales, France, The Netherlands, Scotland

  3. Mesoamerican nephropathy: geographical distribution and time trends of chronic kidney disease mortality between 1970 and 2012 in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Crowe, Jennifer; Rittner, Ralf; Sanati, Negin A; Hogstedt, Christer; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2015-10-01

    Mesoamerican nephropathy is an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) unrelated to traditional causes, mostly observed in sugarcane workers. We analysed CKD mortality in Costa Rica to explore when and where the epidemic emerged, sex and age patterns, and relationship with altitude, climate and sugarcane production. SMRs for CKD deaths (1970-2012) among population aged ≥20 were computed for 7 provinces and 81 counties over 4 time periods. Time trends were assessed with age-standardised mortality rates. We qualitatively examined relations between mortality and data on altitude, climate and sugarcane production. During 1970-2012, age-adjusted mortality rates in the Guanacaste province increased among men from 4.4 to 38.5 per 100,000 vs. 3.6-8.4 in the rest of Costa Rica, and among women from 2.3 to 10.7 per 100,000 vs. 2.6-5.0 in the rest of Costa Rica. A significant moderate excess mortality was observed among men in Guanacaste already in the mid-1970s, steeply increasing thereafter; a similar female excess mortality appeared a decade later, remaining stable. Male age-specific rates were high in Guanacaste for age categories ≥30, and since the late 1990s also for age range 20-29. The male spatiotemporal patterns roughly followed sugarcane expansion in hot, dry lowlands with manual harvesting. Excess CKD mortality occurs primarily in Guanacaste lowlands and was already present 4 decades ago. The increasing rates among Guanacaste men in hot, dry lowland counties with sugarcane are consistent with an occupational component. Stable moderate increases among women, and among men in counties without sugarcane, suggest coexisting environmental risk factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of diabetic retinopathy on 25 year survival rate among a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark. In 1973 all diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark with onset before the age of 30 years as of 1 July 1973 were identified (n=727). In 1981, only 627 patients were still alive and resident in Denmark. Of these, 573 (91%) participated in a clinical baseline examination, in which diabetic retinopathy was graded and other markers of diabetes measured. Mortality rate was examined in a 25 year follow-up and related to the baseline examination. Of the 573 patients examined at baseline in 1981 and 1982, 297 (51.8%) were still alive in November 2006. Of the others, 256 (44.7%) had died, three (0.5%) had left Denmark and 17 (3%) were of unknown status. Age- and sex-adjusted HRs of mortality rate were 1.01 (95% CI 0.72-1.42) and 2.04 (1.43-2.91) for patients with non-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy respectively at baseline compared with patients with no retinopathy. After adjusting for proteinuria, HR among patients with proliferative retinopathy lost statistical significance, but still remained 1.48 (95% CI 0.98-2.23). The 10 year survival rate of patients who had proliferative retinopathy as well as proteinuria at baseline was 22.2% and significantly lower (pretinopathy only (79.0%) or neither (86.6%). Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. In combination they act even more strongly. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not affect survival rate.

  5. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  6. Trends in mortality and antibiotic resistance among HIV-infected patients with invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, I; Ardanuy, C; Liñares, J; Podzamczer, D; Schulze, M H; Pallares, Roman

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to describe trends and risk factors for mortality and changes in antibiotic resistance, serotypes and clones among HIV-infected patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). A prospective study of 199 episodes of IPD occurring in a cohort of 4011 HIV-infected patients was carried out. Predictors of mortality included clinical and microbiological data. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) for children was introduced in late 2001. Time periods were classified for mortality studies as pre- (1986-1996), early (1997-2001) and late (2002-2007) highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, and for serotype studies as pre-PCV7 (1986-2001) and PCV7 (2002-2007) era. Of 199 IPD episodes, 71 (36%) occurred in HIV-infected patients with associated comorbidities (mainly liver cirrhosis; 52 of 71), which increased in recent years. The incidence of IPD decreased from the pre-HAART era to the early HAART era and then remained stable in the late HAART era (24.1, 8.4 and 7.4 episodes per 1000 patient-years, respectively). Rates of 30-day mortality have risen over the three periods (8, 19 and 25%, respectively; P = 0.017). In multiple logistic regression analysis, predictors of mortality were shock at presentation [odds ratio (OR) 7.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.05-23.87] and associated comorbidities (OR 4.27; 95% CI 1.53-11.92). In the PCV7 era, IPD caused by non-PCV7 serotypes increased, and resistance to betalactams decreased. The most frequent genotypes were Spain(9V)-ST156, Spain(23F)-ST81, ST88(19F), Sweden(1)-ST304 and Spain(6B)-ST90. In the late HAART era, the incidence of IPD has not significantly decreased. Mortality from IPD has risen in association with an increase in comorbidities such as liver cirrhosis. New vaccination strategies are needed to diminish the burden of IPD in the HIV-infected population.

  7. Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tie-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Gang; Meng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    A best evidence topic in adult valvular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase the perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?' A total of 561 papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, country, journal, date of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Among these 12 papers, there were nine retrospective studies, two cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial (RCT). Overall, additional tricuspid valve (TV) repair takes more time during operations, particularly with a ring annuloplasty method. The mean aortic cross-clamping times were 57-83 min without associated tricuspid repair and 62-100 min with, and cardiopulmonary bypass times without and with repair were 82-124 and 90-174 min, respectively. A study of 624 patients who had undergone isolated mitral valve (MV) surgery and MV surgery plus TV repair showed more female and atrial fibrillation patients in the tricuspid valve plasty (TVP) group, but no increase in the 30-day mortality was found. One RCT, presenting similar patient baseline characteristics, also found no difference in the hospital mortality rates between the TVP group and the non-TVP group. Another 10 studies also demonstrated no statistically significant differences in perioperative mortality. In a cohort study of 311 patients undergoing MV repair with or without tricuspid annuloplasty, postoperative complications, such as bleeding, stroke, pacemaker, haemofiltration and myocardial infarction, all showed no statistically significant differences in the two groups. One study retrospectively analysed a large number of patients undergoing either isolated left-sided valve surgery or a concomitant TV repair, and there were no statistically significant differences

  8. Mitochondrial haplogroups - Ischemic cardiovascular disease, other diseases, mortality, and longevity in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M.; Schwartz, M.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    , 0.9 to 1.3]; V: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.4]; W/I: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.4]; Z: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.4]), and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (U: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.4]; T: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.2]; J: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.4]; K: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.4]; V: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.5]; W/ I: 0.8 [95......Background-Rare mutations in the mitochondrial genome may cause disease. Mitochondrial haplogroups defined by common polymorphisms have been associated with risk of disease and longevity. We tested the hypothesis that common haplogroups predict risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, morbidity...... from other causes, mortality, and longevity in a general population of European descent. Methods and Results-We followed 9254 individuals from the Danish general population, in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, prospectively for risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, morbidity from other causes...

  9. [Mortality trend due to ischemic heart diseases in the city of Curitiba--Brazil, from 1980 to 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Edevar; Germiniani, Helio; Nazareno, Eleusis Ronconi de; Braga, Simone Viana; Winkler, Anderson Marcelo; Cunha, Claudio L Pereira da

    2005-08-01

    To assess mortality trends due to ischemic heart diseases, per sex, and acute myocardial infarction, per sex and age range, from 1980 to 1998, in the city of Curitiba. Data of death due to ischemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction from Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde (Information System on Mortality of Ministry of Health), per sex, age range and domicile location in Curitiba were used. Population data were obtained from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Foundation). Mortality rates were adjusted per age through direct method, by using the population of Curitiba, in 1980, as reference. The analysis of trend was calculated through simple linear regression, with a significance level of 5%. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases showed a decrease trend among both sexes. In age ranges of acute myocardial infarction, male sex showed a decrease until 79 years of age, among female sex individuals, the decrease was until 59 years of age. They were shown stable after those periods. Among the remaining ischemic diseases, female sex individuals showed a greater decrease than male sex ones. The study demonstrates a trend of reduction of mortality due to ischemic heart diseases, in both sexes, in the city of Curitiba, from 1980 to 1998. In acute myocardial infarction, such reduction has been happening in a more pronounced way among men, achieving stability, from 60 years of age, among women. The reasons for differentiated reduction trend between sexes are not clear, remaining as na important matter for new investigations.

  10. Mortality risk in European children with end-stage renal disease on dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C.; Schaefer, Franz; Groothoff, Jaap W.

    2016-01-01

    of Pediatric Nephrology, the European Renal Association, and European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry for 36 countries for the years 2000 through 2013. Hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age at start of dialysis, sex, primary renal disease, and country. A secondary analysis was performed...... on a propensity score–matched (PSM) cohort. The overall 5–year survival rate in European children starting on dialysis was 89.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87.7%–91.0%). The mortality rate was 28.0 deaths per 1000 patient years overall. This was highest (36.0/1000) during the first year of dialysis...... and in the 0- to 5-year age group (49.4/1000). Cardiovascular events (18.3%) and infections (17.0%) were the main causes of death. Children selected to start on HD had an increased mortality risk compared with those on PD (adjusted HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06–1.82, PSM HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.06–2.00), especially during...

  11. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology...... index (0-10) was calculated for each maternity unit according to its use of ante and intra partum fetal heart rate monitoring (FHM), hormone analysis (human placental lactogen (HPL) and/or estriol (O3)), fetal blood samples (scalp-pH), intrauterine catheter and umbilical cord-pH. Maternity units using...

  12. Measuring chronic liver disease mortality using an expanded cause of death definition and medical records in Connecticut, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kathleen N; Speers, Suzanne; Klevens, R Monina; Barry, Vaughn; Vogt, Tara M

    2014-10-16

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a leading cause of death and is defined based on a specific set of underlying cause-of-death codes on death certificates. This conventional approach to measuring CLD mortality underestimates the true mortality burden because it does not consider certain CLD conditions like viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We measured how much the conventional CLD mortality case definition will underestimate CLD mortality and described the distribution of CLD etiologies in Connecticut. We used 2004 Connecticut death certificates to estimate CLD mortality two ways. One way used the conventional definition and the other used an expanded definition that included more conditions suggestive of CLD. We compared the number of deaths identified using this expanded definition with the number identified using the conventional definition. Medical records were reviewed to confirm CLD deaths. Connecticut had 29 314 registered deaths in 2004. Of these, 282 (1.0%) were CLD deaths identified by the conventional CLD definition while 616 (2.1%) were CLD deaths defined by the expanded definition. Medical record review confirmed that most deaths identified by the expanded definition were CLD-related (550/616); this suggested a 15.8 deaths/100 000 population mortality rate. Among deaths for which hepatitis B, hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease were identified during medical record review, only 8.6%, 45.4% and 36.5%, respectively, had that specific cause-of-death code cited on the death certificate. An expanded CLD mortality case definition that incorporates multiple causes of death and additional CLD-related conditions will better estimate CLD mortality. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Increased Vascular Disease Mortality Risk in Prediabetic Korean Adults Is Mainly Attributable to Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hoon; Kwon, Tae Yeon; Yu, Sungwook; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Park, Yousung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2017-04-01

    Prediabetes is a known risk factor for vascular diseases; however, its differential contribution to mortality risk from various vascular disease subtypes is not known. The subjects of the National Health Insurance Service in Korea (2002-2013) nationwide cohort were stratified into normal glucose tolerance (fasting glucose disease and its subtypes-ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. When adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, IFG stage 2, but not stage 1, was associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.34) and vascular disease mortality (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.49) compared with normal glucose tolerance. Among the vascular disease subtypes, mortality from ischemic stroke was significantly higher (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.18-2.18) in subjects with IFG stage 2 but not from ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke. The ischemic stroke mortality associated with IFG stage 2 remained significantly high when adjusted other modifiable vascular disease risk factors (HR, 1.51; 95% CI: 1.10-2.09) and medical treatments (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.57). Higher IFG degree (fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dL) was associated with increased all-cause and vascular disease mortality. The increased vascular disease mortality in IFG stage 2 was attributable to ischemic stroke, but not ischemic heart disease or hemorrhagic stroke in Korean adults. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Hospitalization and Mortality Rates in Long-Term Care Facilities: Does For-Profit Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuseputro, Peter; Chalifoux, Mathieu; Bennett, Carol; Gruneir, Andrea; Bronskill, Susan E; Walker, Peter; Manuel, Douglas

    2015-10-01

    To establish if proprietary status (ie, for-profit or not-for-profit) is associated with mortality and hospitalizations among publicly funded long-term care (nursing) homes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new admissions in 640 publicly funded long-term care facilities in Ontario, Canada (384 for-profit, 256 not-for-profit). A population-based cohort of 53,739 incident admissions into long-term care facilities between January 1, 2010, and March 1, 2012, was observed. We measured adjusted rates of hospital admissions and mortality, per 1000 person-years (PY) of follow-up, among for-profit and not-for-profit facilities at 3, 6, and 12 months postadmission. Rates were measured postadmission and until discharge or death, whichever came first. One year after admission and before discharge, 11.7% of residents died and 25.7% had at least one hospitalization. After 12 months of follow-up, residents in for-profit facilities had a hospitalization rate of 462 per 1000 PY versus 358 per 1000 PY in not-for-profit facilities. During this period, the crude mortality rate in for-profit facilities was 208 per 1000 PY versus 185 per 1000 PY in not-for-profit facilities. At 3, 6, and 1 year after admission, for-profit facilities had an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.43), 1.33 (95% CI 1.27-1.39), and 1.25 (95% CI 1.21-1.30) for hospitalizations and hazards of 1.20 (95% CI 1.11-1.29), 1.16 (95% CI 1.09-1.24), and 1.10 (95% CI 1.05-1.16) for mortality, respectively. Publicly funded for-profit facilities have significantly higher rates of both mortality and hospital admissions. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dairy intake in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aerde, M.A.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Snijder, M.B.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Existing data from prospective cohort studies on dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases are inconsistent. Even though the association between total dairy and cardiovascular diseases has been studied before, little is known about the effect of different types of dairy products on

  16. Dairy intake in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, van M.A.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Snijder, M.B.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Existing data from prospective cohort studies on dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases are inconsistent. Even though the association between total dairy and cardiovascular diseases has been studied before, little is known about the effect of different types of dairy products on

  17. Low serum leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rattensperger, Dirk; Zidek, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy....

  18. Social position and mortality from respiratory diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N; Vestbo, J

    2003-01-01

    ), household income, housing conditions (less than one person per room versus more), and cohabitation (cohabiting versus living alone). Similar results were found for mortality from COPD. The results confirm the existence of a strong social gradient in respiratory mortality and chronic obstructive pulmonary......Although social differences in respiratory diseases are considerable, few studies have focused on this disease entity using mortality as an outcome. Does mortality from respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) differ with social position measured by education......, income, housing and employment grade? The study population consisted of 26,392 males and females from pooling of two population studies in the Copenhagen area. Data was linked with information from social registers in Statistics Denmark. The relationship between socioeconomic factors and risk of death...

  19. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    MALISZEWSKA, Justyna; TĘGOWSKA, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxic...

  20. Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of diabetic retinopathy on 25 year survival rate among a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark. METHODS: In 1973 all diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark with onset before the age of 30 years as of 1 July 1973 w....../INTERPRETATION: Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. In combination they act even more strongly. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not affect survival rate.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of diabetic retinopathy on 25 year survival rate among a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark. METHODS: In 1973 all diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark with onset before the age of 30 years as of 1 July 1973...... were identified (n=727). In 1981, only 627 patients were still alive and resident in Denmark. Of these, 573 (91%) participated in a clinical baseline examination, in which diabetic retinopathy was graded and other markers of diabetes measured. Mortality rate was examined in a 25 year follow...

  1. Characterization of mortality in children with sickle cell disease diagnosed through the Newborn Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra P. Sabarense

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the deaths of 193 children with sickle cell disease screened by a neonatal program from 1998 to 2012 and contrast the initial years with the final years. METHODS: Deaths were identified by active surveillance of children absent to scheduled appointments in Blood Bank Clinical Centers (Hemominas. Clinical and epidemiological data came from death certificates, neonatal screening database, medical records, and family interviews. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2012, 3,617,919 children were screened and 2,591 had sickle cell disease (1:1,400. There were 193 deaths (7.4%: 153 with SS/Sß0-talassemia, 34 SC and 6 Sß+thalassemia; 76.7% were younger than five years; 78% died in the hospital and 21% at home or in transit. The main causes of death were infection (45%, indeterminate (28%, and acute splenic sequestration (14%. In 46% of death certificates, the term "sickle cell" was not recorded. Seven-year death rate for children born between 1998 and 2005 was 5.43% versus 5.12% for those born between 2005 and 2012 (p = 0.72. Medical care was provided to 75% of children; 24% were unassisted. Medical care was provided within 6 hours of symptom onset in only half of the interviewed cases. In 40.5% of cases, death occurred within the first 24 hours. Low family income was recorded in 90% of cases, and illiteracy in 5%. CONCLUSIONS: Although comprehensive and effective, neonatal screening for sickle cell disease was not sufficient to significantly reduce mortality in a newborn screening program. Economic and social development and increase of the knowledge on sickle cell disease among health professionals and family are needed to overcome excessive mortality.

  2. A prospective study of low fasting glucose with cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality: The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D; Garcia, Lorena; Phillips, Lawrence S; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2017-05-01

    While there is increasing recognition of the risks associated with hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated incident cause-specific cardiovascular outcomes with regard to low fasting glucose in the general population. We hypothesized that low fasting glucose would be associated with cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women. To test our hypothesis, we used both continuous incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models in 17,287 participants from the Women's Health Initiative with fasting glucose measured at baseline. Participants were separated into groups based on fasting glucose level: low (fasting glucose distribution exhibited evidence of a weak J-shaped association with heart failure and mortality that was predominantly due to participants with treated diabetes. Impaired and diabetic fasting glucose were positively associated with all outcomes. Associations for low fasting glucose differed, with coronary heart disease (HR=0.64 (0.42, 0.98)) significantly inverse; stroke (0.73 (0.48, 1.13)), combined cardiovascular disease (0.91 (0.73, 1.14)), and all-cause mortality (0.97 (0.79, 1.20)) null or inverse and not significant; and heart failure (1.27 (0.80, 2.02)) positive and not significant. Fasting glucose at the upper range, but not the lower range, was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of acute kidney injury on long-term mortality and progression to chronic kidney disease among critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Najlaa G; Zeinelabdin, Maryam; Shalaby, Mohamed A; Khathlan, Norah; Mashat, Ghadi D; Zahrani, Amal A; NoorSaeed, Sundus Mw; Shalabi, Nora M; Alhasan, Khalid A; Sharief, Sara N; Albanna, Amr S; Kari, Jameela A

    2017-02-01

    To determine the 2-year outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) following admission to pediatric critical care units (PICU). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2012 and December 2013. We followed 131 children admitted to PICU, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a diagnosis of AKI, based on pRIFLE (pediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease), for 2 years. During the study period, 46 children died and 38 of survivors completed the follow-up. Factors affecting long-term progression to chronic kidney disease were also evaluated. Results: The 2-year mortality was more than 40%. The main determinant of the 2-year mortality was the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score, which increased the risk of mortality by 6% per each one score (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06: 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.11). By the end of the 2 years, 33% of survivors had reduction in the glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, and 73% were hypertensive. Patients with more severe renal impairment at admission, based on the pRIFLE criteria, had higher mortality rate. This association, however, was not independent since it was influenced by baseline disease severity (PRISM score).  Conclusion: Large proportion of patients admitted to PICU with AKI either died during the first 2 months of follow-up or developed long-term complications. The severity of AKI, however, was not an independent risk factor for mortality.

  4. Sex matters: secular and geographical trends in sex differences in coronary heart disease mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Lawlor, DA; Ebrahim, S; Davey Smith, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine secular trends and geographical variations in sex differences in mortality from coronary heart disease and investigate how these relate to distributions in risk factors. DESIGN: National and international data were used to examine secular trends and geographical variations in sex differences in mortality from coronary heart disease and risk factors. SETTING: England and Wales, 1921-98; Australia, France, Japan, Sweden, and the United States, 1947-97; 50 countries, 1992-6...

  5. Sleep duration and ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to examine if sleep duration is a risk indicator for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality, and how perceived stress during work and leisure time and use of tranquilizers/hypnotics modifies the association.......This prospective study aimed to examine if sleep duration is a risk indicator for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality, and how perceived stress during work and leisure time and use of tranquilizers/hypnotics modifies the association....

  6. Mass mortality of eastern box turtles with upper respiratory disease following atypical cold weather

    OpenAIRE

    Agha, M; Price, SJ; Nowakowski, AJ; Augustine, B; Todd, BD

    2017-01-01

    © Inter-Research 2017. Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off...

  7. Periodontal Disease and Risks of Kidney Function Decline and Mortality in Older People: A Community-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Tai; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Hung, Szu-Chun; Lin, Chi-Hung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-08-01

    The association between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease in older people is controversial, and evidence for a causal link between kidney function decline and subsequent mortality risk is limited. Longitudinal, observational, community-based cohort study. Participants were citizens 65 years or older who received the Taipei City Government-sponsored Annual Elderly Health Examination Program during 2005 to 2010, including dental status assessment and biochemical examinations. Participants with periodontal disease defined by the World Health Organization Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need criteria. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline ≥ 30% over 2 years. Of 100,263 study participants, 13,749 (13.7%) had periodontal disease. In a mean follow-up of 3.8 years, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates in those with periodontal disease (11.5% and 2.6%, respectively) were higher compared with those without periodontal disease (6.7% and 1.6%, respectively). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, and biochemistry data, adjusted HRs for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 1.34 (95% CI, 1.26-1.42) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.13-1.41), respectively. The frequency of eGFR decline ≥ 30% over 1-, 2-, and 3-years' follow-up in those with periodontal disease was 1.8%, 3.7%, and 4.0%, respectively. In a logistic regression model, adjusted ORs of the detrimental effect of periodontal disease on 30% eGFR decline in participants over 1-, 2-, or 3-years' follow-up were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.85-1.25), 1.62 (95% CI, 1.41-1.87), and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.37-1.86), respectively. In subgroup analyses according to age, sex, and comorbid conditions, risks for eGFR decline and mortality remained consistent. Results may not be generalizable to other non-Asian ethnic populations. The results indicate that periodontal disease is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and e

  8. Status and trend of tree growth and mortality rate at the CONECOFOR plots, 1997-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The circumference of trees in the CONECOFOR permanent monitoring plots (PMPs were measured by three surveys carried out in 1997, 2000 and 2005. Plots were arranged into forest types according to tree species, management system and stand structure: beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and spruce (Picea abies K. high forests, aged coppice forests and transitory crops (deciduous, evergreen oaks and beech. Diameter distribution, basal area, basal area increment, tree mortality rate and in-growth were calculated per layer (dominant, intermediate, dominated within each PMP, to point out relative contributions and changes. A range in relative annual growth was detected both within and between types over the monitored period, but an obvious reduction of annual increment was found in two/thirds of plots over 2000-04 as compared to 1997-99. Current mortality, mostly allocated into the dominated and intermediate layers, can be explained as “regular” due to overstocking and high inter-tree competition in almost all of the observed case-studies. Opposite patterns were found to occur as for stand growth vs. mortality rate between coppice forests and the other types owing to the different dynamics of tree competition in progress. Drought 2003 is the likely large-scale factor determining the reduced annual growth course over the second period.

  9. Mortality among persons with a history of kawasaki disease in Japan: mortality among males with cardiac sequelae is significantly higher than that of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yosikazu; Aso, Eiko; Yashiro, Mayumi; Uehara, Ritei; Watanabe, Makoto; Oki, Izumi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The long-term prognosis of those having a history of Kawasaki disease (KD) is still unknown. Between July 1982 and December 1992, 52 collaborating hospitals collected data on all patients having a new definite diagnosis of KD. Patients were followed-up until December 31, 2004 or their death. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on the Japanese vital statistics data. Of 6,576 patients enrolled, 36 (27 males, 9 females) died and the SMR was 1.14. Despite the high SMRs during the acute phase, the mortality rate was not high after the acute phase for the entire group of patients. Although the SMR after the acute phase was 0.71 for those without cardiac sequelae, 10 males (but none of the females) with cardiac sequelae died during the observation period; and the SMR for the male group with cardiac sequelae was 2.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-4.70). The mortality rate among males with cardiac sequelae because of KD was significantly higher in this cohort than in the general population. On the other hand, those for females with the sequelae and for both males and females without sequelae were not elevated.

  10. The impact of debt relief on under five mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryema, John Bosco; Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena; Picone, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative on under five mortality rate (U5MR) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The HIPC Initiative involves debt forgiveness and the redirection of funds that were meant to service external debt towards the provision of social services and poverty reduction in eligible countries. The Initiative is akin to a natural experiment since some countries benefited while some did not, and the timing of debt forgiveness varied across countries. We exploit these variations to identify the impact of HIPC Initiative on child mortality using a dynamic panel data estimator. We find that participation in HIPC Initiative is associated with statistically significant decreases in U5MR. On the other hand, the impact of actual debt cancelled is statistically insignificant.

  11. Mortality rate and years of life lost from unintentional injury and suicide in South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Konradsen, Flemming; John, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    We calculated mortality rates and years of life lost because of unintentional injuries and suicides using community based information obtained prospectively over a 7-year period, from 1998 to 2004, among a rural and peri-urban population of 108,000 in South India. Per 100,000 population the total...... over the study period while 18.9% of all deaths in the population were attributable to unintentional injuries and suicides in the same period. The high burden is particularly notable in the 15-29 age group, where up to 70% of years of life lost are due to injury. The burden of injuries reported...... in this study is significantly higher than the figures reflected in available reports for India and is likely due to the under reporting in routine mortality statistics, particularly of suicides....

  12. The rise of mortality from mental and neurological diseases in Europe, 1979-2009: Observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); M. Karanikolos (Marina); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We studied recent trends in mortality from seven mental and neurological conditions and their determinants in 41 European countries. Methods. Age-standardized mortality rates were analysed using standard methods of descriptive epidemiology, and were related to cultural,

  13. Observational study of 1-year mortality rates before and after a major earthquake among Chinese nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Joseph H; Dong, Birong; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanling; Guralnik, Jack M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Morley, John E

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about mortality among nonagenarians after an earthquake. Using secondary data analyses from the 2005 study called the Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan(n = 870), 1-year mortality rates were compared among a pre-earthquake group and a post-earthquake group of nonagenarians. All participants were from Dujiangyan, 50 km from the epicenter of the May 12, 2008 earthquake, in China. The pre-earthquake group was a subset of the 870 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan participants, ages 93-95 years at the beginning of "Time Frame 1" (July 2005 through June 2006; n = 228). The post-earthquake group was a different subset of the 870 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan participants, ages 93-95 years and alive at the beginning of Time Frame 2 (July 2008 through June 2009; n = 235). Time Frame 2 excluded a 7-week period following the earthquake in order to account for deaths due to trauma. Pre-earthquake health assessment data from the 2005 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan study were used to calculate unadjusted/adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality. One-year mortality rates were 8.3% (19/228) and 16.2% (38/235) in the pre-earthquake group and the post-earthquake group, respectively (p =.01). In unadjusted analyses, only "being in the post-earthquake group" was associated with death (HR = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-3.53; p = .011). In the multivariable Cox regression model, being in the post-earthquake group continued to be the strongest risk factor associated with mortality (HR = 2.47; 95% CI, 1.39-4.40; p = .002). Other significant risk factors included impaired cognition (HR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.10-3.53; p = .024), serum albumin (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; p earthquake in Wenchuan, China, was associated with a twofold increase in the 1-year mortality among a group of nonagenarians who lived nearby.

  14. Importance of heart failure as a cause of death. Changing contribution to overall mortality and coronary heart disease mortality in Scotland 1979-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, D R; Love, M P; Robb, S D; McDonagh, T A; Davie, A P; Ford, I; Capewell, S; Morrison, C E; McMurray, J J

    1998-12-01

    As heart failure is a syndrome arising from another condition, such as coronary heart disease, it is rarely officially coded as the underlying cause of death regardless of the cause recorded by the physician at the time of certification. We sought to assess the true contribution of heart failure to overall mortality and coronary heart disease mortality and to examine how this contribution has changed over time. We carried out a retrospective analysis of all death certificates in Scotland between 1979 and 1992 for which heart failure was coded as the underlying or a contributory cause of death. From a total of 833622 deaths in Scotland between 1979 and 1992, heart failure was coded as the underlying cause in only 1.5% (13695), but as a contributory cause in a further 14.3% (126073). In 1979, 28.5% of male and 40.4% of female deaths attributed to coronary heart disease (coded as the underlying cause of death) also had a coding for heart failure. In 1992 these percentages had risen significantly to 34.1% and 44.8%, respectively (both Pheart failure as the underlying or contributory cause of death, standardized by age and sex, fell significantly over the period studied in all ages and in both sexes: by 31% in men and 41% in women or =65 years, respectively (Pheart failure is substantially underestimated by official statistics. Furthermore, one third or more of deaths currently attributed to coronary heart disease may be related to heart failure and this proportion appears to be increasing. While the absolute numbers of deaths caused by heart failure remains constant, this study is the first to show that standardized mortality rates are declining.

  15. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  16. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  17. Mortality rates across 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels among adults with and without estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2: the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Kramer

    Full Text Available Previous studies exploring the association between 25[OH]D levels and mortality in adults with and without kidney disease utilized 25[OH]D thresholds that have recently been scrutinized by the Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary References Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium.We explored all-cause mortality rates across the spectrum of 25[OH]D levels over an eighteen-year follow-up among adults with and without an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 20 ng/ml after adjustment for all covariates.Regardless of presence of eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2, mortality rates across groups with 25[OH]D levels 20-40 ng/ml are similar.

  18. Opium use and risk of mortality from digestive diseases: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Masoud M; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-11-01

    Opium use, particularly in low doses, is a common practice among adults in northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate the association between opium use and subsequent mortality from disorders of the digestive tract. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled during a 4-year period (2004-2008) and followed annually until December 2012, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. In all, 8,487 (17%) participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 474 deaths from digestive diseases were reported (387 due to gastrointestinal cancers and 87 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any digestive disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-1.93). The association was dose dependent, with a HR of 2.21 (1.57-3.31) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. no use (Ptrend=0.037). The HRs (95% CI) for the associations between opium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of digestive mortality were 1.38 (1.07-1.76) and 2.60 (1.57-4.31), respectively. Increased risks were seen both for smoking opium and for ingestion of opium. Long-term opium use, even in low doses, is associated with increased risk of death from both malignant and nonmalignant digestive diseases.

  19. Opium Use and Risk of Mortality from Digestive Diseases -- A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Masoud M.; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul DP.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2017-01-01

    Background Opium use, particularly in low doses, is a common practice among adults in northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate the association between opium use and subsequent mortality from disorders of the digestive tract. Methods We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled during a four-year period (2004–2008) and followed annually until December 2012, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. Results 8,487 (17%) participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 474 deaths from digestive diseases were reported (387 due to gastrointestinal cancers and 87 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any digestive disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.55, 95% CI 1.24 – 1.93). The association was dose-dependent, with a HR of 2.21 (1.57–3.31) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. no use (Ptrend = 0.037). The hazard ratios (95% CI) for the associations between opium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of digestive mortality were 1.38 (1.07 – 1.76) and 2.60 (1.57 – 4.31), respectively. Increased risks were seen both for smoking opium and for ingestion of opium. Conclusion Long-term opium use, even in low doses, is associated with increased risk of death from both malignant and nonmalignant digestive diseases. PMID:24145676

  20. Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol-dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases. DESIGN: Register-based matched cohort...

  1. Chapter 8: Simulating mortality from forest insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Jane L. Hayes; Craig L. Schmitt

    2004-01-01

    We describe methods for incorporating the effects of insects and diseases on coniferous forests into forest simulation models and discuss options for including this capability in the modeling work of the Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS) project. Insects and diseases are major disturbance agents in forested ecosystems in the Western United States,...

  2. Sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease on conservative therapy: prevalence and association with mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Raíssa A; Cordeiro, Antonio C; Avesani, Carla M; Carrero, Juan J; Lindholm, Bengt; Amparo, Fernanda C; Amodeo, Celso; Cuppari, Lilian; Kamimura, Maria A

    2015-10-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), multiple metabolic and nutritional abnormalities contribute to the impairment of skeletal muscle mass and function thus predisposing patients to the condition of sarcopenia. Herein, we investigated the prevalence and mortality predictive power of sarcopenia, defined by three different methods, in non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD patients. We evaluated 287 NDD-CKD patients in stages 3-5 [59.9 ± 10.5 years; 62% men; 49% diabetics; glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 25.0 ± 15.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2)]. Sarcopenia was defined as reduced muscle function assessed by handgrip strength (HGS <30th percentile of a population-based reference adjusted for sex and age) plus diminished muscle mass assessed by three different methods: (i) midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) <90% of reference value (A), (ii) muscle wasting by subjective global assessment (B) and (iii) reduced skeletal muscle mass index (<10.76 kg/m² men; <6.76 kg/m² women) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) (C). Patients were followed for up to 40 months for all-cause mortality, and there was no loss of follow-up. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.8% (A), 9.4% (B) and 5.9% (C). The kappa agreement between the methods were 0.69 (A versus B), 0.49 (A versus C) and 0.46 (B versus C). During follow-up, 51 patients (18%) died, and the frequency of sarcopenia was significantly higher among non-survivors. In crude Cox analysis, sarcopenia diagnosed by the three methods was associated with a higher hazard for mortality; however, only sarcopenia diagnosed by method C remained as a predictor of mortality after multivariate adjustment. The prevalence of sarcopenia in CKD patients on conservative therapy varies according to the method applied. Sarcopenia defined as reduced handgrip strength and low skeletal muscle mass index estimated by BIA was an independent predictor of mortality in these patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA

  3. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    FHM had a 15% higher cesarean section rate (not planned) than units not using FHM (p complicated deliveries to central units, which at the same time relatively often use FHM, is probably responsible for this association. Trying to encounter this selection bias......Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology...... a technology index was calculated for eight regions in Denmark, weighting the index of each unit in a region according to its number of deliveries. There was no association between the technology index in these eight regions in Denmark and their cesarean section rates. Use of FHM, technology index...

  4. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for sp...

  5. Five-year mortality rate in an ophthalmic ward in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamidzai Madzima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mortality rate in the ophthalmic ward at the Sekuru KaguviHospital Eye Unit (SKHEU, Zimbabwe, from January 2009 to December 2013 and to identify the causes of death. Design: A hospital-based clinical audit. Methods: Data from completed hospital death notification forms and medical records of patients who had died in the ward during the review period were collected that included age, gender, diagnoses, date of admission, date of death and cause of death. The data were analysed using Epi Info7 software. Setting: The audit was conducted at SKHEU, the largest tertiary eye unit in Zimbabwe. It comprises an ophthalmic ward with 30 beds and caters for about 900 patients per year. Patients are admitted via the Out-patients Department where about 30 000 patients are seen yearly. SKHEU is part of the Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals, which is one of the four major referral hospitals in Zimbabwe. Results: Of the 4722 ophthalmic admissions at SKHEU during the 5-year study period, therewere 15 (0.3% deaths, with a male:female ratio of 3:2 giving a mortality rate of 0.3% and an average of 3 deaths per year. The highest number of deaths was in 2009 when 7 deaths occurred, whilst the lowest number was 1 death in 2010 and 1 in 2013. Of the 15 deaths,4 (26.7% were children < 12 years old and 11 (73.3% were adults; of whom 12 (80% patients had orbital malignancies, 2 (13.3% had orbital cellulitis and 1 (6.7% had ocular trauma. Theorbital malignancies included ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN, retinoblastomaand non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL. The most common probable cause of death was OSSN which accounted for 9 (60% of the deaths. Conclusion: The mortality rate at SKHEU was 0.3%, with approximately 3 deaths occurring per year. The most common attributable cause of death was OSSN.

  6. Rates of thoracic trauma and mortality due to accidents in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cury, Francisco; Baitello, Andre Luciano; Echeverria, Rodrigo Florencio; Espada, Paulo Cesar; Godoy, Jose Maria Pereira de

    2009-01-01

    To report on the causes of trauma, indexes of trauma, and mortality related to thoracic trauma in one region of Brazil. This prospective study was performed at the Regional Trauma Center in Syo Josi do Rio Preto over a 1-year period, from 1 st July 2004 to 30 th June 2005. We included all patients attending the center's emergency room with thoracic trauma and an anatomic injury scale (AIS) > - 2. We collected data using a protocol completed on arrival in hospital utilizing the AIS. We studied the types of accidents as well as the mortality and the AIS scores. Prevalence rates were calculated and the paired t-test and logistic regression were employed for the statistical analysis.There were a total of 373 casualties with AIS > - 2 and there were 45 (12%) deaths. The causes of thoracic trauma among the 373 casualties were as follows: 91 (24.4%) car crashes, 75 (20.1%) falls, 46 (12.3%) motorbike accidents, 40 (10.7%) stabbings, 22 (5.9%) accidents involving pedestrians, 21 (5.6%) bicycle accidents, 17 (4.6%) shootings, and 54 (14.5%) other types of accident. The severity of the injuries was classified according to the AIS: 224 (60%) were grade 2, 101 (27%) were grade 3, 27 (7.2%) were grade 4, 18 (4.9%) were grade 5, and 3 were (0.8%) grade 6. With respect to thoracic trauma, pedestrians involved in accidents and victims of shootings had mortality rates that were significantly higher than that of those involved in other types of accidents. Road accidents are the main cause of thoracic injury, with accidents involving pedestrians and shootings being associated with a greater death rate. (author)

  7. The Mortality Rate of Myocardial Infraction Patients With and Without Opium Dependen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Hani; Shamsi, Alireza; Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Seyed Zadeh, Fatemeh Sadat; Ghazi, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart condition caused by the suspension of blood circulation in a part of the myocardium. There are different risk factors contributing to a heart attack. Some believe that endorphins and endogenous opioids play an important role in causing MIs. This study intended to determine the relationship between opium dependency and mortality rate among patients with MI. This retrospective study investigated patients who had MI for the first time and were hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Khatamolanbia hospital in Zahedan, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. These patients were either opium dependent or not. Four hundred patients were selected. The patients' possibilities of death and re-hospitalization after the first MI were confirmed over the phone. Data was analyzed through t-test and chi-squared test. Of all the patients, 19.5% were opium-dependent. The mortality rate in the non-opium-dependent group was 5.9%, while in the dependent group this rate was 11.5% (P = 0.072). The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was higher in the opium-dependent patients (P opium-dependent or non-opium-dependent. The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was meaningfully higher in the opium-dependent patients; hence, educating people and training them on the destructive effects of opium, specifically in patients with heart conditions is highly recommended.

  8. Sustained pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program with consultation to infectious diseases reduced carbapenem resistance and infection-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Yuho; Suwa, Junichi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Furuichi, Mihoko; Aizawa, Yuta; Fukuoka, Kahoru; Okazaki, Kaoru; Ito, Kenta; Shoji, Takayo

    2017-11-01

    The impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the AMR for carbapenem of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem use with infectious diseases consultation after the implementation of an ASP. This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. The pre- and post-intervention periods were April 2010 to September 2011 and October 2011 to March 2017, respectively. The pre-intervention phase consisted of consultations with the infectious diseases service alone. The ASP was implemented during the post-intervention phase. The carbapenem resistance rates of GNB were calculated. The correlation between carbapenem resistance rates and carbapenem day of therapy (DOT) was examined. The outcome metrics were compared by average length of hospitalization, all-cause mortality, and infection-related mortality. A positive correlation was observed between the carbapenem resistance rate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and DOT (0.76, p=0.04). The carbapenem resistance rate in P. aeruginosa (pcarbapenem use and resistance in P. aeruginosa, leading to favorable outcomes in terms of length of hospitalization and infection-related mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Sleep Duration, Symptoms, and Disorders with Mortality in Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Ana C; Goh, Vivien; Chen, Jinsong; Cedillo-Couvert, Esteban; Kapella, Mary; Prasad, Bharati; Parvathaneni, Sharmila; Knutson, Kristen; Lash, James P

    2017-09-01

    In general populations, short and long sleep duration, poor sleep quality and sleep disorders have been associated with increased risk of death. We evaluated these associations in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort study of 1,452 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008 participants with CKD. CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate 8 hours were 1.50 (1.08-2.10) and 1.36 (0.89-2.08), respectively. The corresponding HR (95%CI) for cardiovascular mortality were 1.56 (0.72-3.37) and 1.56 (0.66-3.65). Non-restorative sleep and restless legs syndrome were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality (1.63 [1.13-2.35], and 1.69 [1.04-275], respectively). In adults with CKD, short sleep duration, nonrestorative sleep and restless legs syndrome are associated with increased risk of death. These findings underscore the importance of promoting adequate sleep in patients with CKD, and the need for future studies evaluating the impact of sleep interventions in this population.

  10. “Dhoulath's method” – An investigative probe into mortality rate to aid diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dhoulath Beegum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the urgent need to save life, during cardiac arrest, time is an important factor, and time factors, if not speeded up, may lead to death. Baby cries proved to be an obstacle for cardiac diagnosis. To speed up the diagnoses, ‘Dhoulath's method’ was proposed and result proved that the data quality of cardiac data, ‘aortic regurgitation sound’ from a mixture of ‘crying baby's cry’ was faithfully separated out. This separation, by utilizing the features of blind source component separation, in the case of medical emergency, can lead to a speedy diagnoses, to reduce the mortality rate.

  11. Correlation between the radon levels and the lung cancer mortality rates - experimental and theoretical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Vo Thi Anh

    2003-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas and is present in the most earth materials such as soil, stone, air, water and others. Comprehensive and scientifically rigorous studies found a low lung cancer mortality rates in high radon areas. It is opposite to the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH), which is a popular theory in the field of radiation safety. The fact is explained by the theory of energy transfer model, that takes accounts of the competitive processes arising in material during irradiation.(author)

  12. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years.A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India.Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia.Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  13. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  14. Adjusting a cancer mortality-prediction model for disease status-related eligibility criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel Marek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volunteering participants in disease studies tend to be healthier than the general population partially due to specific enrollment criteria. Using modeling to accurately predict outcomes of cohort studies enrolling volunteers requires adjusting for the bias introduced in this way. Here we propose a new method to account for the effect of a specific form of healthy volunteer bias resulting from imposing disease status-related eligibility criteria, on disease-specific mortality, by explicitly modeling the length of the time interval between the moment when the subject becomes ineligible for the study, and the outcome. Methods Using survival time data from 1190 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center, we model the time from clinical lung cancer diagnosis to death using an exponential distribution to approximate the length of this interval for a study where lung cancer death serves as the outcome. Incorporating this interval into our previously developed lung cancer risk model, we adjust for the effect of disease status-related eligibility criteria in predicting the number of lung cancer deaths in the control arm of CARET. The effect of the adjustment using the MD Anderson-derived approximation is compared to that based on SEER data. Results Using the adjustment developed in conjunction with our existing lung cancer model, we are able to accurately predict the number of lung cancer deaths observed in the control arm of CARET. Conclusions The resulting adjustment was accurate in predicting the lower rates of disease observed in the early years while still maintaining reasonable prediction ability in the later years of the trial. This method could be used to adjust for, or predict the duration and relative effect of any possible biases related to disease-specific eligibility criteria in modeling studies of volunteer-based cohorts.

  15. Mortality risk in European children with end-stage renal disease on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Schaefer, Franz; Groothoff, Jaap W; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Reusz, György; Heaf, James G; Lewis, Malcolm; Maurer, Elisabeth; Paripović, Dušan; Zagozdzon, Ilona; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Jager, Kitty J

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to describe survival in European pediatric dialysis patients and compare the differential mortality risk between patients starting on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Data for 6473 patients under 19 years of age or younger were extracted from the European Society of Pediatric Nephrology, the European Renal Association, and European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry for 36 countries for the years 2000 through 2013. Hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age at start of dialysis, sex, primary renal disease, and country. A secondary analysis was performed on a propensity score-matched (PSM) cohort. The overall 5-year survival rate in European children starting on dialysis was 89.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87.7%-91.0%). The mortality rate was 28.0 deaths per 1000 patient years overall. This was highest (36.0/1000) during the first year of dialysis and in the 0- to 5-year age group (49.4/1000). Cardiovascular events (18.3%) and infections (17.0%) were the main causes of death. Children selected to start on HD had an increased mortality risk compared with those on PD (adjusted HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06-1.82, PSM HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.06-2.00), especially during the first year of dialysis (HD/PD adjusted HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.22-2.38, PSM HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.20-2.66), when starting at older than 5 years of age (HD/PD: adjusted HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03-2.43, PSM HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.17-2.98) and when children have been seen by a nephrologist for only a short time before starting dialysis (HD/PD adjusted HR 6.55, 95% CI 2.35-18.28, PSM HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.04-8.23). Because unmeasured case-mix differences and selection bias may explain the higher mortality risk in the HD population, these results should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary phosphorus intake and mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease: NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Filipowicz, Rebecca; Baird, Bradley C; Wei, Guo; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-03-01

    Dietary phosphorus intake is usually restricted in dialysis patients but the associations of dietary phosphorus intake with mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unknown. Therefore, we examined these associations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated from 24-h dietary recalls administered by trained personnel. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) Phosphorus intake was 1033 ± 482 mg/day (mean ± SD), eGFR was 49.3 ± 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and serum phosphorus was 3.5 ± 0.5 mg/dL. Compared to those in the lowest tertile of phosphorus intake (mean 532 ± 161 mg/day), those in the highest third (1478 ± 378 mg/day) had similar serum phosphorus levels (3.6 ± 0.5 versus 3.5 ± 0.6 mg/dL, P = 0.113) and modestly higher eGFR (50.0 ± 8.1 versus 47.5 ± 12.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.014). After adjustment for demographics, comorbidity, eGFR, physical activity, energy intake and nutritional variables, phosphorus intake was not associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98 per 100 mg/dL increase, 0.93-1.03]. High dietary phosphorus intake is not associated with increased mortality in moderate CKD, presumably because serum phosphorus levels are maintained in the normal range at this level of GFR. Interventional trials are needed to define optimal phosphorus intake in moderate CKD.

  17. COPART Risk Score Predicts Long-term Mortality in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, G; Belaj, K; Gary, T; Rief, P; Deutschmann, H; Seinost, G; Brodmann, M; Hafner, F

    2015-07-01

    The COhorte de Patients ARTériopathes (COPART) Risk Score is a risk score assessing the 1 year outcome of patients who received inpatient treatment because of their peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The COPART Risk Score consists of six variables each of which is allocated a different number of points (age, history of myocardial infarction, C-reactive protein, ankle-brachial index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, medication with antiplatelet agents, statins and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors). 129 consecutive claudicants were included in a prospective trial with an average follow up of 8.8 (± 0.7) years. All patients were hospitalized for their first endovascular procedure to the pelvic and/or femoropopliteal arteries. The endpoints were all cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) death. The COPART Risk Score was calculated for the three patient cohorts (low risk: 52 patients [40.3%]; medium risk: 41 patients [31.8%]; high risk: 36 patients [27.9%]). During the follow up period 23.1% (n = 12) of patients in the low risk group, 34.1% (n = 14) of patients in the medium risk group, and 63.9% (n = 23) of patients in the high risk group died. CV death occurred in 11.5% in the low, 22.0% in the medium, and 41.7% in the high risk groups. The three groups differed significantly with regard to all cause and CV mortality (p < .0001 and p = .001). The COPART Risk Score is a suitable instrument to predict long-term all cause and CV mortality in claudicants preceding their first peripheral intervention. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen ME; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Background: \\ud \\ud Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality betwee...

  19. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna MALISZEWSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxication with insecticides was also determined. The highest CO2 production and mortality rate was observed after mealworms exposition to neonicotinoid insecticide. The results suggest that high CO2 release after intoxication is adequate to the intensity of the non-specific action of the xenobiotic (e.g. hyperactivity of neuromuscular system, rather than the intensity of detoxification processes, and it is correlated with mealworms mortality.

  20. Incidence of and mortality from kidney disease in over 600,000 insured Swedish dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelander, L; Ljungvall, I; Egenvall, A; Syme, H; Elliott, J; Häggström, J

    2015-06-20

    Kidney disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Knowledge about the epidemiology of kidney disease in the dog population is valuable and large-scale epidemiological studies are needed. The aim of the present study was to use insurance data to estimate kidney-related morbidity and mortality in the Swedish dog population. Insurance company data from insured dogs during the years 1995-2006 were studied retrospectively. Incidence and mortality were calculated for the whole group of dogs as well as divided by sex and breed. The total number of veterinary care insured dogs was 665,245. The total incidence of kidney disease in this group of dogs was 15.8 (15.3-16.2) cases/10,000 dog-years at risk. The number of dogs in the life insurance was 548,346 and in this group the total kidney-related mortality was 9.7 (9.3-10.2) deaths/10,000 dog-years at risk. The three breeds with the highest incidence of kidney disease were the Bernese mountain dog, miniature schnauzer and boxer. The three breeds with the highest mortality caused by kidney disease were the Bernese mountain dog, Shetland sheepdog and flat-coated retriever. In conclusion, the epidemiological information provided in this study concerning kidney disease in dogs can provide valuable information for future research. British Veterinary Association.

  1. [Chronic disease, mortality and disability in an elderly Spanish population: the FRADEA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso Silguero, Sergio A; Martínez-Reig, Marta; Gómez Arnedo, Llanos; Juncos Martínez, Gema; Romero Rizos, Luis; Abizanda Soler, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the relationships between the major chronic diseases and multiple morbidity, with mortality, incident disability in basic activities of daily living, and loss of mobility in the elderly. A total of 943 participants were selected from the FRADEA Study, using available baseline data of chronic diseases, and at the follow-up visit of mortality, incident disability, and loss of mobility. The analysis was made of the unadjusted and adjusted association between the number of chronic diseases, the number of 14 pre-selected diseases, and the presence of two or more chronic diseases (multiple morbidity) with adverse health events recorded. Participants with a higher number of diseases (OR 1.11; 95% CI: 1.02-1.22), and 14 pre-selected diseases (OR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38) had a higher adjusted mortality risk, but not a higher incident disease or mobility loss risk. Subjects with multiple morbidity had a higher non-significant mortality risk (HR 1.45; 95% CI: 0.87-2.43), than those without multiple morbidity. Disability-free mean time in participants with and without multiple morbidity was 846±34 and 731±17 days, respectively (Log-rank χ(2) 7.45. P=.006), and with our without mobility loss was 818±32 and 696±13 days, respectively (Log rank χ(2) 10.99. P=.001). Multiple morbidity was not associated with mortality, incident disability in ADL, or mobility loss in adults older than 70 years, although if mortality is taken into account, the number of chronic diseases is linear. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelus, Jon; Mitchell, Alex J; Wales, Jackie; Nielsen, Søren

    2011-07-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with eating disorders are thought to be high, but exact rates remain to be clarified. To systematically compile and analyze the mortality rates in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). A systematic literature search, appraisal, and meta-analysis were conducted of the MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase databases and 4 full-text collections (ie, ScienceDirect, Ingenta Select, Ovid, and Wiley-Blackwell Interscience). English-language, peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 1966, and September 30, 2010, that reported mortality rates in patients with eating disorders. Primary data were extracted as raw numbers or confidence intervals and corrected for years of observation and sample size (ie, person-years of observation). Weighted proportion meta-analysis was used to adjust for study size using the DerSimonian-Laird model to allow for heterogeneity inclusion in the analysis. From 143 potentially relevant articles, we found 36 quantitative studies with sufficient data for extraction. The studies reported outcomes of AN during 166 642 person-years, BN during 32 798 person-years, and EDNOS during 22 644 person-years. The weighted mortality rates (ie, deaths per 1000 person-years) were 5.1 for AN, 1.7 for BN, and 3.3 for EDNOS. The standardized mortality ratios were 5.86 for AN, 1.93 for BN, and 1.92 for EDNOS. One in 5 individuals with AN who died had committed suicide. Individuals with eating disorders have significantly elevated mortality rates, with the highest rates occurring in those with AN. The mortality rates for BN and EDNOS are similar. The study found age at assessment to be a significant predictor of mortality for patients with AN. Further research is needed to identify predictors of mortality in patients with BN and EDNOS.

  3. Aquatic bird disease and mortality as an indicator of changing ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Chmura, Aleksei; Converse, Kathy; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Patel, Nikkita; Lammers, Emily; Daszak, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed data from pathologic investigations in the United States, collected by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center between 1971 and 2005, into aquatic bird mortality events. A total of 3619 mortality events was documented for aquatic birds, involving at least 633 708 dead birds from 158 species belonging to 23 families. Environmental causes accounted for the largest proportion of mortality events (1737 or 48%) and dead birds (437 258 or 69%); these numbers increased between 1971 and 2000, with biotoxin mortalities due to botulinum intoxication (Types C and E) being the leading cause of death. Infectious diseases were the second leading cause of mortality events (20%) and dead birds (20%), with both viral diseases, including duck plague (Herpes virus), paramyxovirus of cormorants (Paramyxovirus PMV1) and West Nile virus (Flavivirus), and bacterial diseases, including avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida), chlamydiosis (Chalmydia psittici), and salmonellosis (Salmonella sp.), contributing. Pelagic, coastal marine birds and species that use marine and freshwater habitats were impacted most frequently by environmental causes of death, with biotoxin exposure, primarily botulinum toxin, resulting in mortalities of both coastal and freshwater species. Pelagic birds were impacted most severely by emaciation and starvation, which may reflect increased anthropogenic pressure on the marine habitat from over-fishing, pollution, and other factors. Our study provides important information on broad trends in aquatic bird mortality and highlights how long-term wildlife disease studies can be used to identify anthropogenic threats to wildlife conservation and ecosystem health. In particular, mortality data for the past 30 yr suggest that biotoxins, viral, and bacterial diseases could have impacted >5 million aquatic birds.

  4. Variations in APOE genotype distribution in children from areas with different adult cardiovascular disease mortality in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, C; Cantos, M; Benavente, M; Granizo, J J; Cano, B; Viturro, E; De Oya, M

    2004-08-01

    We investigate whether a varying distribution of the APOE genotype could help explain regional differences in ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in Spain. APOE genotypes were examined by PCR in 1,274 randomly selected healthy children from four Spanish regions with different adult IHD mortality rates (northwest and central Spain with low rates and southeast and southern Spain with high rates). In the population as a whole the prevalence of the higher risk APOE*3/*4 genotype is 16.8% and the prevalence of the APOE*4 allele is 10.1%. In northwest Spain the frequencies of the APOE*3/*4 genotype (12.9%) and of the APOE*4 allele (8.3%) are smaller than in the other regions. The southeast region shows statistically higher frequencies of the APOE*3/*4 genotype (22.5%) and of the APOE*4 allele (13.2%) than in the other regions or in the group as a whole. We can conclude that Spain is not homogeneous in terms of APOE genotype distribution. Although the prevalence of the APOE*4 allele is generally low, there are areas with higher prevalence of the APOE*4 allele and a higher incidence of adult IHD mortality. This allows us to conclude that in Spain this genetic determinant can be associated with IHD mortality in relatively isolated populations.

  5. Substandard care in maternal mortality due to hypertensive disease in pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J. M.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; van Roosmalen, J.; Steegers, E. A. P.

    Objective To review the standard of care in cases of maternal mortality due to hypertensive diseases in pregnancy and to make recommendations for its improvement. Design Care given to women with hypertensive disease in pregnancy was audited and substandard care factors identified. Setting

  6. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Gijsbers, Lieke; Givens, David I.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to

  7. Trends in Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease, Stroke, and Stomach Cancer: from past to future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe common occurrence of chronic diseases – such as ischemic heart diseases (IHD, stroke, and stomach cancer in most populations and the attendant mortality, loss of independence, impaired quality of life, and social and economic costs are compelling reasons for public health

  8. Association of lipoprotein levels with mortality in subjects aged 50 + without previous diabetes or cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; Depont Christensen, René; Engers Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of lipoprotein and triglyceride levels with all-cause mortality in a population free from diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. The European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention state that in general total cholesterol (TC...

  9. Social disorganization and homicide mortality rate trajectories in Brazil between 1991 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Nivette, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Since the 1990s, researchers have noted declining trends in crime and violence, particularly homicide, in Western countries. Studies have explored national and sub-national trends using latent trajectory analysis techniques and identified several factors associated with declining and/or increasing trajectories. Social disorganization (SD) has been consistently linked to increases in homicide rates over time, explaining at least some of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of homicide. Similar studies have not yet been carried out in Latin America's cities. In this paper we use Group Based Trajectory models to study homicide mortality rate [HMR] trajectories in Brazilian municipalities between 1991 and 2010. Then, through binary and multinomial logistic regression we investigated the association between SD in 1991, and the likelihood of an increasing HMR trajectory. We carried out an ecological time series study using all Brazilian municipalities in the period between 1991 and 2010 (n = 4491). Data on homicide deaths were collected from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health and standardized by age to calculate HMR per 100,000 population. Socioeconomic and demographic data for 1991 were used to compose the composite measure of SD. Our results highlight the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of homicide mortality in Brazilian municipalities. While national trends are steadily increasing, disaggregating municipal trajectories shows that this is driven by a small proportion of municipalities in the country. We found that SD is associated with an ascending homicide trajectory. This result generally supports the notion that poor social structural conditions can create 'space' for criminal behavior and groups and, consequently, violent death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Trends in mortality from intractable diseases in Japan, 1972-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Sakai, Miyoshi

    2007-10-01

    In 1972, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan defined intractable diseases as those with unknown etiology, no established treatment regimens, and severe sequelae of physical, mental and social difficulties. Since then, the Ministry has promoted scientific research on these diseases and offered financial support to those suffering from their effects. The purpose of the present study was to analyze trends in deaths from the diseases in Japan over the period from 1972-2004. For the selected intractable diseases with 100 deaths or more per year, crude (CDR) and direct age-standardized death rates (ADR) were computed using the national underlying-cause-of-death mortality database of Japan based on International Classification of Diseases. Joinpoint regression analysis was applied to identify significant changes in the trends. The CDRs in the latest observed year per 1 million persons/year) for males and females were 25.55 and 25.93, respectively, for Parkinson's disease, 5.41 and 6.92 for aplastic anemia, 0.87 and 3.50 for systemic lupus erythematosus, 2.93 and 2.36 for amyloidosis, 1.40 and 1.54 for polyarteritis nodosa, 1.34 and 1.61 for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and 1.02 and 0.74 for ulcerative colitis. The respective annual percentage changes (APCs) for males and females during the overall period decreased for ulcerative colitis (-5.2% and -7.5%), aplastic anemia (-3.6% and -3.7%), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (-2.1% and -3.0%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (-0.9% and -2.6%), while the APCs increased for amyloidosis (+3.3% and +3.5%), polyarteritis nodosa (+3.2% and +4.0%), and Parkinson's disease (+0.7% in males alone). With the APCs in the latest trend phase, polyarteritis nodosa and Parkinson's disease in females showed appreciable declines; on the other hand, amyloidosis in males demonstrated the significant increase, and ulcerative colitis in males exhibited an apparent leveling off of the decline. The ADRs for most of the

  11. A lower baseline glomerular filtration rate predicts high mortality and newly cerebrovascular accidents in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Zhipeng; Ding, Jianping; Song, Haiqing

    2017-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population.Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD. The site and degree of the stenosis were examined. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Endpoint events included all-cause death and newly ischemic events. The multivariate logistic model was used to determine the association between renal dysfunction and patients' outcomes.Of all patients, 130 patients (13.4%) had reduced eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m), and 556 patients had a normal eGFR (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m). A total of 694 patients suffered from cerebral artery stenosis, in which 293 patients only had intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS), 110 only with extracranial carotid atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), and 301 with both ICAS and ECAS. The patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m had a higher proportion of death and newly ischemic events compared with those with a relatively normal eGFR. Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m increased the risk of mortality by 3.089-fold and newly ischemic events by 4.067-fold. In further analysis, a reduced eGFR was associated with increased rates of mortality and newly events both in ICAS patients and ECAS patients. However, only an increased risk of newly events was found as the degree of renal function deteriorated in ICAS patients (odds ratio = 8.169, 95% confidence interval = 2.445-14.127).A low baseline eGFR predicted a high mortality and newly ischemic events at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients. A low baseline eGFR was also a strong independent predictor for newly

  12. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy.

  13. Infant mortality rates and structure in a town near a nuclear power enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, F.D.; Voronina, Z.I.; Voronin, P.F.; Demin, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is devoted to analysis of the rates and structure of mortality of infants aged under 1 in a town, situated near a nuclear power enterprise (NPE). Altogether 38124 infants born in 1950-1978, were investigated. The dead infants (1160) were divided into 3 groups with relation to their parents' place of work: 1 - infants whose parents worked in the NPE; 2 - infants whose parents worked in town factories and offices; 3 - all infants in the town. The total doses of γ-irradiation for mothers were 10-400 cSv, those for fathers - 30-520 cSv, intrauterine irradiation of a fetus was 0.5-0.55 cSv. The individual effective equivalent dose of irradiation of the residents of the town was 17.3 cSv over 40 years. Occupational γ-irradiation of the parents at doses exceeding the maximum permissible ones in the first 10 years of work at the NPE made no effect on the mortality rates in infants of the first generation

  14. Mass mortality of eastern box turtles with upper respiratory disease following atypical cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Price, Steven J; Nowakowski, A Justin; Augustine, Ben; Todd, Brian D

    2017-04-20

    Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease. We recorded deaths of 17 turtles that showed clinical signs of upper respiratory disease among 76 adult turtles encountered in Berea, Kentucky (USA), in 2014. Of the 17