WorldWideScience

Sample records for disease medical research

  1. Nuclear microscopy in medical research. Investigations into degenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makjanic, J; Thong, P; Watt, F [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Physics

    1997-03-01

    The high energy (1-4MeV) focused ion beam (nuclear microbeam) has found uses in many scientific disciplines through a wide variety of ion beam based techniques. Of the many techniques available, the powerful combination of Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) is proving to be extremely useful, particularly in the characterisation and elemental analysis of thin specimens. In this paper we briefly review these ion beam techniques, as well as the hardware required for their application. Finally, we describe the application of the PIXE, RBS and STIM techniques in conjunction with a scanning focused 2MeV proton microbeam (nuclear microscopy). The examples chosen to illustrate the potential of nuclear microscopy are recent investigations into the degenerative diseases atherosclerosis (coronary heart disease), Parkinson`s disease and Alzheimer`s disease. (author)

  2. Public funding for medical research in relation to the burden of disease caused by cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Manuel; Dufner, Vera; Wagner, Martin; Gelbrich, Götz; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U

    2018-04-13

    Public funding for medical research in Germany is primarily provided by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The aim of this study was to analyze the amount of national public funding for medical research on predominant causes of death in Germany, cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in relation to the burden of these diseases in Germany. Three evaluators categorized medical research projects funded by the DFG or BMBF between 2010 and 2012 into the categories "Diseases of the circulatory system" (with subgroups "Ischemic heart diseases", "Heart failure" and "Cerebrovascular diseases") and "Neoplasms". The total amount of public funding by the national agencies was analyzed in relation to the burden of disease for the respective disease condition. Information on national public funding for medical research of 2091 million euros was available; of those, 246.8 million euros (11.8%) were categorized being spent for research on "Neoplasms", 118.4 million euros (5.7%) for research on "Diseases of the circulatory system". This results in 362.08 euros per case of death, 16.58 euros per year of life lost (YLL) and 16.04 euros per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) for "Neoplasms" and in 113.44 euros per case of death, 8.05 euros per YLL and 7.17 euros per DALY for "Diseases of the circulatory system". In Germany, research on cardiovascular diseases receives a lower share of national public funding for medical research compared to oncological research. These results are comparable to other European countries.

  3. An Analysis of Infectious Disease Research Trends in Medical Journals From North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Hyeon Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to investigate the current status of infectious disease research in North Korea by analyzing recent trends in medical journals from North Korea in comparison with research from South Korea. Methods Three medical journals (Preventive Medicine, Basic Medicine, and Chosun Medicine were analyzed from 2012 to 2016. Articles on tuberculosis (TB, malaria, and parasitic diseases were selected and classified by their subtopics and study areas. Two medical journals published in the South Korea were selected for a comparative analysis of research trends. Results Of the 2792 articles that were reviewed, 93 were extracted from North Korea journals. TB research in North Korea was largely focused on multi-drug resistant TB and extrapulmonary TB, whereas research in South Korea more frequently investigated non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Research on parasitic diseases in North Korea was focused on protozoan and intestinal nematodes, while the corresponding South Korea research investigated various species of parasites. Additionally, the studies conducted in North Korea were more likely to investigate the application of traditional medicine to diagnosis and treatment than those conducted in South Korea. Conclusions This study presents an analysis of research trends in preventive medicine in North Korea focusing on infectious diseases, in which clear differences were observed between South and North Korea. Trends in research topics suggest a high prevalence of certain parasitic diseases in North Korea that are no longer widespread in South Korea. The large proportion of studies examining traditional medicine implies a lack of affordable medicine in North Korea.

  4. Aspects of Global Health Issues: Diseases, Natural Disasters, and Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Global health issues are concerns of all public health officials throughout the world. This entails reviewing aspects such as the impact of poverty and the lack of access to quality health care, ignored global killers such as Diseases (Infectious diseases-Malaria, HIV/AIDS), Natural Disasters (Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods, and Armed Conflict), Health in the Media, and the Involvement of Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research. These issues are challenges to many needless deaths. Global initiatives are not advancing as they should, such as access to drugs and medications, which some are political.

  5. Adaptations of Personal Health Record Platform for Medical Research on Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krukowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on experiences in e-Health platforms and services for supporting medical research into the causes and relationships among physiological parameters and health problems concerning different chronic diseases. The Personal Health Record (PHR is a way of standardizing electronic management of medical information between patients and their physicians, including medical bodies collaborating in providing integrated medical care services. We describe roles and aims behind electronic health records, follow with applicable legal and standardizations frameworks and relevant European activities, leading to the presentation of common commercial and open-source implementations of such systems, concluding with the indication of specific adaptations enabling a use of stored personal health data for scientific research into causes and evaluation of chronic illnesses. We describe ethical and privacy concerns that are relevant to using and exchanging electronic health information.

  6. Medical Entomology: A Reemerging Field of Research to Better Understand Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Maureen; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Delaunay, Pascal; Charrel, Remi; Pradines, Bruno; Berger, Franck; Ranque, Stéphane; Bitam, Idir; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-08-15

    In the last decade, the Chikungunya and Zika virus outbreaks have turned public attention to the possibility of the expansion of vector-borne infectious diseases worldwide. Medical entomology is focused on the study of arthropods involved in human health. We review here some of the research approaches taken by the medical entomology team of the University Hospital Institute (UHI) Méditerranée Infection of Marseille, France, with the support of recent or representative studies. We propose our approaches to technical innovations in arthropod identification and the detection of microorganisms in arthropods, the use of arthropods as epidemiological or diagnostic tools, entomological investigations around clinical cases or within specific populations, and how we have developed experimental models to decipher the interactions between arthropods, microorganisms, and humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Medical anthropology as an antidote for ethnocentrism in Jesus research? Putting the illness–disease distinction into perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter F. Craffert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicine often has side-effects or unintended consequences that are more harmful than the original disease. Medical anthropology in general and the illness–disease distinction in particular has been introduced into historical Jesus research with the intent to protect it from medicocentrism and thus to offer ways of comprehending sickness and healing in the world of Jesus and his first followers without distorting these phenomena by imposing the biomedical framework onto the texts. In particular the illness–disease distinction is used for making sense of healing accounts whilst claiming to cross the cultural gap. Based on an analysis of the illness–disease distinction in medical anthropology and its use in historical Jesus research this article suggests that instead of protecting from ethnocentrism this distinction actually increases the risk of ethnocentrism and consequently distorts in many instances the healing accounts of the New Testament.

  8. Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the Highland Medical Research Journal is to publish scientific research in various fields of medical science and to communicate such research findings to the larger world community. It aims to promote cooperation and understanding amoungst workers in various fields of medical science.

  9. Publication trends of research articles from infectious diseases specialty in a medical journal from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Details about research productivity in the infectious diseases specialty from India are lacking. Objective: To analyse publishing trends and research productivity of articles related to infectious diseases in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI. Materials and Methods : We carried out bibliometric analysis of articles related to infectious diseases specialty from JAPI published between 2000 and 2011. Data were derived from the journal′s website and the articles were analysed for type (original article, case reports, etc., microorganism (bacterial, viral, etc. place of the research and timelines for publication. Results : Out of 2977 articles published in JAPI over last 12 years, 256 articles belong to infectious diseases subspecialty. Infectious diseases contributed 11-18% of the published articles per year in JAPI during the last decade. Original articles (31%, case reports (38% and correspondence (22% constitute the majority of article types, while remaining 9% was made up by images. Bacterial (22%, protozoal and helminthic (20%, HIV (15% and mycobacterial (16% diseases lead the type of microorganisms represented in the research articles. Mumbai (16%, Delhi (9% and Kolkata (7% are the top three places contributing to the articles, followed by Chandigarh and Chennai. Original articles and case reports took approximately 14 months for publication, as compared to 6 months for an image (P < 0.0001. Conclusion : Infectious diseases specialty contributes about 15% of articles per annum in JAPI. HIV and tuberculosis together account for 30% of published litearture with fair representation from other organisms. Mumbai and Delhi are the leading contributors towards research productivity in this specialty.

  10. Understanding Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study ... when reading or listening to reports of new medical findings. Some questions that can help you evaluate ...

  11. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  12. Mapping the author gender-distribution of disease-specific medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.P.; Schneider, J.W.; Nielsen, M.W.

    2016-07-01

    This short paper responds to a recent call for attention to the “diversity challenge” in biomedical research, specifically with regard to gender diversity. The lack of diversity can be limiting for the progression of knowledge production, a viewpoint shared by both the European Commission, the League of European Research Universities and the National Institute of Health. (Author)

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores corresponding to modified Medical Research Council grades among COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus COPD patients, the percentages of patients classified into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores COPD patients.

  14. [Globalization in medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, H-J; Wiesing, U

    2018-03-01

    The globalization of clinical research is gaining momentum. In particular, emerging countries, such as Brazil, India, Russia and South Africa show a significant increase in clinical trials. This trend is generating various ethical problems, which are examined in the present article. Sometimes, generally accepted ethical rules, such as the evaluation of clinical trials by ethics commissions are not respected and sometimes conflicts are generated which are difficult to resolve. For instance, it is controversial which standard of care researchers and sponsors have to provide in an international study. These conflicts are exacerbated by a fundamental dilemma: more research on diseases prevalent in developing and emerging countries is necessary. At the same time, the protection of study participants in those countries creates particular challenges. In recent years, international commissions and guidelines have achieved significant progress in solving these conflicts; however, the further development has to be analyzed very carefully. Incentives for better research on neglected diseases have to be created. Undesirable developments and abuse have to be prevented by appropriate international ethical standards.

  15. [Insufficient medication compliance in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Marjolein B; van der Eijk, Martijn; Kramers, Kees; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2011-01-01

    Medication compliance is generally suboptimal, particularly in patients with complex polypharmacy. This generic treatment problem is described here for Parkinson's disease (PD). We would expect patients with PD to have good medication compliance, since missed doses immediately result in worsening of symptoms. However, recent research has revealed that PD patients demonstrate poor medication compliance. Poor medication compliance is particularly undesirable for patients with PD because regular intake of medication is required for optimal treatment effect. Possible ways of improving medication compliance are pharmacotherapeutic measures and behavioural interventions. Modern methods of communication (text message reminders) and 'smart' pill dispensers may be beneficial, but the advantages of such interventions have not yet been scientifically studied.

  16. The accuracy of self-reported medical history: a preliminary analysis of the promise of internet-based research in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstrup, Anne Mette; Juillerat, Pascal; Korzenik, Joshua

    2014-05-01

    Internet-based surveys provide a potentially important tool for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) research. The advantages include low cost, large numbers of participants, rapid study completion and less extensive infrastructure than traditional methods. The aim was to determine the accuracy of patient self-reporting in internet-based IBD research and identify predictors of greater reliability. 197 patients from a tertiary care center answered an online survey concerning personal medical history and an evaluation of disease specific knowledge. Self-reported medical details were compared with data abstracted from medical records. Agreement was assessed by kappa (κ) statistics. Participants responded correctly with excellent agreement (κ=0.96-0.97) on subtype of IBD and history of surgery. The agreement was also excellent for colectomy (κ=0.88) and small bowel resection (κ=0.91), moderate for abscesses and fistulas (κ=0.60 and 0.63), but poor regarding partial colectomy (κ=0.39). Time since last colonoscopy was self-reported with better agreement (κ=0.84) than disease activity. For disease location/extent, moderate agreements at κ=69% and 64% were observed for patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, respectively. Subjects who scored higher than the average in the IBD knowledge assessment were significantly more accurate about disease location than their complementary group (74% vs. 59%, p=0.02). This study demonstrates that IBD patients accurately report their medical history regarding type of disease and surgical procedures. More detailed medical information is less reliably reported. Disease knowledge assessment may help in identifying the most accurate individuals and could therefore serve as validity criteria. Internet-based surveys are feasible with high reliability about basic disease features only. However, the participants in this study were engaged at a tertiary center, which potentially leads to a bias and compromises generalization to

  17. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  18. Medical research at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issifou, Saadou; Adegnika, Ayola A; Lell, Bertrand

    2010-03-01

    Built in 1981, the Medical Research Unit is located at the campus of the Albert Schweitzer Hospital. The main scientific activities of this research unit lie on clinical research focusing on antimalarial drugs and vaccines, and basic studies on pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Since 2002 the Medical Research Unit has experience in organising and hosting high quality training in clinical research in collaboration with the Vienna School of Clinical Research and other partners. For the future, this unit is involved as a key partner in the Central African Network on Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria (CANTAM) consortium playing a central role for the excellence in clinical research in Central Africa.

  19. Medical issues and research activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orecchia, R.; Solcia, E.; Fossati, P.

    2006-01-01

    We want to report on the CNAO Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy) Foundation activity aiming to create the clinical conditions that will enable CNAO to work in the most advantageous way. CNAO Foundation is taking care to inform the population, patients and medical community on the existence, potentiality and limits of hadrontherapy. To achieve this goal it has created a website that gives general information on hadrontherapy and a medical service that advises on specific clinical cases; it has moreover promoted seminars and courses for residents and specialists. Disease specific working groups have been created to define protocols on patients selection criteria, indications, dose and fractionation and to design clinical trials that will be carried out at CNAO. These protocols and trials are a working tool that will permit a more rational clinical activity. CNAO Foundation is promoting training of personnel that will work at CNAO and in the next few months physicians and physicists will be send abroad to learn the practical aspects of hadrontherapy in foreign facilities where hadrons are already in clinical use. CNAO Foundation is sponsoring research activity in the fields of precision patient positioning, organ motion management, in vivo dosimetry with in room positron emission tomography (PET) scan and radiobiology. These activities will help to take full advantage of the facility under construction and to better define the role of hadrontherapy in cancer care. (author)

  20. Guidelines for Reporting Medical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mathilde; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2016-01-01

    As a response to a low quality of reporting of medical research, guidelines for several different types of study design have been developed to secure accurate reporting and transparency for reviewers and readers from the scientific community. Herein, we review and discuss the six most widely...... accepted and used guidelines: PRISMA, CONSORT, STROBE, MOOSE, STARD, and SPIRIT. It is concluded that the implementation of these guidelines has led to only a moderate improvement in the quality of the reporting of medical research. There is still much work to be done to achieve accurate and transparent...... reporting of medical research findings....

  1. Medical foods for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Raj C

    2011-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with cognitive loss, behavioural changes, functional ability decline and caregiver burden. Given the worldwide public health impact of AD, novel interventions to reduce suffering experienced by AD patients need to be developed. Foods may offer a mechanism for intervention complementary to drugs, devices, biologicals and vaccines. Apart from foods with health claims (including dietary supplements), medical foods are also being explored as an intervention option. The purpose of this article is to describe how medical foods may complement other interventions for AD patients by: (i) defining what a medical food is; (ii) discussing whether AD is a condition amenable to medical food intervention; (iii) reviewing current clinical trial data on medical foods used in participants with AD; and (iv) highlighting steps needed to establish a more comprehensive framework for developing medical foods for AD. While medical foods may be defined differently in other countries, the US Orphan Drug Act of 1998 defined a medical food as a food formulated for enteral intake, taken under physician supervision, and intended to meet the distinctive nutritional requirements identified for a disease or condition. For AD to be amenable to medical food intervention, it must: (i) result in limited or impaired capacity to ingest, digest, absorb or metabolize ordinary foodstuff or certain nutrients; or (ii) have unique, medically determined nutrient requirements; and (iii) require dietary management that cannot be achieved by modification of the normal diet alone. While these criteria are most likely met in advanced AD, identifying unique nutritional requirements in early AD that cannot be met by normal diet modification requires a better understanding of AD pathophysiology. A PubMed search using the terms 'medical food' and 'Alzheimer', limited to clinical trials published in English with human participants with AD aged >65

  2. Statistical problems in medical research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... medical research, there are some common problems in using statistical methodology which may result ... optimal combination of diagnostic tests for osteoporosis .... randomization used include stratification and minimize-.

  3. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  4. Medical Research for All Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we want to offer you and your family good, helpful health information that is based on the very best medical research conducted by and for the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This issue focuses on several topics in which NIH-funded research continues to make ...

  5. Tropical Journal of Medical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Medical Research publishes original research work, review articles, important case report, short communications, and innovations in medicine and related fields. Vol 16, No 2 (2012). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles ...

  6. Crowdsourced 'R&D' and medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Christian William

    2015-09-01

    Crowdsourced R&D, a research methodology increasingly applied to medical research, has properties well suited to large-scale medical data collection and analysis, as well as enabling rapid research responses to crises such as disease outbreaks. Multidisciplinary literature offers diverse perspectives of crowdsourced R&D as a useful large-scale medical data collection and research problem-solving methodology. Crowdsourced R&D has demonstrated 'proof of concept' in a host of different biomedical research applications. A wide range of quality and ethical issues relate to crowdsourced R&D. The rapid growth in applications of crowdsourced R&D in medical research is predicted by an increasing body of multidisciplinary theory. Further research in areas such as artificial intelligence may allow better coordination and management of the high volumes of medical data and problem-solving inputs generated by the crowdsourced R&D process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Nuclear medicine. Medical technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, H.; Jigalin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim, method: the scientific publications in the 2003 and 2004 issues of the journal Nuklearmedizin were analyzed retrospectively with regard to the proportion of medical technology research. Results: out of a total of 73 articles examined, 9 (12%) were classified as medical technology research, that is, 8/15 of the original papers (16%) and one of the case reports (5%). Of these 9 articles, 44% (4/9) focused on the combination of molecular and morphological imaging with direct technical appliance or information technology solutions. Conclusion: medical technology research is limited in the journal's catchment area. The reason for this is related to the interdependency between divergent development dynamics in the medical technology industry's locations, the many years that the area of scintigraphic technology has been underrepresented, research policy particularly in discrepancies in the promotion of molecular imaging and a policy in which health is not perceived as a predominantly good and positive economic factor, but more as a curb to economic development. (orig.)

  8. Enhancing Insights into Pulmonary Vascular Disease through a Precision Medicine Approach. A Joint NHLBI-Cardiovascular Medical Research and Education Fund Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John H; Rich, Stuart; Abman, Steven H; Alexander, John H; Barnard, John; Beck, Gerald J; Benza, Raymond L; Bull, Todd M; Chan, Stephen Y; Chun, Hyung J; Doogan, Declan; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Erzurum, Serpil C; Frantz, Robert P; Geraci, Mark; Gillies, Hunter; Gladwin, Mark; Gray, Michael P; Hemnes, Anna R; Herbst, Roy S; Hernandez, Adrian F; Hill, Nicholas S; Horn, Evelyn M; Hunter, Kendall; Jing, Zhi-Cheng; Johns, Roger; Kaul, Sanjay; Kawut, Steven M; Lahm, Tim; Leopold, Jane A; Lewis, Greg D; Mathai, Stephen C; McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Michelakis, Evangelos D; Nathan, Steven D; Nichols, William; Page, Grier; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Rich, Jonathan; Rischard, Franz; Rounds, Sharon; Shah, Sanjiv J; Tapson, Victor F; Lowy, Naomi; Stockbridge, Norman; Weinmann, Gail; Xiao, Lei

    2017-06-15

    The Division of Lung Diseases of the NHLBI and the Cardiovascular Medical Education and Research Fund held a workshop to discuss how to leverage the anticipated scientific output from the recently launched "Redefining Pulmonary Hypertension through Pulmonary Vascular Disease Phenomics" (PVDOMICS) program to develop newer approaches to pulmonary vascular disease. PVDOMICS is a collaborative, protocol-driven network to analyze all patient populations with pulmonary hypertension to define novel pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) phenotypes. Stakeholders, including basic, translational, and clinical investigators; clinicians; patient advocacy organizations; regulatory agencies; and pharmaceutical industry experts, joined to discuss the application of precision medicine to PVD clinical trials. Recommendations were generated for discussion of research priorities in line with NHLBI Strategic Vision Goals that include: (1) A national effort, involving all the stakeholders, should seek to coordinate biosamples and biodata from all funded programs to a web-based repository so that information can be shared and correlated with other research projects. Example programs sponsored by NHLBI include PVDOMICS, Pulmonary Hypertension Breakthrough Initiative, the National Biological Sample and Data Repository for PAH, and the National Precision Medicine Initiative. (2) A task force to develop a master clinical trials protocol for PVD to apply precision medicine principles to future clinical trials. Specific features include: (a) adoption of smaller clinical trials that incorporate biomarker-guided enrichment strategies, using adaptive and innovative statistical designs; and (b) development of newer endpoints that reflect well-defined and clinically meaningful changes. (3) Development of updated and systematic variables in imaging, hemodynamic, cellular, genomic, and metabolic tests that will help precisely identify individual and shared features of PVD and serve as the basis of novel

  9. Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services in India. British rulers opened hospitals for modern medicine; medical colleges; nurses schools etc. in the 19th century to the joyous welcome of natives. During the same period, they set up Indian Research Fund Association two years ahead of the MRC of ...

  10. [se-atlas - the health service information platform for people with rare diseases : Supporting research on medical care institutions and support groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Johanna; Wagner, Thomas O F; Storf, Holger

    2017-05-01

    se-atlas - the health service information platform for rare diseases - is part of the German National Action Plan for People with Rare Diseases and is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Health. The objective of se-atlas as a web-based platform is to illustrate those medical care institutions that are linked to rare diseases, in a transparent and user-friendly way. The website provides an overview of medical care institutions and support groups focusing on rare diseases in Germany. The primary target groups of se-atlas are affected patients, their relatives and physicians but can also include non-medical professionals and the general public. In order to make it easier to look up medical care institutions or support groups and optimize the search results displayed, various strategies are being developed and evaluated. Hence, the allocation of diseases to appropriate medical care institutions and support groups is currently a main focus. Since its launch in 2015, se-atlas has grown continuously and now incorporates five times more entries than were included 20 months prior. Among this data are the current rare diseases centres in Germany, which play a major role in providing patient-centred healthcare by acting as primary contact points for people with rare diseases. Further expansion and maintenance of the data base raises several organisational and software-related challenges. For one, the data should be completed by adding more high-quality information, while not neglecting the existing entries and maintaining their high level of quality in the long term.

  11. Metabonomics Research Progress on Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengqian; Zhu, Ying; Cong, Qingwei; Wu, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score. As a result, the clinical work becomes very complex. So it has broad prospects to explore the specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver diseases with metabolomics. In this paper, there are several summaries which are related to the current research progress and application of metabolomics on biomarkers of liver diseases.

  12. Radioimmunoassay for medical diagnosis and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, R A; Vavrejn, B [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1982-12-01

    Health and disease in living systems depend on the dynamic interplay of thousands of biochemical substances occurring in living systems in concentrations ranging from parts per hundred to parts per billion or trillion. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly specific and sensitive technique for measuring the concentration of such biochemical substances. It represents one of the most dramatically expanding areas of medical diagnosis and research. Reviewed here is the recent progress on RIA, with emphasis on methodology and on its adaptation and application in developing countries. The number of biological substances (ligands) being assayed by RIA continues to expand. RIA is central to diagnosis, epidemiology and research. It has been successfully applied in the study of parasitic and infectious diseases. Introduction of RIA into developing countries, for which the Agency's help is sought and given, presents numerous problems: personnel, equipment, adaptability of techniques to local needs, and public support.

  13. Analysis of Medical Tourism for Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Tigu, Gabriela; Dragoescu, Raluca Mariana; Sinescu, Crina Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increasing costs of treatments have led to the apparition of the medical tourism. Patients in high-income countries seek to solve their health problems in developing countries where the cost of medical treatment is much lower. This cost difference has led to the medical tourism industry that is currently estimated with an annual growth rate of about 20%. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. The high cost of treating these diseases cause many patients to seek treatme...

  14. Research Institute for Medical Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ionising and non-ionising radiation on rodent tumours and normal tissue were studied in terms of cellular repair and the relevant biochemical and biophysical changes following radiation. Rodent tumours investigated in vivo were the CaNT adenocarcinoma and a chemically induced transplantable rhabdomyosarcoma. Radiations used were 100KVp of X-Rays, neutron beams, various magnetic fields, and microwave radiation of 2450MHz. The biochemical parameters measured were, inter alia, levels of adenosine-5'-triphoshate (ATP) and the specific activity of hexokinase (HK). Metabolic changes in ATP levels and the activity of HK were observed in tumour and normal tissues following ionising and non-ionising radiation in normoxia and hypoxia. The observation that the effect of radiation and chemotherapeutic treatment of some tumours may be size dependent can possibly now be explained by the variation of ATP content with tumour size. The enhanced tumour HK specific activity implies increased metabolism, possibly a consequence of cellular requirements to maintain homeostasis during repair processes. Other research projects of the Research Institute for Medical Biophysics involved, inter alia, gastroesophageal scintigraphies to evaluate the results of new forms of therapy. 1 ill

  15. NIH Research: Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. NIH Research: Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Story ... Photo courtesy of NIH Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research Story Landis, Ph.D., has been Director of ...

  16. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  17. Interest in medical therapy for celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Christina A.; Simpson, Suzanne; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A gluten-free diet is the treatment for celiac disease, but pharmaceutical agents are being developed. The level of interest amongst patients in using a medication to treat celiac disease is unknown. This study examined the level of interest amongst patients in medication to treat celiac disease. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to celiac disease patients and data were collected on demographics, presentation, and interest in medication. Three validated celiac disease-specific instruments were incorporated: Celiac Disease Associated Quality of Life, the Celiac Symptom Index, and the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test. Results: Responses were received from 365 individuals with biopsy-proven celiac disease. Respondents were 78% (n = 276) female, 48% (n = 170) over 50 years of age, and experienced a classical (diarrhea predominant) presentation in 44% (n = 154). Of the 339 individuals answering the question regarding use of a medication to treat celiac disease, 66% were interested. Interest was greatest in older individuals (71% >50 years of age versus 60% symptoms with gluten exposure did not demonstrate any effect. Interest in medication was associated with a worse quality of life (CD-QOL 69.4 versus 80.1, p celiac disease are interested in using a medication. Interest was highest among men, older individuals, frequent restaurant customers, individuals dissatisfied with their weight or concerned with the cost of a gluten-free diet, and those with a worse quality of life. PMID:24003336

  18. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  19. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research is the official journal of the International Association of Medical and Biomedical Researchers (IAMBR) and the Society for Free Radical Research Africa (SFRR-Africa). It is an internationally peer reviewed, open access and multidisciplinary journal aimed at publishing original ...

  20. MS Disease-Modifying Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease-modifying therapies Approval: 2014 US; 2014 CAN Pregnancy Category C (see footnote, page 11) Rash, headache, fever, nasal congestion, nausea, urinary tract infection, fatigue, insomnia, upper respiratory tract infection, herpes viral ...

  1. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa. African countries have an urgent need for research to battle the diseases that ravage their populations and hamper their economic and social development. This research entails both benefits and risks for the people involved. Particular effort must be ...

  2. Comparative effectiveness research and medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D

    2010-12-01

    As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Insufficient medication compliance in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, M.B.; Eijk, M. van der; Kramers, C.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Medication compliance is generally suboptimal, particularly in patients with complex polypharmacy. This generic treatment problem is described here for Parkinson's disease (PD). We would expect patients with PD to have good medication compliance, since missed doses immediately result in worsening of

  4. Medical education research in GCC countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-02-01

    Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996-2013. In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996-2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with GCC Countries including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters. In ISI-Web of Science, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research papers, Kuwait 1666, United Arab Emirates 3045, Qatar 4265, Bahrain 1666 and Oman 4848 research papers. However, in Medical Education only Saudi Arabia contributed 323 (0.79%) research papers, Kuwait 52 (0.03%), United Arab Emirates 41(0.01%), Qatar 37(0.008%), Bahrain 28 (0.06%) and Oman 22 (0.45%) research papers in in ISI indexed journals. In medical education the Hirsch index (h-index) of Saudi Arabia is 14, United Arab Emirates 14, Kuwait 11, Qatar 8, Bahrain 8 and Oman 5. GCC countries produced very little research in medical education during the period 1996-2013. They must improve their research outcomes in medical education to produce better physicians to enhance the standards in medical practice in the region.

  5. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  6. Medical therapy of hypothalamic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werder, K. von; Mueller, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    Hormonal disturbances caused by hypothalamic pathology can be treated effectively by target hormone replacement in the case of failure of glandotropic hormone secretion. Hyposomatotropism in children has to be substituted by parenteral administration of growth hormone. In addition gonadotropins respectively gonadotropin releasing factor have to be given in order to restore fertility in hypothalamic hypogonadism. Posterior pituitary failure can be adequately replaced by administration of analogues of antidiuretic hormone. Hypothalamic pathology causing hypersecretion of anterior pituitary hormones may also be accessable to medical treatment. This pertains particularly to hyperprolactinemia and precocious puberty. However, there is no medical therapy so far for hypothalamic disturbances leading to veterative dysfunction like disturbances of temperature regulation and control of thirst and polyphagia. In this situation symptomatic correction of the abnormality represents the only possibility to keep these patients alive. (Author)

  7. Medical applications in a nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Eggermont, G.

    2001-01-01

    In these days of public aversion to nuclear power, it can be important to point at the medical applications of ionising radiation. Not only the general public, but also the authorities and research centres have to be aware of these medical applications, which are not without risk for public health. Now that funding for nuclear research is declining, an opening to the medical world can give new opportunities to a nuclear research centre. A lot of research could be done where the tools developed for the nuclear power world are very useful. Even new applications for the research reactors like BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) can be envisaged for the near future. In this contribution an overview will be given of the different techniques used in the medical world with ionising radiation. The specific example of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre will be given where the mission statement was changed to include a certain number of medical research topics. (authors)

  8. Emerging research trends in medical textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Gokarneshan, N; Rajendran, V; Lavanya, B; Ghoshal, Arundhathi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the significant researches reported during the recent years in the field of medical textiles. It also highlights the use of new types of fibres in developing medical textile products and their promising role in the respective areas of application. Considerable developments have taken place in the development of medical textiles for varied applications.

  9. Implementation of the medical research curriculum in graduate medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Kim, Tae-Hee; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the medical research curriculum on the students' satisfaction and the research self-efficacy. The curriculum was implemented to 79 graduate medical school students who entered in 2007 and 2008. This curriculum is implemented through 3 years consisting of 5 different sub-courses: Research design, Research ethics, Medical statistics, Writing medical paper, and Presentation. The effect of this program was measured with 2 self-administered surveys to students: the course satisfaction survey and the self-efficacy inventories. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale consisted of 18 items from 4 categories: Research design, Research ethics, Data analysis, and Result presentation. The descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were implemented. The average point of satisfaction of the course was 2.74 out of 4, which told us that students generally satisfied with the course. The frequencies of tutoring for research course were 2 or 3 times on average and each session of tutorial lasted 1.5 to 2 hours. The research self-efficacy in three categories (Research design, Research ethics, and Result presentation) increased significantly (presearch paper writing at undergraduate level. The curriculum showed positive results in cultivating research self-efficacy of students. There is a need for improvement of the class of Statistical analysis as students reported that it was difficult.

  10. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    research , including a Business Cell; 87 Research Development, 88 Research Oversight, 89 and Research Compliance offices;90 and the Center...needed for DHP medical research , such as the Army’s Clinical and Translational Research Program Office, 38 the Navy’s Research Methods Training Program... research stated, “key infrastructure for a learning health system will encompass three core elements: data networks, methods , and workforce.” 221

  11. Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burgoyne, Louise N

    2010-01-01

    Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students\\' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students\\' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students\\' motivation for research and (d) obtain students\\' personal views on doing research.

  12. Transition of Research into Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process of transforming medical research into practical medicine for astronauts and for every day people. Several examples of medical practices that started in space medical research and then were proved useful in other settings: Actigraphy, bone density scanning, the use of Potassium Citrate as a countermeasure used to lessen the risk of kidney stone formation, and ultrasound uses in remote and telemedicine,

  13. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Prostate Disease Research is the only free-standing prostate cancer research center in the U.S. This 20,000 square foot state-of-the-art basic science...

  14. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcher, E H [Post-graduate Medical School, Hammersmith, London (United Kingdom)

    1961-07-15

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias.

  15. Medication adherence in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory condition with intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Medications are the cornerstone of treatment of IBD. However, patients often adhere to medication poorly. Adherence to medications is defined as the process by which patients take their medications as prescribed. Treatment non-adherence is a common problem among chronic diseases, averaging 50% in developed countries and is even poorer in developing countries. In this review, we will examine the adherence data in IBD which vary greatly depending on the study population, route of administration, and methods of adherence measurement used. We will also discuss the adverse clinical outcomes related to non-adherence to medical treatment including increased disease activity, flares, loss of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy, and so forth. There are many methods to measure medication adherence namely direct and indirect methods, each with their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we will explore different intervention strategies to improve adherence to medications.

  16. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  17. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.

  18. Medical and veterinary doctors, social scientists and agricultural researchers meet to carry forward the fight against cysticercosis, a neglected and fatal disease of the poor : to the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fifth general assembly meeting on cysticercosis/taeniosis was held at the Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo, Mozambique, from 11-13 October 2007. The meeting was organised by the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA in cooperation with the Medical and Veterinary Faculties of Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique and the WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark with support from DBL - Centre for Health Research and Development, Denmark, and the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Local support in Maputo was provided by Nestle, Medis Farmaceutica, Mcel and the Golden Travel Agency.

  19. Comparative effectiveness research: Challenges for medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovey David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER. In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

  20. Medical technology advances from space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  1. Quantifying the complexity of medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Loging, William T

    2013-11-15

    A crucial phenomenon of our times is the diminishing marginal returns of investments in pharmaceutical research and development. A potential reason is that research into diseases is becoming increasingly complex, and thus more burdensome, for humans to handle. We sought to investigate whether we could measure research complexity by analyzing the published literature. Through the text mining of the publication record of multiple diseases, we have found that the complexity and novelty of disease research has been increasing over the years. Surprisingly, we have also found that research on diseases with higher publication rate does not possess greater complexity or novelty than that on less-studied diseases. We have also shown that the research produced about a disease can be seen as a differentiated area of knowledge within the wider biomedical research. For our analysis, we have conceptualized disease research as a parallel multi-agent search in which each scientific agent (a scientist) follows a search path based on a model of a disease. We have looked at trends in facts published for diseases, measured their diversity and turnover using the entropy measure and found similar patterns across disease areas. raul.rodriguez-esteban@roche.com.

  2. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years,

  3. US Army Medical Research and Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    RI) US ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT. Colonel/John Jr DTIC JUL 1 5 1980; A USL &MY MEDICAL BIOENGINEERING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...pollutants in water or soil . Pollutant by-products and breakdown products in water, air or soil will be isolated, characterized, and quantified. Where...determination of selected low-level pollutants io soil and water. Degradation products and secondary pollutants arising from munitions manufacture or pest

  4. Fraud and deceit in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Publication of medical research is the cornerstone for the propagation and dissemination of medical knowledge, culminating in significant effects on the health of the world′s population. However, instances of individuals and institutions subverting the ethos of honesty and integrity on which medical research is built in order to advance personal ambitions have been well documented. Many definitions to describe this unethical behavior have been postulated, although the most descriptive is the "FFP" (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism model put forward by the United States′ Office of Research Integrity. Research misconduct has many ramifications of which the world′s media are all too keen to demonstrate. Many high-profile cases the world over have demonstrated this lack of ethics when performing medical research. Many esteemed professionals and highly regarded world institutions have succumbed to the ambitions of a few, who for personal gains, have behaved unethically in pursuit of their own ideals. Although institutions have been set up to directly confront these issues, it would appear that a lot more is still required on the part of journals and their editors to combat this behavioral pattern. Individuals starting out at very junior positions in medical research ought to be taught the basics of medical research ethics so that populations are not failed by the very people they are turning to for assistance at times of need. This article provides a review of many of the issues of research misconduct and allows the reader to reflect and think through their own experiences of research. This hopefully will allow individuals to start asking questions on, what is an often, a poorly discussed topic in medical research.

  5. Analysis of Medical Tourism for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Liliana Andrei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing costs of treatments have led to the apparition of the medical tourism. Patients in high-income countries seek to solve their health problems in developing countries where the cost of medical treatment is much lower. This cost difference has led to the medical tourism industry that is currently estimated with an annual growth rate of about 20%. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. The high cost of treating these diseases cause many patients to seek treatment options abroad. This paper presents an analysis of the medical tourism industry highlighting the factors that led to its development, barriers to medical tourism, and the economic impact of this industry. Although Romania has highly appreciated doctors it hasn’t achieved yet the high level of other developing countries where medical tourism is more intense. Spa tourism is still far from Romania’s potential in this area due to the very small investments and the lack of necessary infrastructure. Using statistical and econometric techniques we examined key health indicators in Romania showing the lack of correlation between the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, the development of the endowment of the health system in Romania, expenditures on health care and evolution of the number of foreign tourists coming to Romania to treat these diseases. We used statistical data series provided by N.S.I. that were processed using Eviews. We also tested whether there is a causal relationship in the Granger sense between the percentage of GDP allocated to the health care system and the number of nights spent by foreign tourists in resorts in Romania or the number of arrivals of foreign tourists.

  6. Research-oriented medical education for graduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Madhav G

    2013-01-01

    In most parts of the world, medical education is predominantly geared to create service personnel for medical and health services. Training in research is ignored, which is a major handicap for students who are motivated to do research. The main objective of this study was to develop, for such students, a cost-effective 'in-study' research training module that could be adopted even by medical colleges, which have a modest research infrastructure, in different regions of India. Short-duration workshops on the clinical and laboratory medicine research methods including clinical protocol development were held in different parts of India to facilitate participation of students from various regions. Nine workshops covering the entire country were conducted between July 2010 and December 2011. Participation was voluntary and by invitation only to the recipients of the Indian Council of Medical Research-Short-term Studentship programme (ICMR- STS), which was taken as an index of students' research motivation. Faculty was drawn from the medical institutions in the region. All expenses on students, including their travel, and that of the faculty were borne by the academy. Impact of the workshop was judged by the performance of the participants in pre- and post-workshop tests with multiple-choice questions (MCQs) containing the same set of questions. There was no negative marking. Anonymous student feedback was obtained using a questionnaire. Forty-one per cent of the 1009 invited students attended the workshops. These workshops had a positive impact on the participants. Only 20% students could pass and just 2.3% scored >80% marks in the pre-workshop test. There was a three-fold increase in the pass percentage and over 20% of the participants scored >80% marks (A grade) in the post-workshop test. The difference between the pre- and post- workshop performance was statistically significant at all the centres. In the feedback from participants, the workshop received an average

  7. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  8. Sudanese Medical Students and Scientific Research | Mohamed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 14.7% knew the engines used for finding medical literature. Conclusion: The low knowledge score is due to lack of application of research in the academic curriculum; however, the students have a fairly positive attitude. The knowledge is expected to improve with the intended policy to include practical research in the ...

  9. Japan's contribution to nuclear medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Sakamoto, Junichi; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the degree of Japan's contribution to the nuclear medical research in the last decade. Articles published in 1991-2000 in highly reputed nuclear medical journals were accessed through the MEDLINE database. The number of articles having affiliation with a Japanese institution was counted along with publication year. In addition, shares of top-ranking countries were determined along with their trends over time. Of the total number of articles (7,788), Japan's share of articles in selected nuclear medical journals was 11.4% (889 articles) and ranked 2nd in the world after the USA (2,645 articles). The recent increase in the share was statistically significant for Japan (p=0.02, test for trend). Japan's share in nuclear medical research output is much higher than that in other biomedical fields. (author)

  10. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  11. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente Puch, A.E. de la

    2013-01-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation

  13. Improving medical students’ participation in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon R

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rahul Menon, Vishnou Mourougavelou, Arjun MenonFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWe read with great interest the review by Siddaiah-Subramanya et al1 regarding the difficulty for medical students to participate in research, in developing countries. From our own experience as medical students, we agree that organizational factors, adequacy of knowledge, and variability in “attitudes” may all contribute to difficulty in participating in research. Nevertheless, we propose that the introduction of research projects, which may be part of an intercalated degree, could help improve medical students’ involvement in research.Author's replyManjunath Siddaiah-Subramanya,1,2 Harveen Singh,3 Kor Woi Tiang1,21Department of Surgery, Logan Hospital, Meadowbrook, 2Department of Medicine, Griffith University, Nathan, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Lady Cilento Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia We would like to thank Menon et al for the letter in response to our article.1 We note that an overarching theme in the letter is the situation in countries where research at medical school could be improved. In the letter, Menon et al have brought out a couple of important issues: one is that the problem is multifactorial, and the other is the fact that opportunities and encouragement need to be provided to the students so that they could get more involved in research.View the original paper by Siddaiah-Subramanya and colleagues.

  14. Medical marijuana: the state of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirken, B

    1996-10-18

    Recent raids on buyers' clubs in San Francisco have focused attention on medicinal uses of marijuana. The Clinton administration's policy is that there is no scientific evidence that smoked marijuana is useful in treating pain and nausea in AIDS and cancer patients. However, mainstream medical literature has supported the use of cannabis in managing symptoms of diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. Well designed, controlled studies of marijuana are needed to determine the effective medical uses of the drug and break the political stalemate on this issue.

  15. Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J

    Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.

  16. Medical Science and Research in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Ebadifar, Asghar; Baradaran Eftekhari, Monir; Falahat, Katayoun

    2017-11-01

    During the last 3 decades, Iran has experienced a rapid population growth and at the same time the health of Iranian people has improved greatly. This achievement was mainly due to training and availability of health manpower, well organized public health network and medical science and research improvement. In this article, we aimed to report the relevant data about the medical science and research situation in Iran and compare them with other countries. In this study, after reviewing science development and research indicators in medical sciences with participation of key stakeholders, we selected 3 main hybrid indexes consisting of "Research and Development (R&D) expenditures," "Personnel in Science and Technology sector" and "knowledge generation" for evaluation of medical science and research situation. Data was extracted from reliable databases. Over the past decade, Iran has achieved significant success in medical sciences and for the first time in 2015 based on Scopus index, Iran ranked first in the number of published scientific papers and number of citations in the region and among all Islamic countries. Also, 2% of the world's publications belong to Iran. Regarding innovation, the number of Iranian patents submitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) was 3 and 43 in 2008 and 2013, respectively. In these years, the number of personnel in science and technology sectors including post graduate students, researchers and academic members in universities of medical sciences (UMSs) have increased. The female students in medical sciences field account for about twothirds of all students. Also, women comprise about one-third of faculty members. Since 5 years ago, Iran has had growth in science and technology parks. These achievements were attained in spite of the fact that research spending in Iran was still very low (0.5% of gross domestic product [GDP]) due to economic hardships and sanctions. Medical science and research development has

  17. Lack of spirometry use in Danish patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette; Christensen, René Depont; Søndergaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that a large proportion of patients using medication targeting obstructive lung disease have no history of spirometry testing.......Research indicates that a large proportion of patients using medication targeting obstructive lung disease have no history of spirometry testing....

  18. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar expe­rience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of pub­lished research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tena...

  19. Naval Medical Research and Development Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    the strategic planning program for action. The pros and cons of the current NMR&D organization structure, management support funding, and officer...Distribution List D-4 Naval Medical Research and Development Strategic Plan March 2008 SWE Naval Surface Warfare Enterprise SWOT Strengths

  20. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. INFORMATION FOR CONTRIBUTORS This information can also be accessed at http://www.iambr.info/AMBR/author_guidelines.html Articles to Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research are submitted under the condition that the work described has not been published or is not being considered for ...

  1. [Andrologic disease detected during army medical visit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Fabio; Michelazzi, Alberto; Capurro, Anna; Carmignani, Giorgio

    2003-12-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of andrologic diseases in young men (age 18 years) recruited for conscription in a north-western Italian region. A random sample of 1993 young men was evaluated at the Army Medical Visit Center of the Military District of Genoa. The visits were performed by the same doctor. An examination of external genitalia and secondary sex characters was made and the medical history of each conscript was recorded. Investigation procedures were standardized according to the guidelines of the WHO for the diagnosis and management of the infertile male. Andrologic disorders were found in 547 subjects (27.5%) and first diagnosed in 412 (20.7%). Specific acquired or congenital disorders are discussed. Some patients with most significant diseases were referred to the Urologic Department for second level diagnostic exams. This study underlines the role of the army medical visit as a tool for andrologic screening in young males. The military health service may be a relevant institution for postpuberal control and it could be useful to prevent future sexual and fertility problems in adult males.

  2. Some results of medical researches at Ulba Metallurgical Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemieva, G.I.; Novikov, V.G.; Savchuk, V.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The results of 45-years medical researches at beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant are summarized in this report. Statistic data on different kinds of occupational diseases, related to beryllium production and the dynamics of changing occupational diseases with the development of beryllium production, are given there. Data on average duration of life of occupational disease patients are presented in the report. It includes the description of problems, related to berylliosis diagnosis. Issues, connected to beryllium production effect on health of man, located nearby beryllium production are also discussed there as well. (author)

  3. Advanced medical interventions in pleural disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhatnagar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The burden of a number of pleural diseases continues to increase internationally. Although many pleural procedures have historically been the domain of interventional radiologists or thoracic surgeons, in recent years, there has been a marked expansion in the techniques available to the pulmonologist. This has been due in part to both technological advancements and a greater recognition that pleural disease is an important subspecialty of respiratory medicine. This article summarises the important literature relating to a number of advanced pleural interventions, including medical thoracoscopy, the insertion and use of indwelling pleural catheters, pleural manometry, point-of-care thoracic ultrasound, and image-guided closed pleural biopsy. We also aim to inform the reader regarding the latest updates to more established procedures such as chemical pleurodesis, thoracentesis and the management of chest drains, drawing on contemporary data from recent randomised trials. Finally, we shall look to explore the challenges faced by those practicing pleural medicine, especially relating to training, as well as possible future directions for the use and expansion of advanced medical interventions in pleural disease.

  4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Medical or Surgical Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Liakakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common condition with increasing prevalence worldwide. The disease encompasses a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and disorders from simple heartburn without esophagitis to erosive esophagitis with severe complications, such as esophageal strictures and intestinal metaplasia. Diagnosis is based mainly on ambulatory esophageal pH testing and endoscopy. There has been a long-standing debate about the best treatment approach for this troublesome disease. Methods and Results. Medical treatment with PPIs has an excellent efficacy in reversing the symptoms of GERD, but they should be taken for life, and long-term side effects do exist. However, patients who desire a permanent cure and have severe complications or cannot tolerate long-term treatment with PPIs are candidates for surgical treatment. Laparoscopic antireflux surgery achieves a significant symptom control, increased patient satisfaction, and complete withdrawal of antireflux medications, in the majority of patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment should be reserved mainly for young patients seeking permanent results. However, the choice of the treatment schedule should be individualized for every patient. It is up to the patient, the physician and the surgeon to decide the best treatment option for individual cases.

  5. Medical ethics research between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, H A; Lelie, A

    1998-06-01

    The main object of criticism of present-day medical ethics is the standard view of the relationship between theory and practice. Medical ethics is more than the application of moral theories and principles, and health care is more than the domain of application of moral theories. Moral theories and principles are necessarily abstract, and therefore fail to take account of the sometimes idiosyncratic reality of clinical work and the actual experiences of practitioners. Suggestions to remedy the illness of contemporary medical ethics focus on re-establishing the connection between the internal and external morality of medicine. This article discusses the question how to develop a theoretical perspective on medical ethical issues that connects philosophical reflection with the everyday realities of medical practice. Four steps in a comprehensive approach of medical ethics research are distinguished: (1) examine health care contexts in order to obtain a better understanding of the internal morality of these practices; this requires empirical research; (2) analyze and interpret the external morality governing health care practices; sociological study of prevalent values, norms, and attitudes concerning medical-ethical issues is required; (3) creation of new theoretical perspectives on health care practices; Jensen's theory of healthcare practices will be useful here; (4) develop a new conception of bioethics that illuminates and clarifies the complex interaction between the internal and external morality of health care practices. Hermeneutical ethics can be helpful for integrating the experiences disclosed in the empirical ethical studies, as well as utilizing the insights gained from describing the value-contexts of health care practices. For a critical and normative perspective, hermeneutical ethics has to examine and explain the moral experiences uncovered, in order to understand what they tell us.

  6. Pattern of non-communicable diseases among medical admissions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical admissions due to non-communicable diseases were carefully selected and analyzed. There were 1853 cases of various non-communicable diseases out of a total medical admission of 3294 constituting 56.2% of total medical admissions. Diseases of the cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems were the most ...

  7. Disease Heritability Inferred from Familial Relationships Reported in Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polubriaginof, Fernanda C G; Vanguri, Rami; Quinnies, Kayla; Belbin, Gillian M; Yahi, Alexandre; Salmasian, Hojjat; Lorberbaum, Tal; Nwankwo, Victor; Li, Li; Shervey, Mark M; Glowe, Patricia; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Simmerling, Mary; Hripcsak, George; Bakken, Suzanne; Goldstein, David; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kenny, Eimear E; Dudley, Joel; Vawdrey, David K; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2018-05-15

    Heritability is essential for understanding the biological causes of disease but requires laborious patient recruitment and phenotype ascertainment. Electronic health records (EHRs) passively capture a wide range of clinically relevant data and provide a resource for studying the heritability of traits that are not typically accessible. EHRs contain next-of-kin information collected via patient emergency contact forms, but until now, these data have gone unused in research. We mined emergency contact data at three academic medical centers and identified 7.4 million familial relationships while maintaining patient privacy. Identified relationships were consistent with genetically derived relatedness. We used EHR data to compute heritability estimates for 500 disease phenotypes. Overall, estimates were consistent with the literature and between sites. Inconsistencies were indicative of limitations and opportunities unique to EHR research. These analyses provide a validation of the use of EHRs for genetics and disease research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Research on patient safety: falls and medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Sandra Dawn; Kogan, Polina

    2009-10-01

    Below you will find summaries of published research describing investigations into patient safety issues related to falls and medications. The first summary provides details on the incidence of falls associated with the use of walkers and canes. This is followed by a summary of a fall-prevention intervention study that evaluated the effectiveness of widespread dissemination of evidence-based strategies in a community in Connecticut. The third write up provides information on three classes of medications that are associated with a significant number of emergency room visits. The last summary describes a pharmacist-managed medication reconciliation intervention pilot program. For additional details about the study findings and interventions, we encourage readers to review the original articles.

  9. Preliminary thoughts on research in medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiaojing; Guo, Jiawei; Qian, Haihong

    2017-05-23

    Medical humanities (MH) is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social sciences (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and health geography), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Studies of MH should not be limited to theoretical discussions. Research results must be translated into use of methodologies to formulate medical policies, guide clinical practices, and help resolve physical or mental problems. MH has a critical role in addressing medicine-related issues, such as human cloning legislation and the treatment of Ebola virus infection. Recently, MH has also been included in the "Healthy China 2030" project, indicating that MH has garnered more attention in China. Medical colleges, research institutes, and non-profit organizations are focusing on MH studies. Over the past few years, financial support for MH studies has also increased. Although the development of MH currently lags behind medicine and health sciences, MH has promise.

  10. Research on medical applications of radioisotopes and radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) produces and distributes commercially in Australia and abroad a range of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The AAEC carries out research and development on new and improved processes and procucts is collaboration with medical specialists in hospitals and research workers in other organisations. Examples of these processes and products are: a gel generator for production of 99m Tc; radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of tumours and brain disease and therapy for arthritis; 64 Cu for study of copper metabolism; and monoclonal antibodies for tumour diagnosis and therapy. New medical applications in Australia of neutron irradiation include the measurement of total body nitrogen and neutron capture in boron-labelled compounds in vivo for melanoma therapy. (author)

  11. Research on and in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Michaela S

    2011-09-01

    Dr. George Lister of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center delivered the Lee E. Farr Lecture on Student Research Day on May 9, 2011. This day focused on the dissertation work of Yale School of Medicine MD students, whose research opportunities for prospective physicians were recently examined and critiqued by Yale's Committee to Promote Student Interest in Careers as Physician Scientists. Lister's talk served to highlight the importance of communication between the laboratory and the clinic in optimizing diagnostics and treatments, effectively affirming the validity of the Committee's objectives. Copyright © 2011.

  12. Children in Medical Research : Ethical challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Bos (Wendy)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPaediatric research ethics evolves around a central dilemma. Either one has to accept that many childhood diseases cannot be (properly) treated and that many children receive treatments that are not (properly) tested in children, or one has to accept that children, i.e. vulnerable

  13. The irradiation of volunteers in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, S.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to produce guidelines for use in medical research involving the irradiation of volunteers are surveyed. The recommendations of the British Institute of Radiology (Irradiation of Human Subjects for Medical Research, Bull. Brit. Radiology, 1975, vol.1, no.2, 4) are summarized. These recommendations, based on a preliminary working document produced by the World Health Organization, are considered in three parts, the selection of subjects, the categorisation and the approval of research projects. The importance of freely given and informed consent is emphasized. The suggested four categories of project are classified by the amount of total body radiation to be received by the subject in each project, and the necessary assessment and prior approval procedures are related to this classification. The imposition of a lifetime exposure limit is compared with occupational exposures which are assessed on an annual basis, and the ICRP's 'planned special exposures'. Repeated irradiation of the same subject, although permissible within the recommended limits, may create difficulties. The total lifetime accumulated dose may not always be immediately available if the subject has worked in a number of different establishments. The possibility of compiling an approved list of procedures to reduce some of the anticipated delays in processing applications is discussed. (author)

  14. Medical image of the week: moyamoya disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 52-year-old, right-handed, Caucasian woman with a history of hypertension and morbid obesity presented with acute onset of word-finding difficulty and slurred speech. Her medical and family history was negative for cerebral vascular event, coronary artery disease or smoking. Computed tomography of the patient's brain showed narrow caliber middle cerebral artery vasculature bilaterally. This abnormal finding prompted further investigation with cerebral angiogram. The angiogram showed bilateral high-grade stenosis of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries, worse on the left (Figure 1. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple left sided punctate infarcts in the frontal and parietal lobes (Figure 2. Diagnosis of ischemic stroke secondary to moyamoya disease was established. This patient was not a candidate for fibrinolytic therapy since it had been more than 4 hours from initial presentation. She was treated with aspirin, clopidogrel, and atorvastatin for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Two months after her discharge date, the patient …

  15. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-01-01

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  16. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    further investiga - tion to ascertain whether it is a stable deviation and whether it occurs sufficiently often to be of value in vaccine production...in Sa’de na Amazonia (ANEPS - Sio Paulo, Brazil) 1538 ( CISCv ACCISSION* I, r~v, OF lsu ASPOIT CO-TwOL ?NOOL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY WORK UNIT SUMMARY

  17. Phenomenography: A Missed Method in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assarroudi Abdolghader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research is an approach with which human beings can attempt to answer questions and discover the unknowns. Research methodology is something that is determined by the researcher’s attitude toward the universe as well as by the question he is trying to answer. Some essential questions regarding the research process are: “What is the nature of reality?”, “What is the nature of the relationship between the scholar and the subject of interest?”, and “How can one understand the subject, and what are the methods?”. Research approaches can be categorized as quantitative and qualitative. In the former, measurement, prediction, and control are the bases, while in the latter, exploring, describing, and explaining the phenomena are fundamental. Among qualitative research methods, phenomenography is one of the newest methods. However, in spite of proving to be useful in various disciplines, it has yet to become popular, and many scholars mistake it for phenomenology. The focus of phenomenography is on what is known as the second-order perspective and the different ways that people can experience the same phenomenon, while phenomenology primarily emphasizes the first-order perspective and the similar essences that are derived from various experiences. This article aims to provide a better understanding of phenomenography through explaining it and comparing it with phenomenology in order to facilitate its proper and timely application in medical studies.

  18. Medical management of motor manifestations of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Elizabeth A; Loy, Clement T

    2017-01-01

    The motor and movement disorders of Huntington disease (HD) are managed in the context of the other disease features. Chorea and dystonia are the most common HD-associated movement disorders, and they can be assessed on research rating scales. However other motor manifestations have a significant impact. In particular, dysphagia influences choice and tolerance of treatment for the movement disorder, as will comorbidities, patient awareness, and distress related to the motor feature or movement. Treatment for other disease features may aggravate the motor disorder, e.g., increased swallowing difficulty associated with antipsychotic agents. Basic principles in deciding to institute a treatment are outlined as well as treatment of specific motor manifestations and movements. There is a paucity of evidence to support the treatments available for the motor disorder, with only one agent with class 1 evidence, tetrabenazine, for chorea. There are, however, treatments informed by expert opinion which reflect the management of a wider HD phenotype than that represented in clinical trials. Some treatments are based on evidence from use in other conditions. Medical management is usually undertaken later in the disease with concurrent nonmedical interventions after multidisciplinary assessments. Medication review with HD progression is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. rising to the challenges ofscientific medical research and publication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest

    The aim of this presentation is to review the logical steps in scientific medical research, discuss ..... Despite the critical role of Scientific Medical .... association of resident doctors (ard); july 2004. ... Wilson Jr. E. B. Graduate Research: A guide.

  20. Psychotropic medication use among patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, Haley M; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2018-03-27

    Celiac disease is a multi-system disorder with manifestations that may result in psychiatric disorders. We assessed the prevalence of medication use to treat psychiatric disorders in celiac disease patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy over 9-years at a celiac disease referral center. We compared the prevalence of psychotropic medication use among celiac disease patients (n = 1293) to a control group (n = 1401) with abdominal pain or reflux. Among all patients the mean age was 48.4 years, most were female (69.5%), and 22.7% used any psychotropic medication. There was no difference between overall psychotropic medication use among celiac disease patients and controls (23.9% vs 21.8%, OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.96-1.39, p = 0.12). However, those with celiac disease were more likely to use antidepressants on univariate (16.4% vs 13.4%, p = 0.03) and multivariate analysis (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.03-1.59; p = 0.03). Use of psychotropic medications was not associated with disease duration or mode of presentation of celiac disease. Celiac disease patients use psychotropic medications at similar rates as those with other gastrointestinal diseases, though subgroup analysis suggests they may use more antidepressants. Future studies should investigate whether celiac disease is associated with mood disorders that are not treated with medications.

  1. [Tissue repositories for research at Sheba Medical Center(SMC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yehudit; Barshack, Iris; Onn, Amir

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death in both genders. Breakthroughs in the understanding of cancer biology, the identification of prognostic factors, and the development of new treatments are increasingly dependent on access to human cancer tissues with linked clinicopathological data. Access to human tumor samples and a large investment in translational research are needed to advance this research. The SMC tissue repositories provide researchers with biological materials, which are essential tools for cancer research. SMC tissue repositories for research aim to collect, document and preserve human biospecimens from patients with cancerous diseases. This is in order to provide the highest quality and well annotated biological biospecimens, used as essential tools to achieve the growing demands of scientific research needs. Such repositories are partners in acceLerating biomedical research and medical product development through clinical resources, in order to apply best options to the patients. Following Institutional Review Board approval and signing an Informed Consent Form, the tumor and tumor-free specimens are coLLected by a designated pathologist at the operating room only when there is a sufficient amount of the tumor, in excess of the routine needs. Blood samples are collected prior to the procedure. Other types of specimens collected include ascites fluid, pleural effusion, tissues for Optimal Cutting Temperature [OCT] and primary culture etc. Demographic, clinical, pathologicaL, and follow-up data are collected in a designated database. SMC has already established several organ or disease-specific tissue repositories within different departments. The foundation of tissue repositories requires the concentrated effort of a multidisciplinary team composed of paramedical, medical and scientific professionals. Research projects using these specimens facilitate the development of 'targeted therapy', accelerate basic research aimed at clarifying molecular

  2. Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Institutions started in late 19th and early 20th century included Plague laboratory, Nutrition Research Lab at Coonoor; Malaria Research Institute in Delhi; King Institute, Guindy; Central Research Institute, Kasauli; AIIH & PH at Kolkata.

  3. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support

  4. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  5. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  6. Perceptions of medication safety among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Garret

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards and knowledge of medication safety in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD patients frequently require long-term treatment with potentially toxic medications. Techniques are employed to improve patient awareness of medication safety, but there are sparse data on their effectiveness.

  7. Medical tourism market trends - an exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ile Florența Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is a modern concept, but not a new tourism practice. Even there is still no international consent on the definitions and measurement of this trend, its importance in the development of a tourism destination started to be taken into consideration. In accordance with tourism segment classification depending on journey reasons recommended by World Tourism Organization, one of the main groups is for “medical treatment/health”. Being part of health tourism, medical tourism is often called medical travel because it includes the act of travelling to different countries for medical reasons. An increasing significant element in medical service trade is patient circulation at cross-border level with a view to obtaining necessary health services; this circulation generated a new phenomenon, namely medical tourism. Studying the scientific literature we find new medical tourism trends in connection with globalization and liberalization. The countries that decided to promote this niche tourism are aware of the huge economic benefits brought by this. Analyzing published data by tourism medical organizations associated to indicators of economic development, we find two aspects: the success of a medical tourism destination is influenced by the economical level of the receiving countries, but, at the same time, it is also a growth factor for developing economies if it is included in their national strategy. We intend to find the answer of several questions: trends in medical tourism development are involving only medical service trade, or a combination of specific activities of many sectors? Is the medical tourism acting in favor of developing economies? This study aims to notice the development trends of the medical tourism based on the published figures and on the experience of major destinations and to highlight the importance of the medical tourism for the developing economies.

  8. Challenges and strategies of medication adherence in Parkinson's disease: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Young; Habermann, Barbara; Pretzer-Aboff, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about strategies used by people with Parkinson's disease (PD) to facilitate medication adherence in the U.S. The purpose of this study was to describe challenges in adherence to medication regimens and to identify strategies used to facilitate adherence to medication regimens. A qualitative research design was used to interview sixteen community-dwelling people with PD and five caregivers. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. The majority of the participants (81.3%) reported decreased adherence to medication regimens. Seven themes emerged from the data. The main challenges of medication adherence included medication responses, cost of medications, and forgetfulness. Strategies used to facilitate adherence to medication regimens included seeking knowledge about antiparkinsonian medications, seeking advice from family and friends, use of devices, and use of reminders. These findings may be important in formulating interventions to improve adherence to medication regimens for people living with PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic particles in medical research - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic (or magnetizable) particles have assumed increasing importance in medical and biological research since 1966 when the effect of a magnetic field on the movement of suspended particles was initially studied. In fields like haematology, cell biology, microbiology, biochemistry and immunoassays, they currently provide the basis for separation techniques, which previously relied on gravitational forces. The body cells (e.g., blood cells) can be made magnetic by incubating them in a medium containing several Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ particles, which are adsorbed to the membrane surfaces. Some bacteria (also called magnetostatic bacteria) respond to externally applied magnetic lines of force due to their intracellular magnetic particles. These properties are useful in the isolation of these cells/bacteria. In biochemistry magnetic particles are used to immobilize enzymes without any loss of enzyme activity. The immobilized enzymes can facilitate the separation of end products without extensive instrumentation. In immunoassays the antibodies are covalently linked to polymer coated iron oxide particles. An electromagnet is used to sediment these particles after reaction. This excludes the use of centrifuge to separate antigen-antibody complexes. In pharmacy and pharmacology the magnetic particles are important in drug transport. In techniques like ferrography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), spectroscopic studies and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the magnetic particles serve as contrast agents and give clinically important spatial resolution. Magnetic particles also find extensive applications in cancer therapy, genetic engineering, pneumology, nuclear medicine, radiology and many other fields. This article reviews these applications. (author)

  10. Public support for medical research in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P M

    2000-01-01

    Key public policies that have contributed to the rise of modern medical research in the 20th Century are reviewed, focusing especially on the United States and the post-World War II period. Drawing on this history, the question is posed: "Are these policies sufficient to insure vigorous medical research in the 21st Century?" Although radical policy changes are not needed, several proposals for policy and medical research portfolio redirection are offered, including a rebalancing of public supported research in all fields of science that contribute to medical advances. Medical research must also invest in a national and international information infrastructure that will allow the linking of researchers, clinical experimenters, practicing physicians, and the public in ways heretofore not imagined. Medical researchers must be leaders and advocates for the whole research enterprise in the 21st Century.

  11. Medical tourism market trends - an exploratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Ile Florența Larisa; Țigu Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Medical tourism is a modern concept, but not a new tourism practice. Even there is still no international consent on the definitions and measurement of this trend, its importance in the development of a tourism destination started to be taken into consideration. In accordance with tourism segment classification depending on journey reasons recommended by World Tourism Organization, one of the main groups is for “medical treatment/health”. Being part of health tourism, medical tourism is often...

  12. Photo-medical valley. 'Photo medical research center'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Daido, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    To develop a much more compact cancer diagnosis and therapeutic instrument using high intensity laser technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has successfully proposed this novel effort to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) program as the creation of a 'photo-medical industrial valley' base in 2007 fiscal year. In this report, a new laser techniques to drive controlled ion beams is described. It is very important approach to realize a laser-driven ion accelerator. (author)

  13. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications.

  14. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level 60 Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and 60 Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications

  15. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of all aspects of medicine (Basic and Clinical), Health Sciences, Nursing, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Medical Radiography and Rehabilitation, Pharmacy, Biomedical Engineering, etc. Articles with clinical interest and ...

  16. Medical Research Volunteer Program (MRVP): innovative program promoting undergraduate research in the medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Michael M; Atieh, Jessica A; Soubra, Marwa K; Khoury, Samia J; Tamim, Hani; Kaafarani, Bilal R

    2016-06-06

    Most educational institutions lack a structured system that provides undergraduate students with research exposure in the medical field. The objective of this paper is to describe the structure of the Medical Research Volunteer Program (MRVP) which was established at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, as well as to assess the success of the program. The MRVP is a program that targets undergraduate students interested in becoming involved in the medical research field early on in their academic career. It provides students with an active experience and the opportunity to learn from and support physicians, clinical researchers, basic science researchers and other health professionals. Through this program, students are assigned to researchers and become part of a research team where they observe and aid on a volunteer basis. This paper presents the MRVP's four major pillars: the students, the faculty members, the MRVP committee, and the online portal. Moreover, details of the MRVP process are provided. The success of the program was assessed by carrying out analyses using information gathered from the MRVP participants (both students and faculty). Satisfaction with the program was assessed using a set of questions rated on a Likert scale, ranging from 1 (lowest satisfaction) to 5 (highest satisfaction). A total of 211 students applied to the program with a total of 164 matches being completed. Since the beginning of the program, three students have each co-authored a publication in peer-reviewed journals with their respective faculty members. The majority of the students rated the program positively. Of the total number of students who completed the program period, 35.1 % rated the effectiveness of the program with a 5, 54.8 % rated 4, and 8.6 % rated 3. A small number of students gave lower ratings of 2 and 1 (1.1 % and 0.4 %, respectively). The MRVP is a program that provides undergraduate students with the opportunity to learn about research firsthand

  17. The anatomy of medical research: US and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Hamilton; Matheson, David H M; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; George, Benjamin P; Palisch, Chase; Dorsey, E Ray

    2015-01-13

    Medical research is a prerequisite of clinical advances, while health service research supports improved delivery, access, and cost. Few previous analyses have compared the United States with other developed countries. To quantify total public and private investment and personnel (economic inputs) and to evaluate resulting patents, publications, drug and device approvals, and value created (economic outputs). Publicly available data from 1994 to 2012 were compiled showing trends in US and international research funding, productivity, and disease burden by source and industry type. Patents and publications (1981-2011) were evaluated using citation rates and impact factors. (1) Reduced science investment: Total US funding increased 6% per year (1994-2004), but rate of growth declined to 0.8% per year (2004-2012), reaching $117 billion (4.5%) of total health care expenditures. Private sources increased from 46% (1994) to 58% (2012). Industry reduced early-stage research, favoring medical devices, bioengineered drugs, and late-stage clinical trials, particularly for cancer and rare diseases. National Insitutes of Health allocations correlate imperfectly with disease burden, with cancer and HIV/AIDS receiving disproportionate support. (2) Underfunding of service innovation: Health services research receives $5.0 billion (0.3% of total health care expenditures) or only 1/20th of science funding. Private insurers ranked last (0.04% of revenue) and health systems 19th (0.1% of revenue) among 22 industries in their investment in innovation. An increment of $8 billion to $15 billion yearly would occur if service firms were to reach median research and development funding. (3) Globalization: US government research funding declined from 57% (2004) to 50% (2012) of the global total, as did that of US companies (50% to 41%), with the total US (public plus private) share of global research funding declining from 57% to 44%. Asia, particularly China, tripled investment from $2

  18. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  19. Using mixed methods research in medical education: basic guidelines for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Reed, Virginia A

    2009-07-01

    Mixed methods research involves the collection, analysis and integration of both qualitative and quantitative data in a single study. The benefits of a mixed methods approach are particularly evident when studying new questions or complex initiatives and interactions, which is often the case in medical education research. Basic guidelines for when to use mixed methods research and how to design a mixed methods study in medical education research are not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to remedy that situation by providing an overview of mixed methods research, research design models relevant for medical education research, examples of each research design model in medical education research, and basic guidelines for medical education researchers interested in mixed methods research. Mixed methods may prove superior in increasing the integrity and applicability of findings when studying new or complex initiatives and interactions in medical education research. They deserve an increased presence and recognition in medical education research.

  20. [Problems of military medical examination of military servicemen suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapliuk, A L; Brovkin, S G; Kal'manov, A S; Bulavin, V V

    2015-02-01

    The authors showed that at the present time military much more servicemen, suffering from obstructive pulmonary disease, may receive medical examination in outpatient conditions. Series of researches allow us to perform a medical examination on an outpatient basis. The calculation of the cost-effectiveness of health services to such patients during a military medical examination in the hospital and clinics was made. Savings during the examination in the clinic for 1 patient was 2829 rubbles.

  1. AACE/ACE Disease State Clinical Review: Medical Management of Cushing Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrahian, Amir H; Yuen, Kevin C J; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2014-07-01

    To review available medical therapies for patients with Cushing disease and to provide a roadmap for their use in clinical practice. PubMed searches were performed to identify all of the available published data on medical management of Cushing disease. Medical therapy is usually not the first-line treatment for patients with Cushing disease but may be used to improve clinical manifestations of Cushing disease in patients who are not suitable candidates for surgery, following unsuccessful surgery or recurrence, or as a "bridge therapy" in those who have undergone radiotherapy. Medical therapy may also be used in preoperative preparation of patients with severe disease. Current available medical options for patients with Cushing disease include centrally acting agents, steroidogenesis inhibitors, and a glucocorticoid receptor antagonists. At present, there are no head-to-head studies comparing the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of different U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)- and non-FDA-approved drugs in patients with Cushing disease. With the initiation of new studies and the completion of ongoing clinical trials, the number of FDA-approved drugs for medical treatment of Cushing disease is expected to increase. Medical therapy has an important adjunctive role in the management of patients with Cushing disease. The decision to initiate medical treatment depends on many factors, including patient characteristics and preference. Long-term studies are needed to better define the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of medical treatment of Cushing disease, including the role of combination therapies.

  2. Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the "March of Dimes." It helped develop two vaccines. The first, by Dr. Jonas Salk at the University of Pittsburgh, in 1955, and the second, in 1962, by Dr. Albert Sabin, at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center – have ...

  3. Procedures for the medical application of research reactors (Appendix)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, H.; Kanda, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is one of the four research reactors in Japan that are currently licensed for medical application, in addition to other research purposes. Taking the KUR as an example, legal and other procedures for using research reactors for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are described, which are practiced in accordance with the 'Provisional Guideline Pertaining to Medical Irradiation by Accelerators and/or Reactors, other than defined by the Medical Service Act' of the Science Council of Japan

  4. [Concept analysis of medication adherence in patients with chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ying; Chen, Hsing-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy plays an important role in the management of chronic diseases. However, many patients with chronic disease do not adhere to their medication regimen. This results in worsening symptoms and frequent re-hospitalizations. As a result, healthcare providers may view these patients as bad. Medication adherence is a complex concept. Analyzing this concept may assist nurses to improve patient-centered care. This paper uses Walker & Avant's method to conduct a concept analysis of medication adherence. Results show the defining attributes of medication adherence as: (1) knowing and agreeing to the medication; (2) communicating and negotiating the regimen; and (3) active, continuous involvement in and appraisal of the treatment effect. Identified antecedents of medication adherence included the patient having: (1) a prescribed medication regimen; (2) cognitive and action abilities in her / his role as a patient; and (3) level of preparation for medication treatment. Identified consequences of medication adherence include: (1) improving symptom control; (2) decreasing re-hospitalizations and mortality; (3) reducing medical care costs; (4) restoring self-esteem; and (5) diminishing depression. It is hoped that this concept analysis provides a reference for nurses to achieve a better understanding of medication adherence and further improve nursing practice.

  5. Medical treatment of Cushing disease: new targets, new hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleseriu, Maria

    2015-03-01

    This article provides an update on current medical therapies for the treatment of Cushing disease. This information will be of value in determining patients' suitability for certain medical treatments. An approach of combining drugs from the same or different classes could potentially increase the number of patients in whom Cushing can be controlled while minimizing adverse effects, although larger studies are needed. Successful clinical management of patients with Cushing disease remains a challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Medication Impairs Probabilistic Classification Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Marjan; Wilkinson, Leonora; Gahir, Harpreet; Dharminda, Angeline; Lagnado, David A.

    2010-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), it is possible that tonic increase of dopamine associated with levodopa medication overshadows phasic release of dopamine, which is essential for learning. Thus while the motor symptoms of PD are improved with levodopa medication, learning would be disrupted. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of…

  7. [Research funding for rare diseases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Frank; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2017-05-01

    There is high need for more research in the field of rare diseases. Not only must the causes and mechanisms of the numerous and often heterogeneous diseases be delineated, but criteria must also be defined for optimal stratification of patients for individualized therapies. In this context, research and innovative diagnostics are linked together more closely than in other fields of medicine. The early stages of disease-oriented research can be performed in individual institutions but, due to low numbers of patients, late translation and transfer into clinics requires multicentric and international collaboration. In Germany research on rare diseases takes place mostly in faculties of medicine at universities. Since the institutional financial support is very low, research grants have substantial significance. The German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are the main grant agencies for national projects, but foundations and patient advocacy groups also finance research to a certain extent. The ERA-Net "E-Rare" and the programs of the EU target primarily international cross-border projects and patient trials. All of these programs need to be adapted more efficiently to the particular needs of rare disease research. For national and international research projects on rare diseases, sufficient funds are needed but also sustainable interdisciplinary platforms and centers must be established in order to share expert knowledge and to implement complex programs such as proof-of-concept studies in humans.

  8. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies

  9. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  10. Big biomedical data and cardiovascular disease research: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; Morley, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs), data generated and collected during normal clinical care, are increasingly being linked and used for translational cardiovascular disease research. Electronic health record data can be structured (e.g. coded diagnoses) or unstructured (e.g. clinical notes) and increasingly encapsulate medical imaging, genomic and patient-generated information. Large-scale EHR linkages enable researchers to conduct high-resolution observational and interventional clinical research at an unprecedented scale. A significant amount of preparatory work and research, however, is required to identify, obtain, and transform raw EHR data into research-ready variables that can be statistically analysed. This study critically reviews the opportunities and challenges that EHR data present in the field of cardiovascular disease clinical research and provides a series of recommendations for advancing and facilitating EHR research.

  11. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  12. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa ... of research studies that do not conform with international ethical standards and ... Journal articles ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science ...

  13. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publication of Research Article: An Art or Science? ... for the relative importance of a journal, is now being considered a misleading tool in assessing ... should be kept in mind before manuscript preparation and submission, so that our research

  14. Getting started on your research: practical advice for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Ronald J

    2010-10-01

    Guidance and mentorship benefit faculty who having little or no background conducting research in medical education. From his experience the author suggests three characteristics that distinguish medical educators who are especially productive in their scholarly activities: intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivation, collaboration with colleagues, and the personal qualities of patience and organization. He then expands on these characteristics by offering practical advice in the form of eight tips for faculty seeking to acquire or improve their medical education research skills.

  15. The qualitative orientation in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer Anne

    2017-06-01

    Qualitative research is very important in educational research as it addresses the "how" and "why" research questions and enables deeper understanding of experiences, phenomena and context. Qualitative research allows you to ask questions that cannot be easily put into numbers to understand human experience. Getting at the everyday realities of some social phenomenon and studying important questions as they are really practiced helps extend knowledge and understanding. To do so, you need to understand the philosophical stance of qualitative research and work from this to develop the research question, study design, data collection methods and data analysis. In this article, I provide an overview of the assumptions underlying qualitative research and the role of the researcher in the qualitative process. I then go on to discuss the type of research objectives which are common in qualitative research, then introduce the main qualitative designs, data collection tools, and finally the basics of qualitative analysis. I introduce the criteria by which you can judge the quality of qualitative research. Many classic references are cited in this article, and I urge you to seek out some of these further reading to inform your qualitative research program.

  16. Ireland and medical research with minors: some medico-legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Asim A

    2008-07-01

    The practice of medical research with minors in Ireland consist of practices pertaining to therapeutic and non-therapeutic medical research. Clinical trials (a category of therapeutic research), is governed by legislation. However, any other therapeutic research (non-clinical trials research) and non-therapeutic research, e.g. observational medical research such as a longitudinal study of children or non-therapeutic research such as blood sample collection for analysis of cause of disease, are unregulated by legislation. This, article will outline and describe some of the medico-legal issues involved in both types of research and will comment on matters such as what national law exists, how the directive on good clinical practice has been implemented, what guidelines, if any, exist.

  17. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies

  18. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1981-08-01

    The research during 1980 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Research related to nuclear energy includes the delineation, in the beagle, of the responses to continuous low level 60 Co gamma radiation and the development of cellular indicators of preclinical phases of leukemia; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and 60 Co gamma radiation; studies of the genetic effects of high LET radiations; and studies of the gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements. Research related to nonuclear energy sources deals with characterization and toxicological evaluation of process streams and effluents of coal gasification; with electrical storage systems; and electric fields associated with energy transmission. Proteins in human urine and selected tissues are examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis to detect disease and pollutant related changes. Assessment of human risk associated with nuclearing collective dose commitment will result in more attention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  19. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  20. Does India perform medical research in areas where it is most needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to map medical research in India and answer an important policy question by literature analysis. I match the disease pattern on the basis of mortality and morbidity statistics with journals used by Indian medical researchers to publish their work as shown by the Science Citation Index (SCI). The former reflects the needs while the latter reflects the areas in which research is being done. The limited statistics available from both the Government of India and the World Health Organization point to diarrhoeal diseases, diseases of children, respiratory diseases, circulatory system diseases, infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis as the major medical problems faced by India. The journals used often by Indian medical researchers to publish their work, as seen from the SCI (1981-85), show that in terms of number of publications, they are mainly active in general medicine, pharmacology, tropical medicine, neurosciences, radiology, oncology and pathology. In terms of the share of the world's literature in different subfields, India is second only to USA in andrology, third in tropical medicine after the USA and the UK, tenth in hygiene and public health, and eleventh in general and internal medicine, and radiology and nuclear medicine. Overall, India's share in the medical journal literature is not only much less than that of many other countries, both advanced and middle level, but also much less than that of India's share of the literature in physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering. Data on the observed citation impact of Indian research in different subfields of medicine show that the work done in India in general is not integrated well into international research. India could be much more purposive in her research priorities and probably should invest much more in medical research.

  1. Medical Treatment of Diverticular Disease: Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lué, Alberto; Laredo, Viviana; Lanas, Angel

    2016-10-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) of the colon represents the most common disease affecting the large bowel in western countries. Its prevalence is increasing. Recent studies suggest that changes in gut microbiota could contribute to development of symptoms and complication. For this reason antibiotics play a key role in the management of both uncomplicated and complicated DD. Rifaximin has demonstrated to be effective in obtaining symptoms relief at 1 year in patients with uncomplicated DD and to improve symptoms and maintain periods of remission following acute colonic diverticulitis (AD). Despite absence of data that supports the routine use of antibiotic in uncomplicated AD, they are recommended in selected patients. In patients with AD that develop an abscess, conservative treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics is successful in up to 70% of cases. In patients on conservative treatment where percutaneous drainage fails or peritonitis develops, surgery is considered the standard therapy. In conclusion antibiotics seem to remain the mainstay of treatment in symptomatic uncomplicated DD and AD. Inpatient management and intravenous antibiotics are necessary in complicated AD, while outpatient management is considered the best strategy in the majority of uncomplicated patients.

  2. Subclinical Thyroid Diseases | Chuhwak | Highland Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doi.org/10.4314/hmrj.v5i1.33914 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER ...

  3. Annual Progress Report (SEATO Medical Research Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Vibrio porahemolyticus Infection in Thailand . 105 Cholera Study at Samutsongkram . . . . .. 110 Detection of Specific Bacterial Antigen by...Honorasethkul, M.D.’ Assistant Investigators: Chetana Malphoom’ Chanpen Srimunta OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical pattern of V. parahemolyticus ... parahemolyticus was a major cause of gastroenteritls in adults In Bangkok (1). At the Bumrasnaradura Infectious Disease Hospital, located in Nonthaburi, this

  4. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.

  5. The bibliometric behaviour of an expanding specialisation of medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelwall, M.; Levitt, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates macular disease research and cataract research, which are both specialisations of Ophthalmology. Macular disease and cataracts are amongst the three leading causes of blindness in the world. Macular research expanded between 1992 and 2006 in that the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as macular increased by over 300% in that period. By contrast, during that same period the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as ‘cataract’ decreased by over 20%. This study investigates the bibliometric differences between the rapidly expanding specialisation of ‘macular’ and the slightly contracting specialisation of ‘cataract’. Our rationale for investigating these bibliometric differences is that previous researchers have suggested that articles in expanding specialisations are likely to be more highly cited than articles in relatively static specialisations, and it seems important, when comparing specialisations, to try to ensure that articles in a relatively static specialisation are not penalised. This study first identifies substantial macro-level bibliometric differences between the two specialisations and then gauges the extent to which these differences were associated with the expansion of Macular compared with Cataract. The initial investigation uses coarse-grained delineations of the specialisation, formed from search terms frequently associated with macular (and cataract). It finds that articles in the relatively expanding specialisation were substantially more highly cited and that these differences were associated with the expansion of the specialisation rather than the size of the specialisation (the Matthew effect). A major limitation of this study is that its coarse-grained delineation of specialisations fails to identify substantial numbers of articles in the specialisation. A more fine-grained delineation using PubMed’s Medical Subject Headings (MESH) has been piloted and additional articles

  6. Conducting Quantitative Medical Education Research: From Design to Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Erika L; Paul, Caroline R; Petershack, Jean; Serwint, Janet; Fischel, Janet E; Rocha, Mary; Treitz, Meghan; McPhillips, Heather; Lockspeiser, Tai; Hicks, Patricia; Tewksbury, Linda; Vasquez, Margarita; Tancredi, Daniel J; Li, Su-Ting T

    2018-03-01

    Rigorous medical education research is critical to effectively develop and evaluate the training we provide our learners. Yet many clinical medical educators lack the training and skills needed to conduct high-quality medical education research. We offer guidance on conducting sound quantitative medical education research. Our aim is to equip readers with the key skills and strategies necessary to conduct successful research projects, highlighting new concepts and controversies in the field. We utilize Glassick's criteria for scholarship as a framework to discuss strategies to ensure that the research question of interest is worthy of further study and how to use existing literature and conceptual frameworks to strengthen a research study. Through discussions of the strengths and limitations of commonly used study designs, we expose the reader to particular nuances of these decisions in medical education research and discuss outcomes generally focused on, as well as strategies for determining the significance of consequent findings. We conclude with information on critiquing research findings and preparing results for dissemination to a broad audience. Practical planning worksheets and comprehensive tables illustrating key concepts are provided in order to guide researchers through each step of the process. Medical education research provides wonderful opportunities to improve how we teach our learners, to satisfy our own intellectual curiosity, and ultimately to enhance the care provided to patients. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [The notion of occupational skin disease. Medical and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, P; Schliemann, S

    2015-03-01

    The different definitions of skin disease in medicine and in law are frequently confusing for dermatologists. While a skin disease may be defined medically referring to the definition of health by the WHO as a pathological condition of the skin leading to a disruption of the physical, mental and social well-being of the individual, legal definitions vary depending on the field of insurance law that is referred to. In the law of private health insurance, a skin disease is defined as an anomalous condition of the skin requiring medical treatment that exists independently of the subjective judgement of the insured person and needs to be objectively confirmed by a medical evaluation. In contrast, in the law of the social health insurance, the Federal Court of Social Justice defines disease as irregular physical or mental condition, deviating from the perception of a healthy human being that requires medical treatment or leads to inability to work. Substantial bodily disfigurement may be regarded as an irregular physical condition. In the law of the statutory accident insurance, occupational skin diseases are defined under clause 5101 of the occupational disease regulation as serious or repeatedly relapsing skin diseases that have forced a person to refrain from any work activities causal for the development, the aggravation or the recurrence of the disease. The Federal Court of Social Justice interprets the term "skin disease" from the protective purpose of the law, i.e. the protection against the economic and health consequences of the exposure to harmful agents and a thereby forced change of profession. This broad interpretation of the term "skin disease" leads to the recognition of diseases of the conjunctiva of the eye or diseases of the blood vessels of the skin due to cold damage as skin diseases according to clause 5101. For the correct treatment and possibly notification of occupational skin diseases in collaboration with various insurance carriers

  8. Medical Toxicology and Public Health-Update on Research and Activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry : Environmental Exposures among Arctic Populations: The Maternal Organics Monitoring Study in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mehruba; Ridpath, Alison; Berner, James; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research.

  9. Research of Medication Use during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Research Findings by Health Condition Multimedia & Tools Posters and Fact Sheets 3 Things to Discuss with ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  10. Nuclear medical approaches to clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, Andreas; Nguyen, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of the master course Clinical research management at the scientific college Lahr in cooperation with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg three contributions are presented: Functional imaging - supported clinical studies in the sleep research. A comparison of NMR imaging versus SPECT and PET (advantages and disadvantages). Clinical studies with ionizing radiation and the radiation fear of the public. The new radioimmunotherapeutic agent Zevalin and the challenges at the market.

  11. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    312 26.5 182 58.3 76 41.8 12 15.8 Contusion of bone or joint 454 4.4 82 18.1 52 63.4 35 67.3 7 20.0 Condition that requires frequent treatment 426...13 14.8 10 76.9 4 40.0 0 0.0 Surgical correction for GERD 75 0.7 31 41.3 22 71.0 11 50.0 1 9.1 Hypothyroidism 62 0.6 15 24.2 8 53.3 1 12.5 1 100.0...preceding 2 years while off all medications for treatment of this condition. Recurrent loss of consciousness for any reason. Seizure Any

  12. Fraud and Misconduct in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghtaderi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last year we had observed different types of misconduct in the submitted manuscripts into the editorial office. Those are included attempted theft of data, presence of ghost authors, gift authorship, dual submissions, salami publications, falsification and some other types of fraud. Our analysis in the editorial office led us to conclude that research fraud is an important issue and should be discussed clearly. The emphasis on competition and pressure to produce published materials, while internal intention to discover the scientific truth may foster a conflict between personal career goals and human intellectual motivation; finally may induce research misconduct. Having accurate and good knowledge in this field is mandatory for researchers especially the younger ones. In the first part of this article we will discuss a short but important part of the history of this problem and in the second part definition and editorial response will be reviewed

  13. Should Research be Made Compulsory in Medical School?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Varshil

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthcare decision-making is mostly reliant on evidence–based medicine. Building and upgrading skills in scientific reasoning and thinking amongst medical students has now became an important part of medical education. But due to unforeseen reasons, medical students in developing countries have no or very little opportunities to develop research skills and become evidence based physician-scientist. Moreover, there is also an alarming decline in the current number of physician-sc...

  14. Highland Medical Research Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  15. Tropical Journal of Medical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  16. Ethics and epidemiological research | Cullinan | Malawi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Ethics and epidemiological research. T Cullinan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  17. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.

  18. Teaching in Medical Education | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many postdoctoral fellows are considering an academic career at a medical school. In addition to conducting research, new faculty members must learn effective teaching methodologies. This course will focus on good teaching practices, including basic strategies for developing and organizing a course. The purpose of the "Teaching in Medical Education (TIME)" course is to

  19. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  20. Statistical Problems In Medical Research | Okeh | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the main role of a general practitioner as a biostatistician, I thought it would be of interest to enumerate statistical problems in assessing methods of medical diagnosis in general terms. In conducting and reporting of medical research, there are some common problems in using statistical methodology which may result ...

  1. [Classical medications in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvnjak, Marko; Bilić, Ante; Barsić, Neven; Tomasić, Vedran; Stojsavljević, Sanja

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases is complex and requires individual approach to every single patient. Traditionally, the approach is based on introduction of so called "classical" medication into the treatment regimen, from ones less potent and with fewer side effects to the ones more toxic but also therapeutically more effective. Aminosalicylates were the first choice of treatment for a long time. However, the role of aminosalicylates is becoming more and more diminished, although they are still the drug of choice in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Corticosteroids are the therapy of choice in treatment of active IBD for achieving remission in moderate to severe disease. Azathioprine and 6- mercaptopurine belong to a group of thiopurines with an immunomodulatory effect which, in Crohn's disease as well as in ulcerative colitis, primarily have a role in a steroid dependant or steroid refractory type of disease and in maintenance of remission. Lately, early introduction of these medications is proposed to enhance the number of patients that remain in remission. Methotrexate is used for the therapy of active and relapsing Crohn's disease and represents an alternative in patients who do not tolerate or do not respond to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine therapy. Cyclosporine is used in treating steroid refractory ulcerative colitis and in some patients can postpone the need for colectomy. Antibiotics do not have a proven effect on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases and their primary role is to treat septic complications. Classic medications today represent a standard in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, and the combination of the previously mentioned drugs often has a more potent effect on the course of the disease than any medication on its own and their combination is still an object of investigations and clinical studies.

  2. Medical waste tissues - breathing life back into respiratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BéruBé, Kelly A

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of biobanks to store human lung cells and tissues from patient donations and from the procurement of medical waste tissues, it is now possible to integrate (both spatially and temporally) cells into anatomically-correct and physiologically-functional tissues. Modern inhalation toxicology relies on human data on exposure and adverse effects, to determine the most appropriate risk assessments and mitigations for beneficial respiratory health. A point in case is the recapitulation of airway tissue, such as the bronchial epithelium, to investigate the impact of air pollution on human respiratory health. The bronchi are the first point of contact for inhaled substances that bypass defences in the upper respiratory tract. Animal models have been used to resolve such inhalation toxicology hazards. However, the access to medical waste tissues has enabled the Lung Particle Research Group to tissue-engineer the Micro-Lung (TM) and Metabo-Lung(TM) cell culture models, as alternatives to animals in basic research and in the safety testing of aerosolised consumer goods. The former model favours investigations focused on lung injury and repair mechanisms, and the latter model provides the element of metabolism, through the co-culturing of lung and liver (hepatocyte) cells. These innovations represent examples of the animal-free alternatives advocated by the 21st century toxicology paradigm, whereby human-derived cell/tissue data will lead to more-accurate and more-reliable public health risk assessments and therapeutic mitigations (e.g. exposure to ambient air pollutants and adverse drug reactions) for lung disease. 2013 FRAME.

  3. Air medical transport personnel experiences with and opinions about research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jolene; Thomas, Frank; Carpenter, Judi; Handrahan, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined air medical transport (AMT) personnel's experiences with and opinions about prehospital and AMT research. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to eight randomly selected AMT programs from each of six Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS) regions. Responders were defined by university association (UA) and AMT professional role. Forty-eight of 54 (89%) contacted programs and 536 of 1,282 (42%) individuals responded. Non-UA responders (74%) had significantly more work experience in emergency medical services (EMS) (13.5 +/- 8.5 vs. 10.8 +/- 8.3 years, P = .002) and AMT (8.3 +/- 6.3 vs. 6.8 +/- 5.7 years, P = .008), whereas UA responders (26%) had more research training (51% vs. 37%, P = .006), experience (79% vs. 59%, P < .001), and grants (7% vs. 2%, P = .006). By AMT role, administrators had the most work experience, and physicians had the most research experience. Research productivity of responders was low, with only 9% having presented and 10% having published research; and UA made no difference in productivity. A majority of responders advocated research: EMS (66%) and AMT (68%), program (53%). Willingness to participate in research was high for both EMS research (87%) and AMT research (92%). Although AMT personnel were strong advocates of and willing to participate in research, few had research knowledge. For AMT personnel, disparity exists between advocating for and producing research. Copyright 2010 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research: Submissions ... can be found on the journal's own website here http://www.amhsr.org/contributors.asp ... The Journal, however, grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right ...

  5. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Improving medical research rigor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov's home page, then, click on 'understanding medical research (National Library of Medicine).' Before I go, this reminder... MedlinePlus.gov is authoritative. It's free. We do not accept advertising .... and is written to help you. To find ...

  6. What do medical students understand by research and research skills? Identifying research opportunities within undergraduate projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah; Drewery, Sarah; Elton, Sarah; Emmerson, Catherine; Marshall, Michelle; Smith, John A; Stark, Patsy; Whittle, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research exposure leads to increased recruitment into academic medicine, enhanced employability and improved postgraduate research productivity. Uptake of undergraduate research opportunities is reported to be disappointing, and little is known about how students perceive research. To investigate opportunities for undergraduate participation in research, recognition of such opportunities, and associated skills development. A mixed method approach, incorporating student focus and study groups, and documentary analysis at five UK medical schools. Undergraduates recognised the benefits of acquiring research skills, but identified practical difficulties and disadvantages of participating. Analysis of 905 projects in four main research skill areas - (1) research methods; (2) information gathering; (3) critical analysis and review; (4) data processing - indicated 52% of projects provided opportunities for students to develop one or more skills, only 13% offered development in all areas. In 17%, project descriptions provided insufficient information to determine opportunities. Supplied with information from a representative sample of projects (n = 80), there was little consensus in identifying skills among students or between students and researchers. Consensus improved dramatically following guidance on how to identify skills. Undergraduates recognise the benefits of research experience but need a realistic understanding of the research process. Opportunities for research skill development may not be obvious. Undergraduates require training to recognise the skills required for research and enhanced transparency in potential project outcomes.

  7. Awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease among medical interns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Gur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical curriculum does not provide required space for oral health; hence, many medical interns are unfamiliar with the oral cavity and oral health research. Aims: To study the level of awareness regarding systemic effects of periodontal disease among medical interns. Settings and design: A cross-sectional qualitative study recruiting medical interns from two medical institutions affiliated to two different universities in Southern India. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out in two medical institutions affiliated to two different universities in Southern India. A total of 143 interns participated in the study. Each participant was given a self-administered, pre-tested, multiple choice question-type questionnaire to solve on the spot. In order to summarise the awareness level, respondents were graded on a five-level scale as poor, fair, good, very good, and excellent. Statistical analysis used: Percentages, proportions. Results: A total of 67 respondents (47% had fair; 60(42%, poor; and 18(11%, good level of awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease. Only 23(16%, 17(12%, 12(8%, 6(4% and 4(3% respondents were aware that the periodontal disease may be the possible risk factor for coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction, diabetes mellitus, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and preterm labour (low birth-weight infants, respectively. Only 12 respondents (8% would seek dentist′s opinion for all patients with systemic diseases related to dental disease. Conclusions: Medical interns had inadequate awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease. Therefore, an integrated teaching of medical and dental sciences is recommended.

  8. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    situations. The Ethics Committees' approval of the trial justified by their competence and authority, combined with the NOK´s insight into the patient's wishes may be a relevant and feasible alternative to the current consent procedure. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Regional Development......INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  9. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT During this reporting period, the NRC promoted research opportunities at AMRMC institutes through a... productivity of these Associates is listed in the technical report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS- Associateship program, post-doc, awards 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...following activities in support of the subject contract: Outreach and Promotion The promotional schedule to advertise the NRC Research Associateship

  10. Baseline Geochemical Data for Medical Researchers in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.

    2017-12-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, Kentucky has the highest cancer incidence and death rates in the country. New efforts by geochemists and medical researchers are examining ways to diagnose the origin and sources of carcinogenesis. In an effort to determine if naturally occurring geochemical or mineral elements contributes to the cancer causation, the Kentucky Geological Survey has established a Minerals and Geochemical Database that is available to medical researchers for examination of baseline geochemistry and determine if naturally occurring mineral or chemical elements contribute to the high rate of cancers in the state. Cancer causation is complex, so if natural sources can be accounted for, then researchers can focus on the true causation. Naturally occurring minerals, metals and elements occur in many parts of the state, and their presence is valuable for evaluating causation. For example, some data in the database contain maps showing (a) statewide elemental geochemistry, (b) areas of black shale oxidation occurrence, which releases metals in soil and surface waters, (c) some clay deposits in the state that can contain high content of rare earth elements, and (d) site-specific uranium occurrences. Knowing the locations of major ore deposits in the state can also provide information related to mineral and chemical anomalies, such as for base metals and mercury. Radionuclide data in soil and water analyses are limited, so future research may involve obtaining more analyses to determine radon potential. This database also contains information on faulting and geology in the state. Although the metals content of trees may not seem relevant, the ash and humus content of degraded trees affects soil, stream sediment and water geochemistry. Many rural homes heat with wood, releasing metals into the surrounding biosphere. Stressed vegetation techniques can be used to explore for ore deposits and look for high metal contents in soils and rocks. These

  11. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present

  12. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  13. Disease management research using event graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allore, H G; Schruben, L W

    2000-08-01

    Event Graphs, conditional representations of stochastic relationships between discrete events, simulate disease dynamics. In this paper, we demonstrate how Event Graphs, at an appropriate abstraction level, also extend and organize scientific knowledge about diseases. They can identify promising treatment strategies and directions for further research and provide enough detail for testing combinations of new medicines and interventions. Event Graphs can be enriched to incorporate and validate data and test new theories to reflect an expanding dynamic scientific knowledge base and establish performance criteria for the economic viability of new treatments. To illustrate, an Event Graph is developed for mastitis, a costly dairy cattle disease, for which extensive scientific literature exists. With only a modest amount of imagination, the methodology presented here can be seen to apply modeling to any disease, human, plant, or animal. The Event Graph simulation presented here is currently being used in research and in a new veterinary epidemiology course. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Quality of medical management in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shammeri, Owayed; Stafford, Randall S; Alzenaidi, Ahlam; Al-Hutaly, Bushra; Abdulmonem, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are at high risk of recurrent adverse cardiac events. Such risk can be diminished through a guideline-recommend optimal medical therapy (OMT), defined as adherence to appropriate antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering agents, beta-blockers and angio.tensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, blood pressure investment in strategies to achieve OMT in these high-risk patients.

  15. Data repositories for medical education research: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan; Pappas, Cleo; Sandlow, Leslie J

    2010-05-01

    The authors explore issues surrounding digital repositories with the twofold intention of clarifying their creation, structure, content, and use, and considering the implementation of a global digital repository for medical education research data sets-an online site where medical education researchers would be encouraged to deposit their data in order to facilitate the reuse and reanalysis of the data by other researchers. By motivating data sharing and reuse, investigators, medical schools, and other stakeholders might see substantial benefits to their own endeavors and to the progress of the field of medical education.The authors review digital repositories in medicine, social sciences, and education, describe the contents and scope of repositories, and present extant examples. The authors describe the potential benefits of a medical education data repository and report results of a survey of the Society for Directors of Research in Medicine Education, in which participants responded to questions about data sharing and a potential data repository. Respondents strongly endorsed data sharing, with the caveat that principal investigators should choose whether or not to share data they collect. A large majority believed that a repository would benefit their unit and the field of medical education. Few reported using existing repositories. Finally, the authors consider challenges to the establishment of such a repository, including taxonomic organization, intellectual property concerns, human subjects protection, technological infrastructure, and evaluation standards. The authors conclude with recommendations for how a medical education data repository could be successfully developed.

  16. Progress of Iran in Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Massarrat, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

     The indexed Iranian journals in ISI and PubMed at the end of 2012 with known impact factor (IF) were evaluated with regard to the number of articles published in 2010-2012, the number of citations by authors from inside and outside Iran, their IF as well as their ranking order among all other journals in their specialized categories. There were among 130 English journals, 21 indexed with known IF. The mean IF of these journals increased from 0.4 in 2010 to 0.68 in 2012. The number of citations per article by authors from outside Iran increased from 0.19 to 0.49 during the same time period. The rank of the majority of the indexed journals was in the lowest 20% of their category. Although some improvement has been observed in the quality and the number of citations of Iranian journals indexed in ISI during these two years, the quality of the manuscripts remains low. A reduction in the number of journals, a change of their structure as well as more financial resources for research is necessary for the improvement of the quality and better rank and status of Iranian science among an international audience.

  17. Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kölsch Heike

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reporting bias represents a major problem in the assessment of health care interventions. Several prominent cases have been described in the literature, for example, in the reporting of trials of antidepressants, Class I anti-arrhythmic drugs, and selective COX-2 inhibitors. The aim of this narrative review is to gain an overview of reporting bias in the medical literature, focussing on publication bias and selective outcome reporting. We explore whether these types of bias have been shown in areas beyond the well-known cases noted above, in order to gain an impression of how widespread the problem is. For this purpose, we screened relevant articles on reporting bias that had previously been obtained by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in the context of its health technology assessment reports and other research work, together with the reference lists of these articles. We identified reporting bias in 40 indications comprising around 50 different pharmacological, surgical (e.g. vacuum-assisted closure therapy, diagnostic (e.g. ultrasound, and preventive (e.g. cancer vaccines interventions. Regarding pharmacological interventions, cases of reporting bias were, for example, identified in the treatment of the following conditions: depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, pain, migraine, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence, atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolaemia, thyroid disorders, menopausal symptoms, various types of cancer (e.g. ovarian cancer and melanoma, various types of infections (e.g. HIV, influenza and Hepatitis B, and acute trauma. Many cases involved the withholding of study data by manufacturers and regulatory agencies or the active attempt by manufacturers to suppress publication. The ascertained effects of reporting bias included the

  18. International travel as medical research: architecture and the modern hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cameron; Willis, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The design and development of the modern hospital in Australia had a profound impact on medical practice and research at a variety of levels. Between the late 1920s and the 1950s hospital architects, administrators, and politicians travelled widely in order to review the latest international developments in the hospital field They were motivated by Australia's geographic isolation and a growing concern with how to govern the population at the level of physical health. While not 'medical research' in the conventional sense of the term, this travel was a powerful generator of medical thinking in Australia and has left a rich archival legacy. This paper draws on that archive to demonstrate the ways in which architectural research and international networks of hospital specialists profoundly shaped the provision of medical infrastructure in Australia.

  19. Intelligence system based classification approach for medical disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir, Abdu Masanawa; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of breast cancer in women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease as well as survivability after undergone certain surgery has been a challenging problem for medical researchers. The decision about presence or absence of diseases depends on the physician's intuition, experience and skill for comparing current indicators with previous one than on knowledge rich data hidden in a database. This measure is a very crucial and challenging task. The goal is to predict patient condition by using an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) pre-processed by grid partitioning. To achieve an accurate diagnosis at this complex stage of symptom analysis, the physician may need efficient diagnosis system. A framework describes methodology for designing and evaluation of classification performances of two discrete ANFIS systems of hybrid learning algorithms least square estimates with Modified Levenberg-Marquardt and Gradient descent algorithms that can be used by physicians to accelerate diagnosis process. The proposed method's performance was evaluated based on training and test datasets with mammographic mass and Haberman's survival Datasets obtained from benchmarked datasets of University of California at Irvine's (UCI) machine learning repository. The robustness of the performance measuring total accuracy, sensitivity and specificity is examined. In comparison, the proposed method achieves superior performance when compared to conventional ANFIS based gradient descent algorithm and some related existing methods. The software used for the implementation is MATLAB R2014a (version 8.3) and executed in PC Intel Pentium IV E7400 processor with 2.80 GHz speed and 2.0 GB of RAM.

  20. Disease Advocacy Organizations Catalyze Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fontaine Terry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease advocacy organizations have long played an important role in the continuum from basic science to therapy development in rare disease research. PXE International has sometimes led the field in innovative ways, venturing into specific activities that have traditionally been conducted by scientists. As lay founders, we have engaged in gene discovery, gene patenting, diagnostic development, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and therapy research and development. This article will describe the steps that we took, and the ways in which we have scaled these efforts for the larger community.

  1. Living with Parkinson's disease: priorities for research suggested by patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, K; Dauwerse, L; Hendrikx, A; Leedekerken, J W; Abma, T A

    2014-08-01

    To describe a study in which patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were engaged to list priorities for research to complement the professionals' research agenda. The study was conducted by researchers and people with PD or relatives. Interviews and focus groups were held to develop a research agenda from patients' perspectives. A questionnaire was completed by patients to prioritize the research topics. Voiceover group meetings and meetings with the advisory group were organized to obtain feedback on the research process and to deliberate the preliminary findings. Finally, dialog meetings were organized with stakeholders to discuss the agenda and to achieve a shared research agenda. Patients prioritized 18 research themes. Top priorities included fundamental research, research on medication, coping, family & relations and good care. Patients asked for applied and multidisciplinary research. Professionals and charitable funding bodies acknowledged the importance of such research but did not feel capable of judging such proposals. Patients furthermore asked for more attention to be paid to living with the illness in the here-and-now to complement fundamental research. The patients' research agenda can be used to match research with patients' needs and to adapt the clinical support of professionals to patients' wishes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  3. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.H.

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology

  4. Research priorities in medical education: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tootoonchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research prior-ities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final ques-tionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. Results: The most important research priorities included faculty members′ development methods, faculty members′ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members′ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. Conclusions: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities.

  5. Research priorities in medical education: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. The most important research priorities included faculty members' development methods, faculty members' motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members' promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities.

  6. Changing opinions about research by Saudi medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulaban A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Abulaban, Abdulrahman Alharbi, Osama BinDajam, Mohammed Al Jarbou, Hatem Alharbi, Faiz Alanazi, Khalid Aldamiri, Ahmed Althobaiti, Abdulla Al Sayyari Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU], and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015 were compared.Results: A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3% of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3% stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1% expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001. Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6% had participated in scientific research as undergraduates.Conclusion: Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had

  7. Medical students as human subjects in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina L. Kalet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1 the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2 the thoughts and feelings of students across study sites about being research subjects. Methods: From July 2009 to August 2010, all third-year medical students at seven collaborating institutions were eligible to participate. Patterns of IRB review of the same protocol were compared. Participation burden was calculated in terms of the time spent interacting with the modules. Focus groups were conducted with medical students at each site. Transcripts were coded by three independent reviewers and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Results: The IRBs at the seven participating institutions granted full (n=1, expedited (n=4, or exempt (n=2 review of the WISE Trial protocol. 995 (73% of those eligible consented to participate, and 207 (20% of these students completed all outcome measures. The average time to complete the computer modules and associated measures was 175 min. Common themes in focus groups with participant students included the desire to contribute to medical education research, the absence of coercion to consent, and the low-risk nature of the research. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that risk assessment and the extent of review utilized for medical education research vary among IRBs. Despite variability in the perception of risk implied by differing IRB requirements, students themselves felt education research was low risk and did not consider themselves to be vulnerable. The vast majority of eligible medical students were willing to participate as research

  8. Use of radiation in medicine and medical research in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnyman, J.

    1994-01-01

    On 1 April, 1994, The Age, Melbourne, published an article claiming that hundreds of Australians had been given radioactive doses in medical experiments performed after the Second World War. Data for the article were obtained by researching information available in the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) library and the Nation Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Minutes in Canberra. In this article, the author gives a balanced view of the situation relating to medical experiments with radioactive substances in the 1930-1940s. Usage can be classified into the following categories : established therapeutic use; investigational therapeutic use; established diagnostic use; investigational diagnostic use and research. The limited search has indicated that considerable use has been made of radioisotopes in medicine and medical research in Australia. In most of the research studies, there would have been no benefit to the patient. Although in some cases the radiation dose would have exceeded that which is acceptable today for research studies, no cases were found where the dose delivered was dangerous. The concern is that there may be isolated studies published in medical journals which could be described in poor light in the print and electronic news media

  9. Statistical competencies for medical research learners: What is fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Felicity T; Lindsell, Christopher J; Welty, Leah J; Benn, Emma K T; Perkins, Susan M; Mayo, Matthew S; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Kidwell, Kelley M; Thurston, Sally W; Spratt, Heidi; Grambow, Steven C; Larson, Joseph; Carter, Rickey E; Pollock, Brad H; Oster, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    It is increasingly essential for medical researchers to be literate in statistics, but the requisite degree of literacy is not the same for every statistical competency in translational research. Statistical competency can range from 'fundamental' (necessary for all) to 'specialized' (necessary for only some). In this study, we determine the degree to which each competency is fundamental or specialized. We surveyed members of 4 professional organizations, targeting doctorally trained biostatisticians and epidemiologists who taught statistics to medical research learners in the past 5 years. Respondents rated 24 educational competencies on a 5-point Likert scale anchored by 'fundamental' and 'specialized.' There were 112 responses. Nineteen of 24 competencies were fundamental. The competencies considered most fundamental were assessing sources of bias and variation (95%), recognizing one's own limits with regard to statistics (93%), identifying the strengths, and limitations of study designs (93%). The least endorsed items were meta-analysis (34%) and stopping rules (18%). We have identified the statistical competencies needed by all medical researchers. These competencies should be considered when designing statistical curricula for medical researchers and should inform which topics are taught in graduate programs and evidence-based medicine courses where learners need to read and understand the medical research literature.

  10. The role of social networking sites in medical genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Allison Cook; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-05-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) have potential value in the field of medical genetics as a means of research subject recruitment and source of data. This article examines the current role of SNS in medical genetics research and potential applications for these sites in future studies. Facebook is the primary SNS considered, given the prevalence of its use in the United States and role in a small but growing number of studies. To date, utilization of SNS in medical genetics research has been primarily limited to three studies that recruited subjects from populations of Facebook users [McGuire et al. (2009); Am J Bioeth 9: 3-10; Janvier et al. (2012); Pediatrics 130: 293-298; Leighton et al. (2012); Public Health Genomics 15: 11-21]. These studies and a number of other medical and public health studies that have used Facebook as a context for recruiting research subjects are discussed. Approaches for Facebook-based subject recruitment are identified, including paid Facebook advertising, snowball sampling, targeted searching and posting. The use of these methods in medical genetics research has the potential to facilitate cost-effective research on both large, heterogeneous populations and small, hard-to-access sub-populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition 'diseases' so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions.

  12. Disease-specific direct-to-consumer advertising for reminding consumers to take medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Nilesh S; Rollins, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between disease-specific direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising, via traditional advertising effectiveness measures, and consumers' self-reported medication-taking behavior. Data were gathered for 514 respondents (age 18 and above) using an online survey panel. Participants were exposed to a disease-specific (i.e., nonbranded) DTC advertising for depression. The advertising stimulus created for the study was based on the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for disease-specific DTC advertising and modeled after current print disease-specific DTC advertising. Participants reviewed the advertising stimulus through the online program and then responded to a questionnaire containing closed-ended questions assessing the constructs. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests. All tests were interpreted at an a priori alpha of 0.05. Significantly more respondents who were highly involved, paid more attention to the advertisement, and were responsive to DTC advertisements in the past indicated that the disease-specific DTC advertising stimulus reminded them to take their depression and other medications. These exploratory results show disease-specific DTC advertising can help people remember to take their prescription medication when viewed, which may lead to more positive medication-taking behavior and increased medication adherence. Additionally, given the fair balance and legal issues surrounding product-specific DTC advertising, disease-specific DTC advertising can serve as an effective component of the marketing mix for pharmaceutical manufacturers. Future research should attempt to study the impact of disease-specific DTC advertising on consumers' actual medication adherence using standardized adherence measures such as prescription records.

  13. Use of electronic medical records in oncology outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gena Kanas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Gena Kanas1, Libby Morimoto1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley2, Jon Fryzek3, Robert Nordyke21Exponent, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 3MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Oncology outcomes research could benefit from the use of an oncology-specific electronic medical record (EMR network. The benefits and challenges of using EMR in general health research have been investigated; however, the utility of EMR for oncology outcomes research has not been explored. Compared to current available oncology databases and registries, an oncology-specific EMR could provide comprehensive and accurate information on clinical diagnoses, personal and medical histories, planned and actual treatment regimens, and post-treatment outcomes, to address research questions from patients, policy makers, the pharmaceutical industry, and clinicians/researchers. Specific challenges related to structural (eg, interoperability, data format/entry, clinical (eg, maintenance and continuity of records, variety of coding schemes, and research-related (eg, missing data, generalizability, privacy issues must be addressed when building an oncology-specific EMR system. Researchers should engage with medical professional groups to guide development of EMR systems that would ultimately help improve the quality of cancer care through oncology outcomes research.Keywords: medical informatics, health care, policy, outcomes

  14. [Significance of COI disclosure in medical research in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Saburo

    2011-11-01

    In medical research, remarkable increase in collaboration with industry, public organizations such as universities, research institutions, and academic societies makes researchers to be more deeply involved with the activities of commercial entities. Activities of education and research, which are the responsibilities of academic institutions and societies, conflict with the interests of individuals associated with industrial-academic collaboration. Management of such conflict of interest (COI) is of much importance for academic institutions and societies to appropriately promote industrial-academic collaborative activities. Particularly, participation not only by healthy individuals, but also patients, is essential in the medical field as subjects of clinical research. For those involved in medical research, the deeper the level of COI with commercial entities, who are the financial or benefit provider, becomes serious, the more human rights of subjects could be violated, safety of life could be endangered, and research methods, data analysis and interpretation of results could be distorted. It is also possible that research may be unfairly evaluated or not published, even if the results are accurate, sometimes resulting in the ascertained effects of reporting bias included the overestimation of efficacy and the underestimation of safety risks of interventions. According to the COI management guideline of the Japanese Association of Medical Science (JAMS), significance of COI management is discussed.

  15. Quarterly report of Biological and Medical Research Division, April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brues, A.M.

    1955-04-01

    This report is a compilation of 48 investigator prepared summaries of recent progress in individual research programs of the Biology and Medical Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for the quarterly period ending April,1955. Individual reports are about 3-6 pages in length and often contain research data.

  16. A multifaceted program to encourage medical students' research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, K; Stagnaro-Green, A

    2001-07-01

    Clinician-scientists are important members of a research community that has more opportunities than ever before to solve problems important to patients. Nevertheless, the number of physicians applying for and receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has dropped. Introducing medical students to research and relevant support mechanisms early in their education may help to reverse this trend. In 1995, the Mount Sinai School of Medicine created its Office of Student Research Opportunities (OSRO) to stimulate students to engage in research. It also appointed a new dean to direct the OSRO; the person who filled this new position was a senior faculty member involved in patient-oriented research. The OSRO advises students, identifies faculty who want to mentor students, sponsors the Distinction in Research program, organizes an annual research day, helps fund summer and full-time research, and has created an endowment to support student travel to national meetings. Between 1997 and 2000 the number of students who participated in the research day increased from 18 to 74, and the number of publications by the graduating classes increased from 34 to 58 between 1997 and 1999. Participants have presented both basic and clinical projects. The authors' experience has shown that medical students can be motivated to carry out research with appropriate encouragement from the administration and the faculty, something that may help to reverse a troubling national trend. Based upon these early successes, Mount Sinai is developing a novel five-year program to provide medical students with research training.

  17. Challenges for data storage in medical imaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Steve G

    2011-04-01

    Researchers in medical imaging have multiple challenges for storing, indexing, maintaining viability, and sharing their data. Addressing all these concerns requires a constellation of tools, but not all of them need to be local to the site. In particular, the data storage challenges faced by researchers can begin to require professional information technology skills. With limited human resources and funds, the medical imaging researcher may be better served with an outsourcing strategy for some management aspects. This paper outlines an approach to manage the main objectives faced by medical imaging scientists whose work includes processing and data mining on non-standard file formats, and relating those files to the their DICOM standard descendents. The capacity of the approach scales as the researcher's need grows by leveraging the on-demand provisioning ability of cloud computing.

  18. Brief guidelines for methods and statistics in medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Ab Rahman, Jamalludin

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a practical guide to methods and statistics in medical research. It includes step-by-step instructions on using SPSS software for statistical analysis, as well as relevant examples to help those readers who are new to research in health and medical fields. Simple texts and diagrams are provided to help explain the concepts covered, and print screens for the statistical steps and the SPSS outputs are provided, together with interpretations and examples of how to report on findings. Brief Guidelines for Methods and Statistics in Medical Research offers a valuable quick reference guide for healthcare students and practitioners conducting research in health related fields, written in an accessible style.

  19. The effective management of medical isotope production in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    During the 50-yr history of the use of radioisotopes for medical applications, research reactors have played a pivotal role in the production of many if not most of the key products. The marriage between research reactors and production operations is subject to significant challenges on two fronts. The medical applications of the radioisotope products impose some unique constraints and requirements on the production process. In addition, the mandates and priorities of a research reactor are not always congruent with the demands of a production environment. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of medical isotope production, identifies the unique challenges facing this endeavor, and discusses the management of the relationship between the isotope producer and the research reactor operator. Finally, the key elements of a successful relationship are identified

  20. Spirometry utilisation among Danish adults initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette

    2015-01-01

    performed. RESULTS: A total of 40,969 adults initiated medication targeting obstructive lung medication in 2008 in Denmark. The mean age of the cohort was 55.6 years (SD18.7) and approximately half of the mediations users had spirometry test performed. Initiating several types of medication targeting......UNLABELLED: This PhD thesis was written during my employment at the Research Unit of General Practice in Odense, University of Southern Denmark. It comprises an overview and three papers, all published or submitted for publication in international peer-reviewed scientific journals. BACKGROUND: Non...... with pharmacotherapy targeting obstructive lung disease and only few have additional tests conducted, although the predictive value of respiratory symptoms for diagnosing obstructive lung disease has proven to be low. Spirometry is recommended as the gold standard for confirming obstructive lung disease, and testing...

  1. Ethics and the ethnography of medical research in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Geissler, P. Wenzel

    2008-01-01

    The ethics of medical research have grown as an area of expertise and debate in recent years, with two broad approaches emerging in relation to transnational research: (1) the refinement of guidelines and strengthening of review, processes primarily to protect the right of individual research participants and strengthen interpersonal relations at the micro-level; and (2) considering more centrally, as crucial ethical concerns, the wider interests of whole populations, the functioning of research institutions, the processes of collaboration, and the ethics of inequitable international relations. We see the two areas of debate and action as complementary, and believe that social science conducted in and around transnational medical research environments can bring these two perspectives together in a more ‘situated ethics’ of research. To explore this idea for medical research in Africa, we organized a conference in December 2005 in Kilifi, Kenya. In this introduction we outline the two emerging approaches to medical ethics, summarise each of seven papers selected from the conference for inclusion in this special issue on ethics and ethnography, and finally highlight two areas of lively debate at the conference itself: the appropriateness and value of ethics guidelines and review boards for medical research; and the ethical review of social science research. Together, the papers and debates point to the importance of focusing on the ethics of relationships and on justice in both biomedicine and social science research, and on giving greater voice and visibility to the field staff who often play a crucial and under-supported role in ‘doing ethics’ in the field. They also point to the potential value of social science research on the range of relationships operating at different levels and time scales in medical research, including those surrounding community engagement activities, and the role and functioning of ethics review boards. We conclude by highlighting

  2. The Potential of Improving Medical Textile for Cutaneous Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, C. D.; Cerempei, A.; Salariu, M.; Parteni, O.; Ulea, E.; Campagne, Chr

    2017-10-01

    The paper dwells on the prospect of medical textiles designed to release a drug/active principle to the dermis of patients suffering from cutaneous disease (allergic dermatitis, psoriasis, bacterial/infectious conditions and inflammatory conditions). The paper is an overview of general and experimental data from textile applications. An adequate medical textile may have a cellulosic structure, mainly knitted cotton fabric. In special cases, one may use woven fabric for multilayer drug-releasing systems. As far as controlled release systems are concerned, we carried out a critical comparison between the systems described in literature and our experimental findings as concerns cyclodextrin, hydrogel, film charged with active principles and multilayer system.

  3. Sports genetics moving forward: lessons learned from medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, C Mikael; Wheeler, Matthew T; Waggott, Daryl; Caleshu, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A

    2016-03-01

    Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping. To find widely valid, reproducible common variants associated with athletic phenotypes, study sample sizes must be dramatically increased. One paradox is that in order to confirm relevance, replications in specific populations must be undertaken. Family studies of athletes may facilitate the discovery of rare variants with large effects on athletic phenotypes. The complexity of the human genome, combined with the complexity of athletic phenotypes, will require additional metadata and biological validation to identify a comprehensive set of genes involved. Analysis of personal genetic and multiomic profiles contribute to our conceptualization of precision medicine; the same will be the case in precision sports science. In the refinement of sports genetics it is essential to evaluate similarities and differences between sexes and among ethnicities. Sports genetics to date have been hampered by small sample sizes and biased methodology, which can lead to erroneous associations and overestimation of effect sizes. Consequently, currently available genetic tests based on these inherently limited data cannot predict athletic performance with any accuracy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Perspectives for medical informatics. Reusing the electronic medical record for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, H U; Ganslandt, T

    2009-01-01

    Even though today most university hospitals have already implemented commercial hospital information systems and started to build up comprehensive electronic medical records, reuse of such data for data warehousing and research purposes is still very rare. Given this situation, the focus of this paper is to present an overview on exemplary projects, which have already tackled this challenge, reflect on current initiatives within the United States of America and the European Union to establish IT infrastructures for clinical and translational research, and draw attention to new challenges in this area. This paper does not intend to provide a fully comprehensive review on all the issues of clinical routine data reuse. It is based, however, on a presentation of a large variety of historical, but also most recent activities in data warehousing, data retrieval and linking medical informatics with translational research. The article presents an overview of the various international approaches to this issue and illustrates concepts and solutions which have been published, thus giving an impression of activities pursued in this field of medical informatics. Further, problems and open questions, which have also been named in the literature, are presented and three challenges (to establish comprehensive clinical data warehouses, to establish professional IT infrastructure applications supporting clinical trial data capture and to integrate medical record systems and clinical trial databases) related to this area of medical informatics are identified and presented. Translational biomedical research with the aim "to integrate bedside and biology" and to bridge the gap between clinical care and medical research today and in the years to come, provides a large and interesting field for medical informatics researchers. Especially the need for integrating clinical research projects with data repositories built up during documentation of routine clinical care, today still leaves

  5. Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner-Karoussou, A.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

  6. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  7. Setting priorities for research in medical nutrition education: an international approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Barnes, Katelyn; Laur, Celia; Crowley, Jennifer; Ray, Sumantra

    2016-12-14

    To identify the research priorities for medical nutrition education worldwide. A 5-step stakeholder engagement process based on methodological guidelines for identifying research priorities in health. 277 individuals were identified as representatives for 30 different stakeholder organisations across 86 countries. The stakeholder organisations represented the views of medical educators, medical students, doctors, patients and researchers in medical education. Each stakeholder representative was asked to provide up to three research questions that should be deemed as a priority for medical nutrition education. Research questions were critically appraised for answerability, sustainability, effectiveness, potential for translation and potential to impact on disease burden. A blinded scoring system was used to rank the appraised questions, with higher scores indicating higher priority (range of scores possible 36-108). 37 submissions were received, of which 25 were unique research questions. Submitted questions received a range of scores from 62 to 106 points. The highest scoring questions focused on (1) increasing the confidence of medical students and doctors in providing nutrition care to patients, (2) clarifying the essential nutrition skills doctors should acquire, (3) understanding the effectiveness of doctors at influencing dietary behaviours and (4) improving medical students' attitudes towards the importance of nutrition. These research questions can be used to ensure future projects in medical nutrition education directly align with the needs and preferences of research stakeholders. Funders should consider these priorities in their commissioning of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Importance of Pharmaceutical Training and Clinical Research at Medical Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myotoku, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    To respond to advancements in medical techniques, and to address the separation of medical and dispensary practices, clinical professors are required to educate human resource staff to become highly-skilled pharmacists. For this purpose, it is extremely important for these professors to learn about cutting-edge practical skills and knowledge, as well as to advance their expertise. In addition, they need to conduct clinical research in cooperation with relevant facilities. As our university does not have its own hospital or pharmacy, it is important to provide training for clinical professors in clinical facilities. Such training mainly involves medical teams' in-hospital rounds and participation in conferences (nutrition support team; NST), operation of the pharmacy department, and intervention targeting improvement in the department's duties. We have conducted collaborative studies, provided research instructions, implemented studies aimed at improving the department's work (pharmacists appointed on wards at all times to ensure medical safety) as well as studies regarding team medical care (nutritional evaluation during outpatient chemotherapy), and resolved issues regarding this work (drug solution mixability in a hand-held constant infusion pump, and a safe pump-filling methods). Thus, it has become possible to keep track of the current state of a pharmacists' work within team medical care, to access information about novel drugs, to view clinical and prescription-claim data, to cooperate with other professionals (e.g., doctors and nurses), to promote pharmacists' self-awareness of their roles in cooperative medical practice, and to effectively maintain the hospital's clinical settings.

  9. Medication taking in coronary artery disease: a systematic review and qualitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammed A; Edwards, Duncan; Walter, Fiona M; Mant, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the compelling evidence supporting cardiovascular medications in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, many patients discontinue treatment. In this synthesis, we sought to understand from a patient perspective the factors that promote medication persistence. We systematically searched 7 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CINAHL, ASSIA, and SSCI) for published qualitative research about the medication-taking experiences of patients with coronary artery disease and their partners. Articles were assessed for quality using a modified CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Programme) checklist. Synthesis was undertaken using well-established meta-ethnographic approaches. We included 17 articles in the final synthesis from the United Kingdom (6), Europe (5), United States (4), China (1), and Australia (1), with a total sample size of 391 patients. Analyses suggested that some patients hold fatalistic beliefs about their disease, whereas others believe they have been cured by interventions; both can lead to failure to take medication. Patients who adapt to being a "heart patient" are positive about medication taking. Some individuals dislike taking tablets generally and are wary of long-term effects. Relationships with prescribing clinicians are of critical importance for patients, with inaccessibility and insensitive terminology negatively affecting patients' perceptions about treatments. Strategies to promote higher persistence of secondary prevention medications in patients with coronary artery disease need to recognize the key role of the prescribing clinician. Providing medication-specific information at the time of initiating therapy, improving the transition between secondary and primary care, and explaining the risk of disease recurrence may all help to modify patient attitudes toward drugs to prevent further cardiovascular disease.

  10. Rare disease research: Breaking the privacy barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mascalzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the few patients affected, rare disease research has to count on international registries to exist in order to produce significant research outputs. Data sharing of registries is therefore a unique resource to allow rare disease research to flourish and any lost data will jeopardize the quality of an already extremely difficult research. The rules usually applied to research such as the right to withdraw or the need for specific consent for every use of data can be detrimental in order to get effective results. Privacy rights regulated through traditional informed consent mechanisms have been regarded as a major barrier in order to effectively share data worldwide. Some authors argue that this barrier hampers results that could be beneficial to the patients so that another right will be overstated: the right to quality healthcare. We argue in this paper that privacy has been often interpreted just one-sided as the right to secrecy but it can entail another meaning: the right to manage one's own private sphere. Managing it pertains, not only to the right to deny access, but also to the right to grant access. At the same time research on patient participation and transparency shows that new forms of IT-based informed consent can provide a good balance between the right of individuals to be in control of their data and the opportunity for science to pursue international research.

  11. Effect of two Howard Hughes Medical Institute research training programs for medical students on the likelihood of pursuing research careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di; Meyer, Roger E

    2003-12-01

    To assess the effect of Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) two one-year research training programs for medical students on the awardees' research careers. Awardees of the HHMI Cloister Program who graduated between 1987 and 1995 and awardees of the HHMI Medical Fellows Program who graduated between 1991 and 1995 were compared with unsuccessful applicants to the programs and MD-PhD students who graduated during the same periods. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess research career outcomes while controlling for academic and demographic variables that could affect selection to the programs. Participation in both HHMI programs increased the likelihood of receiving National Institutes of Health postdoctoral support. Participation in the Cloister Program also increased the likelihood of receiving a faculty appointment with research responsibility at a medical school. In addition, awardees of the Medical Fellows Program were not significantly less likely than Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) and non-MSTP MD-PhD program participants to receive a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award, and awardees of the Cloister Program were not significantly less likely than non-MSTP MD-PhD students to receive a faculty appointment with research responsibility. Women and underrepresented minority students were proportionally represented among awardees of the two HHMI programs whereas they were relatively underrepresented in MD-PhD programs. The one-year intensive research training supported by the HHMI training programs appears to provide an effective imprinting experience on medical students' research careers and to be an attractive strategy for training physician-scientists.

  12. The landscape of research on smartphone medical apps: Coherent taxonomy, motivations, open challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muzammil; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Kiah, M L M; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Abdulnabi, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    To survey researchers' efforts in response to the new and disruptive technology of smartphone medical apps, mapping the research landscape form the literature into a coherent taxonomy, and finding out basic characteristics of this emerging field represented on: motivation of using smartphone apps in medicine and healthcare, open challenges that hinder the utility, and the recommendations to improve the acceptance and use of medical apps in the literature. We performed a focused search for every article on (1) smartphone (2) medical or health-related (3) app, in four major databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and IEEE Xplore. Those databases are deemed broad enough to cover both medical and technical literature. The final set included 133 articles. Most articles (68/133) are reviews and surveys that refer to actual apps or the literature to describe medical apps for a specific specialty, disease, or purpose; or to provide a general overview of the technology. Another group (43/133) carried various studies, from evaluation of apps to exploration of desired features when developing them. Few researchers (17/133) presented actual attempts to develop medical apps, or shared their experiences in doing so. The smallest portion (5/133) proposed general frameworks addressing the production or operation of apps. Since 2010, researchers followed the trend of medical apps in several ways, though leaving areas or aspect for further attention. Regardless of their category, articles focus on the challenges that hinder the full utility of medical apps and do recommend mitigations to them. Research on smartphone medical apps is active and various. We hope that this survey contribute to the understanding of the available options and gaps for other researchers to join this line of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute (RAMSRI) - Annual Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute (RAMSRI) is the fourth Research and Development Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), undertaking research in human health and nutrition. This annual report covers the major activities undertaken by RAMSRI for the year 2015. The activities are grouped under the following headings: Establishment; Personnel and Organisation; Major Activities of Centres; Ongoing IAEA TC Projects; Human Resource Development; IAEA Coordinated Meetings Hosted; Publications; Achievements; Challenges; Projections for the Year 2016; and Recommendations.

  14. The Medical Research Council (UK)/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS--'25 years of research through partnerships'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleebu, P; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Elliott, A M; Katongole-Mbidde, E

    2015-02-01

    For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Patient-Centered Medical Home in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Ortiz1, Len Fromer21Pediatric Pulmonary Services, El Paso, TX; 2Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive and debilitating but preventable and treatable disease characterized by cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and fixed or incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Most patients with COPD rely on primary care practices for COPD management. Unfortunately, only about 55% of US outpatients with COPD receive all guideline-recommended care. Proactive and consistent primary care for COPD, as for many other chronic diseases, can reduce hospitalizations. Optimal chronic disease management requires focusing on maintenance rather than merely acute rescue. The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH, which implements the chronic care model, is a promising framework for primary care transformation. This review presents core PCMH concepts and proposes multidisciplinary team-based PCMH care strategies for COPD.Keywords: Patient-Centered Medical Home, chronic care model, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, patient education, physician assistants, nurse practitioners

  16. Unemployment risk among individuals undergoing medical treatment for chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, N; Nakamura, T; Tsuchiya, N; Tsuji, I; Hozawa, A; Tomita, H

    2016-03-01

    Chronic diseases increase the risk of unemployment even in non-disaster settings; therefore, in post-disaster settings, special attention needs to be paid to the employment status of those suffering from chronic diseases. To examine the association between chronic disease and the risk of unemployment in a disaster area. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, north-eastern Japan, where had been severely inundated by the 2011 tsunami. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between undergoing medical treatment for a combination of chronic diseases (stroke, cancer, myocardial infarction and angina) and unemployment risk. Confounders such as psychological distress and levels of daily life activity were considered. Among the 2588 individuals studied, there was a statistically significant association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and the risk of unemployment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.7, P unemployment risk was observed only in participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Description and Pathology of Research Development in Tabriz Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farajollahi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Research in medical science, as in all other fields of science, is necessary in order to maintain and improve the public health. This is achievable only by researchers and faculty members. This study is attempt o identify intra-organizational factors that influence research planning and related interventions in Tabriz Medical University.Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the study group included all faculty members and masters of science (equivalent to faculties in Tabriz Medical University, of which 121 persons wereselected randomly. Lickert style questionnaires were developed to evaluate and compare the attitudes toward project approval process, knowledge about research facilities, departmental cooperationsin research, and researchers’ capabilities in project execution. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software.Results: During a 3 year period, each faculty member had, on average, supervised 5.17 dissertations, conducted 1.15 approved research projects, and had 3.4 presentations in domestic and 0.36 presentations in international conferences. Lack of time was the main problem in conducting research.Comparing faculties with and without research experience, there was significant differences in regard of access to research facilities (pthe level of research knowledge (pmotivations, job satisfaction, departmental cooperation, and expecting benefits from conductingresearch.Conclusion: According to the faculties’ views, intra-organizational problems are less important than personal factors in performing research projects; i.e. the main obstacles for research were lack of time, and lack of competence in research methodology and problem-finding. Intra-organizational factors such as delay in project approval and lack of knowledge about research priorities are classified in the next levels.Keywords: FACULTY MEMBERS, RESEARCH PROBLEMS, INTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS

  18. [Chinese constitution research and the practice of 4P medical model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of modern medicine is transforming from disease to health. Thus the medical model of 4P was proposed in recent years. 4P includes preventive, predictive, personalized, and participatory medical model. In constitution theory of Chinese medicine, there are three main ideas. The first one is: constitutions can be divided to nine types in the Chinese population. Prevention and treatment of disease can be divided according to the constitutional type. This reflects personalized or individualized of 4P. The second one is: certain constitution is correlated to certain disease. So constitution differentiation can be used to predict the occurrence of any kind disease. The third one is: Disease can be prevented through regulating correlated constitutions. And during the course of constitution differentiation, the object of service or patients can participate in the whole course. In summary, the research of Chinese medical constitution embodies the application and practice of 4P medical model. And it provided reference for studying and developing other subjects under the present medical model.

  19. Highlights in emergency medicine medical education research: 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Susan E; Coates, Wendy C; Khun, Gloria J; Fisher, Jonathan; Shayne, Philip; Lin, Michelle

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight medical education research studies published in 2008 that were methodologically superior and whose outcomes were pertinent to teaching and education in emergency medicine. Through a PubMed search of the English language literature in 2008, 30 medical education research studies were independently identified as hypothesis-testing investigations and measurements of educational interventions. Six reviewers independently rated and scored all articles based on eight anchors, four of which related to methodologic criteria. Articles were ranked according to their total rating score. A ranking agreement among the reviewers of 83% was established a priori as a minimum for highlighting articles in this review. Five medical education research studies met the a priori criteria for inclusion and are reviewed and summarized here. Four of these employed experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Although technology was not a component of the structured literature search employed to identify the candidate articles for this review, 14 of the articles identified, including four of the five highlighted articles, employed or studied technology as a focus of the educational research. Overall, 36% of the reviewed studies were supported by funding; three of the highlighted articles were funded studies. This review highlights quality medical education research studies published in 2008, with outcomes of relevance to teaching and education in emergency medicine. It focuses on research methodology, notes current trends in the use of technology for learning in emergency medicine, and suggests future avenues for continued rigorous study in education.

  20. The evolution of teaching and learning medical microbiology and infectious diseases at NUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M B; Chow, V T K

    2005-07-01

    Infectious diseases were rife during the early years of the Singapore Medical College, which was established in 1905. The current Department of Microbiology in the National University of Singapore (NUS) has its historical roots in the Departments of Bacteriology and Parasitology, which were established in 1925 and 1950 respectively. With the achievements since its inception, and with its present research focus on Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, it is poised to face the microbiological challenges of the 21st century. Over the decades, the structure of the medical microbiology course in NUS has modernised, culminating in the current emphasis on its practical utility in clinical practice. Coordinated by the Department of Microbiology, the Microbiology and Infectious Diseases module and the Immunology module both adopt integrated multidisciplinary approaches that aim to introduce students to the language and fundamental concepts in microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology.

  1. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

  2. Medications Used for Cognitive Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, which frequently occurs in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, has a significant impact on the daily lives of both patients and their family. Furthermore, since the medications used for cognitive enhancement have limited efficacy, the issue of cognitive enhancement still remains a clinically unsolved challenge. We reviewed the clinical studies (published between 2007 and 2017) that focused on the efficacy of medications used for enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the standard treatments for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Some studies have reported selective cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia following galantamine treatment. Newer antipsychotics, including paliperidone, lurasidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and BL-1020, have also been reported to exert cognitive benefits in patients with schizophrenia. Dopaminergic medications were found to improve language function in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, no beneficial effects on cognitive function were observed with dopamine agonists in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacies of nicotine and its receptor modulators in cognitive improvement remain controversial, with the majority of studies showing that varenicline significantly improved the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Several studies have reported that N -methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) enhancers improved the cognitive function in patients with chronic schizophrenia. NMDAR enhancers might also have cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on attention, processing speed, and memory in female patients with schizophrenia. Clinical trials with

  3. Behavioural research in patients with end-stage renal disease: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Ad A; van Dijk, Sandra; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Falzon, Louise; Thong, Melissa; Dekker, Friedo W

    2010-10-01

    To suggest a behavioural research agenda for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) based on a concise review of seven stages of psychosocial research, a literature review, and current behavioural research in other chronic somatic diseases. Historical behavioural ESRD research was classified. The specialized register of the Cochrane Behavioral Medicine Field was also checked, and additional papers were selected by screening reference lists and related behavioural science journals, to identify promising areas for future research. The top-five topics identified via the literature search pertain to (1) psychological aspects and interventions, (2) adaptation, coping, and depression, (3) exercise, (4) counseling and education, and (5) compliance. 'Illness and treatment beliefs', 'sexuality', 'suicide', 'family support', and 'self-management interventions', were identified on the basis of research in other chronic illnesses as topics for future research. Regarding theory, the Common-Sense Model (CSM) was judged to offer useful theoretical perspectives; regarding methods, qualitative methods can be a valuable addition to quantitative research methods. Illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, and self-management behaviours are promising concepts in the assessment and clinical care of ESRD-patients. Cognitive-behavioural treatments appear to have potential and should be specified and elaborated for specific categories and problems of ESRD-patients. This research agenda is in line with moves towards patient-centred disease-management to improve the quality of medical care for ESRD-patients. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Medical interviewing, initial key step in the disease diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2013-11-01

    Medicine combines the characteristics of both a science and an art. The main objective is to cure the patient (or at least to alleviate symptoms). The first step of the global medical approach is to make a diagnosis, which will determine the therapy. Since Hippocrates, semiology, i.e. the study of both symptoms and signs, is crucial to make or guide the disease diagnosis. The development of more and more sophisticated medical technologies may lead to believe that semiology is not useful anymore in medical practice. It is absolutely not true because a careful semiology can provide precise diagnoses in a majority of cases or, at least, can lead to a limited differential diagnosis that helps in the selection of a few well defined complementary investigations. The aim of this article targeting mainly medical students is to emphasize the key rules of a well done medical interviewing, which should progress from an "analytical" approach to a "syndromic" approach, combining knowledge, know-how and self-management skills.

  5. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Drs. Antoine Snijders and Jian-Hua Mao, whose article is published in this issue of AMOR and discuss their views on cancer genetics, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine.Having worked together in numerous joint investigations that have yielded significant results, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao would most definitely agree that two heads are better than one. “Researchers these days need to have the ability to collaborate across many different disciplines,” said the duo in an exclusive interview with AMOR. Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao, both with PhDs in cancer genetics and genomics, are currently based at the Biological Systems and Engineering Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, which is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S Department of Energy through its Office of Science. The Berkeley Lab is well known for producing excellent scholars, as thirteen Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Lab and seventy of its scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Dr. Snijders, a Dutch who has conducted his research at Berkeley Lab for the past eight years, did his Masters in Science (Medical Biology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands – an institute with a strong focus on scientific research and is home to five Spinoza Prize (a.k.a. the “Dutch Nobel” winners. Dr. Snijders’s PhD (cum laude in cancer and molecular biology was awarded by University Utrecht in Netherlands, but his research work was carried out at the University of California San Francisco. Subsequently, he continued his postdoctoral research in molecular cytogenetics at the same institution. A prolific author of 114 publications (with 3,851 citations according to ResearchGate, Dr. Snijders – who also volunteers with California’s Contra Costa County Search and Rescue team for missing persons – has interests in

  6. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  7. Contribution of Electronic Medical Records to the Management of Rare Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bremond-Gignac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Electronic health record systems provide great opportunity to study most diseases. Objective of this study was to determine whether electronic medical records (EMR in ophthalmology contribute to management of rare eye diseases, isolated or in syndromes. Study was designed to identify and collect patients’ data with ophthalmology-specific EMR. Methods. Ophthalmology-specific EMR software (Softalmo software Corilus was used to acquire ophthalmological ocular consultation data from patients with five rare eye diseases. The rare eye diseases and data were selected and collected regarding expertise of eye center. Results. A total of 135,206 outpatient consultations were performed between 2011 and 2014 in our medical center specialized in rare eye diseases. The search software identified 29 congenital aniridia, 6 Axenfeld/Rieger syndrome, 11 BEPS, 3 Nanophthalmos, and 3 Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Discussion. EMR provides advantages for medical care. The use of ophthalmology-specific EMR is reliable and can contribute to a comprehensive ocular visual phenotype useful for clinical research. Conclusion. Routinely EMR acquired with specific software dedicated to ophthalmology provides sufficient detail for rare diseases. These software-collected data appear useful for creating patient cohorts and recording ocular examination, avoiding the time-consuming analysis of paper records and investigation, in a University Hospital linked to a National Reference Rare Center Disease.

  8. Contribution of Electronic Medical Records to the Management of Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Lewandowski, Elisabeth; Copin, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record systems provide great opportunity to study most diseases. Objective of this study was to determine whether electronic medical records (EMR) in ophthalmology contribute to management of rare eye diseases, isolated or in syndromes. Study was designed to identify and collect patients' data with ophthalmology-specific EMR. Ophthalmology-specific EMR software (Softalmo software Corilus) was used to acquire ophthalmological ocular consultation data from patients with five rare eye diseases. The rare eye diseases and data were selected and collected regarding expertise of eye center. A total of 135,206 outpatient consultations were performed between 2011 and 2014 in our medical center specialized in rare eye diseases. The search software identified 29 congenital aniridia, 6 Axenfeld/Rieger syndrome, 11 BEPS, 3 Nanophthalmos, and 3 Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. EMR provides advantages for medical care. The use of ophthalmology-specific EMR is reliable and can contribute to a comprehensive ocular visual phenotype useful for clinical research. Routinely EMR acquired with specific software dedicated to ophthalmology provides sufficient detail for rare diseases. These software-collected data appear useful for creating patient cohorts and recording ocular examination, avoiding the time-consuming analysis of paper records and investigation, in a University Hospital linked to a National Reference Rare Center Disease.

  9. [Conflict of interest in medical practice and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Ilhak

    2012-09-25

    In recent years, medical professionals are in charge with multiple roles. They have to work as an educator, researcher, and administrator, as well as medical practitioner. In addition, they experience a conflict between the primary responsibilities that each role requires of them. A conflict of interest (COI) is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgment or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. It occurs when an individual or organization is involved in multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation for an act in the other. The COI should be managed appropriately to preserve the value of public trust, scientific objectivity, and the benefit and safety of patients. Primary interest of medical professionals refers to the principal goals of the medical profession, such as the health and safety of patients, and the integrity of research. Secondary interest includes not only financial gain but also such motives as the desire for professional advancement and the wish to do favors for family and friends, but COI rules usually focus on financial relationships because they are relatively more objective, fungible, and quantifiable. This article will briefly review the COI in medical practice and research, discuss about what is COI, why we should manage it, and how we can manage it.

  10. Clinical research ethics in Irish healthcare: diversity, dynamism and medicalization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condell, Sarah L

    2012-11-01

    Gaining ethical clearance to conduct a study is an important aspect of all research involving humans but can be time-consuming and daunting for novice researchers. This article stems from a larger ethnographic study that examined research capacity building in Irish nursing and midwifery. Data were collected over a 28-month time frame from a purposive sample of 16 nurse or midwife research fellows who were funded to undertake full-time PhDs. Gaining ethical clearance for their studies was reported as an early \\'rite of passage\\' in the category of \\'labouring the doctorate\\'. This article penetrates the complexities in Irish clinical research ethics by describing the practices these nurse and midwife researchers encountered and the experiences they had. The key issue of representation that occurred in the context of \\'medicalized\\' research ethics is further explored including its meaning for nursing or midwifery research.

  11. Funding infectious disease research: a systematic analysis of UK research investments by funders 1997-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Fitchett

    Full Text Available Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research.Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0% of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4% by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%. The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%, closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC with £673 million (25.9%. Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders.Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment, with volatility in annual funding amounts and limited investment for product development and clinical trials.

  12. Funding Infectious Disease Research: A Systematic Analysis of UK Research Investments by Funders 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R.; Head, Michael G.; Cooke, Mary K.; Wurie, Fatima B.; Atun, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Conclusions/Significance Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment, with volatility in annual funding amounts and limited investment for product development and clinical trials. PMID:25162631

  13. Funding infectious disease research: a systematic analysis of UK research investments by funders 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Atun, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment, with volatility in annual funding amounts and limited investment for product development and clinical trials.

  14. Current thinking in medical education research: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, R

    2018-04-28

    Medical education is fast becoming a separate focus, and together with their clinical commitments, many clinicians now seek higher qualifications and professional accreditation in the field. Research is also developing, and there is a need for evidence-based practice in education, just as in clinical work. This review gives an overview of research into medical education, and explains the fundamentals of educational theory and the specific considerations for the quantitative and qualitative research methods that pertain to it. It also explains the application of these methods to two growing areas of research: technology-enhanced learning (TEL) and normative ethics in training. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical treatment of Cushing's disease: Overview and recent findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Smooke Praw

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Smooke Praw1, Anthony P Heaney1,21Department of Medicine, 2Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Cushing's disease, due to pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH hypersecretion, is the most common etiology of spontaneous excess cortisol production. The majority of pituitary tumors causing Cushing's disease measure <1 cm and the excess morbidity associated with these tumors is mostly due to the effects of elevated, nonsuppressible, ACTH levels leading to adrenal steroid hypersecretion. Elevated circulating cortisol levels lead to abnormal fat deposition, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and psychological disturbances. At experienced centers, initial surgical remission rate via transnasal, transphenoidal resection approaches 80% for tumors less than 1 cm, but may be as low as 30% for larger lesions and long-term recurrence in all groups approaches 25%. Residual disease may be managed with more radical surgery, pituitary-directed radiation, bilateral adrenalectomy, or medical therapy. This paper addresses current and novel therapies in various stages of development for Cushing’s disease.Keywords: Cushing's disease, treatment, pasireotide, PPAR-γ, 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors, dopamine agonists

  16. [Organisation of scientific and research work of Navy medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V V; Myznikov, I L; Kuz'minov, O V; Shmelev, S V; Oparin, M Iu

    2013-03-01

    The main issues of organization of scientific and research work of medical service in the North Fleet are considered in the present article. Analysis of some paragraphs of documents, regulating this work at army level is given. The authors give an example of successful experience of such work in the North Fleet, table some suggestions which allow to improve the administration of scientific and research work in the navy and also on the district scale.

  17. Research Productivity of ]unior Academic Staff at a Tertiary Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Productivity of ]unior Academic Staff at a Tertiary Medical College in South West, Nigeria. OA Lesi, OO Orenuga, A Roberts, OO Abudu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan; Merkies, Ingemar Sergio José; Barreira, A. A.; Bennett, D.; van den Bergh, P. Y. K.; Bril, V.; Devigili, G.; Hadden, R. D.; Hahn, A. F.; Hartung, H.-P.; Hughes, R. A. C.; Illa, I.; Katzberg, H.; Léger, J.-M.; Lewis, R. A.; Lunn, M. P. T.; Nascimento, O. J. M.; Nobile-Orazio, E.; Padua, L.; Pouget, J.; Reilly, M. M.; van Schaik, I.; Smith, B.; de Visser, M.; Walk, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal

  19. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Vanhoutte (Els); C.G. Faber (Carin); S.I. van Nes (Sonja); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); D.R. Cornblath (David); A.J. Kooj (Anneke); E.A. Cats (Elisabeth); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); N.C. Notermans (Nicolette); W.L. van der Pol (Ludo); M.C.E. Hermans; N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); K.C. Gorson (Kenneth); M. Eurelings (Marijke); L. Engelsman (Lyda); H. Boot (Hendrik); R.J. Meijer (Ron); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); C. Tennant (Christopher); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the

  20. Research Trends in Post‑Graduate Medical Students, Pune

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are evaluated according to study design, sample size, research ... literature. Aim: The aim of the study was bibliometric analysis of dissertations submitted by medical .... If relevant, consider translating estimates of relative risk into absolute risk for a meaningful time period .... patients and expertise of their Indian collaborators.

  1. Data analysis in medical education research : a multilevel perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leppink, Jimmie

    A substantial part of medical education research focuses on learning in teams (e.g., departments, problem-based learning groups) or centres (e.g., clinics, institutions) that are followed over time. Individual students or employees sharing the same team or centre tend to be more similar in learning

  2. Research trends in post graduate medical students, Pune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Scientific writings provide a link between production of knowledge and its use. They guide to plan for necessary improvements in treatment and prevention modalities. Inadequate and incomplete reporting of research studies weakens the medical literature. Aim: The aim of the study was bibliometric analysis of ...

  3. How is Funding Medical Research Better for Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Zwicker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With rising health care costs, often health research is viewed as a major cost driver, calling to question the role and value of provincial funding of health research. Most agree that the quality of healthcare provided is directly linked to our ability to conduct quality research; however currently there is little empirical evidence supporting the link between engagement in health research and healthcare performance. In Canada this has resulted in funding for health research that varies over time and between provinces. While medical knowledge is a public good, we hypothesize there are local benefits from health research, such as the attraction of a specialized human capital workforce, which fosters a culture of innovation in clinical practice. To address this question, we look at whether health outcomes are impacted by changes in provincial research funding in Alberta compared to other provinces. Provincial funding for medical research, which varies greatly over time and among provinces, is used as a proxy for medical treatment inputs. Trend rates of reduction in mortality from potentially avoidable causes (MPAC (comprised of mortality from preventable causes (MPC and mortality from treatable causes (MTC, are used as a proxy health outcome measure sensitive to the contributions of technological progress in medical treatment. Our analysis suggests that investment in health research has payback in health outcomes, with greater improvements in the province where the research occurs. The trend declines seen in age standardized MPAC rates in different Canadian provinces may be impacted by shifts in provincial research funding investment, suggesting that knowledge is not transferred without cost between provinces. Up until the mid-1980s, Alberta had the most rapid rate of decline in MPAC compared to the other provinces. This is striking given the large and unique investment in medical research funding in Alberta in the early 1980s through AHFMR, the

  4. Undergraduate Medical Education Research in Malaysia: Time for a Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Chin, Tan Geok; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Idrus, Ruszymah; Mohamad, Nabishah; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Special Study Module (SSM) is a mandatory research module implemented in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the student research activities and to find out the outcome measures in terms of publication. It was a retrospective study done on SSM research projects at UKM. The SSM research is conducted from beginning of year-4 until 1(st) seven weeks of year-5. In year-4, students are assigned to a faculty-supervisor in small groups and spend every Thursday afternoon to plan and carry the research. Whole first seven weeks of year-5, students are placed with their supervisor continuously to collect data, do analysis, write report and present in the scientific conference. Outcomes of 5-years SSM research-projects starting from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 academic session were analyzed. Total 257 projects were completed and presented in annual scientific meetings from which 57 (22.2%) articles were published in peer reviewed journals. Mandatory undergraduate student research project brings an opportunity to develop students' capacity building from conception to final report writing and thereby narrowing the gap between education and practice. Medical schools should implement research module to bring changes in research and publication culture of undergraduate medical education.

  5. Undergraduate Medical Education Research in Malaysia: Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Chin, Tan Geok; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Idrus, Ruszymah; Mohamad, Nabishah; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Special Study Module (SSM) is a mandatory research module implemented in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the student research activities and to find out the outcome measures in terms of publication. Methods: It was a retrospective study done on SSM research projects at UKM. The SSM research is conducted from beginning of year-4 until 1st seven weeks of year-5. In year-4, students are assigned to a faculty-supervisor in small groups and spend every Thursday afternoon to plan and carry the research. Whole first seven weeks of year-5, students are placed with their supervisor continuously to collect data, do analysis, write report and present in the scientific conference. Outcomes of 5-years SSM research-projects starting from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 academic session were analyzed. Results: Total 257 projects were completed and presented in annual scientific meetings from which 57 (22.2%) articles were published in peer reviewed journals. Conclusion: Mandatory undergraduate student research project brings an opportunity to develop students’ capacity building from conception to final report writing and thereby narrowing the gap between education and practice. Medical schools should implement research module to bring changes in research and publication culture of undergraduate medical education. PMID:26150832

  6. Increasing European Support for Neglected Infectious Disease Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole F. Olesen

    Full Text Available Neglected infectious diseases (NIDs are a persistent cause of death and disability in low-income countries. Currently available drugs and vaccines are often ineffective, costly or associated with severe side-effects. Although the scale of research on NIDs does not reflect their disease burden, there are encouraging signs that NIDs have begun to attract more political and public attention, which have translated into greater awareness and increased investments in NID research by both public and private donors. Using publicly available data, we analysed funding for NID research in the European Union's (EU's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7, which ran from 2007 to 2013. During FP7, the EU provided €169 million for 65 NID research projects, and thereby placed itself among the top global funders of NID research. Average annual FP7 investment in NID research exceeded €24 million, triple that committed by the EU before the launch of FP7. FP7 NID projects involved research teams from 331 different institutions in 72 countries on six continents, underlining the increasingly global nature of European research activities. NID research has remained a priority in the current EU Framework Programme for research and innovation, Horizon 2020, launched in 2014. This has most notably been reflected in the second programme of the European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP, which provides unprecedented opportunities to advance the clinical development of new medical interventions against NIDs. Europe is thus better positioned than ever before to play a major role in the global fight against NIDs.

  7. Medical care of type 2 diabetes in German disease management programmes: a population-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Reneé G; Schunk, Michaela V; Meisinger, Christine; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Leidl, Reiner; Holle, Rolf

    2011-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes disease management programmes (DDMPs) are offered by German social health insurance to promote healthcare consistent with evidence-based medical guidelines. The aim of this study was to compare healthcare quality and medical endpoints between diabetes management programme participants and patients receiving usual care designated as controls. All patients with type 2 diabetes (age range: 36-81) in a cross-sectional survey of a cohort study, performed by the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg, received a self-administered questionnaire regarding their diabetes care. Physical examination and laboratory tests were also performed. The analysis only included patients with social health insurance and whose participation status in a diabetes disease management program was validated by the primary physician (n = 166). Regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, education, diabetes duration, baseline waist circumference and clustering regarding primary physician were conducted. Evaluation of healthcare processes showed that those in diabetes disease management programmes (n = 89) reported medical examination of eyes and feet and medical advice regarding diet [odds ratio (OR): 2.39] and physical activity (OR: 2.87) more frequently, received anti-diabetic medications (OR: 3.77) and diabetes education more often (OR: 2.66) than controls. Both groups had satisfactory HbA(1c) control but poor low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control. Blood pressure goals (management programmes (OR: 2.21). German diabetes disease management programmes are associated with improved healthcare processes and blood pressure control. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control must be improved for all patients with diabetes. Further research will be required to assess the long-term effects of this diabetes disease management programme. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Quality assurance in military medical research and medical radiation accident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Mark E; Meineke, Viktor

    2012-08-01

    The provision of quality radiation-related medical diagnostic and therapeutic treatments cannot occur without the presence of robust quality assurance and standardization programs. Medical laboratory services are essential in patient treatment and must be able to meet the needs of all patients and the clinical personnel responsible for the medical care of these patients. Clinical personnel involved in patient care must embody the quality assurance process in daily work to ensure program sustainability. In conformance with the German Federal Government's concept for modern departmental research, the international standard ISO 9001, one of the relevant standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), is applied in quality assurance in military medical research. By its holistic approach, this internationally accepted standard provides an excellent basis for establishing a modern quality management system in line with international standards. Furthermore, this standard can serve as a sound basis for the further development of an already established quality management system when additional standards shall apply, as for instance in reference laboratories or medical laboratories. Besides quality assurance, a military medical facility must manage additional risk events in the context of early recognition/detection of health risks of military personnel on deployment in order to be able to take appropriate preventive and protective measures; for instance, with medical radiation accident management. The international standard ISO 31000:2009 can serve as a guideline for establishing risk management. Clear organizational structures and defined work processes are required when individual laboratory units seek accreditation according to specific laboratory standards. Furthermore, international efforts to develop health laboratory standards must be reinforced that support sustainable quality assurance, as in the exchange and comparison of test results within

  9. Frontiers in research on biodiversity and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Ostfeld, Richard S; Keesing, Felicia

    2015-10-01

    Global losses of biodiversity have galvanised efforts to understand how changes to communities affect ecological processes, including transmission of infectious pathogens. Here, we review recent research on diversity-disease relationships and identify future priorities. Growing evidence from experimental, observational and modelling studies indicates that biodiversity changes alter infection for a range of pathogens and through diverse mechanisms. Drawing upon lessons from the community ecology of free-living organisms, we illustrate how recent advances from biodiversity research generally can provide necessary theoretical foundations, inform experimental designs, and guide future research at the interface between infectious disease risk and changing ecological communities. Dilution effects are expected when ecological communities are nested and interactions between the pathogen and the most competent host group(s) persist or increase as biodiversity declines. To move beyond polarising debates about the generality of diversity effects and develop a predictive framework, we emphasise the need to identify how the effects of diversity vary with temporal and spatial scale, to explore how realistic patterns of community assembly affect transmission, and to use experimental studies to consider mechanisms beyond simple changes in host richness, including shifts in trophic structure, functional diversity and symbiont composition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocalyn Clark

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition ‘diseases’ so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions.

  11. An intelligent medical system for diagnosis of bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzilygeroudis, I.; Vassilakos, P.J.; Tsakalidis, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, aspects of the design of an intelligent medical system for diagnosis of bone diseases that can be detected by scintigraphic images are presented. The system comprises three major parts: a user interface (UI), a database management system (DBMS), and an expert system (ES). The DBMS is used for manipulation of various patient data. A number of patient cases are selected as prototype and stored in separate database. Diagnosis is performed via the ES, called XBONE, based on patient data. Knowledge is represented via an integrated formalism that combines production rules and a neural network. This results in better representation, and facilitates knowledge acquisition and maintenance. (authors)

  12. Optimising medication for Parkinson's disease patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krupa

    2015-07-01

    In addition to movement disorders, Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with several nonmotor symptoms, including dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). Dysphagia can make the consumption of solid medicines difficult, which potentially contributes to the poor adherence that is common among people with PD. However, patients may be reluctant to admit that they experience dysphagia. Community nurses should actively enquire into swallowing difficulties among all patients, not only those with PD, and should work with pharmacists and other members of the multidisciplinary team to help optimise medication management to help improve adherence.

  13. An intelligent medical system for diagnosis of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzilygeroudis, I [University of Patras, School of Engineering, Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics, 26500 Patras, Greece (Greece); Vassilakos, P J [Regional University Hospital of Patras, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras Greece (Greece); Tsakalidis, A [Computer Technology Institute, P.O. Box 1122, 26110 Patras, Greece (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, aspects of the design of an intelligent medical system for diagnosis of bone diseases that can be detected by scintigraphic images are presented. The system comprises three major parts: a user interface (UI), a database management system (DBMS), and an expert system (ES). The DBMS is used for manipulation of various patient data. A number of patient cases are selected as prototype and stored in separate database. Diagnosis is performed via the ES, called XBONE, based on patient data. Knowledge is represented via an integrated formalism that combines production rules and a neural network. This results in better representation, and facilitates knowledge acquisition and maintenance. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Laser treatment of medical skin disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, C; Chiaravalloti, A; Jinna, S; Berger, W; Finch, J

    2017-09-01

    Laser treatment is a relatively new and increasingly popular modality for the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. A number of conditions that predominantly occur in women and that have a paucity of effective treatments include rosacea, connective tissue disease, melasma, nevus of Ota, lichen sclerosus (LS), notalgia paresthetica and macular amyloidosis, and syringomas. Laser therapy is an important option for the treatment of patients with these conditions. This article will review the body of literature that exists for the laser treatment of women with these medical conditions.

  15. Laser treatment of medical skin disease in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. LaRosa, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser treatment is a relatively new and increasingly popular modality for the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. A number of conditions that predominantly occur in women and that have a paucity of effective treatments include rosacea, connective tissue disease, melasma, nevus of Ota, lichen sclerosus (LS, notalgia paresthetica and macular amyloidosis, and syringomas. Laser therapy is an important option for the treatment of patients with these conditions. This article will review the body of literature that exists for the laser treatment of women with these medical conditions.

  16. Contemporary medical therapies of atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Suk F; Brown, Martin M

    2017-03-01

    Contemporary medical therapy consists of identification and treatment of all patient-modifiable vascular risk factors. Specific atherosclerotic disease therapies are designed to reduce the risk of thrombosis, and the disease progression in order to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events. Contemporary medical management emphasizes the need to support the patient in achieving lifestyle modifications and to adjust medication to achieve individualized target values for specific quantifiable risk factors. Antiplatelet therapy in the form of aspirin or clopidogrel is routinely used for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a transient ischemic attack or stroke. There is evidence from a recent trial that the use of combination antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel started within 24 hours of minor stroke or transient ischemic attack reduces the risk of recurrent stroke compared to the use of aspirin alone, and therefore we use aspirin plus clopidogrel in recently symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis pending carotid revascularization. Anticoagulation with heparins or vitamin K antagonist is not recommended except in patients at risk for cardio-embolic events. Lowering blood pressure to target levels has been shown to slow down the progression of carotid artery stenosis and reduces the intima-media thickness of the carotid plaque, while lowering lipid levels with statins has become an essential element in the medical therapy of carotid artery stenosis. Diabetes management should be optimized. Lifestyle choices, including tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake, are all important modifiable vascular risk factors. The combination of dietary modification, physical exercise, and use of aspirin, a statin, and an antihypertensive agent can be expected to give a cumulative relative stroke risk reduction of 80%. The evidence suggests that intensive medical therapy is so effective that

  17. Significance of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Research in Current Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Swayam; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2016-01-01

    Human genome sequencing highlights the involvement of genetic variation towards differential risk of human diseases, presence of different phenotypes, and response to pharmacological elements. This brings the field of personalized medicine to forefront in the era of modern health care. Numerous recent approaches have shown that how variation in the genome at single nucleotide level can be used in pharmacological research. The two broad aspects that deal with pharmacological research are pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. This review encompasses how these variations have created the basis of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics research and important milestones accomplished in these two fields in different diseases. It further discusses at length their importance in disease diagnosis, response of drugs, and various treatment modalities on the basis of genetic determinants.

  18. Urogenital disease: current medical need and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoboski, M

    1998-11-01

    The Medicinal Chemistry Division session on Urogenital Disease began with an overview by Dr P-O Andersson (Pharmacia and Upjohn, MI, USA) of current medical need and recent advances in the field. Dr Andersson drew attention to the limited interest that pharmaceutical companies have historically shown in the area of non-malignant diseases of the urogenital tract. Conditions such as bladder overactivity and urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction have been poorly understood and have been regarded as unavoidable consequences of old age. One factor, which further compounds the problem, is that many people do not seek treatment, a practice which tends to lower the awareness of these conditions.

  19. Stem Cells and Liver Disease | Akhter | Internet Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver transplantation is the primary treatment for various end-stage hepatic diseases but is hindered by the lack of donor organs, complications associated with rejection and immunosuppression. An increasingly unbridgeable gap exists between the supply and demand of transplantable organs. Hence stem cell research ...

  20. Understanding the debate on medical education research: a sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu

    2004-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a debate has taken place among medical education scholars regarding the forms that research should take and the roles it should play. Editors of major journals in medical education and prominent researchers in the domain have repeatedly addressed the issue and have attempted to define what medical education research should be. The goal of this article is to look at the debate from a sociological perspective and to outline the social factors shaping it. An analysis of the texts published since 1990 addressing the issue shows that the debates can be deconstructed in four topics: epistemology, methodology, the primary purpose of medical education research, and the "quality" of the projects carried out in the domain. However, the debates can also be amalgamated and synthesized using the concept of "field" as developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. A "field" refers to the configuration of power relations among individuals, social groups, or institutions within a domain of activities. Scientific fields are typically structured around a "bipolar" opposition pattern. At one pole stand those individuals who promote greater collaboration with nonscientists as well as research aimed at responding to practical needs. At the opposite pole stand those individuals who aspire to achieve independence of the field from such external constraints. The use of the concept of "field" allows us to understand the debate from a larger perspective and to establish parallels with similar debates in other scientific fields. In doing so, we will have the opportunity to learn from the experience of these other fields and be more reflective about the debate in which we engage.

  1. Utilization of research reactors in universities and their medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji.

    1983-01-01

    In Japan, five research reactors and a critical assembly are operated by the universities. They are opened to all university researchers, the system of which is financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of the Japanese government. Usually KUR is operated eight cycles per year. One cycle consists of the following four week operation: 1. Mainly for researchers from other universities; 2. Mainly for researchers in the institute; 3. Mainly for beam experiment; 4. Sort time experiment. In the weeks of 1 ∼ 3 the KUR is operated continously from Tuesday morning to Friday evening. The experiment include studies on physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, engineering etc. Recently the medical application of research reactors has become popular in Japan. The new technique of the boron neutron capture thereby has been successfully applied to brain tumors and will be to melanoma (skin cancer) in near future. (author)

  2. Reprioritizing current research trends in medical education: a reflection on research activities in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Akef S; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous national efforts to determine and develop research priorities of medical education in Saudi Arabia. These priorities were first proposed in 2010 by "Dr Al-Khuli's Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia". The proposed priority domains were: curriculum, students, faculty, and quality assurance and accreditation. To investigate publications in medical education at the national and international levels in areas relating to these proposed priorities. Electronic search within PubMed database for papers relating to each domain of priority was conducted at national and international levels in the last three years, using the same keywords as the priority domains, but only confined to undergraduate medical education. Out of 3145 articles retrieved when searching with keyword as broad as "undergraduate medical curriculum" only 81 articles worldwide and 3 articles from Saudi Arabia were dealing with curriculum related issues as a whole. Further search on the sub-domains "effective strategies to manage undergraduate curriculum" and "undergraduate medical education models", resulted in the retrieval of few articles worldwide and none from Saudi Arabia. At the national level, there were 63 publications from Saudi Arabia that were either course (topic)-specific or could not be classified under the four domains specified by Dr Al-Khuli's Chair. Research activities in medical education in Saudi Arabia in the last 3 years showed diversity and lack of focus in the research priorities. Efforts of academic and research centers should continue to monitor and encourage these activities toward achieving the recommended priorities.

  3. Creating a medical education enterprise: leveling the playing fields of medical education vs. medical science research within core missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Ligon, B Lee; Singhal, Geeta; Schutze, Gordon E; Turner, Teri L

    2017-01-01

    Unlike publications of medical science research that are more readily rewarded, clinician-educators' scholarly achievements are more nebulous and under-recognized. Create an education enterprise that empowers clinician-educators to engage in a broad range of scholarly activities and produce educational scholarship using strategic approaches to level the playing fields within an organization. The authors analyzed the advantages and disadvantages experienced by medical science researchers vs. clinician educators using Bolman and Deal's (B&D) four frames of organization (structural, human resource, political, symbolic). The authors then identified organizational approaches and activities that align with each B&D frame and proposed practical strategies to empower clinician-educators in their scholarly endeavors. Our medical education enterprise enhanced the structural frame by creating a decentralized medical education unit, incorporated the human resource component with an endowed chair to support faculty development, leveraged the political model by providing grant supports and expanding venues for scholarship, and enhanced the symbolic frame by endorsing the value of education and public recognition from leaderships. In five years, we saw an increased number of faculty interested in becoming clinician-educators, had an increased number of faculty winning Educational Awards for Excellence and delivering conference presentations, and received 12 of the 15 college-wide awards for educational scholarship. These satisfactory trends reflect early success of our educational enterprise. B&D's organizational frames can be used to identify strategies for addressing the pressing need to promote and recognize clinician-educators' scholarship. We realize that our situation is unique in several respects, but this approach is flexible within an institution and transferable to any other institution and its medical education program. B&D: Bolman and Deal; CRIS: Center for Research

  4. An analysis of contextual information relevant to medical care unexpectedly volunteered to researchers by asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J

    2012-09-01

    To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.

  5. Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christopher P.; Balapure, Anil K.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bucher, John R.; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C.; Fowle, John R.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A.; Muotri, Alysson R.; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved. PMID:26523530

  6. Summer research training for medical students: impact on research self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michelle L; Curran, Maureen C; Golshan, Shahrokh; Daly, Rebecca; Depp, Colin; Kelly, Carolyn; Jeste, Dilip V

    2013-12-01

    There is a well-documented shortage of physician researchers, and numerous training programs have been launched to facilitate development of new physician scientists. Short-term research training programs are the most practical form of research exposure for most medical students, and the summer between their first and second years of medical school is generally the longest period they can devote solely to research. The goal of short-term training programs is to whet the students' appetite for research and spark their interest in the field. Relatively little research has been done to test the effectiveness of short-term research training programs. In an effort to examine short-term effects of three different NIH-funded summer research training programs for medical students, we assessed the trainees' (N = 75) research self-efficacy prior to and after the programs using an 11-item scale. These hands-on training programs combined experiential, didactic, and mentoring elements. The students demonstrated a significant increase in their self-efficacy for research. Trainees' gender, ranking of their school, type of research, and specific content of research project did not predict improvement. Effect sizes for different types of items on the scale varied, with the largest gain seen in research methodology and communication of study findings. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  8. Sir Edward Mellanby (1884-1955) GBE KCB FRCP FRS: nutrition scientist and medical research mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    Edward Mellanby used the experimental method to investigate medical problems. In 1918, working at King's College for Women, London, he provided conclusive evidence that rickets is a dietary deficiency disease due to lack of a fat-soluble vitamin [D]. In Sheffield he demonstrated that cereals, in an unbalanced diet, produced rickets due to the phytic acid content reducing the availability of calcium. Mellanby became Secretary of the Medical Research Council (1933-49) but continued his research by working at weekends. In the 1930s he campaigned for the results of nutritional research to be used for the benefit of public health. During World War II he acted as a scientific adviser to the War Cabinet and had a strong influence on the food policy which maintained successfully the nutrition of the population during the shipping blockade. Mellanby was a formidable person but with sagacity he promoted new research and guided the expansion of the organization.

  9. Parkinson disease: systemic and orofacial manifestations, medical and dental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Arthur H; Mahler, Michael; Norman, Keith M; Ettinger, Ronald L

    2009-06-01

    More than 1.5 million Americans have Parkinson disease (PD), and this figure is expected to rise as the population ages. However, the dental literature offers little information about the illness. The authors conducted a MEDLINE search using the key terms "Parkinson's disease," "medical management" and "dentistry." They selected contemporaneous articles published in peer-reviewed journals and gave preference to articles reporting randomized controlled trials. PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in tremor, slowness of movement, rigidity, postural instability and autonomic and behavioral dysfunction. Treatment consists of administering medications that replace dopamine, stimulate dopamine receptors and modulate other neurotransmitter systems. Oral health may decline because of tremors, muscle rigidity and cognitive deficits. The dentist should consult with the patient's physician to establish the patient's competence to provide informed consent and to determine the presence of comorbid illnesses. Scheduling short morning appointments that begin 90 minutes after administration of PD medication enhances the patient's ability to cooperate with care. Inclination of the dental chair at 45 degrees, placement of a bite prop, use of a rubber dam and high-volume oral evacuation enhance airway protection. To avoid adverse drug interactions with levodopa and entacapone, the dentist should limit administration of local anesthetic agents to three cartridges of 2 percent lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine per half hour, and patients receiving selegiline should not be given agents containing epinephrine or levonordefrin. The dentist should instruct the patient and the caregiver in good oral hygiene techniques.

  10. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS

  11. Pharmacological Treatments of Alzheimer’s Disease: Current Medication,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mowla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD that is identified by progressive cognitive deficit and behavioral disturbances (BD are the most common form of dementia. As the population is aging, patients with AD are becoming a serious burden for societies. In this study, current medication for cognitive deficit and behavioral disturbances are reviewed. Also the new treatment strategies for cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbances are surveyed. Methods: The method employed in this researh was a systematic bibliographic review, in which only the double-blind placebo-controlled studies or the clinically detailed enough open-labeled studies using validated scales were retained. Results: The efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (Tacrine, Rivastigmine, Donapezil and Galantamine has been demonstrated in several double blind placebo controlled clinical trials. They have shown a mild efficacy in mild to moderate AD. Memantine, a NMDA antagonist is the only drug that has demonstrated mild efficacy in moderate to severe AD in controlled clinical trial. Clinical trials surveying the efficacy of active and passive immunization against B amyloid protoin has halted due to serious adverse events. Studies of inducing neurogenesis in brain of AD patients are preliminary. Antipsychotics have shown efficacy for controlling BD of AD patients but they are associated with adverse events. Except for carbamazepine, there is not enough evidence for other anticanvulsants to be effective for behavioral disturbances of AD patients. A controlled clinical trial and some open studies have shown the efficacy of citalopram for BD. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of other medications like trazadon, buspiron and beta blockers for BD. Conclusion: Cholinesterase inhibitors have demonstrated disappointing results. Memantine is only mildly effective for cognitive deficit. To date, no amyloid-modifying therapy has yet been successful in phase 3 clinical trials

  12. Measuring research impact in medical research institutes: a qualitative study of the attitudes and opinions of Australian medical research institutes towards research impact assessment frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Simon; Reeves, Penny; Ramanathan, Shanthi; Attia, John; Nilsson, Michael; Searles, Andrew

    2018-03-16

    The question of how to measure, assess and optimise the returns from investment in health and medical research (HMR) is a highly policy-relevant issue. Research Impact Assessment Frameworks (RIAFs) provide a conceptual measurement framework to assess the impact from HMR. The aims of this study were (1) to elicit the views of Medical Research Institutes (MRIs) regarding objectives, definitions, methods, barriers, potential scope and attitudes towards RIAFs, and (2) to investigate whether an assessment framework should represent a retrospective reflection of research impact or a prospective approach integrated into the research process. The wider objective was to inform the development of a draft RIAF for Australia's MRIs. Purposive sampling to derive a heterogeneous sample of Australian MRIs was used alongside semi-structured interviews with senior executives responsible for research translation or senior researchers affected by research impact initiatives. Thematic analysis of the interview transcriptions using the framework approach was then performed. Interviews were conducted with senior representatives from 15 MRIs. Participants understood the need for greater research translation/impact, but varied in their comprehension and implementation of RIAFs. Common concerns included the time lag to the generation of societal impacts from basic or discovery science, and whether impact reflected a narrow commercialisation agenda. Broad support emerged for the use of metrics, case study and economic methods. Support was also provided for the rationale of both standardised and customised metrics. Engendering cultural change in the approach to research translation was acknowledged as both a barrier to greater impact and a critical objective for the assessment process. Participants perceived that the existing research environment incentivised the generation of academic publications and track records, and often conflicted with the generation of wider impacts. The potential to

  13. Military Medical Research in Support of National Instruments of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    diseases. Military sponsored research in the U.S. and abroad has produced antibiotic cures for typhoid and scrub typhus, new anti-malarial drugs, and...ARV drugs to Kenyan tea plantation workers has directly resulted in the reduction of absenteeism , maintenance of highly developed skill sets

  14. Ebola Virus Disease: Ethics and Emergency Medical Response Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S; Dudzinski, Denise M; Diekema, Douglas S; Tonelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Caring for patients affected with Ebola virus disease (EVD) while simultaneously preventing EVD transmission represents a central ethical challenge of the EVD epidemic. To address this challenge, we propose a model policy for resuscitation and emergent procedure policy of patients with EVD and set forth ethical principles that lend support to this policy. The policy and principles we propose bear relevance beyond the EVD epidemic, offering guidance for the care of patients with other highly contagious, virulent, and lethal diseases. The policy establishes (1) a limited code status for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD. Limited code status means that a code blue will not be called for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD at any stage of the disease; however, properly protected providers (those already in full protective equipment) may initiate resuscitative efforts if, in their clinical assessment, these efforts are likely to benefit the patient. The policy also requires that (2) resuscitation not be attempted for patients with advanced EVD, as resuscitation would be medically futile; (3) providers caring for or having contact with patients with confirmed or suspected EVD be properly protected and trained; (4) the treating team identify and treat in advance likely causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest to minimize the need for emergency response; (5) patients with EVD and their proxies be involved in care discussions; and (6) care team and provider discretion guide the care of patients with EVD. We discuss ethical issues involving medical futility and the duty to avoid harm and propose a utilitarian-based principle of triage to address resource scarcity in the emergency setting.

  15. Perspectives on electronic medical records adoption: electronic medical records (EMR in outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Belletti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dan Belletti1, Christopher Zacker1, C Daniel Mullins21Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Health information technology (HIT is engineered to promote improved quality and efficiency of care, and reduce medical errors. Healthcare organizations have made significant investments in HIT tools and the electronic medical record (EMR is a major technological advance. The Department of Veterans Affairs was one of the first large healthcare systems to fully implement EMR. The Veterans Health Information System and Technology Architecture (VistA began by providing an interface to review and update a patient’s medical record with its computerized patient record system. However, since the implementation of the VistA system there has not been an overall substantial adoption of EMR in the ambulatory or inpatient setting. In fact, only 23.9% of physicians were using EMRs in their office-based practices in 2005. A sample from the American Medical Association revealed that EMRs were available in an office setting to 17% of physicians in late 2007 and early 2008. Of these, 17% of physicians with EMR, only 4% were considered to be fully functional EMR systems. With the exception of some large aggregate EMR databases the slow adoption of EMR has limited its use in outcomes research. This paper reviews the literature and presents the current status of and forces influencing the adoption of EMR in the office-based practice, and identifies the benefits, limitations, and overall value of EMR in the conduct of outcomes research in the US.Keywords: electronic medical records, health information technology, medical errors

  16. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, D

    1996-01-01

    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  17. Providing physicians with feedback on medication adherence for people with chronic diseases taking long-term medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Vincent; Korb-Savoldelli, Virginie; Durieux, Pierre; Sabatier, Brigitte

    2018-01-10

    Poor medication adherence decreases treatment efficacy and worsens clinical outcomes, but average rates of adherence to long-term pharmacological treatments for chronic illnesses are only about 50%. Interventions for improving medication adherence largely focus on patients rather than on physicians; however, the strategies shown to be effective are complex and difficult to implement in clinical practice. There is a need for new care models addressing the problem of medication adherence, integrating this problem into the patient care process. Physicians tend to overestimate how well patients take their medication as prescribed. This can lead to missed opportunities to change medications, solve adverse effects, or propose the use of reminders in order to improve patients' adherence. Thus, providing physicians with feedback on medication adherence has the potential to prompt changes that improve their patients' adherence to prescribed medications. To assess the effects of providing physicians with feedback about their patients' medication adherence for improving adherence. We also assessed the effects of the intervention on patient outcomes, health resource use, and processes of care. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase, all from database inception to December 2016 and without any language restriction. We also searched ISI Web of Science, two trials registers, and grey literature. We included randomised trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series studies that compared the effects of providing feedback to physicians about their patients' adherence to prescribed long-term medications for chronic diseases versus usual care. We included published or unpublished studies in any language. Participants included any physician and any patient prescribed with long-term medication for chronic disease. We included interventions providing the prescribing physician with

  18. Obesity as a chronic disease: modern medical and lifestyle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, J M; Crossley, S; Ringer, R

    1998-10-01

    The United States is in the midst of an epidemic of obesity involving more than one third of the adult population. The prevalence of obesity increased by 40% between 1980 and 1990. Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifactorial etiology including genetics, environment, metabolism, lifestyle, and behavioral components. A chronic disease treatment model involving both lifestyle interventions and, when appropriate, additional medical therapies delivered by an interdisciplinary team including physicians, dietitians, exercise specialists, and behavior therapists offers the best chance for effective obesity treatment. Lifestyle factors such as proper nutrition, regular physical activity, and changes in eating behaviors should be coordinated by this team. This review addresses the modern epidemic of obesity, the strong association between obesity and comorbidities such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In addition to obesity, the health risks of abdominal obesity and adult weight gain are discussed. The evidence that supports health benefits from modest weight loss (between 5% and 10% of body weight) is evaluated and the 5 key principles of effective obesity therapy are put forward. Obesity is a therapeutic challenge best met by teams of health care professionals, including dietitians and physicians, working together to deliver optimal treatment.

  19. Research and investigation on medical usage of cyclotrons as a special research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, the special research project ''Research and investigation on the medical usage of cyclotrons'' had been carried out in the three years program from fiscal 1976 to 1978. Its purpose was to establish the methods of therapy using particle beam such as fast neutrons and the methods of diagnosis using short-lived radioisotopes and positron-emitting radioisotopes. The works were conducted comprehensively in cooperation of the personnel both in and outside the NIRS. Consequently, the purpose was able to be fulfilled satisfactorily. Following on this project, a new special research project ''Research and investigation on the medical usage of particle accelerators'' was started in fiscal 1979. These results are described on the effects of the therapy, diagnostic utilizations, and the medical usage of heavy ion accelerators. (J.P.N.)

  20. Automated collection of medical images for research from heterogeneous systems: trials and tribulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P.; Young, K.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2014-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. Over the past two decades both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging have undergone a rapid growth, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of medical images can provide an essential resource for research and training. Traditionally, the systematic collection of medical images for research from heterogeneous sites has not been commonplace within the NHS and is fraught with challenges including; data acquisition, storage, secure transfer and correct anonymisation. Here, we describe a semi-automated system, which comprehensively oversees the collection of both unprocessed and processed medical images from acquisition to a centralised database. The provision of unprocessed images within our repository enables a multitude of potential research possibilities that utilise the images. Furthermore, we have developed systems and software to integrate these data with their associated clinical data and annotations providing a centralised dataset for research. Currently we regularly collect digital mammography images from two sites and partially collect from a further three, with efforts to expand into other modalities and sites currently ongoing. At present we have collected 34,014 2D images from 2623 individuals. In this paper we describe our medical image collection system for research and discuss the wide spectrum of challenges faced during the design and implementation of such systems.

  1. Methodological considerations in observational comparative effectiveness research for implantable medical devices: an epidemiologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Jessica J; Ritchey, Mary Elizabeth; Mi, Xiaojuan; Chen, Chih-Ying; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H; Setoguchi, Soko

    2014-11-01

    Medical devices play a vital role in diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases and are an integral part of the health-care system. Many devices, including implantable medical devices, enter the market through a regulatory pathway that was not designed to assure safety and effectiveness. Several recent studies and high-profile device recalls have demonstrated the need for well-designed, valid postmarketing studies of medical devices. Medical device epidemiology is a relatively new field compared with pharmacoepidemiology, which for decades has been developed to assess the safety and effectiveness of medications. Many methodological considerations in pharmacoepidemiology apply to medical device epidemiology. Fundamental differences in mechanisms of action and use and in how exposure data are captured mean that comparative effectiveness studies of medical devices often necessitate additional and different considerations. In this paper, we discuss some of the most salient issues encountered in conducting comparative effectiveness research on implantable devices. We discuss special methodological considerations regarding the use of data sources, exposure and outcome definitions, timing of exposure, and sources of bias. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Research of Medical Expenditure among Inpatients with Unstable Angina Pectoris in a Single Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suo-Wei; Pan, Qi; Chen, Tong; Wei, Liang-Yu; Xuan, Yong; Wang, Qin; Li, Chao; Song, Jing-Chen

    2017-07-05

    With the rising incidence as well as the medical expenditure among patients with unstable angina pectoris, the research aimed to investigate the inpatient medical expenditure through the combination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) among patients with unstable angina pectoris in a Grade A tertiary hospital to conduct the referential standards of medical costs for the diagnosis. Single-factor analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression method were used to investigate 3933 cases between 2014 and 2016 in Beijing Hospital (China) whose main diagnosis was defined as unstable angina pectoris to determine the main factors influencing the inpatient medical expenditure, and decision tree method was adopted to establish the model of DRGs grouping combinations. The major influential factors of inpatient medical expenditure included age, operative method, therapeutic effects as well as comorbidity and complications (CCs) of the disease, and the 3933 cases were divided into ten DRGs by four factors: age, CCs, therapeutic effects, and the type of surgery with corresponding inpatient medical expenditure standards setup. Data of nonparametric test on medical costs among different groups were all significant (P angina pectoris is conducive in standardizing the diagnosis and treatment behaviors of the hospital and reducing economic burdens among patients.

  3. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2011-01-27

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East.During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar.WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

  4. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameduri Marco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

  5. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar. PMID:21272322

  6. Non-Medical Management of Raynaud’s Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-29

    initial cold exposure (p< .01). -This therapy offers a practical alternative to traditional treatments with drugs or sympathectomy, without unwarranted...cold and emotional upset; the use of tranquilizers and vasoail. t ing drugs ; or in extreme cases, sympathectomy. 4 There is controversy as to whether the...Disease 3 Pavlovian conditioning is an alternative method of counter-conditioning the autonomic nervous system. Research has shown that vasoconstriction and

  7. FY2000 report of the research results of medical/engineering cooperative research project, basic research on systems for minimally invasive diagnostic/treatment of circulatory system diseases, including prognostic diagnosis; 2000 nendo igaku kogaku renkeigata kenkyu jigyo, junkankikei shikkan ni taisuru yogo shindan wo fukumu teishinshu shindan chiryo system ni kansuru kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The basic researches on minimally invasive diagnostic/treatment systems are conducted for circulatory system diseases, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for developing the heart surgery supporting manipulator includes development of the manipulator of 7 degree of freedom and fail-safe mechanisms to be incorporated in the patient-side system, and research and development of the heart motion compensation type robot system. The program for developing the diagnosis/treatment system aided by intravascular optical analysis includes development of intravascular endoscopy by the aid of LED emitting blue color of high brightness, and automatic analyzer for the in vivo vascular endothelial cell functions. The program for the minimally invasive diagnostic system includes development of superimposing system for integrating the images by the NOGA system and cine-coronary angiography. The other R and D items include artificial vascular systems to be put in the blood vessels, adhesives for a living body, suture instruments for fine blood vessels, heart surgery supporting system, based on the infrared spectroscopy, endoscopic system for the cranical bones, arterialization method, and gene-aided treatment. (NEDO)

  8. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-05-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.

  9. Medical teachers' attitudes towards science and motivational orientation for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvek, Mario; Hren, Darko; Sambunjak, Dario; Planinc, Mislav; Macković, Maja; Marusić, Ana; Marusić, Matko

    2009-01-01

    Research is an important motivating factor for pursuing a career in academic medicine, but the relation between motivation and other factors involved in scientific research are not clear. To explore the motivational orientation for doing research and its relation with attitudes towards science and publication practice among members of faculty at a medical school. We used a Science Attitude Survey and the Work Preference Inventory (intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientation using 4 Likert-type scales of motivation, possible range 1-5) to survey two groups of teachers at the Zagreb University School of Medicine (n = 327, 66% response rate): professors, elected to tenure-track positions (n = 150), and instructor/research fellows working on or just completing their thesis (n = 177). Overall, teachers scored highest on the Enjoyment subscale of intrinsic motivational orientation (mean score +/- standard deviation 4.3 +/- 0.42 for professors vs 4.1 +/- 0.42 for instructors/research fellows, P = 0.001, t-test). Professors also scored higher than instructors/research fellows on the Challenge subscale of intrinsic motivational orientation (3.8 +/- 0.55 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.64, P motivational orientation (3.5 +/- 0.74 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.71, P motivation, and negatively associated with scores on the Compensation subscale of extrinsic motivation. Members of the medical faculty differ in motivational orientation for research depending on their academic status, and their motivation is associated more with requirements for academic advancement than with research. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for enhancing academic research production.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE CYCLOTRON IN MEDICAL RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Joseph G.

    1950-04-19

    The uses of radioactive isotopes in medical research can be conveniently divided into three principal categories; namely, the applications as tracers for the study of metabolic phenomena, as diagnostic aids in clinical medicine, and finally their role in therapy. Frequently radioisotopes available from the chain-reacting pile do not have a sufficient degree of specific activity for satisfactory use. A number of radioisotopes which can be produced with high specific activity in the pile possess half-lives too short to be of any practical value. Then, there are a few cases in which the desired radioisotope may be made in the pile with high specific activity, but concomitantly there is formed another radioisotope of the same element whose half-life is of such duration as to render its use hazardous in man. Finally, there are several elements of biological and medical interest whose radioactive isotopes can be produced only by the cyclotron.

  11. Advancing frontiers in Alzheimer's disease research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenner, G.G.; Wurtman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book contain 16 chapters. Some of the titles are: Transmitter Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease: Relation to Cortical Dysfunction as Suggested by Positron Emission Tomography; Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in the Clinical Evaluation of Dementia; Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease; Down's Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease: What is the Relationship; and Beta Protein: A Possible Marker for Alzheimer's Disease

  12. Ethik in der Medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung [Ethics in medical education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marienhagen, Jörg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Research ethics criteria that are used for reviewing clinical trials are also applicable to research designs used within the field of medical education. Especially the principles of nonmaleficence, informed consent, and freedom to participate are relevant in this area of research. Due to the high impact of university education on tomorrow’s doctors, high-quality ethical and methodological standards are essential in medical education research. A responsible handling of ethical problems in the area of medical education research requires careful handling of issues concerning participants, informed consent, and the methodology used. As it is obligatory in clinical trials, risk-benefit and cost-performance analyses have to be a part of the complete process, from the planning phase onwards, to avoid potential harm to the participants. Every publication of study results should contain information about the methodology used and the reliability of the data. It is important that the contribution of all mentioned co-authors becomes clear. The authors recommend the constitution of an ethics committee within the German Association for Medical Education (Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung, GMA to support researchers and to meet the interests of all groups involved. Additionally, more and more journals dealing with publications in the area of medical education demand an ethical statement as part of their publication requirements. The GMA is called on to establish such a committee to secure ethical standards for medical education research. [german] Es zeigt sich, dass forschungsethische Kriterien wie in medikamentösen Interventionsstudien auch in der Ausbildungsforschung sinnvoll und ohne große Einschnitte ins Studiendesign applizierbar sind. Das Nichtschadensprinzip, die informierte Einwilligung und Freiwilligkeit der Teilnahme stehen hierbei im Vordergrund. Aus dem hohen Stellenwert der Ausbildung für Studierende begründet sich ein

  13. Direct medical costs of hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases in Shanghai, China: trends and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Petzold, Max; Cao, Junshan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Weibing

    2015-05-01

    Few studies in China have focused on direct expenditures for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), making cost trends for CVDs uncertain. Epidemic modeling and forecasting may be essential for health workers and policy makers to reduce the cost burden of CVDs.To develop a time series model using Box-Jenkins methodology for a 15-year forecasting of CVD hospitalization costs in Shanghai.Daily visits and medical expenditures for CVD hospitalizations between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were analyzed. Data from 2012 were used for further analyses, including yearly total health expenditures and expenditures per visit for each disease, as well as per-visit-per-year medical costs of each service for CVD hospitalizations. Time series analyses were performed to determine the long-time trend of total direct medical expenditures for CVDs and specific expenditures for each disease, which were used to forecast expenditures until December 31, 2030.From 2008 to 2012, there were increased yearly trends for both hospitalizations (from 250,354 to 322,676) and total costs (from US $ 388.52 to 721.58 million per year in 2014 currency) in Shanghai. Cost per CVD hospitalization in 2012 averaged US $ 2236.29, with the highest being for chronic rheumatic heart diseases (US $ 4710.78). Most direct medical costs were spent on medication. By the end of 2030, the average cost per visit per month for all CVDs was estimated to be US $ 4042.68 (95% CI: US $ 3795.04-4290.31) for all CVDs, and the total health expenditure for CVDs would reach over US $1.12 billion (95% CI: US $ 1.05-1.19 billion) without additional government interventions.Total health expenditures for CVDs in Shanghai are estimated to be higher in the future. These results should be a valuable future resource for both researchers on the economic effects of CVDs and for policy makers.

  14. Direct Medical Costs of Hospitalizations for Cardiovascular Diseases in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Petzold, Max; Cao, Junshan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Weibing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few studies in China have focused on direct expenditures for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), making cost trends for CVDs uncertain. Epidemic modeling and forecasting may be essential for health workers and policy makers to reduce the cost burden of CVDs. To develop a time series model using Box–Jenkins methodology for a 15-year forecasting of CVD hospitalization costs in Shanghai. Daily visits and medical expenditures for CVD hospitalizations between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were analyzed. Data from 2012 were used for further analyses, including yearly total health expenditures and expenditures per visit for each disease, as well as per-visit-per-year medical costs of each service for CVD hospitalizations. Time series analyses were performed to determine the long-time trend of total direct medical expenditures for CVDs and specific expenditures for each disease, which were used to forecast expenditures until December 31, 2030. From 2008 to 2012, there were increased yearly trends for both hospitalizations (from 250,354 to 322,676) and total costs (from US $ 388.52 to 721.58 million per year in 2014 currency) in Shanghai. Cost per CVD hospitalization in 2012 averaged US $ 2236.29, with the highest being for chronic rheumatic heart diseases (US $ 4710.78). Most direct medical costs were spent on medication. By the end of 2030, the average cost per visit per month for all CVDs was estimated to be US $ 4042.68 (95% CI: US $ 3795.04–4290.31) for all CVDs, and the total health expenditure for CVDs would reach over US $1.12 billion (95% CI: US $ 1.05–1.19 billion) without additional government interventions. Total health expenditures for CVDs in Shanghai are estimated to be higher in the future. These results should be a valuable future resource for both researchers on the economic effects of CVDs and for policy makers. PMID:25997060

  15. Research reactor production of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    More than 70% of all radioisotopes applied in medical diagnosis and research are currently produced in research reactors. Research reactors are also an important source of certain radioisotopes, such as 60 Co, 90 Y, 137 Cs and 198 Au, which are employed in teletherapy and brachytherapy. For regular medical applications, mainly 29 radionuclides produced in research reactors are used. These are now produced on an 'industrial scale' by many leading commercial manufacturers in industrialized countries as well as by national atomic energy establishments in developing countries. Five main neutron-induced reactions have been employed for the regular production of these radionuclides, namely: (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,γ) followed by decay, and (n, fission). In addition, the Szilard-Chalmers process has been used in low- and medium-flux research reactors to enrich the specific activity of a few radionuclides (mainly 51 Cr) produced by the (n,γ) reaction. Extensive work done over the last three decades has resulted in the development of reliable and economic large-scale production methods for most of these radioisotopes and in the establishment of rigorous specifications and purity criteria for their manifold applications in medicine. A useful spectrum of other radionuclides with suitable half-lives and low to medium toxicity can be produced in research reactors, with the requisite purity and specific activity and at a reasonable cost, to be used as tracers. Thanks to the systematic work done in recent years by many radiopharmaceutical scientists, the radionuclides of several elements, such as arsenic, selenium, rhenium, ruthenium, palladium, cadmium, tellurium, antimony, platinum, lead and the rare earth elements, which until recently were considered 'exotic' in the biomedical field, are now gaining attention. (author)

  16. Fake facts and alternative truths in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2018-01-27

    Fake news and alternative facts have become commonplace in these so-called "post-factual times." What about medical research - are scientific facts fake as well? Many recent disclosures have fueled the claim that scientific facts are suspect and that science is in crisis. Scientists appear to engage in facting interests instead of revealing interesting facts. This can be observed in terms of what has been called polarised research, where some researchers continuously publish positive results while others publish negative results on the same issue - even when based on the same data. In order to identify and address this challenge, the objective of this study is to investigate how polarised research produce "polarised facts." Mammography screening for breast cancer is applied as an example. The main benefit with mammography screening is the reduced breast cancer mortality, while the main harm is overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Accordingly, the Overdiagnosis to Mortality Reduction Ratio (OMRR) is an estimate of the risk-benefit-ratio for mammography screening. As there are intense interests involved as well as strong opinions in debates on mammography screening, one could expect polarisation in published results on OMRR. A literature search identifies 8 studies publishing results for OMRR and reveals that OMRR varies 25-fold, from 0.4 to 10. Two experts in polarised research were asked to rank the attitudes of the corresponding authors to mammography screening of the identified publications. The results show a strong correlation between the OMRR and the authors' attitudes to screening (R = 0.9). Mammography screening for breast cancer appears as an exemplary field of strongly polarised research. This is but one example of how scientists' strong professional interests can polarise research. Instead of revealing interesting facts researchers may come to fact interests. In order to avoid this and sustain trust in science, researchers should disclose

  17. Facilities for Research and Development of Medical Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Chul; Choung, Won Myung; Park, Jin Ho

    2003-03-01

    This study is carried out by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to construct the basic facilities for development and production of medical radioisotope. For the characteristics of radiopharmaceuticals, the facilities should be complied with the radiation shield and GMP(Good Manufacturing Practice) guideline. The KAERI, which has carried out the research and development of the radiopharmaceuticals, made a design of these facilities and built them in the HANARO Center and opened the technique and facilities to the public to give a foundation for research and development of the radiopharmaceuticals. In the facilities, radiation shielding utilities and GMP instruments were set up and their operating manuals were documented. Every utilities and instruments were performed the test to confirm their efficiency and the approval for use of the facilities will be achieved from MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). It is expected to be applied in development of therapeutic radioisotope such as Re-188 generator and Ho-166, as well as Tc-99m generator and Sr-89 chloride for medical use. And it also looks forward to the contribution to the related industry through the development of product in high demand and value

  18. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  19. Skills Decay in Military Medical Training: A Meta-synthesis of Research Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Amber S; Caridha, Jona; Kunkler, Kevin J

    2018-01-01

    In fiscal year 2012, the Medical Simulation and Information Sciences Research Program released two Skills Decay (SD) research program announcements (PAs) under the Medical Readiness Initiative entitled "Medical Practice Initiative Breadth of Medical Practice & Disease Frequency Exposure (MPI-BMP)" and the "Medical Practice Initiative Procedural Skill Decay and Maintenance (MPI-PSD)." The Office of Naval Research also released a PA entitled "Medical Modeling and Simulation (MM&S) for Military Training and Education." A total investment of $12 M was made. This article provides a meta-synthesis of the Skills Decay research conducted under these efforts. The MSIRRP Medical Simulation Portfolio collected, reviewed, and analyzed the final reports of the Skills Decay research efforts from the three PAs. This paper provides a meta-synthesis of the outcomes of those studies. Focus of this study was to determine if the anticipated goals of the Skills Decay PAs were met as well as to provide a summary of lessons learned to the research community. Fourteen research questions posed by the PAs were structured into four main goals: (1) Skills Decay identification, (2) creation/validity of Skills Decay tools and feasibility and viability of data extraction project, (3) refreshment training to prevent or alleviate Skills Decay project, and (4) Skills Decay education content. Using a combination of training styles, choosing variables known to have Skills Decay predication value, and developing better ways of mining available data that can, in turn, provide feedback to training needs, it is possible for accurate Skills Decay models to be developed. These technologies have the ability not only capture the learner's reaction during the simulation, but to capture the simulation outcomes to predict a medical professional's level of experience and background. Lessons learned from the investments made by the government are extremely important in order to ensure that the outcomes of the

  20. Medication therapy disease management: Geisinger's approach to population health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laney K; Greskovic, Gerard; Grassi, Dante M; Graham, Jove; Sun, Haiyan; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Murray, Michael F; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Nathanson, Douglas C; Wright, Eric A; Evans, Michael A

    2017-09-15

    Pharmacists' involvement in a population health initiative focused on chronic disease management is described. Geisinger Health System has cultivated a culture of innovation in population health management, as highlighted by its ambulatory care pharmacy program, the Medication Therapy Disease Management (MTDM) program. Initiated in 1996, the MTDM program leverages pharmacists' pharmacotherapy expertise to optimize care and improve outcomes. MTDM program pharmacists are trained and credentialed to manage over 16 conditions, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Over a 15-year period, Geisinger Health Plan (GHP)-insured patients with AF whose warfarin therapy was managed by the MTDM program had, on average, 18% fewer emergency department (ED) visits and 18% fewer hospitalizations per year than GHP enrollees with AF who did not receive MTDM services, with 23% lower annual total care costs. Over a 2-year period, GHP-insured patients with MS whose pharmacotherapy was managed by pharmacists averaged 28% fewer annual ED visits than non-pharmacist-managed patients; however, the mean annual total care cost was 21% higher among MTDM clinic patients. The Geisinger MTDM program has evolved over 20 years from a single pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic into a large program focused on managing the health of an ever-growing population. Initial challenges in integrating pharmacists into the Geisinger patient care framework as clinical experts were overcome by demonstrating the MTDM program's positive impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  2. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.H.

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group

  3. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    public health significance in the region, including malaria and dengue fever , yellow fever , viral encephalitis, leishmaniasis, and enteric...diseases such as shigellosis and typhoid fever . The goal of the laboratory is to research, understand, and develop protective strategies against...celebrating its 70th anniversary. CAC’s walled 11-acre campus is a 24/7 controlled -access haven of green space containing individual elementary, middle

  4. The four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms and its application in medical imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chongguo; Wu Dake

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging simulation is a powerful tool for characterizing,evaluating,and optimizing medical imaging devices and techniques. A vital aspect of simulation is to have a realistic phantom or model of the subject's anatomy. Four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms provide realistic models of the mouse anatomy and physiology for imaging studies. When combined with accurate models for the imaging process,are capable of providing a wealth of realistic imaging data from subjects with various anatomies and motions (cardiac and respiratory) in health and disease. With this ability, the four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms have enormous potential to study the effects of anatomical, physiological and physical factors on medical and small animal imaging and to research new instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, image processing, reconstruction methods, image visualization and interpretation techniques. (authors)

  5. The Problems of Digestive Diseases in Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out an analysis of the 46 theses defended in the subject 14.01.36 «gastroenterology». Of these, 40 % of doctorate theses deals with problems of bowel disease, 40 % — peptic ulcer disease, and 20 % — chronic pancreatitis. In the structure of the thesis for the degree of candidate of sciences 29.5 % defended on the subject of peptic ulcer disease, 22.7 % — intestinal diseases, 18.2 % — gastroesophageal reflux disease, 13.6 % — biliary pathology, 6.8 % — gastritis diseases, and 9.1 % — liver diseases. Most of the theses deals with questions of conservative management of patients with digestive pathology, their rehabilitation, achievement of compliance to therapy. Along with the theses highlighted the issues on pathophysiology of the digestive organs, and the impact of diseases of other organs on the digestive system.

  6. Canadian Neutron Source (CNS): a research reactor solution for medical isotopes and neutrons for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes a dual purpose research facility at the University of Saskatchewan for Canada for the production of medical isotopes and neutrons for scientific research. The proposed research reactor is intended to supply most of Canada's medical isotope requirements and provide a neutron source for Canada's research community. Scientific research would include materials research, biomedical research and imaging.

  7. Community action research track: Community-based participatory research and service-learning experiences for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Nora; Kindratt, Tiffany; Dawson, Alvin; Pagels, Patti

    2018-04-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and service-learning are unique experiential approaches designed to train medical students how to provide individualized patient care from a population perspective. Medical schools in the US are required to provide support for service-learning and community projects. Despite this requirement, few medical schools offer structured service-learning. We developed the Community Action Research Track (CART) to integrate population medicine, health promotion/disease prevention and the social determinants of health into the medical school curriculum through CBPR and service-learning experiences. This article provides an overview of CART and reports the program impact based on students' participation, preliminary evaluations and accomplishments. CART is an optional 4‑year service-learning experience for medical students interested in community health. The curriculum includes a coordinated longitudinal program of electives, community service-learning and lecture-based instruction. From 2009-2015, 146 CART students participated. Interests in public health (93%), community service (73%), primary care (73%), CBPR (60%) and community medicine (60%) were the top reasons for enrolment. Significant improvements in mean knowledge were found when measuring the principles of CBPR, levels of prevention, determining health literacy and patient communication strategies (all p's Projects were disseminated by at least 65 posters and four oral presentations at local, national and international professional meetings. Six manuscripts were published in peer-reviewed journals. CART is an innovative curriculum for training future physicians to be community-responsive physicians. CART can be replicated by other medical schools interested in offering a longitudinal CBPR and service-learning track in an urban metropolitan setting.

  8. The Medical Activation Analysis Research Programme of the IAEA Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R. M. [Medical Applications Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-07-01

    Analyses carried out under the Agency's laboratory programme in medical activation analysis commended in 1967. This paper describes the laboratory facilities and experimental methods now in use, and reports briefly on results obtained to date. The analytical scheme places greatest emphasis on non-destructive methods (i.e. without radiochemistry), and by the use of a Ge(Li) detector and a 2-parameter Nal(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, presently allows the determination of up to 12 elements in unprocessed tissue samples. Projects completed or underway include (i) an investigation into the uniformity of distribution of mineral elements in human liver, (ii) studies of tissue concentrations of trace elements in relation to malnutrition and cardiovascular diseases, and (iii) the determination of iodine in food, natural waters and other biological materials in relation to the epidemiology of endemic goitre. (author)

  9. 78 FR 76507 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Cancer (Malignant Neoplastic Diseases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... include updating the medical terminology in the listings. For example, we would replace the term ``Hodgkin... Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Cancer (Malignant Neoplastic Diseases); Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  10. Collaborative research efforts and related activities of the Office of Rare Diseases Research at the USA National Institutes of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Groft

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Rare diseases present unique challenges to meet the numerous and varied needs of the rare diseases community and it is required to identify and address these needs. Significant financial and personnel resources are required to address these needs identified. The Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR at the USA National Institutes of Health (NIH has attempted to meet many of these needs in collaborative efforts with the research Institutes and Centers of NIH and other partners in the private and public sectors in the USA and around the world. Several of the activities of the NIH and the ORDR are presented as possible collaborative efforts available to research investigators and include the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network, the Bench-to-Bedside research program at NIH, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information center, the genetic test development program, and the information on clinical research studies made available through Clinical trials.gov. The value of an appropriate family medical history is discussed as are the provisions of the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act of 2008 (GINA. Definitions of rare or orphan diseases vary from country to country and may cause some confusion to the rare diseases community.

    Conclusions: Rare diseases are not limited by geographical or historical boundaries and global partnerships of the rare diseases community are experiencing rapid expansion to assist in the development of orphan products for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases and conditions. The unmet needs of the rare diseases community require additional innovative research and educational programs to reach the extensive global populations affected by the thousands of different rare diseases including activities with the National Organization for Rare Disorders and the Genetic Alliance.

  11. Leaving against medical advice of addicted to drugs in a Department of Infectious Diseases: Economical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia González

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Giving up health recommendations and care against medical advice is a setback that may happen in daily health work. In a pilot study made at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, Spain, during the first five months in 1998, the incidence of leaving against medical advice was 12,3 times higher than the mean in that hospital (7,03% vs 0,57%. Patients involved in this kind of event were drug abusers with acute infectious problems in a HIV primary infection or a multiple drug dependency. 42% of this patients returned to the hospital in the next 15 days. The research group thought out to study this problem under this hypothesis: Leaving against medical advice, besides having harmful consequences for the patient and the public health, produces an increase in the cost and the stay of the patient in hospital.The main objective of the research was to set up the economic the deviation in the cost/stay of a group of patients that had left against medical advice or in a regular process. It is a prospective and observational study. We studied 284 drug abusers staying in the Department of Infectious Diseases between Oct, 1st, 1999 and Sept, 30th, 2000. The research variables were: 1. Sociodemographic: Initials, , age, sex, and history number. 2. Clinical: Leaving medical diagnosis, returning medical diagnosis. 3. Administrative: Group of Related Diagnosis (GRD, admission date, leaving date, returning date and estimated cost of the episode. All episodes were grouped by kind of leaving and GRD. The cost/stay was calculated adjusted to GRD, and the deviations inside GRD were analyzed in the regular leaving group and the leaving against medical advice group.Results: Around 90% admission episodes were grouped in 6 GRD: 714 (47.92%, 541 (8.85%, 709 (8.85%, 710 (7,81%, 101 (7,29% y 715 (7,29%. The Pneumonia in HIV (GRD 714 caused the majority of the admissions. Global deviation adjusted to cost/stay was 29,44% (more expensive

  12. Spirometry utilisation among Danish adults initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Mette Marie

    2015-02-01

    This PhD thesis was written during my employment at the Research Unit of General Practice in Odense, University of Southern Denmark. It comprises an overview and three papers, all published or submitted for publication in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.   Non-infectious dyspnoea, chronic cough and wheezing are common symptoms in the population. Patients often present with these symptoms in general practice and have a high probability of having obstructive lung diseases. However, there is an indication that the majority of these patients are treated empirically with pharmacotherapy targeting obstructive lung disease and only few have additional tests conducted, although the predictive value of respiratory symptoms for diagnosing obstructive lung disease has proven to be low. Spirometry is recommended as the gold standard for confirming obstructive lung disease, and testing can also rule out airway obstruction in patients with respiratory symptoms caused by other illnesses, such as heart failure or lung cancer. Initiating medication for obstructive lung disease without spirometry entails the risk of these patients experiencing unnecessary delay in the diagnostic process and being exposed to unnecessary economic costs and medication risks. The literature has indicated that many users of medication targeting obstructive lung medication have not had spirometry performed and do not actually have obstructive lung disease. This potential quality gap needs to be assessed. Also, in order to target interventions enhancing earlier spirometry utilisation among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease, improved knowledge on patient and practice factors associated with spirometry testing is needed.   Among first time users of obstructive lung medication we aimed: - To assess to what extent spirometry was performed within the first year of medication use (Study I) - To assess if patient characteristics like socioeconomic and demographic

  13. Is Qualitative Research Second Class Science? A Quantitative Longitudinal Examination of Qualitative Research in Medical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E.; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, Pqualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitative research, as expressed by the

  14. The Place of Crowdfunding in the Discovery of Scientific and Social Value of Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Savio, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems. I start with the idea that medical knowledge is a structured and intermediate public good and explain from this perspective that funding systems as a whole, rather than any of their parts (such as expert-based reviews) ought to be considered devices for the discovery of the social and scientific value of research. If so, we should not be concerned with whether crowdfunding bypasses expert reviews, but with whether it may constitute an improvement of extant funding systems. In the second part, I speculate that crowdfunding may ameliorate, albeit limitedly, some recalcitrant failures of funding systems, such as the sponsorship of research on neglected diseases, and smooth funding adaptations for scientific transitions. If, after trial, such hypotheses turn out to be true, crowdfunding ought to be promoted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  16. Automatic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity from the electronic medical records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    Full Text Available We aimed to mine the data in the Electronic Medical Record to automatically discover patients' Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity at discrete rheumatology clinic visits. We cast the problem as a document classification task where the feature space includes concepts from the clinical narrative and lab values as stored in the Electronic Medical Record.The Training Set consisted of 2792 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 1 included 1749 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 2 included 344 clinical notes for which there were no associated lab values. The Apache clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System was used to analyze the text and transform it into informative features to be combined with relevant lab values.Experiments over a range of machine learning algorithms and features were conducted. The best performing combination was linear kernel Support Vector Machines with Unified Medical Language System Concept Unique Identifier features with feature selection and lab values. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC is 0.831 (σ = 0.0317, statistically significant as compared to two baselines (AUC = 0.758, σ = 0.0291. Algorithms demonstrated superior performance on cases clinically defined as extreme categories of disease activity (Remission and High compared to those defined as intermediate categories (Moderate and Low and included laboratory data on inflammatory markers.Automatic Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity discovery from Electronic Medical Record data is a learnable task approximating human performance. As a result, this approach might have several research applications, such as the identification of patients for genome-wide pharmacogenetic studies that require large sample sizes with precise definitions of disease activity and response to therapies.

  17. Influence of risk factors on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and legislative foundations for copd medical care in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalchuk, Vasyl M; Vasyliev, Averian G

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Out of all respiratory diseases COPD is the leading cause of death and is characterized with diffuse non-reversible airway obstruction. Many various components play role in development and progression of this disease, while COPD risk factors play the most prominent role. Further progress in healthcare system development around COPD in Ukraine requires analysis of legislation, regulating pulmonological medical service in Ukraine. The aim: To analyze the influence of major risk factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to determine key legislative aspects of the organization of medical care for COPD patients in Ukraine. Materials and methods: 50 medical literature sources were systematically reviewed as the material for the research of COPD risk factors and their impact on studies disease. Also, an analysis of existing legislative acts regulating the pulmonological medical care in Ukraine, specifically, in patients with COPD, was conducted. Conclusions: There is a need to develop and implement a set of organizational and medical measures aiming at addressing the priorities of public healthcare, and specifically improvement of the quality of medical care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Ukraine.

  18. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

    2008-02-29

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery

  19. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery devices

  20. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Medical & Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System collects demographic and medical information on subjects who participate in research. Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  1. Radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Xie, Jiawei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jinsong; Chen, Suyun

    2016-02-18

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Both antithyroid medications and radioiodine are commonly used treatments but their frequency of use varies between regions and countries. Despite the commonness of the diagnosis, any possible differences between the two treatments with respect to long-term outcomes remain unknown. To assess the effects of radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease. We performed a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE and the trials registers ICTRP Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. The date of the last search was September 2015 for all databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease with at least two years follow-up. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance. One author carried out screening for inclusion, data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment and a second author checked this. We presented data not suitable for meta-analysis as descriptive data. We analysed the overall quality of evidence utilising the GRADE instrument. We included two RCTs involving 425 adult participants with Graves' disease in this review. Altogether 204 participants were randomised to radioiodine therapy and 221 to methimazole therapy. A single dose of radioiodine was administered. The duration of methimazole medication was 18 months. The period of follow-up was at least two years, depending on the outcome measured. For most outcome measures risk of bias was low; for the outcomes health-related quality of life as well as development and worsening of Graves' ophthalmopathy risks of performance bias and detection bias were high in at least one of the two RCTs.Health-related quality of life appeared to be similar in the radioiodine and methimazole treatment groups, however no quantitative data were reported (425 participants; 2 trials; low quality evidence

  2. Diabetes, Obesity, and Other Medical Diseases - Is Surgery the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Dieter; Bloomenthal, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    For many physicians, the concept of surgery as the best treatment for a medical disease such as diabetes, cardiovascular problems, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, hepatosteatosis, GERD, osteoarthritis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, or infertility, still sounds wrong and just a ploy by surgeons to increase their business. Since 2011, however, several non-surgical societies have recommended Weight Loss Surgery - The International Diabetes Federation, The American Diabetes Association, American Heart Association, and Obesity Society in 2015 for patients with body mass index (BMI) greater than 35 and diabetes, and to decrease cardiovascular risk factors.1 The concept is to treat the common underlying problem, which is obesity, with the most effective method for immediate and long-term weight loss, which is surgery. The term "metabolic" surgery was therefore coined to accurately describe the effects of weight loss (bariatric) surgery. Our specialty society named itself the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS). [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].

  3. [Medical treatment of chronic venous disease: evolution or involution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, G B

    2011-06-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is an important clinical condition with substantial epidemiological implications and socio-economic repercussions. In the Western world the consequences of its high prevalence, the costs of diagnosis and therapy, the significant loss of working hours and the repercussions on patients'quality of life are well known. Pharmacotherapy for CVD has greatly developed over the last 40 years and largely used in the symptomatic treatment of CVD together with compression therapy and to make patients more comfortable. The clinical efficacy on the symptoms (feeling of heaviness, pain, paresthesia, heat and burning sensations, night cramps, etc.) has long been confirmed by Level III, IV and V evidence, but there are now Level I and II trials on specific drugs. For the bioflavonoids double-blind, randomised trials have used micronized purified flavonoid fraction; rutosides; escin; anthocyanosides; and synthetic calcium dobesilate. It was therefore surprising some recent difficulties in the use of this important treatment in health national system in Italy. In this up-date we use the method on evidence-based medicine from the medical literature. We have started a governance and economic analysis of the problem in Italy. Particular consideration was given to the evidence set out in review, meta-analysis, guidelines and Consensus Statements in this field. The evidence for pharmacological agents in the treatment of CVD suggests today a wide use in all CEAP classes.

  4. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Carlos; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-04-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." We searched through PUBMED for noteworthy articles published in Brazilian medical journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports of the Institute of Scientific Information to better expose them to our readership. The following journals were examined: "Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia," "Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia," "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Reviews," "Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia," "Jornal de Pediatria," "Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular," "Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira," Revista da Escola de Enfermagem U.S.P." and "São Paulo Medical Journal." These journals publish original investigations in the field of cardiopulmonary disease. The search produced 71 references, which are briefly examined.

  5. Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tømmerås Karin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes

  6. Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunskaar, Steinar; Breivik, Jarle; Siebke, Maje; Tømmerås, Karin; Figenschau, Kristian; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes access to PhD courses before the

  7. Resources, challenges and way forward in rare mitochondrial diseases research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Vipin; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Over 300 million people are affected by about 7000 rare diseases globally. There are tremendous resource limitations and challenges in driving research and drug development for rare diseases. Hence, innovative approaches are needed to identify potential solutions. This review focuses on the resources developed over the past years for analysis of genome data towards understanding disease biology especially in the context of mitochondrial diseases, given that mitochondria are central to major cellular pathways and their dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of diseases. Platforms for collaboration of research groups, clinicians and patients and the advantages of community collaborative efforts in addressing rare diseases are also discussed. The review also describes crowdsourcing and crowdfunding efforts in rare diseases research and how the upcoming initiatives for understanding disease biology including analyses of large number of genomes are also applicable to rare diseases.

  8. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An innovative portfolio of research training programs for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, Karen; Wyatt, Christina; Muller, David

    2012-12-01

    Medical student education continues to evolve, with an increasing emphasis on evidence-based decision making in clinical settings. Many schools are introducing scholarly programs to their curriculum in order to foster the development of critical thinking and analytic skills, encourage self-directed learning, and develop more individualized learning experiences. In addition, participation in rigorous scholarly projects teaches students that clinical care and research should inform each other, with the goal of providing more benefit to patients and society. Physician-scientists, and physicians who have a better appreciation of science, have the potential to be leaders in the field who will deliver outstanding clinical care, contribute new knowledge, and educate their patients.

  10. Manufacturing radioactive material for medical, research and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Hospitals, clinics and other medical complexes are among the most extensive users of radioactive material. Nuclear medicine uses radioactive solutions of Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Xe-133 and other radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic tools to evaluate dynamic functions of various organs in the body, detect cancerous tumors, sites of infection or other bodily dysfunctions. Examples of monitoring blood flow to the brain of a cocaine addict will be shown. Many different radionuclides are also produced for life science research and industrial applications. Some require long irradiations and are needed only periodically. Radiopharmaceutical manufactures look for reliable suppliers that can produce quality product at a reasonable cost. Worldwide production of the processed and unprocessed radionuclides and the enriched stable nuclides that are the target materials used in the accelerators and reactors around the world will be discussed. (author)

  11. Final report of the group research. Advanced Technology for Medical Imaging Research. 1996-2000 FY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report involves the organization of the research groups (4 units of radiopharmaceutical chemistry, radiotracer and radiopharmacology, clinical imaging, and molecular informative research), 5 research reports and 38 published research papers. The research reports concern Fundamental researches on the availability and production of PET radiopharmaceuticals using the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) cyclotron, Design and evaluation of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals for PET measurement (kinetics and metabolism in small animals and primates), Fundamental studies on development of technique radiation measurement, Clinical application of medical imaging technology in the fields of neuroscience, cardiovascular, cancer diagnosis and others, and A study to establish and evaluate a lung cancer screening system using spiral CT units which is in pilot-progress in Kanto and Kansai regions. (N.I.)

  12. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Introduction to Medical Research Council Delivery Plan during 2009 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Medical Research Foundation is the Medical Research Council's (MRC) independently managed charity.It receives funds from the giving public to support medical research, training, public engagement and dissemination of knowledge.Since it was first established in 1920, the MRC has been able to accept charitable bequests, endowments and donations from the public to contribute towards the costs of the research that it undertakes.The MRC registered these charitable funds with the Charity Commission in the late 1960's and its charity - the Medical Research Foundation-has been successfully supporting medical research for over 80 years.

  14. Research Priority Setting for Social Determinants of Health Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: It is obvious that, because of the lack of resources, we should devote our limited resources to priorities in order to reach an acceptable level of health. The objective of this study was to research priority setting for Pediatric Surgery Research Center; with the participation of all stakeholders.Material and Methods: This is a Health System Research (HSR project in order to apply governance and leadership issues with the participation of 41 people including faculty members in Pediatric Surgery Research Center, Shahid Beheshti Medical University and the other pediatric specialists and health system stakeholders as well as the people associated with health system inside & outside the university. This was performed in 2010 using the Council on Health Research for Development COHRED( model with little change. Based on the model, at first the stakeholders were identified and the field situation of Pediatric Surgery was analyzed. Then, research areas and titles were specified and research priorities were set out by giving scores according to the criteria.Results: The seven obtained research areas in priority order are included pediatric trauma, pediatric cancers, pediatric urology diseases, undescended testicles in children, developmental genetics & congenital defects, emergency in children and application of laparoscopic surgery in children. Because each of the research areas is composed of multiple subareas, we managed to finally specify 43 research subareas as research priorities. These subareas included epidemiology, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment. They also included follow-up, complications, knowledge & attitudes of parents, quality of life, economy aspects and data bank for further research.Conclusion: In this project, research priorities were set out for Pediatric Surgery Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, with the participation of all the stakeholders

  15. History and perspectives of medical research at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramharter, Michael; Adegnika, Ayola A; Agnandji, Selidji T; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Grobusch, Martin P; Winkler, Stefan; Graninger, Wolfgang; Krishna, Sanjeev; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Lell, Bertrand; Missinou, Michel A; Mavoungou, Elie; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    In 1913 Albert Schweitzer founded one of the first modern hospitals in Africa dedicated to the health of the local population. The Albert Schweitzer Hospital is located in Lambaréné, a small town in Gabon. In 1981 a research department--the Medical Research Unit--was established with the aim to perform research in the field of infectious diseases ( www.lambarene.org ). The main focus lies on clinical research on malaria and other parasitic diseases. Studies on the molecular biology and immunology of parasitic diseases are fostered since the inauguration of a novel building dedicated for basic science. A training program in clinical research in tropical diseases for African scientists has been set up recently.

  16. Recruiting for health, medical or psychosocial research using Facebook: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Thornton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting participants is a challenge for many health, medical and psychosocial research projects. One tool more frequently being used to improve recruitment is the social networking website Facebook. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that have used Facebook to recruit participants of all ages, to any psychosocial, health or medical research. 110 unique studies that used Facebook as a recruitment source were included in the review. The majority of studies used a cross-sectional design (80% and addressed a physical health or disease issue (57%. Half (49% of the included studies reported specific details of the Facebook recruitment process. Researchers paid between $1.36 and $110 per completing participants (Mean = $17.48, SD = $23.06. Among studies that examined the representativeness of their sample, the majority concluded (86% their Facebook-recruited samples were similarly representative of samples recruited via traditional methods. These results indicate that Facebook is an effective and cost-efficient recruitment method. Researchers should consider their target group, advertisement wording, offering incentives and no-cost methods of recruitment when considering Facebook as a recruitment source. It is hoped this review will assist researchers to make decisions regarding the use of Facebook as a recruitment tool in future research.

  17. Publication of research projects for certification as medical specialists at a peruvian university, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ticse, Ray; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico internista endocrinólogo; magíster en Epidemiología Clínica.; Ygreda, Patricia; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico cirujano.; Samalvides, Frine; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the frequency of publication in a scientific journal of the research projects done for medical specialty certification, a search was conducted in Google Scholar, Pubmed, biomedical databases and Peruvian medical society journals. These publications were research projects carried out by medical residents graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, to obtain the certification of medical specialist. Of 351 medical residents graduated ...

  18. Do you think it's a disease? a survey of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erueti Chrissy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of medical conditions is influenced by whether clinicians regard them as "disease" or "not a disease". The aim of the survey was to determine how medical students classify a range of conditions they might encounter in their professional lives and whether a different name for a condition would influence their decision in the categorisation of the condition as a 'disease' or 'not a disease'. Methods We surveyed 3 concurrent years of medical students to classify 36 candidate conditions into "disease" and "non-disease". The conditions were given a 'medical' label and a (lay label and positioned where possible in alternate columns of the survey. Results The response rate was 96% (183 of 190 students attending a lecture: 80% of students concurred on 16 conditions as "disease" (eg diabetes, tuberculosis, and 4 as "non-disease" (eg baldness, menopause, fractured skull and heat stroke. The remaining 16 conditions (with 21-79% agreement were more contentious (especially obesity, infertility, hay fever, alcoholism, and restless leg syndrome. Three pairs of conditions had both a more, and a less, medical label: the more medical labels (myalgic encephalomyelitis, hypertension, and erectile dysfunction were more frequently classified as 'disease' than the less medical (chronic fatigue syndrome, high blood pressure, and impotence, respectively, significantly different for the first two pairs. Conclusions Some conditions excluded from the classification of "disease" were unexpected (eg fractured skull and heat stroke. Students were mostly concordant on what conditions should be classified as "disease". They were more likely to classify synonyms as 'disease' if the label was medical. The findings indicate there is still a problem 30 years on in the concept of 'what is a disease'. Our findings suggest that we should be addressing such concepts to medical students.

  19. Starting Where the People Are: The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF). Carnegie Quarterly, Volume XXXII, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie Quarterly, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This issue of the "Carnegie Quarterly" describes three projects that are being conducted by the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF). The projects are the following: (1) building community participation in health care at Lake Kenyatta; (2) the role of community education in disease control among the Turkana people at…

  20. Increasing chronic disease research capacity in Guatemala through a mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Monzon, Jose C; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-09-12

    The Chronic Disease Research Fellowship Program (RFP) aims to build the research capacity of recent medical graduates to support the development of chronic disease control strategies. Guatemala is undergoing an epidemiologic transition. However, given the way universities and the health care system are structured, it lacks an environment that fosters research careers and generates the required knowledge to implement sound public health policies and clinical strategies. The RFP was implemented at the Cardiovascular Unit of Guatemala. This 4-year Program recruited two one-year fellows and provided funding to define a research topic, write a protocol and implement the research. Strong emphasis is placed on developing skills in knowledge translation and exchange to bridge the "know-do" gap. Close mentoring relationships between the Principal Investigator and former and current fellows are fostered through the Program. The mentoring Program has generated strategic data to support the implementation of sound chronic disease control strategies, mainly related to tobacco control. Results have been presented nationally and internationally. Research training has included principles of biostatistics and epidemiology, and a journal club. The Program is increasingly generating interest among medical graduates to pursue further research training abroad and is building local research capacity. Fellows and research assistants have created a research network in Guatemala and abroad. The main obstacle the Program faces is ensuring long-term sustainability. A mentoring program can lead to an increase in research interest and capacity in a low-income country with little research infrastructure.

  1. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: Dental caries and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikiran N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  2. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  3. Medical simulation in interventional cardiology: "More research is needed".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajti, Peter; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2018-05-01

    Medical simulation is being used for training fellows to perform coronary angiography. Medical simulation training was associated with 2 min less fluoroscopy time per case after adjustment. Whether medical simulation really works needs to be evaluated in additional, well-designed and executed clinical studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Animal models for Gaucher disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfel-Becker, Tamar; Vitner, Einat B; Futerman, Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  5. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Farfel-Becker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  6. Screening for periodontal disease in research dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, Hanne Ellen; Eriksen, Thomas; Bælum, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundIt has been shown that the prevalence of both clinical attachment loss (CAL) >1 mm and pocket probing depth (PPD) >4 mm is relatively high even in younger dogs, but also that only a minority of the dogs have such clinical signs of periodontal disease (PD) in more than a few teeth. Hence...... is the central variable in assessing PD extent and severity while PPD is the central variable used in treatment planning which make these two variables obvious in a screening protocol with the dual aim of disease identification and treatment planning. The main purpose of the present study in 98 laboratory Beagle...

  7. Imaging and translational research: neuro degenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantraye, P.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging of neuro-degenerative diseases over the past two decades are the product of breakthroughs in imaging technology, more powerful computers, image-processing software, and expanding knowledge in basic and clinical neuro-science. In addition to the insights into normal brain structure and function that such methods provide, and the information that can be gained from disease-related changes in structure and function, functional imaging offers the promise of monitoring brain lesions and quantifying the therapeutic efficacy of innovative treatments for these largely incurable disorders. (author)

  8. Current clinical research of immunoglobulin G4-related orbital disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-related disease(IgG4-related diseasehas received lots of attention in medical community as a recently recognized fibro-inflammatory condition. It is characterized by infiltration of IgG4-immunopositive plasmacytes and concentration of elevated serum IgG4. IgG4-related disease shows organ enlargement or nodular/hyperplastic lesions in various organs including the pancreas, hepatobiliary tract and orbit, which is called IgG4-related orbital disease. The diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease and IgG4-related orbital disease has recently been established, which is based on clinical, imaging and histopathologic features of the orbital lesions. Besides, attention should be drawn to the differentiation from other diseases. The treatment is empirical including corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, radiotherapy, and rituximab. This article reviews clinical progression of IgG4-related orbital disease.

  9. Satisfaction with medication in coronary disease treatment: psychometrics of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Ana Carolina Sauer; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2016-06-07

    to psychometrically test the Brazilian version of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication - TSQM (version 1.4), regarding ceiling and floor effect, practicability, acceptability, reliability and validity. participants with coronary heart disease (n=190) were recruited from an outpatient cardiology clinic at a university hospital in Southeastern Brazil and interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction with medication using the TSQM (version 1.4) and adherence using the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale and proportion of adherence. The Ceiling and Floor effect were analyzed considering the 15% worst and best possible TSQM scores; Practicability was assessed by time spent during TSQM interviews; Acceptability by proportion of unanswered items and participants who answered all items; Reliability through the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Validity through the convergent construct validity between the TSQM and the adherence measures. TSQM was easily applied. Ceiling effect was found in the side effects domain and floor effect in the side effects and global satisfaction domains. Evidence of reliability was close to satisfied in all domains. The convergent construct validity was partially supported. the Brazilian TSQM presents evidence of acceptability and practicability, although its validity was weakly supported and adequate internal consistency was observed for one domain. realizar o teste psicométrico da versão brasileira do Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication - TSQM (versão 1.4) [Questionário Satisfação com Tratamento Medicamentoso] com relação aos efeitos de teto e chão, praticidade, aceitabilidade, confiabilidade e validade. os participantes com doença cardíaca coronária (n=190) foram recrutados num ambulatório de cardiologia de um hospital universitário no sudeste do Brasil e entrevistados para avaliar satisfação em relação ao tratamento medicamentoso através da TSQM (versão 1.4) e ades

  10. Disease-specific hashtags and the creation of Twitter medical communities in hematology and oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmaraju, Naveen; Thompson, Michael A; Qazilbash, Muzaffar

    2017-10-01

    Twitter is being increasingly used for information gathering and dissemination of ideas in both medical practice and scientific research. A major limitation to its use has been the surplus of available information and difficulty in categorizing that information into topics of individual interest. However, a Twitter feature known as the hashtag (#), which denotes a specific category or topic, helps in streamlining this wealth of information. The creation and adoption of disease-specific hashtags by healthcare stakeholders has led to a greater uniformity of medical discussions that can be retrieved and referenced at later time-points. As new disease-specific hashtags are created for hematologic and oncologic diseases, more users can connect across the world, even for the rarest of cancer subtypes. A major challenge for this emerging application will be the development of specific and easily identifiable hashtags over time to add more clarity, while still trying to grow Twitter users and expand its reach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MEDication reminder APPs to improve medication adherence in Coronary Heart Disease (MedApp-CHD) Study: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Karla; Chow, Clara K; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Rogers, Kris; Chalmers, John; Redfern, Julie

    2017-10-08

    The growing number of smartphone health applications available in the app stores makes these apps a promising tool to help reduce the global problem of non-adherence to long-term medications. However, to date, there is limited evidence that available medication reminder apps are effective. This study aims to determine the impact of medication reminder apps on adherence to cardiovascular medication when compared with usual care for people with coronary heart disease (CHD) and to determine whether an advanced app compared with a basic app is associated with higher adherence. Randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 3 months to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of medication reminder apps on medication adherence compared with usual care. An estimated sample size of 156 patients with CHD will be randomised to one of three groups (usual care group, basic medication reminder app group and advanced medication reminder app group). The usual care group will receive standard care for CHD with no access to a medication reminder app. The basic medication reminder app group will have access to a medication reminder app with a basic feature of providing simple daily reminders with no interactivity. The advanced medication reminder app group will have access to a medication reminder app with additional interactive and customisable features. The primary outcome is medication adherence measured by the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include clinical measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and medication knowledge. A process evaluation will also be performed to assess the feasibility of the intervention by evaluating the acceptability, utility and engagement with the apps. Ethical approval has been obtained from the Western Sydney Local Health Network Human Research Ethics Committee (AU/RED/HREC/1/WMEAD/3). Study findings will be disseminated via usual scientific forums. ACTRN12616000661471; Pre-results.

  12. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  13. Research Award: Non‐Communicable Disease Prevenon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  14. Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Koprowski, Robert; Skufca, Joseph D

    2014-07-05

    A large number of papers are appearing in the biomedical engineering literature that describe the use of machine learning techniques to develop classifiers for detection or diagnosis of disease. However, the usefulness of this approach in developing clinically validated diagnostic techniques so far has been limited and the methods are prone to overfitting and other problems which may not be immediately apparent to the investigators. This commentary is intended to help sensitize investigators as well as readers and reviewers of papers to some potential pitfalls in the development of classifiers, and suggests steps that researchers can take to help avoid these problems. Building classifiers should be viewed not simply as an add-on statistical analysis, but as part and parcel of the experimental process. Validation of classifiers for diagnostic applications should be considered as part of a much larger process of establishing the clinical validity of the diagnostic technique.

  15. The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Finlay, Andrew Yule; Salek, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Most existing health-related quality of life research concerns the impact of disease on patients. However, in several medical specialties including dermatology, oncology, and physical and mental disability, studies have been carried out investigating the impact of disease on the lives of families of patients. The aim of this paper is to review the literature which relates to the impact of disease on family members of patients. The OVIDSP Medline was selected as the primary database, Searches were limited to sources published in English. 158 papers were identified for review. The definition of "family" varied across the literature, and a broad definition was accepted in this review. This review shows that a wide variety of aspects of family members' lives can be affected, including emotional, financial, family relationships, education and work, leisure time, and social activities. Many of these themes are linked to one another, with themes including financial impact and social impact being linked to emotional impact. Some positive aspects were also identified from the literature, including family relationships growing stronger. Several instruments exist to measure the impact of illness on the family, and most are disease or specialty- specific. The impact of disease on families of patients is often unrecognised and underestimated. Taking into account the quality of life of families as well as patients can offer the clinician a unique insight into issues such as family relationships and the effect of treatment decisions on the patient's close social group of partner and family.

  16. Inclination towards research and the pursuit of a research career among medical students: an international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tam Cam; Ng, Sheryl; Chen, Cynthia; Yong, Sook Kwin; Koh, Gerald C H; Tan, Say Beng; Malhotra, Rahul; Altermatt, Fernando; Seim, Arnfinn; Biderman, Aya; Woolley, Torres; Østbye, Truls

    2018-05-02

    Involvement of clinicians in biomedical research is imperative for the future of healthcare. Several factors influence clinicians' inclination towards research: the medical school experience, exposure to research article reading and writing, and knowledge of research. This cohort study follows up medical students at time of graduation to explore changes in their inclination towards research and pursuing a research career compared to their inclination at time of entry into medical school. Students from medical schools in six different countries were enrolled in their first year of school and followed-up upon graduation in their final year. Students answered the same self-administered questionnaire at both time points. Changes in inclination towards research and pursuing a research career were assessed. Factors correlated with these changes were analysed. Of the 777 medical students who responded to the study questionnaire at entry into medical school, 332 (42.7%) completed the follow-up survey. Among these 332 students, there was no significant increase in inclination towards research or pursuing a research career over the course of their medical schooling. Students from a United States based school, in contrast to those from schools other countries, were more likely to report having research role models to guide them (51.5% vs. 0%-26.4%) and to have published in a peer-reviewed journal (75.7% vs. 8.9%-45%). Absence of a role model was significantly associated with a decrease in inclination towards research, while an increased desire to learn more about statistics was significantly associated with an increase in inclination towards pursuing a research career. Most medical students did not experience changes in their inclination towards research or pursuing a research career over the course of their medical schooling. Factors that increased their inclination to undertaking research or pursuing a research career were availability of a good role model, and a good

  17. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    OpenAIRE

    Farfel-Becker, Tamar; Vitner, Einat B.; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display sympt...

  19. Research Program In Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-15

    Central America at the base of the Yucatan Peninsula, surrounded on the west and north by Guatemala and Mexico and on the east by the Caribbean Sea...inferred that in Belize, 2 tropical infectious diseases are common. Yellow fever has been known to occur in the Yucatan ,1 dengue and malaria are...Centro Americano) representatives in Belize City. Two ERC technologists and two CML technicians attended an INCAP (Instituto de Nutricion de Centro

  20. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  1. 76 FR 71045 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...] Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... period for the notice on its report of scientific and medical literature and information concerning the... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information...

  2. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...] Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its report of scientific and medical literature and... Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic...

  3. Linking Emerging Infectious Diseases Research and Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In China and Southeast Asia, the lack of policy or regulation enforcements means that the use of antibiotics ... Building on past research on avian influenza and ongoing ... Chinese Academy of Sciences. Pays d' institution. China. Site internet.

  4. Infectious diseases | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Ecohealth Works: Health in Urban Environments ... To respond to this complexity, researchers from many disciplines need to work collaboratively with ... the house, where they fed on animals at a safe distance from people.

  5. Summaries of fiscal year 1994 projects in medical applications and biophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report provides information on the research supported in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. A brief statement of the scope of the following areas is presented: dosimetry; measurement science; radiological and chemical physics; structural biology; human genome; and medical applications. Summaries of the research projects in these categories are presented

  6. Infectious disease research investments follow colonial ties: questionable ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat

    2014-03-01

    International funding for global health research is not systematically documented. We have assessed the level of research funding awarded by UK funders of international research to low- and middle-income countries or research institutions in these countries. We analysed 6165 studies; from these we selected 522 that matched our criteria and used them to evaluate research funding by pathogen, disease, research and development value chain, funding organisation and country. Investment in infectious disease research in the countries studied totalled £264 million. Distribution of research investments closely mirrored that of the UK's former colonial territories; the top five countries, and eight of the top 10, have historical links with the UK, being current or former members of the Commonwealth of Nations. HIV, malaria and neglected tropical diseases attracted the greatest investment (£219 million; 82.8%), with most studies focussing on operational and epidemiological research (£109 million; 41.3%). International financing of infectious disease research by UK funding organisations follows former colonial ties. Funding institutions should review their funding policies to ensure that they also assist low- and middle-income countries without colonial ties to address their disease burden. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding for international research and guide the allocation of scarce resources to reduce the global disease burden.

  7. Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced in the generation of nuclear power and the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized, and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The IAEA's Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and requirements for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. This is accomplished within the IAEA Safety Standards Series in an internally consistent set of publications that reflect an international consensus. The publications will provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed publications to assist in the derivation of, and to complement, national criteria, standards and practices. The Safety Standards Series consists of three categories of publications: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. With respect to the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme, the set of publications is currently undergoing review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Standards Series. This Safety Guide addresses the subject of decommissioning of medical, industrial and research facilities where radioactive materials and sources are produced, received, used and stored. It is intended to provide guidance to national authorities and operating organizations, particularly to those in developing countries (as such facilities are predominant in these countries), for the planning and safe management of the decommissioning of such facilities. The Safety Guide has been prepared through a series of Consultants meetings and a Technical Committee meeting

  8. Decommissioning of medical, industrial and research facilities. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced in the generation of nuclear power and the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized, and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The IAEA's Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and requirements for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. This is accomplished within the IAEA Safety Standards Series in an internally consistent set of publications that reflect an international consensus. The publications will provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed publications to assist in the derivation of, and to complement, national criteria, standards and practices. The Safety Standards Series consists of three categories of publications: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. With respect to the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme, the set of publications is currently undergoing review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Standards Series. This Safety Guide addresses the subject of decommissioning of medical, industrial and research facilities where radioactive materials and sources are produced, received, used and stored. It is intended to provide guidance to national authorities and operating organizations, particularly to those in developing countries (as such facilities are predominant in these countries), for the planning and safe management of the decommissioning of such facilities. The Safety Guide has been prepared through a series of Consultants meetings and a Technical Committee meeting

  9. Radiation exposure of fertile women in medical research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test

  10. Optimize Use of Space Research and Technology for Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnifield, Nona K.

    2012-01-01

    systems, and cutting-edge component technologies to conduct a wide range of scientific observations and measurements. These technologies are also considered for practical applications that benefit society in remarkable ways. At NASA Goddard, the technology transfer initiative promotes matching technologies from Earth and space science needs to targeted industry sectors. This requires clear knowledge of industry needs and priorities and social demands. The process entails matching mature technologies where there are known innovation challenges and good opportunities for matching technology needs. This requires creative thinking and takes commitment of time and resources. Additionally, we also look at applications for known hot industry or societal needs. Doing so has given us occasion to host discussions with representatives from industry, academia, government organizations, and societal special interest groups about the application of NASA Goddard technologies for devices used in medical monitoring and detection tools. As a result, partnerships have been established. Innovation transpired when new products were enabled because of NASA Goddard research and technology programs.

  11. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  12. Medical students’ perceptions and attitudes about family practice: a qualitative research synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva Olid Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial. Objective To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice. Methods A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index (SSCI, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Two authors independently selected the studies for their inclusion and assessed their quality. The selected studies were thoroughly read. Key themes and categories were identified. A matrix was created for allowing the comparison of each theme across studies. Results Ten studies were finally included. Seven broad themes were identified across them: 1 Scope and context of practice was a broad theme comprising linked sub-themes: perception of a varied specialty, broad practice, holistic perspective and flexibility that allows having a family; 2 Lower interest or intellectually less challenging: treating common disease, repetitive, quasi administrative job; 3 Influence of role models, either positive and negative, and society: negative comments from other professionals, peers and family; 4 Lower prestige; 5 Poor remuneration; 6 Medical school influences, being important both the length and quality of the exposure; 7 Post graduate training, where the shorter duration and the lower intensity were perceived as positive aspects. After identifying these seven key themes, were also looked into patterns in the distribution of these themes among studies. Conclusions Our qualitative review provides a comprehensive picture of medical students’ attitudes towards family practice in the available literature. In general, although some students

  13. A survey on acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. Materials and Methods: A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Results: Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. Conclusion: General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.

  14. A survey on acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Supreet; Khurana, Pankaj; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-01-01

    An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.

  15. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  16. Evaluation of medical students of teacher-based and student-based teaching methods in Infectious diseases course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, I; Aghamolaei, T; Hosseini-Parandar, F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, medical education has changed dramatically and many medical schools in the world have been trying for expand modern training methods. Purpose of the research is to appraise the medical students of teacher-based and student-based teaching methods in Infectious diseases course, in the Medical School of Hormozgan Medical Sciences University. Methods: In this interventional study, a total of 52 medical scholars that used Section in this Infectious diseases course were included. About 50% of this course was presented by a teacher-based teaching method (lecture) and 50% by a student-based teaching method (problem-based learning). The satisfaction of students regarding these methods was assessed by a questionnaire and a test was used to measure their learning. information are examined with using SPSS 19 and paired t-test. Results: The satisfaction of students of student-based teaching method (problem-based learning) was more positive than their satisfaction of teacher-based teaching method (lecture).The mean score of students in teacher-based teaching method was 12.03 (SD=4.08) and in the student-based teaching method it was 15.50 (SD=4.26) and where is a considerable variation among them (p<0.001). Conclusion: The use of the student-based teaching method (problem-based learning) in comparison with the teacher-based teaching method (lecture) to present the Infectious diseases course led to the student satisfaction and provided additional learning opportunities.

  17. Founders hope new venture-capital fund will spur medical, biotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Lack of a coherent industrial strategy and venture capital have hindered scientific researchers in Canada, but the Canadian Medical Discoveries Fund (CMDF) Inc. hopes to change that. Under the leadership of Dr. Henry Friesen, president of the Medical Research Council of Canada, and Dr. Calvin Stiller, head of the multiorgan transplant unit at University Hospital, London, Ont., the new fund proposes to invest in promising medical and biotechnology research companies in Canada. The research council's peerreview system gives the new fund scientific credibility.

  18. Health plans' disease management programs: extending across the medical and behavioral health spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Although the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health and depression program characteristics are highly variable.

  19. Integration of Educational and Research Activities of Medical Students (Experience of the Medical Faculty of Saint Petersburg State University).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakhonov, Aleksei V; Churilov, Leonid P; Erman, Mikhail V; Shishkin, Aleksandr N; Slepykh, Lyudmila A; Stroev, Yuri I; Utekhin, Vladimir J; Basantsova, Natalia Y

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the role of research activity of the medical students in higher education of physicians. The teaching of physicians in classical universities and specialized medical schools is compared. The history of physicians' training in Russia in imperial, Soviet and post-Soviet periods is reviewed and compared to development of higher medical education in other countries. Article gives the the description of all failed attempts to establish a Medical Faculty within oldest classical university of Russia, crowned by history of last and successful attempt of its establishment. Authors' experience of adjoining education and research in curriculum and extra-curricular life of this Medical Faculty is discussed. The problems of specialization and fundamentalization of medical education are subjected to analysis. Clinical reasoning and reasoning of scholar-experimentalist are compared. The article reviews the role of term and course papers and significance of self-studies and graduation thesis in education of a physician. The paper gives original definition of interactive learning, and discusses the methods and pathways of intermingling the fundamental science and clinical medicine in medical teaching for achievement of admixed competencies of medical doctor and biomedical researcher.

  20. Cancer-disease associations: A visualization and animation through medical big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Chun-Kung; Nguyen, Phung Anh Alex; Clinciu, Daniel Livius; Lu, Richard; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Wang, Yao-Chin; Huang, Chu-Ya; Huang, Chih-Wei; Chang, Yo-Cheng; Hsu, Min-Huei; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is the primary disease responsible for death and disability worldwide. Currently, prevention and early detection represents the best hope for cure. Knowing the expected diseases that occur with a particular cancer in advance could lead to physicians being able to better tailor their treatment for cancer. The aim of this study was to build an animated visualization tool called as Cancer Associations Map Animation (CAMA), to chart the association of cancers with other disease over time. The study population was collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database during the period January 2000 to December 2002, 782 million outpatient visits were used to compute the associations of nine major cancers with other diseases. A motion chart was used to quantify and visualize the associations between diseases and cancers. The CAMA motion chart that was built successfully facilitated the observation of cancer-disease associations across ages and genders. The CAMA system can be accessed online at http://203.71.86.98/web/runq16.html. The CAMA animation system is an animated medical data visualization tool which provides a dynamic, time-lapse, animated view of cancer-disease associations across different age groups and gender. Derived from a large, nationwide healthcare dataset, this exploratory data analysis tool can detect cancer comorbidities earlier than is possible by manual inspection. Taking into account the trajectory of cancer-specific comorbidity development may facilitate clinicians and healthcare researchers to more efficiently explore early stage hypotheses, develop new cancer treatment approaches, and identify potential effect modifiers or new risk factors associated with specific cancers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members from biological threats. Our specialized capabilities include Biosafety Level 3 and Level 4 laboratories, world-class ... for the Department of Defense, we set the standard for identification of biological agents. Our customers in ...

  2. Research Award: Non-Communicable Disease Prevention

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    perspective on crucial development issues. These one-year, paid, ... mentorship allow award holders to pursue their research goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division teams. ... strengthen tobacco control and health promotion efforts through innovative, sustainable financing. Three cross-cutting themes ...

  3. Medical Genetics at McGill: The History of a Pioneering Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Christopher; Weisz, George; Tone, Andrea; Cambrosio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The McGill Group in Medical Genetics was formed in 1972, supported by the Medical Research Council and successor Canadian Institutes for Health Research until September 2009, making it the longest active biomedical research group in the history of Canada. We document the history of the McGill Group and situate its research within a broader history of medical genetics. Drawing on original oral histories with the Group's members, surviving documents, and archival materials, we explore how the Group's development was structured around epistemological trends in medical genetics, policy choices made by research agencies, and the development of genetics at McGill University and its hospitals.

  4. Senator Arlen Specter: Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... priority? Specter : Health is our nation's number one asset. Without your health, you can't do anything. ... in NIH has spawned revolutionary advances in our knowledge and treatment for cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ...

  5. [Trends of research articles in the Korean Journal of Medical Education by social network analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyo Hyun; Shin, Sein

    2015-12-01

    This aim of this study is to examine trends in medical education research in the Korean Journal of Medical Education(KJME) and suggest improvements for medical education research. The main variables were keywords from research papers that were published in KJME. Abstracts of papers (n=499) that were published from 1991 through 2015 were analyzed by social network analysis (NetMiner 4.0) a common research methodfor trends in academic subjects. The most central keywords were "medical education," "clinical competence," "medical student," and "curriculum." After introduction into graduate medical school, newly appearing keywords were "professional behavior," "medical humanities," "communication,"and "physician-patient relation." Based on these results, we generated a schematic of the network, in which the five groups before introduction to graduate medical school expanded to nine groups after introduction. Medical education research has been improving qualitatively and quantitatively, and research subjects have been expanded, subdivided, and specific. While KJME has encompassed medical education studies comprehensively, studies on medical students have risen in number. Thus, the studies that are published in KJME were consistent with the direction of journal and a new study on the changes in medical education is being conducted.

  6. Use of cyclotrons in medical research: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, James B.; Myers, Lee T.

    1985-05-01

    The use of cyclotrons in medical research started in the late 1930s with the most prominent use being neutron irradiation in cancer therapy. Due to a lack of understanding of the biological effect of neutrons, the results were less than encouraging. In the 1940s and 1950s, small cyclotrons were used for isotope production and in the mid 60s, the biological effect of neutrons was more thoroughly studied, with the result that a second trial of neutron therapy was initiated at Hammersmith Hospital, England. Concurrent with this, work on the use of high energy charged particles, initially protons and alphas, was initiated in Sweden and Russia and at Harvard and Berkeley. The English success in neutron therapy led to some pilot studies in the USA using physics cyclotrons of various energies and targets. These results in turn lead to the present series of machines presently being installed at M.D. Anderson Hospital (42 MeV), Seattle (50 MeV) and UCLA (46 MeV). The future probably bodes well for cyclotrons at the two extremes of the energy range. For nuclear medicine the shift is away from the use of multiple isotopes, which requires a large range of particles and energies to 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F, which can be incorporated in metabolic specific compounds and be made with small 8-10 MeV p+ "table top" cyclotrons. For tumor therapy machines of 60 MeV or so will probably be the choice for the future, as they allow the treatment of deep seated tumors with neutrons and the charged particles have sufficient range to allow the treatment of ocular tumors.

  7. UK investments in global infectious disease research 1997-2010: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Hayward, Andrew C; Atun, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases account for 15 million deaths per year worldwide, and disproportionately affect young people, elderly people, and the poorest sections of society. We aimed to describe the investments awarded to UK institutions for infectious disease research. We systematically searched databases and websites for information on research studies from funding institutions and created a comprehensive database of infectious disease research projects for the period 1997-2010. We categorised studies and funding by disease, cross-cutting theme, and by a research and development value chain describing the type of science. Regression analyses were reported with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to establish the relation between research investment, mortality, and disease burden as measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). We identified 6170 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK£2·6 billion. Studies with a clear global health component represented 35·6% of all funding (£927 million). By disease, HIV received £461 million (17·7%), malaria £346 million (13·3%), tuberculosis £149 million (5·7%), influenza £80 million (3·1%), and hepatitis C £60 million (2·3%). We compared funding with disease burden (DALYs and mortality) to show low levels of investment relative to burden for gastrointestinal infections (£254 million, 9·7%), some neglected tropical diseases (£184 million, 7·1%), and antimicrobial resistance (£96 million, 3·7%). Virology was the highest funded category (£1 billion, 38·4%). Leading funding sources were the Wellcome Trust (£688 million, 26·4%) and the Medical Research Council (£673 million, 25·8%). Research funding has to be aligned with prevailing and projected global infectious disease burden. Funding agencies and industry need to openly document their research investments to redress any inequities in resource allocation. None. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of the shortened Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale in patients with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Marcus G; Ostini, Remo; Harrington, Magdalena; Cavanaugh, Kerri L; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2018-05-21

    Self-efficacy, or perceived competence, has been identified as an important factor in self-management behaviors and health outcomes in patients with chronic disease. Measures of self-management self-efficacy are currently available for multiple forms of chronic disease. One established measure is the 8-item Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale (PMCSMS). This study investigated the use of the PMCSMS in samples of patients with a chronic disease to develop an abbreviated version of the scale that could be more readily used in clinical contexts or in large population health cohort studies. The PMCSMS was administered as either a generic scale or as a disease-specific scale. The results of analyses using item response theory and classical test theory methods indicated that using 4 items of the scale resulted in similar internal consistency (α = .70-0.90) and temporal stability (test-retest r = .75 after 2 to 4 weeks) to the 8-item PMCSMS (r = .81 after 2 to 4 weeks). The 4 items selected had the greatest discriminability among participants (α parameters = 2.49-3.47). Scores from both versions also demonstrated similar correlations with related constructs such as health literacy (r = .13-0.29 vs. 0.14-0.27), self-rated health (r = .17-0.48 vs. 0.26-0.50), social support (r = .21-0.32 vs. 0.25-0.34), and medication adherence (r = .20-0.24 vs. 0.20-0.25). The results of this study indicate that 4-item PMCSMS scores are equally valid but more efficient, and have the potential to be beneficial for both research and clinical applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-09-01

    Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  10. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  11. Research investments for UK infectious disease research 1997-2013: A systematic analysis of awards to UK institutions alongside national burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Brown, Rebecca J; Clarke, Stuart C

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease remains a significant burden in the UK and the focus of significant amounts of research investment each year. The Research Investments in Global Health study has systematically assessed levels of funding for infection research, and here considers investment alongside UK burden of individual infectious diseases. The study included awards to UK institutions between 1997 and 2013 that were related to infectious disease. Awards related to global health projects were excluded here. UK burden data (mortality, years lived with disability, and disability adjusted life years) was sourced from the Global Burden of Disease study (IHME, USA). Awards were categorised by pathogen, disease, disease area and by type of science along the research pipeline (pre-clinical, phase I-III trials, product development, public health, cross-disciplinary research). New metrics present relative levels of funding by comparing sum investment with measures of disease burden. There were 5685 relevant awards comprising investment of £2.4 billion. By disease, HIV received most funding (£369.7m; 15.6% of the total investment). Pre-clinical science was the predominant type of science (£1.6 billion, 68.7%), with the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) the largest funder (£714.8 million, 30.1%). There is a broad temporal trend to increased fundingper annum. Antimicrobial resistance received (£102.8 million, 4.2%), whilst sepsis received £23.6 million (1.0%). Compared alongside disease burden, acute hepatitis C and measles typically were relatively well-funded, whilst pneumonia, syphilis and gonorrhoea were poorly-funded. The UK has a broad research portfolio across a wide range of infectious diseases and disciplines. There are notable strengths including HIV, some respiratory infections and in pre-clinical science, though there was less funding for UK-relevant trials and public health research. Compared to the UK burden of disease, syphilis, gonorrhoea and pneumonia appear

  12. Decommissioning of small medical, industrial and research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Most of the technical literature on decommissioning addresses the regulatory, organizational, technical and other aspects for large facilities such as nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and relatively large prototype, research and test reactors. There are, however, a much larger number of licensed users of radioactive material in the fields of medicine, research and industry. Most of these nuclear facilities are smaller in size and complexity and may present a lower radiological risk during their decommissioning. Such facilities are located at research establishments, biological and medical laboratories, universities, medical centres, and industrial and manufacturing premises. They are often operated by users who have not been trained or are unfamiliar with the decommissioning, waste management and associated safety aspects of these types of facility at the end of their operating lives. Also, for many small users of radioactive material such as radiation sources, nuclear applications are a small part of the overall business or process and, although the operating safety requirements may be adhered to, concern or responsibility may not go much beyond this. There is concern that even the minimum requirements of decommissioning may be disregarded, resulting in avoidable delays, risks and safety implications (e.g. a loss of radioactive material and a loss of all records). Incidents have occurred in which persons have been injured or put at risk. It is recognized that the strategies and specific requirements for small facilities may be much less onerous than for large ones such as nuclear power plants or fuel processing facilities, but many of the same principles apply. There has been considerable attention given to nuclear facilities and many IAEA publications are complementary to this report. This report, however, attempts to give specific guidance for small facilities. 'Small' in this report does not necessarily mean small in size but generally modest in terms

  13. Medical Robotic and Telesurgical Simulation and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    an expert - Gladwell “There is no excuse for the surgeon to learn on the patient.” – William Mayo, 1927 32 Outliers l"n r: · oRY or l l E s MALCOLM ...10,000 hours to become an expert - Gladwell “There is no excuse for the surgeon to learn on the patient.” – William Mayo, 1927 100 Outliers l"n r...oRY or l l E s MALCOLM GLADW Medical Education – Explosion of Information • Medical procedures are becoming more numerous and more complex – medical

  14. Pattern of cardiovascular disease admissions in the medical wards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akubudike Alikor

    Background: Cardiovascular disease as a leading contributor to global disease burden has shown an increase in its prevalence since the 19th century and was responsible for the global mortality of 17.5 million individuals in the year 2005. This has been linked to increasing urbanization and westernization of life style ...

  15. Motor neuron disease in blacks | Cosnett | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 86 black, Indian and white patients with motor neuron disease were analysed retrospectively. Although the material does not allow statistically valid conclusions, there are sufficient cases among blacks to allow two prima facie observations in this population group: (i) motor neuron disease has an earlier age of ...

  16. HIV related renal disease in Africans | Elangovan | IMTU Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal disease is becoming an increasingly prevalent entity in human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV)–infected patients, first diagnosed in AIDS patients in 1984. The HIV-related renal disease represents a spectrum of clinical and histological conditions presenting as acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, glomerulopathies, ...

  17. The ABC of benign breast disease | Ndhluni | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benign breast disease is common, although the incidence is sparsely documented in the literature and is probably quite underestimated. The main reason is that it is regarded as unimportant, with far more attention being focused on breast cancer. However, benign breast disease is far more common than breast cancer.

  18. Rheumatic diseases and pregnancy | Gcelu | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to discuss the optimal management of pregnant women with SLE and other rheumatic diseases, including antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The effects of pregnancy on underlying diseases ...

  19. Congenital Heart Disease: Vascular Risk Factors and Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.M. Smedts (Dineke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCongenital heart disease (CHD) is among the most common congenital abnormalities and involves structural anomalies of the heart and/or related major blood vessels. Congenital heart disease arises in the fi rst trimester of pregnancy, occurring often and in many forms. The reported CHD

  20. The research of medical equipment on-line detection system based on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junjie; Dong, Xinyu; Zhang, Hongjie; Liu, Mengjun

    2017-06-01

    With the unceasing enhancement of medical level, the expanding scale of medical institutions, medical equipment as an important tool for disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention, used in all levels of medical institutions. The quality and accuracy of the Medical equipment play a key role in the doctor's diagnosis and treatment effect, medical metrology as the important technical foundation is to ensure that the equipment, technology, material components are accurate and the application is safe and reliable. Medical equipment have the feature of variety, large quantity, long using cycle, expensive and multi-site, which bring great difficulty in maintenance, equipment management and verification. Therefore, how to get the medical measurement integrate deeply into the advanced internet technology, information technology and the new measuring method, for real-time monitoring of medical equipment, tracking, positioning, and query is particularly important.

  1. [Research on medical instrument information integration technology based on IHE PCD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianli; Liao, Yun; Yang, Yongyong

    2014-06-01

    Integrating medical instruments with medical information systems becomes more and more important in healthcare industry. To make medical instruments without standard communication interface possess the capability of interoperating and sharing information with medical information systems, we developed a medical instrument integration gateway based on Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise Patient Care Device (IHE PCD) integration profiles in this research. The core component is an integration engine which is implemented according to integration profiles and Health Level Seven (HL7) messages defined in IHE PCD. Working with instrument specific Javascripts, the engine transforms medical instrument data into HL7 ORU message. This research enables medical instruments to interoperate and exchange medical data with information systems in a standardized way, and is valuable for medical instrument integration, especially for traditional instruments.

  2. The role of consent in medical research: breaking or building walls? A call for legislative reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangata, Yohanna Yanshiyi

    2011-12-01

    Research has been integral to the practice of medicine for almost as long as the discipline has existed. Until fairly recently research used to be conducted on human subjects without mandatory requirement for their consent. However, over time medical research became associated with significant cruelty resulting in an outcry for regulation of research actives. This resulted in significant legislation in place for monitoring. Today it is mandatory to obtain consent from subjects before embarking on medical research, and indeed treatment. Its significant regulatory role notwithstanding, the issue of consent at times becomes a hindrance to research. This paper examines the issue of consent in relation to medical research in the context of present legislation. It lays out the background to medical research with respect to purpose, scope, standard protocol and related issues; it then addresses the issue of consent in various scenarios, highlighting problems and the need for legislative reform. It is maintained that while regulatory measures have brought a lot of sanity to medical research and the medical profession, some measures are building walls inhibitory to research activities. Research being integral to the development and growth of healthcare delivery, there is need for reformation of current medical law for balance between patient protectionism and progress in medical research for effective patient care.

  3. 77 FR 41431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on Physician Careers in Academia and Clinical Research SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2... approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the...

  4. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences: categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARISA NABEIEI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods: This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10. Results: In the first phase (NGT, 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26 and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52. In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities.

  5. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    Aedes species mosquito. February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus a Public Health...Against Zika Virus 12 More stories inside Story from the NMRC Clinical Trials Center NMR&D News is a publication of the Naval Medical Research...Against Zika Virus By Lt. Cmdr. I.W. Sutherland, U.S. Naval Medical Research Center—Asia SINGAPORE. The U.S. Naval Medical Research Center - Asia

  6. The Health Costs and Diseases in Medical Services Insurance Organization, Tehran Province, 1386 (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shojaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current research in addition to study of the diseases in the elders, surveys the health costs of these diseases. Methods & Materials: Study of the cost information and related diseases in (MSIO- Medical Services Insurance Organization, Tehran province, surveys costs and Medical Services of this group on 183093 hospitalized files. Results: 31% of hospital`s referrals and 37% of inpatient costs related to elders and display the expensive Services of this group of the Insured. The mean costs of every hospitalization in elderly groups were 4634384 rials, which was more than total mean costs, from all groups. Diagnostic code I27 (other cardio-vascular diseases, I20 (Angina pectoris, H25 (cataract, I25 (chronic IHD, I50 (heart failure, devote first to fifth grade of the prevalent Diagnosis cods (ICD in the aged group older than 60 and displays the most prevalence of the cardio-vascular system diseases in the elders. The most common surgical Code (California code in elderly (above 60 yrs. was related to Coronary Angioplasty, with its mean cost of 9116371 rials. And then was Cataract. 15% of the Global files are related to the elders which is equal to 23% of the charges of these files in this group of the elders. Extraction of Lens (Intra-capsular and extra-capsular Lens Insertion (57 code One-lateral Inguinal Hernia with or without excision of Hydrocele or Spermatocele except Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia (Global code 28, cholecystectomy with or without cholangiography or exploration of Biliary ducts (Global code 27 from first to third grade of the prevalent Global surgeries of the elders. Statistical test displays the Pierson coherent between the age and residence period and paid costs, There is a little positive coherent between the age and residence period in hospital and paid costs. Conclusion: These reviews show the results of the current study (the prevalent in-patient causes are adapted to the performed studies in this field and

  7. Value of medical imaging in the complications of hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot-Dupuch, K.; Noblinski, B.; Tubiana, J.M.; Hannoun, L.

    1987-12-03

    The aim of this study is to analyse the experience of Hopital St-Antoine in the field of abdominal hydatid disease due to Echinococcus granulosus over the last seven years. 9 cases of rare complications of this disease, revealed by this retrospective study, are analysed and presented. The authors discuss the value of ultrasonography and computed tomography in this serious disease. The importance of routine ultrasonographic detection of these complications has been recently emphasized. The authors also present a review of the literature.

  8. When students become patients: TB disease among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated ... of stigma will be reported in a separate article. ... help was 3.2 weeks (range 0 - 16 weeks, SD 4.6); the mean diagnostic ... students' health-seeking behaviour and delayed TB diagnosis:.

  9. Hemodialysis knowledge and medical adherence in African Americans diagnosed with end stage renal disease: results of an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Janie R

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this three-group quasi-experimental research study was to describe the relationship between hemodialysis knowledge and perceived medical adherence to a prescribed treatment regimen in African Americans diagnosed with end stage renal disease and to determine if an educational intervention improved hemodialysis knowledge and medical adherence. Eighty-five African Americans participated in this study using the Life Options Hemodialysis Knowledge Test and the Medical Outcomes Study Measures of Patient Adherence tools. No significant correlation was found between hemodialysis knowledge and medical adherence. Paired sample t-tests revealed significantly higher hemodialysis knowledge scores in the post-test group compared to the pre-test group, t(26) = -3.79, p adherence. This study suggests that more education is needed to improve the knowledge level of African-American patients on hemodialysis.

  10. Peptic Ulcer Disease Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease: Ten-Year Incidence, Ulcer Location, and Ulcerogenic Effect of Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Wang, I-Kuan; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chou, Che-Yi; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aimed at determining peptic ulcer disease (PUD) incidence among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients during 1998–2008, compared to patients without CKD, and at examining associations between CKD and PUD. Methods Data for 1998–2008 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The annual PUD incidence (cases per thousand persons per year) was calculated separately for patients with and without CKD. Characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed PUD (n = 16322) were compared to those of a control group without PUD (n = 32644). The 2 groups were matched for age, sex, and index year. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Results Over the 10-year period, the PUD incidence was ∼10–12 times higher in CKD patients than in those without CKD. Its incidence in elderly CKD patients increased rapidly over time. For CKD patients, most PUD events (>95%) were managed during hospitalization. Peptic ulcer risk, adjusted for all potential confounders, was much higher in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis (adjusted OR, 9.74; 95% CI, 7.11–13.31). Maintenance hemodialysis patients were 2 times more likely to have gastric ulcers than duodenal ulcers, while CKD patients not on dialysis had similar risks for both. There were no significant interactions between medications and CKD status on the peptic ulcer risk. Unlike CKD patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and clopidogrel, those on aspirin did not have a higher peptic ulcer risk (adjusted OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44–1.77). Conclusions CKD patients have a substantially increased PUD risk, and the majority of CKD patients with PUD require hospital management. Further, peptic ulcer risk is affected by hemodialysis therapy, patient status (inpatient vs. outpatient), and ulcerogenic medications. PMID:24498412

  11. Medications Used for Cognitive Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Hsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/aimsCognitive impairment, which frequently occurs in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, has a significant impact on the daily lives of both patients and their family. Furthermore, since the medications used for cognitive enhancement have limited efficacy, the issue of cognitive enhancement still remains a clinically unsolved challenge.Sampling and methodsWe reviewed the clinical studies (published between 2007 and 2017 that focused on the efficacy of medications used for enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.ResultsAcetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the standard treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Some studies have reported selective cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia following galantamine treatment. Newer antipsychotics, including paliperidone, lurasidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and BL-1020, have also been reported to exert cognitive benefits in patients with schizophrenia. Dopaminergic medications were found to improve language function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, no beneficial effects on cognitive function were observed with dopamine agonists in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacies of nicotine and its receptor modulators in cognitive improvement remain controversial, with the majority of studies showing that varenicline significantly improved the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Several studies have reported that N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR enhancers improved the cognitive function in patients with chronic schizophrenia. NMDAR enhancers might also have cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on attention, processing

  12. Medical precautions of radiation diseases and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, Franz; Ludwig, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The main topic deals essentially with the role of the Authorized Physician in industrial medicine, with the occupational diseases caused by ionizating radiation, with the tasks of regional radiation protection centers, and with the WHO REMPAN network. (orig.)

  13. Preterm birth and periodontal disease: A medical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Dhabhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Births occurring before 37 weeks resulting in prematurity poses serious hazards to the baby from delayed growth, neurodevelopmental anomalies to death and unfortunately India is in the top four countries with maximum preterm births and leads globally in deaths by prematurity. Infection is a very important component of the etiopathogenesis of preterm labor and periodontal disease is a rather unexplored aspect of infection very often overlooked by the general gynecologist and the dental practitioner equally. Periodontal disease is a potential foci of infectious pathogens which may disseminate hematogenously and effect the fetus. In this article, an effort has been made to find an evidence-based link between periodontal disease and preterm labor to drive home the conclusion that an early screening and diagnosis in pregnancy followed up with effective treatment of periodontal disease may significantly reduce the burden of preterm births.

  14. Revascularisation versus medical treatment in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windecker, Stephan; Stortecky, Stefan; Stefanini, Giulio G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether revascularisation improves prognosis compared with medical treatment among patients with stable coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Bayesian network meta-analyses to combine direct within trial comparisons between treatments with indirect evidence from other trials ...

  15. Evaluation of faciocutaneous clues to systemic diseases: A learning module for Chinese undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shen

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Introducing this additional learning module may offer an early opportunity to explore systemic diseases from a dermatological view and is likely to lay the foundations for interdisciplinary collaboration in the future practice for medical students.

  16. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Y.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with coronary heart disease based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  17. Increased all-cause mortality with psychotropic medication in Parkinson's disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Baandrup, Lone; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Use of medication and polypharmacy is common as the population ages and its disease burden increases. We evaluated the association of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and combinations of psychotropic drugs with all-cause mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD...... of psychotropic medication in PD patients and controls. Hazard ratios were as follows for the medication types: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, PD HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36; Control HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91; benzodiazepines, PD HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.......20-1.76; Control HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.66-2.43; and combinations of these drugs compared with non-medicated PD patients and controls. Discontinuation of medication was associated with decreased mortality in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of psychotropic medication in the elderly is associated with increased...

  18. Evaluation of medication treatment for Alzheimer's disease on clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-qiu LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To formulate the best treatment plan for Alzheimer's disease patients by evaluating the therapeutic efficacy and side effect of various evidence-based programs. Methods Alzheimer's disease, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine, rosiglitazone, etc. were defined as retrieval words. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases were used with applying of manual searching. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCT, controlled clinical trials and case-observation studies were collected and evaluated by Jadad Scale. Results After screening, 33 selected resources included 14 systematic reviews, 14 randomized controlled trials, 4 controlled clinical trials and 1 case-observation study. According to Jadad Scale, total 28 articles were evaluated to be high quality (12 with score 4, 10 score 5, 6 score 7, and 5 were low quality with score 3. It was summarized as follows: 1 Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease for which no cure exists. To date, only symptomatic treatments with cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor noncompetitive antagonist (memantine, are effective and well tolerated to counterbalance the neurotransmitter disturbance, but cannot limit or impact on disease progression. 2 Disease modifying drug is an potential agent, with persistent effect on slowing the progression of structural damage, and can be detected even after withdrawing the treatment. Many types of disease modifying drugs are undergoing clinical trials. Conclusions Using evidence-based medicine methods can provide best clinical evidence on Alzheimer's disease treatment. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.009

  19. Trends in gluten research and its relationship to autoimmune and allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Ciaccio

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gluten is a protein found in certain grains, and causes an autoimmune response in celiac disease patients. Although the subject of considerable research, gluten research foci and future directions are largely unknown. Methods: The MEDLINE search tool was used to evaluate research trends. For perspective, yearly publications on gluten and other celiac disease reactive proteins were compared to food allergy proteins research. Then the relationship of gluten publications to affiliated keywords was determined. The affiliated keywords belonged to one of several groups: grains, vitamins and minerals, interaction, autoimmunity, genetics, or enzymes. The yearly number of publications in the peer-reviewed medical literature was determined for each relationship from years 1960–2013. The relationships were graphed, and linear regression analysis was used to determine the rate of change in publications per year, and the coefficient of determination. Results: Among celiac disease reactive proteins (gluten, gliadin, and glutenin and selected food allergy proteins (ovalbumin, lysozyme, ovomucoid, and Ara h, gluten showed the greatest rate of increase in published medical research (+20.01 studies/year since 1996, r2=0.97. Additionally, there were sharp increases in the rate of gluten research publications per year in association with keywords ‘autoimmunity’ (+7.69 studies/year since 1997, ‘wheat’ (+6.08 studies/year since 1999, and ‘transglutaminase’ enzyme (+5.05 studies/year since 1995. The longest running moderate trend was research on ‘gluten’ and ‘antibodies’ (+2.50 studies/year, r2=0.92 since 1971. Conclusions: Research on gluten as a reactive protein is of rapidly growing interest in the medical literature. MEDLINE is helpful to determine foci and future directions. Keywords: Celiac disease, Gluten, Gliadin, Medline, Transglutaminase

  20. Medical audit of rectal biopsy diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, J V; Morson, B C

    1982-03-01

    The records of the rectal biopsy diagnoses of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the Department of Pathology, St Mark's Hospital, London, were reviewed. The biopsy diagnoses were compared to subsequent resection diagnoses on the same patients, and annual and seasonal variations in the frequency of these and related diagnoses were studied. The accuracy rate for the biopsy diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was about 70% and for Crohn's disease about 40% each time a biopsy was read. The low figure for the accuracy rate for Crohn's disease could be attributed to sampling error inherent in the diagnosis of a disease which is essentially patchy, showing discontinuous pathology. Also, many patients with Crohn's disease have a normal rectum which is biopsied to demonstrate the distinction from ulcerative colitis. In practical terms therefore a 40% accuracy rate in Crohn's disease is probably adequate. The rate of "false-positive" diagnoses was about 5%. There was a seasonal variation in the frequency of these two diagnoses, but no variation attributable to changes in observers, as pathology trainees in the Department change regularly. The frequency of diagnoses of non-specific inflammation and of normal colon did show such non-random variations.

  1. Evaluation of medical research performance--position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the

  2. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Symposium 'Methodology in Medical Education Research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25th to 26th 2013 at Charité, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin; Kiessling, Claudia; Ahlers, Olaf; Hautz, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on "Research in Medical Education" as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium's evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  4. The utilization of nonprescription medications in Saudi patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Shorog

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the most common cause of disease-related death in Saudi Arabia. The incidence of CVDs continues to increase, presenting a major health care problem. Nonprescription medications are widely used by patients with CVD and may cause adverse drug events, either by worsening the disease or by harmfully interacting with prescribed medications. We investigated the patterns of nonprescription medication utilization and the factors associated with their use in patients with CVD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Cardiology Clinics of an academic tertiary health care center. Participants were asked about their sociodemographic characteristics, medical history and frequency of using nonprescription medications including over-the-counter (OTC products, dietary supplements, and herbal products. Moreover, we investigated the participants’ sources of information about nonprescription medications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the predictors of nonprescription medication use. Results: A total of 209 participants were interviewed. The mean age of the participants was 56 ± 15 years, and 110 (52.6% were female. Of the 209 participants, 116 (55% reported routine use of nonprescription medications. Black seeds and garlic were the most frequently used herbal products. Acetaminophen, cold/cough remedies, and ibuprofen were the most commonly reported OTC drugs. Of the surveyed patients, 54 (46.5% used nonprescription medications to manage cardiovascular conditions specifically. Compared with other comorbidities, diabetes mellitus was associated with a higher use of nonprescription medications. Conclusion: In patients with CVD, the routine use of nonprescription medications was common for a number of reasons. Health care providers should proactively discuss nonprescription use with their CVD patients to avoid potential harmful outcomes. Keywords

  5. Research prioritization of men’s health and urologic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Okland

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives We sought to determine whether disease representation in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR reflects disease burden, measured by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD Study as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs. Materials and Methods Two investigators performed independent assessment of ten men’s health and urologic diseases (MHUDs in CDSR for systematic review and protocol representation, which were compared with percentage of total 2010 DALYs for the ten conditions. Data were analyzed for correlation using Spearman rank analysis. Results Nine of ten MHUDs were represented by at least one CDSR review. There was a poor and statistically insignificant positive correlation between CDSR representation and disease burden (rho = 0.42, p = 0.23. CDSR representation was aligned with disease burden for three conditions, greater than disease burden for one condition, and less than disease burden for six conditions. Conclusions These results yield high-quality estimates to inform future research prioritization for MHUDs. While prioritization processes are complex and multi-faceted, disease burden should be strongly considered. Awareness of research priority setting has the potential to minimize research disparities on a global scale.

  6. ["AGAINST ALL ODDS" - PROMOTING RESEARCH, CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT AND MEDICAL SERVICES OF THE CONFLICT IN THE GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Jacob

    2017-05-01

    The Galilee Medical Center (GMC) is unique in several aspects. Firstly, in the clinical aspect: In recent years, led by the Director of Medical Center, Dr. Masad Barhoum, a considerable momentum of development has taken place to reduce health discrepancies between the center and the periphery. Despite the under- financing of the health system in the Galilee, the GMC opened new clinical departments, introduced advanced medical technology and key staff members were added. This approach is depicted in publications presented in the current issue. Secondly, the aspect of medicine standoff: The GMC is the nearest hospital to the border with neighboring countries. It is also a tertiary center for trauma, due to the establishment of the Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and the Departments of Orthopedic Surgery, general invasive radiology and invasive radiology of the brain. In recent years, the medical center treated hundreds of victims of the civil war in Syria, a third of them - women and children. The injured patients presented unique medical problems that are described in the papers in this issue. Thirdly, the research aspect: The medical center is the main teaching facility of medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee of Bar-Ilan University. The Faculty of Medicine, led by the Dean, Prof. Ran Tur-Kaspa, promotes research and teaching in the medical center. Even before the establishment of the Faculty of Medicine, former hospital director, Prof. Shaul Shasha, not only extolled the importance of research, but established a research laboratory years ago. The laboratory continues to pursue translational research by the physicians of the medical center, led by Dr. Shifra Sela and Prof. Batya Kristal, and supported by the current medical center director, Dr. Masad Barhoum. Several studies conducted in this research laboratory are published herewith. With these unique aspects and despite the discrimination in funding

  7. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: adverse effects of medications and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B E; Hatters-Friedman, S; Fernandes-Filho, J A; Anthony, K; Natowicz, M R

    2006-09-12

    The authors conducted a retrospective and brief prospective study of adverse effects of approximately 350 medications in 44 adults with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS). Some medications were relatively safe, whereas others, particularly haloperidol, risperidone, and chlorpromazine, were associated with neurologic worsening.

  8. An Analysis of Research Trends in Articles on Video Usage in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslibeyaz, Elif; Aydemir, Melike; Karaman, Selcuk

    2017-01-01

    Using technology in medical education has drawn the attention of researchers in the last several years. Especially, videos have been found to promote effective learning in medical education. This study aims to examine general trends and results of articles investigating video usage in medical education and published in SSCI and ERIC journals from…

  9. [Urological diseases most frequently involved in medical professional liability claims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Blasco, César; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Arimany-Manso, Josep; Pera-Bajo, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Clinical safety and medical professional liability are international major concerns, especially in surgical specialties such as urology. This article analyzes the claims filed at the Council of Medical Colleges of Catalonia between 1990 and 2012, exploring urology procedures. The review of the 173 cases identified in the database highlighted the importance of surgical procedures (74%). Higher frequencies related to scrotal-testicular pathology (34%), especially testicular torsion (7.5%) and vasectomy (19.6%), and prostate pathology (26 %), more specifically the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (17.9%). Although urology is not among the specialties with the higher frequency of claims, there are special areas of litigation in which it is advisable to implement improvements in clinical safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Rational use of oxygen in medical disease and anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian S; Staehr, Anne K; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental oxygen is often administered during anesthesia and in critical illness to treat hypoxia, but high oxygen concentrations are also given for a number of other reasons such as prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). The decision to use supplemental oxygen is, however, controversial......, because of large heterogeneity in the reported results and emerging reports of side-effects. The aim of this article is to review the recent findings regarding benefits and harms of oxygen therapy in anesthesia and acute medical conditions....

  11. Chronic Diseases, Lack of Medications, and Depression Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. Methods In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants’ demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Results Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Conclusion Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population. PMID:25633485

  12. Chronic diseases, lack of medications, and depression among Syrian refugees in Jordan, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammouh, Omar Salem; Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-29

    Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants' demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population.

  13. Primary care careers among recent graduates of research-intensive private and public medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Phillip A; Xu, Shuai; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-06-01

    Despite a growing need for primary care physicians in the United States, the proportion of medical school graduates pursuing primary care careers has declined over the past decade. To assess the association of medical school research funding with graduates matching in family medicine residencies and practicing primary care. Observational study of United States medical schools. One hundred twenty-one allopathic medical schools. The primary outcomes included the proportion of each school's graduates from 1999 to 2001 who were primary care physicians in 2008, and the proportion of each school's graduates who entered family medicine residencies during 2007 through 2009. The 25 medical schools with the highest levels of research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2010 were designated as "research-intensive." Among research-intensive medical schools, the 16 private medical schools produced significantly fewer practicing primary care physicians (median 24.1% vs. 33.4%, p schools. In contrast, the nine research-intensive public medical schools produced comparable proportions of graduates pursuing primary care careers (median 36.1% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.87) and matching in family medicine residencies (median 7.4% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.37) relative to the other 66 public medical schools. To meet the health care needs of the US population, research-intensive private medical schools should play a more active role in promoting primary care careers for their students and graduates.

  14. Identification and Classification of Diseases: Fundamental Problems in Medical Ontology and Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Nordenfelt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last three centuries there has been remarkable development in the area of the identification and classification of diseases. The taxonomic systems adopted in the 18th century by, for instance, Sauvages and Linnaeus bare no resemblance to the modern nomenclatures for pathological phenomena. The aim of this paper is to give a brief historical presentation, but also a critical analysis, of a number of crucial ideas and theories behind the construction of certain major disease classifications. My focus in the second half of the paper is on the most influential modern systems of classification, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD and the International Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED. The former is the official classification adopted by the World Health Organization and is used mainly for clinical and administrative purposes. The latter is a highly complex system of classification which has recently been developed for a variety of purposes (including medical research and is meant to be read and handled by computers. ICD, although widely used all over the world, has salient and well-known logical deficiencies. SNOMED has been introduced partly to remedy these deficiencies. I conclude, however, that SNOMED, in spite of its sophisticated resources, cannot completely replace ICD. For many clinical and administrative purposes there is need of a relatively simple system that can be handled by the ordinary doctor and the ordinary health-care administrator.

  15. Temporary brittle bone disease: fractures in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Colin R

    2009-12-01

    Temporary brittle bone disease is the name given to a syndrome first reported in 1990, in which fractures occur in infants in the first year of life. The fractures include rib fractures and metaphyseal fractures which are mostly asymptomatic. The radiological features of this disorder mimic those often ascribed to typical non-accidental injury. The subject has been controversial, some authors suggesting that the disorder does not exist. This study reports five infants with typical features of temporary brittle bone disease in whom all or most of the fractures took place while in hospital. A non-accidental cause can be eliminated with some confidence, and these cases provide evidence in support of the existence of temporary brittle bone disease.

  16. Roles of Medical Record and Statistic Staff on Research at the Tawanchai Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaranit, Rumpan; Chantachum, Vasana; Lekboonyasin, Orathai; Pradubwong, Suteera

    2015-08-01

    The medical record and statistic staffs play a crucial role behind the achievements of treatment and research of physicians, nurses and other health care professionals. The medical record and statistic staff are in charge of keeping patient medical records; creating databases; presenting information; sorting patient's information; providing patient medical records and related information for various medical teams and researchers; Besides, the medical record and statistic staff have collaboration with the Center of Cleft Lip-Palate, Khon Kaen University in association with the Tawanchai Project. The Tawanchai Center is an organization, involving multidisciplinary team which aims to continuing provide care for patients with cleft lip and palate and craniofacial deformities who need a long term of treatment since newborns until the age of 19 years. With support and encouragement from the Tawanchai team, the medical record and statistic staff have involved in research under the Tawanchai Centre since then and produced a number of publications locally and internationally.

  17. Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

  18. Constraints on Biological Mechanism from Disease Comorbidity Using Electronic Medical Records and Database of Genetic Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Bagley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease co-occurrence that deviate from statistical independence may represent important constraints on biological mechanism, which sometimes can be explained by shared genetics. In this work we study the relationship between disease co-occurrence and commonly shared genetic architecture of disease. Records of pairs of diseases were combined from two different electronic medical systems (Columbia, Stanford, and compared to a large database of published disease-associated genetic variants (VARIMED; data on 35 disorders were available across all three sources, which include medical records for over 1.2 million patients and variants from over 17,000 publications. Based on the sources in which they appeared, disease pairs were categorized as having predominant clinical, genetic, or both kinds of manifestations. Confounding effects of age on disease incidence were controlled for by only comparing diseases when they fall in the same cluster of similarly shaped incidence patterns. We find that disease pairs that are overrepresented in both electronic medical record systems and in VARIMED come from two main disease classes, autoimmune and neuropsychiatric. We furthermore identify specific genes that are shared within these disease groups.

  19. [Podoconiosis, a society and medical community neglected disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Soriano Cea, Juan José; Górgolas Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2015-11-20

    Podoconiosis, mossy foot or endemic non-filarial elephantiasis, is a geochemical disease that causes lower limb lymphedema; it is directly related to walking barefoot over soils of volcanic origin, in areas with a high pluviometric annual index. It has a specific geographical distribution, affecting around 5% population in areas where it is endemic. It is debilitating and disfiguring disease, which frequently leads to social margination. Podoconiosis is totally preventable and, once a diagnosis is established, it may improve with simple therapeutic measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of Coronary Artery Disease Research in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C S; Chan, K M J

    2016-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on coronary artery disease in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 508 papers were identified of which 146 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance. The epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, prevention, assessment, treatment, and outcomes of coronary artery disease in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  1. Medical Robotic and Telesurgical Simulation and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    they cannot correct or control the 109 variation caused by human input. 110 Medical simulation often looks to the military as a front runner in...more resilient to mistakes made during the learning process. These tools not only allow hands-on practice in a safe environment, but also provide

  2. Metafunctional Practices in Medical Research Articles: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Nader; Ghassemi, Mojtaba; Madadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (1994) was employed. 80 published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which 40 were written by native…

  3. Research Ideas for the Journal of Health & Medical Economics: Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this Opinion article is to discuss some ideas that might lead to papers that are suitable for publication in the Journal of Health and Medical Economics. The suggestions include the affordability and sustainability of universal health care insurance, monitoring and

  4. RESEARCH Linking employee burnout to medical aid provider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the connection between employee burnout and medical aid claims and expenditure data in a sample from the ... data connected with each participant were: total insured benefits, general ... increase rapidly during 2010 to 2014.1,2 ... fatigue, concentration issues and low energy), they are distinct and.

  5. Is a shift from research on individual medical error to research on health information technology underway? A 40-year analysis of publication trends in medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlewein, Daniel; Bruni, Tommaso; Gadebusch Bondio, Mariacarla

    2018-06-07

    In 1983, McIntyre and Popper underscored the need for more openness in dealing with errors in medicine. Since then, much has been written on individual medical errors. Furthermore, at the beginning of the 21st century, researchers and medical practitioners increasingly approached individual medical errors through health information technology. Hence, the question arises whether the attention of biomedical researchers shifted from individual medical errors to health information technology. We ran a study to determine publication trends concerning individual medical errors and health information technology in medical journals over the last 40 years. We used the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) taxonomy in the database MEDLINE. Each year, we analyzed the percentage of relevant publications to the total number of publications in MEDLINE. The trends identified were tested for statistical significance. Our analysis showed that the percentage of publications dealing with individual medical errors increased from 1976 until the beginning of the 21st century but began to drop in 2003. Both the upward and the downward trends were statistically significant (P information technology doubled between 2003 and 2015. The upward trend was statistically significant (P information technology in the USA and the UK. © 2018 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Assessing the burden of medical impoverishment by cause: a systematic breakdown by disease in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Memirie, Solomon Tessema; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2016-10-21

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenses often lead to catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, there has been no systematic examination of which specific diseases and conditions (e.g., tuberculosis, cardiovascular disease) drive medical impoverishment, defined as OOP direct medical costs pushing households into poverty. We used a cost and epidemiological model to propose an assessment of the burden of medical impoverishment in Ethiopia, i.e., the number of households crossing a poverty line due to excessive OOP direct medical expenses. We utilized disease-specific mortality estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study, epidemiological and cost inputs from surveys, and secondary data from the literature to produce a count of poverty cases due to OOP direct medical costs per specific condition. In Ethiopia, in 2013, and among 20 leading causes of mortality, we estimated the burden of impoverishment due to OOP direct medical costs to be of about 350,000 poverty cases. The top three causes of medical impoverishment were diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, and road injury, accounting for 75 % of all poverty cases. We present a preliminary attempt for the estimation of the burden of medical impoverishment by cause for high mortality conditions. In Ethiopia, medical impoverishment was notably associated with illness occurrence and health services utilization. Although currently used estimates are sensitive to health services utilization, a systematic breakdown of impoverishment due to OOP direct medical costs by cause can provide important information for the promotion of financial risk protection and equity, and subsequent design of health policies toward universal health coverage, reduction of direct OOP payments, and poverty alleviation.

  7. Connecting Gaucher and Parkinson Disease: Considerations for Clinical and Research Genetic Counseling Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lola; Schulze, Jeanine

    2017-12-01

    There are multiple autosomal recessive disorders in which carriers may be at risk for other diseases. This observation calls into question the previous understanding that carriers of autosomal recessive disorders escape clinical consequences. We also know that childhood genetic conditions may have adult disease counterparts (Zimran et al., The Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ, 16(11), 723-724, 2014). Individuals who have Gaucher disease and carriers of the disorder are at increased risk for a seemingly unrelated and complex neurological condition, Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is, in part, caused by the same mutations in the GBA gene that lead to Gaucher disease, and the two conditions are thought to have shared pathophysiology. Briefly reviewed are how these two diseases historically became linked, where their paths cross, potential problems and considerations in disclosure of the link, and current guidelines and research in this area. Genetic counseling experience with a large Parkinson disease cohort is used as a starting point to question the state of clinical and nonclinical practice in disclosing this unusual connection We conclude that more research and discussion are needed to inform practice regarding the crossroads of Gaucher and Parkinson disease.

  8. Medical management of Parkinson's disease: focus on neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Marie-Catherine; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Rios, Camilo

    2011-06-01

    Neuroprotection refers to the protection of neurons from excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis as principal mechanisms of cell loss in a variety of diseases of the central nervous system. Our interest in Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment is focused on drugs with neuroprotective properties in preclinical experiments and evidence-based efficacy in human subjects. To this date, neuroprotection has never been solidly proven in clinical trials but recent adequate markers and/or strategies to study and promote this important goal are described. A myriad of compounds with protective properties in cell cultures and animal models yield to few treatments in clinical practice. At present, markers of neuronal vitality, disease modifying effects and long term clinical stability are the elements searched for in clinical trials. This review highlights new strategies to monitor patients with PD. Currently, neuroprotection in subjects has not been solidly achieved for selegiline and pramipexole; however, a recent rasagiline trial design is showing new indications of disease course modifying effects. In neurological practice, it is of utmost importance to take into account the potential neuroprotection exerted by a treatment in conjunction with its symptomatic efficacy.

  9. Disease Patterns and Outcome for Medical Neurological Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To review the disease pattern and outcome for neurological patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria was undertaken. Patients and Methods: The hospital records (case notes ICU records) were reviewed retrospectively for five years and the ...

  10. Eales' Disease: Case report | Atipo-Tsiba | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eales' disease is a retinal vasculopathy of unknown origin. Ischaemic step associated retinal perivasculitis. Neovascularisation step after the previous one, characterised by vitreous haemorrhage in relation with retinal neo vessels. This observation presents the first reported case of this pathology in Brazzaville. A man of 32 ...

  11. Dopaminergic medication affects choice bias in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuland, A.J.M. van; Helmich, R.C.G.; Dirkx, M.F.M.; Zach, H.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.; Cools, R.; Ouden, H.E.M. den

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess dopaminergic effects on choice bias in Parkinson's disease (PD). Background: Bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor are the core symptoms of PD, but many patients also suffer from cognitive dysfunction. For instance, PD patients have an increased tendency to learn from aversive

  12. [Approach of gene medical treatment in neurological diseases with the neurologist's. "Approach of support to the patients with inherited and incurable neurological diseases"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Takanori; Sawada, Jin-ichi; Toda, Tatsushi

    2009-11-01

    Advancements in medical genetics have increased access to genetic diagnosis in clinical neurology and accompanying genetic counseling. However, its use has not yet spread and the frequency of general biochemistry inspection in medical treatment and by patients remains low. Many problems remain for doctors, though sociocultural and other various causes exist. Thus, a network of care specialists for inherited and incurable neurological diseases has been established, consisting of multi-occupational categories in medical treatment, health, and welfare such as clinical inheritance specialists, psychiatrists, public health nurses, and medical social workers, to meet the rise in availability of such methods. Businesses in areas such as training, consultation, and field research have arisen. An educational campaign for neurologists who have taken a central role in treatment of inherited and incurable neurological diseases, and related information have been disseminated to those working in fields related to regional welfare of neurological medicine, and patients are now supported totally by team and regional counseling. These new developments in support systems for inherited and incurable neurological diseases, have steadily achieved the respective goals. We aim to promote its evolution to a more advanced network to promote the independence of individual patients in the future.

  13. Twelve tips for getting started using mixed methods in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Ellen; Vuk, Jasna; Barber, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    Mixed methods research, which is gaining popularity in medical education, provides a new and comprehensive approach for addressing teaching, learning, and evaluation issues in the field. The aim of this article is to provide medical education researchers with 12 tips, based on consideration of current literature in the health professions and in educational research, for conducting and disseminating mixed methods research. Engaging in mixed methods research requires consideration of several major components: the mixed methods paradigm, types of problems, mixed method designs, collaboration, and developing or extending theory. Mixed methods is an ideal tool for addressing a full range of problems in medical education to include development of theory and improving practice.

  14. From the NIH Director: The Value of Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the double-blind, randomized, prospective trial. It remains the gold standard today. When you can demonstrate, in a statistically valid way, through a randomized trial, that the mortality rate from heart disease for X thousand ...

  15. Highland Medical Research Journal - Vol 15, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An audit of chronic kidney disease risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in a tertiary ... Knowledge, attitude and utilization of contraception among nursing students in ... Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a 20 year old Nigerian male ...

  16. Space The New Medical Frontier / NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Space The New Medical Frontier Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... the occasion. Photo courtesy of NIH Long-Term Space Research Until the advent of the ISS, research ...

  17. Foregrounding possibilities and backgrounding exploitation in transnational medical research projects in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Today medical research funded by resourceful commercial companies and philanthropic organizations increasingly takes place in much less resourceful settings across the globe. Recent academic studies of this trend have observed how global inequalities have shaped the movements of this research...

  18. Pharyngitis – fatal infectious disease or medical error?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on adverse events is essential to create a culture of safety, which focuses on protecting doctors and patients from medical errors. We present a fatal case of Streptococcus C pharyngitis in a 56-year-old man. The clinical course and the results of additional diagnostics and autopsy showed that sepsis followed by multiple organ failure was the ultimate cause of death. The clinical course appeared fatal due to a chain of adverse events, including errors made by the physicians caring for the patient for 10 days.

  19. Essential competencies in global health research for medical trainees: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary T; Satterfield, Caley A; Blackard, Jason T

    2017-09-01

    Participation in short-term educational experiences in global health (STEGHs) among medical trainees is increasingly accompanied by interest in conducting research while abroad. Because formal training in both global health and research methods is currently under-represented in most medical curricula, trainees are often unfamiliar with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to design and conduct research successfully. This narrative review identifies essential global health research competencies for medical trainees engaged in STEGHs. The authors searched the literature using the terms global health, competency, research, research methods/process/training, scholarly project, medical student, and medical education/education. Because articles directly addressing global health research competencies for medical trainees were limited, the authors additionally drew on the broader literature addressing general research competencies and global health competencies. Articles yielded by the literature search, combined with established guidelines in research ethics and global health ethics, were used to identify six core domains and twenty discrete competencies fundamental to global health research at a level appropriate for medical trainees enrolled in STEGHs. Consideration was given to diverse research modalities, varying levels of training, and the availability of mentoring and on-site support. Research may provide important benefits to medical trainees and host partners. These competencies provide a starting point; however, circumstances at any host site may necessitate additional competencies specific to that setting. These competencies are also limited by the methodology employed in their development and the need for additional perspectives from host partners. The competencies identified outline basic knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for medical trainees to conduct limited global health research while participating in STEGHS. They may also be used as a

  20. Congenital Heart Disease in Children's hospital medical center A Cross-Sectional study 2000 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinaloo. A. A Tadbir. M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The most common congenital diseases in children is congenital heart disease. Factors such as environment, genetic, old maternal age during pregnancy, maternal disease and using medicine in pregnancy, prematuritiy, and specific seasons are significant in the prevalence of disease."nMaterials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the status of children with congenital heart diseases, among 665 child that refereed to Children's hospital medical center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, during 1 year (2000 tO 2001. The researchers due to the lack of existing appropriate tools developed the instrument for the study. The questionnaire was 15 items, nominal, ordinal and interval scale. All items were verified using major authoritative pediatric cardiologists references and were subjected to face and content validation by three experts. Convenient sampling was utilized for collecting data. All subjects were examined in cardiology department and echocardiography was done for them."nResults: From a total of 665 children with congenital heart defects, 56.2 percent were male and 43.8 percent were female. 32.6 percent were born in autumn. Septal defects were predominant lesions, which account for 36.1 percent of lesions. 89.8 percent of children have never extracardiac defects. Children of mothers age 20-35 years had a percentage of 86.2 percent of developing congenital heart disease, Percentage of children who their birth weight less than 2500 gram was quite small, at 24.1 per cent overall. There was no significant relationship between selected variables and congenital heart diseases."nConclusion: With regard to the prevalence of disease and preventing therapeutic costs, parents and teachers education have an important role in preventing congenital heart disease. Therefore, the formation of a learning curriculum model for a life free of congenital heart disease and congenital heart diseases

  1. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A...

  2. Radiation safety in educational, medical and research institutions. Regulatory guide G-121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    This regulatory guide is intended to help educational, medical and research institutions design and implement radiation protection programs that meed regulatory requirements. This guide applied to educational, medical or research institutions that require a licence from the CNSC to posses or use radioactive materials. It describes programs to assure that radioactive materials are used safely during licensed activities. (author)

  3. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychaskiw, George

    2011-09-06

    Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic".-Arthur C. Clarke.

  4. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  5. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research

    OpenAIRE

    Mychaskiw George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic". -Arthur C. Clarke

  6. Prevalence and management of patients using medication targeting obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sequssuna; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Koefoed, Mette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalent use of drugs targeting obstructive lung diseases among adults aged 50 or above in Greenland and to assess the use of spirometry testing among these medication users. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study based on reviews...... a 15-month time interval, were identified. We assessed whether a spirometry test was registered in their medical records within previous 2- and 4-year periods. RESULTS: A total of 565 persons were identified. This corresponds to a prevalent medication use of 6.1% (565/9,023) among adults aged 50 years...... or above. Among these medication users, 14.1% (80/565) had a spirometry test performed within 2 years. Within the 4-year period this increased to 17.9% (101/565). CONCLUSION: The use of medication targeting obstructive lung diseases in Greenland among adults aged 50 years or above is common. However...

  7. Medical microbiology: laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werno, Anja M; Murdoch, David R

    2008-03-15

    The laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) continues to rely on culture-based methods that have been used for many decades. The most significant recent developments have occurred with antigen detection assays, whereas the role of nucleic acid amplification tests has yet to be fully clarified. Despite developments in laboratory diagnostics, a microbiological diagnosis is still not made in most cases of IPD, particularly for pneumococcal pneumonia. The limitations of existing diagnostic tests impact the ability to obtain accurate IPD burden data and to assess the effectiveness of control measures, such as vaccination, in addition to the ability to diagnose IPD in individual patients. There is an urgent need for improved diagnostic tests for pneumococcal disease--especially tests that are suitable for use in underresourced countries.

  8. Laser treatment of medical skin disease in women

    OpenAIRE

    C. LaRosa, MD; A. Chiaravalloti, MD; S. Jinna, MD; W. Berger, BS; J. Finch, MD

    2017-01-01

    Laser treatment is a relatively new and increasingly popular modality for the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. A number of conditions that predominantly occur in women and that have a paucity of effective treatments include rosacea, connective tissue disease, melasma, nevus of Ota, lichen sclerosus (LS), notalgia paresthetica and macular amyloidosis, and syringomas. Laser therapy is an important option for the treatment of patients with these conditions. This article will review the...

  9. Challenges of the health research system in a medical research institute in Iran: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Momeni, Khalil; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammazdeh, Khalil; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali

    2014-08-14

    Medical research institute is the main basis for knowledge production through conducting research, and paying attention to the research is one of the most important things in the scientific communities. At present, there is a large gap between knowledge production in Iran compared to that in other countries. This study aimed to identify the challenge of research system in a research institute of medical sciences in Iran. This was a descriptive and qualitative study conducted in the first 6 months of 2013. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on 16 heads of research centers in a research institute of medical sciences. The required data were gathered using semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed using MAXQDA 10.0 software. Six themes identified as challenges of research system. The themes included barriers related to the design and development, and approval of research projects, the implementation of research projects, the administrative and managerial issues in the field of research, the personal problems, publishing articles, and guidelines and recommendations. Based on the results of the present study, the following suggestions can be offered: pushing the research towards solving the problems of society, employing the strong executive and scientific research directors in the field of research, providing training courses for researchers on how to write proposals, implementing administrative reforms in the Deputy of Research and Technology, accelerating the approval of the projects through automating the administrative and peer-reviewing processes.

  10. Medical Robotic and Telesurgical Simulation and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    consideration would be the loss of revenue from physicians, nurses , and other medical professionals during training sessions. Supplies...occurs in postponing or rescheduling an operation because the robot is no longer operable. Inexperienced surgeons can also damage the surgical...and nursing in addition to physician training may decrease these times and costs. Upper Limit There are upper limits to the improvements that can

  11. Crozer-Chester Medical Center Burn Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    antibiotics with sufficient activity against Stnp!Jylococcus species and in particular with activity against lviRSA. Persist- ing open wounds with cellulitis ...treatment option for persisting open wounds with cellulitis . The medication is generic, cheap, and readily available without the need for special order...Ann Plast Surg 2005;55:102-6. 3. Phillips S, l\\IacDoug;lll C, Holdford DA. Analysis of empiric antimicrobial strategies for cellulitis in the era of

  12. [Infectious mononucleosis--a "childhood disease" of great medical concern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2013-10-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is usually a benign self-limiting disease, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the Herpes virus family. EBV virions have a double-stranded, linear DNA genome surrounded by a protein capsid. EBV is transmitted primarily through saliva, but transmission via blood and droplets also occurs. Infectious mononucleosis is the most frequent clinical manifestation of EBV infection and occurs during primary infection with the virus. With some exceptions, only children older than 10 years, adolescents and young adults are suffering from the disease. Primary EBV infection in children up to 10 years is usually asymptomatic or shows unspecific courses. After an incubation period of up to seven weeks, a sore throat, mild fever and swollen lymph nodes in the neck area are the first signs of symptomatic infection. Further course of the disease often leads to hepatitis and swelling of the spleen. The symptoms usually subside after a few weeks, but protracted courses and clinical active infection also occur. The Epstein-Barr virus is distributed worldwide. At least 90% of all adults are seropositive to EBV. The treatment of infectious mononucleosis is mainly symptomatic, a generally effective specific therapy does not exist. A vaccine is currently not available.

  13. Research on dose setting for radiation sterilization of medical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongcheng; Liu Qingfang; Zhong Hongliang; Mi Zhisu; Wang Chunlei; Jiang Jianping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish the radiation sterilization dose for medical devices using data of bioburden on the medical device. Methods: Firstly determination of recovery ratio and correction coefficient of the microbiological test method was used according to ISO11737 standard, then determination of bioburden on the products, finally the dose setting was completed based on the Method 1 in ISO11137 standard. Results: Fifteen kinds of medical devices were tested. Bioburden range was from 8.6-97271.2 CFU/device, recovery ration range 54.6%-100%, correction co-efficiency range 1.00-1.83, D 10 distribution from 1.40 to 2.82 kGy, verification dose (dose at SAL = 10 -2 ) range 5.1-17.6 kGy and sterilization dose (dose at SAL 10 -6 ) range 17.5-32.5 kGy. Conclusion: One hundred samples of each kind of product were exposed to the pre-determined verification dose and then the sterility test was performed. Each sterility test showed positive number was not greater than two. This indicated that the sterilization dose established for each kind of product was statistically acceptable

  14. Polymyositis: Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Search MDA.org Close Polymyositis (PM) Medical Management Polymyositis (PM) is a highly treatable disease. Some ... PM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Find your MDA Care Center Grants at ...

  15. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-12-05

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. The need for a quality standard for assurance in medical research laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show the results of a research study conducted to evaluate the need for a quality standard specific for medical research laboratories based on the shortfalls of ISO 15189 when used for this purpose. A qualitative research methodology was used, which comprised of collecting data from 20 well-qualified and experienced medical laboratory personnel by means of interviews based on a framework developed from a literature review. The data were analysed by means of a thematic technique and the results were verified by a team of medical researchers. The seven themes arising from the analyses were inflexibility; ambiguity; unfair requirements; inappropriate focus; inadequacy for research; renewal; and acceptance for accreditation. The results indicated that the ISO 15189 standard in its present content does not totally suit medical research laboratories and shows support for the development of a standard specific for research laboratories.

  17. Faith-based perspectives on the use of chimeric organisms for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Irvine, Rob; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to advance our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involve the creation chimeric organisms from human neural stem cells and primate embryos--known as prenatal chimeras. The existence of potential mentally complex beings with human and non-human neural apparatus raises fundamental questions as to the ethical permissibility of chimeric research and the moral status of the creatures it creates. Even as bioethicists find fewer reasons to be troubled by most types of chimeric organisms, social attitudes towards the non-human world are often influenced by religious beliefs. In this paper scholars representing eight major religious traditions provide a brief commentary on a hypothetical case concerning the development and use of prenatal human-animal chimeric primates in medical research. These commentaries reflect the plurality and complexity within and between religious discourses of our relationships with other species. Views on the moral status and permissibility of research on neural human animal chimeras vary. The authors provide an introduction to those who seek a better understanding of how faith-based perspectives might enter into biomedical ethics and public discourse towards forms of biomedical research that involves chimeric organisms.

  18. The suggestion of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Jun Cho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives & Methods: This suggestion was attempted to be elevated the recognition of common characteristics in disease. So, we performed to analyze the correlation of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment. And the results are as follows. Results: 1. The cause of disease is consist of genetic factor, aging, habit, food of not good in health, weather, environment, deficit of the physical activity, stress and so on. 2. Generally, human has common and individual weakness. Individual weakness is appeared similar to the occurrence of volcano and lapse. 3. The correlation of disease and medical treatments is possible to explain using the quotation of the law of motion made by Isaac Newton, the great physicist. 4. When the process of the medical treatment was not progressed, the prognosis is determined by the correlation of the homeostasis(H' in human body and the homeostasis(H of disease. 5. The prognosis of disease is determined by the relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F'. 6. The exact diagnosis is possible to predict the treatment sequence, and the facts that homeostasis in human body and disease, relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F', action and reaction are important to determine the prognosis. 7. The careful observation of improving response and worsening action of disease becomes available for exact prognosis. Conclusion: The above described contents may be useful in clinical studies, and the concrete clinical reports about this will be made afterward.

  19. Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Inflight Medical Conditions: ExMC Pharmacy Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element of NASA's Human Research Program is charged with identifying medical capabilities that can address the challenges of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease and injuries that could occur during exploration missions beyond Earth's orbit. Faced with the obstacle of access to in-flight medical care, and limitations of vehicle space, time, and communications; it is necessary to prioritize what medical consumables are manifested for the flight, and which medical conditions are addressed. Studies of astronaut health establish the incidence of common and high risk medical conditions that require medical intervention during long-duration exploration missions. In 2000, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened a committee of experts, Committee on Creating a Vision for Space Medicine during Travel beyond Earth Orbit, to examine the issues surrounding astronaut health and safety for long duration space missions. Two themes run throughout the committee's final report: (1) that not enough is known about the risks to human health during long-duration missions beyond Earth's orbit or about what can effectively mitigate those risks to enable humans to travel and work safely in the environment of deep space and (2) that everything reasonable should be done to gain the necessary information before humans are sent on missions of space exploration (IOM, 2001). Although several spaceflight focused pharmaceutical research studies have been conducted, few have provided sufficient data regarding medication usage or potency changes during spaceflight. The Du pharmaceutical stability study assessed medications flown on space shuttles to and from the International Space Station (ISS) from 2006 until 2008; of which some medications were still viable beyond their expiration dates (Du et al, 2011). However, as with many spaceflight studies, the small 'n' associated with this study limits the ability to draw strong conclusions from it

  20. Medical student education program in Alzheimer’s disease: The PAIRS Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Angela L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As life expectancy increases, dementia incidence will also increase, creating a greater need for physicians well-trained to provide integrated geriatric care. However, research suggests medical students have limited knowledge or interest in pursuing geriatric or dementia care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the PAIRS Program and its effectiveness in enhancing medical education as a service-learning activity and replication model for the Buddy ProgramTM. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, four consecutive classes of first year Boston University School of Medicine students (n = 45; 24 ± 3 years, 58% female, 53% White participated in a year-long program in which they were paired with a patient with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Assessments included pre- and post-program dementia knowledge tests and a post-program reflective essay. Results Program completion was 100% (n = 45. A paired-sample t-test revealed a modest improvement in dementia knowledge post-program (p  Conclusions Quantitative and qualitative findings suggest that the PAIRS Program can enhance the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes regarding geriatric healthcare in future generations of physicians, a skill set that is becoming increasingly relevant in light of the rapidly aging population. Furthermore, results suggest that The Buddy ProgramTM model can be successfully replicated.

  1. How much are we spending? The estimation of research expenditures on cardiovascular disease in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Canada and is a priority area for medical research. The research funding landscape in Canada has changed quite a bit over the last few decades, as have funding levels. Our objective was to estimate the magnitude of expenditures on CVD research for the public and charitable (not-for profit) sectors in Canada between 1975 and 2005. Methods To estimate research expenditures for the public and charitable sectors, we compiled a complete list of granting agencies in Canada, contacted each agency and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and extracted data from the organizations’ annual reports and the Reference Lists of health research in Canada. Two independent reviewers scanned all grant and fellowship/scholarship titles (and summary/key words, when available) of all research projects funded to determine their inclusion in our analysis; only grants and fellowships/scholarships that focused on heart and peripheral vascular diseases were selected. Results Public/charitable sector funding increased 7.5 times, from close to $13 million (in constant dollars) in 1975 to almost $96 million (in constant dollars) in 2005 (base year). The Medical Research Council of Canada (MRCC)/CIHR and the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada have been the main founders of this type of research during our analysis period; the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Quebec have played major roles at the provincial level. The Indirect Costs Research Program and Canada Foundation for Innovation have played major roles in terms of funding in the last years of our analysis. Conclusion Public/charitable-funded research expenditures devoted to CVD have increased substantially over the last three decades. By international standards, the evidence suggests Canada spends less on health-related research than the UK and the US, at least in absolute terms. However, this

  2. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such ch...

  3. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assogna F

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS, University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with that of control subjects (CS suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD and minor depressive disorder (MIND, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR, criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP, comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of

  4. Systemic lupus erythematosus and thyroid disease - Experience in a single medical center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Wen-Ya; Tsai, Ming-Chin; Fu, Lin-Shien

    2017-06-28

    To investigate the association of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with thyroid diseases in a medical center in central Taiwan. This is a retrospective cohort of 2796 SLE patients in a tertiary referral medical center from 2000 to 2013. We screened SLE by catastrophic illness registration from national insurance bureau; and thyroid diseases by ICD 9 codes, then confirmed by thyroid function test, auto-antibody, medical and/or surgical intervention. We compared the rate of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in SLE patients and the 11,184 match controls. We calculated the rate of these thyroid diseases and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin (ATGAb), thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) in SLE patients grouped by the presence of overlap syndrome and anti-dsDNA antibody. We also compared the association of thyroid diseases to severe SLE conditions, including renal, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and thrombocytopenia. Compared to the matched controls, the cumulative incidence of thyroid disease, including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and AITD, were all higher in SLE patients (p hyperthyroidism. SLE patients with thyroid diseases also carry higher risk for severe complications such as renal involvement (p = 0.024) central nervous system involvement (p hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and AITD than the matched control. Among lupus patients, the risks of thyroid diseases are even higher in the presence of overlap syndrome. SLE patients with thyroid diseases had higher risk of renal and CNS involvement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. [Disease versus disorder. Medical and socio-environmental aspects of mental suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, A

    2015-01-01

    A disease concept should be broad enough to provide social protection for all subjects suffering from this malady but at the same time it needs to be narrow enough to avoid pathologization of behavior that is merely socially undesirable. From a medical perspective a"disease" is present if functions are impaired that are relevant for individual survival. In the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy, such medically relevant functions include the ability to be alert and fully oriented, to ascribe one's own intentions to oneself and to modulate affects according to the situation. Beyond such medically relevant symptoms of a disease, any clinically relevant dysfunction should also be harmful for the individual if a mental malady is to be diagnosed. One such harmful consequence of a disease can be that the person feels ill and suffers from this state, another negative consequence for the individual can be due to an impairment of activities of daily living and social participation. These harmful consequences of a disease are usually discussed under the heading of the"illness experience" and the"sickness aspect" of any disorder. Beyond mental maladies characterized by disease symptoms that are accompanied either by an illness experience or impaired activities of daily living and social participation (sickness), there are many states of human suffering which can be objectified and classified but do not constitute a disease in the medical sense and should more aptly be named a disorder.

  6. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Then, they will propose an ethical framework for health research and put forward the basic elements of a training course for professionals, researchers and decision-makers in the area of bioethics and health and the environment. The work will be carried out in three West African Countries (Bénin, Cameroon and Nigeria), ...

  7. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    researcher is a man or a woman ,” said Simmons. “But when our research teams are comprised of diverse individuals, people who are hardwired to think... spinning violently in three different directions at once—head over heels, round and round as if you were on a merry-go-round, and sideways as if your

  8. Perceptions about tissue donation for medical research among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue banking refers to a structured and organized resource collection of tissue. Recent advances in research technology and knowledge in the fields of human genetics/ genomics highlights the need to maintain a steady supply of tissue for researchers. Objective: To assess the perception and willingness of ...

  9. Building capacity for medical education research in family medicine: the Program for Innovation in Medical Education (PIME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Douglas; Hogg, William; Lemelin, Jacques; Dahrouge, Simone; St Jean, Mireille; Boucher, François

    2017-10-23

    Despite the apparent benefits to teaching, many faculty members are reluctant to participate in medical education research (MER) for a variety of reasons. In addition to the further demand on their time, physicians often lack the confidence to initiate MER projects and require more support in the form of funding, structure and guidance. These obstacles have contributed to a decline in physician participation in MER as well as to a perceived decay in its quality. As a countermeasure to encourage physicians to undertake research, the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Ottawa implemented a programme in which physicians receive the funding, coaching and support staff necessary to complete a 2-year research project. The programme is intended primarily for first-time researchers and is meant to serve as a gateway to a research career funded by external grants. Since its inception in 2010, the Program for Innovation in Medical Education (PIME) has supported 16 new clinician investigators across 14 projects. We performed a programme evaluation 3 years after the programme launched to assess its utility to participants. This evaluation employed semi-structured interviews with physicians who performed a research project within the programme. Programme participants stated that their confidence in conducting research had improved and that they felt well supported throughout their project. They appreciated the collaborative nature of the programme and remarked that it had improved their willingness to solicit the expertise of others. Finally, the programme allowed participants to develop in the scholarly role expected by family physicians in Canada. The PIME may serve as a helpful model for institutions seeking to engage faculty physicians in Medical Education Research and to thereby enhance the teaching received by their medical learners.

  10. [A preliminary research on multi-source medical image fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuanyuan; Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Mao, Zongyuan

    2009-04-01

    Multi-modal medical image fusion has important value in clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, the multi-resolution analysis of Daubechies 9/7 Biorthogonal Wavelet Transform is introduced for anatomical and functional image fusion, then a new fusion algorithm with the combination of local standard deviation and energy as texture measurement is presented. At last, a set of quantitative evaluation criteria is given. Experiments show that both anatomical and metabolism information can be obtained effectively, and both the edge and texture features can be reserved successfully. The presented algorithm is more effective than the traditional algorithms.

  11. The Two Revolutions In Bio-Medical Research

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In the field of modern medical science, we can identify certain epochs. Some of these will be our concern here, for they offer important insights into the development of modern medicine and offer equally important predictors of where it is heading in the future. In fact they are so important that they qualify to be called nothing less than revolutions.Till the early twentieth century, medicine was an activity dependent on a small privileged elite. This changed by the mid-twentieth century int...

  12. Prolactinomas, Cushing's disease and acromegaly: debating the role of medical therapy for secretory pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonert Vivien S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pituitary adenomas are associated with a variety of clinical manifestations resulting from excessive hormone secretion and tumor mass effects, and require a multidisciplinary management approach. This article discusses the treatment modalities for the management of patients with a prolactinoma, Cushing's disease and acromegaly, and summarizes the options for medical therapy in these patients. First-line treatment of prolactinomas is pharmacotherapy with dopamine agonists; recent reports of cardiac valve abnormalities associated with this class of medication in Parkinson's disease has prompted study in hyperprolactinemic populations. Patients with resistance to dopamine agonists may require other treatment. First-line treatment of Cushing's disease is pituitary surgery by a surgeon with experience in this condition. Current medical options for Cushing's disease block adrenal cortisol production, but do not treat the underlying disease. Pituitary-directed medical therapies are now being explored. In several small studies, the dopamine agonist cabergoline normalized urinary free cortisol in some patients. The multi-receptor targeted somatostatin analogue pasireotide (SOM230 shows promise as a pituitary-directed medical therapy in Cushing's disease; further studies will determine its efficacy and safety. Radiation therapy, with medical adrenal blockade while awaiting the effects of radiation, and bilateral adrenalectomy remain standard treatment options for patients not cured with pituitary surgery. In patients with acromegaly, surgery remains the first-line treatment option when the tumor is likely to be completely resected, or for debulking, especially when the tumor is compressing neurovisual structures. Primary therapy with somatostatin analogues has been used in some patients with large extrasellar tumors not amenable to surgical cure, patients at high surgical risk and patients who decline surgery. Pegvisomant is indicated in patients

  13. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century.

  14. Celiac disease diagnosis: impact of guidelines on medical prescription in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bach Nga; Musset, Lucile; Chyderiotis, Georges; Olsson, Nils Olivier; Fabien, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune disease affecting patients of any age, who may present a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Different guidelines for the diagnosis and management of celiac disease have been recently published. The aim of this study was to determine whether the recommendations issued in these guidelines have been adopted by physicians in France when celiac disease was suspected. A total of 5521 physicians were asked to fill in a detailed questionnaire on diagnosing celiac disease to evaluate their medical practice, as to the type of symptoms leading to the suspicion of celiac disease, the prescription of duodenal biopsy or serological tests, the type of serological tests (anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-endomysium, anti-gliadin and anti-reticulin antibodies, total immunoglobulin A measurement) prescribed to diagnose celiac disease. The analysis of the responses of 256 general practitioners (GPs), 221 gastroenterologists and 227 pediatricians showed that the protean clinical presentations of celiac disease might be better recognized by gastroenterologists and pediatricians than by GPs. Gastroenterologists asked for duodenal biopsy much more often than GPs and pediatricians when celiac disease was suspected. Serological testing and knowledge of critical markers, prescribed to diagnose celiac disease, differed among GPs, gastroenterologists and pediatricians. Analysis of medical prescriptions showed that the recommendations for celiac disease diagnosis are not necessarily followed by physicians, emphasizing the fact that the impact of national or international guidelines on medical behavior should be evaluated. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Advances in mechanism research of pain in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LIU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, a neurodegenerative disease, is very common in middle aged and older people. There are two kinds of symptoms: motor symptoms and non - motor symptoms (NMS. Pain, a commonly reported NMS of PD, can significantly affect the quality of life, thus causing more attention. However, mechanisms of pain in PD is not clear, and need to be further researched. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.08.006

  16. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen DONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  17. Research advances in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been developing rapidly in recent years and has become one of the most common liver diseases. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear, and there are no widely accepted therapeutic regimens. NAFLD has a complex pathogenesis with multiple factors involved, including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, bile acid metabolic disorders, and autophagy. This article reviews the pathogenesis of NAFLD in order to provide a reference for further research and clinical treatment in the future.

  18. The U.S. Public's Investment in Medical Research: An Evolving Social Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, Stephen J; Dev, Anurupa; Bonham, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Medical researchers and their institutions are operating under extraordinary financial stress. More than a decade after completion of the 5-year doubling of the National Institutes of Health budget, the medical research community must confront a significant loss in National Institutes of Health purchasing power and downward pressures in federal discretionary spending. In part, this trend results from a federal budget stalemate over the growth in entitlement programs, particularly spending on medical care. This article considers the changing nature of the federal investment in medical research and the potential for medical researchers and institutions conducting the full spectrum of research to improve health system performance and health equity. In our view, continued federal investments reflect an evolving social contract for research serving the public good; the term contract is used metaphorically to represent a figurative, implicit agreement between the scientific community and the public's representatives in government. Under this conceptual contract, the American people--who are ultimately the funders of research, research training and infrastructure--expect outcomes that lead to better health, security or other benefits. The evolving contract includes expectations for more accountability, transparency, sharing of results and resources, and better integration of research systems and cultures that used to take pride in boundaries and distinctions. We outline here some of the major movements of organizations realigning to social support, which are increasingly essential to sustain public investment in medical research. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patients, privacy and trust: patients' willingness to allow researchers to access their medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschroder, Laura J; Pritts, Joy L; Neblo, Michael A; Kalarickal, Rosemarie J; Creswell, John W; Hayward, Rodney A

    2007-01-01

    The federal Privacy Rule, implemented in the United States in 2003, as part of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), created new restrictions on the release of medical information for research. Many believe that its restrictions have fallen disproportionately on researchers prompting some to call for changes to the Rule. Here we ask what patients think about researchers' access to medical records, and what influences these opinions. A sample of 217 patients from 4 Veteran Affairs (VA) facilities deliberated in small groups at each location with the opportunity to question experts and inform themselves about privacy issues related to medical records research. After extensive deliberation, these patients were united in their inclination to share their medical records for research. Yet they were also united in their recommendations to institute procedures that would give them more control over whether and how their medical records are used for research. We integrated qualitative and quantitative results to derive a better understanding of this apparent paradox. Our findings can best be presented as answers to questions related to five dimensions of trust: Patients' trust in VA researchers was the most powerful determinant of the kind of control they want over their medical records. More specifically, those who had lower trust in VA researchers were more likely to recommend a more stringent process for obtaining individual consent. Insights on the critical role of trust suggest actions that researchers and others can take to more fully engage patients in research.

  20. Obesity: Prevalence, Theories, Medical Consequences, Management, and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassar Erika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and its associated disorders are a growing epidemic across the world. Many genetic, physiological, and behavioral factors play a role in the etiology of obesity. Diet and exercise are known to play a valuable role in the treatment and prevention of obesity and associated disorders such as hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the prevalence, etiology, consequences, and treatment of obesity.