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Sample records for disease high-resolution ct

  1. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  2. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

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    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  3. The use of thin-section high-resolution CT in pediatric pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, T.C.; Horgan, J.G.; Rumack, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution thin-section CT of the chest was used successfully to characterize the extent of pulmonary disease. This paper reports on a study in which ten children with chronic lung disorders (including cystic fibrosis, reactive airway disease, and idiopathic disease) were evaluated to test the accuracy of the posteroanterior and lateral chest CT, with both thick (1 cm) and thin (1-3 mm) sections. Unsuspected bronchiectasis was established n two patients with reactive airway disease, and the extent of bronchiectasis in other patients was best defined on thin-section CT. Technique was crucial for an accurate study, and magnification views of each lung were useful. Thin-section CT of the chest was helpful in defining and localizing the extent of these pulmonary disorders

  4. High resolution CT in obstructive and air-ways lung disease

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    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The topics briefly discussed i.e. emphysema, its diagnosis, bronchiectasis etc. HRTC (high resolution computerized tomography) in diagnosing both disease and small airways abnormalities also discussed. (33 refs.).

  5. High resolution CT in obstructive and air-ways lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    The topics briefly discussed i.e. emphysema, its diagnosis, bronchiectasis etc. HRTC (high resolution computerized tomography) in diagnosing both disease and small airways abnormalities also discussed. (33 refs.)

  6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao; Mogami, Roberto; Marchiori, Edson; Capone, Domenico

    1996-01-01

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author)

  7. High resolution CT of the lung

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    Itoh, Harumi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-02-01

    The emergence of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s has greatly contributed to diagnostic radiology. The brain was the first organ examined with CT, followed by the abdomen. For the chest, CT has also come into use shortly after the introduction in the examination of the thoracic cavity and mediastinum. CT techniques were, however, of limited significance in the evaluation of pulmonary diseases, especially diffuse pulmonary diseases. High-resolution CT (HRCT) has been introduced in clinical investigations of the lung field. This article is designed to present chest radiographic and conventional tomographic interpretations and to introduce findings of HRCT corresponding to the same shadows, with a summation of the significance of HRCT and issues of diagnostic imaging. Materials outlined are tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, bronchopneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphangitic carcinomatosis, sarcoidosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema. Finally, an overview of basic investigations evolved from HRCT is given. (N.K.) 140 refs.

  8. High resolution CT of the chest

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    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  9. Drug-induced lung disease: High-resolution CT and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleverley, Joanne R.; Screaton, Nicholas J.; Hiorns, Melanie P.; Flint, Julia D.A.; Mueller, Nestor L.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To compare the parenchymal high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearances with histological findings in patients with drug-induced lung disease and to determine the prognostic value of HRCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drug history, HRCT features, histological findings and outcome at 3 months in 20 patients with drug induced-lung disease were reviewed retrospectively. The HRCT images were assessed for the pattern and distribution of abnormalities and classified as most suggestive of interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), organizing pneumonia (OP) reaction, or a hypersensitivity reaction. RESULTS: On histopathological examination there were eight cases of interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis, five of DAD, five of OP reactions, one of hypersensitivity reaction and one of pulmonary eosinophilia. The most common abnormalities on HRCT were ground-glass opacities (n = 17), consolidation (n = 14), interlobular septal thickening (n = 15) and centrilobular nodules (n 8). HRCT interpretation and histological diagnosis were concordant in only nine (45%) of 20 patients. The pattern, distribution, and extent of HRCT abnormalities were of limited prognostic value: all eight patients with histological findings of OP, hypersensitivity reaction, or eosinophilic infiltrate improved on follow-up compared to only five of 13 patients with interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis or DAD. CONCLUSION: In many cases of drug-induced lung injury HRCT is of limited value in determining the histological pattern and prognosis. Cleverly, J.R. et al

  10. Disease activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis -value of high resolution CT-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Seong; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Suh, Jin Suk

    1991-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has characteristic clinical and pathologic features. In patients with uniform intra-alveolar cellularity, the process is often referred to as desquamative interstitial pneumonia. When alveolar septal fibrosis predominate, the process is known as usual interstitial pneumonia. Recently most investigators believe that desquamative interstitial pneumonia is the early stage and usual interstitial pneumonia is the late stage of the same disease process. The lone-term survival and the best response to treatment with corticosteroids is found in patients with marked disease activity and little fibrosis. Since disease activity is reflected by interstitial and intraalveolar cellularity, activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis might result in opacification of air spaces on CT scans. There was no significant difference in estimating the visual HRCT scores of active area between two observers (p>0.05). Activity score of HRCT scan correlated significantly with improvement of DLCO/VA after corticosteroids treatment

  11. Disease activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis -value of high resolution CT-

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    Lee, Jin Seong; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Suh, Jin Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has characteristic clinical and pathologic features. In patients with uniform intra-alveolar cellularity, the process is often referred to as desquamative interstitial pneumonia. When alveolar septal fibrosis predominate, the process is known as usual interstitial pneumonia. Recently most investigators believe that desquamative interstitial pneumonia is the early stage and usual interstitial pneumonia is the late stage of the same disease process. The lone-term survival and the best response to treatment with corticosteroids is found in patients with marked disease activity and little fibrosis. Since disease activity is reflected by interstitial and intraalveolar cellularity, activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis might result in opacification of air spaces on CT scans. There was no significant difference in estimating the visual HRCT scores of active area between two observers (p>0.05). Activity score of HRCT scan correlated significantly with improvement of DLCO/VA after corticosteroids treatment.

  12. Bronchovesicular bundle abnormalities and pathologic basis in diffuse pulmonary diseases on high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Yongkang; Ma Daqing; Li Tieyi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate CT appearances of the normal and abnormal bronchovesicular bundles (BVB) and their corresponding pathologic basis, and to evaluate the role of these findings in diagnosing diffuse lung diseases. Methods: 6 fresh lungs obtained at autopsy and 8 surgical lung lobe specimens were studied. All lung specimens were inflated and fixed by Heitzman's method. HRCT with 10 mm thickness slice soft X-ray radiography was performed and HRCT-pathologic correlation was done. HRCT images of 100 cases with diffuse pulmonary disease were analyzed. Results: Thickened BVB with coarse margin and distorted structure correlated pathologically with peri-bronchovesicular pulmonary parenchyma inflammation and fibrosis, as well as peri-bronchovesicular interstitial disorder. Abnormalities of centrilobular BVB were recognizable by an increase in prominence of centrilobular structure on HRCT. In pathology, there were centrilobular peri-bronchovesicular dust induced granuloma in coal-miner's pneumoconiosis and centrilobular lymphangitis dilatation and filling with tumor cell in lymphangitis carcinomatosis. Increased centrilobular branching structure correlated pathologically with the presence of dilate intra-lobular bronchioles, inflammatory bronchiolar wall thickening, intraluminal secretions, and peri-bronchiolar inflammation. In 80 patients with predominant pulmonary interstitial diseases, thickened BVB with coarse margin or distortion were common in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Nodular bronchovesicular bundle thickening were seen in sarcoidosis, lymphangitis carcinomatosis, and lymphoma. These were demonstrated in 8 of 20 sarcoidosis, 6 of 8 lymphangitis carcinomatosis , 3 of 5 lymphoma, and 2 of 15 coal-miner's pneumoconiosis. Increased centrilobular branching structures were seen in 14 of 20 patients with predominant bronchial diseases. Conclusion: Authors can limit the differential diagnostic range of diffuse lung diseases according to the appearances of BVB

  13. The application of high-resolution CT in the visualization of the vestibular aqueduct (Meniere's disease) and labyrinthine otospongiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonneveld, F.W.; Groot, J.A.M. de; Huizing, E.H.; Damsma, H.; Waes, P.F.G.M. van

    1984-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of temporal bone imaging by means of high-resolution CT, it appears that the combination of high spatial resolution, high density resolution and the freedom of patient positioning for scanning of optimal otological planes may play a unique role in the diagnosis and follow-up of a number of otological disorder. Two examples are described here. The first is the possibility of determining whether the vestibular aqueduct in idiopathic Meniere's disease is obliterated or not, and if so, whether it is a bony or a fibrous obliteration. Although the results are preliminary, there are indications that all three cathegories occur and that the efficacy of drainage of the endolymphatic sac can be evaluated prior to surgery. The second example is the possibility of outlining and quantifying the bone mineral loss in cases of labyrinthine otospongiosis. Preliminary studies have outlined that there is a relationship between the degree of decalcification and the severity of sensorineural hearing loss. These examples show high-resolution, thin-section multiplanar CT to have great potential in the diagnosis and treatment of otological disorders. This will become evident as the techniques that were used here are worked out in more detail and become more widely known. (orig.)

  14. Tomography high Resolution CT findings of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: Comparison between the first treatment and the re treatment group

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    Gwak, Soon Hyuk; Cho, Bum Sang; Jeon, Min Hee; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Ki Man [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To analyze and compare the thin section CT findings of first and re treatment nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. Between January 2005 and April 2010, 121 patients with positive sputum culture for NTM were recruited. We included only 32 patients underwent high resolution chest CT and were confirmed by American Thoracic Society criteria NTM pulmonary infection (first treatment 15, re treatment 17 patients). CT images of 32 patients were reviewed retrospectively. We evaluated the frequency and laterality of the followings; nodule, increased density, bronchial change, parenchymal change. The significantly frequent CT findings of the re treatment NTM group were well defined nodules (retreatment 82.4%, first treatment 33.3%, p = 0.00), consolidations (retreatment 88.2%, first treatment 53.3%, p = 0.03), bronchial changes (bronchiectasis; retreatment 100%, first treatment 66.6%, p = 0.01, bronchial narrowing; retreatment 23.5%, first treatment 0%, p = 0.04 and mucoid impaction; retreatment-58.8%, first treatment-20.0%, p = 0.03) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis (retreatment-88.2%, first treatment 26.7%, p = 0.00). However, most of the evaluated thin section CT findings, such as centrilobular and ill defined nodules, lobular, segmental and subpleural consolidations, ground glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening, cavities, pleural lesions, fibrotic band, emphysema and laterality of lesions, have not shown significant differences between first treatment and the re treatment group. Thin section CT findings of well defined nodules, consolidations, bronchial changes (bronchiectasis, bronchial narrowing and mucoid impaction) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis are highly suggestive of re treatment NTM pulmonary disease.

  15. The role of high-resolution CT in evaluating disease of the posterior tympanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funai, Hiroaki; Takubo, Masamichi; Iinuma, Toshitaka; Horiuchi, Yasuharu; Ichimura, Keiichi; Oyama, Kazuyuki.

    1989-01-01

    The posterior tympanum consists of several irregular eminences, ridges, and sinuses. These sinuses do not communicate with the mastoid air cell system, and cholesteatoma and/or granulation tissue prefer to fill them. This area cannot be visualized with ease by the usual surgical approach, and is thus quite important for surgeons. Recent developments in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) allow more than ever precise identification of subtle changes in the posterior tympanum. Axial HRCT sections provide essential information for the preoperative evaluation of the posterior tympanum. The performance of surgeons has been promoted both in evaluation and treatment planning of patient with suspected posterior tympanic lesions. HRCT findings were compared with the operative findings in 52 patients (54 ears) who had the operation for chronic otitis media. Important findings by HRCT diagnosis of posterior tympanum are as follows; (1) Bone destruction in the posterosuperior part of the tympanic anulus and in the lateral wall of the facial sinus are the important findings for the diagnosis of invasion of cholesteatoma in the posterior tympanum. (2) Similarly important finding is the bone destruction of the pyramidal eminence. This was found in 6 of 9 cases with cholesteatomas extending into the sinus tympani. (3) The soft tissue density in the posterior tympanum does not necessarily indicate pathological processes. Effusion in the posterior tympanum is imaged as soft tissue density, and can not be differentiated from cholesteatoma or granulation by present HRCT. (author)

  16. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  17. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  18. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  19. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

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    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  20. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  1. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungenschmid, D.; Buchberger, W.; Schoen, G.; Schoepf, R.; Mihatsch, T.; Birbamer, G.; Wicke, K.

    1993-01-01

    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  2. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  3. Multi-detector CT-colonography in inflammatory bowel disease: Prospective analysis of CT-findings to high-resolution video colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Kjel; Vogt, Christoph; Blondin, Dirk; Beck, Andreas; Heinen, Wolfram; Aurich, Volker; Haeussinger, Dieter; Moedder, Ulrich; Cohnen, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Prospective analysis of multi-detector CT-colonography (MDCTC) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to high-resolution video-endoscopy (HRVC). Materials and methods: Twenty-one patients (mean age 49.6 years) with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis underwent MDCTC (Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens, Erlangen; 1 mm collimation, Pitch 8, 100 mAs, 120 kVp). HRVC was performed within 2 h after MDCTC. MDCTC was analyzed by two blinded readers. MDCTC-findings including bowel wall alterations and extraintestinal changes were compared to results of HRVC. Results: Over-all-sensitivity was 100% for endoluminal lesions with correct diagnosis of two cancers. Acute and chronic IBD were correctly identified by MDCTC in 63.6%, and 100%, respectively, with a specificity of 75%, and 100%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of MDCTC for diagnosis of acute and chronic disease were best for chronic disease. Sensitivity was worst for acute ulcerative colitis and specificity was worst for acute Crohn's disease. Haustral loss was seen only in ulcerative colitis. Pseudopolyps and fistulae were findings exclusive to Crohn's disease. Particularly extraintestinal findings as increased vascularization and local lymphadenopathy correlated well with endoscopic definition of acute disease. Because of the possibly more vulnerable colonic wall in acute inflammatory bowel disease, the air inflation for MDCTC should be performed most carefully to avoid any risk of colonic perforation. Conclusion: MDCTC may help to distinguish between patients with acute and chronic IBD. Especially extraintestinal complications, tumorous as well as pseudo-tumorous lesions can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity

  4. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  5. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V.

    1999-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) of the lung is a very rare disease. There are obvious discrepancies in the literature concerning the appearance of LAM on CT scans of the lung. This study adds the imaging findings of 11 patients and demonstrates how the imaging findings changed over time in four patients. Twenty-two CT examinations, and radiographs that had been obtained close to the CT examinations, of 11 patients with LAM confirmed by open lung biopsy were retrospectively evaluated with particular attention to the size of cystic lesions and wall thickness. Furthermore the CT scans were analysed for the type of pulmonary infiltration process and its distribution, presence or absence of pleural effusion, pneumothorax and lymph node enlargement. Clinical and CT follow-up studies were available in four patients. The CT scans revealed an increase in the interstitial pattern in all patients. Architectural distortion was seen in two patients and cystic lesions were present in all. The size of the cysts varied from small lesions to bullous emphysema. The cystic lesions revealed a wall thickness up to 2 mm but a wall was not perceptible in all. Pneumothorax was seen in only two patients; pleural effusion was seen in two patients. CT examination of patients with LAM reveals neither a uniform nor a pathognomonic appearance. In the early stages of LAM or in cases with interstitial changes the differential diagnosis of centrilobular emphysema or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis seems to be more difficult than most authors believe. (orig.) (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: high-resolution CT findings

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    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik; Viel, K.; Dietrich, C.F. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik II; Schneider, M. [Zentrum fuer Pathologie, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) of the lung is a very rare disease. There are obvious discrepancies in the literature concerning the appearance of LAM on CT scans of the lung. This study adds the imaging findings of 11 patients and demonstrates how the imaging findings changed over time in four patients. Twenty-two CT examinations, and radiographs that had been obtained close to the CT examinations, of 11 patients with LAM confirmed by open lung biopsy were retrospectively evaluated with particular attention to the size of cystic lesions and wall thickness. Furthermore the CT scans were analysed for the type of pulmonary infiltration process and its distribution, presence or absence of pleural effusion, pneumothorax and lymph node enlargement. Clinical and CT follow-up studies were available in four patients. The CT scans revealed an increase in the interstitial pattern in all patients. Architectural distortion was seen in two patients and cystic lesions were present in all. The size of the cysts varied from small lesions to bullous emphysema. The cystic lesions revealed a wall thickness up to 2 mm but a wall was not perceptible in all. Pneumothorax was seen in only two patients; pleural effusion was seen in two patients. CT examination of patients with LAM reveals neither a uniform nor a pathognomonic appearance. In the early stages of LAM or in cases with interstitial changes the differential diagnosis of centrilobular emphysema or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis seems to be more difficult than most authors believe. (orig.) (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs.

  7. The demonstration of the auditory ossicles by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.A.S.; Boulay, G.H. du; Phelps, P.D.; Pullicino, P.

    1979-01-01

    The high resolution CT scanning system introduced by EMI in 1978 has added a new dimension to computerised tomography in otology. The apparatus used for this study was an EMI CT 5005 body scanner adapted for head and neck scanning and incorporating a high resolution facility. The latter has proved most advantageous in areas of relatively high differential absorption, so that its application to the demonstration of abnormalities in the petrous temporal bone, and in particular middle ear disease, has been very rewarding. Traumatic ossicular disruptions may now be demonstrated and the high contrast of CT often shows them better than conventional hypocycloidal tomography. The stapes is also better visualised and congenital abnormalities of its superstructure have been recorded. These studies have been achieved with a very acceptable level of radiation to the eye, lens and cornea and the technique is clearly a rival to conventional pluridirectional tomography in the assessment of the petrous temporal bone. With further design improvements high resolution CT could completely replace existing techniques. (orig.) [de

  8. Contribution of pulmonary emphysema to functional impairment in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A high-resolution CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zompatori, M.; Fasano, L.; Battista, G.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether high-resolution CT (HRCT) can detect the subjects with massive emphysematous destruction in a group of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and therefor be of help in selecting the candidates to surgical lung volume reduction. Have been examined 40 former smokers with severe COPD (FEV 1 ≤40% of the predicted value, with no major improvement after inhalation of bronchodilators). The emphysema extent score was significantly correlated with the hematocrit value and Tiffeneau index (p 1 was significantly correlated with emphysema extent (p [it

  9. Pulmonary Gaucher's disease: high-resolution computed tomographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, A.; Berkmen, Y.M.; Goekmen, E.

    1995-01-01

    CT findings in pulmonary Gaucher's disease have not been previously reported. Chest radiograph of a patient with pulmonary involvement in type I Gaucher's disease proven by biopsy showed linear and reticulo-nodular opacities. High-resolution CT demonstrated thickening of the interlobular septa and between four and six small nodules within secondary lobules, probably each corresponding to an acinus. (orig.)

  10. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  11. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiglbauer, R.; Schurawitzki, H.; Eichler, I.; Goetz, M.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in 24 children (median age 57.9 months) suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). In 23 patients (one examination unacceptable because of motion artifacts) the most frequent finding was bronchial wall thickening, shown in 21 patients (91%), followed by bronchiectasis in 15 patients (65%). Less frequent findings were mucus plugging and patchy consolidations, which could be demonstrated in 11 patients each (48%). Findings were classified using a CT scoring system and including only irreversible pulmonary changes; a statistically significant correlation with lung function tests could be established. HRCT to date seems to be the most valuable method to determine extent and severity of lung involvement in children with CF and should therefore be routinely used for the staging of this disease. (orig.)

  12. 1024 matrix image reconstruction: usefulness in high resolution chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Chong, Se Min; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    We tried to evaluate whether high resolution chest CT with a 1,024 matrix has a significant advantage in image quality compared to a 512 matrix. Each set of 512 and 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans with both 0.625 mm and 1.25 mm slice thickness were obtained from 26 patients. Seventy locations that contained twenty-four low density lesions without sharp boundary such as emphysema, and forty-six sharp linear densities such as linear fibrosis were selected; these were randomly displayed on a five mega pixel LCD monitor. All the images were masked for information concerning the matrix size and slice thickness. Two chest radiologists scored the image quality of each ar rowed lesion as follows: (1) undistinguishable, (2) poorly distinguishable, (3) fairly distinguishable, (4) well visible and (5) excellently visible. The scores were compared from the aspects of matrix size, slice thickness and the different observers by using ANOVA tests. The average and standard deviation of image quality were 3.09 (± .92) for the 0.625 mm x 512 matrix, 3.16 (± .84) for the 0.625 mm x 1024 matrix, 2.49 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 512 matrix, and 2.35 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 1024 matrix, respectively. The image quality on both matrices of the high resolution chest CT scans with a 0.625 mm slice thickness was significantly better than that on the 1.25 mm slice thickness (ρ < 0.001). However, the image quality on the 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans was not significantly different from that on the 512 matrix high resolution chest CT scans (ρ = 0.678). The interobserver variation between the two observers was not significant (ρ = 0.691). We think that 1024 matrix image reconstruction for high resolution chest CT may not be clinical useful

  13. High-resolution CT findings in Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, F.; Ono, A.; Ando, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Ishii, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Sato, H.; Kira, A.; Otabe, M.; Mori, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients with acute S. milleri pneumonia who had undergone high-resolution CT chest examinations between January 2004 and March 2010 were retrospectively identified. Twenty-seven patients with concurrent infections were excluded. The final study group comprised 33 patients (25 men, 8 women; aged 20–88 years, mean 63.1 years) with S. milleri infection. The patients' clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, and pleural effusion were evaluated on high-resolution CT. Results: Underlying conditions included malignancy (n = 15), a smoking habit (n = 11), and diabetes mellitus (n = 8). CT images of all patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (n = 24), bronchial wall thickening (n = 23), consolidation (n = 17), and cavities (n = 7). Pleural effusion was found in 18 patients, and complex pleural effusions were found in seven patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary infection caused by S. milleri was observed mostly in male patients with underlying conditions such as malignancy or a smoking habit. The CT findings in patients with S. milleri consisted mainly of ground-glass opacity, bronchial wall thickening, pleural effusions, and cavities

  14. Ring artifact correction for high-resolution micro CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Prell, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A

    2009-01-01

    In high-resolution micro CT using flat detectors (FD), imperfect or defect detector elements may cause concentric-ring artifacts due to their continuous over- or underestimation of attenuation values, which often disturb image quality. We here present a dedicated image-based ring artifact correction method for high-resolution micro CT, based on median filtering of the reconstructed image and working on a transformed version of the reconstructed images in polar coordinates. This post-processing method reduced ring artifacts in the reconstructed images and improved image quality for phantom and in in vivo scans. Noise and artifacts were reduced both in transversal and in multi-planar reformations along the longitudinal axis. (note)

  15. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M.; Sebire, Neil J.; Jaffe, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  16. Acute pulmonary injury: high-resolution CT and histopathological spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, E T; Torrealba, J M

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury usually causes hypoxaemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although diffuse alveolar damage is the hallmark of ARDS, other histopathological patterns of injury, such as acute and fibrinoid organising pneumonia, can be associated with acute respiratory failure. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia can also cause acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and mimic ARDS. This pictorial essay reviews the high-resolution CT findings of acute lung injury and the correlative histopathological findings. PMID:23659926

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings; Pneumopatias intersticiais difusas idiopaticas e associadas a colagenoses - aspectos da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao; Mogami, Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Biomedico. Inst. de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Radiologia; Capone, Domenico [Universidade Estadual, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Penumologia

    1996-09-01

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author) 31 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, Pia [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Radiology, Karl Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  19. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, Pia; Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L.; Johkoh, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  20. High-resolution CT of the lungs: Anatomic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, M.G.; Webb, W.R.; Finkbeiner, W.; Gamsu, G.

    1986-01-01

    The interpretation of thin-section (1.5-mm), high-resolution CT scans of the lungs has been limited by lack of direct radiologic and pathologic correlation. The author scanned fresh inflated isolated lungs from ten healthy and five diseased subjects using thin-section, high-resolution techniques. The lungs were then fixed by inflation with endobronchial Formalin. Gough sections (1 mm thick) were obtained at the same levels as the CT scans. In healthy subjects, secondary lobules were identified by the presence of visible interlobular septa and central arterioles. In some patients with disease, septal thickening was visible. In patients with honeycombing cystic areas of destroyed lung were seen, along with areas of fibrosis. Emphysema was well evaluated. Thin-section, high-resolution CT can define lung architecture and may resolve mild changes of the interstitium

  1. Evaluation of high-resolution CT after tympanoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, Y.; Tanaka, F.; Okuno, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the condition of the middle ear cavity following tympanoplasty which is always of great interest to radiologists and otosurgeons. This study consisted of 21 patients who had various types of tympanoplasty (types I-IV) for chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma by using high-resolution CT (HRCT). HRCT following tympanoplasty was a valuable method for assessing the middle ear aeration and the state of ossicular reconstruction, including stapes prosthesis, although in some cases of soft-tissue mass in the middle ear it was necessary to correlate with clinical findings in order to differentiate between granulation and recurrence

  2. Thin-slice high-resolution CT study of pulmonary asbestosis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Masayuki; Maeda, Munehiro; Ohmura, Takuya

    1987-01-01

    Thin-slice high-resolution CT findings were compared between 36 patients with pulmonary asbestos exposure (AS) and 33 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). The CT scans of these patients were classified into 5 types (0-IV) by the subpleural curvilinear shadow (SCLS) and honey-comb shadow (HS). SCLS was detected in 22 (62 %) patients with AS and 7 (21 %) with IIP. HS was detected in 14 (39 %) patients with AS and 33 (100 %) with IIP. In both the diseases, SCLS was distributed mainly in the lower lobe in CT types I and II, and in mildly fibrotic segments in types III and IV. In CT types II, III and IV, SCLS was always communicated with HS. Thin-slice high-resolution CT is considered very helpful in diagnosis and staging of not only AS and IIP but also pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  3. Pituitary gland and its stalk observed by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Fukami, Tsuneharu; Matsumoto, Keizo.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed to be important to recognize the CT findings of normal pituitary gland and the stalk for the acurate morphological diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma. In a consecutive series of normal 103 cases, the CT scans obtained by high resolution CT (CE-CT, Metrizamide CT) were analized and compared with 6 cases of microadenoma. The pituitary stalk demonstrated by the reconstructed coronal CT was examined and the inclination of the stalk was measured. The mean value of the inclination of pituitary stalk was 1.4 +- 1.7 0 in normal group and 9.3 +- 2.4 0 in microadenoma group. The form of the pituitary gland demonstrated by a reconstructed mid-saggital CT were classified into the following 3 types. Type I : The gland filling the whole pituitary fossa. Type II : The gland filled with small CSF space localized in the upper-anterior part in the pituitary fossa. Type III : The enlarged CSF space of more than half of the depth of pituitary fossa and the gland localized in the retro-lower part. As for the shape of pituitary gland, type I was revealed in 26 cases (7 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type II was revealed in 31 cases (12 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type III was revealed in 46 cases (25 cases in male and 21 cases in female). Type I was shown in female, especially in 10 years old young female. In 19 cases of 30 years to 40 years female, Type II was shown in 9 cases. In 44 male cases, Type I and Type II were shown in all ages. In the aged, Type III was shown in more than the other types. On the other hand, Type I was noted in 5 out of 6 cases of microadenoma group. (author)

  4. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Song, K.S.; Lim, T.H.; Im, J.G.; Seo, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. High-resolution computed tomography was obtained in 25 patients with proven exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from aspiration of squalene (derived from shark liver oil). Diagnosis was based on biopsy (n = 9), bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 8), or sputum cytology and clinical findings (n = 8). The clinical history of taking squalene was confirmed in all patients. The CT findings were classified into three patterns: diffuse ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. Distribution of the abnormalities, duration of taking squalene, predisposing factors for aspiration, and route of administration were analyzed. Ten patients showed diffuse ground-glass opacity pattern. Seven of 10 patients had predisposing conditions such as unconsciousness, pharyngeal dysmotility, or motor disturbances, and 6 patients had a recent history of taking large amount of squalene through nasal route. Seven patients who had consolidation pattern had a history of taking squalene for several months and did not have any predisposing factor. All of the 5 patients who had a pattern of interstitial abnormalities had a history of taking squalene longer than 1 year and showed segmental distribution of interstitial thickening with interposing ground-glass opacities. Three patients simultaneously had two different patterns at different lobes of the lung. The HRCT findings of lipoid pneumonia are ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. These HRCT findings with appropriate inquiries could be useful for diagnosis of exogeneous lipoid pneumonia. (orig.)

  5. Serial high resolution CT in non-specific interstitial pneumonia: prognostic value of the initial pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Screaton, N.J. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nicholas.screaton@papworth.nhs.uk; Hiorns, M.P. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Lee, K.S. [Samsung Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea); Franquet, T. [Hospital de Saint Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Johkoh, T. [Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ichikado, K. [First Department of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Colby, T.V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Mueller, N.L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relationship between initial CT pattern and serial changes in CT findings and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serial high resolution (HR) CTs and PFTs were retrospectively analyzed in 38 cases of histologically proven NSIP, including 4 with cellular NSIP, 13 with mixed cellular and fibrotic NSIP, and 21 with fibrotic NSIP. The presence and extent of various CT findings were assessed. A fibrosis index (defined as the ratio of the extent of a reticular/honeycomb pattern to the overall extent of abnormal parenchyma) was derived. RESULTS: The predominant CT pattern was reticular/honeycomb in 27 (84%) cases and ground-glass/consolidation in 6 (16%) cases. Between scans, mean disease extent reduced by 5.2%. Disease extent reduced by >10% in 13 (34%) and increased by >10% in 6 (16%) patients. Histopathological subtype of NSIP did not correlate with individual CT pattern, predominant pattern, fibrosis index or serial change in disease extent on CT or PFTs. Response on follow-up CT was associated with fibrosis index, predominant pattern and extent of consolidation on initial CT. CONCLUSION: In NSIP disease, progression on CT correlates with the predominant CT pattern, fibrosis index, and extent of consolidation but not with histopathological subtype. An inflammatory (ground-glass/consolidation) predominant pattern is associated with better outcome in terms of disease extent on HRCT.

  6. High resolution CT for localization of early hilar lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuko; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Saida, Yukihisa; Kajitani, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Sato, Yukio; Onizuka, Masataka; Sakakibara, Yuzuru; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the usefulness of high resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis and localization of roentgenographically occult lung cancer. HRCT was performed prospectively on chest X-ray negative patients with bloody sputum or suspicious or positive cells on sputum cytology between 1998 and 2000. After the HRCT scan, white light bronchoscopy and autofluorescence bronchoscopy were performed. HRCT depicted 19 hilar bronchial lesions in 13 cases out of 19 patients, of which 9 lesions were confirmed by white light broncoscope. Of 8 hilar squamous cell carcinomas diagnosed in this study, 7 lesions (87.5%) were depicted by HRCT. One CT-negative case (12.5%) was an in situ carcinoma in left B 1+2 . Four out of 20 lesions which showed bronchoscopic abnormality, could not be depicted by HRCT. HRCT could prospectively detect 80% of the bronchoscopic abnormalities and 87.5% of the hilar squamous cell carcinomas of the tracheobronchial lesions of the lung. Therefore, HRCT can be an effective supplemental means for screening for hilar squamous cell carcinoma. (author)

  7. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia in children with AIDS: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, V.; Gudinchet, F.; Schnyder, P.; Cheseaux, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a wide spectrum of diseases. Among the non-infectious, non-neoplastic affections associated with AIDS, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is now a well-recognized entity, but its radiological pattern studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has rarely been described in children. The aim of this study was to illustrate the HRCT spectrum of pulmonary involvement in children with LIP and to evaluate its usefulness in the early diagnosis of this entity. Twelve children with AIDS, aged 3-9 years (mean age 5 years 7 months), underwent chest radiographs and HRCT. A control group of 7 healthy aged-matched children was also studied in the same conditions. Diagnosis of LIP was based on clinical data and HRCT findings. Eight children of 12 had a reticulonodular pattern on chest radiographs. Two children had normal chest films and two children showed peribronchiolar thickening. High-resolution CT displayed micronodules, 1-3 mm in diameter, with a perilymphatic distribution in all patients. High-resolution CT demonstrated also subpleural nodules in children without reticulonodular opacities on chest radiographs. High-resolution CT is able to define a more specific pattern of abnormalities than conventional chest radiographs in children with LIP, allows an earlier and more confident diagnosis and may be useful for the detection of other pathologies associated with AIDS, such as opportunistic infections or superimposed malignancies. (orig.)

  8. Lung findings on high resolution CT in early ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiris, Adem; Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ogur, Erkin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and pulmonary involvement is a well known feature of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early AS. The relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT findings was also determined. Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with AS (mean age 30.8±7.4 and disease duration 7.0±2.6) were included in the study. Patients with a disease duration of >10 years or had other pulmonary diseases were excluded. All patients underwent plain chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral views), thoracic HRCT and PFT. Results: All chest radiographs were normal and HRCT revealed abnormalities in 18 patients. The most common abnormalities seen on HRCT were mosaic pattern (ten of 28), subpleural nodule (seven of 28) and parenchymal bands (five of 28). Seven of ten patients with mosaic pattern revealed air trapping areas on end expiratory scans. Twelve patients had abnormal PFT and all had restrictive type of involvement. Ten of these 12 patients had abnormal HRCT and the remaining two patients had normal HRCT. On the other hand, eight patients with normal PFT had abnormalities on HRCT. Conclusion: Patients with early AS frequently have abnormalities on HRCT, even though they have normal PFT and chest X-ray. Small airway involvement was found as frequent as interstitial lung disease in early AS

  9. Lung findings on high resolution CT in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiris, Adem E-mail: ademkiris@hotmail.com; Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ogur, Erkin

    2003-07-01

    Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and pulmonary involvement is a well known feature of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early AS. The relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT findings was also determined. Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with AS (mean age 30.8{+-}7.4 and disease duration 7.0{+-}2.6) were included in the study. Patients with a disease duration of >10 years or had other pulmonary diseases were excluded. All patients underwent plain chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral views), thoracic HRCT and PFT. Results: All chest radiographs were normal and HRCT revealed abnormalities in 18 patients. The most common abnormalities seen on HRCT were mosaic pattern (ten of 28), subpleural nodule (seven of 28) and parenchymal bands (five of 28). Seven of ten patients with mosaic pattern revealed air trapping areas on end expiratory scans. Twelve patients had abnormal PFT and all had restrictive type of involvement. Ten of these 12 patients had abnormal HRCT and the remaining two patients had normal HRCT. On the other hand, eight patients with normal PFT had abnormalities on HRCT. Conclusion: Patients with early AS frequently have abnormalities on HRCT, even though they have normal PFT and chest X-ray. Small airway involvement was found as frequent as interstitial lung disease in early AS.

  10. Labyrinthine otosclerosis studied by high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funai, Hiroaki; Horiuchi, Yasuharu; Yano, Jun; Ushijima, Tatujiro; Iinuma, Toshitaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Labyrinthine lesions of 10 patients (20 ears) with surgically confirmed otosclerosis were investigated by means of high-resolution CT (HRCT). All ears were scaned in horizontal plane and a slice thickness of 2.0 mm was used to avoid the excessive loss of sharpness by partial volume averaging. HRCTs of 14 normal ears and 18 ears with otitis media were analyzed as controls. (1) Three patients (6 ears) demonstrated lucent zones around the cochleae. In one of 3 cases the zone extended to involve the vestibule and the semicircular canals. (2) The definitive lucent zone was not observed in the control scans. (3) The clinical data of the 3 patients whose HRCTs demonstrated the lucent zones were compared with the other 7 patients with clinical otosclerosis. Three patients showed no distinctive features regarding to age, sex, Schwartze sign and the operative findings. (4) Average bone conduction loss was significantly greater in ears with lucent zones than those without the lucent zones. Serial audiograms revealed progressive hearing impairment in 3 ears of 2 patients with the definitive lucent zone. The present report confirmed that foci of demineralization (otospongiotic lesion) in the labyrinthine capsule were imaged by the HRCT as lucent areas. HRCT provides a reproducible and reliable mean of diagnosis for the labyrinthine otosclerosis. (author)

  11. Pulmonary tuberculosis with airspace consolidation vs mycoplasma pneumonia in adults: high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Chull Hee; Choi, Gyo Chang; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kyung Rak; Im, Han Haek; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunghyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To analyse and compare high-resolution CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with consolidation and mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [confirmed by sputum culture (n=9) and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=11)] and airspace consolidation on high-resolution CT and 17 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, confirmed by serologic test, were included in this study. High-resolution CT findings were analyzed in terms of ground-glass opacities, distribution of consolidation, type of nodules, cavities, interlobular septal thickening, bronchial dilatations, bronchial wall thickening and pleural effusion. In patients with tuberculosis, average age was 33.5 years (range, 20-67); in those with mycoplasma pneumonia it was 32.5 years (range, 17-74). Segmental and subsegmental distributions were most common in both diseases; the preferred site of consolidation was different, however; for tuberculosis it was the upper lobes (13 cases, 65%; bilateral involvement, 7 cases); for mycoplasma pneumonia it was the lower lobes (11 cases, 64.7%). Non-segmental (diffuse and random) distribution of ground-glass opacities were seen in two patients(11.8%) with mycoplasma pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, branching linear opacities and alveolar nodules were not different in both diseases, but there were nodules above 10mm in 14 cases of tuberculosis and in only one case of mycoplasma pneumonia. Tree-in-bud appearances were seen in five cases of tuberculosis. Cavities without air-fluid level were noted in ten cases of tuberculosis. Other interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation and pleural effusion were not different in both diseases. There was considerable overlap between high resolution CT findings of tuberculosis with airspace consolidation and those of mycoplasma pneumonia. The location of consolidation, type of nodules, and the presence of tree-in-bud appearance and cavities help in the differentiation of the two diseases, however.

  12. Pulmonary tuberculosis with airspace consolidation vs mycoplasma pneumonia in adults: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Chull Hee; Choi, Gyo Chang; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kyung Rak; Im, Han Haek; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin

    1997-01-01

    To analyse and compare high-resolution CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with consolidation and mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [confirmed by sputum culture (n=9) and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=11)] and airspace consolidation on high-resolution CT and 17 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, confirmed by serologic test, were included in this study. High-resolution CT findings were analyzed in terms of ground-glass opacities, distribution of consolidation, type of nodules, cavities, interlobular septal thickening, bronchial dilatations, bronchial wall thickening and pleural effusion. In patients with tuberculosis, average age was 33.5 years (range, 20-67); in those with mycoplasma pneumonia it was 32.5 years (range, 17-74). Segmental and subsegmental distributions were most common in both diseases; the preferred site of consolidation was different, however; for tuberculosis it was the upper lobes (13 cases, 65%; bilateral involvement, 7 cases); for mycoplasma pneumonia it was the lower lobes (11 cases, 64.7%). Non-segmental (diffuse and random) distribution of ground-glass opacities were seen in two patients(11.8%) with mycoplasma pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, branching linear opacities and alveolar nodules were not different in both diseases, but there were nodules above 10mm in 14 cases of tuberculosis and in only one case of mycoplasma pneumonia. Tree-in-bud appearances were seen in five cases of tuberculosis. Cavities without air-fluid level were noted in ten cases of tuberculosis. Other interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation and pleural effusion were not different in both diseases. There was considerable overlap between high resolution CT findings of tuberculosis with airspace consolidation and those of mycoplasma pneumonia. The location of consolidation, type of nodules, and the presence of tree-in-bud appearance and cavities help in the differentiation of the two diseases, however

  13. Assessment of subpleural opacities on high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Hak Hee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of HRCT for determining the cause of subpleural opacities. We evaluated 49 cases of subpleural opacities on HRCT scan, among with the patients with subpleural opacities seen on the conventional chest radiographs. Two 'blinded' reviewers retrospectively analyzed the CT scans by working in consensus. The patients consisted of COP (n = 14), NSIP (n = 13), UIP (n = 10), fibrosis associated with connective tissue disease or drug toxicity (n = 4), CEP (n = 4), Churg-Strauss syndrome (n = 2), DIP (n = 1) and AIP (n = 1). The predominant findings were consolidation (57%) with a peribronchovascular distribution (57%) in the COP patients, GGO (69%) and the associated focal reticular densities (61%) in the NSIP patients, and reticular or reticulonodular densities with a paucity of GGO in the UIP patients (100%). For the diagnosis of COP, NSIP and UIP, the use of HRCT demonstrated a high sensitivity (86%, 85% and 90%, respectively), specificity (97%, 86% and 95%) and accuracy (94%, 86% and 94%). Although an overlap of CT findings is seen for diseases showing subpleural opacities, consolidation with a subpleural and peribronchovascular distribution is highly suggestive for COP, subpleural GGO is highly suggestive of NSIP, subpleural reticular or reticulonodular densities with a paucity of GGO is highly suggestive of UIP and subpleural consolidation accompanied by reticular densities is suggestive of fibrosis

  14. Assessment of subpleural opacities on high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Jeung Sook [Dngguk University International Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of HRCT for determining the cause of subpleural opacities. We evaluated 49 cases of subpleural opacities on HRCT scan, among with the patients with subpleural opacities seen on the conventional chest radiographs. Two 'blinded' reviewers retrospectively analyzed the CT scans by working in consensus. The patients consisted of COP (n = 14), NSIP (n = 13), UIP (n = 10), fibrosis associated with connective tissue disease or drug toxicity (n = 4), CEP (n = 4), Churg-Strauss syndrome (n = 2), DIP (n = 1) and AIP (n = 1). The predominant findings were consolidation (57%) with a peribronchovascular distribution (57%) in the COP patients, GGO (69%) and the associated focal reticular densities (61%) in the NSIP patients, and reticular or reticulonodular densities with a paucity of GGO in the UIP patients (100%). For the diagnosis of COP, NSIP and UIP, the use of HRCT demonstrated a high sensitivity (86%, 85% and 90%, respectively), specificity (97%, 86% and 95%) and accuracy (94%, 86% and 94%). Although an overlap of CT findings is seen for diseases showing subpleural opacities, consolidation with a subpleural and peribronchovascular distribution is highly suggestive for COP, subpleural GGO is highly suggestive of NSIP, subpleural reticular or reticulonodular densities with a paucity of GGO is highly suggestive of UIP and subpleural consolidation accompanied by reticular densities is suggestive of fibrosis.

  15. Comparison of quiet breathing and controlled ventilation in the high-resolution CT assessment of airway disease in infants with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Frederick R.; Adler, Brent H. [Children' s Radiological Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Williams, Roger S. [Christiana Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Newark, DE (United States); Castile, Robert G. [Children' s Hospital, Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Respiratory motion and low lung volumes limit the quality of HRCT examinations in infants and young children. To assess the effects of respiratory motion and lung inflation on the ability to diagnose airway abnormalities and air trapping (AT) using HRCT in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). HRCT images of the lungs were obtained at four anatomical levels in 16 sedated children (age 2.4{+-}1.1 years, mean{+-}SD) with CF using controlled ventilation at full lung inflation (CVCT-I), at resting end exhalation (CVCT-E), and during quiet breathing (CT-B). Two blinded reviewers independently and then by consensus scored all images for the presence or absence of bronchiectasis (BE), bronchial wall thickening (BWT), and AT. Of the 64 images evaluated, BE was identified in 19 (30%) of the CVCT-I images compared to 6 (9%) of the CVCT-E images (P=0.006) and 4 (6%) of the CT-B images (P=0.044). AT was seen in 29 (45%) of the CVCT-E images compared to 14 (22%) of the CVCT-I images (P=0.012) and 12 (19%) of the CT-B images (P=0.012). There were no significant differences in the detection of BWT among the three methods. Summary: In infants with CF, fully inflating the lung improved the ability to diagnose early BE, and obtaining motion-free images at end exhalation enhanced the detection of AT. (orig.)

  16. High resolution CT in the investigation of bone destruction in the outer ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, O.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.; Bonn Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with known malignant tumours of the outer ear and three patients with otitis externa maligna were examined by high resolution CT. CT provided accurate information concerning soft tissue infiltration into the parotid or subtemporal tissues, and of the bony destruction in the mastoid, meatus and tympanic cavity. Absolute differentiation between a malignant tumour and otitis cisterna maligna is not possible, not even by high resolution CT. (orig.) [de

  17. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults: high-resolution CT - pathology comparisons and evolutional changes at CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Tae Sung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Johkoh, Takeshi [Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Department of Radiology, Hyoko (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    To compare high-resolution (HR) CT and histopathological findings and to evaluate serial CT findings in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH). We reviewed CT of lung lesions in 27 adults (M:F = 20:7, mean age, 41 {+-} 12.3 years) with PLCH. After evaluating lung abnormalities including nodules, micronodules, thick-walled, thin-walled, and bizarre-shaped cysts and reticulation, observers compared CT findings obtained at lung biopsy sites with histopathological findings. The final CT was compared with the initial CT to determine disease extent changes. The most frequently observed patterns of lung abnormalities were micronodules (n = 24, 89%), thick-walled (n = 22, 82%), and thin-walled (n = 22, 82%) cysts. Even thin-walled and bizarre cysts harboured active inflammatory Langerhans cell sheets and eosinophils in their walls. In thin-walled cysts, we noted pericystic inflammatory cell infiltrations along the alveolar walls, as well as pericystic emphysema. Thin-walled or bizarre cysts demonstrated a tendency to coalesce with surrounding cysts via their cystic wall destruction. Fourteen (52%) patients showed improvement and nine (33%) showed progressing disease. More than half of patients with pulmonary PLCH show improvement at follow-up CT. Even thin-walled cysts harbour active inflammatory cells on histopathology and exhibit improvement at follow-up CT. (orig.)

  18. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors

  19. Interstitial lung diseases with fibrosis - the pattern at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarzemska, A.; Lasek, W.; Nawrocka, E.; Meder, G.; Zapala, M.

    2003-01-01

    Surgical lung biopsy, either open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopy is recommended in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). In some cases, however, the repetitive pattern of radiological features in high-resolution computed tomography is often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. The purpose of the study was to determine whether patients with ILD can be selected on the basis of the HRCT pattern. Thin-section CT scans were performed in 40 patients with histologically proven idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (26 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia UIP, 2 patients with desquamative interstitial pneumonia DIP, 2 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia BOOP, 2 patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia NSIP, 11 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and 3 patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X). The location and the intensity of lesions were taken into consideration. Clinical and histopathological findings were compared. HRCT features of interstitial lung diseases such as nodules and cystic spaces in hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary histiocytosis, and ground-glass opacities in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) were statistically significant for differential diagnosis in ILD cases. Combination of honeycombing and ground-glass opacities found in UIP and nodules found in DIP were also statistically significant features in IIP subtypes diagnosis. In some cases, HRCT patterns of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary histiocytosis X and IPF combined with clinical findings allowed for the accurate diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. Within a group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia only in usual interstitial pneumonia characteristic pattern in thin-section CT can be defined. In other subgroups some typical features can imply a diagnosis. (author)

  20. Bronchiectasis: correlation of high-resolution CT findings with health-related quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel)]. E-mail: iriseshed@gmail.com; Minski, I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Katz, R. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Jones, P.W. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, St George' s Hospital Medical School, University of London (United Kingdom); Priel, I.E. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel)

    2007-02-15

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between the severity of bronchiectatic diseases, as evident on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the patient's quality of life measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Methods and materials: Forty-six patients (25 women, 21 men, mean age: 63 years) with bronchiectatic disease as evident on recent HRCT examinations were recruited. Each patient completed the SGRQ and underwent respiratory function tests. HRCT findings were blindly and independently scored by two radiologists, using the modified Bhalla scoring system. The relationships between HRCT scores, SGRQ scores and pulmonary function tests were evaluated. Results: The patients' total CT score did not correlate with the SGRQ scores. However, patients with more advanced disease on HRCT, significantly differed in their SGRQ scores from patients with milder bronchiectatic disease. A significant correlation was found between the CT scores for the middle and distal lung zones and the activity, impacts and total SGRQ scores. No correlation was found between CT scores and respiratory function test indices. However, a significant correlation was found between the SGRQ scores and most of the respiratory function test indices. Conclusion: A correlation between the severity of bronchiectatic disease as expressed in HRCT and the health-related quality of life exists in patients with a more severe bronchiectatic disease but not in patients with mild disease. Such correlation depends on the location of the bronchiectasis in the pulmonary tree.

  1. Pattern of interstitial lung disease detected by high resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diffuse lung diseases constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the recommended imaging technique in the diagnosis, assessment and followup of these diseases. Objectives: To describe the pattern of HRCT findings in patients with ...

  2. Focal airtrapping at expiratory high-resolution CT: comparison with pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Hast, J.; Heussel, C.P.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M.; Schlegel, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine prevalence, extent, and severity of focal airtrapping at expiratory high-resolution CT, and to compare focal airtrapping with age, gender, pulmonary function tests, and blood gas analysis. Two-hundred seventeen patients with and without pulmonary disease underwent paired inspiratory/expiratory high-resolution CT. Six scan pairs with corresponding scan levels were visually assessed for focal - not diffuse - airtrapping using a four-point scale. Pulmonary function tests and blood gas analysis were available for correlation in all patients (mean interval 5 days). Focal airtrapping with lower lung predominance was observed in 80 % of patients. Twenty-six of 26 patients with restrictive lung function impairment exhibited focal airtrapping (mean score 2.4), whereas only 72 of 98 (74 %) patients with obstruction did (mean score 1.5; p < 0.05). Fifty-eight of 70 (83 %) patients with normal lung function (mean score 1.8) and 19 of 23 (83 %) patients with mixed impairment (mean score 1.8) had focal airtrapping. Focal airtrapping showed negative correlations with static lung volumes (-0.27 to -0.37; p < 0.001) in all patients and moderate positive correlations with dynamic parameters (0.3-0.4; p < 0.001) in patients with obstruction. No significant correlations were found with age, gender, and blood gas analysis. Visual assessment of focal - not diffuse - airtrapping at expiratory high-resolution CT does not correlate with physiological evidence of obstruction as derived from pulmonary function tests since the perception of focal airtrapping requires an adequate expiratory increase in lung density. (orig.)

  3. Bronchiolitis obliterans in children with Stevens-Johnson syndrome: follow-up with high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.J.; Lee, K.Y.

    1996-01-01

    About one third of children with Stevens-Johnson syndrome have pulmonary involvement. As a consequence of airway epithelial injury, bronchiolitis obliterans can occur in these patients. Two cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome-associated bronchiolitis obliterans in children were diagnosed and followed by high resolution CT without open lung biopsy. Serial changes of high resolution CT features of bronchiolitis obliterans are discussed and the literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Meniscus tears of the knee: Postarthrogram high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Do, Young Soo; You, Jin Jong; Gong, Jae Chul; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-eight knees with clinically suspected meniscal tears were examined with high resolution computed tomography(HRCT) immediately following double contrast arthrography. All subsequently underwent arthroscopy. The findings of postarthrogram HRCT and arthroscopy were compared to evaluated the usefulness of postarthrogram HRCT in diagnosis of the meniscal tears. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of HRCT were 96.2%. 83.3% and 92.1% respectively. The anatomic details of the meniscal tears were clearly visible on the HRCT scans. Sagittal and coronal reformation views well visualized the horizontal tears and the relationship of torn meniscal fragments, and well differential the peripheral tears from the synovial recess. Our result indicate that postarthrogram HRCT not only is a sensitive and effective method for the detection and characterization of the meniscal tears, but also provides arthroscopists with the appropriate surgical plans

  5. Evaluation of pneumoconiosis by high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, Kanji

    1991-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with pneumoconiosis (47 males and one female) were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), which was compared with chest radiography and pulmonary function studies. HRCT was superior to chest radiography in detecting small nodular shadows. There was a good correlation between HRCT and chest radiography in evaluating nodule quantity and size. HRCT was superior to chest radiography in detecting emphysematous changes, and the difference was significant. HRCT and chest radiography were closely correlated in their evaluation of the grade of emphysema. The grade of emphysema on HRCT was negatively correlated with the number of nodules. Subpleural curvilinear shadow (SCLS) on HRCT was correlated with the grade of emphysema, but not with the number of nodules. The comparison with pulmonary function studies showed that the emphysematous change on HRCT alone was correlated with %DLCO, while SCLS was correlated with FEV 1.0 %, RV/TLC and %DLCO. HRCT of the lung is useful for complementing chest radiography and pulmonary function studies in the evaluation of pneumoconiosis. (author)

  6. Deep neural network convolution (NNC) for three-class classification of diffuse lung disease opacities in high-resolution CT (HRCT): consolidation, ground-glass opacity (GGO), and normal opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Suzuki, Kenji; Liu, Junchi; Hirano, Yasushi; MacMahon, Heber; Kido, Shoji

    2018-02-01

    Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) are two major types of opacities associated with diffuse lung diseases. Accurate detection and classification of such opacities are crucially important in the diagnosis of lung diseases, but the process is subjective, and suffers from interobserver variability. Our study purpose was to develop a deep neural network convolution (NNC) system for distinguishing among consolidation, GGO, and normal lung tissue in high-resolution CT (HRCT). We developed ensemble of two deep NNC models, each of which was composed of neural network regression (NNR) with an input layer, a convolution layer, a fully-connected hidden layer, and a fully-connected output layer followed by a thresholding layer. The output layer of each NNC provided a map for the likelihood of being each corresponding lung opacity of interest. The two NNC models in the ensemble were connected in a class-selection layer. We trained our NNC ensemble with pairs of input 2D axial slices and "teaching" probability maps for the corresponding lung opacity, which were obtained by combining three radiologists' annotations. We randomly selected 10 and 40 slices from HRCT scans of 172 patients for each class as a training and test set, respectively. Our NNC ensemble achieved an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.981 and 0.958 in distinction of consolidation and GGO, respectively, from normal opacity, yielding a classification accuracy of 93.3% among 3 classes. Thus, our deep-NNC-based system for classifying diffuse lung diseases achieved high accuracies for classification of consolidation, GGO, and normal opacity.

  7. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone...... microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase...

  8. Crackle analysis for chest auscultation and comparison with high-resolution CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kido, Shoji; Jiang, Zhongwei; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify the correlation between respiratory sounds and the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of lung diseases. Respiratory sounds were recorded using a stethoscope in 41 patients with crackles. All had undergone inspiratory and expiratory CT. Subjects included 18 patients with interstitial pneumonia and 23 without interstitial pneumonia. Two parameters, two-cycle duration (2CD) and initial deflection width (IDW) of the "crackle," were induced by time-expanded waveform analysis. Two radiologists independently assessed 11 HRCT findings. An evaluation was carried out to determine whether there was a significant difference in the two parameters between the presence and absence of each HRCT finding. The two parameters of crackles were significantly shorter in the interstitial pneumonia group than the non-interstitial pneumonia group. Ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, lung volume reduction, traction bronchiectasis, centrilobular nodules, emphysematous change, and attenuation and volume change between inspiratory and expiratory CT were correlated with one or two parameters in all patients, whereas the other three findings were not. Among the interstitial pneumonia group, traction bronchiectasis, emphysematous change, and attenuation and volume change between inspiratory and expiratory CT were significantly correlated with one or two parameters. Abnormal respiratory sounds were correlated with some HRCT findings.

  9. Crackle analysis for chest auscultation and comparison with high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Kido, Shoji; Jiang Zhongwei

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify the correlation between respiratory sounds and the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of lung diseases. Respiratory sounds were recorded using a stethoscope in 41 patients with crackles. All had undergone inspiratory and expiratory CT. Subjects included 18 patients with interstitial pneumonia and 23 without interstitial pneumonia. Two parameters, two-cycle duration (2CD) and initial deflection width (IDW) of the ''crackle,'' were induced by time-expanded waveform analysis. Two radiologists independently assessed 11 HRCT findings. An evaluation was carried out to determine whether there was a significant difference in the two parameters between the presence and absence of each HRCT finding. The two parameters of crackles were significantly shorter in the interstitial pneumonia group than the non-interstitial pneumonia group. Ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, lung volume reduction, traction bronchiectasis, centrilobular nodules, emphysematous change, and attenuation and volume change between inspiratory and expiratory CT were correlated with one or two parameters in all patients, whereas the other three findings were not. Among the interstitial pneumonia group, traction bronchiectasis, emphysematous change, and attenuation and volume change between inspiratory and expiratory CT were significantly correlated with one or two parameters. Abnormal respiratory sounds were correlated with some HRCT findings. (author)

  10. Vanishing lung syndrome: the importance of the high-resolution CT in its diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cerezo, M.I.; Porres Azcona, E.; Pina Insausti, L.; Inchusta Sarasibar, M.I.; Mellado Rodriguez, M.

    1995-01-01

    Vanishing lung syndrome, also referred to as idiopathic giant bullions emphysema is a dissolver that has yet to be fully characterized. It is considered a different entry from classic pulmonary emphysema. It is characterized by the presence of large bullae associated with some type of emphysema. High-resolution CT is the best imaging technique to identify the underlying type of emphysema and it helps to determine the viability of the nonbullous lung. We present the case of an asymptomatic patient in whom the diagnosis was suspected on the basis of plain chest X ray and was confirmed by high-resolution CT. 13 refs

  11. Reduction of ring artefacts in high resolution micro-CT reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijbers, Jan; Postnov, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    High resolution micro-CT images are often corrupted by ring artefacts, prohibiting quantitative analysis and hampering post processing. Removing or at least significantly reducing such artefacts is indispensable. However, since micro-CT systems are pushed to the extremes in the quest for the ultimate spatial resolution, ring artefacts can hardly be avoided. Moreover, as opposed to clinical CT systems, conventional correction schemes such as flat-field correction do not lead to satisfactory results. Therefore, in this note a simple but efficient and fast post processing method is proposed that effectively reduces ring artefacts in reconstructed μ-CT images. (note)

  12. Development of high resolution x-ray CT technique for irradiated fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimi, Akihiro; Katsuyama, Kozo; Maeda, Koji; Asaga, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    High X-ray CT technique was developed to observe the irradiation performance of FBR fuel assembly and MOX fuel. In this technique, the high energy X-ray pulse (12MeV) was used synchronizing detection system with the X-ray pulse to reduce the effect of the gamma ray emissions from the irradiated fuel assembly. In this study, this technique was upgraded to obtain high resolution X-ray CT image. In this upgrading, the collimator which had slit width of 0.1 mm and X-ray detector of a highly sensitive silicon semiconductor detector (100 channels) was introduced in the X-ray CT system. As a result of these developments, high resolution X-ray CT images could be obtained on the transverse cross section of irradiated fuel assembly. (author)

  13. Solitary nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung: prediction of histology at high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Byun, Hong Sik; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Shin, Myung Hee; Kim, Sang Jin

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to descdribe the characteristic high-resolution (HR) CT findings of solitary nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) of the lung which are valuable for specific diagnosis of the disease. HRCT scans of 46 patients (31 with malignant and 15 with benign lesion) with a solitary pulmonary nodule seen on chest radiograph were distributed in random order and analyzed retrospectively. Two blinded observers jointly analyzed the marginal and internal characteristics of nodules as seen on HRCT, and decisions on the findings were reached by consensus. Stepwise discriminant analysis for characteristic findings of BAC was performed. The most frequent CT findings of BAC (n=3D15) were internal bubble lucency (14/15, 93%)(p=3D0.001), area of ground-glass opacity (12/15, 80%; average 58% of tumor volume)(p=3D0.0001), pleural tag(12/15, 80%; p=3D0.097), and lobulated and spiculated margin(8/15, 53%; p=3D0.459). Findings of ground-glass opacity (p=3D0.0001) and bubble lucency (p=3D0.0187) appeared to be discriminant in the diagnosis of BAC. Peripheral pulmonary nodules containing an area of ground-glass opacity associated with internal bubble-lucency are characteristic of BAC. Specific histologic diagnosis of solitary nodular BAC can be suggested by careful analysis of HRCT findings.=20

  14. Clinical use of pulmonary function tests and high-resolution tomography in interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, Clara P; Mejia M, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases is generally arrived at by clinical history, physical examination, and radiologic images, especially high-resolution CT-scanning. It is important to note that, while these diseases have different clinical and histological characteristics, they share a basic pattern of abnormal lung function. With regard to high-resolution tomography, the characteristics of these diseases are similar, although there are specific differences that can be helpful for correct diagnosis. These diseases have severe consequences on respiratory gas exchange. These alterations, combined with other abnormalities of lung function, cause the signs and symptoms and have an impact on quality of life. The use of physiologic parameters is not only helpful for diagnosis, but can also assess severity, help to define the consequences of treatment, and aid in the follow-up. Although some pulmonary function tests can remain completely normal with severe radiographic findings, 10% of patients have impaired lung function before radiologic changes. High-resolution tomography is an essential imaging tool for the study of these patients. This is true not only for diagnosis, but also with regard to clinical parameters and follow-up. Its prognostic use is continually gaining importance. In this article we assess the clinical use of pulmonary function tests and high-resolution tomography in interstitial lung diseases.

  15. High-resolution CT in eosinophilic granuloma (histiocytosis X) of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, J.D.; Buschman, D.L.; Moore, A.D.A.; Muller, N.L.; Naidich, D.P.; Carvalho, C.R.R.; Takasugi, J.E.; Schmidt, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung is fascinating but poorly understood. Computed tomographic (CT) scans in 18 cases (11 high resolution) showed a variety of striking patterns: cysts up to 4 cm with thin or indiscernible walls, ranging from a few lesions to confluent honeycombing; retriculonodular infiltrate; and nodules 2 mm-2cm, sometimes cavitated. CT showed that the ill-defined lucencies barely visible on radiographs are indeed cysts, rather than preserved normal lung surrounded by infiltrate. High-resolution CT showed that some of the early, small nodules were concentrated along terminal bronchioles within the secondary lobules. The differential diagnosis includes sarcoidosis and idiopathic fibrosis, but the prominent cystic abnormality and the lack of peripheral concentration help to distinguish eosinophilic granuloma

  16. Can acute interstitial pneumonia be differentiated from bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia by high-resolution CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Naoki; Johkoh, Takeshi; Ichikado, Kazuya

    2000-01-01

    In the early stages, clinical and chest radiographic findings of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) are often similar to those of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). However, patients with AIP have a poor prognosis, while those with BOOP can achieve a complete recovery after corticosteroid therapy. The objective of this study was to identify differences in high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings between the two diseases. The study included 27 patients with AIP and 14 with BOOP who were histologically diagnosed [open-lung biopsy (n=7), autopsy (n=17), transbronchial lung biopsy (n=17)]. The frequency and distribution of various HRCT findings for each disease were retrospectively evaluated. Traction bronchiectasis, interlobular septal thickening, and intralobular reticular opacities were significantly more prevalent in AIP (92.6%, 85.2%, and 59.3%, respectively) than in BOOP (42.9%, 35.7%, and 14.3%, respectively) (p<0.01). Parenchymal nodules and peripheral distribution were more prevalent in BOOP (28.6% and 57.1%, respectively) than in AIP (7.4% and 14.8%, respectively) (p<0.01). Areas with ground-glass attenuation, air-space consolidation, and architectural distortion were common in both AIP and BOOP. For a differential diagnosis of AIP and BOOP, special attention should be given to the following HRCT findings: traction bronchiectasis, interlobular septal thickening, intralobular reticular opacities, parenchymal nodules, pleural effusion, and peripheral zone predominance. (author)

  17. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T., E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fushie, T. [Radiment Lab. Inc., Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0044 (Japan); Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A. [XIT Co., Naruse, Machida, Tokyo 194-0045 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 µm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  18. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); McDonald, Anna G. [Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, MA (United States); Rosenberg, Andrew E. [University of Miami Hospital, Department of Pathology, Miami, FL (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm{sup 3}) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm{sup 3}). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  19. Diagnosis of hearing impairment by high resolution CT scanning of inner ear anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Ohta, Fumihiko

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone in our clinic has provided a more detailed radiological classification of inner ear anomalies than before. The statistical analysis of inner ear malformations based on the theory of quantification II has produced discriminant equations for the measurable diagnosis of hearing impairment and development of the inner ear. This analysis may make it possible to diagnose total and partial deafness on ipsi- and contralateral sides. (author)

  20. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.; McDonald, Anna G.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Gupta, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm 3 ) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm 3 ). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  1. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury

  2. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran E-mail: demirkaz@dialup.ankara.edu.tr; Ariyuerek, O. Macit; Oezcelik, Ugur; Goecmen, Ayhan; Hassanabad, Hossein K.; Kiper, Nural

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P<0.0001) and clinical points (r=0.67, P<0.0001) of the Shwachman-Kulczycki system, FVC (r=0.71 P=0.004) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry.

  3. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Hosseini, S.K. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Alavi, S.A. [Medical Center for Chemical Warfare Victims Foundation, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury.

  4. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran; Ariyuerek, O. Macit; Oezcelik, Ugur; Goecmen, Ayhan; Hassanabad, Hossein K.; Kiper, Nural

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P 1 (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV 1 (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry

  5. High-resolution CT of temporal bone trauma: review of 38 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroual, M.R.; Zougarhi, A.; Cherif Idrissi El Ganouni, N.; Essadki, O.; Ousehal, A.; Tijani Adil, O.; Maliki, O.; Aderdour, L.; Raji, A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Temporal bone trauma is frequent but difficult to assess due to the diversity of clinical presentations and complex anatomy. We have sought to assess the different types of fractures and complications on high-resolution CT. Materials and methods Descriptive retrospective study over a 24 month period performed in the ENT radiology section of the Mohammed 6 university medical center in Marrakech. A total of 38 cases of temporal bone trauma were reviewed. All patients underwent ENT evaluation and high-resolution CT of the temporal bone using 1 mm axial and coronal sections. Results Mean patient age was 33 years (range: 14-55 years) with male predominance (sex ratio: 36/2). Clinical symptoms were mainly otorrhagia and conductive hearing loss. Oblique extra-labyrinthine fractures were most frequent. Two cases of pneumo-labyrinth were noted. Management was conservative in most cases with deafness in 3 cases. Conclusion High-resolution CT of the temporal bone provides accurate depiction of lesions explaining the clinical symptoms and helps guide management. MRI is complimentary to further assess the labyrinth and VII-VIII nerve complex. (author)

  6. Anatomy of the minor fissure: assessment with high-resolution CT and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyuerek, Macit O.; Yelgec, Selcuk N.; Guelsuen, Meltem; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the anatomy of the minor fissure and its variations on high-resolution CT (HRCT) sections and to propose a detailed classification. The prospective study included 67 patients who were referred to CT for various indications. High-resolution CT examinations (1.5-mm collimation) were obtained through the region of the minor fissure. The CT scans were assessed for the presence, completeness, and configuration of the minor fissure. Various configurations of the minor fissure were classified into four major types, based on whether the highest portion of the middle lobe upper surface was medial (type I), lateral (type II), posterior (type III), or central (type IV). Minor fissure was identified in 65 (97%) of 67 patients, and absent in 2 (3%) cases. The fissure was incomplete in 35 (54%) of 65 patients. Type-I minor fissure is seen in 28 (43%) patients, type II in 22 (34%), type III in 5 (8%), and type IV in 2 (3%) patients. Because the majority of the fissure was absent in 8 (12%) of 35 patients with incomplete fissure, they were considered indeterminate. Comprehensive knowledge of the various configurations of the minor fissure is helpful in correct localization of a lesion and its extension. In equivocal cases, limited thin-section CT scans through the fissure delineate the anatomy more clearly and provide greater degree of precision in localizing pulmonary lesions. (orig.)

  7. Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: correlation between high-resolution CT findings and histopathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, S.; Takashima, S.; Li, F.; Yang, Z.G.; Maruyama, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Wang, J.C.; Sone, S.; Honda, T.

    2001-01-01

    We describe herein the CT features of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of the lung and its histopathological characteristics. Among 17,919 individuals screened for lung cancer by CT scanning, ten AAH nodules were detected in nine asymptomatic subjects. On high-resolution CT, the lesions measured from 6 x 6 mm to 15 x 17 mm and their CT number ranged from -500 to -760 HU. The AAHs appeared as round nodules with smooth and distinct borders and showed a ground-glass opacity. Plain chest radiographs failed to identify all lesions. Histopathologically, AAH lesions showed atypical epithelial cell proliferation along slightly thickened alveolar septa. Whereas it is often easy to differentiate these nodules from inflammatory and benign lung lesions, histopathological examination remains at present the only method to differentiate AAH from lung cancers. (orig.)

  8. Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: correlation between high-resolution CT findings and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, S.; Takashima, S.; Li, F.; Yang, Z.G.; Maruyama, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Wang, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Sone, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Azumi General Hospital, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Honda, T. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We describe herein the CT features of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of the lung and its histopathological characteristics. Among 17,919 individuals screened for lung cancer by CT scanning, ten AAH nodules were detected in nine asymptomatic subjects. On high-resolution CT, the lesions measured from 6 x 6 mm to 15 x 17 mm and their CT number ranged from -500 to -760 HU. The AAHs appeared as round nodules with smooth and distinct borders and showed a ground-glass opacity. Plain chest radiographs failed to identify all lesions. Histopathologically, AAH lesions showed atypical epithelial cell proliferation along slightly thickened alveolar septa. Whereas it is often easy to differentiate these nodules from inflammatory and benign lung lesions, histopathological examination remains at present the only method to differentiate AAH from lung cancers. (orig.)

  9. Comparative study between ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm and high spatial frequency algorithm in high-resolution CT of the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Jung Kyuk; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1994-01-01

    To date, the high spatial frequency algorithm (HSFA) which reduces image smoothing and increases spatial resolution has been used for the evaluation of parenchymal lung diseases in thin-section high-resolution CT. In this study, we compared the ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm (UHSFA) with the high spatial frequency algorithm in the assessment of thin section images of the lung parenchyma. Three radiologists compared the UHSFA and HSFA on identical CT images in a line-pair resolution phantom, one lung specimen, 2 patients with normal lung and 18 patients with abnormal lung parenchyma. Scanning of a line-pair resolution phantom demonstrated no difference in resolution between two techniques but it showed that outer lines of the line pairs with maximal resolution looked thicker on UHSFA than those on HSFA. Lung parenchymal detail with UHSFA was judged equal or superior to HSFA in 95% of images. Lung parenchymal sharpness was improved with UHSFA in all images. Although UHSFA resulted in an increase in visible noise, observers did not found that image noise interfered with image interpretation. The visual CT attenuation of normal lung parenchyma is minimally increased in images with HSFA. The overall visual preference of the images reconstructed on UHSFA was considered equal to or greater than that of those reconstructed on HSFA in 78% of images. The ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm improved the overall visual quality of the images in pulmonary parenchymal high-resolution CT

  10. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Su Dongju; Zhang Jifeng; Xia Xudong; Sui Hong; Zhao Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p 2 test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S-OIV (H1N1).

  11. High-resolution CT of the lung (HRCT) in collagen diseases: A prospective study of 73 patients. Hochaufloesende Computertomographie der Lunge (HRCT) bei Kollagenosen: eine prospektive Untersuchung an 73 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Leisse, C. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Bussmann, A.; Mayer, O. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Genth, E.; Guenther, R.W. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    To determine pulmonary features of collagenous vascular diseases as assessed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) we performed a prospective study of 73 consecutive patients, 44 with rheumatoid arthritis (ra), 11 with progressive systemic sclerosis (pss), 8 with systemic lupus erythematosus (sle), 5 with sjoegren's syndrome, 3 with dermato-/polymyositis and 2 with mixed connective-tissue disease. Pathological lung changes were demonstrated in 70% of patients with ra, 91% with pss, 63% with sle and 60% with the rest. HRCT features included: Intralobular thickening (48%) with a predominance in posterior lower and middle lung areas, pleural thickening (48%) with a predominance in upper lung areas, prominent interlobular septa (37%), subpleural lines (33%), parenchymal bands (33%) with a predominance in lower and anterior lung areas, honeycombing (33%), groundglass pattern (29%) with a predominance in upper and middle, micronodules (18%) with a predominance in upper lung areas and bronchiectasis (14%). HRCT is an important means for the assessment of lung changes associated with collagenous vascular diseases and a definite diagnosis is possible in most cases. (orig.)

  12. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander; Lefolii, Tore Tranberg; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase to 50% as the radial distance from the implant surface increased, and levelled out to approximately 80% at a distance of 400 μm. This method has been successful in depicting the bone and cavities in three dimensions thereby enabling us to give a more precise answer to the fraction of the bone-to-implant contact compared to previous methods. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the image quality between volumetric and conventional high-resolution CT with 64-slice row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanli; Zhang Lei; Zhao Xia; Ma Min; Zhai Renyou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the image quality between volumetric high-resolution CT (VHRCT) and conventional high-resolution CT (CHRCT), and investigate the feasibility of VHRCT. Methods: Catphan 412 phantom was scanned with protocols of CHRCT and VHRCT on a set of GE Lightspeed VCT. The spatial-resolution (LP/cm), noise (standard deviation in an ROI) and radiation close (CTDI) were recorded for each CT scan. Difference of noise between CHRCT and VHRCT were evaluated by paired t test. In clinical study, 32 patients were scanned with VHRCT and CHRCT protocols. The image quality of CHRCT and VHRCT was rated and compared. The quality difference between CHRCT and VHRCT was assessed by Wilcoxon paired signed rank sum test. Results: In phantom study, the in-plane spatial-resolution of both VHRCT and CHRCT was 11 LP/cm for axial images and 12 LP/cm for coronal reformatted images. The noise of VHRCT and CHRCT was (69.18±2.77)HU and (54.62±2.12) HU respectively (t=-15.929, P 0.05). The quality assessment scores of VHRCT coronal reformatted images and CHRCT coronal reformatted images were 3.05 and 1.88 respectively with significant difference (Z= -5.088, P<0.01). Conclusion: The image quality of VHRCT cross-sectional image is similar to that of CHRCT. Multiplanar images with high resolution of VHRCT are recommended. The radiation dose of VHRCT remains to be optimized. (authors)

  14. Noninvasive assessment of pulmonary vascular and airway response to physiologic stimuli with high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M.; Martin, L.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Robotham, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on reactivity of pulmonary vasculature under various stimuli studied invasively with perfused isolated lung models. We used high- resolution CT (HRCT) to demonstrate noninvasively the effects of hypoxia and volume variation on pulmonary circulation and airways. Five anesthetized and ventilated pigs were examined with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lobes) during varying oxygen tensions and intravascular volume states. Blood pressures, pulmonary artery pressures, blood gas levels, and cardiac indexes (thermodilution) were measured. HRCT scans were digitized, and vessel and airway areas were determined with use of a computer edging process

  15. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Akio, E-mail: akio.yoneyama.bu@hitachi.com; Baba, Rika [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry Showa University, Ota-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  16. Three-rooted premolar analyzed by high-resolution and cone beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Caroline; Dummer, Paul M H; Bryant, Susan; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Fontanella, Vania; Dutra, Vinicius D'avila; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the variations in canal and root cross-sectional area in three-rooted maxillary premolars between high-resolution computed tomography (μCT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Sixteen extracted maxillary premolars with three distinct roots and fully formed apices were scanned using μCT and CBCT. Photoshop CS software was used to measure root and canal cross-sectional areas at the most cervical and the most apical points of each root third in images obtained using the two tomographic computed (CT) techniques, and at 30 root sections equidistant from both root ends using μCT images. Canal and root areas were compared between each method using the Student t test for paired samples and 95 % confidence intervals. Images using μCT were sharper than those obtained using CBCT. There were statistically significant differences in mean area measurements of roots and canals between the μCT and CBCT techniques (P < 0.05). Root and canal areas had similar variations in cross-sectional μCT images and became proportionally smaller in a cervical to apical direction as the cementodentinal junction was approached, from where the area then increased apically. Although variation was similar in the roots and canals under study, CBCT produced poorer image details than μCT. Although CBCT is a strong diagnosis tool, it still needs improvement to provide accuracy in details of the root canal system, especially in cases with anatomical variations, such as the three-rooted maxillary premolars.

  17. The frequency and the degree of fusion of the lung on high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hwan Sik; Kim, Sung Jin; Bae, Il Hun; Song, Kyung Sup; Kim, Joo Chang; Han, Ki Suk; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and degree of fusion of the lung as seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT). In 210 patients high-resolution CT scans from the apex to the diaphragm were obtained at 1 mm collimation and 7 mm interval. We retrospectively analysed the frequency and degree of fusion of the lung bordering each interlobar fissure. Fusion of the lung was defined when fissure appeared without complete lobar separation. The degree of lung fusion was classified as mild (less than 1/3 of the fissure), moderate (greater than 1/3 and less than 2/3 of fissure), or severe (greater than 2/3 of the fissure). In 90 of 210 patients, all fissures were identified. In 73 of these 90 (81.1%), lung fusion was noted, the most frequent site of this being between the right upper and right middle lobe (53.3%) . The least frequent site was between the upper portion of the left upper and left lower lobe (32.2%). Am mild degree of fusion was most frequently found between the right middle and right lower lobe (83.9%0, while a severe degree was most frequent between the right middle and right upper lobe (50.0%), followed by the lingular division and the left lower lobe (41.9%). HRCT can be used to evaluate the frequency and degree of interlobar lung fusion. (author)

  18. Clinical evaluation of high-resolution CT, 1. CT diagnosis of liver tumors and its limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-03-01

    To estimate diagnostic accuracy of CT in liver tumors, CT diagnosis in 120 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma was discussed. As a result, primary hepatocellular carcinoma less than 2 cm in diameter could not be visualized by CT. Even tumors between 4 and 8 cm in diameter showed false negative caused by isodense tumors on images of 4 patients. To improve the detectability of liver tumors by CT, the higher resolution of low contrast regions on images are required. As a method to improve qualitative diagnosis of liver tumors, rapid intravenous injection of contrast medium was performed on 42 patients with liver tumors, As a result, images reflecting vascularity of tumors were obtained, and the differential diagnosis was possible to some extent by observing the movement of the contrast. Especially, cavernous hemangioma could be distinguished from hepatocellular carcinoma, because cavernous hemangioma showed specific images and could be diagnosed accurately.

  19. Examination of the fine interstitial changes of pneumoconiosis with high resolution computed tomography (HR-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Masamitsu; Miyazaki, Nobuyoshi; Harada, Susumu; Nakata, Hajime

    1986-01-01

    High resolution CT was performed in 14 patients with fine interstitial changes of pneumoconiosis and Review image was evaluated for the diagnostic accuracy as compared with conventional chest roentgenogram. Of the 14 Patients in the study, 7 were divided category 1 by the ILO U/C classification, 4 were category 2, 3 were category 3. Studies of lung function showed obstructive ventilatory disturbance characterized by moderate reduction in FEV 1.0% (58.6 ± 16.5 %) and V25/H (0.34 ± 0.24 l/sec/m). HR-CT defined more sensitive in the presence of fine lung nodules than conventional X-p, and showed high contrast interfaces provided by the aerated lung. HR-CT was also of value in detecting bulla, bleb, peripleural changes and hilar lymphadenopathy. Radiologic-pathologic correlation was examined on tne specimens of transbronchial lung biopsy in 4 patients, and revealed the diagnostic usefullness of HR-CT. (author)

  20. Ultra-high-resolution CT angiography of the artery of Adamkiewicz. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Takagi, Hidenobu [Iwate Medical University, Division of Cardiovascular Radiology, Department of Radiology, Morioka (Japan); Ueyama, Yuta; Kikuchi, Kei; Chiba, Takuya [Iwate Medical University Hospital, Center for Radiological Science, Morioka (Japan); Arakita, Kazumasa [Center for Medical Research and Development, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara (Japan); Schuijf, Joanne D. [Center for Medical Research and Development Europe, Toshiba Medical Systems Europe, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Saito, Yasuo [CT Systems Development Department, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    Preoperative identification of the artery of Adamkiewicz can help prevent postoperative spinal cord injury following thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic repair. Several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of evaluating the artery of Adamkiewicz using multi-detector row computed tomography (CT), but precise visualization remains a challenge. The present study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of ultra-high-resolution CT for visualizing the artery of Adamkiewicz with a slice thickness of 0.25 versus 0.5 mm in patients with aortic aneurysms. Our institutional review board approved this study. Twenty-four patients with thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms were scanned with beam collimation of 0.25 mm x 128. Images were reconstructed with slice thicknesses of 0.25 and 0.5 mm. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the aorta and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the anterior spinal artery and spinal cord were measured. Two independent observers evaluated visualization of the artery of Adamkiewicz and its continuity between the anterior spinal artery and the aorta using a four-point scale. No significant differences in the SNR of the aorta or CNR of the anterior spinal artery were observed between 0.25- and 0.5-mm slices. The average visualization score was significantly higher for 0.25-mm slices (3.58 ± 0.78) than for 0.5-mm slices (3.13 ± 0.99) (p = 0.01). The percentage of patients with nondiagnostic image quality was significantly lower for 0.25-mm slices (8.3%) than for 0.5-mm slices (33.3%) (p = 0.03). In patients with aortic aneurysms, ultra-high-resolution CT with 0.25-mm slices significantly improves visualization of the artery of Adamkiewicz compared to 0.5-mm slices. (orig.)

  1. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul

    2001-01-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  2. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  3. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom; Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas; Bartling, Soenke H.

    2006-01-01

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  4. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Founders House, FND-2-216, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Bartling, Soenke H. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  5. Visual quantification of diffuse emphysema with Sakal's method and high-resolution chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerstein, I.M.; McElvaney, N.G.; Simon, T.R.; Hubbard, R.C.; Crystal, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the accuracy and efficacy of visual quantitation for a diffuse form of pulmonary emphysema with high-resolution CT (HRCT). Twenty- five adults patients with symptomatic emphysema due to α-antitrypsin deficiency prospectively underwent HRCT with 1.5-mm sections, a high-spatial-resolution algorithm, and targeted reconstruction. Photography was performed with narrow lung windows to accentuate diffuse emphysema. Emphysema was then scored with use of a modification of Sakai's extent and severity scoring method. The scans were all scored by the same blinded observer. Pulmonary function testing (PFT), including diffusing capacity measurement, was performed in all patients. Results were statistically correlated with the use of regression analysis

  6. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ping, E-mail: pinglee_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Su Dongju, E-mail: hyd_sdj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhang Jifeng, E-mail: zjf2005520@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Xia Xudong, E-mail: xiaxd888@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Sui Hong, E-mail: suisuihong@126.com [Department of Statistics, Harbin Medical University, 240 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Donghui, E-mail: yhwoooooo@yahoo.com.cn [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Heilongjiang, 187 Xiang An Street, Harbin 150036 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S

  7. Direct microCT imaging of non-mineralized connective tissues at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Gili R S; Brumfeld, Vlad; Dean, Mason; Shahar, Ron; Weiner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The 3D imaging of soft tissues in their native state is challenging, especially when high resolution is required. An X-ray-based microCT is, to date, the best choice for high resolution 3D imaging of soft tissues. However, since X-ray attenuation of soft tissues is very low, contrasting enhancement using different staining materials is needed. The staining procedure, which also usually involves tissue fixation, causes unwanted and to some extent unknown tissue alterations. Here, we demonstrate that a method that enables 3D imaging of soft tissues without fixing and staining using an X-ray-based bench-top microCT can be applied to a variety of different tissues. With the sample mounted in a custom-made loading device inside a humidity chamber, we obtained soft tissue contrast and generated 3D images of fresh, soft tissues with a resolution of 1 micron voxel size. We identified three critical conditions which make it possible to image soft tissues: humidified environment, mechanical stabilization of the sample and phase enhancement. We demonstrate the capability of the technique using different specimens: an intervertebral disc, the non-mineralized growth plate, stingray tessellated radials (calcified cartilage) and the collagenous network of the periodontal ligament. Since the scanned specimen is fresh an interesting advantage of this technique is the ability to scan a specimen under load and track the changes of the different structures. This method offers a unique opportunity for obtaining valuable insights into 3D structure-function relationships of soft tissues.

  8. Lung manifestation in rheumatoid arthritis: High-resolution CT in mutual relation to skeletal changes and laboratory parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Leisse, C.; Meyer, O.; Genth, E.; Guenther, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: It has been the aim of the following study to evaluate pulmonary changes in rheumatoid arthritis with high-resolution CT and to assess their correlation with joint manifestation and laboratory paramters. Material and methods: The authors prospectively performed computed tomography (CT) in 83 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and graded pulmonary changes for frequency and severity. Included were patients with 6-7/7 ARA, BSR>25/1 min and mean disease duration of 12 years (range, 1-44). Data of medical and drug histories, smoking habits, blood levels of rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and C-reactive protein as well as the degree of joint involvement were taken into account. Results: 58 patients (70%) had pathological CT scans showing the following abnormalities: Interlobular thickening (44.5%), intralobular thickening (34%), nonseptal linear attenuation (35%), nodular or linear pleural thickening (32.5%), ground-glass pattern (19%), centrilobular nodules (13%), honeycombing (13%) and bronchiolectasis (9%). Intralobular thickening, honeycombing and pleural thickening were associated with a higher degree of joint manifestation; pleural thickening, honeycombing and ground-glass pattern were associated with a higher level of rheumatoid factor. There was no relationship between pulmonary changes and either the duration of the disease, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or C-reactive protein. Conclusion: CT may be a useful noninvasive tool for recognition of RA-associated lung disease. Interstitial lung changes are frequent and they are independent of the duration of the disease. Pulmonary interstitial changes are more frequent and more severe in RF-positive patients and in case of more severe joint involvement. (orig.) [de

  9. High-resolution CT findings in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yoon Ho; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Han, Heon; Chung, Hyo Sun; Cha, Yoo Mi; Kim, Young Chae; Kim, Sang Hee

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate high resolution CT(HRCT) findings in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD). In 13 infants(age range, 1-12 months;11 premature babies, two full-term babies; birth weight, 0.97-3.88kg;mean 2,03kg) with clinico-radiologically suggested BPD, HRCT findings of the lung were reviewed retrospectively. Spiral CT using ultra high bone algorithm, 1mm collimation with 5-8mm interval, and 0.7sec scan time was performed without regard to breathing-control of infants. Three radiologists each analysed the HRCT findings twice. HRCT findings of BPD were as follows:parenchymal bands(n=13), interlobular septal thickenings (n=12), multifocal hyperaeration involving lobar or segmental distribution(n=7), and involving lobular distribution or small cyst-like lesion(n=4), centrilobular nodules(n=7), consolidation and/or atelectasis(n=7), and bronchovascular bundle thickening(n=6). Parenchymal bands, interlobular septal thickenings, and multifocal hyperaerations were the major findings in cases of bronchopulmonary dysplasia whereas, centrilobular nodules, consolidation and/or atelectasis, and bronchovascular bundle thickenings were the minor findings. These findings may be used as basic data in the evaluation of BPD in future studies

  10. Usefulness evaluation of low-dose for emphysema: Compared with high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Daejeon Health Institute of Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of low-dose CT (LDCT) for emphysema compared with high-resolution CT (HRCT). Measurements of radiation dose and noise were repeated 3 times in same exposure condition which was similar with obtaining HRCT and LDCT images. We analysed reading results of 146 subjects. Six images per participants selected for emphysema grading. Emphysema was graded for all 6 zones on the left and right sides of the lungs by the consensus reading of two chest radiologists using a 4-point scale. Between the HRCT and LDCT images, diagnostic differences and agreements for emphysema were analyzed by McNemar's and unweighted kappa tests, and radiation doses and noise by a Mann-Whitney U-test, using the SPSS 19.0 program. Radiation dose from HRCT was significantly higher than that of LDCT, but the noise was significantly lower in HRCT than in LDCT. Diagnostic agreement for emphysema between HRCT and LDCT images was excellent (k-value=0.88). Emphysema grading scores were not significantly different between HRCT and LDCT images for all six lung zones. Emphysema grading scores from LDCT images were significantly correlated with increased scores on HRCT images (r=0.599, p < 0.001). Considering the tradeoff between radiation dose and image noise, LDCT could be used as the gold standard method instead of HRCT for emphysema detection and grading.

  11. Radiographic and high resolution CT findings of non-specific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Satoshi [Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Yokoi, Toyoharu; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Noda, Yasunobu; Kato, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Michie

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the radiographic and high resolution CT findings in fifteen patients with biopsy proven nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The most common radiographic findings in NSIP were bilateral infiltrates involving alveolar pattern, interstitial pattern, and mixed alveolar-interstitial pattern, which distributed mainly in the middle and lower lung zones. Loss of lung volumes were common. The predominant findings of linear and reticular opacities on HRCT were peribronchovascular interstitial thickening, parenchymal bands, intralobular interstitial thickening, and traction bronchiectasis. Honeycombing was not noted in any patient on initial CT scans. The predominant findings of increased lung opacity were mixed pattern of ground glass opacity and consolidation. Because these findings mimic those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, distinction between NSIP and IPF/UIP seems to be difficult by radiographic and HRCT findings. The response to corticosteroid therapy was good. At follow up HRCT, the pulmonary abnormalities observed on initial scans had disappeared or were diminished in most cases. Intralobular interstitial thickening and traction bronchiectasis, that have been considered to be an indicator of irreversible fibrosis, occasionally disappeared after corticosteroid therapy. (author)

  12. Renal stone characterization using high resolution imaging mode on a photon counting detector CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Gutjahr, R.; Henning, A.; Kappler, S.; Halaweish, A.; Abdurakhimova, D.; Peterson, Z.; Montoya, J.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C.

    2017-03-01

    In addition to the standard-resolution (SR) acquisition mode, a high-resolution (HR) mode is available on a research photon-counting-detector (PCD) whole-body CT system. In the HR mode each detector consists of a 2x2 array of 0.225 mm x 0.225 mm subpixel elements. This is in contrast to the SR mode that consists of a 4x4 array of the same subelements, and results in 0.25 mm isotropic resolution at iso-center for the HR mode. In this study, we quantified ex vivo the capabilities of the HR mode to characterize renal stones in terms of morphology and mineral composition. Forty pure stones - 10 uric acid (UA), 10 cystine (CYS), 10 calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and 10 apatite (APA) - and 14 mixed stones were placed in a 20 cm water phantom and scanned in HR mode, at radiation dose matched to that of routine dual-energy stone exams. Data from micro CT provided a reference for the quantification of morphology and mineral composition of the mixed stones. The area under the ROC curve was 1.0 for discriminating UA from CYS, 0.89 for CYS vs COM and 0.84 for COM vs APA. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the percent UA in mixed stones was 11.0% with a medium-sharp kernel and 15.6% with the sharpest kernel. The HR showed qualitatively accurate characterization of stone morphology relative to micro CT.

  13. Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis: Correlation between the high-resolution CT and pathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Soares Souza, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A 35 years old rural worker presented with a 15 days history of progressive dyspnea, associated with dry cough, mialgia and fever. Few days before the symptoms, he had swim in a river. The chest radiographs demonstrated bilateral reticule-nodular infiltrates. The high-resolution CT showed patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation, irregular interlobular septal thickening, intralobular interstitial thickening, and small nodules, which are confluent in some regions. All the laboratorial investigation were negative. The open lung biopsy shows parenchymal granulomatous inflammation, and numerous schistosome ova. Resumo: Paciente masculino, de 35 anos, trabalhador rural, apresentando-se com história de dispneia progressiva, tosse seca, mialgia e febre, com evolução de 15 dias. Relatava ter nadado num rio, recentemente. As radiografias de tórax mostravam infiltração retículo-nodular bilateral. A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução evidenciava áreas esparsas de atenuação em vidro fosco, espessamento irregular de septos in- terlobulares e do interstício intralobular e pequenos nódulos, confluentes em algumas regiões. Os exames laboratoriais eram normais. Biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto demonstrou inflamação parenquimatosa granulomatosa, com presença de ovos de esquistossoma. Key-words: Acute schistosomiasis, high-resolution computed tomography, parasitic infection, lungs, Palavras-chave: Esquistossomose aguda, tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução, infecção parasitária, pulmões

  14. Ground-glass opacity at high resolution CT: an approach for differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Rogondino, Jose; Vidales, Valeria; Rolnik, Maria C.; Montanari, Mariano; Salazar, Santiago N.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the Ground-Glass Opacity in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with its underlying abnormality and anatomic distribution and its correlation with different etiologies. Methods: A 38 patients series, (32 men, 16 women, mean age 54,6 years, range 20-28) was retrospectively analyzed. They were evaluated with high resolution computed tomography, 2 mm thick sections and 10 mm of interval. Contrast intravenous iodinated contrast (no-ionic) was injected in 11 patients. The final diagnosis was made with sputum analysis, bronchioalveolar lavage, trans bronchial biopsy and open lung biopsy. Results: The differential diagnosis of ground glass opacity is based on analyzing their anatomic resolution and the underlying pathology in the lung parenchyma. Centrilobular distribution indicated early air-spaces pathology produced in our series by 21 infections, 4 pulmonary hemorrhages, 1 hypersensitivity pneumonitis and 1 descamative interstitial pneumonitis. Panlobular distribution, alveolar proteinosis (1 case) sarcoidosis (1 case) drug toxicity 1 case and one case of pneumocystis carinii. Peripherical distribution typical of early idiopathic fibrosis (1). Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (1). Structural alterations of the lung parenchyma with bronchiectasias was seen in 16 cases, cystic lesions in 3 cases, sub pleural linear opacities 4 cases, peribronchovascular interstitial thickening or nodularity and emphysema in 10 cases. Conclusion: HRCT is useful to evaluate ground glass opacities pattern with the anatomic distribution and the underlying structural pathology. These findings under some clinical circumstances can suggest a specific diagnosis in most cases, indicating a potentially treatable disease. (author)

  15. Comparison of quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging CT to fluorescent microsphere-based flow from high-resolution cryo-images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Wu, Hao; Li, Yuemeng; Vembar, Mani; Dhanantwari, Amar; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging using CT (MPI-CT) has the potential to provide quantitative measures of myocardial blood flow (MBF) which can aid the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of MPI-CT in a porcine model of balloon-induced LAD coronary artery ischemia guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR). We quantified MBF at baseline (FFR=1.0) and under moderate ischemia (FFR=0.7) using MPI-CT and compared to fluorescent microsphere-based MBF from high-resolution cryo-images. Dynamic, contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained using a spectral detector CT (Philips Healthcare). Projection-based mono-energetic images were reconstructed and processed to obtain MBF. Three MBF quantification approaches were evaluated: singular value decomposition (SVD) with fixed Tikhonov regularization (ThSVD), SVD with regularization determined by the L-Curve criterion (LSVD), and Johnson-Wilson parameter estimation (JW). The three approaches over-estimated MBF compared to cryo-images. JW produced the most accurate MBF, with average error 33.3+/-19.2mL/min/100g, whereas LSVD and ThSVD had greater over-estimation, 59.5+/-28.3mL/min/100g and 78.3+/-25.6 mL/min/100g, respectively. Relative blood flow as assessed by a flow ratio of LAD-to-remote myocardium was strongly correlated between JW and cryo-imaging, with R2=0.97, compared to R2=0.88 and 0.78 for LSVD and ThSVD, respectively. We assessed tissue impulse response functions (IRFs) from each approach for sources of error. While JW was constrained to physiologic solutions, both LSVD and ThSVD produced IRFs with non-physiologic properties due to noise. The L-curve provided noise-adaptive regularization but did not eliminate non-physiologic IRF properties or optimize for MBF accuracy. These findings suggest that model-based MPI-CT approaches may be more appropriate for quantitative MBF estimation and that cryo-imaging can support the development of MPI-CT by providing spatial distributions of MBF.

  16. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: Histologic correlation with high-resolution CT in 29 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)], E-mail: h-sumikawa@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Department of Medical Physics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Ichikado, Kazuya [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, 5-3-1 Tikami, Kumamoto 861-4193 (Japan); Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Tosei General Hospital, 160 Nishioiwake-cho, Seto City, Aichi (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Yanagawa, Masahiro; Inoue, Atsuo; Mihara, Naoki; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Hironobu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Purpose: To determine the pathological correlation with various high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in cases with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), paying special attention to pathological subgroups. Material and methods: The study involved 29 patients diagnosed with NSIP by surgical lung biopsy. A total of 54 specimens were obtained and grouped according to Katzenstein's classification (groups 1-3) for NSIP. Two observers then evaluated the HRCT findings for every biopsy site and classified the findings according to the main pattern evident into the following four radiologic pattern groups: A, ground-glass attenuation and fine reticulation; B, ground-glass and coarse reticulation; C, consolidation and D, ground-glass attenuation and consolidation. Results: The pathological pattern was NSIP group 1 in 6 patients, group 2 in 22 and group 3 in 25, while 1 specimen was normal. The main HRCT pattern was pattern A in 15 specimens, B in 8, C in 9 and D in 21. Although there were no significant correlation between HRCT patterns and histological subgroups (Chi-square test, p = 0.07), pattern C was more frequently seen in group 2 (7 of 9) and pattern A was more common in group 3 (11 of 15). HRCT pattern A corresponded pathologically to areas of thickened alveolar septa with temporal uniformity. Pattern B correlated with areas with airspace enlargement/emphysema or dilation of small airways superimposed on thickened alveolar septa. Pattern C was pathologically associated with areas of severe thickened alveolar septa, mucin stasis in the small airways and intraluminal organization. Conclusion: The pathological backgrounds of the same CT findings in patients with NSIP varied among all pathological subgroups. Areas of ground-glass attenuation and air-space consolidation did not always correspond to reversible pathological findings.

  17. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning of the lung plain radiography and high resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Nho, Joon Young; Ahn, Bum Gyu; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Kim, Heung Cheol; Lee, Myoung Koo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Authors analyzed the findings of chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) of the chronic mercury vapor poisoning in 12 patients who were diagnosed by previous working history for mercury-thermometer and high level of mercury in blood and urine. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HRCT findings of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. Duration of mercury exposure was ranged from 10 to 41 months(mean, 21.8 months). Estimated value of serum mercury was ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 {mu} g/dl(mean, 5.3 {mu} g/dl: normal value is less than 0.5 {mu} g/dl). Estimated value of mercury in urine was ranged from 104 to 482 {mu} g/l(mean, 291.4 {mu} g/l; normal value is less than 20 {mu} g/l). Chest radiographs showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities and peribronchial cuffings in only 2 out of 12 patients, but HRCT showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities in 8 patients, peribronchial cuffings in 7 patients, centrilobular abnormalities in 5 patients, interface sign in 4 patients, interlobular septal thickening with intralobular lines in 2 patients and lobular consolidation in one patient. In conclusion, chest HRCT is superior to chest radiograph to show the pulmonary manifestation of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. In patients with chronic mercury vapor poisoning. HRCT findings of centrilobular distributed ground glass opacities and peribroncjial cuffinges are characteristic.

  18. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D.; DeJong, Pim A.; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.; McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R 2 = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  19. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); DeJong, Pim A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R{sup 2} = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  20. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning of the lung plain radiography and high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Nho, Joon Young; Ahn, Bum Gyu; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Kim, Heung Cheol; Lee, Myoung Koo

    1993-01-01

    Authors analyzed the findings of chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) of the chronic mercury vapor poisoning in 12 patients who were diagnosed by previous working history for mercury-thermometer and high level of mercury in blood and urine. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HRCT findings of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. Duration of mercury exposure was ranged from 10 to 41 months(mean, 21.8 months). Estimated value of serum mercury was ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 μ g/dl(mean, 5.3 μ g/dl: normal value is less than 0.5 μ g/dl). Estimated value of mercury in urine was ranged from 104 to 482 μ g/l(mean, 291.4 μ g/l; normal value is less than 20 μ g/l). Chest radiographs showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities and peribronchial cuffings in only 2 out of 12 patients, but HRCT showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities in 8 patients, peribronchial cuffings in 7 patients, centrilobular abnormalities in 5 patients, interface sign in 4 patients, interlobular septal thickening with intralobular lines in 2 patients and lobular consolidation in one patient. In conclusion, chest HRCT is superior to chest radiograph to show the pulmonary manifestation of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. In patients with chronic mercury vapor poisoning. HRCT findings of centrilobular distributed ground glass opacities and peribroncjial cuffinges are characteristic

  1. Imaging of bronchiectasis: the great value of high-resolution CT in differential diagnosis; Differenzialdiagnose der Bronchiektasen: High-resolution CT als wertvolle Hilfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B.; Heinrich, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Uder, M. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Bronchiectasis is defined as localized irreversible dilatation of the bronchial tree. Brochiectasis has been associated with a wide variety of causes, but it is mostly caused by acute, chronic or recurrent infections. This paper should give a review about the manifestation of bronchiectasis and bronchioloectasis in HR-CT and discuss the causing entities. However, integration of bronchiectasis and other HR-CT findings may enable a narrower differential diagnosis, in some cases it is possible to give the correct diagnose directly. (orig.)

  2. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho

    1997-01-01

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status.

  4. High-resolution PET studies in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.; Haxby, J.V.; Wagner, E.; Salerno, J.A.; Friedland, R.P.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and 30 healthy age-matched controls were scanned using [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose on a Scanditronix PC 1024-7B tomograph (inplane resolution = 6 mm, axial resolution = 10 mm). Patients and controls were scanned in the resting state with their eyes patched and ears occluded. The regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) in most major neocortical and subcortical gray matter regions, and certain metabolic ratios (rCMRglc/ calcarine rCMRglc), quantitatively discriminated even the mildly demented patients from healthy controls. The association neocortices showed metabolic abnormalities that were more severe than those in the sensorimotor and calcarine regions. All demented groups showed significant neuropsychological disturbances when compared to healthy controls. These data demonstrated widespread metabolic disturbances, particularly in the association areas, relatively early in Alzheimer's disease, and more profound involvement with disease progression

  5. Detecting metastasis of gastric carcinoma using high-resolution micro-CT system: in vivo small animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junting; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin; Li, Xiangsi; Yang, Xiang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Yuanfang; Wang, Xiaorui

    2011-03-01

    Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining are used for identifying the characteristics of metastasis in traditional ways. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a useful tool for monitoring and longitudinal imaging of tumor in small animal in vivo. In present study, we evaluated the feasibility of the detection for metastasis of gastric carcinoma by high-resolution micro-CT system with omnipaque accumulative enhancement method in the organs. Firstly, a high-resolution micro-CT ZKKS-MCT-sharp micro-CT was developed by our research group and Guangzhou Zhongke Kaisheng Medical Technology Co., Ltd. Secondly, several gastric carcinoma models were established through inoculating 2x106 BGC-823 gastric carcinoma cells subcutaneously. Thirdly, micro-CT scanning was performed after accumulative enhancement method of intraperitoneal injection of omnipaque contrast agent containing 360 mg iodine with a concentration of 350 mg I/ml. Finally, we obtained high-resolution anatomical information of the metastasis in vivo in a BALB/c NuNu nude mouse, the 3D tumor architecture is revealed in exquisite detail at about 35 μm spatial resolution. In addition, the accurate shape and volume of the micrometastasis as small as 0.78 mm3 can be calculated with our software. Overall, our data suggest that this imaging approach and system could be used to enhance the understanding of tumor proliferation, metastasis and could be the basis for evaluating anti-tumor therapies.

  6. Image-based motion compensation for high-resolution extremities cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Cao, Q.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Zbijewski, W.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities provides high spatial resolution, but its quantitative accuracy may be challenged by involuntary sub-mm patient motion that cannot be eliminated with simple means of external immobilization. We investigate a two-step iterative motion compensation based on a multi-component metric of image sharpness. Methods: Motion is considered with respect to locally rigid motion within a particular region of interest, and the method supports application to multiple locally rigid regions. Motion is estimated by maximizing a cost function with three components: a gradient metric encouraging image sharpness, an entropy term that favors high contrast and penalizes streaks, and a penalty term encouraging smooth motion. Motion compensation involved initial coarse estimation of gross motion followed by estimation of fine-scale displacements using high resolution reconstructions. The method was evaluated in simulations with synthetic motion (1-4 mm) applied to a wrist volume obtained on a CMOS-based CBCT testbench. Structural similarity index (SSIM) quantified the agreement between motion-compensated and static data. The algorithm was also tested on a motion contaminated patient scan from dedicated extremities CBCT. Results: Excellent correction was achieved for the investigated range of displacements, indicated by good visual agreement with the static data. 10-15% improvement in SSIM was attained for 2-4 mm motions. The compensation was robust against increasing motion (4% decrease in SSIM across the investigated range, compared to 14% with no compensation). Consistent performance was achieved across a range of noise levels. Significant mitigation of artifacts was shown in patient data. Conclusion: The results indicate feasibility of image-based motion correction in extremities CBCT without the need for a priori motion models, external trackers, or fiducials.

  7. High resolution spiral CT for determining the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules: refining and testing the test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Rasmussen, Finn (Dept. of Radiology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)), Email: stefhard@rm.dk; Rasmussen, Torben Riis (Dept. of Pulmonology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)); Hager, Henrik (Dept. of Pathology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    Background A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) may represent early stage lung cancer. Lung cancer is a devastating disease with an overall 5-year mortality rate of approximately 84% but with early detection and surgery as low as 47%. Currently a contrast-enhanced multiple-row detector CT (MDCT) scan is the first examination when evaluating patients with suspected lung cancer. Purpose To apply an additional high resolution CT (HRCT) to SPNs to test whether certain morphological characteristics are associated with malignancy, to assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRCT in the characterization of SPNs, and to address the reproducibility of all measures. Material and Method Two hundred and thirteen participants with SPNs were included in a follow-up study. Blinded HRCT images were assessed with regard to margin risk categories (MRCs), calcification patterns and certain other characteristics and overall malignancy potential ratings (MPRs) were given. Morphological characteristics were tested against reference standard and ROC methodology was applied to assess diagnostic accuracy. Reproducibility was measured with Kappa statistics and 95% confidence intervals were computed for all results. Histopathology (90%) and CT follow-up (10%) were used as reference standard. Results MRCs (P < 0.001), calcification patterns (P = 0.003), and pleural retraction (P < 0.001) were all statistically significantly associated to malignancy. Reproducibility was moderate to substantial. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy of HRCT were 98%, 23% and 87%, respectively. Reproducibility was substantial. Conclusion Statistically significant associations between SPN MRCs, calcification patterns, pleural retraction and malignancy were found. HRCT yielded a very high sensitivity and a somewhat lower specificity for malignancy. Reproducibility was high

  8. High resolution spiral CT for determining the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules: refining and testing the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Rasmussen, Finn; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Hager, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) may represent early stage lung cancer. Lung cancer is a devastating disease with an overall 5-year mortality rate of approximately 84% but with early detection and surgery as low as 47%. Currently a contrast-enhanced multiple-row detector CT (MDCT) scan is the first examination when evaluating patients with suspected lung cancer. Purpose To apply an additional high resolution CT (HRCT) to SPNs to test whether certain morphological characteristics are associated with malignancy, to assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRCT in the characterization of SPNs, and to address the reproducibility of all measures. Material and Method Two hundred and thirteen participants with SPNs were included in a follow-up study. Blinded HRCT images were assessed with regard to margin risk categories (MRCs), calcification patterns and certain other characteristics and overall malignancy potential ratings (MPRs) were given. Morphological characteristics were tested against reference standard and ROC methodology was applied to assess diagnostic accuracy. Reproducibility was measured with Kappa statistics and 95% confidence intervals were computed for all results. Histopathology (90%) and CT follow-up (10%) were used as reference standard. Results MRCs (P < 0.001), calcification patterns (P = 0.003), and pleural retraction (P < 0.001) were all statistically significantly associated to malignancy. Reproducibility was moderate to substantial. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy of HRCT were 98%, 23% and 87%, respectively. Reproducibility was substantial. Conclusion Statistically significant associations between SPN MRCs, calcification patterns, pleural retraction and malignancy were found. HRCT yielded a very high sensitivity and a somewhat lower specificity for malignancy. Reproducibility was high

  9. Modeling Stokes flow in real pore geometries derived by high resolution micro CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halisch, M.; Müller, C.

    2012-04-01

    Meanwhile, numerical modeling of rock properties forms an important part of modern petrophysics. Substantially, equivalent rock models are used to describe and assess specific properties and phenomena, like fluid transport or complex electrical properties. In recent years, non-destructive computed X-ray tomography got more and more important - not only to take a quick and three dimensional look into rock samples but also to get access to in-situ sample information for highly accurate modeling purposes. Due to - by now - very high resolution of the 3D CT data sets (micron- to submicron range) also very small structures and sample features - e.g. micro porosity - can be visualized and used for numerical models of very high accuracy. Special demands even arise before numerical modeling can take place. Inappropriate filter applications (e.g. improper type of filter, wrong kernel, etc.) may lead to a significant corruption of spatial sample structure and / or even sample or void space volume. Because of these difficulties, especially small scale mineral- and pore space textures are very often lost and valuable in-situ information is erased. Segmentation of important sample features - porosity as well as rock matrix - based upon grayscale values strongly depends upon the scan quality and upon the experience of the application engineer, respectively. If the threshold for matrix-porosity separation is set too low, porosity can be quickly (and even more, due to restrictions of scanning resolution) underestimated. Contrary to this, a too high threshold over-determines porosity and small void space features as well as interfaces are changed and falsified. Image based phase separation in close combination with "conventional" analytics, as scanning electron microscopy or thin sectioning, greatly increase the reliability of this preliminary work. For segmentation and quantification purposes, a special CT imaging and processing software (Avizo Fire) has been used. By using this

  10. An unusual case of left aberrant innominate artery with right aortic arch: evaluation with high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Gesualdo, Francesco; Brunelle, Francis; Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2008-01-15

    A left aberrant innominate (brachiocephalic) artery is an angiographically well-known entity that may cause tracheal compression. We report a male newborn who was admitted for further investigation of a prenatally suspected major vessel anomaly. High-resolution CT was used to completely assess the abnormal anatomy and the relationship with the airway, as well as to guide the surgical approach for its correction. (orig.)

  11. High resolution CT of the lungs in acute disseminated tuberculosis and a pediatric radiology perspectice of the term 'miliary'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.H.; Cremin, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution CT (HRCT) of the lungs in six children with acute disseminated tuberculosis was evaluated. There was a wide variation in the HRCT appearances. This covered differences in size, distribution and concentration of nodular opacities. Coalescence of nodules and the presence of intestitial thickening was variable. The recognition of acute disseminated tuberculosis is important for diagnosis and has prognostic implications. The use of the term 'acute disseminated tuberculosis' rather than 'miliary tuberculosis' is advocated. (orig.)

  12. An unusual case of left aberrant innominate artery with right aortic arch: evaluation with high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Gesualdo, Francesco; Brunelle, Francis; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    A left aberrant innominate (brachiocephalic) artery is an angiographically well-known entity that may cause tracheal compression. We report a male newborn who was admitted for further investigation of a prenatally suspected major vessel anomaly. High-resolution CT was used to completely assess the abnormal anatomy and the relationship with the airway, as well as to guide the surgical approach for its correction. (orig.)

  13. High-resolution CT findings of interstitial pneumonia in patients with dermatomyositis. Comparison between classic and amyopathic forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Wataru

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of interstitial pneumonia associated with dermatomyositis (DM) based on disease form, classic (CDM) vs. amyopathic (ADM) form, and clinical presentation, acute or subacute vs. chronic presentation. HRCT findings of 18 patients (CDM 9, ADM 9) were reviewed retrospectively. HRCT was interpreted by two experienced, board-certified radiologists. Difference in the interpretation was settled by consensus. Frequency of the HRCT findings compared between CDM and ADM, and between acute or subacute and chronic presentation. The most frequent finding was bronchovascular bundle irregularity (77%), followed by ground-glass attenuation (72%), subpleural curvilinear shadow (72%) and parenchymal band (72%). Honeycombing was not noted in any case. Linear opacities were significantly more frequent, and bronchiectasis was significantly less frequent in ADM than in CDM (p<0.05). Bronchiectasis was more common in chronic than in acute/subacute presentation, but there was no statistically significant difference. HRCT findings of interstitial pneumonia associated with DM varied between CDM and ADM. Honeycombing was not noted in any case. Linear opacities were significantly more frequent, and bronchiectasis was significantly less frequent in ADM than in CDM. The findings on HRCT were not different between acute or subacute and chronic presentation. (author)

  14. Asbestosis and other pulmonary fibrosis in asbestos-exposed workers: high-resolution CT features with pathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Kishimoto, Takumi [Okayama Rosai Hospital, Asbestos Research Center, Okayama (Japan); Ashizawa, Kazuto [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Clinical Oncology, Nagasaki (Japan); Kato, Katsuya [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 2, Okayama (Japan); Okamoto, Kenzo [Hokkaido Chuo Hospital, Department of Pathology, Iwamizawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Honma, Koichi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pathology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Akira, Masanori [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose was to identify distinguishing CT features of pathologically diagnosed asbestosis, and correlate diagnostic confidence with asbestos body burden. Thirty-three workers (mean age at CT: 73 years) with clinical diagnoses of asbestosis, who were autopsied (n = 30) or underwent lobectomy (n = 3), were collected. Two radiologists independently scored high-resolution CT images for various CT findings and the likelihood of asbestosis was scored. Two pathologists reviewed the pathology specimens and scored the confidence of their diagnoses. Asbestos body count was correlated with CT and pathology scores. Pathologically, 15 cases were diagnosed as asbestosis and 18 cases with various lung fibroses other than asbestosis. On CT, only the score of the subpleural curvilinear lines was significantly higher in asbestosis (p = 0.03). Accuracy of CT diagnosis of asbestosis with a high confidence ranged from 0.73 to 0.79. Asbestos body count positively correlated with CT likelihood of asbestosis (r = 0.503, p = 0.003), and with the confidence level of pathological diagnosis (r = 0.637, p < 0.001). Subpleural curvilinear lines were the only clue for the diagnosis of asbestosis. However, this was complicated by other lung fibrosis, especially at low asbestos body burden. (orig.)

  15. High-resolution three-dimensional visualization of the rat spinal cord microvasculature by synchrotron radiation micro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Cao, Yong; Wu, Tianding; Li, Dongzhe [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Lu, Hongbin, E-mail: hongbinlu@hotmail.com [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Centre of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the spinal cord microvasculature has been limited by the lack of an effective high-resolution imaging technique. In this study, synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SRµCT), a novel imaging technique based on absorption imaging, was evaluated with regard to the detection of the 3D morphology of the rat spinal cord microvasculature. Methods: Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this ex vivo study. After contrast agent perfusion, their spinal cords were isolated and scanned using conventional x-rays, conventional micro-CT (CµCT), and SRµCT. Results: Based on contrast agent perfusion, the microvasculature of the rat spinal cord was clearly visualized for the first time ex vivo in 3D by means of SRµCT scanning. Compared to conventional imaging techniques, SRµCT achieved higher resolution 3D vascular imaging, with the smallest vessel that could be distinguished approximately 7.4 μm in diameter. Additionally, a 3D pseudocolored image of the spinal cord microvasculature was generated in a single session of SRµCT imaging, which was conducive to detailed observation of the vessel morphology. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that SRµCT scanning could provide higher resolution images of the vascular network of the spinal cord. This modality also has the potential to serve as a powerful imaging tool for the investigation of morphology changes in the 3D angioarchitecture of the neurovasculature in preclinical research.

  16. Morphological analysis and pathological basis of the fine pulmonary reticulation at high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Chunshuang; Ma Daqing; Guan Yansheng; Chen Budong; Zhang Yansong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the morphological appearance and pathological basis of the fine pulmonary reticulation at HRCT. Methods: One hundred and seven patients were analyzed about the morphology findings and dynamic changes on pulmonary HRCT. Twenty-four coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) specimens were examined to make comparison between CT and pathology. The data was analyzed by using the Chi-square test. Results: The reticular gap was less than 3 mm in diameter. The morphology of reticulation was round or irregular. Pulmonary parenchyma was seen between the gaps. The reticular wall was smooth or coarse. The thickness was less than 1 mm. One hundred and seven patients had accompanying signs including ground-glass opacity (68.2%, 73 patients), crazy paving (23.4%, 25 patients), interlobular septal thickening (84.1%, 90 patients), emphysema (32.7%, 35 patients), interface sign (58.9%, 63 patients), traction bronchiolectasis (41.1%, 44 patients) and honeycombing (26.2%, 28 patients). The differences of the honeycomb, traction bronchiolectosis, interbobular septal thickening, interface sign and paving were statistically significant between the fibrotic group and pneunonia (P <0.01). Pneumonia showed extensive area of ground-glass opacity (GGO) with fine reticulation. Fine reticculation with both interlobular septal thickening and small nodules were observed more frequently in lmphangitic carcinomatosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) showed fine reticulation among the honeycombing. Connective tissue disease (CTD) showed fine reticulation with rarely honeycombing and it could be partly absorbed. Fine reticulation with emphysema was seen in chronic bronchitis. In the 58 follow-up patients, the fine reticulation increased in 26 patients, decreased or disappeared in 22 patients and showed no change in 10 patients. The major pathological basis of the fine reticulation was intralobular interstitial thickening, including fibrosis hyperplasia, inflammatory cells and tumor

  17. The clinical impact of high resolution computed tomography in patients with respiratory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screaton, Nicholas J.; Tasker, Angela D.; Flower, Christopher D.R.; Miller, Fiona N.A.C.; Patel, Bipen D.; Groves, Ashley; Lomas, David A.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography is widely used to investigate patients with suspected diffuse lung disease. Numerous studies have assessed the diagnostic performance of this investigation, but the diagnostic and therapeutic impacts have received little attention. The diagnostic and therapeutic impacts of high resolution computed tomography in routine clinical practice were evaluated prospectively. All 507 referrals for high-resolution computed tomography over 12 months in two centres were included. Requesting clinicians completed questionnaires before and after the investigation detailing clinical indications, working diagnoses, confidence level in each diagnosis, planned investigations and treatments. Three hundred and fifty-four studies on 347 patients had complete data and were available for analysis. Following high-resolution computed tomography, a new leading diagnosis (the diagnosis with the highest confidence level) emerged in 204 (58%) studies; in 166 (47%) studies the new leading diagnosis was not in the original differential diagnosis. Mean confidence in the leading diagnosis increased from 6.7 to 8.5 out of 10 (p < 0.001). The invasiveness of planned investigations increased in 23 (7%) studies and decreased in 124 (35%) studies. The treatment plan was modified after 319 (90%) studies. Thoracic high-resolution computed tomography alters leading diagnosis, increases diagnostic confidence, and frequently changes investigation and management plans. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of High Resolution Melting for MTHFR C677T Genotyping in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available High resolution melting (HRM is a simple, flexible and low-cost mutation screening technique. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene encoding a critical enzyme, potentially affects susceptibility to some congenital defects like congenital heart disease (CHD. We evaluate the performance of HRM for genotyping of the MTHFR gene C677T locus in CHD cases and healthy controls of Chinese Han population.A total of 315 blood samples from 147 CHD patients (male72, female 75 and 168 healthy controls (male 92, female 76 were enrolled in the study. HRM was utilized to genotype MTHFR C677T locus of all the samples. The results were compared to that of PCR-RFLP and Sanger sequencing. The association of the MTHFR C677T genotypes and the risk of CHD was analyzed using odds ratio with their 95% confidence interval (CIs from unconditional logistic regression.All the samples were successfully genotyped by HRM within 1 hour and 30 minutes while at least 6 hours were needed for PCR-RFLP and sequencing. The genotypes of MTHFR C677T CC, CT, and TT were 9.52%, 49.66%, and 40.82% in CHD group but 29.17%, 50% and 20.83% in control group, which were identical using both methods of HRM and PCR-RFLP, demonstrating the sensitivity and specificity of HRM were all 100%.MTHFR C677T is a potential risk factor for CHD in our local residents of Shandong province in China. HRM is a fast, sensitive, specific and reliable method for clinical application of genotyping.

  19. 'Crazy-Paving' Patterns on High-Resolution CT Scans in Patients with Pulmonary Complications after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Escuissato, Dante L.; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Considera, Daniela Peixoto; Franquet, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    To describe the pulmonary complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that can present with a 'crazy-paving' pattern in high-resolution CT scans. Retrospective review of medical records from 2,537 patients who underwent HSCT. The 'crazy-paving' pattern consists of interlobular and intralobular septal thickening superimposed on an area of ground-glass attenuation on high-resolution CT scans. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, who reached final decisions by consensus. We identified 10 cases (2.02%), seven male and three female, with pulmonary complications following HSCT that presented with the 'crazy-paving' pattern. Seven (70%) patients had infectious pneumonia (adenovirus, herpes simplex, influenza virus, cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and toxoplasmosis), and three patients presented with non-infectious complications (idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and acute pulmonary edema). The 'crazy-paving' pattern was bilateral in all cases, with diffuse distribution in nine patients (90%), predominantly in the middle and inferior lung regions in seven patients (70%), and involving the anterior and posterior regions of the lungs in nine patients (90%). The 'crazy-paving' pattern is rare in HSCT recipients with pulmonary complications and is associated with infectious complications more commonly than non-infectious conditions

  20. The role of high-resolution CT in cholesteatoma involving the supratubal recess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funai, Hiroaki; Yabe, Toshie; Kase, Yasuhiro; Kitahara, Nobuo; Horiuchi, Koji; Yano, Jun; Ushijima, Tatsujiro; Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1987-01-01

    Operative findings of the supratubal recess were examined in the 30 patients with acquired cholesteatoma. They were compared with findings of high-resolution CTs (HRCTs) obtained preoperatively. Thus the role of HRCT in cholesteatoma involving the supratubal recess were evaluated. HRCTs of 172 ears without otitis media and 65 ears with tubotympanic type otitis media were analyzed as control. The HRCT has proved to provide excellent informations regarding the presence of cholesteatoma in the supratubal recess. Diagnostic points were as follows. (1) Destruction of the ''cog''. (2) Erosion or destruction of surrounding bony structures, for example, facial canal, tympanic tegmen. (3) Soft tissue density in the supratubal recess. (author)

  1. High-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of lung cancer xenografts in nude mice using clinical PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying Yi; Wang, Kai; Xu, Zuo Yu; Song, Yan; Wang, Chu Nan; Zhang, Chong Qing; Sun, Xi Lin; Shen, Bao Zhong

    2017-08-08

    Considering the general application of dedicated small-animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography is limited, an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. To estimate the feasibility of using clinical PET/CT with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for high-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cancer xenografts in nude mice. Dynamic clinical PET/CT scans were performed on xenografts for 60 min after injection with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Scans were reconstructed with or without SharpIR method in two phases. And mice were sacrificed to extracting major organs and tumors, using ex vivo γ-counting as a reference. Strikingly, we observed that the image quality and the correlation between the all quantitive data from clinical PET/CT and the ex vivo counting was better with the SharpIR reconstructions than without. Our data demonstrate that clinical PET/CT scanner with SharpIR reconstruction is a valuable tool for imaging small animals in preclinical cancer research, offering dynamic imaging parameters, good image quality and accurate data quatification.

  2. High resolution CT findings of pleuropulmonary lnvolvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kun Sik; Kim, Jung Sik; Suh, Soo Jhi; Lee, Sung Moon; Sohn, Seok Ho; Park, Sung Bae; Kim, Hyun Chul [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Deagu (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    To evaluate the high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of pleuropulmonary involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we analyzed HRCT findings of 12 patients of clinically confirmed SLE with respiratory symptoms. In four patients, HRCT findings before and after chemotherapy were compared. The common HRCT findings were ground glass opacity (100%), bronchial wall thickening (66%), patch parenchymal opacity (58%), septal or intralobular line thickening (58%), micronodule (58%), central core prominence (41%), small pleural effusion (91%), and pericardial effusion (33%). Follow up HRCT obtained after treatment showed significant improvement of pleural effusion (4/4), pericardial effusion (3/3), pericardial thickening (1/1), patch opacity (2/2), and ground glass opacity (2/4). But bronchial wall thickening (2/2) and micronodule (2/2) were not improved. Although there are no pathognomonic HRCT findings in SLE, bilateral small pleural effusion, ground glass opacity, subpleural patchy opacity, and micronodule are common and suggestive findings in the pleuropulmonary involvement of SLE.

  3. Talcosis in soapstone artisans: High-resolution CT findings in 12 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Faria, H.; Souza Veiga, A. de; Coutinho Teixeira, L.; Paula Alves Bezerra, O.M. de; Scalia Carneiro, A.P.; Ferreira, C.S.; Marchiori, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of pneumoconiosis observed in soapstone artisans. Materials and methods: The present study included 12 soapstone artisans with chest radiography abnormalities consistent with the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, in accordance with the International Labour Office classification. All patients had undergone HRCT, and the images were retrospectively analysed by two chest radiologists, who reached decisions in consensus. Results: All patients presented with interlobular septal thickening. Small centrilobular nodules (75%) and ground-glass opacities (67%) were also common findings. The distributions of abnormalities were predominantly diffuse. No pleural abnormality was found. Conclusion: The HRCT abnormalities observed in this group of soapstone artisans are similar to those of pure talc pneumoconiosis

  4. Accuracy of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, A.; Mauleon, S.; Andreu, J.; Caceres, J.; Falco, V.; Crespo, M.; Ribera, E.; Pahissa, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients HIV-positive and high risk to have PCP. We performed a prospective study in 30 patients with <200 CD4 lymphocytes, clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease and chest X-ray non-conclusive for pulmonary infection. Evaluated CT findings included ground-glass opacities, reticulation, tree-in-bud appearance, consolidation, cystic lesions, bronchiectasis and lymphadenopathies. The diagnosis of ''examination suggestive of PCP'' was applied to cases showing a diffuse or predominant ground-glass pattern in the upper fields, associated or not with reticulations and small cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the diagnosis of PCP was 100, 83.3, 90.5 and 100%, respectively. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was not demonstrated in any of the cases classified as ''examination not suggestive of PCP''. Significant small airway disease was not observed in any of the PCP cases. We conclude that HRCT is a reliable method for differentiating PCP from other infectious processes in HIV-positive patients and a good method to rule our PCP. Its inclusion in the diagnostic algorithm of lung infections is justified in these patients. (orig.)

  5. Accuracy of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, A.; Mauleon, S.; Andreu, J.; Caceres, J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Paseo Vall d' Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Falco, V.; Crespo, M.; Ribera, E.; Pahissa, A. [Department of Medicine, Service of Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Paseo Vall d' Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients HIV-positive and high risk to have PCP. We performed a prospective study in 30 patients with <200 CD4 lymphocytes, clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease and chest X-ray non-conclusive for pulmonary infection. Evaluated CT findings included ground-glass opacities, reticulation, tree-in-bud appearance, consolidation, cystic lesions, bronchiectasis and lymphadenopathies. The diagnosis of ''examination suggestive of PCP'' was applied to cases showing a diffuse or predominant ground-glass pattern in the upper fields, associated or not with reticulations and small cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the diagnosis of PCP was 100, 83.3, 90.5 and 100%, respectively. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was not demonstrated in any of the cases classified as ''examination not suggestive of PCP''. Significant small airway disease was not observed in any of the PCP cases. We conclude that HRCT is a reliable method for differentiating PCP from other infectious processes in HIV-positive patients and a good method to rule our PCP. Its inclusion in the diagnostic algorithm of lung infections is justified in these patients. (orig.)

  6. CT imaging of the internal human ear: Test of a high resolution scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettuzzi, M., E-mail: matteo.bettuzzi@unibo.it [Department of Physics, University of Bologna and National Institute of Nuclear Physics Section of Bologna (Italy); Brancaccio, R.; Morigi, M.P. [Department of Physics, University of Bologna and National Institute of Nuclear Physics Section of Bologna (Italy); Gallo, A. [Medicine Faculty, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro and INFN Cosenza (Italy); Strolin, S.; Casali, F. [Department of Physics, University of Bologna and National Institute of Nuclear Physics Section of Bologna (Italy); Lamanna, Ernesto [Medicine Faculty, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro and INFN Cosenza (Italy); Ariu, Marilu [CEFLA Dental Group, Imola (Italy)

    2011-08-21

    During the course of 2009, in the framework of a project supported by the National Institute of Nuclear Physics, a number of tests were carried out at the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna in order to achieve a good quality CT scan of the internal human ear. The work was carried out in collaboration with the local 'S. Orsola' Hospital in Bologna and a company (CEFLA) already involved in the production and commercialization of a CT scanner dedicated to dentistry. A laboratory scanner with a simple concept detector (CCD camera-lens-mirror-scintillator) was used to see to what extent it was possible to enhance the quality of a conventional CT scanner when examining the internal human ear. To test the system, some conventional measurements were made, such as the spatial resolution calculation with the MTF and dynamic range evaluation. Different scintillators were compared to select the most suitable for the purpose. With 0.5 mm thick structured cesium iodide and a field of view of 120x120 mm{sup 2}, a spatial resolution of 6.5l p/mm at 5% MTF was obtained. The CT of a pair of human head phantoms was performed at an energy of 120 kVp. The first phantom was a rough representation of the human head shape, with soft tissue made of coarse slabs of Lucite. Some inserts, like small aluminum cylinders and cubes, with 1 mm diameter drilled holes, were used to simulate the channels that one finds inside the human inner ear. The second phantom is a plastic PVC fused head with a real human cranium inside. The bones in the cranium are well conserved and the inner ear features, such as the cochlea and semicircular channels, are clearly detectable. After a number of CT tests we obtained good results as far as structural representation and channel detection are concerned. Some images of the 3D rendering of the CT volume are shown below. The doctors of the local hospital who followed our experimentation expressed their satisfaction. The CT was compared to a

  7. Active disease and residual damage in treated Wegener's granulomatosis: an observational study using pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komocsi, Andras; Reuter, Michael; Heller, Martin; Murakoezi, Henriette; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Schnabel, Armin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can distinguish active inflammatory disease from inactive cicatricial disease in patients treated for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Twenty-eight WG patients with active pulmonary disease underwent a first HRCT examination immediately before standard immunosuppressive treatment and a second examination after clinical remission had been achieved. Lesions remaining after treatment were categorized as residual damage and were compared with findings during active disease to see by what features active and cicatricial disease can be distinguished. During active disease 17 patients had nodules/masses, 12 had ground-glass opacities, 6 had septal lines and 6 had non-septal lines. After treatment, ground-glass opacities had resolved completely. Nodules/masses had resolved in 8 patients and had diminished in 7 patients. Residual nodules were distinguished from nodules/masses in active disease by lack of cavitation and a diameter of mostly <15 mm. In one-third of patients lines resolved, but in 8 instances new lines evolved during immunosuppression. During a follow-up period of a median 26.5 months (range 20.0-33.8), patients with residual nodules or lines had no more relapses than patients with completely cleared lungs. Treated pulmonary WG leaves substantial residual damage. High-resolution CT does assist in the distinction between active and inactive lesions. Ground-glass opacities, cavitating nodules/masses and masses measuring more than 3 cm represent active disease ordinarily. Non-cavitary small nodules and septal or non-septal lines can be either active or cicatricial lesions. The nature of these lesions needs to be clarified by longitudinal observation. (orig.)

  8. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: high-resolution CT scores predict mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiminori; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke; Johkoh, Takeshi; Ichikado, Kazuya; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Takashi; Endo, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Mueller, Nestor L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings helpful in predicting mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEx-IPF). Sixty patients with diagnosis of AEx-IPF were reviewed retrospectively. Two groups (two observers each) independently evaluated pattern, distribution, and extent of HRCT findings at presentation and calculated an HRCT score at AEx based on normal attenuation areas and extent of abnormalities, such as areas of ground-glass attenuation and/or consolidation with or without traction bronchiectasis or bronchiolectasis and areas of honeycombing. The correlation between the clinical data including the HRCT score and mortality (cause-specific survival) was evaluated using the univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analyses. Serum KL-6 level, PaCO 2 , and the HRCT score were statistically significant predictors on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the HRCT score was an independently significant predictor of outcome (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19, P = 0.0002). The area under receiver operating characteristics curve for the HRCT score was statistically significant in the classification of survivors or nonsurvivors (0.944; P < 0.0001). Survival in patients with HRCT score ≥245 was worse than those with lower score (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). The HRCT score at AEx is independently related to prognosis in patients with AEx-IPF. (orig.)

  9. High resolution CT in cystic fibrosis--the contribution of expiratory scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorloechter, Ludger; Nes, Harald; Fluge, Gjermund; Rosendahl, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is well accepted as an accurate method for evaluation of lung parenchyma in cystic fibrosis (CF). Several scoring methods exist and, in common, all are based on HRCT findings during inspiration alone. Objective: To examine whether expiratory HRCT scans could add information about the degree of mosaic perfusion in patients with CF. Methods and patients: Pulmonary HRCT was performed in 17 CF patients (median age of 12 years) with 1-mm thin sections and 10-mm intervals during inspiration, followed by 1-mm thin sections with 20-mm intervals during expiration. HRCT was scored by using a modified Bhalla method. Results: The mean HRCT score was 8.2. Out of 17 patients, 11 (65%) demonstrated a pathological mosaic perfusion in expiration, while only three patients showed mosaic perfusion in inspiration. The degree of expiratory mosaic perfusion was graded as severe in nine patients and moderate in two patients. There was a significant correlation between our modified HRCT score and lung function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1% predicted, P<0.01). Conclusion: Mosaic perfusion in expiration was a common pathological HRCT finding in our study group. The clinical significance of this finding needs further evaluation

  10. High-Resolution CT and Angiographic Evaluation of NexStent Wall Adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, Balazs; Lukacs, Levente; Balazs, Gyoergy; Dosa, Edit; Berczi, Viktor; Huettl, Kalman

    2009-01-01

    Carotid stenting is a minimally invasive treatment for extracranial carotid artery stenosis. Stent design may affect technical success and complications in a certain subgroup of patients. We examined the wall adaptability of a new closed-cell carotid stent (NexStent), which has a unique rolled sheet design. Forty-one patients had 42 carotid arteries treated with angioplasty and stenting for internal carotid artery stenosis. The mean patient age was 65 ± 10 years. All patients underwent high-resolution computed tomographic angiography after the stent implantation. Data analysis included pre- and postprocedural stenosis, procedure complications, plaque calcification, and stent apposition. We reviewed the angiographic and computed tomographic images for plaque coverage and stent expansion. All procedures were technically successful. Mean stenosis was reduced from 84 ± 8% before the procedure to 15.7 ± 7% after stenting. Two patients experienced transient ischemic attack; one patient had bradycardia and hypotension. Stent induced kinking was observed in one case. Good plaque coverage and proper overlapping of the rolled sheet was achieved in all cases. There was weak correlation between the residual stenosis and the amount of calcification. The stent provides adequate expansion and adaptation to the tapering anatomy of the bifurcation.

  11. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: high-resolution CT scores predict mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kiminori [Kurume University School of Medicine, and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke [Tosei General Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Department of Radiology, Itami (Japan); Ichikado, Kazuya [Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Ogura, Takashi; Endo, Takahiro [Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Kawaguchi, Atsushi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Biostatistics Center, Kurume (Japan); Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia and Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    To determine high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings helpful in predicting mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEx-IPF). Sixty patients with diagnosis of AEx-IPF were reviewed retrospectively. Two groups (two observers each) independently evaluated pattern, distribution, and extent of HRCT findings at presentation and calculated an HRCT score at AEx based on normal attenuation areas and extent of abnormalities, such as areas of ground-glass attenuation and/or consolidation with or without traction bronchiectasis or bronchiolectasis and areas of honeycombing. The correlation between the clinical data including the HRCT score and mortality (cause-specific survival) was evaluated using the univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analyses. Serum KL-6 level, PaCO{sub 2}, and the HRCT score were statistically significant predictors on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the HRCT score was an independently significant predictor of outcome (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19, P = 0.0002). The area under receiver operating characteristics curve for the HRCT score was statistically significant in the classification of survivors or nonsurvivors (0.944; P < 0.0001). Survival in patients with HRCT score {>=}245 was worse than those with lower score (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). The HRCT score at AEx is independently related to prognosis in patients with AEx-IPF. (orig.)

  12. Role of high-resolution CT in the diagnosis of small pulmonary nodules coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yue; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Hiyama, Atsuto; Miura, Goji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high-resolution CT (HRCT) could facilitate the preoperative diagnosis of one or two small nodules of 1 cm or less coexisting with a lung cancer, i.e., coexisting small nodule. This study included 27 coexisting small nodules in 24 potentially operable lung cancer patients. An observer study was performed by five radiologists. The observer performances in differentiating malignant from benign coexisting small nodules were evaluated on conventional CT and HRCT using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve of five observers was 0.731 on HRCT and 0.578 on conventional CT in the differential diagnosis of coexisting small nodules. A significant diagnostic improvement was found on HRCT (p=0.031). This was especially evident for nodules of ground-glass attenuation (p=0.005). HRCT plays an important role in determining the treatment of potentially operable lung cancer patients with coexisting small nodules. (author)

  13. Prospective evaluation of solitary thyroid nodule on 18F-FDG PET/CT and high-resolution ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, M.M.; Marwaha, R.K.; Sharma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in the assessment of thyroid nodules is unclear as there are several conflicting reports on the usefulness of standardized uptake value (SUV) as an indicator to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid lesions. This study incorporated an additional parameter, namely dual time point imaging, to determine the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT imaging. The performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT was compared to that of high-resolution ultrasound which is routinely used for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Two hundred patients with incidentally detected solitary thyroid nodules were included in the study. Each patient underwent ultrasound and PET/CT evaluation within 7 days of each other, reported by an experienced radiologist and nuclear medicine specialist, respectively, in a blinded manner. The PET/CT criteria employed were maximum SUV (SUV max ) at 60 min and change in SUV max at delayed (120 min) imaging. Final diagnosis was based on pathological evaluation and follow-up. Of the 200 patients, 26 had malignant and 174 had benign nodules. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of ultrasound were 80.8, 81.6, 39.6, 96.6 and 81.5%, respectively. Using SUV max at 60 min as the diagnostic criterion, the above indices were 80.8, 84.5, 43.8, 96.7 and 84%, respectively, for PET/CT. The SUV max of malignant thyroid lesions was significantly higher than benign lesions (16.2±10.6 vs. 4.5±3.1, respectively; p=0.0001). Incorporation of percentage change in SUV max at delayed imaging as the diagnostic criterion yielded a slightly improved sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 84.6, 85.6, 46.8, 97.4 and 85.5%, respectively. There was a significant difference in percentage change in SUV max between malignant and benign thyroid lesions (14.9±11.4 vs. -1.6±13.7, respectively; p=0.0001). However, there was no statistically

  14. Use of newly developed standardized form for interpretation of high-resolution CT in screening for pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, P.J.; Sider, L.; Silverman, J.M.; Dahlgren, J.; Harber, P.; Bunn, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that although the International Labour Office (ILO) standard for interpretation of the posteroanterior chest radiograph has been available for 10 years, there has been no attempt to standardize the high-resolution CT (HRTC) readings for screening of pneumoconiosis. An integrated respirator surveillance program for 87 workers exposed to inorganic dust was conducted. This program consisted of a detailed occupational exposure history, physical symptoms and signs, spirometry, chest radiography, and HRCT. Two groups of workers with known exposure were studied with HRCT. Group 1 had normal spirometry results and chest radiographs, and group 2 had abnormalities at spirometry or on chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were read independently of the clinical findings and chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were interpreted by using an ILO-based standard form developed by the authors for this project. With the newly developed HRCT form, individual descriptive abnormality localized severity, and overall rating systems have been developed and compared for inter- and intraobserver consistency

  15. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti

    2013-10-01

    Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.

  16. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases

  17. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal-Gonzalez, J., E-mail: jacobo@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Herraiz, J.L. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Vicente, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Herranz, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Dpto. de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  18. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal-Gonzalez, J.; Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S.; Vicente, E.; Herranz, E.; Desco, M.; Vaquero, J.J.; Udias, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  19. Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases on high-resolution chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital]. E-mail: isabela.silva@vch.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-05-15

    Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases are very common. The frequency of intrathoracic manifestations and the patterns of abnormality are variable depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and may simultaneously involve one or more of the following: lung parenchyma, airways, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, and pleura. The most common pulmonary manifestations are diffuse interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension which together represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Pulmonary, airway and pleural involvement may also be secondary to the disease therapy, or result from bacterial pneumonia or opportunistic infection. In the present review, the authors summarize the main intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases and the differential diagnosis on high-resolution chest computed tomography. (author)

  20. Nontumorous enlargement of the internal auditory canal. A risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss? A high resolution CT-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmer, H.; Rummeny, E.J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Niedermeyer, H.P. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). ENT-Clinic; Kehl, V. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2015-06-15

    First aim of the study was to define normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal (IAC). In the second part the clinical relevance of IAC-enlargement was analyzed, considering also lesions of the subtle structures at the fundus of the internal auditory canal. 440 high resolution CT-scans of the temporal bone were used for retrospective analysis of the internal auditory canal and its fundus region. The mean value of the IAC diameter in axial and coronal plane was determined. In 20 of 440 patients IAC enlargement was found. In the group with pronounced enlargement (3fold SD) nearly all patients suffered from hearing impairment. In some of them we found structural abnormalities near the IAC fundus in the CSF/perilymph border zone. A new CT-based definition of normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal is presented. There is some evidence that a pathologic transmission of CSF-pressure in case of IAC-enlargement and/or abnormal fistulous communications could play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss.

  1. Pulmonary involvement of hypereosinophilic syndrome : high-resolution CT finding in three patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Mee Ran; Shim, Jae Jeong [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare entity of eosinophilic lung disease characterized by idiopathic prolonged eosinophilia of marked degree and variable organ involvement. Pulmonary involvement of hypereosinophilic syndrome occurs in up to 40% of patients. We report HRCT findings of three patients with pulmonary involvement of hypereosinophilic syndrome diagnosed by clinical manifestation, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. On HRCT, several small nodules were seen in both lungs, especially in peripheral lung areas of the three patients. One had nodules with ground-glass attenuation halo and also focal areas of ground-glass attenuation in this area.

  2. 3D printing for orthopedic applications: from high resolution cone beam CT images to life size physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Amiee; Ray, Lawrence A.; Dangi, Shusil; Ben-Zikri, Yehuda K.; Linte, Cristian A.

    2017-03-01

    With increasing resolution in image acquisition, the project explores capabilities of printing toward faithfully reflecting detail and features depicted in medical images. To improve safety and efficiency of orthopedic surgery and spatial conceptualization in training and education, this project focused on generating virtual models of orthopedic anatomy from clinical quality computed tomography (CT) image datasets and manufacturing life-size physical models of the anatomy using 3D printing tools. Beginning with raw micro CT data, several image segmentation techniques including thresholding, edge recognition, and region-growing algorithms available in packages such as ITK-SNAP, MITK, or Mimics, were utilized to separate bone from surrounding soft tissue. After converting the resulting data to a standard 3D printing format, stereolithography (STL), the STL file was edited using Meshlab, Netfabb, and Meshmixer. The editing process was necessary to ensure a fully connected surface (no loose elements), positive volume with manifold geometry (geometry possible in the 3D physical world), and a single, closed shell. The resulting surface was then imported into a "slicing" software to scale and orient for printing on a Flashforge Creator Pro. In printing, relationships between orientation, print bed volume, model quality, material use and cost, and print time were considered. We generated anatomical models of the hand, elbow, knee, ankle, and foot from both low-dose high-resolution cone-beam CT images acquired using the soon to be released scanner developed by Carestream, as well as scaled models of the skeletal anatomy of the arm and leg, together with life-size models of the hand and foot.

  3. CtGEM typing: Discrimination of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular and urogenital strains and major evolutionary lineages by high resolution melting analysis of two amplified DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Philip M; Andersson, Patiyan; Wilson, Judith; Buckley, Cameron; Lilliebridge, Rachael; Harris, Tegan M; Kleinecke, Mariana; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Lambert, Stephen B; Whiley, David M; Holt, Deborah C

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infects the urogenital tract (UGT) and eyes. Anatomical tropism is correlated with variation in the major outer membrane protein encoded by ompA. Strains possessing the ocular ompA variants A, B, Ba and C are typically found within the phylogenetically coherent "classical ocular lineage". However, variants B, Ba and C have also been found within three distinct strains in Australia, all associated with ocular disease in children and outside the classical ocular lineage. CtGEM genotyping is a method for detecting and discriminating ocular strains and also the major phylogenetic lineages. The rationale was facilitation of surveillance to inform responses to C. trachomatis detection in UGT specimens from young children. CtGEM typing is based on high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of two PCR amplified fragments with high combinatorial resolving power, as defined by computerised comparison of 65 whole genomes. One fragment is from the hypothetical gene defined by Jali-1891 in the C. trachomatis B_Jali20 genome, while the other is from ompA. Twenty combinatorial CtGEM types have been shown to exist, and these encompass unique genotypes for all known ocular strains, and also delineate the TI and T2 major phylogenetic lineages, identify LGV strains and provide additional resolution beyond this. CtGEM typing and Sanger sequencing were compared with 42 C. trachomatis positive clinical specimens, and there were no disjunctions. CtGEM typing is a highly efficient method designed and tested using large scale comparative genomics. It divides C. trachomatis into clinically and biologically meaningful groups, and may have broad application in surveillance.

  4. High Resolution Esophageal Manometry in Patients with Chagas Disease: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement affects 30-40% of the patients with chronic Chagas disease. Esophageal symptoms appear once the structural damage is established. Little is known about the usefulness of high resolution manometry to early identification of esophageal involvement.We performed a cross-sectional study at the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain between May 2011 and April 2012. Consecutive patients diagnosed with Chagas disease in the chronic phase were offered to participate. All patients underwent a structured questionnaire about digestive symptoms, a barium esophagogram (Rezende classification and an esophageal high resolution manometry (HRM. A control group of patients with heartburn who underwent an esophageal HRM in our hospital was selected.62 out of 73 patients that were included in the study fulfilled the study protocol. The median age of the Chagas disease group (CG was 37 (IQR 32-45 years, and 42 (67.7% patients were female. Twenty-seven (43.5% patients had esophageal symptoms, heartburn being the most frequent. Esophagogram was abnormal in 5 (8.77%. The esophageal HRM in the CG showed a pathological motility pattern in 14 patients (22.6%. All of them had minor disorders of the peristalsis (13 with ineffective esophageal motility and 1 with fragmented peristalsis. Hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter was found more frequently in the CG than in the control group (21% vs 3.3%; p<0.01. Upper esophageal sphincter was hypertonic in 22 (35.5% and hypotonic in 1 patient. When comparing specific manometric parameters or patterns in the CG according to the presence of symptoms or esophagogram no statistically significant association were seen, except for distal latency.The esophageal involvement measured by HRM in patients with chronic Chagas disease in our cohort is 22.6%. All the patients with esophageal alterations had minor disorders of the peristalsis. Symptoms and esophagogram results did not correlate with the HRM

  5. Lipoid pneumonia in children following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of constipation: high-resolution CT findings in 17 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetti, Glaucia; Marchiori, Edson; Gasparetto, Taisa D.; Escuissato, Dante L.; Soares Souza, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disorder caused by aspiration of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. High-resolution CT findings of lipoid pneumonia in children taking mineral oil for constipation have been rarely reported. To evaluate the high-resolution CT findings in 17 children with exogenous lipoid pneumonia following aspiration of mineral oil. The study included nine boys and eight girls, with ages ranging from 2 months to 9 years. All patients underwent high-resolution CT and the images were reviewed by two radiologists who reached decisions by consensus. The inclusion criteria were an abnormal radiograph, history of taking mineral oil and the presence of intrapulmonary lipids proved by bronchoalveolar lavage or open lung biopsy. The most common symptoms were cough (n = 13), mild fever (n = 11), and progressive dyspnea (n = 9). The main CT findings were air-space consolidations (100%), usually with areas of fatty attenuation (70.6%), areas of ground-glass attenuation (52.9%), and a crazy-paving pattern (17.6%), predominating bilaterally in the posterior and lower regions of the lungs. The high-resolution CT features in children with exogenous lipoid pneumonia are air-space consolidations and ground-glass attenuation, occasionally with a crazy-paving pattern, distributed bilaterally in the posterior and lower zones of the lungs. (orig.)

  6. Lipoid pneumonia in children following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of constipation: high-resolution CT findings in 17 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetti, Glaucia [University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, University Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gasparetto, Taisa D. [University Federal Fluminense, Department of Radiology, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante L. [University of Parana, Department of Radiology, Curitiba (Brazil); Soares Souza, Arthur [School of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto (ASSJ), Department of Radiology, Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disorder caused by aspiration of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. High-resolution CT findings of lipoid pneumonia in children taking mineral oil for constipation have been rarely reported. To evaluate the high-resolution CT findings in 17 children with exogenous lipoid pneumonia following aspiration of mineral oil. The study included nine boys and eight girls, with ages ranging from 2 months to 9 years. All patients underwent high-resolution CT and the images were reviewed by two radiologists who reached decisions by consensus. The inclusion criteria were an abnormal radiograph, history of taking mineral oil and the presence of intrapulmonary lipids proved by bronchoalveolar lavage or open lung biopsy. The most common symptoms were cough (n = 13), mild fever (n = 11), and progressive dyspnea (n = 9). The main CT findings were air-space consolidations (100%), usually with areas of fatty attenuation (70.6%), areas of ground-glass attenuation (52.9%), and a crazy-paving pattern (17.6%), predominating bilaterally in the posterior and lower regions of the lungs. The high-resolution CT features in children with exogenous lipoid pneumonia are air-space consolidations and ground-glass attenuation, occasionally with a crazy-paving pattern, distributed bilaterally in the posterior and lower zones of the lungs. (orig.)

  7. An experimental study of exogenous lipoid pneumonia : sequential changes in high-resolution CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Choi, Jeong Cheol; Kim, Ae Ree; Kim, Han Kyum; Cha, In Ho

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate sequential changes in high-resolution CT(HRCT) and MR findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia in rabbits and to compare the radiologic and histopathologic findings. A single endobronchial administration of shark liver oil(0.5 or 1 ml/kg of body weight) was given to 25 rabbits. HRCT scans were obtained immediately(n=17), at 1 day(n=14), 3 days(n=10), 1 week(n=15), 2 weeks(n=10), 4 weeks(n=9), 6 weeks(n=5), 8 weeks(n=6), 10 weeks(n=4), 12 weeks(n=2), 14 weeks(n=3), and 16 weeks(n=2) after administration. Changes in distribution, extent, and attenuation were assessed on HRCT scans. MR scans were obtained immediately(n=12), at 1 day(n=9), 3 days(n=9), 1 week(n=15), 2 weeks(n=9), 4 weeks(n=11), 6 weeks(n=5), 8 weeks(n=7), 10 weeks(n=3), 14 weeks(n=3), and at 16 weeks(n=2) after administration. Changes in distribution, extent, and signal intensity were assessed on MR scans. In 16 rabbits, CT and MR findings were compared with histopatholo-gic findings obtained in the same plane. HRCT findings included consolidation with air-bronchogram, ground-glass attenuation and fat attenuation within the lesion at earlier stages(immediate-2 weeks). The extent of lesions was greatest at 1 week, and was then seen to gradually decrease on follow-up CT scans. T1-weighted MR images(T1WI) showed high or intermediate signal intensity(SI) at earlier stages and intermediate SI at later stages, while T2-weighted MR images(T2WI) showed high SI at both earlier and later stages. Histopathologic correlation showed that ground-glass attenuation and consolidation on HRCT reflected intraalveolar lipid-laden macrophages, cuboidal metaplasia of alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar septal widening with inflammatory cell infiltration. Maximal infiltration of oil in the lung correlated closely with the peak low-attenuation seen on CT scans and the high signal intensity seen on T1WI. Shark liver oil-induced exogenous lipoid pneumonia in rabbits is reliably diagnosed by HRCT and MR during

  8. Technetium-99m high resolution tomographic imaging in the thyroid gland diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitblat, A; Ben-Horin, C [Barzilai Nedical Center, Ashkelon (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    In the experiments with the thyroid phantom and first studies of patients with hyperthyroidism it was proved that in combining SPECT imaging technique and high resolution ability of pinhole collimator (commonly used for conventional scintigraphy of the thyroid) it is possible to obtain quantitative information concerning the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid tissue , not available tom the planar imaging. The following applications of the the method are expected: 1) Estimation of the thyroid dimensions and volume for the accurate dosimetry of the following Iodine-131 - therapy. 2) Determination of the location of the thyroid in the neck , occurrences of the retrotracheal, retrolaryngeal and retrostemal extension of the goiter. 3) Estimation of the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid gland . 4) Locations and dimensions of cold nodules in the thyroid tissue . Some of these applications are illustrated in our studies of the patients with different thyroid gland diseases (authors).

  9. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Satija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.

  10. Early smoking-induced lung lesions in asymptomatic subjects. Correlations between high resolution dynamic CT and pulmonary function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaggiari, Enrica; Zompadori, Maurizio; Bna', Claudio; Ormitti, Francesca; Svaerzellati, Nicola; Rabaiotti, Enrico; Verduri, Alessia; Chetta, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of the pathological effects of cigarette smoking on the lung and the sensitivity of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the recognition of early smoking-induced lesions in asymptomatic former of current smokers. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective and consecutive analysis of 36 volunteers (16 males, 20 females), 10 non-smokers (3 males, 7 females) and 26 smokers (13 males, 13 females / 17 current smokers; 9 former smokers), all asymptomatic and with normal respiratory flows. These subjects underwent lung function testing and HRCT, after providing written informed consent for the study. The HRCT scans were obtained at three pre-selected levels (aortic arch, tracheal carina and venous hilum). The same scans were obtained in post-expiration phase. At the level of the apical segmental bronchus of the right upper lobe, we measured on the monitor wall thickening, and the total and internal diameters using the techniques reported in literature. Each study was independently evaluated by two radiologists that were blinded to all clinical and functional data: they also evaluated the presence, prevalence and type of emphysema, areas of patchy hyperlucency and oligoemia in the inspiration phase and areas of expiratory air trapping. The extension was evaluated with the visual score method. The data obtained were analysed with the Windows SPSS package for statistical analysis. Results: The two groups (non smokers and smokers) showed significant differences in some functional tests such as FEV1 (p [it

  11. Assessment of pulmonary airway reactivity using high resolution CT after administration of bronchodilator in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Song, In Sup; Kim, Dae Soon; Choi, Youn Sun; Kim, Kun Sang; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Jong Hyo

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the pulmonary airway reactivity in asthmatic patients directly and noninvasively by using high-resolution CT(HRCT). 130 bronchial luminal areas were measured by HRCT in 16 asthmatic patients before and after inhalation of bronchodilator (Salbutamol sulfate). The change of bronchial luminal area on HRCT was analyzed and correlated with the change of forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1) on pulmonary function test in each patient. The mean percentage of increase in luminal areas of the 130 bronchi after bronchodilator inhalation was 95.4% ± 103.3%. The group with the smallest luminal areas (lesser than 1.35 mm 2 ) was more sensitively increased in area than the group with the largest areas (equal or larger than 3.72 mm 2 ); 183.5% versus 63.5%. The mean percentage of increase in FEV1 was 21.7% and there was no statistically significant correlation between the increased degrees of luminal areas and that of FEV1 (r= -0.04). We can measure the bronchial luminal area directly and noninvasively with HRCT and can also estimate the degree of airway reactivity in asthmatic patient by measuring of the changes of bronchial luminal areas after administration of bronchodilator

  12. Assessment of pulmonary airway reactivity using high resolution CT after administration of bronchodilator in patients with bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Song, In Sup; Kim, Dae Soon; Choi, Youn Sun; Kim, Kun Sang; Choi, Byoung Whui [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the pulmonary airway reactivity in asthmatic patients directly and noninvasively by using high-resolution CT(HRCT). 130 bronchial luminal areas were measured by HRCT in 16 asthmatic patients before and after inhalation of bronchodilator (Salbutamol sulfate). The change of bronchial luminal area on HRCT was analyzed and correlated with the change of forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1) on pulmonary function test in each patient. The mean percentage of increase in luminal areas of the 130 bronchi after bronchodilator inhalation was 95.4% {+-} 103.3%. The group with the smallest luminal areas (lesser than 1.35 mm{sup 2}) was more sensitively increased in area than the group with the largest areas (equal or larger than 3.72 mm{sup 2}); 183.5% versus 63.5%. The mean percentage of increase in FEV1 was 21.7% and there was no statistically significant correlation between the increased degrees of luminal areas and that of FEV1 (r= -0.04). We can measure the bronchial luminal area directly and noninvasively with HRCT and can also estimate the degree of airway reactivity in asthmatic patient by measuring of the changes of bronchial luminal areas after administration of bronchodilator.

  13. Idiopathic lymphocytic pleuritis: radiographic and high-resolution CT appearances and changes in response to therapy in two adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory conditions of the pleura characterized by a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate are described in several disorders. The commonest underlying aetiologies include tuberculous infection, autoimmune disorders (particularly Sjogren\\'s syndrome), and post coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Idiopathic lymphocytic pleuritis (ILP) is a rare form of diffuse pleural inflammation characterized by extensive lymphocytic infiltration for which no cause is found. Radiological descriptions of ILP are limited. We describe the radiographic and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging features and response to corticosteroid therapy of ILP in two adults. Both patients presented with bilateral diffuse pleural thickening of >10 mm thickness extending >10 cm craniocaudally with small focal areas of atelectasis. Both cases demonstrated marked improvement in the degree and extent of pleural thickening and rounded atelectasis following corticosteroid therapy. HRCT provided a useful noninvasive method of assessing disease response to therapy.

  14. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Oldham, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of ∼5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 μm) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the 'gold standard' technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few millimeters of the

  15. High resolution micro-CT of low attenuating organic materials using large area photon-counting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpová, I.; Jandejsek, I.; Jakůbek, J.; Vopálenský, M.; Vavřík, D.; Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Gantar, A.

    2016-01-01

    To overcome certain limitations of contemporary materials used for bone tissue engineering, such as inflammatory response after implantation, a whole new class of materials based on polysaccharide compounds is being developed. Here, nanoparticulate bioactive glass reinforced gelan-gum (GG-BAG) has recently been proposed for the production of bone scaffolds. This material offers promising biocompatibility properties, including bioactivity and biodegradability, with the possibility of producing scaffolds with directly controlled microgeometry. However, to utilize such a scaffold with application-optimized properties, large sets of complex numerical simulations using the real microgeometry of the material have to be carried out during the development process. Because the GG-BAG is a material with intrinsically very low attenuation to X-rays, its radiographical imaging, including tomographical scanning and reconstructions, with resolution required by numerical simulations might be a very challenging task. In this paper, we present a study on X-ray imaging of GG-BAG samples. High-resolution volumetric images of investigated specimens were generated on the basis of micro-CT measurements using a large area flat-panel detector and a large area photon-counting detector. The photon-counting detector was composed of a 010× 1 matrix of Timepix edgeless silicon pixelated detectors with tiling based on overlaying rows (i.e. assembled so that no gap is present between individual rows of detectors). We compare the results from both detectors with the scanning electron microscopy on selected slices in transversal plane. It has been shown that the photon counting detector can provide approx. 3× better resolution of the details in low-attenuating materials than the integrating flat panel detectors. We demonstrate that employment of a large area photon counting detector is a good choice for imaging of low attenuating materials with the resolution sufficient for numerical

  16. High resolution micro-CT of low attenuating organic materials using large area photon-counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpová, I.; Vavřík, D.; Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jandejsek, I.; Jakůbek, J.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Vopálenský, M.; Gantar, A.

    2016-02-01

    To overcome certain limitations of contemporary materials used for bone tissue engineering, such as inflammatory response after implantation, a whole new class of materials based on polysaccharide compounds is being developed. Here, nanoparticulate bioactive glass reinforced gelan-gum (GG-BAG) has recently been proposed for the production of bone scaffolds. This material offers promising biocompatibility properties, including bioactivity and biodegradability, with the possibility of producing scaffolds with directly controlled microgeometry. However, to utilize such a scaffold with application-optimized properties, large sets of complex numerical simulations using the real microgeometry of the material have to be carried out during the development process. Because the GG-BAG is a material with intrinsically very low attenuation to X-rays, its radiographical imaging, including tomographical scanning and reconstructions, with resolution required by numerical simulations might be a very challenging task. In this paper, we present a study on X-ray imaging of GG-BAG samples. High-resolution volumetric images of investigated specimens were generated on the basis of micro-CT measurements using a large area flat-panel detector and a large area photon-counting detector. The photon-counting detector was composed of a 010× 1 matrix of Timepix edgeless silicon pixelated detectors with tiling based on overlaying rows (i.e. assembled so that no gap is present between individual rows of detectors). We compare the results from both detectors with the scanning electron microscopy on selected slices in transversal plane. It has been shown that the photon counting detector can provide approx. 3× better resolution of the details in low-attenuating materials than the integrating flat panel detectors. We demonstrate that employment of a large area photon counting detector is a good choice for imaging of low attenuating materials with the resolution sufficient for numerical simulations.

  17. Mediastinal and extrapleural fat hypertrophy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on high-resolution CT: comparison with normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi

    2004-01-01

    We wished to compare the amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat on high resolution CT for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with that of normal individuals, and we wished to evaluate the correlation between the amount of fat and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis. We selected a group of 25 patients with radiologically and clinically diagnosed IPF and we also selected another group of 25 age and gender-matched patients having no abnormalities on pulmonary function testing as well as HRCT as controls from our radiologic database search (mean age: 59 years, M:F= 11:14). We measured the area of mediastinal and extrapleural fat at the levels of the aortic arch and at the origin of the right pulmonary artery and right inferior pulmonary vein on three sections of HRCT by using software (Rapidia; 3DMED, Seoul, Korea). The total amount of fat was calculated by summing up the areas of the mediastinal and extrapleural fat, which is corrected by the body mass index; we also evaluated statistical differences between the two groups. At same sections of CT, the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area to the total areas of the lung was calculated. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of extrapleural or mediastinal fat with the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area. The total amount of fat in patients with IPF and normal individuals were 67.24±19.03 cm 2 and 32.55±11.91 cm 2 , respectively. The fat amount corrected by body mass index was 280.48±74.43 mm 2 /kg/m 2 in the IPF patients and 137.06±41.76 mm 2 /kg/m 2 in normal individuals. The differences between two groups for the total amount of fat and fat amount, as corrected for by the body mass index, were statistically significant (p<0.0001). The ratio (%) of the honeycombing area and the total amount of fat showed a moderate correlation (rho= 0.43, p=0.032). Patients with IPF have a larger amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat than normal individuals. The hypertrophy of mediastinal and extrapleural

  18. Mediastinal and extrapleural fat hypertrophy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on high-resolution CT: comparison with normal individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    We wished to compare the amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat on high resolution CT for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with that of normal individuals, and we wished to evaluate the correlation between the amount of fat and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis. We selected a group of 25 patients with radiologically and clinically diagnosed IPF and we also selected another group of 25 age and gender-matched patients having no abnormalities on pulmonary function testing as well as HRCT as controls from our radiologic database search (mean age: 59 years, M:F= 11:14). We measured the area of mediastinal and extrapleural fat at the levels of the aortic arch and at the origin of the right pulmonary artery and right inferior pulmonary vein on three sections of HRCT by using software (Rapidia; 3DMED, Seoul, Korea). The total amount of fat was calculated by summing up the areas of the mediastinal and extrapleural fat, which is corrected by the body mass index; we also evaluated statistical differences between the two groups. At same sections of CT, the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area to the total areas of the lung was calculated. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of extrapleural or mediastinal fat with the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area. The total amount of fat in patients with IPF and normal individuals were 67.24{+-}19.03 cm{sup 2} and 32.55{+-}11.91 cm{sup 2}, respectively. The fat amount corrected by body mass index was 280.48{+-}74.43 mm{sup 2}/kg/m{sup 2} in the IPF patients and 137.06{+-}41.76 mm{sup 2}/kg/m{sup 2} in normal individuals. The differences between two groups for the total amount of fat and fat amount, as corrected for by the body mass index, were statistically significant (p<0.0001). The ratio (%) of the honeycombing area and the total amount of fat showed a moderate correlation (rho= 0.43, p=0.032). Patients with IPF have a larger amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat than normal individuals. The

  19. Image quality of high-resolution CT with 16-channel multidetector-row CT. Comparison between helical scan and conventional step-shoot scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Johkoh, Takeshi; Koyama, Mitsuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of high-resolution CT (HRCT) reconstructed from volumetric data with 16-channel multidetector-row CT (MDCT). Eleven autopsy lungs that were diagnosed histopathologically were scanned by 16-channel MDCT with the step-and-shoot scan mode and three helical scan modes. Each helical mode had each size of focal spot, pitch, and time of gantry rotation. HRCT images were reconstructed from the volumetric data with each helical mode and axial sequence data. Two observers evaluated the image quality and noted the most appropriate diagnosis for each imaging. Visualization of abnormal structures with one helical mode was equal to those with axial mode, whereas those with the other two helical modes were inferior to those with axial mode (Wilcoxon signed rank test; p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in diagnostic efficacy between modes. The image quality of HRCT with appropriate helical mode is equal to that with axial mode and diagnostic efficacy is equal among all modes. These results may indicate that sufficient HRCT images can be obtained by only one helical scan without the addition of conventional axial scans. (author)

  20. Automated method for relating regional pulmonary structure and function: integration of dynamic multislice CT and thin-slice high-resolution CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Jehangir K.; Kugelmass, Steven D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1993-07-01

    We have developed a method utilizing x-ray CT for relating pulmonary perfusion to global and regional anatomy, allowing for detailed study of structure to function relationships. A thick slice, high temporal resolution mode is used to follow a bolus contrast agent for blood flow evaluation and is fused with a high spatial resolution, thin slice mode to obtain structure- function detail. To aid analysis of blood flow, we have developed a software module, for our image analysis package (VIDA), to produce the combined structure-function image. Color coded images representing blood flow, mean transit time, regional tissue content, regional blood volume, regional air content, etc. are generated and imbedded in the high resolution volume image. A text file containing these values along with a voxel's 3-D coordinates is also generated. User input can be minimized to identifying the location of the pulmonary artery from which the input function to a blood flow model is derived. Any flow model utilizing one input and one output function can be easily added to a user selectable list. We present examples from our physiologic based research findings to demonstrate the strengths of combining dynamic CT and HRCT relative to other scanning modalities to uniquely characterize pulmonary normal and pathophysiology.

  1. PATTERN OF INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE AS SEEN BY HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTERISED TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyambu, C K; Waigwa, M N

    2012-09-01

    Diffuse lung diseases constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the recommended imaging technique in the diagnosis, assessment and followup of these diseases. To describe the pattern of HRCT findings in patients with suspected interstitial lung disease. Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi Hospital and MP Shah Hospital; all situated in Nairobi, during the period February to August 2010. One hundred and one patients sent for HRCT in the six month study period. A total of 101 patients were recruited with age range 18 to 100 years, with a mean age of 53.6 (SD 19.7) years and a median age of 54 years. The male-female ratio was 1.2:1. Cough [80.2% (n = 81)] was the most common presenting complaint followed by dyspnoea (53.5%, n = 53) and chest pain [24.8% (n = 25)]. Overall, the predominant pattern of involvement on chest HRCT was reticular pattern seen in 56.1% (n = 82) of patients, followed by honey-comb pattern (37.8%, n = 82). The study demonstrated marked lung parenchymal destruction in most cases; a poor prognostic indicator which could have been due to delayed referral. HRCT has a high pick up rate of subtle parenchymal lung lesions as well as defining the lesions and their distribution compared to plain chest radiography. This is important in narrowing the differential diagnosis as well as for pre-biopsy planning. The diagnosis of ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach including a detailed clinical history, physical findings, and laboratory investigations, radiological and histological assessment.

  2. High-resolution vessel wall MRI for the evaluation of intracranial atherosclerotic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Havenon, Adam [University of Utah, Department of Neurology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mossa-Basha, Mahmud [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Shah, Lubdha; Kim, Seong-Eun; Parker, Dennis; McNally, J.S. [University of Utah, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Min [University of Utah, Department of Neurosurgery, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-12-15

    High-resolution vessel wall MRI (vwMRI) of the intracranial arteries is an emerging diagnostic imaging technique with the goal of evaluating vascular pathology. vwMRI sequences have high spatial resolution and directly image the vessel wall by suppressing blood signal. With vwMRI, it is possible to identify distinct morphologic and enhancement patterns of atherosclerosis that can provide important information about stroke etiology and recurrence risk. We present a review of vwMRI research in relation to intracranial atherosclerosis, with a focus on the relationship between ischemic stroke and atherosclerotic plaque T1 post-contrast enhancement or plaque/vessel wall morphology. The goal of this review is to provide readers with the most current understanding of the reliability, incidence, and importance of specific vwMRI findings in intracranial atherosclerosis, to guide their interpretation of vwMRI research, and help inform clinical interpretation of vwMRI. We will also provide a translational perspective on the existing vwMRI literature and insight into future vwMRI research questions and objectives. With increased use of high field strength MRI, powerful gradients, and improved pulse sequences, vwMRI will become standard-of-care in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular disease, making a firm grasp of its strengths and weakness important for neuroimagers. (orig.)

  3. Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira; Vianna, Alberto Domingues; Marchiori, Edson; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de

    2003-01-01

    Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its un specificity, association with other radiological, clinical and pathological findings must be considered for an accurate diagnostic interpretation. In this paper were reviewed 62 computed tomography examinations of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases of 14 different etiologies in which ground-glass opacity was the only or the most remarkable finding, and correlated this findings with pathology abnormalities seen on specimens obtained from biopsies or necropsies. In pneumocystosis, ground-glass opacities correlated histologically with alveolar occupation by a foaming material containing parasites, in bronchiole alveolar cell carcinoma with thickening of the alveolar septa and occupation of the lumen by mucus and tumoral cells, in paracoccidioidomycosis with thickening of the alveolar septa, areas of fibrosis and alveolar bronchopneumonia exudate, in sarcoidosis with fibrosis or clustering of granulomas and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with alveolar septa thickening due to fibrosis. Alveolar occupation by blood was found in cases of leptospirosis, idiopathic hemo siderosis, metastatic kidney tumor and invasive aspergillosis whereas oily vacuole were seen in lipoid pneumonia, proteinaceous and lipo proteinaceous material in silico proteinosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and edematous fluid in cardiac failure. (author)

  4. A novel high resolution, high sensitivity SPECT detector for molecular imaging of cardiovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanno, F.; Argentieri, A.; Baiocchi, M.; Colilli, S.; Cisbani, E.; De Vincentis, G.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Majewski, S.; Marano, G.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Vitelli, L.; Wang, Y.

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in western countries. Understanding the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and monitoring the effect of innovative therapies of heart failure is of fundamental importance. A flexible, high resolution, high sensitivity detector system for molecular imaging with radionuclides on small animal models has been designed for this aim. A prototype has been built using tungsten pinhole and LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to Hamamatsu Flat Panel PMTs. Compact individual-channel readout has been designed, built and tested. Measurements with phantoms as well as pilot studies on mice have been performed, the results show that the myocardial perfusion in mice can be determined with sufficient precision. The detector will be improved replacing the Hamamatsu Flat Panel with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) to allow integration of the system with MRI scanners. Application of LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to photosensor with high photon detection efficiency and excellent energy resolution will allow dual-label imaging to monitor simultaneously the cardiac perfusion and the molecular targets under investigation during the heart therapy.

  5. High-resolution vessel wall MRI for the evaluation of intracranial atherosclerotic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Havenon, Adam; Mossa-Basha, Mahmud; Shah, Lubdha; Kim, Seong-Eun; Parker, Dennis; McNally, J.S.; Park, Min

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution vessel wall MRI (vwMRI) of the intracranial arteries is an emerging diagnostic imaging technique with the goal of evaluating vascular pathology. vwMRI sequences have high spatial resolution and directly image the vessel wall by suppressing blood signal. With vwMRI, it is possible to identify distinct morphologic and enhancement patterns of atherosclerosis that can provide important information about stroke etiology and recurrence risk. We present a review of vwMRI research in relation to intracranial atherosclerosis, with a focus on the relationship between ischemic stroke and atherosclerotic plaque T1 post-contrast enhancement or plaque/vessel wall morphology. The goal of this review is to provide readers with the most current understanding of the reliability, incidence, and importance of specific vwMRI findings in intracranial atherosclerosis, to guide their interpretation of vwMRI research, and help inform clinical interpretation of vwMRI. We will also provide a translational perspective on the existing vwMRI literature and insight into future vwMRI research questions and objectives. With increased use of high field strength MRI, powerful gradients, and improved pulse sequences, vwMRI will become standard-of-care in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular disease, making a firm grasp of its strengths and weakness important for neuroimagers. (orig.)

  6. Progressing features of atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung on conventional and high resolution CT (HRCT) images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Daizo; Niwatsukino, Hiroshi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Oyama, Takao

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the localization of abnormalities within secondary pulmonary lobules and the changes in follow-up studies of pulmonary atypical mycobacterial infection (AMI) by conventional and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Forty-six patients (16 men and 30 women; 43-84 years) with pulmonary AMI (M. intracellulare 36; M. avium 10) in the lung were examined by conventional and HRCT. In peripheral zones, all patients had the nodule located in the terminal or lobular bronchiole, and most of the patients also had nodules accompanied with a wedge-shaped or linear shadow connected with the pleura. In the follow-up scans, new centrilobular nodules appeared in other segments, and consolidation or ground-glass pattern appeared newly and was preceded by nodules. Bronchiectasis became more severe in five of 38 follow-up patients. The common HRCT findings of AMI were centrilobular, peribronchovascular nodules, bronchiectasis, consolidation, and pleural thickening/adhesion. The nodules frequently connected with the pleura. The initial and follow-up studies suggest that the disease may begin in the terminal bronchiole or as preexisting bronchiectasis and spread transbronchially along the draining bronchus or towards the pleura to produce lesions such as new nodules, cavities, consolidation, pleuritis, and bronchiectasis, or more severe bronchiectasis. (author)

  7. Predictive value of routine esophageal high-resolution manometry for gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, F B; Smout, A J; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-07-01

    Using conventional manometry, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) was associated with a reduced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and impaired peristalsis. However, with a large overlap between GERD patients and controls, these findings are of limited clinical relevance. It is uncertain whether the more detailed information of high-resolution manometry (HRM) can discriminate GERD patients. Therefore, we aimed to determine to which extent HRM findings can predict GERD. HRM measurements in 69 patients with GERD and 40 healthy subjects were compared and the predictive value of HRM for the diagnosis of GERD was explored. GERD patients had a significantly lower contraction amplitude (55 vs 64 mmHg; p = 0.045) and basal LES pressure (10 vs 13.2 mmHg; p = 0.034) than healthy controls. GERD patients more often had a hiatal hernia than healthy subjects (30% vs 7%; p = 0.005). Patients with reflux esophagitis had a lower DCI than patients without reflux esophagitis (558 vs 782 mmHg cm s; p = 0.045). No significant difference was seen in contractile front velocity, distal latency, number of peristaltic breaks, residual LES pressure and LES length. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, both esophagogastric junction type I (OR 4.971; 95% CI 1.33-18.59; p = 0.017) and mean wave amplitude (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.98; p = 0.013) were found to be independent predictors of GERD. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these findings were low. Hiatal hernia, low contraction amplitude and LES pressure are associated with GERD, but do not predict the disease with sufficient accuracy. Routine esophageal HRM can therefore not be used to distinguish GERD patients from healthy subjects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of bullae with high-resolution CT in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax: comparison with video-assisted thoracoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Rae; Oh, Yu Whan; Noh, Hyung Jun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Lee, Ki Yeol; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings on high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest with those on video-assisted thoracoscopy for the detection of bullae in patients who had undergone an operation for spontaneous pneumothorax, and we also wished to evaluate the relationship between the characteristics of bullae on HRCT and development of spontaneous pneumothorax. Fifty patients with spontaneous pneumothorax who had undergone both HRCT of the chest and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were included in the study. Spontaneous pneumothoraces were classified as either primary or secondary pneumothorax, and as initial or recurrent pneumothorax. The HRCT scans were obtained with 1 mm slice thickness and a 5 mm scan interval. Two radiologists retrospectively compared the HRCT findings of the chest with those findings on video-assisted thoracoscopy for the detection of bullae, and they evaluated the value of HRCT for diagnosing bullae. In addition, we assessed the size and number of bullae in these patients, and we also evaluated the relationship between those findings of bullae and the development of spontaneous pneumothorax. Bullae were detected in 40 patients by using video-assisted thoracoscopy, and HRCT showed bullae in 38 of these patients. Bullae were not identified with video-assisted thoracoscopy in the remaining ten patients, and among these ten patients, bullae were not demonstrated by HRCT in eight of them. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of HRCT for the detection of bullae were 95% (38/40| and 80% (8/10), respectively. The average size of the bullae of the affected hemithorax and the contralateral un-affected hemithorax was 1.97 cm ± 2.30 and 1.24 cm±1.46, respectively. Pneumothorax was more frequently observed in the hemithorax with larger bullae (p 0.05). The average size of bullae in patients with secondary pneumothorax and those bullae of patients with primary pneumothorax was 4.44 cm±4.06 and 1.42 cm±1.26, respectively. The

  9. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  10. High-resolution CT imaging of the lung for patients with primary Sjoegren's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, Christian E-mail: lohrmann@mrs1.ukl.uni-freiburg.de; Uhl, Markus; Warnatz, Klaus; Ghanem, Nadir; Kotter, Elmar; Schaefer, Oliver; Langer, Mathias

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To assess pulmonary abnormalities in patients with primary Sjoegren's syndrome (PSS) using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and methods: The HRCT scans of 24 patients with the diagnosis PSS were retrospectively reviewed regarding the presence, extension and distribution of 16 pathological findings. Results: Nineteen patients (79.2%) showed pathological findings and in five patients (21.8%) the HRCT scan was judged to be normal. A predominance of abnormalities in the lower lobes and subpleural areas was detected. The following pathologies were found: bronchiectasis, thin-walled cysts and small pulmonary nodules (46.2%), ground-glass attenuation and emphysema (37.8%), interlobular-septal thickening (29.4%), honeycombing (25.2%), bronchial wall thickening, tree-in-bud pattern (21.0%), mosaic perfusion (16.8%), architectural distortion (12.6%). Airspace consolidation, air trapping, large nodules (10-30 mm) and masses (>30 mm), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (>15 mm) and free pleural fluid were seen each in 4.2%. In 7 of the 11 patients with thin-walled cysts areas of ground-glass attenuation were detected. Conclusion: HRCT seems is contributive to the characterization of the wide variety of lung abnormalities in PSS. Airway disease alone or in association with the presence of varying degrees of interstitial disease represents the main findings in accordance with earlier reports. Unexpectedly, almost half of the patients had thin-walled cysts on the HRCT scans, which etiology is unclear but could be associated with areas of ground-glass attenuation indicating LIP.

  11. An experimental study on the radiation-induced injury of the rabbit lung: Correlation of soft-tissue radiograph and high- resolution CT findings with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Byeoung Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook; Lee, Hyung Sik

    1994-01-01

    To describe soft-tissue radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of radiation-induced lung injury of rabbit over time and to correlate them with pathologic findings. 15 rabbits were irradiated in the right lung with one fracture of 2000 cGy. After 4, 6, 12, 20, 24 weeks 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed and soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT of their lung tissue were obtained. Radiological findings were correlated with pathologic findings. On soft-tissue radiogram, radiation pneumonitis shown as consolidation with air- bronchogram occurred in 3 cases after 6 weeks , and in 1 case after 12 weeks of irradiation. In addition, pneumonic consolidation with adjacent pleural contraction was seen in 2 cases after 12 weeks of irradiation. Fibrotic changes indicated by decreased volume occurred after 20 weeks and combined bronchiectatic change and bronchial wall thickening appeared after 20 weeks(N=1), and 24 weeks(N=3). HRCT findings of radiation pneumonitis were homogeneous, increased attention after 4 weeks(N=3), 6 and 12 weeks(each N=1), patchy consolidation after 6 and 12 weeks(each N=2), discrete consolidation after 12, 20 and 24 weeks(each N=1) and solid consolidation after 20 and 24 weeks(each N=2). Pathologically radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary congestion were seen after 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, collagen and reticulin fibers were detected along alveolar wall. Mixed radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis were detected after 12 weeks. 20 weeks after irradiation, fibrosis was well defined in interstitium and in 24 weeks, decreased number of alveoli and thickening of bronchial wall were defined. Radiation pneumonitis was provoked 4 weeks after irradiation on rabbit lung and progressed into radiation fibrosis 20 weeks after irradiation on soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT. High-resolution CT is more precise in detecting early radiation pneumonitis and detailed pathologic findings

  12. Analyses of the eustachian tube and its surrounding tissues with cross sectional images by high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Haruo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takasaki, Kenji; Kanda, Yukihiko; Nakao, Yoshiaki; Morikawa, Minoru; Ishimaru, Hideki; Hayashi, Kuniaki

    2000-01-01

    We attempted to image the eustachian tube (ET) and its surrounding tissues by high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). Twenty-two normal subjects (44 ears) without middle ear problems were studied, and a patient with severe patulous ET was also studied as an abnormal case. In our device of multiplanar reconstruction technique, we were able to obtain the clear reconstructed images of the ET lumen as well as of its surrounding tissues (bone, ET cartilage, tensor veli palatini muscle, levator veli palatini muscle, Ostmann's fat tissue, tensor tympani muscle, internal carotid artery) at any desired portion, either parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the ET. However, the exact borders between the ET cartilage and the muscles, Ostmann's fat tissue and the tubal gland were not clearly identified. In the severe case of patulous ET, the ET lumen was widely opened at each cross-sectional image from the pharyngeal orifice to the tympanic orifice, in contrast with its being closed at the cartilaginous portion in the normal cases. In addition, the fat tissue and glands around the ET lumen were not clearly identified in this case. We suggest that this method will lead to better understanding of the ET-related diseases such as patulous ET. (author)

  13. Analyses of the eustachian tube and its surrounding tissues with cross sectional images by high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Haruo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takasaki, Kenji; Kanda, Yukihiko; Nakao, Yoshiaki; Morikawa, Minoru; Ishimaru, Hideki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-07-01

    We attempted to image the eustachian tube (ET) and its surrounding tissues by high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). Twenty-two normal subjects (44 ears) without middle ear problems were studied, and a patient with severe patulous ET was also studied as an abnormal case. In our device of multiplanar reconstruction technique, we were able to obtain the clear reconstructed images of the ET lumen as well as of its surrounding tissues (bone, ET cartilage, tensor veli palatini muscle, levator veli palatini muscle, Ostmann's fat tissue, tensor tympani muscle, internal carotid artery) at any desired portion, either parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the ET. However, the exact borders between the ET cartilage and the muscles, Ostmann's fat tissue and the tubal gland were not clearly identified. In the severe case of patulous ET, the ET lumen was widely opened at each cross-sectional image from the pharyngeal orifice to the tympanic orifice, in contrast with its being closed at the cartilaginous portion in the normal cases. In addition, the fat tissue and glands around the ET lumen were not clearly identified in this case. We suggest that this method will lead to better understanding of the ET-related diseases such as patulous ET. (author)

  14. High-resolution CT of the lung in asbestos-exposed subjects. Comparison of low-dose and high-dose HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majurin, M.L.; Varpula, M.; Kurki, T.; Pakkala, L.

    1994-01-01

    The lowest possible mAs settings for high-resolution CT (HRCT) were studied on 45 individuals with suspected asbestos-related lung disease. All patients were investigated with 5 to 6 high-dose HRCT images (120 kVp/160 mA/2 s) at 3-cm intervals. At a selected level 4 additional low-dose images were obtained on each patient with lower mAs settings (100 mA/2 s, 80 mA/2 s, 60 mA/2 s, 30 mA/2 s). Thirty-seven subjects out of 45 had HRCT lesions compatible with asbestosis. HRCT images obtained with as low as 60 mA/2 s settings clearly showed pleural tractions and thickenings, parenchymal bands, honeycombing and subpleural curvilinear shadows, whereas in the evaluation of subpleural short lines and ground glass findings 80 mA/2 s were required. The lowest setting, 30 mA/2 s, was sufficient only in detecting and evaluating pleural tractions and thickenings. We conclude that 160 mAs yield good quality HRCT images, with substantial decrease of radiation dose, for the evaluation of asbestos-related lesions. (orig.)

  15. Spectrum of high resolution computed tomography findings in occupational lung disease: experience in a tertiary care institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna, Satija; Ojha, U C; Kumar, Sanyal; Gupta, Rajiv; Gothi, Dipti; Pal, R S

    2013-01-01

    To study the spectrum of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in occupational lung disease in industrial workers and to assess the utility of International classification of HRCT for occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICHOERD). Retrospective analysis of radiological data (radiographs and computed tomography chest scans) gathered over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012) of industrial workers in an organised sector who presented with respiratory complaints. The HRCT findings were evaluated using ICHOERD. There were 5 females and 114 males in the study, with a mean age of 49 years. These workers were exposed to different harmful agents including silica, asbestos, cotton dust, metal dust, iron oxide, organic dust, rubber fumes, plastic fumes, acid fumes, and oil fumes. There were 10 smokers in the study. The radiograph of chest was normal in 53 patients. 46% of these normal patients (21.8% of total) demonstrated positive findings on HRCT. When the radiograph was abnormal, HRCT provided more accurate information and excluded the other diagnosis. The HRCT findings were appropriately described using the ICHOERD. Bronchiectasis was the most common finding (44.5%) with mild central cylindrical bronchiectasis as the most common pattern. Pleural thickening was seen in 41 patients (34.5%). Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymphnodes were seen in 10 patients (8.4%) with egg-shell calcification in 1 patient exposed to silica. Bronchogenic carcinoma was seen in 1 patient exposed to asbestos. Occupational lung disease is a common work related condition in industrial workers even in the organized sector. Though chest radiograph is the primary diagnostic tool, HRCT is the undisputed Gold Standard for evaluation of these patients. Despite the disadvantage of radiation exposure, low dose CT may serve as an important tool for screening and surveillance. The ICHOERD is a powerful and reliable tool not only for diagnosis, but also for

  16. Spectrum of High Resolution Computed Tomography Findings in Occupational Lung Disease: Experience in a Tertiary Care Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satija Bhawna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the spectrum of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT findings in occupational lung disease in industrial workers and to assess the utility of International classification of HRCT for occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICHOERD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of radiological data (radiographs and computed tomography chest scans gathered over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012 of industrial workers in an organised sector who presented with respiratory complaints. The HRCT findings were evaluated using ICHOERD. Results: There were 5 females and 114 males in the study, with a mean age of 49 years. These workers were exposed to different harmful agents including silica, asbestos, cotton dust, metal dust, iron oxide, organic dust, rubber fumes, plastic fumes, acid fumes, and oil fumes. There were 10 smokers in the study. The radiograph of chest was normal in 53 patients. 46% of these normal patients (21.8% of total demonstrated positive findings on HRCT. When the radiograph was abnormal, HRCT provided more accurate information and excluded the other diagnosis. The HRCT findings were appropriately described using the ICHOERD. Bronchiectasis was the most common finding (44.5% with mild central cylindrical bronchiectasis as the most common pattern. Pleural thickening was seen in 41 patients (34.5%. Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymphnodes were seen in 10 patients (8.4% with egg-shell calcification in 1 patient exposed to silica. Bronchogenic carcinoma was seen in 1 patient exposed to asbestos. Conclusions: Occupational lung disease is a common work related condition in industrial workers even in the organized sector. Though chest radiograph is the primary diagnostic tool, HRCT is the undisputed Gold Standard for evaluation of these patients. Despite the disadvantage of radiation exposure, low dose CT may serve as an important tool for screening and surveillance. The ICHOERD is a

  17. Modeling and evaluation of a high-resolution CMOS detector for cone-beam CT of the extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Sisniega, Alejandro; Brehler, Michael; Stayman, J Webster; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Zbijewski, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    , compared to ~0.14 mm for an a-Si:H FPD. For this fine pixel pitch, detectability of fine features could be improved by using a thinner scintillator to reduce light spread blur. A 22% increase in detectability of 0.06 mm features was found for the C400 configuration compared to C700. An improvement in the frequency at 50% modulation (f 50 ) of MTF was measured, increasing from 1.8 lp/mm for C700 to 2.5 lp/mm for C400. The C400 configuration also achieved equivalent or better DQE as C700 for frequencies above ~2 mm -1 . Images of cadaver specimens confirmed improved visualization of trabeculae with the C400 sensor. The small pixel size of CMOS detectors yields improved performance in high-resolution extremity CBCT compared to a-Si:H FPDs, particularly when coupled with a custom 0.4 mm thick scintillator. The results indicate that adoption of a CMOS detector in extremity CBCT can benefit applications in quantitative imaging of trabecular microstructure in humans. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Pulmonary emphysema quantitation with Computed Tomography. Comparison between the visual score with high resolution CT, expiratory density mask with spiral CT and lung function studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zompatori, Maurizio; Battaglia, Milva; Rimondi, Maria Rita; Vivacqua, Donatella; Biscarini, Manuela; Fasano, Luca; Pacilli, Angela Maria Grazia; Guerrieri, Aldo; Fabbri, Mario; Cavina, Mauro

    1997-01-01

    CT is the most accurate method to detect pulmonary emphysema in vivo. They compared prospectively two different methods for emphysema quantitation in 5 normal volunteers and 20 consecutive patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All subjects were submitted to function tests and HRCT; three scans were acquired at preselected levels during inspiration. The type and extent of pulmonary emphysema were defined by two independent observers under blind conditions. Disagreements were subsequently settled by consent. All subjects were also examined with expiratory spiral CT using a density mask program, at two different cut-off levels (-850,-900 HU). Visual score and expiratory spiral density mask values (-850 HU) were significantly correlated (r = 0.86), but the visual extent of emphysema was always higher than shown by expiratory spiral CT. The emphysema extent assessed with both CT methods correlated with the function result of expiratory airflow obstruction and gas diffusion impairment (visual score versus forced expiratory volume in one second: r = -0.81, versus single breath carbon monoxide diffusion: r = -0.78. Spiral expiratory density mask -850 HU versus forced expiratory volume in one second: r = -0.85 versus single breath carbon monoxide diffusion: r = -0.77). When -900 HU was used as the cut-off value for the expiratory density mask, the correlation with single breath carbon monoxide diffusion worsened (r = -0.56). Visual score and expiratory density mask -850 HU gave similar results and permitted COPD patients to be clearly distinguished from normal controls (p < 0.01). They believe the true residual volume should lie somewhere in between the CT value and the function results with the helium dilution technique and conclude that the extent of pulmonary emphysema can be confidently assessed with CT methods. Finally, the simple visual score may be as reliable as such highly sophisticated new methods as the spiral expiratory density mask

  19. Skull-base foramina of the middle cranial fossa : assessment of normal variation with high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyae Young; Chung, Eun Chul; Suh, Jeong Soo; Choi, Hye Young; Ko, Eun Joo; Lee, Myung Sook

    1997-01-01

    To recognize foraminal variants of the foraminae of the skull base in the middle cranial fossa, and to thus understand and distinguish normal and potentially abnormal structures. We analysed 163 patients without intracranial disease who had undergone CT scanning. These comprised 82 men and 81 women with a mean age of 39 years (range, 4-73 years). HRCT was performed, using a GE 9800 scanner. All CT scans were obtained 6-7 slices at the base of the skull, with 1.5mm collimation at 1.5mm intervals parallel to the infraorbital line. We analysed the foraminae by closesly correlating imaging findings and established anatomic knowledge. In 45 cases (27.6%) the foramen ovale was 5-10mm in diameter and asymmetrical. Deficiency of the medial bony wall including persistent foramen lacerum medius was seen in five cases (3.1%). Confluence of the foramen ovale and the foramen spinosum was seen in 13 cases (8%) and confluence of the foramen ovale and the foramen of Vesalius in 23 (14.1%). Posterolateral groove for the accessory meningeal artery was observed in 36 cases (22%). The foramen spinosum was asymmetrical in 42 cases (25.8%). A small or absent foramen spinosum with a larger ipsilateral foramen ovale was observed in 11 cases (6.7%). Medial bony defect was seen in 16 cases (9.8%). The foramen spinosum was absent in four cases (2.5%). In 74 cases (45.4%), the foramen of Vesalius was absent; it was present unilaterally and bilaterally in 55 (33.7%) and 34 cases (20.9%), respectively. Five cases showed duplicated foramina. Canaliculus innominatus was seen in 14 cases (8.9%) and was present bilaterally in three (1.8%). HRCT clearly delineates bony structure and is well able to display the rich spectrum of anatomic variation found in the base of the skull. The recognition of these normal variants will result in a better understanding of skull base neurovascular anatomy and diminish speculation as to their true nature during the interpretation of CT images

  20. Flat-Panel Computed Tomography (DYNA-CT) in Neuroradiology. From High-Resolution Imaging of Implants to One-Stop-Shopping for Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, A; Gölitz, P; Engelhorn, T; Kloska, S; Struffert, T

    2015-10-01

    Originally aimed at improving standard radiography by providing higher absorption efficiency and a wider dynamic range, flat-panel detector technology has meanwhile got widely accepted in the neuroradiological community. Especially flat-panel detector computed tomography (FD-CT) using rotational C-arm mounted flat-panel detector technology is capable of volumetric imaging with a high spatial resolution. By providing CT-like images of the brain within the angio suite, FD-CT is able to rapidly visualize hemorrhage and may thus improve complication management without the need of patient transfer. As "Angiographic CT" FD-CT may be helpful during many diagnostic and neurointerventional procedures and for noninvasive monitoring and follow-up. In addition, spinal interventions and high-resolution imaging of the temporal bone might also benefit from FD-CT. Finally, using novel dynamic perfusion and angiographic protocols, FD-CT may provide functional information on brain perfusion and vasculature with the potential to replace standard imaging in selected acute stroke patients.

  1. High-Resolution C-Arm CT and Metal Artifact Reduction Software: A Novel Imaging Modality for Analyzing Aneurysms Treated with Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, I; Kambayashi, Y; Ikemura, A; Abe, Y; Kan, I; Mohamed, A; Dahmani, C; Suzuki, T; Ishibashi, T; Takao, H; Urashima, M; Murayama, Y

    2016-02-01

    Combination of high-resolution C-arm CT and novel metal artifact reduction software may contribute to the assessment of aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel Metal Artifact Reduction prototype software combined with the currently available high spatial-resolution C-arm CT prototype implementation by using an experimental aneurysm model treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. Eight experimental aneurysms were created in 6 swine. Coil embolization of each aneurysm was performed by using a stent-assisted technique. High-resolution C-arm CT with intra-arterial contrast injection was performed immediately after the treatment. The obtained images were processed with Metal Artifact Reduction. Five neurointerventional specialists reviewed the image quality before and after Metal Artifact Reduction. Observational and quantitative analyses (via image analysis software) were performed. Every aneurysm was successfully created and treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. Before Metal Artifact Reduction, coil loops protruding through the stent lumen were not visualized due to the prominent metal artifacts produced by the coils. These became visible after Metal Artifact Reduction processing. Contrast filling in the residual aneurysm was also visualized after Metal Artifact Reduction in every aneurysm. Both the observational (P software. The combination of high-resolution C-arm CT and Metal Artifact Reduction enables differentiation of the coil mass, stent, and contrast material on the same image by significantly reducing the metal artifacts produced by the platinum coils. This novel image technique may improve the assessment of aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. TH-EF-207A-06: High-Resolution Optical-CT/ECT Imaging of Unstained Mice Femur, Brain, Spleen, and Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S; Dewhirst, M; Oldham, M; Boss, M; Birer, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Optical transmission and emission computed tomography (optical-CT/ECT) provides high-resolution 3D attenuation and emission maps in unsectioned large (∼1cm 3 ) ex vivo tissue samples at a resolution of 12.9µm 3 per voxel. Here we apply optical-CT/ECT to investigate high-resolution structure and auto-fluorescence in a range of optically cleared mice organs, including, for the first time, mouse bone (femur), opening the potential for study of bone metastasis and bone-mediated immune response. Methods: Three BALBc mice containing 4T1 flank tumors were sacrificed to obtain spleen, brain, tumor, and femur. Tissues were washed in 4% PFA, fixed in EtOH solution (for 5, 10, 10, and 2 days respectively), and then optically cleared for 3 days in BABBs. The femur was also placed in 0.25M aqueous EDTA for 15–30 days to remove calcium. Optical-CT/ECT attenuation and emission maps at 633nm (the latter using 530nm excitation light) were obtained for all samples. Bi-telecentric optical-CT was compared side-by-side with conventional optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging to evaluate imaging capability of these two rival techniques. Results: Auto-fluorescence mapping of femurs reveals vasculatures and fluorescence heterogeneity. High signals (A.U.=10) are reported in the medullary cavity but not in the cortical bone (A.U.=1). The brain strongly and uniform auto-fluoresces (A.U.=5). Thick, optically dense organs such as the spleen and the tumor (0.12, 0.46OD/mm) are reconstructed at depth without significant loss of resolution, which we attribute to the bi-telecentric optics of optical-CT. The attenuation map of tumor reveals vasculature, attenuation heterogeneity, and possibly necrotic tissue. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of optical-CT/ECT imaging of un-sectioned mice bones (femurs) and spleen with high resolution. This result, and the characterization of unstained organs, are important steps enabling future studies involving optical-CT/ECT applied

  3. 'Crazy-Paving' Patterns on High-Resolution CT Scans in Patients with Pulmonary Complications after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Escuissato, Dante L.; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Considera, Daniela Peixoto [Federal University, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Franquet, Tomas [Hospital de Sant Pau, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    To describe the pulmonary complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that can present with a 'crazy-paving' pattern in high-resolution CT scans. Retrospective review of medical records from 2,537 patients who underwent HSCT. The 'crazy-paving' pattern consists of interlobular and intralobular septal thickening superimposed on an area of ground-glass attenuation on high-resolution CT scans. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, who reached final decisions by consensus. We identified 10 cases (2.02%), seven male and three female, with pulmonary complications following HSCT that presented with the 'crazy-paving' pattern. Seven (70%) patients had infectious pneumonia (adenovirus, herpes simplex, influenza virus, cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and toxoplasmosis), and three patients presented with non-infectious complications (idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and acute pulmonary edema). The 'crazy-paving' pattern was bilateral in all cases, with diffuse distribution in nine patients (90%), predominantly in the middle and inferior lung regions in seven patients (70%), and involving the anterior and posterior regions of the lungs in nine patients (90%). The 'crazy-paving' pattern is rare in HSCT recipients with pulmonary complications and is associated with infectious complications more commonly than non-infectious conditions.

  4. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis versus exogenous lipoid pneumonia showing crazy-paving pattern: Comparison of their clinical features and high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hei Kyung; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, and Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr

    2010-05-15

    Background: Although pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) require different treatment strategies, both manifest as a crazy-paving pattern on CT and often have similar clinical manifestations and radiologic features. Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of PAP and ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern. Material and Methods: The clinical features and HRCT findings of eight patients with pathologically proven PAP and six patients with pathologically proven ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern were retrospectively evaluated. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT findings of PAP and ELP in consensus in terms of the presence, severity, and extent of illdefined centrilobular nodules, consolidations, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), reticulations, and the crazy-paving pattern. Results: With respect to the clinical features of these two diseases, all patients with ELP were retrospectively found to have a history of oil ingestion. In terms of the HRCT findings, ill-defined centrilobular nodules were seen in five of six patients (83%) with ELP, whereas they were not present in any patient with PAP (P=0.003). Consolidation was also more frequently present in patients with ELP (83%) than in those with PAP (11%), which was statistically different (P=0.0265). In terms of the severity and extent, the crazy-paving pattern and reticulations on HRCT were significantly more extensive and severe in patients with PAP than in those with ELP. Conclusion: PAP and ELP with the crazy-paving pattern have several distinctive characteristics with respect to their HRCT findings as well as history of oil ingestion, and can therefore be distinguished from one another

  5. High resolution micro-CT scanning as an innovative tool for evaluation of the surgical positioning of cochlear implant electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, A; Zarowski, A; De Clerck, N; Vanpoucke, F; Offeciers, F E; Van Dyck, D; Peeters, S

    2006-05-01

    X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) is a new technique allowing for visualization of the internal structure of opaque specimens with a quasi-histological quality. Among multiple potential applications, the use of this technique in otology is very promising. Micro-CT appears to be ideally suited for in vitro visualization of the inner ear tissues as well as for evaluation of the electrode damage and/or surgical insertion trauma during implantation of the cochlear implant electrodes. This technique can greatly aid in design and development of new cochlear implant electrodes and is applicable for temporal bone studies. The main advantage of micro-CT is the practically artefact-free preparation of the samples and the possibility of evaluation of the interesting parameters along the whole insertion depth of the electrode. This paper presents the results of the first application of micro-CT for visualization of the inner ear structures in human temporal bones and for evaluation of the surgical positioning of the cochlear implant electrodes relative to the intracochlear soft tissues.

  6. Breast cancer detection using high-resolution breast PET compared to whole-body PET or PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinyak, Judith E. [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Berg, Wendie A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schilling, Kathy [Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Madsen, Kathleen S. [Certus International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States); Narayanan, Deepa [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Tartar, Marie [Scripps Clinic, Scripps Green Hospital, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To compare the performance characteristics of positron emission mammography (PEM) with those of whole-body PET (WBPET) and PET/CT in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. A total of 178 women consented to PEM for presurgical planning in an IRB-approved protocol and also underwent either WBPET (n = 69) or PET/CT (n = 109) imaging, as per usual care at three centers. Tumor detection sensitivity, positive predictive values, and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake were compared between the modalities. The effects of tumor size, type, and grade on detection were examined. The chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare distributions between groups, and McNemar's test was used to compare distributions for paired data within subject groups, i.e. PEM versus WBPET or PEM versus PET/CT. The mean age of the women was 59 ± 12 years (median 60 years, range 26-89 years), with a mean invasive index tumor size of 1.6 ± 0.8 cm (median 1.5 cm, range 0.5-4.0 cm). PEM detected more index tumors (61/66, 92 %) than WBPET (37/66, 56 %; p < 0.001) or PET/CT (95/109, 87 % vs. 104/109, 95 % for PEM; p < 0.029). Sensitivity for the detection of additional ipsilateral malignancies was also greater with PEM (7/15, 47 %) than with WBPET (1/15, 6.7 %; p = 0.014) or PET/CT (3/23, 13 % vs. 13/23, 57 % for PEM; p = 0.003). Index tumor detection decreased with decreasing invasive tumor size for both WBPET (p = 0.002) and PET/CT (p < 0.001); PEM was not significantly affected (p = 0.20). FDG uptake, quantified in terms of maximum PEM uptake value, was lowest in ductal carcinoma in situ (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.0) and invasive lobular carcinoma (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.4), and highest in grade III invasive ductal carcinoma (median 3.1, range 1.4-12.9). PEM was more sensitive than either WBPET or PET/CT in showing index and additional ipsilateral breast tumors and remained highly sensitive for tumors smaller than 1 cm. (orig.)

  7. CT evaluation of optic nerve compression in thyroid eye disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L.; Giatt, H.J.; Burde, R.M.; Gado, M.

    1986-01-01

    In thyroid eye disease, visual loss due to optic nerve compression by enlarged muscles near the orbital apex requires prompt surgical decompression and must be differentiated from visual loss due to other mechanisms. Seventy-two high-resolution orbital CT scans of patients with thyroid eye disease were analyzed. From a coronal reconstruction, an easily measured ''apical index'' was determined. Average apical indices for orbits without optic neuropathy (41.0%) and with optic neuropathy (70.2%) were significantly different (P < .001). With the aid of the apical index, CT findings can be used to predict which patients with thyroid eye disease have optic nerve compression

  8. High resolution micro-CT of low attenuating organic materials using large area photon-counting detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumpová, Ivana; Vavřík, Daniel; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Jandejsek, Ivan; Jakůbek, Jan; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr; Vopálenský, Michal; Gantar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2016), č. článku C02003. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : computerized tomography (CT) * computed radiography (CR) * pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/11/02/C02003

  9. Hyperpolarized 3helium magnetic resonance ventilation imaging of the lung in cystic fibrosis: comparison with high resolution CT and spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Colm J.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Skehan, Stephen J.; Masterson, James B.; Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Wild, Jim M.; Fichele, Stan; Gallagher, Charles G.; Beek, Edwin J.R. van

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare hyperpolarized 3 helium magnetic resonance imaging ( 3 He MRI) of the lungs in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and spirometry. Eight patients with stable CF prospectively underwent 3 He MRI, HRCT, and spirometry within 1 week. Three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence was used during an 18-s breath-hold following inhalation of hyperpolarized 3 He. Each lung was divided into six zones; 3 He MRI was scored as percentage ventilation per lung zone. HRCT was scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Univariate (Spearman rank) and multivariate correlations were performed between 3 He MRI, HRCT, and spirometry. Results are expressed as mean±SD (range). Spirometry is expressed as percent predicted. There were four men and four women, mean age=31.9±9 (20-46). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) 1 =52%±29 (27-93). Mean 3 He MRI score=74%±25 (55-100). Mean HRCT score=48.8±24 (13.5-83). The correlation between 3 He MRI and HRCT was strong (R=±0.89, p 3 He MRI; 3 He MRI correlated better with FEV 1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) (R=0.86 and 0.93, p 3 He MRI correlates strongly with structural HRCT abnormalities and is a stronger correlate of spirometry than HRCT in CF. (orig.)

  10. Does high-resolution CT has diagnostic value in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijers, Sofieke C.; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Raphael, Martine F.; Beek, Frederik J.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be complicated by a variety of live-threatening infectious and non-infectious pulmonary complications. The management of these complications is critically dependent on the most probable diagnosis, which is in part based on imaging work-up. Methods: Systematic review of the literature related to the diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients who underwent SCT and developed respiratory symptoms. Results: Literature review did not reveal systematic cohort studies that included patients with respiratory symptoms post-SCT who underwent HRCT and had a well-defined outcome. Most studies selected participants based on their final diagnosis instead of the indication for diagnostic testing in practice. Nevertheless, several papers clearly indicated a potential role for HRCT when complications after SCT occur. A variety of articles described the role of certain HRCT findings in the diagnosis of specific infectious complications, but less data were available for non-infectious complications. Conclusion: We believe more diagnostic studies are needed to determine the value of HRCT for a specific diagnosis in SCT-recipients who present with respiratory symptoms at the transplant clinic. Currently, radiologists should be cautious since HRCT interpretation in these patients is not unambiguous.

  11. Ultra-high resolution C-Arm CT arthrography of the wrist: Radiation dose and image quality compared to conventional multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werncke, Thomas, E-mail: Werncke.Thomas@mh-hannover.de [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Sonnow, Lena; Meyer, Bernhard C. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Lüpke, Matthias [University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Institute for General Radiology and Medical Physics, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover (Germany); Hinrichs, Jan; Wacker, Frank K.; Falck, Christian von [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: Objective of this phantom and cadaveric study was to compare the effective radiation dose (ED) and image quality (IQ) between C-arm computed tomography (CACT) using an ultra-high resolution 1 × 1 binning with a standard 16-slice CT (MDCT) arthrography of the wrist. Methods: ED was determined with thermoluminescence dosimetry using an anthropomorphic phantom and different patient positions. Imaging was conducted in 10 human cadaveric wrists after tri-compartmental injection of diluted iodinated contrast material and a wire phantom. IQ of MDCT was compared with CACT reconstructed with a soft (CACT1) and sharp (CACT2) kernel. High and low contrast resolution was determined. Three radiologists assessed IQ of wrist structures and occurrence of image artifacts using a 5-point Likert scale. Results: ED of MDCT was comparable to standard CACT (4.3 μSv/3.7 μSv). High contrast resolution was best for CACT2, decreased to CACT1 and MDCT. Low contrast resolution increased between CACT2 and MDCT (P < 0.001). IQ was best for CACT2 (1.3 ± 0.5), decreased to CACT1 (1.9 ± 0.6) and MDCT (3.5 ± 0.6). Non-compromising artifacts were only reported for CACT. Conclusions: The results of this phantom and cadaveric study indicate that ultra-high resolution C-Arm CT arthrography of the wrist bears the potential to outperform MDCT arthrography in terms of image quality and workflow at the cost of mildly increasing image artifacts while radiation dose to the patient is comparably low for both, MDCT and C-Arm CT.

  12. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lietzmann, Florian; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Schad, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm(2) removes the necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. • Omitting the z-axis-filter allows a reduction in radiation dose of 50% • A smaller focal spot of 0.2 mm (2) significantly improves spatial resolution • Ultra-high-resolution temporal-bone-CT helps to gain diagnostic information of the middle/inner ear.

  13. SU-E-T-296: Dosimetric Analysis of Small Animal Image-Guided Irradiator Using High Resolution Optical CT Imaging of 3D Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Y; Qian, X; Wuu, C; Adamovics, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator using a high-resolution of optical CT imaging of 3D dosimeters. Methods: PRESAEGE 3D dosimeters were used to determine dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator and compared with EBT2 films. Cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters with 7cm height and 6cm diameter were placed along the central axis of the beam. The films were positioned between 6×6cm 2 cubed plastic water phantoms perpendicular to the beam direction with multiple depths. PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films were then irradiated with the irradiator beams at 220kVp and 13mA. Each of irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters named PA1, PA2, PB1, and PB2, was independently scanned using a high-resolution single laser beam optical CT scanner. The transverse images were reconstructed with a 0.1mm high-resolution pixel. A commercial Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was used for readout of irradiated EBT2 films at a 0.4mm pixel resolution. PDD curves and beam profiles were measured for the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films. Results: The PDD agreements between the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2 and the EB2 films were 1.7, 2.3, 1.9, and 1.9% for the multiple depths at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50mm, respectively. The FWHM measurements for each PRESAEGE dosimeter and film agreed with 0.5, 1.1, 0.4, and 1.7%, respectively, at 30mm depth. Both PDD and FWHM measurements for the PRESAGE dosimeters and the films agreed overall within 2%. The 20%–80% penumbral widths of each PRESAGE dosimeter and the film at a given depth were respectively found to be 0.97, 0.91, 0.79, 0.88, and 0.37mm. Conclusion: Dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator have been demonstrated with the measurements of PRESAGE dosimeter and EB2 film. With the high resolution and accuracy obtained from this 3D dosimetry system, precise targeting small animal irradiation can be achieved

  14. High-resolution computed tomography to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases with predominant ground-glass pattern using logical analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sophie Grivaud; Brauner, Michel W.; Rety, Frederique; Kronek, Louis-Philippe; Brauner, Nadia; Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (CDILD) with predominant ground-glass pattern by using logical analysis of data (LAD). A total of 162 patients were classified into seven categories: sarcoidosis (n = 38), connective tissue disease (n = 32), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 18), drug-induced lung disease (n = 15), alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 10) and miscellaneous (n = 37). First, 40 CT attributes were investigated by the LAD to build up patterns characterising a category. From the association of patterns, LAD determined models specific to each CDILD. Second, data were recomputed by adding eight clinical attributes to the analysis. The 20 x 5 cross-folding method was used for validation. Models could be individualised for sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease and alveolar proteinosis. An additional model was individualised for drug-induced lung disease by adding clinical data. No model was demonstrated for idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and the miscellaneous category. The results showed that HRCT had a good sensitivity (≥64%) and specificity (≥78%) and a high negative predictive value (≥93%) for diseases with a model. Higher sensitivity (≥78%) and specificity (≥89%) were achieved by adding clinical data. The diagnostic performance of HRCT is high and can be increased by adding clinical data. (orig.)

  15. High-resolution pulmonary ventilation and perfusion PET/CT allows for functionally adapted intensity modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva, Shankar; Thomas, Roshini; Callahan, Jason; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Hicks, Rodney J.; MacManus, Michael P.; Ball, David L.; Hofman, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the utility of functional lung avoidance using IMRT informed by four-dimensional (4D) ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) PET/CT. Materials and methods: In a prospective clinical trial, patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent 4D-V/Q PET/CT scanning before 60 Gy of definitive chemoradiation. Both “highly perfused” (HPLung) and “highly ventilated” (HVLung) lung volumes were delineated using a 70th centile SUV threshold, and a “ventilated lung volume” (VLung) was created using a 50th centile SUV threshold. For each patient four IMRT plans were created, optimised to the anatomical lung, HPLung, HVLung and VLung volumes, respectively. Improvements in functional dose volumetrics when optimising to functional volumes were assessed using mean lung dose (MLD), V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, V50 and V60 parameters. Results: The study cohort consisted of 20 patients with 80 IMRT plans. Plans optimised to HPLung resulted in a significant reduction of functional MLD by a mean of 13.0% (1.7 Gy), p = 0.02. Functional V5, V10 and V20 were improved by 13.2%, 7.3% and 3.8% respectively (p-values < 0.04). There was no significant sparing of dose to functional lung when adapting to VLung or HVLung. Plan quality was highly consistent with a mean PTV D95 and D5 ranging from 60.8 Gy to 61.0 Gy and 63.4 Gy to 64.5 Gy, respectively, and mean conformity and heterogeneity index ranging from 1.11 to 1.17 and 0.94 to 0.95, respectively. Conclusion: IMRT plans adapted to perfused but not ventilated lung on 4D-V/Q PET/CT allowed for reduced dose to functional lung whilst maintaining consistent plan quality

  16. Effects of pure and hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithms on high-resolution computed tomography in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Masaki; Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Mise, Yoko; Sumida, Kaoru; Abe, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    To compare image quality characteristics of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease using three different reconstruction methods: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). Eighty-nine consecutive patients with interstitial lung disease underwent standard-of-care chest CT with 64-row multi-detector CT. HRCT images were reconstructed in 0.625-mm contiguous axial slices using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. Two radiologists independently assessed the images in a blinded manner for subjective image noise, streak artifacts, and visualization of normal and pathologic structures. Objective image noise was measured in the lung parenchyma. Spatial resolution was assessed by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF). MBIR offered significantly lower objective image noise (22.24±4.53, PASIR (39.76±7.41) and FBP (51.91±9.71). MTF (spatial resolution) was increased using MBIR compared with ASIR and FBP. MBIR showed improvements in visualization of normal and pathologic structures over ASIR and FBP, while ASIR was rated quite similarly to FBP. MBIR significantly improved subjective image noise (PASIR and FBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Technical feasibility proof for high-resolution low-dose photon-counting CT of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalender, Willi A.; Kolditz, Daniel; Lueck, Ferdinand [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steiding, Christian [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); University Hospital of Erlangen, Institute of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Ruth, Veikko; Roessler, Ann-Christin [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); Wenkel, Evelyn [University Hospital of Erlangen, Institute of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed and evaluated multiple times as a potentially alternative method for breast imaging. All efforts shown so far have been criticized and partly disapproved because of their limited spatial resolution and higher patient dose when compared to mammography. Our concept for a dedicated breast CT (BCT) scanner therefore aimed at novel apparatus and detector design to provide high spatial resolution of about 100 μm and average glandular dose (AGD) levels of 5 mGy or below. Photon-counting technology was considered as a solution to reach these goals. The complete concept was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups. We here present measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters and surgical specimen results on such a scanner. For comparison purposes, the specimens were also imaged with digital mammography (DM) and breast tomosynthesis (BT) apparatus. Results show that photon-counting BCT (pcBCT) at 5 mGy AGD offers sufficiently high 3D spatial resolution for reliable detectability of calcifications and soft tissue delineation. (orig.)

  18. A New Automated Way to Measure Polyethylene Wear in THA Using a High Resolution CT Scanner: Method and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Q. Maguire Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most advantageous total hip arthroplasty (THA operation is the first, timely replacement of only the liner is socially and economically important because the utilization of THA is increasing as younger and more active patients are receiving implants and they are living longer. Automatic algorithms were developed to infer liner wear by estimating the separation between the acetabular cup and femoral component head given a computed tomography (CT volume. Two series of CT volumes of a hip phantom were acquired with the femoral component head placed at 14 different positions relative to the acetabular cup. The mean and standard deviation (SD of the diameter of the acetabular cup and femoral component head, in addition to the range of error in the expected wear values and the repeatability of all the measurements, were calculated. The algorithms resulted in a mean (±SD for the diameter of the acetabular cup of 54.21 (±0.011 mm and for the femoral component head of 22.09 (±0.02 mm. The wear error was ±0.1 mm and the repeatability was 0.077 mm. This approach is applicable clinically as it utilizes readily available computed tomography imaging systems and requires only five minutes of human interaction.

  19. A comparison of high resolution CT scan of temporal bone and operative findings in middle ear cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Tae Beom; Seong, Hun; Cheon, Mal Soon; Kim, Hack Jin; Jang, Keung Jae; Chun, Byung Hee [Dae Dong General Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    To evaluate the value of HRCT imaging in middle ear cholesteatoma, we prospectively analysed the CT images in 28 surgically proven cases with cholesteatomas regarding main site of lesion, ossicular change, facial nerve exposure and fistula formation. The most common main site of lesion was the epitympanum (92.8%). The results of sensitivity, positive predictability, and accuracy by CT imagings were as follows: for ossicular involvement, 94.1%, 88.8%, and 86.2% in malleus, 96.0%, 88.8%, and 85.7% in incus, 81.2%, 81.2%, and 78.5% in stapes; for facial nerve exposure, 66.6%, 57.1%, and 81.2%: for fistula formation, 100%, 75.0%, and 96.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the temoral bone HRCT imaging is an accurate preoperative method in detecting main lesion site, ossicular involvement, fistula formation. Because of the low sensitivity and positive predictability in detecting facial nerve exposure, it is necessary to correlate the HRCT images with the clinical status.

  20. CT of diffuse pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Todo, Giro

    1987-01-01

    While the theory of chest radiographic interpretation in diagnosing diffuse pulmonary diseases has not yet been established, X-ray computed tomography (CT), having intrinsic high contrast resolution and improved spatial resolution, has proved to offer important imformation concerning the location and invasion of diffuse pulmonary lesions. This study related to CT-pathologic correlation, focusing on perivascular interstitial space and secondary pulmonary lobule at macroscopic levels. The perivascular interstitial space was thickened as a result of the infiltration of cancer, granulomas, and inflammatory cells. This finding appeared as irregular contour of the blood vessel on CT. Centrilobular nodules were distributed at the tip of the bronchus or pulmonary artery on CT. The distance from the terminal and respiratory bronchioles to the lobular border was 2 to 3 mm. Lobular lesions were delineated as clear margin on CT. Contribution of these CT features to chest radiographic interpretation must await further studies. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Iodine and freeze-drying enhanced high-resolution MicroCT imaging for reconstructing 3D intraneural topography of human peripheral nerve fascicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liwei; Guo, Yongze; Qi, Jian; Zhu, Qingtang; Gu, Liqiang; Zheng, Canbin; Lin, Tao; Lu, Yutong; Zeng, Zitao; Yu, Sha; Zhu, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xi; Du, Yunfei; Yao, Zhi; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-08-01

    The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions. The complex intraneural aggregation and distribution of fascicles is typically assessed using histological techniques or MR imaging to acquire coarse axial three-dimensional (3D) maps. However, the disadvantages of histological techniques (static, axial manual registration, and data instability) and MR imaging (low-resolution) limit these applications in reconstructing the topography of nerve fascicles. Thus, enhanced microCT is a new technique for acquiring 3D intraneural topography of the human peripheral nerve fascicles both to improve our understanding of neurobiological principles and to guide accurate repair in the clinic. Additionally, 3D microstructure data can be used as a biofabrication model, which in turn can be used to fabricate scaffolds to repair long nerve gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A high-resolution EPR-CT microscope using cavity-resonators equipped with small field gradient coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, T.; Murata, T.; Kumai, H.; Yamashiro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Cylindrical cavity resonators equipped with field gradient coils were developed for two-dimensional EPR-CT microscope systems. The field gradient coils lie in four (or six) thin metal tubes placed along the direction of the microwave magnetic field in the cavity to minimize impact on the resonator's quality factor. Two pairs of the tubes carry a 100 kHz current for magnetic field modulation. This cavity has high spin-detection sensitivity and can provide EPR images with submillimeter resolution. In order to reconstruct better images from fewer projections, we used an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) for the two-dimensional image reconstruction. The ART method may be suitable for not only spectral-spatial two-dimensional EPR imaging, but also spatio-temporal EPR imaging in dynamic spin systems. (author)

  3. High-resolution imaging of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion with 68Ga-VQ respiratory gated (4-D) PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, Jason; Hofman, Michael S.; Siva, Shankar; Kron, Tomas; Schneider, Michal E.; Binns, David; Eu, Peter; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2014-01-01

    Our group has previously reported on the use of 68 Ga-ventilation/perfusion (VQ) PET/CT scanning for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We describe here the acquisition methodology for 68 Ga-VQ respiratory gated (4-D) PET/CT and the effects of respiratory motion on image coregistration in VQ scanning. A prospective study was performed in 15 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. 4-D PET and 4-D CT images were acquired using an infrared marker on the patient's abdomen as a surrogate for breathing motion following inhalation of Galligas and intravenous administration of 68 Ga-macroaggregated albumin. Images were reconstructed with phase-matched attenuation correction. The lungs were contoured on CT and PET VQ images during free-breathing (FB) and at maximum inspiration (Insp) and expiration (Exp). The similarity between PET and CT volumes was measured using the Dice coefficient (DC) comparing the following groups; (1) FB-PET/CT, (2) InspPET/InspCT, (3) ExpPET/Exp CT, and (4) FB-PET/AveCT. A repeated measures one-way ANOVA with multiple comparison Tukey tests were performed to evaluate any difference between the groups. Diaphragmatic motion in the superior-inferior direction on the 4-D CT scan was also measured. 4-D VQ scanning was successful in all patients without additional acquisition time compared to the nongated technique. The highest volume overlap was between ExpPET and ExpCT and between FB-PET and AveCT with a DC of 0.82 and 0.80 for ventilation and perfusion, respectively. This was significantly better than the DC comparing the other groups (0.78-0.79, p 68 Ga-VQ 4-D PET/CT is feasible and the blurring caused by respiratory motion is well corrected with 4-D acquisition, which principally reduces artefact at the lung bases. The images with the highest spatial overlap were the combined expiration phase or FB PET and average CT. With higher resolution than SPECT/CT, the PET/CT technique has a broad range of potential clinical applications including

  4. High-resolution, label-free two-photon imaging of diseased human corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Aisada; Schindele, Andreas; Hager, Tobias; Seitz, Berthold; König, Karsten

    2018-03-01

    The diagnosis of corneal diseases may be improved by monitoring the metabolism of cells and the structural organization of the stroma using two-photon imaging (TPI). We used TPI to assess the differences between nonpathological (NP) human corneas and corneas diagnosed with either keratoconus, Acanthamoeba keratitis, or stromal corneal scars. Images were acquired using a custom-built five-dimensional laser-scanning microscope with a broadband sub-15 femtosecond near-infrared pulsed excitation laser and a 16-channel photomultiplier tube detector in combination with a time-correlated single photon counting module. Morphological alterations of epithelial cells were observed for all pathologies. Moreover, diseased corneas showed alterations to the cells' metabolism that were revealed using the NAD(P)H free to protein-bound ratios. The mean autofluorescence lifetime of the stroma and the organization of the collagen fibers were also significantly altered due to the pathologies. We demonstrate that TPI can be used to distinguish between NP and diseased human corneas, based not only on alterations of the cells' morphology, which can also be evaluated using current clinical devices, but on additional morphological and functional features such as the organization of the stroma and the cells' metabolism. Therefore, TPI could become an efficient tool for diagnosing corneal diseases and better understanding the biological processes of the diseases.

  5. Diagnosis of ossicular deformities and inner ear anomalies by high resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Michio

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to determine the optimum slice thickness and slice gaps that can define the fine contour and continuity of the ossicles and the inner ear. Horizontal tomography was proved to be contributory enough to obtain the whole ossicular chains and the whole labyrinthine capsule. Comparison of 1.5 mm slice thickness / 1.5 mm slice gaps, 1.0 mm slice thickness / 1.0 mm slice gaps and 1.5 mm slice thickness / 1.0 mm slice gaps revealed that the last condition was optimal for demonstrating the ossicular chains, the first for the inner ear. A significant relationship was found between CT findings and surgical findings of ossicular chains in chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma. Radiological classification of the inner ear malformation, which was obtained by this method, were agenesis of the whole labyrinthine capsule, agenesis of the cochlea, slight protrusion of the cochlear growth, poor cochlear turning, agenesis of all the semicircular canals, anterior semicircular canals (s.c.) without posterior and lateral s.c., anterior s.c. without hypoplasia of posterior s.c. and aplasia of lateral s.c., and smallness of the vestibule. (author) 59 refs

  6. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehndiratta, Amit; Rabinov, James D.; Grasruck, Michael; Liao, Eric C.; Crandell, David; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm 3 . Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  7. Diagnosis of ossicular deformities and inner ear anomalies by high resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isono, Michio

    1988-04-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to determine the optimum slice thickness and slice gaps that can define the fine contour and continuity of the ossicles and the inner ear. Horizontal tomography was proved to be contributory enough to obtain the whole ossicular chains and the whole labyrinthine capsule. Comparison of 1.5 mm slice thickness / 1.5 mm slice gaps, 1.0 mm slice thickness / 1.0 mm slice gaps and 1.5 mm slice thickness / 1.0 mm slice gaps revealed that the last condition was optimal for demonstrating the ossicular chains, the first for the inner ear. A significant relationship was found between CT findings and surgical findings of ossicular chains in chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma. Radiological classification of the inner ear malformation, which was obtained by this method, were agenesis of the whole labyrinthine capsule, agenesis of the cochlea, slight protrusion of the cochlear growth, poor cochlear turning, agenesis of all the semicircular canals, anterior semicircular canals (s.c.) without posterior and lateral s.c., anterior s.c. without hypoplasia of posterior s.c. and aplasia of lateral s.c., and smallness of the vestibule. (author) 59 refs.

  8. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Amit [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Keble College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and All India Institute of Medical Science, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi (India); Rabinov, James D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Liao, Eric C. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Crandell, David [Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm{sup 3}. Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  9. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M. [Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Westermark, Ulrica K.; Arsenian Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  10. Predictive value of routine esophageal high-resolution manometry for gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, F. B.; Smout, A. J.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Using conventional manometry, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) was associated with a reduced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and impaired peristalsis. However, with a large overlap between GERD patients and controls, these findings are of limited clinical relevance. It is uncertain

  11. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Negahdar, M; Yamamoto, T

    2016-01-01

    quantify regional lung ventilation volumetrically with high resolution using widely accessible radiologic equipment. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim are founders of TibaRay, Inc. Bill Loo is also a board member. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim have received research grants from Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory

  12. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Negahdar, M [IBM Research Center, San Jose, California (United States); Yamamoto, T [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    quantify regional lung ventilation volumetrically with high resolution using widely accessible radiologic equipment. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim are founders of TibaRay, Inc. Bill Loo is also a board member. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim have received research grants from Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory.

  13. High resolution SPECT imaging for visualization of intratumoral heterogeneity using a SPECT/CT scanner dedicated for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Izumi O.; Tani, Kotaro; Tsuda, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    conditions using a SPECT/CT scanner. (author)

  14. High-resolution PET studies in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.; Haxby, J.V.; Wagner, E.; Salerno, J.A.; Friedland, R.P.; Rapoport, S.I. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and 30 healthy age-matched controls were scanned using (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose on a Scanditronix PC 1024-7B tomograph (inplane resolution = 6 mm, axial resolution = 10 mm). Patients and controls were scanned in the resting state with their eyes patched and ears occluded. The regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) in most major neocortical and subcortical gray matter regions, and certain metabolic ratios (rCMRglc/ calcarine rCMRglc), quantitatively discriminated even the mildly demented patients from healthy controls. The association neocortices showed metabolic abnormalities that were more severe than those in the sensorimotor and calcarine regions. All demented groups showed significant neuropsychological disturbances when compared to healthy controls. These data demonstrated widespread metabolic disturbances, particularly in the association areas, relatively early in Alzheimer's disease, and more profound involvement with disease progression.

  15. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Henzler, Thomas; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Lietzmann, Florian; Schad, Lothar R.

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm 2 removesthe necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p < 0.05). Total effective dose was 63 %/39 % lower for the third generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. (orig.)

  16. A high resolution spatial population database of Somalia for disease risk mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Catherine; Alegana, Victor A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2010-09-14

    Millions of Somali have been deprived of basic health services due to the unstable political situation of their country. Attempts are being made to reconstruct the health sector, in particular to estimate the extent of infectious disease burden. However, any approach that requires the use of modelled disease rates requires reasonable information on population distribution. In a low-income country such as Somalia, population data are lacking, are of poor quality, or become outdated rapidly. Modelling methods are therefore needed for the production of contemporary and spatially detailed population data. Here land cover information derived from satellite imagery and existing settlement point datasets were used for the spatial reallocation of populations within census units. We used simple and semi-automated methods that can be implemented with free image processing software to produce an easily updatable gridded population dataset at 100 × 100 meters spatial resolution. The 2010 population dataset was matched to administrative population totals projected by the UN. Comparison tests between the new dataset and existing population datasets revealed important differences in population size distributions, and in population at risk of malaria estimates. These differences are particularly important in more densely populated areas and strongly depend on the settlement data used in the modelling approach. The results show that it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable settlement and population distribution datasets of Somalia using existing data. The 2010 population dataset produced is freely available as a product of the AfriPop Project and can be downloaded from: http://www.afripop.org.

  17. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 2.: pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.

    1995-01-01

    Selected cases of the temporal bone pathology on high resolution CT were demonstrated. Transverse and coronal sections of the cases were selected from 68 patients with various otological diseases. (author)

  18. Chest Abnormalities in Juvenile-Onset Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: Assessment with High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Pulmonary Function Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaloekken, T.M.; Mynarek, G.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Lilleby, V.; Foerre, Oe.; Soeyseth, V.; Pripp, A.H.; Johansen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is associated with several chest manifestations. Only a few studies have focused on chest manifestations in juvenile-onset MCTD (jMCTD), and the true prevalence of pulmonary abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in these patients is unknown. Purpose: To investigate the occurrence of pulmonary abnormalities in jMCTD with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), and to evaluate a possible association between pulmonary findings and disease-related variables. Material and Methods: Twenty-four childhood-onset MCTD patients with median disease duration of 10.5 years (range 1-21 years) were investigated in a cross-sectional study by means of HRCT, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and clinical assessment. Results: Discrete ILD was identified in six patients (25%). Median extent of ILD was 2.0%, and all except one of the patients had very mild disease in which 5% or less of the parenchyma was affected. The CT features of fibrosis were mainly microcystic and fine intralobular. The most frequently abnormal PFT was carbon monoxide uptake from the lung, which was abnormal in 33% of the patients. PFT and disease duration were not significantly associated with HRCT findings of ILD. Conclusion: The prevalence of ILD in childhood-onset MCTD patients was lower than previously believed. In most of the patients with ILD, the findings were subtle and without clinical correlation. The results suggest a low extent of ILD in childhood-onset MCTD, even after long-term disease duration

  19. High-resolution computed tomography versus chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Ana Beatriz Cordeiro de; Calderaro, Debora; Moreira, Caio; Guimaraes, Silvana Mangeon Meirelles; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Leao Filho, Hilton Muniz; Andrade, Diego Correa de; Ferreira, Cid Sergio; Vieira, Jose Nelson Mendes

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Materials And Methods: HRCT scans and chest radiographs in postero-anterior and lateral views were performed in 34 patients with systemic sclerosis, according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for the diagnosis of SSc. The prevalence of radiological findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease in SSc seen on both imaging methods was compared. Results: Interstitial disease was observed on HRCT images of 31 patients (91%) and in the chest radiographs of 16 patients (47%). The most frequent findings observed on HRCT were septal lines (74%), honeycombing (56%) and parenchymal bands (26%). Chest radiographs showed reticular areas of attenuation in 11 patients (32%) and parenchymal distortion in 12% of the patients. In 18 patients (53%) with normal chest radiographs HRCT showed septal lines in 55%, ground glass in 44%, honeycombing in 38.5% and cysts in 33%. Conclusion: HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the evaluation of incipient interstitial lung involvement in patients with SSc and can provide a justification for immunosuppressive therapy in patients with early disease. (author)

  20. High-resolution imaging of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion with {sup 68}Ga-VQ respiratory gated (4-D) PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Jason [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hofman, Michael S. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Siva, Shankar [The University of Melbourne, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Kron, Tomas [The University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Physical Sciences, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Schneider, Michal E. [Monash University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Science, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Binns, David; Eu, Peter [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [The University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    PET/CT is feasible and the blurring caused by respiratory motion is well corrected with 4-D acquisition, which principally reduces artefact at the lung bases. The images with the highest spatial overlap were the combined expiration phase or FB PET and average CT. With higher resolution than SPECT/CT, the PET/CT technique has a broad range of potential clinical applications including diagnostic algorithms for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, preoperative evaluation of regional lung function and improving assessment or understanding of pulmonary physiology in the vast range of pulmonary diseases. (orig.)

  1. Multidetector CT and MRI in diseases of the GI tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruel, J.M.; Gallix, B.

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of spiral scanning then multidetector technologies, the accuracy for diagnosing digestive tract diseases with CT has been highly improved, and CT is used more and more in the evaluation of patients with suspected gastrointestinal disorders. CT is able to demonstrate both the intramural and the extra-mural components of the disease, and has a major role in the preoperative staging and the follow-up Improvements of CT protocols, such as CT-enteroclysis, or multiplanar 2D and 3D post-processing, including now techniques for 'virtual endoscopy', lead to discuss new indications in which CT could now compete with conventional X-rays series and video-endoscopy. This precise study of the digestive wall, the peri-digestive fat, the digestive tract blood supply, may be performed by MRI, under the condition of access to high level machines and standardized protocols. MR-enteroclysis and MR-virtual colonoscopy could be performed with much lower risk for the patient, in terms of radiation dose or contrast adverse effects. Endo-luminal coils should give to MR an ultra-high resolution for analysing the different layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Learning objectives: to review how to perform CT and MRI protocols for digestive tract imaging, to recognize the CT arid MR patterns of the main digestive tract diseases, to discuss the value, limits and role of CT and MR in digestive tract diseases, to discuss the potential role of CT and MR new technological developments for digestive tract imaging in the upcoming future Conclusion: CT is nowadays a modality of choice for digestive imaging. Improvements in technologies and indications, the necessary discussion of the risks and benefits for the patient should let the radiologists consider MRI in gastrointestinal disorders as an important part of the routine activity in clinical MRI. (authors)

  2. A high-resolution melting (HRM) assay for the differentiation between Israeli field and Neethling vaccine lumpy skin disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasherow, Sophia; Erster, Oran; Rubinstein-Giuni, Marisol; Kovtunenko, Anita; Eyngor, Evgeny; Gelman, Boris; Khinich, Evgeny; Stram, Yehuda

    2016-06-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a constant threat to the Middle East including the State of Israel. During vaccination programs it is essential for veterinary services and farmers to be able to distinguish between animals affected by the cattle-borne virulent viruses and vaccinated animals, subsequently affected by the vaccine strain. This study describes an improved high resolution-melting (HRM) test that exploits a 27 base pair (bp) fragment of the LSDV126 extracellular enveloped virion (EEV) gene that is present in field viruses but is absent from the Neethling vaccine strain. This difference leads to ∼0.5 °C melting point change in the HRM assay, when testing the quantitative PCR (qPCR) products generated from the virulent field viruses compared to the attenuated vaccine. By exploiting this difference, it could be shown using the newly developed HRM assay that virus isolated from vaccinated cattle that developed disease symptoms behave similarly to vaccine virus control, indicating that the vaccine virus can induce disease symptoms. This assay is not only in full agreement with the previously published PCR gradient and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) tests but it is faster with, fewer steps, cheaper and dependable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. UT-CT: A National Resource for Applications of High-Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography in the Geological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, W. D.; Ketcham, R. A.; Rowe, T. B.

    2002-12-01

    An NSF-sponsored (EAR-IF) shared multi-user facility dedicated to research applications of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) in the geological sciences has been in operation since 1997 at the University of Texas at Austin. The centerpiece of the facility is an industrial CT scanner custom-designed for geological applications. Because the instrument can optimize trade-offs among penetrating ability, spatial resolution, density discrimination, imaging modes, and scan times, it can image a very broad range of geological specimens and materials, and thus offers significant advantages over medical scanners and desktop microtomographs. Two tungsten-target X-ray sources (200-kV microfocal and 420-kV) and three X-ray detectors (image-intensifier, high-sensitivity cadmium tungstate linear array, and high-resolution gadolinium-oxysulfide radiographic line scanner) can be used in various combinations to meet specific imaging goals. Further flexibility is provided by multiple imaging modes: second-generation (translate-rotate), third-generation (rotate-only; centered and variably offset), and cone-beam (volume CT). The instrument can accommodate specimens as small as about 1 mm on a side, and as large as 0.5 m in diameter and 1.5 m tall. Applications in petrology and structural geology include measuring crystal sizes and locations to identify mechanisms governing the kinetics of metamorphic reactions; visualizing relationships between alteration zones and abundant macrodiamonds in Siberian eclogites to elucidate metasomatic processes in the mantle; characterizing morphologies of spiral inclusion trails in garnet to test hypotheses of porphyroblast rotation during growth; measuring vesicle size distributions in basaltic flows for determination of elevation at the time of eruption to constrain timing and rates of continental uplift; analysis of the geometry, connectivity, and tortuosity of migmatite leucosomes to define the topology of melt flow paths, for numerical

  4. CT of cerebral hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudwan, M.A.; Khaffaji, S.

    1988-12-01

    Six cases of cerebral hydatid disease (CHD) were seen in Kuwait over a period of 8 years. The typical CT appearance of a large well-defined spherical nonenhanced unilocular cyst was seen in four cases. Two unusual but characteristic types of calcification were seen, one in each of the remaining two cases.

  5. CT of cerebral hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudwan, M.A.; Khaffaji, S.

    1988-01-01

    Six cases of cerebral hydatid disease (CHD) were seen in Kuwait over a period of 8 years. The typical CT appearance of a large well-defined spherical nonenhanced unilocular cyst was seen in four cases. Two unusual but characteristic types of calcification were seen, one in each of the remaining two cases. (orig.)

  6. CT study in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Heii; Kobayashi, Kazunari; Ikeda, Kenji; Nagao, Yoshiko; Ogihara, Ryuji; Kosaka, Kenji [Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital (Japan)

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy on CT was studied in 18 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and in 14 healthy age-matched subjects as the control. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were divided into three groups of Stages I, II and III, according to their clinical symptoms. The study of the measurement method disclosed that the computerized measurement involving calculation of the number of pixels contained within the range of the designated CT numbers is liable to produce errors for the determination of the subarachnoid spaces and the ventricles with calcified colloid plexus. Therefore, for the present study was the method adopted, in which the subarachnoid spaces and the ventricles are measured based on the number of pixels contained in the region of interest by tracing them on the display monitor. Then, both Subarachnoid Space Volume Index (SVI) and Ventricle Volume Index (VVI) were calculated as the indices for cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation in a slice through the level of the foramen interventriculare Monroi and other three successive ones through upper regions. Cerebral atrophy observed on CT in Alzheimer patients is attributable to Alzheimer's disease processes, rather than to physiological aging of the brain. The degree of the atrophy increases in proportion to the clinical stage, and cortical atrophy is apparent even at Stage I, whereas ventricular dilatation becomes pronounced at later stage. CT is one of effective clinical tests for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. CT study in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Heii; Kobayashi, Kazunari; Ikeda, Kenji; Nagao, Yoshiko; Ogihara, Ryuji; Kosaka, Kenji

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy on CT was studied in 18 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and in 14 healthy age-matched subjects as the control. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were divided into three groups of Stages I, Ii and III, according to their clinical symptoms. The study of the measurement method disclosed that the computerized measurement involving calculation of the number of pixels contained within the range of the designated CT numbers is liable to produce errors for the determination of the subarachnoid spaces and the ventricles with calcified colloid plexus. Therefor, for the present study was the method adopted, in which the subarachnoid spaces and the ventricles are measured based on the number of pixels contained in the region of interest by tracing them on the display monitor. Then, both Subarachnoid Space Volume Index (SVI) and Ventricle Volume Index (VVI) were calculated as the indices for cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation in a slice through the level of the foramen interventriculare Monroi and other three successive ones through upper regions. Cerebral atrophy observed on CT in Alzheimer patients is attributable to Alzheimer's disease processes, rather than to physiological aging of the brain. The degree of the atrophy increases in proportion to the clinical stage, and cortical atrophy is apparent even at Stage I, whereas ventricular dilatation becomes pronounced at later stage. CT is one of effective clinical tests for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. (J.P.N.)

  8. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Prados, Concepcion [University Hospital La Paz, La Paz Hospital Research Institute, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Albi, Gustavo [Nino de Jesus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Rayon-Aledo, Jose Carlos; Caballero, Paloma [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Giron, Rosa [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1} %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV{sub 1} and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  9. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Prados, Concepcion; Albi, Gustavo; Rayon-Aledo, Jose Carlos; Caballero, Paloma; Giron, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV 1 and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  10. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, T; Noguchi, S; Nishitani, H [National Sanatorium of Utano, Kyoto (Japan); Kitano, H; Ikegami, Y

    1981-04-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs.

  11. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tetsuro; Noguchi, Sadako; Nishitani, Hiroshi; Kitano, Haruo; Ikegami, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs. (author)

  12. TU-E-217BCD-06: Cone Beam Breast CT with a High Resolution Flat Panel Detector-Improvement of Calcification Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Zhong, Y; Lai, C; Wang, T; Shaw, C

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the advantage of a high resolution flat panel detector for improving the visibility of microcalcifications (MCs) in cone beam breast CT Methods: A paraffin cylinder was used to simulate a 100% adipose breast. Calcium carbonate grains, ranging from 125-140 μm to 224 - 250 μm in size, were used to simulate the MCs. Groups of 25 same size MCs were embedded at the phantom center. The phantom was scanned with a bench-top CBCT system at various exposure levels. A 75μm pitch flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer) with 500μm thick CsI scintillator plate was used as the high resolution detector. A 194 μm pitch detector (Paxscan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems) was used for reference. 300 projection images were acquired over 360° and reconstructed. The images were reviewed by 6 readers. The MC visibility was quantified as the fraction of visible MCs and averaged for comparison. The visibility was plotted as a function of the estimated dose level for various MC sizes and detectors. The MTFs and DQEs were measured and compared. For imaging small (200 μm and smaller) MCs, the visibility achieved with the 75μm pitch detector was found to be significantly higher than those achieved with the 194μm pitch detector. For imaging larger MCs, there was little advantage in using the 75μm pitch detector. Using the 75μm pitch detector, MCs as small as 180 μm could be imaged to achieve a visibility of 78% with an isocenter tissue dose of ∼20 mGys versus 62% achieved with the 194 μm pitch detector at the same dose level. It was found that a high pitch flat panel detector had the advantages of extending its imaging capability to higher frequencies thus helping improve the visibility when used to image small MCs. This work was supported in part by grants CA104759, CA13852 and CA124585 from NIH-NCI, a grant EB00117 from NIH-NIBIB, and a subcontract from NIST-ATP. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. High-resolution motion compensated MRA in patients with congenital heart disease using extracellular contrast agent at 3 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabir Darius

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using first-pass MRA (FP-MRA spatial resolution is limited by breath-hold duration. In addition, image quality may be hampered by respiratory and cardiac motion artefacts. In order to overcome these limitations an ECG- and navigator-gated high-resolution-MRA sequence (HR-MRA with slow infusion of extracellular contrast agent was implemented at 3 Tesla for the assessment of congenital heart disease and compared to standard first-pass-MRA (FP-MRA. Methods 34 patients (median age: 13 years with congenital heart disease (CHD were prospectively examined on a 3 Tesla system. The CMR-protocol comprised functional imaging, FP- and HR-MRA, and viability imaging. After the acquisition of the FP-MRA sequence using a single dose of extracellular contrast agent the motion compensated HR-MRA sequence with isotropic resolution was acquired while injecting the second single dose, utilizing the timeframe before viability imaging. Qualitative scores for image quality (two independent reviewers as well as quantitative measurements of vessel sharpness and relative contrast were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Quantitative measurements of vessel diameters were compared using the Bland-Altman test. Results The mean image quality score revealed significantly better image quality of the HR-MRA sequence compared to the FP-MRA sequence in all vessels of interest (ascending aorta (AA, left pulmonary artery (LPA, left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV, coronary sinus (CS, and coronary ostia (CO; all p  Conclusions An ECG- and navigator-gated HR-MRA-protocol with infusion of extracellular contrast agent at 3 Tesla is feasible. HR-MRA delivers significantly better image quality and vessel sharpness compared to FP-MRA. It may be integrated into a standard CMR-protocol for patients with CHD without the need for additional contrast agent injection and without any additional examination time.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy for X-ray chest in interstitial lung disease as confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, F.; Raza, S.; Shafique, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of x-ray chest in interstitial lung disease as confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest. Study Design: A cross-sectional validational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Oct 2013 to Apr 2014. Material and Method: A total of 137 patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease (ILD) aged 20-50 years of both genders were included in the study. Patients with h/o previous histopathological diagnosis, already taking treatment and pregnant females were excluded. All the patients had chest x-ray and then HRCT. The x-ray and HRCT findings were recorded as presence or absence of the ILD. Results: Mean age was 40.21 ± 4.29 years. Out of 137 patients, 79 (57.66 percent) were males and 58 (42.34 percent) were females with male to female ratio of 1.36:1. Chest x-ray detected ILD in 80 (58.39 percent) patients, out of which, 72 (true positive) had ILD and 8 (false positive) had no ILD on HRCT. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of chest x-ray in diagnosing ILD was 80.0 percent, 82.98 percent, 90.0 percent, 68.42 percent and 81.02 percent respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded that chest x-ray is simple, non-invasive, economical and readily available alternative to HRCT with an acceptable diagnostic accuracy of 81 percent in the diagnosis of ILD. (author)

  15. Quantitative evaluation of interstitial pneumonia using 3D-curved high-resolution CT imaging parallel to the chest wall: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyasu Umakoshi

    Full Text Available To quantify the imaging findings of patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP and emphysema using three-dimensional curved high-resolution computed tomography (3D-cHRCT at a constant depth from the chest wall, and compare the results to visual assessment of IP and each patient's diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLco.We retrospectively reviewed the axial CT findings and pulmonary function test results of 95 patients with lung cancer (72 men and 23 women, aged 45-84 years with or without IP, as follows: non-IP (n = 47, mild IP (n = 31, and moderate IP (n = 17. The 3D-cHRCT images of the lung at a 1-cm depth from the chest wall were reconstructed automatically using original software; total area (TA, high-attenuation area (HAA >-500 HU, and low-attenuation area (LAA <-950 HU were calculated on a workstation. The %HAA and %LAA were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text].The %HAA and %LAA respective values were 3.2±0.9 and 27.7±8.2, 3.9±1.2 and 27.6±5.9, and 6.9±2.2 and 25.4±8.7 in non-IP, mild IP, and moderate IP patients, respectively. There were significant differences in %HAA between the 3 groups of patients (P<0.001, but no differences in %LAA (P = 0.558. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that %HAA and %LAA were negatively correlated with predicted DLco (standard partial regression coefficient [b*] = -0.453, P<0.001; b* = -0.447, P<0.001, respectively.The %HAA and %LAA values computed using 3D-cHRCT were significantly correlated with DLco and may be important quantitative parameters for both IP and emphysema.

  16. Electrocardiography-triggered high-resolution CT for reducing cardiac motion artifact. Evaluation of the extent of ground-glass attenuation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Motoko; Johkoh, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the decreasing of cardiac motion artifact and whether the extent of ground-glass attenuation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was accurately assessed by electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) by 0.5-s/rotation multidetector-row CT (MDCT). ECG-triggered HRCT were scanned at the end-diastolic phase by a MDCT scanner with the following scan parameters; axial four-slice mode, 0.5 mm collimation, 0.5-s/rotation, 120 kVp, 200 mA/rotation, high-frequency algorithm, and half reconstruction. In 42 patients with IPF, both conventional HRCT (ECG gating (-), full reconstruction) and ECG-triggered HRCT were performed at the same levels (10-mm intervals) with the above scan parameters. The correlation between percent diffusion of carbon monoxide of the lung (%DLCO) and the mean extent of ground-glass attenuation on both conventional HRCT and ECG-triggered HRCT was evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient test. The correlation between %DLCO and the mean extent of ground-glass attenuation on ECG-triggered HRCT (observer A: r=-0.790, P<0.0001; observer B: r=-0.710, P<0.0001) was superior to that on conventional HRCT (observer A: r=-0.395, P<0.05; observer B: r=-0.577, P=0.002) for both observers. ECG-triggered HRCT by 0.5 s/rotation MDCT can reduce the cardiac motion artifact and is useful for evaluating the extent of ground-glass attenuation of IPF. (author)

  17. Comprehensive Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples Using High-Resolution Image-Based 3D Reconstructions and X-Ray CT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Established contemporary conservation methods within the fields of Natural and Cultural Heritage encourage an interdisciplinary approach to preservation of heritage material (both tangible and intangible) that holds "Outstanding Universal Value" for our global community. NASA's lunar samples were acquired from the moon for the primary purpose of intensive scientific investigation. These samples, however, also invoke cultural significance, as evidenced by the millions of people per year that visit lunar displays in museums and heritage centers around the world. Being both scientifically and culturally significant, the lunar samples require a unique conservation approach. Government mandate dictates that NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office develop and maintain protocols for "documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach" for both current and future collections of astromaterials. Documentation, considered the first stage within the conservation methodology, has evolved many new techniques since curation protocols for the lunar samples were first implemented, and the development of new documentation strategies for current and future astromaterials is beneficial to keeping curation protocols up to date. We have developed and tested a comprehensive non-destructive documentation technique using high-resolution image-based 3D reconstruction and X-ray CT (XCT) data in order to create interactive 3D models of lunar samples that would ultimately be served to both researchers and the public. These data enhance preliminary scientific investigations including targeted sample requests, and also provide a new visual platform for the public to experience and interact with the lunar samples. We intend to serve these data as they are acquired on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisistion and Curation website at http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/. Providing 3D interior and exterior documentation of astromaterial

  18. Assessment of disease activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) using FDG PET and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kang, Won Jun; Oh, So Won; Lee, Jeong Won; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (lPF) is induced by an uncontrolled accumulation and an activation of fibroblasts. The activity of IPF can be assessed according to the degrees of fibrosis and ground glass opacity (GGO) on HRCT. However, it has been thought that FDG PET reflects activity of inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to compare the HRCT score and FDG uptake in patients with IPF. Six patients with IPF (M: F=4: 2, age 66.513.8 y) who underwent both FDG PET-CT and HRCT were enrolled (interval=33.042.6 d). The activity of IPF was scored at the level of the 1 cm above the diaphragm on HRCT, which was thought to be standard level of lower lobe. The degree of fibrosis was scored from 0 to 5 (0: no fibrosis, 1: interlobular septal wall thickening, 2: 75%). GGO was quantified from 0 to 5 (0: no GGO, 1: = 5 % of the lobe, 2: 5- 75%). Total score of HRCT was defined as the summed score of fibrosis and GGO. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured on same plane of FDG PET-CT by manual drawing of region of interest (ROI). SUV ratio of lung to liver was used as a metabolic marker of IPF activity. SUV ratio had a positive correlation with fibrosis score of HRCT (r=0.727, p=0.027), but did not have a significant correlation with GGO score (r=0.228, p=0.556). SUV ratio had a better correlation with total score of HRCT (r=0.895 and p<0.001). We demonstrated that SUV ratio might reflect disease activity of IPF. SUV ratio had a positive correlation with fibrosis score or total score on HRCT. FDG PET could be used to assess disease activity of IPF

  19. Assessment of disease activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) using FDG PET and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kang, Won Jun; Oh, So Won; Lee, Jeong Won; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (lPF) is induced by an uncontrolled accumulation and an activation of fibroblasts. The activity of IPF can be assessed according to the degrees of fibrosis and ground glass opacity (GGO) on HRCT. However, it has been thought that FDG PET reflects activity of inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to compare the HRCT score and FDG uptake in patients with IPF. Six patients with IPF (M: F=4: 2, age 66.513.8 y) who underwent both FDG PET-CT and HRCT were enrolled (interval=33.042.6 d). The activity of IPF was scored at the level of the 1 cm above the diaphragm on HRCT, which was thought to be standard level of lower lobe. The degree of fibrosis was scored from 0 to 5 (0: no fibrosis, 1: interlobular septal wall thickening, 2: <25 % of the lobe, 3: 25-49 %, 4: 50-75 %, 5: >75%). GGO was quantified from 0 to 5 (0: no GGO, 1: = 5 % of the lobe, 2: 5-<25 %, 3: 25-49 %, 4: 50-75%, 5: >75%). Total score of HRCT was defined as the summed score of fibrosis and GGO. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured on same plane of FDG PET-CT by manual drawing of region of interest (ROI). SUV ratio of lung to liver was used as a metabolic marker of IPF activity. SUV ratio had a positive correlation with fibrosis score of HRCT (r=0.727, p=0.027), but did not have a significant correlation with GGO score (r=0.228, p=0.556). SUV ratio had a better correlation with total score of HRCT (r=0.895 and p<0.001). We demonstrated that SUV ratio might reflect disease activity of IPF. SUV ratio had a positive correlation with fibrosis score or total score on HRCT. FDG PET could be used to assess disease activity of IPF.

  20. Cystic thymic diseases: CT manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Soon Young; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Eui Yong; Jeon, Seok Chol; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1995-01-01

    To describe CT findings and differential points of cystic thymic lesions. We evaluated retrospectively total 19 masses with well marginated cystic lesions at thymic area on CT scans. They were 10 teratomas, 3 congenital thymic cysts, 2 multilocular thymic cysts(associated with thymoma and myasthenia gravis in each), 2 cysts Assciated with thymic Hodgkin's lymphomas an ectopic parathyroid cyst, and an infected thymic cyst. The radiological abnormalities evaluated were thickness of the wall, presence or abscene of septa, mural nodule, solid component, calcification and fat component. All three cases of congenital thymic cysts and an ectopic parathyroid cyst appeared as thin-walled unilocular cyst with homogeneous internal density and without identifiable solid component. In multilocular thymic cyst, there were thick wall and solid components(n =2), thick internal septa and calcifications(n = 1). The cysts of teratomas manifested thick walls(n = 9), internal septa(n = 4), calcifications(n = 6), fat components(n = 4), and solid components(n = 4). Cysts in Hodgkin's diseases appeared as multilocular or unilocular and had thick wall and septa without calcification. Infected thymic cyst presented with multilocular cystic mass with identifiable wall and septa, calcification, and solid components. The thymic diseases with cystic lesion include teratomas, congenital thymic cysts, multilocular thymic cysts, parathyroid cyst, and Hodgkin's disease. Congenital thymic cyst and ectopic parathyroid cyst are thin-walled unilocular cystic lesions. Cystic lesions associated with teratoma, Hodgkin's disease, and multilocular thymic cyst are thick-walled cystic lesions with or without solid component

  1. CT diagnosis in diseases of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Hongbin; Xie Jingxia

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the CT signs of breast diseases, and discuss the value of CT in the diagnosis of breast cancer and the axillary lymph node (LN) metastases. Materials and methods: Fifty three cases were reported, including breast cancer 30 cases and benign diseases 23 cases. CT were performed in all patients, 44 also had mammography examination. Results: (1) The CT appearance of breast cancer: round or irregular mass, spiculate border, duct retraction, involved Cooper's ligament, deformed adipose space etc. Benign hyperplasia: Irregular mass and symmetrical thickening of breast glands. Cystic hyperplasia: typically multiple, round, liquid-density mass. (2) CT was comparable to mammography in terms of differential diagnosis, however with breast mass located near the axilla or for evaluation of the thoracic wall. CT was superior to mammography. CT was also helpful in detecting LN metastases. Conclusion: CT is valuable in detecting and differentiating breast diseases as well as in the diagnosis of LN metastases

  2. CT findings of pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Park, In Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song; Won, Jong Jin

    1988-01-01

    CT was found to be a reliable, often specific, and noninvasive method for detecting pancreatic diseases. In a study of pancreatic lesions, 37 cases having satisfactory operative and histological proofs were analyzed by CT at PMC from Jan. 1986 to Oct. 1987. The results were as following: 1. Male:female is 26:11. 2. The incidence of pancreatic disease were as follows: 1) Pancreatic cancer:21 cases (56%) a.Head:12 cases b.Body:4 cases c.Tail:1 case d.Body and tail:1 case e.Uncinate process:2 cases f.Entire pancreas: 1 case 2) Acute pancreatitis: 6 cases (16%) 3) Chronic pancreatitis:5 cases (14%) 3. The characteristic CT findings: 1) 100% of pancreatic head cancer showed focal mass or alteration of pancreatic head contour and biliary tree dilatation, and 33% (7/12) fat line obliteration. 2) All of other pancreatic cancer except head appeared as focal mass or contour alteration and fat line obliteration. 3) Total 6 cases of acute pancreatitis showed that 5 cases diffuse enlargement of pancreas, 3 fluid collection (2 cases:left anterior pararenal and posterior pararenal space and lesser sac, 1 case:only pancreas body) and 1 case abscess formation. 4) Total 5 cases of chronic pancreatitis revealed diffuse enlargement 2 cases and atrophy 1 case, pancreatic ductal dilatation 3 cases, calcification 2 cases, and biliary tree dilatation with CBD tapering appearance 1 case. 5) All cases of pseudocysts were well marginated cystic lesions that located at head in 3 cases and tail 3 cases, and 4 cases were well defined pure cystic masses but 1 case was well capsulated cyst with multiple internal septation

  3. Cystic thymic diseases: CT manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Soon Young; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Eui Yong; Jeon, Seok Chol; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok [School of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To describe CT findings and differential points of cystic thymic lesions. We evaluated retrospectively total 19 masses with well marginated cystic lesions at thymic area on CT scans. They were 10 teratomas, 3 congenital thymic cysts, 2 multilocular thymic cysts(associated with thymoma and myasthenia gravis in each), 2 cysts Assciated with thymic Hodgkin's lymphomas an ectopic parathyroid cyst, and an infected thymic cyst. The radiological abnormalities evaluated were thickness of the wall, presence or abscene of septa, mural nodule, solid component, calcification and fat component. All three cases of congenital thymic cysts and an ectopic parathyroid cyst appeared as thin-walled unilocular cyst with homogeneous internal density and without identifiable solid component. In multilocular thymic cyst, there were thick wall and solid components(n =2), thick internal septa and calcifications(n = 1). The cysts of teratomas manifested thick walls(n = 9), internal septa(n = 4), calcifications(n = 6), fat components(n = 4), and solid components(n = 4). Cysts in Hodgkin's diseases appeared as multilocular or unilocular and had thick wall and septa without calcification. Infected thymic cyst presented with multilocular cystic mass with identifiable wall and septa, calcification, and solid components. The thymic diseases with cystic lesion include teratomas, congenital thymic cysts, multilocular thymic cysts, parathyroid cyst, and Hodgkin's disease. Congenital thymic cyst and ectopic parathyroid cyst are thin-walled unilocular cystic lesions. Cystic lesions associated with teratoma, Hodgkin's disease, and multilocular thymic cyst are thick-walled cystic lesions with or without solid component.

  4. Esophageal motor disorders in subjects with incidentally discovered Chagas disease: a study using high-resolution manometry and the Chicago classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes-Troche, J M; Torres-Aguilera, M; Antonio-Cruz, K A; Vazquez-Jimenez, G; De-La-Cruz-Patiño, E

    2014-08-01

    In patients with chronic indeterminate Chagas disease, conventional manometry has shown that 25-48% had esophageal motor disorders. Recently, esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) has revolutionized the assessment of esophageal motor function. In this study, we performed esophageal HRM in a group of subjects with incidentally positive serological findings for Trypanosoma cruzi. In this prospective observational study, we evaluated subjects who had positive serological tests for Chagas disease detected during a screening evaluation for blood donation. All subjects underwent symptomatic evaluation and esophageal HRM with a 36 solid-state catheter. Esophageal abnormalities were classified using the Chicago classification. Forty-two healthy subjects (38 males) aged 18-61 years (mean age, 40.7 years) were included. When specific symptoms questionnaire was applied, 14 (33%) subjects had esophageal symptoms. Esophageal high-resolution manometry revealed that 28 (66%) of the subjects had an esophageal motility disorder according to the Chicago classification. Most common findings were hypocontractile disorders in 18 subjects (43%) and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction in 6 (15%). Esophageal high-resolution manometry reveals that up to two thirds of the subjects with an incidental diagnosis of Chagas disease have esophageal abnormalities. This technology increases the detection and allows a more complete assessment of esophageal motor function in subjects infected with T. cruzi even in the early stages of the disease. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: lung inflammation evaluated with high resolution computed tomography scan is correlated to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Dórame, Renzo; Mejía, Mayra; Mateos-Toledo, Heidegger; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between rheumatoid arthritis disease activity (RA) and interstitial lung damage (inflammation and fibrosis), in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). A retrospective study of RA patients with interstitial lung disease (restrictive pattern in lung function tests and evidence of interstitial lung disease in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)). Patients were evaluated to exclude other causes of pulmonary disease. RA disease activity was measured with the CDAI index. Interstitial lung inflammation and fibrosis were determined by Kazerooni scale. We compared Kazerooni ground-glass score with the nearest CDAI score to HRCT date scan of the first medical evaluation at our institution. In nine patients, we compared the first ground-glass score with a second one after treatment with DMARDs and corticosteroids. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate association between RA disease activity and the Kazerooni ground-glass and fibrosis scores. Thirty-four patients were included. A positive correlation between CDAI and ground-glass scores was found (rs=0.3767, P<0.028). Fibrosis and CDAI scores were not associated (rs=-0.0747, P<0.6745). After treatment, a downward tendency in the ground-glass score was observed (median [IQR]): (2.33 [2,3] vs. 2 [1.33-2.16]), P<0.056, along with a lesser CDAI score (27 [8-43] vs. 9 [5-12]), P<0.063. There is a correlation between RA disease activity and ground-glass appearance in the HRCT of RA-ILD patients. These results suggest a positive association between RA disease activity and lung inflammation in RA-ILD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  7. Basic principles of pulmonary anatomy and physiology for CT interpretation of lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy-Jardin, M.; Beigelman, C.; Desfontaines, C.; Dupont, S.; Remy, J.

    1989-01-01

    High resolution CT is now the method of choice in the diagnosis of lung diseases, especially in their early recognition. However, the radiologist must be aware of precise anatomic, pathologic and physiologic data which are observed when the patient is supine. This concept leads to a transversal analysis of lung diseases by CT, as previously proposed in the coronal and sagittal planes for conventional chest X Ray interpretation. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that these regional differences in the lung must be included in the method of chest scanning but also in the interpretation of lung diseases [fr

  8. High resolution molecular and histological analysis of renal disease progression in ZSF1 fa/faCP rats, a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, Ken; Zhao, Shanrong; Schlerman, Franklin J; Savary, Leigh; Campanholle, Gabriela; Johnson, Bryce G; Xi, Li; Nguyen, Vuong; Zhan, Yutian; Lech, Matthew P; Wang, Ju; Nie, Qing; Karsdal, Morten A; Genovese, Federica; Boucher, Germaine; Brown, Thomas P; Zhang, Baohong; Homer, Bruce L; Martinez, Robert V

    2017-01-01

    ZSF1 rats exhibit spontaneous nephropathy secondary to obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, and have gained interest as a model system with potentially high translational value to progressive human disease. To thoroughly characterize this model, and to better understand how closely it recapitulates human disease, we performed a high resolution longitudinal analysis of renal disease progression in ZSF1 rats spanning from early disease to end stage renal disease. Analyses included metabolic endpoints, renal histology and ultrastructure, evaluation of a urinary biomarker of fibrosis, and transcriptome analysis of glomerular-enriched tissue over the course of disease. Our findings support the translational value of the ZSF1 rat model, and are provided here to assist researchers in the determination of the model's suitability for testing a particular mechanism of interest, the design of therapeutic intervention studies, and the identification of new targets and biomarkers for type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

  9. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  10. Ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography evaluation reveals 3-fold higher association rate for sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations and developmental venous anomalies: a retrospective study in consecutive 58 patients with 60 cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, Burak [Aksaray State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aksaray (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Oz, Buge; Bakkaloglu, Dogu Vuralli [Istanbul University, Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Isler, Cihan [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    The imaging and surgical literature has confusing association rates for the association between sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations (CMs) and developmental venous anomalies (DVAs). In this study, our purpose was to determine the association rate using ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography (FDCTA) and compare it with literature. Fifty-eight patients with 60 sporadic intracranial CMs that underwent an FDCTA study were included in our retrospective study. Re-evaluation of radiological data was performed based on the criteria defined by authors. Isotropic volumetric reconstructions with ultra-high resolution (voxel size of 102 μm{sup 3} for initial; 67 μm{sup 3} and 32 μm{sup 3} for further evaluation) were used for assessment. Sixteen patients underwent surgery for excision of their CMs. Fifty-one of all patients (87.9 %) were associated with a DVA. Undefined local venous structures (UD-LVSs) were observed in the remaining 7 patients (12.1 %). The strength of interobserver agreement was excellent [kappa(k) coefficient = 0.923]. Ultra-high-resolution FDCTA evaluation of CMs and DVAs reveals 3-fold higher association rate compared to the literature. FDCTA for patients with sporadic CMs could help identify the associated DVAs that remained undetected or unclear with other imaging modalities, which can be useful in decision-making processes, planning surgery, and during operation. (orig.)

  11. Helical CT of ureteral disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikman, Pablo; Bengio, Ruben; Bulacio, Javier; Zirulnik, Esteban; Garimaldi, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Among the new applications of helical CT is the study of the ureteral pathology. The objective of this paper was to evaluate patients with suspected pathology of this organ and the repercussion in the therapeutic plans. We studied 23 patients with a helical CT protocol, without IV contrast injection and performed multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). We called this procedure Pielo CT. Thirteen ureteral stones were detected, 6 calculi, 2 urinary tract tumors, dilatation of the system in a patient with neo-bladder. In 2 patients, in whom ureteral pathology was ruled out, we found other alterations that explained the symptoms, (gallbladder stones, disk protrusion). The Pielo CT let decide a therapeutical approach in 20 or 21 patients with ureteral pathology. (author)

  12. 18F-FDG PET of the hands with a dedicated high-resolution PEM system (arthro-PET): correlation with PET/CT, radiography and clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlanga, Joyce C; Carrino, John A; Lodge, Martin; Wang, Hao; Wahl, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the feasibility and compare the novel use of a positron emission mammography (PEM) scanner with standard PET/CT for evaluating hand osteoarthritis (OA) with (18)F-FDG. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective study in which 14 adults referred for oncological (18)F-FDG PET/CT underwent dedicated hand PET/CT followed by arthro-PET using the PEM device. Hand radiographs were obtained and scored for the presence and severity of OA. Summed qualitative and quantitative joint glycolytic scores for each modality were compared with the findings on plain radiography and clinical features. Eight patients with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of OA comprised the OA group (mean age 73 ± 7.7 years). Six patients served as the control group (53.7 ± 9.3 years). Arthro-PET quantitative and qualitative joint glycolytic scores were highly correlated with PET/CT findings in the OA patients (r = 0.86. p = 0.007; r = 0.94, p = 0.001). Qualitative arthro-PET and PET/CT joint scores were significantly higher in the OA patients than in controls (38.7 ± 6.6 vs. 32.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.02; 37.5 ± 5.4 vs. 32.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.03, respectively). Quantitative arthro-PET and PET/CT maximum SUV-lean joint scores were higher in the OA patients, although they did not reach statistical significance (20.8 ± 4.2 vs. 18 ± 1.8, p = 0.13; 22.8 ± 5.38 vs. 20.1 ± 1.54, p = 0.21). By definition, OA patients had higher radiographic joint scores than controls (30.9 ± 31.3 vs. 0, p = 0.03). Hand imaging using a small field of view PEM system (arthro-PET) with FDG is feasible, performing comparably to PET/CT in assessing metabolic joint activity. Arthro-PET and PET/CT showed higher joint FDG uptake in OA. Further exploration of arthro-PET in arthritis management is warranted.

  13. 18F-FDG PET of the hands with a dedicated high-resolution PEM system (arthro-PET): correlation with PET/CT, radiography and clinical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhlanga, Joyce C.; Lodge, Martin; Carrino, John A.; Wang, Hao; Wahl, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the feasibility and compare the novel use of a positron emission mammography (PEM) scanner with standard PET/CT for evaluating hand osteoarthritis (OA) with 18 F-FDG. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective study in which 14 adults referred for oncological 18 F-FDG PET/CT underwent dedicated hand PET/CT followed by arthro-PET using the PEM device. Hand radiographs were obtained and scored for the presence and severity of OA. Summed qualitative and quantitative joint glycolytic scores for each modality were compared with the findings on plain radiography and clinical features. Eight patients with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of OA comprised the OA group (mean age 73 ± 7.7 years). Six patients served as the control group (53.7 ± 9.3 years). Arthro-PET quantitative and qualitative joint glycolytic scores were highly correlated with PET/CT findings in the OA patients (r = 0.86. p = 0.007; r = 0.94, p = 0.001). Qualitative arthro-PET and PET/CT joint scores were significantly higher in the OA patients than in controls (38.7 ± 6.6 vs. 32.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.02; 37.5 ± 5.4 vs. 32.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.03, respectively). Quantitative arthro-PET and PET/CT maximum SUV-lean joint scores were higher in the OA patients, although they did not reach statistical significance (20.8 ± 4.2 vs. 18 ± 1.8, p = 0.13; 22.8 ± 5.38 vs. 20.1 ± 1.54, p= 0.21). By definition, OA patients had higher radiographic joint scores than controls (30.9 ± 31.3 vs. 0, p = 0.03). Hand imaging using a small field of view PEM system (arthro-PET) with FDG is feasible, performing comparably to PET/CT in assessing metabolic joint activity. Arthro-PET and PET/CT showed higher joint FDG uptake in OA. Further exploration of arthro-PET in arthritis management is warranted. (orig.)

  14. Gaucher disease of the liver: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Poznanski, A.K.; Young, S.; Urban, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    We present a child with Gaucher disease with hepatic involvement that caused portal hypertension. Computerized tomography (CT) showed distortion of liver parenchyma and central necrosis of the liver. (orig.)

  15. Functional high-resolution computed tomography of pulmonary vascular and airway reactions. Experimental results. Funktionelle HR-CT der Lunge. Experimentelle Untersuchungen pulmonaler Gefaess- und Atemwegsreaktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, C.J. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria) Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Brown, R.H. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physiology); Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine); Zeerhouni, E.A. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-03-01

    We describe the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for assessment of the function of pulmonary vessels and airways. With its excellent spatial resolution, HRCT is able to demonstrate pulmonary structures as small as 300 [mu]m and can be used to monitor changes following various stimuli. HRCT also provides information about structures smaller than 300 [mu]m through measurement of parenchymal background density. To date, sequential, spiral and ultrafast HRCT techniques have been used in a variety of challenges to gather information about the anatomical correlates of traditional physiological measurements, thus making anatomical-physiological correlation possible. HRCT of bronchial reactivity can demonstrate the location and time course of aerosol-induced broncho-constriction and may show changes not apparent on spirometry. HRCT of the pulmonary vascular system visualized adaptations of vessels during hypoxia and intravascular volume loading and elucidates cardiorespiratory interactions. Experimental studies provide a basis for potential clinical applications of this method. (orig.).

  16. Subclinical interstitial lung involvement in rheumatic diseases. Correlations of high-resolution Computed Tomography patterns with functional and cytologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaffi, F.; Baldelli, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the severity and extent of subclinical interstitial lung disease as depicted on HRCT and to study the relationship between the patterns of lung disease quantified by HRCT and the functional parameters and bronchoalveolar lavage findings in patients with rheumatic diseases. The results confirm that HRCT is a sensitive tool in detecting interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatic diseases with no signs and symptoms of pulmonary involvement. The relationship between the different HRCT patterns and bronchoalveolar lavage cell profiles can identify patients at higher risk of developing irreversible lung fibrosis. A long-term, prospective follow-up study is needed to determine whether these patients will develop over pulmonary disease [it

  17. Pulmonary light-chain deposition disease: CT and pathology findings in nine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheard, S.; Nicholson, A.G.; Edmunds, L.; Wotherspoon, A.C.; Hansell, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To review the clinical features of nine patients with pulmonary light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and record their high-resolution CT (HRCT) and histopathological findings. Materials and methods: Patients with a diagnosis of LCDD on lung biopsy specimen were retrospectively identified. The HRCT characteristics of nodules, cysts, and ancillary findings; change at follow-up; and histopathological findings were documented. Results: Features common to all nine cases were thin-walled cysts. In seven cases, vessels traversing the cysts were identified. The majority of patients (8/9) had at least one pulmonary nodule. There was no zonal predominance of either cysts or nodules. The disease appeared stable in the majority of cases with no serial change in HRCT appearances (5/6 cases with follow-up data, mean duration 29 months). Conclusion: To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest series of pulmonary LCDD patients in the literature, and the first systematic assessment of HRCT findings. Pulmonary cysts are a unifying feature, usually with pulmonary nodules, and serial change on HRCT is unusual. - Highlights: • Nine cases of pulmonary light chain deposition disease with high-resolution CT. • CT scans assessed for abnormal features. • Clinical data and histopathological findings obtained. • All patients had thin-walled cysts on CT, often with traversing vessels. • CT features of disease in this group are cysts, nodules and an indolent course

  18. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Paul M; Kley, Nathan J; Clarke, Julia A; Colbert, Matthew W; Morhardt, Ashley C; Cerio, Donald; Cost, Ian N; Cox, Philip G; Daza, Juan D; Early, Catherine M; Echols, M Scott; Henkelman, R Mark; Herdina, A Nele; Holliday, Casey M; Li, Zhiheng; Mahlow, Kristin; Merchant, Samer; Müller, Johannes; Orsbon, Courtney P; Paluh, Daniel J; Thies, Monte L; Tsai, Henry P; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-06-01

    Morphologists have historically had to rely on destructive procedures to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of animals. More recently, however, non-destructive techniques have come to the forefront. These include X-ray computed tomography (CT), which has been used most commonly to examine the mineralized, hard-tissue anatomy of living and fossil metazoans. One relatively new and potentially transformative aspect of current CT-based research is the use of chemical agents to render visible, and differentiate between, soft-tissue structures in X-ray images. Specifically, iodine has emerged as one of the most widely used of these contrast agents among animal morphologists due to its ease of handling, cost effectiveness, and differential affinities for major types of soft tissues. The rapid adoption of iodine-based contrast agents has resulted in a proliferation of distinct specimen preparations and scanning parameter choices, as well as an increasing variety of imaging hardware and software preferences. Here we provide a critical review of the recent contributions to iodine-based, contrast-enhanced CT research to enable researchers just beginning to employ contrast enhancement to make sense of this complex new landscape of methodologies. We provide a detailed summary of recent case studies, assess factors that govern success at each step of the specimen storage, preparation, and imaging processes, and make recommendations for standardizing both techniques and reporting practices. Finally, we discuss potential cutting-edge applications of diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) and the issues that must still be overcome to facilitate the broader adoption of diceCT going forward. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  19. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    1983-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was ovserved in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases. (author)

  20. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  1. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  3. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  4. Real-time high resolution 3D imaging of the lyme disease spirochete adhering to and escaping from the vasculature of a living host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J Moriarty

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic spirochetes are bacteria that cause a number of emerging and re-emerging diseases worldwide, including syphilis, leptospirosis, relapsing fever, and Lyme borreliosis. They navigate efficiently through dense extracellular matrix and cross the blood-brain barrier by unknown mechanisms. Due to their slender morphology, spirochetes are difficult to visualize by standard light microscopy, impeding studies of their behavior in situ. We engineered a fluorescent infectious strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease pathogen, which expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP. Real-time 3D and 4D quantitative analysis of fluorescent spirochete dissemination from the microvasculature of living mice at high resolution revealed that dissemination was a multi-stage process that included transient tethering-type associations, short-term dragging interactions, and stationary adhesion. Stationary adhesions and extravasating spirochetes were most commonly observed at endothelial junctions, and translational motility of spirochetes appeared to play an integral role in transendothelial migration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of high resolution 3D and 4D visualization of dissemination of a bacterial pathogen in a living mammalian host, and provides the first direct insight into spirochete dissemination in vivo.

  5. High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization in sporadic and celiac disease-related small bowel adenocarcinomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diosdado, B.; Buffart, T.E.; Watkins, R.; Carvalho, B.; Ylstra, B.; Tijssen, M.; Bolijn, A.S.; Lewis, F.; Maude, K.; Verbeke, C.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Grabsch, H.; Mulder, C.J.; Quirke, P.; Howdle, P.; Meijer, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The molecular pathogenesis of small intestinal adenocarcinomas is not well understood. Understanding the molecular characteristics of small bowel adenocarcinoma may lead to more effective patient treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty-eight small bowel adenocarcinomas (33 non-celiac disease

  6. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission computerized tomography--cerebral blood flow in a case of pure sensory stroke and mild dementia owing to subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiara, S; Lassen, N A; Andersen, A R

    1987-01-01

    hypertensive, 72-year-old patient with PSS, CT scanning and conventional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) scanning using a 7-mm-thick slice on a 1.5 Tesla instrument all failed to visualize the thalamic infarct. Using the high-resolution mode with 2-mm slice thickness it was, however, clearly seen...

  7. Detection of time-varying structures by large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping to aid reading of high-resolution CT images of the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Sakamoto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of advanced non-linear registration of serial lung Computed Tomography (CT images using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM. METHODS: FIFTEEN CASES OF LUNG CANCER WITH SERIAL LUNG CT IMAGES (INTERVAL: 62.2±26.9 days were used. After affine transformation, three dimensional, non-linear volume registration was conducted using LDDMM with or without cascading elasticity control. Registration accuracy was evaluated by measuring the displacement of landmarks placed on vessel bifurcations for each lung segment. Subtraction images and Jacobian color maps, calculated from the transformation matrix derived from image warping, were generated, which were used to evaluate time-course changes of the tumors. RESULTS: The average displacement of landmarks was 0.02±0.16 mm and 0.12±0.60 mm for proximal and distal landmarks after LDDMM transformation with cascading elasticity control, which was significantly smaller than 3.11±2.47 mm and 3.99±3.05 mm, respectively, after affine transformation. Emerged or vanished nodules were visualized on subtraction images, and enlarging or shrinking nodules were displayed on Jacobian maps enabled by highly accurate registration of the nodules using LDDMM. However, some residual misalignments were observed, even with non-linear transformation when substantial changes existed between the image pairs. CONCLUSIONS: LDDMM provides accurate registration of serial lung CT images, and temporal subtraction images with Jacobian maps help radiologists to find changes in pulmonary nodules.

  8. Impact of ischemic and valvular heart disease on atrial excitation : A high-resolution epicardial mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.J.P. Mouws (Elisabeth); E. Lanters (Eva); C. Teuwen (Christophe); L. van der Does (Lisette); C. Kik (Charles); S.P. Knops (Simon); A. Yaksh (Ameeta); J.A. Bekkers (Jos); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); N.M.S. de Groot (Natasja)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground--The influence of underlying heart disease or presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) on atrial excitation during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. We investigated atrial activation patterns and total activation times of the entire atrial epicardial surface during SR in patients

  9. Impact of Ischemic and Valvular Heart Disease on Atrial Excitation:A High-Resolution Epicardial Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Yaksh, Ameeta; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-03-08

    The influence of underlying heart disease or presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) on atrial excitation during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. We investigated atrial activation patterns and total activation times of the entire atrial epicardial surface during SR in patients with ischemic and/or valvular heart disease with or without AF. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (N=128/192 electrodes, interelectrode distances: 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle (BB), left atrioventricular groove, and pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 253 patients (186 male [74%], age 66±11 years) with ischemic heart disease (N=132, 52%) or ischemic valvular heart disease (N=121, 48%). As expected, SR origin was located at the superior intercaval region of the right atrium in 232 patients (92%). BB activation occurred via 1 wavefront from right-to-left (N=163, 64%), from the central part (N=18, 7%), or via multiple wavefronts (N=72, 28%). Left atrioventricular groove activation occurred via (1) BB: N=108, 43%; (2) pulmonary vein area: N=9, 3%; or (3) BB and pulmonary vein area: N=136, 54%; depending on which route had the shortest interatrial conduction time ( P <0.001). Ischemic valvular heart disease patients more often had central BB activation and left atrioventricular groove activation via pulmonary vein area compared with ischemic heart disease patients (N=16 [13%] versus N=2 [2%]; P =0.009 and N=86 [71%] versus N=59 [45%]; P <0.001, respectively). Total activation times were longer in patients with AF (AF: 136±20 [92-186] ms; no AF: 114±17 [74-156] ms; P <0.001), because of prolongation of right atrium ( P =0.018) and BB conduction times ( P <0.001). Atrial excitation during SR is affected by underlying heart disease and AF, resulting in alternative routes for BB and left atrioventricular groove activation and prolongation of total activation times. Knowledge of atrial excitation patterns during SR and its electropathological variations, as demonstrated in

  10. Analysis of the epidemiological dynamics during the 1982-1983 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Denmark based on molecular high-resolution strain identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Normann, Preben; Thykier-Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) causing a total of 23 cases in 1982-1983, primarily on the island of Funen, Denmark, was subjected to molecular epidemiological investigations. In an attempt to exploit the quasi-species nature of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains for molecular high......-resolution strain identification in order to analyse the dynamics of this epidemic, full-length VP1 coding regions were sequenced for 17 isolates collected at different farms during the epidemic. The sequence information together with epidemiological information gathered during the epidemic suggests......, and the prerequisite of co- or superinfection of animals with variant strains in turn implies that they have a common source or epidemiologically related sources originating from an area with endemic FMD....

  11. Spiral CT colonography in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjan, Zsolt; Zagoni, Tamas; Gyoerke, Tamas; Mester, Adam; Karlinger, Kinga; Mako, Erno K.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Most of the studies on virtual colonoscopy are dealing with the role of detecting colorectal polyps or neoplasms. We have undertaken this study to evaluate the value of CT colonography in patients with colonic Crohn's disease. Methods and material: Five patients (three males, two females, 23-51 years, mean age 42 years) with known (4) or suspected (1) Crohn's disease of the colon underwent fiberoptic colonoscopy and CT colonography in the same day or during a 1-week period. The images were evaluated with the so called zoomed axial slice movie technique and in some regions intra- and extraluminal surface shaded and volume rendered images were generated on a separate workstation. The results were compared to those of a colonoscopy. Results: The final diagnosis was Crohn's disease in four patients and colitis ulcerosa in one. Total examination was possible by colonoscopy in two cases, and with CT colonography in all five cases. The wall of those segments severely affected by the disease were depicted by the axial CT scans to be thickened. The thick walled, segments with narrow lumen seen on CT colonography corresponded to the regions where colonoscopy was failed to pass. Air filled sinus tracts, thickening of the wall of the terminal ileum, loss of haustration pseudopolyps and deep ulcers were seen in CT colonography. Three dimensional (3D) endoluminal views demonstrated pseudopolyps similar to endoscopic images None of the colonoscopically reported shallow ulcerations or aphtoid ulcerations or granular mucosal surface were observed on 2- or 3D CT colonographic images. Conclusion: CT colonography by depicting colonic wall thickening seems to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of Crohn's colitis, which could be a single examination depicting the intraluminal, and transmural extent of the disease

  12. Association of Aortic Compliance and Brachial Endothelial Function with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Assessment with High-Resolution MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the possible association of aortic compliance and brachial endothelial function with cerebral small vessel disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 patients by using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods. Sixty-two clinically confirmed DM2 patients (25 women and 37 men; mean age: 56.8±7.5 years were prospectively enrolled for noninvasive MR examinations of the aorta, brachial artery, and brain. Aortic arch pulse wave velocity (PWV, flow-mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, lacunar brain infarcts, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities (WMHs were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis were performed to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with clinical data and biochemical test results. Univariable logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with cerebral small vessel disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to find out the independent predictive factors of cerebral small vessel disease. Results. Mean PWV was 6.73±2.00 m/s and FMD was 16.67±9.11%. After adjustment for compounding factors, PWV was found significantly associated with lacunar brain infarcts (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.14–3.2; P<0.05 and FMD was significantly associated with periventricular WMHs (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.95; P<0.05. Conclusions. Quantitative evaluation of aortic compliance and endothelial function by using high-resolution MRI may be potentially useful to stratify DM2 patients with risk of cerebral small vessel disease.

  13. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  14. CT characteristics of thoracoabdominal localized Castleman disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rengui; Huo Meng; Wang Dandan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the CT characteristics of thoracoabdominal localized Castleman disease (LCD) in 55 cases and correlate with histopathologic features. Methods: Fifty-five patients with LCD proved histopathologically in thorax (n=25) and abdomen (n=30) were collected during past 20 years. The unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT were performed in all patients. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and the CT findings were analyzed simultaneously. Results: In 54 patients with hyaline-vascular type (n=50) and mixed type (n=4) localized CD, the lesion typically presented as solitary mass (90.7%, 49 cases), with irregular or lobular or infiltrative margin (83.3%, 45 cases), central calcification (38.9%, 21 cases), marked enhancement (100%, 54 cases), focal non-necrosis low attenuation areas (72.2%, 39 cases), lymphadenopathy (70.4%, 38 cases) and dilated feeding vessels adjacent to the mass (96.3%, 52 cases). One lesion with plasma cell type localized CD presented as a mass with irregular margin, mild enhancement and central necrosis, Four morphologic patterns were classified on CT, including solitary mass with well-circumscribed margin (n=4), irregular or lobular margin (n=30), infiltrative or halo-like margin (n=16), and multiple coalescent masses (n=5). Conclusion: CT features of thoracoabdominal localized CD are closely related to the location and pathological type. LCD with hyaline-vascular and mixed type has typical CT characteristics, while LCD with plasma cell type has no typical CT findings. (authors)

  15. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 1.: normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.

    1995-01-01

    Normal anatomy of the temporal bone in transverse and coronal sections was presented. CT studies were performed using high-resolution program. The images of an asymptomatic ear of 2 patients were selected from 68 cases examined on account of various otological diseases. All the sections showed as many as 68 anatomic structures. (author)

  16. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}helium magnetic resonance ventilation imaging of the lung in cystic fibrosis: comparison with high resolution CT and spirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Colm J.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Skehan, Stephen J.; Masterson, James B. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Wild, Jim M.; Fichele, Stan [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, The Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, The Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare hyperpolarized {sup 3}helium magnetic resonance imaging ({sup 3}He MRI) of the lungs in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and spirometry. Eight patients with stable CF prospectively underwent {sup 3}He MRI, HRCT, and spirometry within 1 week. Three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence was used during an 18-s breath-hold following inhalation of hyperpolarized {sup 3}He. Each lung was divided into six zones; {sup 3}He MRI was scored as percentage ventilation per lung zone. HRCT was scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Univariate (Spearman rank) and multivariate correlations were performed between {sup 3}He MRI, HRCT, and spirometry. Results are expressed as mean{+-}SD (range). Spirometry is expressed as percent predicted. There were four men and four women, mean age=31.9{+-}9 (20-46). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV){sub 1}=52%{+-}29 (27-93). Mean {sup 3}He MRI score=74%{+-}25 (55-100). Mean HRCT score=48.8{+-}24 (13.5-83). The correlation between {sup 3}He MRI and HRCT was strong (R={+-}0.89, p<0.001). Bronchiectasis was the only independent predictor of {sup 3}He MRI; {sup 3}He MRI correlated better with FEV{sub 1} and forced vital capacity (FVC) (R=0.86 and 0.93, p<0.01, respectively) than HRCT (R={+-}0.72 and {+-}0.81, p<0.05, respectively). This study showed that {sup 3}He MRI correlates strongly with structural HRCT abnormalities and is a stronger correlate of spirometry than HRCT in CF. (orig.)

  17. 4D imaging and quantification of pore structure modifications inside natural building stones by means of high resolution X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanckele, J; De Kock, T; Boone, M A; Cnudde, V; Brabant, L; Boone, M N; Fronteau, G; Van Hoorebeke, L; Jacobs, P

    2012-02-01

    Weathering processes have been studied in detail for many natural building stones. The most commonly used analytical techniques in these studies are thin-section petrography, SEM, XRD and XRF. Most of these techniques are valuable for chemical and mineralogical analysis of the weathering patterns. However, to obtain crucial quantitative information on structural evolutions like porosity changes and growth of weathering crusts in function of time, non-destructive techniques become necessary. In this study, a Belgian historical calcareous sandstone, the Lede stone, was exposed to gaseous SO(2) under wet surface conditions according to the European Standard NBN EN 13919 (2003). Before, during and after the strong acid test, high resolution X-ray tomography has been performed to visualize gypsum crust formation to yield a better insight into the effects of gaseous SO(2) on the pore modification in 3D. The tomographic scans were taken at the Centre for X-ray Tomography at Ghent University (UGCT). With the aid of image analysis, partial porosity changes were calculated in different stadia of the process. Increasing porosity has been observed visually and quantitatively below the new superficial formed layer of gypsum crystals. In some cases micro-cracks and dissolution zones were detected on the grain boundaries of quartz. By using Morpho+, an in-house developed image analysis program, radial porosity, partial porosity, ratio of open and closed porosity and equivalent diameter of individual pore structures have been calculated. The results obtained in this study are promising for a better understanding of gypsum weathering mechanisms, porosity changes and patterns on natural building stones in four dimensions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High resolution pituitary gland MRI at 7.0 tesla: a clinical evaluation in Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Groenewegen, Amy; Rutgers, Dik R.; Witkamp, Theo; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zelissen, Pierre M.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Utrecht (Netherlands); Meijer, F.J.A. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hermus, Ad [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the detection of pituitary lesions at 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T MRI in 16 patients with clinically and biochemically proven Cushing's disease. In seven patients, no lesion was detected on the initial 1.5 T MRI, and in nine patients it was uncertain whether there was a lesion. Firstly, two readers assessed both 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI examinations unpaired in a random order for the presence of lesions. Consensus reading with a third neuroradiologist was used to define final lesions in all MRIs. Secondly, surgical outcome was evaluated. A comparison was made between the lesions visualized with MRI and the lesions found during surgery in 9/16 patients. The interobserver agreement for lesion detection was good at 1.5 T MRI (κ = 0.69) and 7.0 T MRI (κ = 0.62). In five patients, both the 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI enabled visualization of a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland. In three patients, 7.0 T MRI detected a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland, while no lesion was visible at 1.5 T MRI. The interobserver agreement of image assessment for 7.0 T MRI in patients with Cushing's disease was good, and lesions were detected more accurately with 7.0 T MRI. (orig.)

  19. High resolution pituitary gland MRI at 7.0 tesla: a clinical evaluation in Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Groenewegen, Amy; Rutgers, Dik R.; Witkamp, Theo; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zelissen, Pierre M.J.; Meijer, F.J.A.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Hermus, Ad

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the detection of pituitary lesions at 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T MRI in 16 patients with clinically and biochemically proven Cushing's disease. In seven patients, no lesion was detected on the initial 1.5 T MRI, and in nine patients it was uncertain whether there was a lesion. Firstly, two readers assessed both 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI examinations unpaired in a random order for the presence of lesions. Consensus reading with a third neuroradiologist was used to define final lesions in all MRIs. Secondly, surgical outcome was evaluated. A comparison was made between the lesions visualized with MRI and the lesions found during surgery in 9/16 patients. The interobserver agreement for lesion detection was good at 1.5 T MRI (κ = 0.69) and 7.0 T MRI (κ = 0.62). In five patients, both the 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI enabled visualization of a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland. In three patients, 7.0 T MRI detected a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland, while no lesion was visible at 1.5 T MRI. The interobserver agreement of image assessment for 7.0 T MRI in patients with Cushing's disease was good, and lesions were detected more accurately with 7.0 T MRI. (orig.)

  20. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles. PMID:27121137

  1. Correlation of different types of emphysema in high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT) with the ILO-classification of coal workers pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibel, R.; Weber, A.; Stolpe, S.; Hellenbrand, U.; Bauer, T.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The complaints of patients suffering from pneumoconiosis and the decrease in cardio-respiratory function tests are related to the major complications, emphysema or bronchitis, resp. to a lesser degree the complaints are directly influenced by the silicotic process itself. Up to now, no large study has analysed the correlation of different types and severity of emphysema with the ILO-classification of pneumoconiosis in miners. Material and Methods: In 104 miners the severity of pneumoconiosis was classified by ILO. By HR-CT the type and severity of emphysema was analysed using a 4-point-scale. The correlation of emphysema with the ILO-classification was tested with Pearson-correlation. Results: The centrolobular emphysema was the dominant type with 59%, but there was no dependence on the severity of pneumoconiosis. Only the paracicatricial emphysema had a significant correlation (p [de

  2. High-resolution respirometry of fine-needle muscle biopsies in pre-manifest Huntington's disease expansion mutation carriers shows normal mitochondrial respiratory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buck

    Full Text Available Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD, one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain. The integrated respiratory chain function of the human vastus lateralis muscle was measured by high-resolution respirometry (HRR in freshly taken fine-needle biopsies from seven pre-manifest HD expansion mutation carriers and nine controls. The respiratory parameters were unaffected. For comparison skeletal muscle isolated from HD knock-in mice (HdhQ111 as well as a broader spectrum of tissues including cortex, liver and heart muscle were examined by HRR. Significant changes of mitochondrial respiration in the HdhQ knock-in mouse model were restricted to the liver and the cortex. Mitochondrial mass as quantified by mitochondrial DNA copy number and citrate synthase activity was stable in murine HD-model tissue compared to control. mRNA levels of key enzymes were determined to characterize mitochondrial metabolic pathways in HdhQ mice. We demonstrated the feasibility to perform high-resolution respirometry measurements from small human HD muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we conclude that alterations in respiratory parameters of pre-manifest human muscle biopsies are rather limited and mirrored by a similar absence of marked alterations in HdhQ skeletal muscle. In contrast, the HdhQ111 murine cortex and liver did show respiratory alterations highlighting the tissue specific nature of mutant huntingtin effects on respiration.

  3. WE-AB-207A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): High-Resolution Cone-Beam CT of the Extremities and Cancellous Bone Architecture with a CMOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Q; Brehler, M; Sisniega, A; Marinetto, E; Stayman, J; Siewerdsen, J; Zbijewski, W [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zyazin, A; Peters, I [Teledyne DALSA, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yorkston, J [Carestream Health, Inc, Penfield, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Extremity cone-beam CT (CBCT) with an amorphous silicon (aSi) flat-panel detector (FPD) provides low-dose volumetric imaging with high spatial resolution. We investigate the performance of the newer complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors to enhance resolution of extremities CBCT to ∼0.1 mm, enabling morphological analysis of trabecular bone. Quantitative in-vivo imaging of bone microarchitecture could present an important advance for osteoporosis and osteoarthritis diagnosis and therapy assessment. Methods: Cascaded systems models of CMOS- and FPD-based extremities CBCT were implemented. Performance was compared for a range of pixel sizes (0.05–0.4 mm), focal spot sizes (0.3–0.6 FS), and x-ray techniques (0.05–0.8 mAs/projection) using detectability of high-, low-, and all-frequency tasks for a nonprewhitening observer. Test-bench implementation of CMOS-based extremity CBCT involved a Teledyne DALSA Xineos3030HR detector with 0.099 mm pixels and a compact rotating anode x-ray source with 0.3 FS (IMD RTM37). Metrics of bone morphology obtained using CMOS-based CBCT were compared in cadaveric specimens to FPD-based system using a Varian PaxScan4030 (0.194 mm pixels). Results: Finer pixel size and reduced electronic noise for CMOS (136 e compared to 2000 e for FPD) resulted in ∼1.9× increase in detectability for high-frequency tasks and ∼1.1× increase for all-frequency tasks. Incorporation of the new x-ray source with reduced focal spot size (0.3 FS vs. 0.5 FS used on current extremities CBCT) improved detectability for CMOS-based CBCT by ∼1.7× for high-frequency tasks. Compared to FPD CBCT, the CMOS detector yielded improved agreement with micro-CT in measurements of trabecular thickness (∼1.7× reduction in relative error), bone volume (∼1.5× reduction), and trabecular spacing (∼3.5× reduction). Conclusion: Imaging performance modelling and experimentation indicate substantial improvements for high

  4. WE-AB-207A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): High-Resolution Cone-Beam CT of the Extremities and Cancellous Bone Architecture with a CMOS Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Q; Brehler, M; Sisniega, A; Marinetto, E; Stayman, J; Siewerdsen, J; Zbijewski, W; Zyazin, A; Peters, I; Yorkston, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Extremity cone-beam CT (CBCT) with an amorphous silicon (aSi) flat-panel detector (FPD) provides low-dose volumetric imaging with high spatial resolution. We investigate the performance of the newer complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors to enhance resolution of extremities CBCT to ∼0.1 mm, enabling morphological analysis of trabecular bone. Quantitative in-vivo imaging of bone microarchitecture could present an important advance for osteoporosis and osteoarthritis diagnosis and therapy assessment. Methods: Cascaded systems models of CMOS- and FPD-based extremities CBCT were implemented. Performance was compared for a range of pixel sizes (0.05–0.4 mm), focal spot sizes (0.3–0.6 FS), and x-ray techniques (0.05–0.8 mAs/projection) using detectability of high-, low-, and all-frequency tasks for a nonprewhitening observer. Test-bench implementation of CMOS-based extremity CBCT involved a Teledyne DALSA Xineos3030HR detector with 0.099 mm pixels and a compact rotating anode x-ray source with 0.3 FS (IMD RTM37). Metrics of bone morphology obtained using CMOS-based CBCT were compared in cadaveric specimens to FPD-based system using a Varian PaxScan4030 (0.194 mm pixels). Results: Finer pixel size and reduced electronic noise for CMOS (136 e compared to 2000 e for FPD) resulted in ∼1.9× increase in detectability for high-frequency tasks and ∼1.1× increase for all-frequency tasks. Incorporation of the new x-ray source with reduced focal spot size (0.3 FS vs. 0.5 FS used on current extremities CBCT) improved detectability for CMOS-based CBCT by ∼1.7× for high-frequency tasks. Compared to FPD CBCT, the CMOS detector yielded improved agreement with micro-CT in measurements of trabecular thickness (∼1.7× reduction in relative error), bone volume (∼1.5× reduction), and trabecular spacing (∼3.5× reduction). Conclusion: Imaging performance modelling and experimentation indicate substantial improvements for high

  5. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  6. Segmental analysis of cochlea on three-dimensional MR imaging and high-resolution CT. Application to pre-operative assessment of cochlear implant candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Hidenari; Himi, Tetsuo; Hareyama, Masato

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently become standard pre-operative examinations for cochlear implant candidates. HRCT can demonstrate ossification and narrowing of the cochlea, but subtle calcification or soft tissue obstruction may not be detected by this method alone, and so conventional T2 weighted image (T2WI) on MRI has been recommended to disclose them. In this study, segmental analyses of the cochlea were made on three-dimensional MRI (3DMRI) and HRCT in order to predict cochlear implant difficulties. The study involved 59 consecutive patients with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss who underwent MRI and HRCT from November 1992 to February 1998. Etiologies of deafness were meningogenic labyrinthitis (n=9), tympanogenic labyrinthitis (n=12), and others (n=38). Pulse sequence of heavy T2WI was steady state free precession and 3DMRI was reconstructed by maximum intensity projection method. HRCT was reconstructed by bone algorithm focusing on the temporal bone. For alternative segmental analysis, cochleas were anatomically divided into five parts and each of them was classified by three ranks of score depending on 3DMRI or HRCT findings. There was a close correlation by ranks between the total score of the five parts on 3DMRI and HRCT (rs=0.86, P<0.001), and a statistically significant difference was identified between causes of deafness in the total score on 3DMRI or HRCT (P<0.001, respectively). There was a significant difference in the score among the five parts on each examination (P<0.001, respectively), and abnormal findings were more frequent in the inferior horizontal part (IHP) of the basal turn. Of the 35 patients who underwent cochlear implantation, no one had ossification in the IHP on HRCT and only one patient had an obstacle to implantation. When no signal void in the IHP on 3DMRI and no ossification in the IHP on HRCT were assumed to be the criteria for candidacy for cochlear

  7. Measurements of angles of the normal auditory ossicles relative to the reference plane and image reconstruction technique for obtaining optimal sections of the ossicles in high-resolution multiplanar reconstruction using a multislice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Naoko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Takasu, Akihiko; Naito, Kensei

    2005-01-01

    Using high-resolution isotropic volume data obtained by 0.5 mm, 4-row multislice CT, cross-sectional observation of the auditory ossicles is possible from any desired direction without difficulty in high-resolution multiplanar reconstruction (HR-MPR) images, also distortion-free three-dimensional images of the ossicles are generated in three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) images. We measured angles of fifty normal ossicles relative to the reference plane, which has been defined as a plane through the bilateral infraorbital margins to the middle portion of the external auditory canal. Based on the results of angle measurement, four optimal sections of the ossicles for efficient viewing to the ossicular chain were identified. To understand the position of the angle measurement and the four sections, the ossicles and the reference plane were reconstructed in the 3D-CT images. As the result of observation of the ossicles and the reference plane, the malleus was parallel to the incudal long process and perpendicular to the reference plane. As the results of angle measurement, the mean angle of the tympanic portion of the facial nerve relative to the reference plane in the sagittal plane was found to be 17 deg, and the mean angle of the stapedial crura relative to the reference plane in the sagittal plane was found to be 6 deg. The mean angle of the stapes relative to the reference plane in the coronal plane was 44 deg, and the mean angle of the incudal long process relative to the stapes in the coronal plane was 89 deg. In 80% of ears, the stapes extended straight from the incudal long process. Image reconstruction technique for viewing four sections of the ossicles was investigated. Firstly, the image of the malleal head and the incudal short process was identified in the axial plane. Secondly, an image of the malleus along the malleal manubrium was reconstructed in the coronal plane. Thirdly, the image of the incudal long process was seen immediately behind the malletis image

  8. CT of acute gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The application of computerized tomography in gastrointestinal tract diseases are presented, including advantages in surgical belly that are: anatomic clarity, wide survey and rapid performance. (C.G.C.)

  9. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammaiyappan Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17 connective tissue disorder, (9 sarcoidosis, (3 pneumoconiosis, (5 acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2 eosinophilic lung disease (2 and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2 aspiration bronchiolitis (1 and pulmonary histiocytosis (1 were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs.

  10. CT findings of orbital inflammatory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Min; Shin, Hyun Joon; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with orbital inflammatory disease (OIDs) were retrospectively reviewed in order to analyze detailed CT findings which might aid in differentiating OIDs. This study comprised 18 pseudotumors, 5 thyroid ophthalmopathies, and 6 cases of orbital cellulitis. CT scans of the pseudotumors showed various findings such as exophthalmos, scleritis, myositis of the extraocular muscle (MOM), and bone lesion. Bone lesions of the pseudo tumors, which have been rarely reported, were present in 7 cases in our series. Bilateral exophthalmos, myositis, and retrobulbar fat deposition were readily detected by CT in thyroid ophthalmopathy, and, in addition, we found bone erosions involving the orbital apices in 2 cases. In orbital cellulitis, extraorbital soft tissue swelling and lateral displacement of the medial rectus muscle in cases with ethmoiditis were the most conspicuous features. In summary, because of the overlapping CT findings in OIDs, careful examination of CT findings regarding the mode of EOM involvement and the presence or absence of scleritis or sinusitis might help narrow down the differential diagnosis. A pseudotumor with bone lesions could be mistaken as a malignant lesion, and therefore it is necessary to correlate clinical features with CT findings for an accurate diagnosis

  11. Localized Castleman's disease: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuhua; Yang Guangzhao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT and MRI findings of localized Castleman's disease (LCD). Methods: The CT (n=7) and MRI (n=2) appearance of LCD (n=7) confirmed by pathology and operation were retrospectively analyzed. Results Hyaline-vascular type(n=6) and plasma cell type (n=1) were confirmed by pathology in LCD (n=7). They were located in middle mediastinum (n=2), hilum pulmonis (n=l), posterior mediastinum (n=3), retro-peritoneum (n=1). Hyaline-vascular type focuses in CT scanning were manifested as round shape soft tissue masses, with homogeneous density, integrity envelope, distinct margin, and chaperonage arborizing and spot calcification. Marked persistent enhancement was apparent on contrast CT. MRI findings of hyaline-vascular type (n=2) was slightly isointense or hyperintense on T 1 WI, homogeneous hyperintense on T 2 WI, similar enhancement with CT after contrast. Plasma cell type focus were unhomogeneous density with abnormity necrosis, media and unhomogeneous enhancement after contrast. Conclusion: Marked persistent enhancement of LCD would be helpful to diagnosis and differential diagnosis in Castleman's disease. (authors)

  12. Incidental apical disease at CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Satoh, K.; Shepard, J.O.; Moore, E.H.; Kosiuk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Apical caps are commonly noted on standard radiographs. This paper determines how often abnormalities in the extreme apex of the lung could be identified on CT scans obtained for other reasons. A total of 158 consecutive CT scans were reviewed prospectively. Excluded were patients with obvious upper lobe pleural or parenchymal disease. Apical abnormalities were identified in 74 (46.8%) of the 158 cases. The prevalence increased with age (19% in the 8-39-year age group and 82% in patients older than 80 years). Opacities were unilateral in 44.5% and bilateral in 55.5%. The most common abnormality was linear opacities (95%)

  13. Uncommon locations of hydatid disease: CT appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.J.; Kontoyiannis, D.S.; Dascalogiannaki, M.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    Hydatid disease (HD), already known by Hippocrates, is prevalent and widespread in most sheep-raising countries in Asia, Australia, South America, Near East, and southern Europe. The disease is most commonly due to Echinococcus granulosus and may occur in any organ or tissue. The location is mostly hepatic (75%) and pulmonary (15%), and only 10% occur in the rest of the body. Imaging modalities such as US, CT, and MR imaging are helpful in diagnosing the disease. The reliability of each method depends on the cyst's location in the body. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the use of CT in depicting some unusual locations of HD besides the liver and lung. (orig.). With 18 figs

  14. Uncommon locations of hydatid disease: CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossios, K.J.; Kontoyiannis, D.S. [Department of Radiology, General Hospital of Ioannina, GR-450 01 Ioannina (Greece); Dascalogiannaki, M.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.C. [Department of Radiology, University of Crete Medical School, GR-711 10 Iraklion (Greece)

    1997-10-01

    Hydatid disease (HD), already known by Hippocrates, is prevalent and widespread in most sheep-raising countries in Asia, Australia, South America, Near East, and southern Europe. The disease is most commonly due to Echinococcus granulosus and may occur in any organ or tissue. The location is mostly hepatic (75%) and pulmonary (15%), and only 10% occur in the rest of the body. Imaging modalities such as US, CT, and MR imaging are helpful in diagnosing the disease. The reliability of each method depends on the cyst`s location in the body. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the use of CT in depicting some unusual locations of HD besides the liver and lung. (orig.). With 18 figs.

  15. CT appearance of menetrier's disease (a report of 4 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Weijun; Zhang Pei; Zhou Kangrong; Chen Huiming

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To define the CT imaging characteristic of menetrier's disease. Methods: Four patients with proved Menetrier's disease were retrospectively studied by means of CT performed with the water as oral contrast, hypotonic agent and dynamic or spiral CT technique. Results: All cases showed that the enlarged rugae were seen projecting into the gastric lumen, but the gastric wall was otherwise normal. CT detected all lesions and made a confirmed diagnosis before pathology biopsy. Conclusion: The primary result revealed that the CT appearance of Menetrier's disease was quite characteristic, CT is a very valuable tool for the diagnosis of Menetrier's disease

  16. A comparison of PCR assays for beak and feather disease virus and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis of replicase associated protein and capsid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubhagata; Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2016-11-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) threatens a wide range of endangered psittacine birds worldwide. In this study, we assessed a novel PCR assay and genetic screening method using high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis for BFDV targeting the capsid (Cap) gene (HRM-Cap) alongside conventional PCR detection as well as a PCR method that targets a much smaller fragment of the virus genome in the replicase initiator protein (Rep) gene (HRM-Rep). Limits of detection, sensitivity, specificity and discriminatory power for differentiating BFDV sequences were compared. HRM-Cap had a high positive predictive value and could readily differentiate between a reference genotype and 17 other diverse BFDV genomes with more discriminatory power (genotype confidence percentage) than HRM-Rep. Melt curve profiles generated by HRM-Cap correlated with unique DNA sequence profiles for each individual test genome. The limit of detection of HRM-Cap was lower (2×10 -5 ng/reaction or 48 viral copies) than that for both HRM-Rep and conventional BFDV PCR which had similar sensitivity (2×10 -6 ng or 13 viral copies/reaction). However, when used in a diagnostic setting with 348 clinical samples there was strong agreement between HRM-Cap and conventional PCR (kappa=0.87, PHRM-Cap demonstrated higher specificity (99.9%) than HRM-Rep (80.3%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ambulatory 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and high resolution endoscopy distinguish patients with non-erosive reflux disease from those with functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chuanlian; Du, Quanlin; Li, Changqing; Zhang, Linlu; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zuo, Fang; Zhang, Yanmin; Li, Fang; Xie, Guofeng; Li, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    To assess the contribution of 24-h esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) monitoring and high resolution endoscopy (HRE) with i-scan imaging in differentiating non erosive reflux disease (NERD) from functional heartburn (FH). This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with heartburn from the Endoscopy Unit. NERD patients and FH patients were defined by 24-h MII-pH monitoring and white light endoscopy. Minimal mucosal changes were assessed by HRE with i-scan imaging. Total of 156 consecutive patients with heartburn but without esophageal mucosal erosions were studied. Forty-eight of these subjects had NERD, with increased acid exposure time (AET) and positive SAP and/or SI. Eighteen had FH with normal AET and negative SAP and SI. When compared to FH patients and healthy controls, NERD patients had significantly increased number of total acid reflux episodes, as well as increased number of weakly acidic reflux episodes (p<0.01). The rate of proximal reflux episodes in NERD patients was higher than that of FH patients and healthy controls (p<0.01). Irregular or blurring of the Z-line (58.3%) and white mucosal turbidity (47.9%) were the most common endoscopic findings of minimal mucosal changes observed in this study. NERD patients had more prevalent minimal changes than FH patients and the controls (87.5%vs. 66.6%vs. 61.9%; p = 0.004) with sensitivity of 87.5%. Histopathological evaluation showed that NERD patients had significantly higher average scores of intercellular spaces dilation (2.82±0.9 vs. 1.2±0.6, p = 0.005) and papillae elongation (2.65±1.0 vs. 1.5±0.8, p = 0.014), but not for basal cell proliferation (1.6±1.3 vs. 1.0±0.9, p = 0.070). The histological scores of the NERD patients were 7.1±1.2, which were higher than those of FH patients (3.4±1.0, p = 0.004). Minimal mucosal changes could be useful markers to support clinical diagnosis of NERD. Combination of 24-h MII-pH monitoring and i-scan high resolution endoscopy

  18. Ambulatory 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and high resolution endoscopy distinguish patients with non-erosive reflux disease from those with functional heartburn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlian Chu

    Full Text Available To assess the contribution of 24-h esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH monitoring and high resolution endoscopy (HRE with i-scan imaging in differentiating non erosive reflux disease (NERD from functional heartburn (FH.This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with heartburn from the Endoscopy Unit. NERD patients and FH patients were defined by 24-h MII-pH monitoring and white light endoscopy. Minimal mucosal changes were assessed by HRE with i-scan imaging.Total of 156 consecutive patients with heartburn but without esophageal mucosal erosions were studied. Forty-eight of these subjects had NERD, with increased acid exposure time (AET and positive SAP and/or SI. Eighteen had FH with normal AET and negative SAP and SI. When compared to FH patients and healthy controls, NERD patients had significantly increased number of total acid reflux episodes, as well as increased number of weakly acidic reflux episodes (p<0.01. The rate of proximal reflux episodes in NERD patients was higher than that of FH patients and healthy controls (p<0.01. Irregular or blurring of the Z-line (58.3% and white mucosal turbidity (47.9% were the most common endoscopic findings of minimal mucosal changes observed in this study. NERD patients had more prevalent minimal changes than FH patients and the controls (87.5%vs. 66.6%vs. 61.9%; p = 0.004 with sensitivity of 87.5%. Histopathological evaluation showed that NERD patients had significantly higher average scores of intercellular spaces dilation (2.82±0.9 vs. 1.2±0.6, p = 0.005 and papillae elongation (2.65±1.0 vs. 1.5±0.8, p = 0.014, but not for basal cell proliferation (1.6±1.3 vs. 1.0±0.9, p = 0.070. The histological scores of the NERD patients were 7.1±1.2, which were higher than those of FH patients (3.4±1.0, p = 0.004.Minimal mucosal changes could be useful markers to support clinical diagnosis of NERD. Combination of 24-h MII-pH monitoring and i-scan high resolution

  19. Role of CT in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Saboo, Sachin S; Abbara, Suhny

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are being increasingly encountered in cardiac imaging due to improved outcomes from surgical and interventional techniques. Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of CHD, both prior to and after surgeries and interventions. Computed tomography (CT) has several advantages in the evaluation of these disorders, particularly its high spatial resolution, multi-planar reconstruction capabilities at sub-millimeter isotropic resolution, good temporal resolution, wide field of view, and rapid turnaround time, which minimizes the need for sedation and anesthesia in young children or children with disabilities. With modern scanners, images can be acquired as fast as within one heartbeat. Although there is a risk of ionizing radiation, the radiation dose can be minimized by using several dose reduction strategies. There is a risk of contrast nephrotoxicity in patients with renal dysfunction. In this article, we will review the role of CT in the evaluation of several congenital heart diseases, both in children and adults.

  20. Mixed connective tissue disease associated with noted pulmonary CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Souji; Tsukada, Atsuko; Furuya, Tatsutaka

    1984-10-01

    CT was performed in a 56-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Much more definitive pulmonary findings were obtained by CT than by the conventional chest x-ray examination and pulmonary function test. CT findings disclosed pulmonary lesions extremely similar to those in cases of progressive systemic sclerosis. Pulmonary CT was considered useful in examining pulmonary lesions for MCTD.

  1. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone. (author)

  2. Role of CT in patients with prostatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizako, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kaji, Yasushi; Moriyama, Masahiro; Ishida, Tetsuya

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CT in patients with and without prostatic disease. CT and MR findings were reviewed in 25 patients without known prostatic disease, 11 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 11 patients with prostatic cancer. Differential attenuation allowed for distinction of the peripheral zone and inner gland of the prostate by CT in 72% of normal patients. The distinction rate of prostatic zonal anatomy by CT decreased to 30% in the diseased group. When zonal anatomy of the prostate is not visualized on pelvic enhanced CT, the presence of prostatic disease might be considered. (author)

  3. Diagnosis of Grave's disease with pulmonary hypertension on chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa Yeon; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, Hye Rin; Chun, Eun Ju; White, Charles S

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of chest CT findings to diagnose Grave's disease in pulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively evaluated chest CT and the medical records of 13 patients with Grave's disease with (n=6) or without pulmonary hypertension (n=7) and in 17 control patients. Presence of iso-attenuation of diffusely enlarged thyroid glands compared with adjacent neck muscle on non-enhanced CT as a diagnostic clue of Grave's disease, and assessment of pulmonary hypertension on CT has high diagnostic accuracy. Chest CT has the potential to diagnose Grave's disease with pulmonary hypertension in the absence of other information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-resolution mapping reveals linkage between genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giseli; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Cregan, Perry B; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-08-01

    Co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping using SNP, SSR, and KASP markers demonstrated genetic linkage between Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 loci conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot diseases of common bean. Rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot are major diseases of common bean in the Americas and Africa. The cultivar Ouro Negro has the Ur-14 gene that confers broad spectrum resistance to rust and the gene cluster Co-3 4 /Phg-3 containing two tightly linked genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, respectively. We used co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping of 179 F 2:3 families from the Rudá (susceptible) × Ouro Negro (resistant) cross-phenotyped separately with races of the rust and anthracnose pathogens. The results confirmed that Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster in Ouro Negro conferred resistance to rust and anthracnose, respectively, and that Ur-14 and the Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster were closely linked. Genotyping the F 2:3 families, first with 5398 SNPs on the Illumina BeadChip BARCBEAN6K_3 and with 15 SSR, and eight KASP markers, specifically designed for the candidate region containing Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3, permitted the creation of a high-resolution genetic linkage map which revealed that Ur-14 was positioned at 2.2 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3 on the short arm of chromosome Pv04 of the common bean genome. Five flanking SSR markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.2 cM from Ur-14, and two flanking KASP markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3. Many other SSR, SNP, and KASP markers were also linked to these genes. These markers will be useful for the development of common bean cultivars combining the important Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 genes conferring resistance to three of the most destructive diseases of common bean.

  5. High-resolution(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for pituitary adenoma detection in Cushing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Montgomery, Blake K; Millo, Corina; Herscovitch, Peter; Lonser, Russell R

    2015-04-01

    OBJECT High-resolution PET (hrPET) performed using a high-resolution research tomograph is reported as having a resolution of 2 mm and could be used to detect corticotroph adenomas through uptake of(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). To determine the sensitivity of this imaging modality, the authors compared(18)F-FDG hrPET and MRI detection of pituitary adenomas in Cushing disease (CD). METHODS Consecutive patients with CD who underwent preoperative(18)F-FDG hrPET and MRI (spin echo [SE] and spoiled gradient recalled [SPGR] sequences) were prospectively analyzed. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated from hrPET and were compared with MRI findings. Imaging findings were correlated to operative and histological findings. RESULTS Ten patients (7 females and 3 males) were included (mean age 30.8 ± 19.3 years; range 11-59 years). MRI revealed a pituitary adenoma in 4 patients (40% of patients) on SE and 7 patients (70%) on SPGR sequences.(18)F-FDG hrPET demonstrated increased(18)F-FDG uptake consistent with an adenoma in 4 patients (40%; adenoma size range 3-14 mm). Maximum SUV was significantly higher for(18)F-FDG hrPET-positive tumors (difference = 5.1, 95% CI 2.1-8.1; p = 0.004) than for(18)F-FDG hrPET-negative tumors.(18)F-FDG hrPET positivity was not associated with tumor volume (p = 0.2) or dural invasion (p = 0.5). Midnight and morning ACTH levels were associated with(18)F-FDG hrPET positivity (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) and correlated with the maximum SUV (R = 0.9; p = 0.001) and average SUV (R = 0.8; p = 0.01). All(18)F-FDG hrPET-positive adenomas had a less than a 180% ACTH increase and(18)F-FDG hrPET-negative adenomas had a greater than 180% ACTH increase after CRH stimulation (p = 0.03). Three adenomas were detected on SPGR MRI sequences that were not detected by(18)F-FDG hrPET imaging. Two adenomas not detected on SE (but no adenomas not detected on SPGR) were detected on(18)F-FDG hrPET. CONCLUSIONS While(18)F-FDG hrPET imaging can

  6. In vivo visualization of photoreceptor layer and lipofuscin accumulation in Stargardt’s disease and fundus flavimaculatus by high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Querques

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Querques, Rosy Prato, Gabriel Coscas, Gisèle Soubrane, Eric H SouiedDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hopital Intercommunal de Creteil, University Paris XII, FranceIntroduction: To assess photoreceptor (PR layer morphology in patients with Stargardt’s disease (STGD and fundus flavimaculatus (FFM using high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT; OCT 4000 Cirrus, Humphrey-Zeiss, San Leandro, CA.Methods: This was a prospective observational case series. Sixteen consecutive patients with STGD and FFM underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Optical coherence tomography examination was performed with HD-OCT, a high-speed (27,000 axial scans per second OCT system using spectral/Fourier domain detection, with an axial image resolution of 5 µm.Results: A total of 31 eyes were included in the study. Transverse loss of the PR layer in the foveal region was shown by HD-OCT. Twenty eyes with clinically evident central atrophy had a disruption of either the Verhoeff‘s membrane (VM or the layer corresponding to the interface of inner segment (IS and outer segment (OS of PR in the foveal region. Among these eyes, 12/20 eyes had a loss of the PR layer (loss of both VM and IS-OS interface in the foveal region. Eleven eyes (11/31 without clinically evident central atrophy had an intact interface of IS and OS of PR centrally. Moreover, we observed hyperreflective deposits: type 1 lesions located within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer and at the level of the outer segments of PR, and type 2 lesions located at the level of the outer nuclear layer and clearly separated from the RPE layer. Type 1 lesions alone were associated with absence of loss of the PR layer in the foveal region in all eyes; type 2 lesions were always associated with presence of type 1 lesions, and often (8/12 eyes associated with loss of the PR layer within the foveal region. Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was significantly

  7. Thin-section CT of Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuo; Kuwayama, Akio; Katoh, Tetsuo; Ichihara, Kaoru; Kageyama, Naoki; Nakamura, Koji.

    1983-01-01

    Using 1.5 mm contiguous sections with a GE CT/T 8800 scanner, we investigated the sellar regions of 22 cases of Cushing's diseases which had been diagnosed endocrinologically. Each sellar turcica was normal in size, and in only 5 cases were there significant findings on 2 mm-thick sellar-floor polytomography. Nine tumors appeared as regions of a hypodense area, and three tumors were diagnosed by indirect signs, for example, stalk deviation and diaphragmatic plane asymmetry. The other 10 cases, especially those previously operated on or irradiated, were diagnosed as falsely positive or negative. Because it is best of the microadenomas appear hypodense within the strongly contrast-enhanced anterior pituitary glands, it is better for scans to be obtained immediately after rapid intravenous contrast infusion. Hypodense areas of microadenomas are best demonstrated on direct coronal scans or reversed scans of 1.5 mm-thickness thin-slice sections. By these methods, microadenomas, if they are over 5-6 mm in diameter, can appear as hypodense. Sellar floor findings by means of thin-section CT were more sensitive than those of polytomography and had more advantages in local diagnosis. If the tumor were over 4 mm in diameter, local changes in the sellar floor could be demonstrated by thin-section CT, but by polytomography no changes in the sellar floor could be demonstrated until the tumor size reached 6 mm. (author)

  8. TU-A-12A-12: Improved Airway Measurement Accuracy for Low Dose Quantitative CT (qCT) Using Statistical (ASIR), at Reduced DFOV, and High Resolution Kernels in a Phantom and Swine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, G; Imai, Y; Hsieh, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative accuracy of Iodine Hounsfield Unit (HU) in conventional single-kVp scanning is susceptible to beam-hardening effect. Dual-energy CT has unique capabilities of quantification using monochromatic CT images, but this scanning mode requires the availability of the state-of-the-art CT scanner and, therefore, is limited in routine clinical practice. Purpose of this work was to develop a beam-hardening-correction (BHC) for single-kVp CT that can linearize Iodine projections at any nominal energy, apply this approach to study Iodine response with respect to keV, and compare with dual-energy based monochromatic images obtained from material-decomposition using 80kVp and 140kVp. Methods: Tissue characterization phantoms (Gammex Inc.), containing solid-Iodine inserts of different concentrations, were scanned using GE multi-slice CT scanner at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp. A model-based BHC algorithm was developed where Iodine was estimated using re-projection of image volume and corrected through an iterative process. In the correction, the re-projected Iodine was linearized using a polynomial mapping between monochromatic path-lengths at various nominal energies (40 to 140 keV) and physically modeled polychromatic path-lengths. The beam-hardening-corrected 80kVp and 140kVp images (linearized approximately at effective energy of the beam) were used for dual-energy material-decomposition in Water-Iodine basis-pair followed by generation of monochromatic images. Characterization of Iodine HU and noise in the images obtained from singlekVp with BHC at various nominal keV, and corresponding dual-energy monochromatic images, was carried out. Results: Iodine HU vs. keV response from single-kVp with BHC and dual-energy monochromatic images were found to be very similar, indicating that single-kVp data may be used to create material specific monochromatic equivalent using modelbased projection linearization. Conclusion: This approach may enable quantification of

  9. [3.0 T MRI with a high resolution protocol for the study of benign disease of the anus and rectum. Part one: High resolution protocol for 3.0 T MRI, anatomic review, benign tumors, and congenital or acquired alterations of the sphincter complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz Hidalgo, L; Cano Alonso, R; Carrascoso Arranz, J; Álvarez Moreno, E; Martínez de Vega Fernández, V

    2014-01-01

    Benign anorectal disease comprises a broad group of processes with very diverse origins; these processes may be congenital or acquired as well as inflammatory or tumor related. However, benign anorectal disease has received less attention in the scientific literature than malignant disease. We present an image-based review of the most common benign diseases of the anus and rectum. In this first part, we review the anatomy of the region and provide a brief description of the peculiarities of the high resolution protocol that we use with 3.0 T MRI. We go on to describe the most common benign anorectal tumors and developmental cystic lesions, together with their differential diagnoses, as well as congenital and acquired anomalies of the anorectal sphincter complex. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential alteration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Wilson's disease investigated with [123I]ss-CIT and high-resolution SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.; Sorger, D.; Kluge, R.; Kuehn, H.-J.; Wagner, A.; Hermann, W.

    2001-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a copper deposition disorder which can result in a number of extrapyramidal motoric symptoms such as parkinsonism. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate, for the first time, nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in WD in relation to different courses and severity of the disease. Using high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) after administration of 2ss-carbomethoxy-3ss-(4[ 123 I]iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]ss-CIT), striatal dopamine transporters (DAT) were imaged in 43 WD patients and a control group of ten subjects. From the SPET images, specific [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios were obtained for the caudate heads, putamina and entire corpus striatum. In addition, to evaluate a putative dissociation between the caudate and putaminal [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios, the ratio between these binding ratios was calculated (CA/PU ratio). The SPET data were compared with clinical data on the course of the disease (CD), the severity of neurological symptoms and the degree of hepatic alteration. Whereas the specific regional [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios in patients with asymptomatic/hepatic CD did not differ from those in the control group (e.g. striatal ratios: 13.4±3.0 vs 11.7±2.8), in patients with neurological CD the ratios were significantly reduced for all striatal substructures (P=0.003 after one-factor ANOVA). For the different subgroups a tendency was detected towards a stepwise decrease in the specific [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios from pseudo-sclerosis CD (9.4±2.3), through pseudo-parkinsonian CD (9.1±2.1) to arrhythmic-hyperkinetic CD (8.5±1.6). However, these group differences reached significance only for the comparison with asymptomatic/hepatic CD (P=0.02). The CA/PU ratio was significantly higher in WD than in the control group (1.30±0.19 vs 1.11±0.08; P=0.003). Severity of neurological symptoms was significantly correlated with all specific regional [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios (r=-0.49 to -0

  11. Mixed connective tissue disease associated with noted pulmonary CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Souji; Tsukada, Atsuko; Furuya, Tatsutaka

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed in a 56-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Much more definitive pulmonary findings were obtained by CT than by the conventional chest x-ray examination and pulmonary function test. CT findings disclosed pulmonary lesions extremely similar to those in cases of progressive systemic sclerosis. Pulmonary CT was considered useful in examining pulmonary lesions for MCTD. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Metrizamide CT myelography of Hirayama's diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Inoue, Kiyoharu; Yagishita, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    We reported two cases of Hirayama's disease of about one year history. Case 1 had muscular weakness and atrophy of the upper extremity in the C7, C8, and Th1 segmental levels bilaterally but much more conspicuously on the left side. Case 2 had the same problem in the same segmental levels of the left upper extremity. In both cases the needle EMG showed neurogenic patterns in the atrophic muscles. Plain cervical X-rays and metrizamide myelographies were unremarkable in both cases. In case 1, metrizamide CT myelography showed a marked flattening and a loss of the normal rounded configuration of the antero-lateral aspects of the cervical spinal cord bilaterally but with a left sided emphasis. This was most prominent in the C6 vertebral body level, and was strictly localized to the C5, C6, and C7 vertebral body levels, which correspond to the C6, C7, C8, and Th1 spinal cord levels. There was however no physical compression of the spinal cord to explain the deformity. In case 2, metrizamide CT myelography showed a straightening and a loss of the normal rounded shape of the antero-lateral aspect of the cervical spinal cord on the left side, which was localized to the C6 and C7 vertebral body levels (corresponding to the C7, C8, and Th1 spinal cord levels). Taking the physical and EMG findings into account, we considered that the findings of the metrizamide CT myelography of the two cases represent the anterior horn atrophy localized to the lower cervical spinal cord. (author)

  13. Effect of Matrix Size on the Image Quality of Ultra-high-resolution CT of the Lung: Comparison of 512 × 512, 1024 × 1024, and 2048 × 2048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akinori; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Honda, Osamu; Kikuchi, Noriko; Miyata, Tomo; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Uranishi, Ayumi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2018-01-16

    This study aimed to assess the effect of matrix size on the spatial resolution and image quality of ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT). Slit phantoms and 11 cadaveric lungs were scanned on U-HRCT. Slit phantom scans were reconstructed using a 20-mm field of view (FOV) with 1024 matrix size and a 320-mm FOV with 512, 1024, and 2048 matrix sizes. Cadaveric lung scans were reconstructed using 512, 1024, and 2048 matrix sizes. Three observers subjectively scored the images on a three-point scale (1 = worst, 3 = best), in terms of overall image quality, noise, streak artifact, vessel, bronchi, and image findings. The median score of the three observers was evaluated by Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction. Noise was measured quantitatively and evaluated with the Tukey test. A P value of matrix had the highest resolution and was significantly better than the 1024 matrix in terms of overall quality, solid nodule, ground-glass opacity, emphysema, intralobular reticulation, honeycombing, and clarity of vessels (P matrix (P matrix size maintained the spatial resolution and improved the image quality and assessment of lung diseases, despite an increase in image noise, when compared to a 512 matrix size. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of Endoscopy with High-Resolution, Magnification, Chromoscopy and NBI in the Diagnosis of Mucosal Diseases of the Esophagogastroduodenal Area in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Krylovа

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the features of the state of the mucosa of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is shown that the use of narrow band imaging and the magnification helps to detect metaplasia in columnar epithelium of the esophagus, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, that is, the use of endoscopy with magnification, chromoscopy and narrow band imaging endoscopy significantly improves the quality of examination, reducing the time of the study and the number of performed biopsies.

  15. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  16. Combined CT Angiography and CT Venography in Thromboembolic disease: clinical impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzas, R.; Migueles, Y.; Gomez, S.; Mallo, R.; Garcia-Tejedor, J. L.; Diaz Vega, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    Combined CT Venography and Pulmonary Angiography was described in 1998 as a tool for diagnostic Thromboembolic Disease. The purpose is to relate our own experience with this technique in a population with suspected pulmonary embolism. 46 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism underwent combined CT Venography after Pulmonary CT Angiography to depict Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). CT Venography where obtained with a 3 minutes delay from injection, without additional intravenous contrast, from upper abdomen to fibular head. A prospective study from emergency reports where used. The reports where aimed by nine different radiologist at diary emergency room (images where not retrospective review). We report if a pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombus or another alternative diagnostic where done. An endo luminal thrombus in any pulmonary arteries was assessed as a positive study for PE. A Thrombus in the leg veins or in an abdominal vein without diminished size of vein was assessed as an acute DVT. In those patients with a CT negative to Thromboembolic Disease was the clinician who decide if more proves where needed. Those patients without evidence in CT of Thromboembolic Disease where asked for symptoms related to the episode in a 3 months period after initial CT. Patients free of symptoms for 3 months without anticoagulation therapy where considered true negative for CT. CT shows Thromboembolic Disease in 23 of 46 patients. 21PE, 14 DVT 2 of 14 patients with DVT don't show PE, CT excluded thromboembolic disease in 23 patients and in 15 of those patients an alternative diagnostic was shown. In 22 of those 23 patients CT excluded correctly Thromboembolic Disease. One patient result in a false negative CT, Pulmonary Angiography of that patient shows us a subsegmentary embolus. (Author) 9 refs

  17. CT evaluation of severe renal inflammatory disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, P.; Kuhn, J.P.; Afshani, E.

    1987-01-01

    We have performed CT scans on 15 children and 2 young adults with severe renal inflammatory disease. Most children with urinary tract infections do not require such evaluation. We have, however, found CT helpful in defining the nature of renal abnormality and in defining the extent of disease in selected patients who either presented as diagnostic dilemmas or who did not respond initially to proper medical treatment. We therefore use CT scanning as our initial examination in such problem patients. (orig.)

  18. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  19. CT evaluation of cystic brain disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon Woo; Lee, Jin Woo; Joo, Yang Goo; Kim, Hong; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1987-01-01

    We retrospectively analysed CT findings of 47 cystic brain lesions of 44 patients, in which operation, biopsy or follow-up study was needed for their final diagnosis. The results were as follows: 1. The etiologic diseases of cystic brain lesions were 15 cases of brain abscess, 9 cases of astrocytoma, 5 cases of glioblastoma multiforme, 3 cases of meningioma, 5 cases of craniopharyngioma, 1 case of hemangioblastoma, 2 cases of dermoid cyst and 4 cases of metastasis. 2. We analyses the cystic lesions in view of their number, location, shape, perifocal edema, mass effect, wall and its thickness, evenness and characteristics of their inner and outer surfaces, mural nodule, calcification and contrast enhancement. a. 13.3% of brain abscess and 75% of metastases were multiple in number, but the remainder showed single lesion. b. The shape of cystic lesions were round or ovoid in 68%, lobulated in 8.5% and irregular in 23.5%, and no demonstrable difference of shape were noticed in different disease. c. In brain abscess, the wall of cystic lesions tend to be thin, even and smooth in inner surface, but the outer surfaces were equally smooth or irregular. d. Mural nodules were found in nearly half of the cases of astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, metastasis and hemangioblastoma, but the brain abscess and dermoid cyst contained no mural nodule. e. Meningiomas were found to be attached to dura mater and showed thickening of the inner table of adjacent skull or of the falx. f. The presence of preceding infectious disease may be helpful in the diagnosis of brain abscess, but in 20% there were no demonstrable preceding infection. g. Lung cancer was confirmed as primary site in two of the cystic metastatic disease, but other 2 cases showed no demonstrable primary malignancy

  20. CT evaluation of cystic brain disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Woo; Lee, Jin Woo; Joo, Yang Goo; Kim, Hong; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    We retrospectively analysed CT findings of 47 cystic brain lesions of 44 patients, in which operation, biopsy or follow-up study was needed for their final diagnosis. The results were as follows: 1. The etiologic diseases of cystic brain lesions were 15 cases of brain abscess, 9 cases of astrocytoma, 5 cases of glioblastoma multiforme, 3 cases of meningioma, 5 cases of craniopharyngioma, 1 case of hemangioblastoma, 2 cases of dermoid cyst and 4 cases of metastasis. 2. We analyses the cystic lesions in view of their number, location, shape, perifocal edema, mass effect, wall and its thickness, evenness and characteristics of their inner and outer surfaces, mural nodule, calcification and contrast enhancement. a. 13.3% of brain abscess and 75% of metastases were multiple in number, but the remainder showed single lesion. b. The shape of cystic lesions were round or ovoid in 68%, lobulated in 8.5% and irregular in 23.5%, and no demonstrable difference of shape were noticed in different disease. c. In brain abscess, the wall of cystic lesions tend to be thin, even and smooth in inner surface, but the outer surfaces were equally smooth or irregular. d. Mural nodules were found in nearly half of the cases of astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, metastasis and hemangioblastoma, but the brain abscess and dermoid cyst contained no mural nodule. e. Meningiomas were found to be attached to dura mater and showed thickening of the inner table of adjacent skull or of the falx. f. The presence of preceding infectious disease may be helpful in the diagnosis of brain abscess, but in 20% there were no demonstrable preceding infection. g. Lung cancer was confirmed as primary site in two of the cystic metastatic disease, but other 2 cases showed no demonstrable primary malignancy.

  1. CT in diagnosis of thoracolumbar region diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, I.; Karadjova, M.

    2003-01-01

    The lumbalgia caused by affected thoracolumbar transition (Th 11 -L 2 ) imitates the clinical symptomatic of disc lesions in the lower lumbar segments. The syndrome is presented by a pain projected in the area of the three branchings of the spinal nerves, coming from thoracolumbar segments. The aim of this study is to determine the pathological processes, causing the clinical symptoms of this syndrome, using computer tomography. 51 patients are studied with clinically proved thoracolumbar transition syndrome: 14 men and 37 women. CT slices of 96 vertebral segments are made. Two patient are scanned at Th 11 -Th 12 and L 1 -L 2 . Only Th 12 -L 1 scans are made on 10 patients and 42 are made on two neighbouring segments (41 of them on Th 11 -Th 12 and Th 12 -L 1 and one on Th 11 -L 1 and L 1 -L 2 ). An asymmetry (facet tropism) has been found at 59 levels, 21 if them are with spondiloarthrosis. Spondiloarthrosis has been found in 24 segments - 21 of them with osteochondrosis, one with disc prolapse, and 2 with disc protrusion. It is also found osteoporotic changes osteolysis in multiple myeloma, metastasis etc. During the 3 level examination no evidence for either of the mentioned changes is obtained. The CT slices of two neighbouring segments showed an unexpected change from thoracic to lumbar type of the intervertebral joints in 34 patients. The results from this study support the hypothesis about joints origin of the clinical symptoms of the thoracolumbar transition and demonstrate the importance of the computer tomography as a diagnostic method in this disease

  2. CT and MR imaging of gynecological emergency disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Shinya; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Tahara, Takatoshi; Matsusue, Eiji; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2004-01-01

    We describe the CT and MRI findings of gynecologic emergency diseases: pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian hemorrhage, ovarian torsion, rupture of ovarian tumor, eclampsia, and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. Diagnostic keys to these diseases are presented in this review. CT and MRI play a complementary role to sonography in accurately diagnosing these diseases. In situations that require an exact, immediate diagnosis, radiologists should be familiar with the key imaging findings. (author)

  3. Positron emission CT and X-ray CT findings in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ito, Harumi; Senda, Michio; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji; Nishimura, Koichi; Izumi, Takahide; Oshima, Shunsaku

    1987-08-01

    Positron emission CT and X-ray CT were performed in fifteen patients with emphysema confirmed SAB and twelve patients with clinical DPB. In patients with emphysema, 20 of 36 areas showed a central pattern and their perfusion scintigrams showed stripe-signs. On the other hand, the patients with DPB showed outer layer progression of the disease.

  4. Cranial CT frindings of familial Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Note, Toshiko; Tawara, Satoru; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Araki, Shukuro

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of familial Alzheimer's disease were reported. The patients had an average of 41 years, and developed memory disturbance and pyramidal tract syndromes. Two had disturbance of gait and showed cerebellar symptoms. All three patients had hypotension, but had no hypotensive episodes, and no change in character or loss of character. Their IQ was extremely low, and encephalograms had delta theta waves dominant in right frontal region in one case, and general delta theta waves in the other two cases. Brain scintigraphy showed reflux to ventricle in case 2, but not in case 1. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal in all three cases, and chromosomes of cases 1 and 2 were normal 46 XY. CT scan showed that the cerebral cortex of all three patients was markedly shrunken, the sulci were enlarged and the ventricle was enlarged without being extremely rounded; the degree of cerebral atrophy according to Huckman et al. was mild in case 1 and moderate in cases 2 and 3. Slight cerebellar atrophy was detected in case 3. (Kaihara, S.)

  5. Diagnosing extracranial atherosclerotic diseases with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, C.J.; Vannier, M.W.; Erickson, K.K.; Broderick, D.F.; Kido, D.K.; Yoffie, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this discovery study was performed to determine whether extracranial carotid artery plaques could be diagnosed with a new CT technique (spiral CT) that allows nondistorted three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions in the z axis. Twenty carotid arteries were examined with spiral CT in normal volunteers and in patients suspected of having atherosclerotic plaques in the extracranial carotid arteries. The Somatom Plus CT table was advanced at a constant rate, the x-ray tube was continuously rotated, and 3D data were continuously acquired. Sixty milliliters of nonionic contrast medium was injected intravenously previous to and during the acquisition of data. The carotid bifurcations were identified in all patients. Planar images, similar to conventional intraarterial angiograms, were routinely produced from the volumetric CT data

  6. Diagnostic value of CT scanning in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulcke, J.A.L.; Leuven Univ.; Herpels, V.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of myopathies has become easier since the CT technique is available. In this article the possibilities of CT for diagnostic procedures of neuromuscular diseases are pointed out. Density measurements increase differentiation of atrophy or hypertrophy of muscles as well as other pathological changes. (orig.)

  7. Ground-glass opacity: High-resolution computed tomography and 64-multi-slice computed tomography findings comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergiacomi, Gianluigi; Ciccio, Carmelo; Boi, Luca; Velari, Luca; Crusco, Sonia; Orlacchio, Antonio; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Comparative evaluation of ground-glass opacity using conventional high-resolution computed tomography technique and volumetric computed tomography by 64-row multi-slice scanner, verifying advantage of volumetric acquisition and post-processing technique allowed by 64-row CT scanner. Methods: Thirty-four patients, in which was assessed ground-glass opacity pattern by previous high-resolution computed tomography during a clinical-radiological follow-up for their lung disease, were studied by means of 64-row multi-slice computed tomography. Comparative evaluation of image quality was done by both CT modalities. Results: It was reported good inter-observer agreement (k value 0.78-0.90) in detection of ground-glass opacity with high-resolution computed tomography technique and volumetric Computed Tomography acquisition with moderate increasing of intra-observer agreement (k value 0.46) using volumetric computed tomography than high-resolution computed tomography. Conclusions: In our experience, volumetric computed tomography with 64-row scanner shows good accuracy in detection of ground-glass opacity, providing a better spatial and temporal resolution and advanced post-processing technique than high-resolution computed tomography.

  8. An assessment on the incremental value of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to identify culprit plaques in atherosclerotic disease of the middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Graves, Martin J.; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Peng, Wenjia; Zhan, Qian; Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Qi; Chen, Shiyue; Tian, Xia; Chen, Luguang; Lu, Jianping; Brown, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Although certain morphological features depicted by high resolution, multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI) have been shown to be different between culprit and non-culprit middle cerebral artery (MCA) atherosclerotic lesions, the incremental value of hrMRI to define culprit lesions over stenosis has not been assessed. Patients suspected with MCA stenosis underwent hrMRI. Lumen and outer wall were segmented to calculate stenosis, plaque burden (PB), volume (PV), length (PL) and minimum luminal area (MLA). Data from 165 lesions (112 culprit and 53 non-culprit) in 139 individuals were included. Culprit lesions were larger and longer with a narrower lumen and increased PB compared with non-culprit lesions. More culprit lesions showed contrast enhancement. Both PB and MLA were better indicators than stenosis in differentiating lesion types (AUC were 0.649, 0.732 and 0.737 for stenosis, PB and MLA, respectively). Combinations of PB, MLA and stenosis could improve positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity significantly. An optimal combination of stenosis ≥ 50 %, PB ≥ 77 % and MLA ≤ 2.0 mm 2 produced a PPV = 85.7 %, negative predictive value = 54.1 %, sensitivity = 69.6 %, specificity = 75.5 %, and accuracy = 71.5 %. hrMRI plaque imaging provides incremental information to luminal stenosis in identifying culprit lesions. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of CT and scintigraphy in diseases of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenig, H.G.; Wegener, O.H.; Souchon, R.; Ziegler, U.; Koppenhagen, K.

    1979-01-01

    Sixty-five patients with various diseases of the liver were examined by CT and scintigraphy. We found the following preliminary conclusions: diffusely infiltrative and hepatocellular diseases of the liver, espacially cirrhosis, are recognized on CT by shape and contour rather than by density values. In these cases, scintigraphy provides important information about the function of the parenchyma. In space-occupying processes, a close correlation exists between CT and scintigraphy. In the investigation of liver metastases in advanced stages, CT and radionuclide studies proved to be nearly identical in accuracy. The advantages of CT consist in the possibility of showing more morphologic detail of adjacent organs and in possessing better spatial resolution. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  10. Castleman disease of the neck: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xin-hua; Song, Hao-ming; Liu, Qing-yu; Cao, Yun; Li, Guo-hong; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Castleman disease of the neck. Methods: The imaging findings of 21 patients with Castleman disease of the neck were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 21 patients, 16 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans; 5 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI scans. Results: The unenhanced CT images showed isolated or multiple well-defined homogenous mild hypodensity lesions in fifteen cases, and a heterogeneous nodule with central areas of mild hypodensity in one case. Calcification was not observed in any of the patients. In five patients, MR T1-weighted images revealed well-defined, homogeneous isointense or mild hyperintense lesions to the muscle; T2-weighted images showed these as intermediate hyperintense. Sixteen cases showed intermediate to marked homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT or MR T1-weighted images. Of the other five cases that underwent double-phase CT scans, four showed mild or intermediate heterogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase, and homogeneous intermediate or marked enhancement at the venous phase; the remaining case showed mild and intermediate ring-enhancement with a central non-enhanced area at the arterial and venous phases, respectively. Conclusion: Castleman disease of the neck can be characterized as solitary or multiple well-defined, mild hypodensity or homogeneous intense lesions on plain CT/MR scans, and demonstrates intermediate and marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT/MR scans. On double-phase CT scans, Castleman disease often demonstrates mild enhancement at the arterial phase, and gradually uniform enhancement at venous phase. Double-phase enhanced CT or MRI may help to differentiate Castleman disease from other diseases

  11. Castleman disease of the neck: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xin-hua [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Song, Hao-ming [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, Shanghai 200065 (China); Liu, Qing-yu [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120 (China); Cao, Yun [Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Li, Guo-hong [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Zhang, Wei-dong, E-mail: dongw.z@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Objective: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Castleman disease of the neck. Methods: The imaging findings of 21 patients with Castleman disease of the neck were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 21 patients, 16 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans; 5 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI scans. Results: The unenhanced CT images showed isolated or multiple well-defined homogenous mild hypodensity lesions in fifteen cases, and a heterogeneous nodule with central areas of mild hypodensity in one case. Calcification was not observed in any of the patients. In five patients, MR T1-weighted images revealed well-defined, homogeneous isointense or mild hyperintense lesions to the muscle; T2-weighted images showed these as intermediate hyperintense. Sixteen cases showed intermediate to marked homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT or MR T1-weighted images. Of the other five cases that underwent double-phase CT scans, four showed mild or intermediate heterogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase, and homogeneous intermediate or marked enhancement at the venous phase; the remaining case showed mild and intermediate ring-enhancement with a central non-enhanced area at the arterial and venous phases, respectively. Conclusion: Castleman disease of the neck can be characterized as solitary or multiple well-defined, mild hypodensity or homogeneous intense lesions on plain CT/MR scans, and demonstrates intermediate and marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT/MR scans. On double-phase CT scans, Castleman disease often demonstrates mild enhancement at the arterial phase, and gradually uniform enhancement at venous phase. Double-phase enhanced CT or MRI may help to differentiate Castleman disease from other diseases.

  12. Evaluation of diseases of the aorta with ultrafast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldredge, W.J.; Flicker, S.; Altin, R.S.; Naidech, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrafast CT offers several advantages over standard CT for imaging of various congenital and acquired diseases of the aorta. Scan acquisition rates of 50 msec permit evaluation of the entire aorta following a single peripheral intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium. Pathologic aortic flow patterns may also be defined using an ECG triggered ''flow'' mode, adding another dimension to CT evaluation of the aorta. The papers shows examples of a variety of aortic diseases, including coarctation, Marfan syndrome, atherosclerotic aneurysm, dissection, and postoperative abnormalities. The advantages of the modality are stressed

  13. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  14. Guideline for appropriate use of cardiac CT in heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Sung Mok; Kim, Jeong A; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of deaths in Korea, along with malignant neoplasms and cerebrovascular diseases. The proper diagnosis and management for patients with suspected heart diseases should be warranted for the public health care. Advances in CT technology have allowed detailed images of the heart to be obtained, which enable evaluations not only of the coronary arteries but also of other cardiac structures. Currently, the latest multi-detector CT machines are widespread around Korea. The appropriate use of cardiac CT may lead to improvements of the physicians' medical performances and to reduce medical costs which eventually contribute to promotions of public health. However, until now, there has been no guidelines regarding the appropriate use of cardiac CT in Korea. We intend to provide guidelines for the appropriate use of cardiac CT in heart diseases based on scientific data. The purpose of this guideline is to assist the clinicians and other health professionals when using cardiac CT for diagnosis and treatments of heart diseases.

  15. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  16. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  17. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  18. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  19. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  20. Trapping volumetric measurement by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Effect of CT threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Huishu [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Duan, Jianghui [Medical School, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Yipeng; Shen, Ning; He, Bei [Department of Respiration Internal Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various computed tomography (CT) thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Twenty-three COPD patients were scanned with a 64-slice CT scanner in both the inspiratory and expiratory phase. CT thresholds of −950 Hu in inspiration and −950 to −890 Hu in expiration were used, after which trapping volumetric measurements were made using computer software. Trapping volume percentage (Vtrap%) under the different CT thresholds in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase was compared and correlated with lung function.Results: Mean Vtrap% was similar under −930 Hu in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase, being 13.18 ± 9.66 and 13.95 ± 6.72 (both lungs), respectively; this difference was not significant (P= 0.240). Vtrap% under −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase and below the −950 to −890 Hu threshold in the expiratory phase was moderately negatively correlated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity and the measured value of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of the predicted value.Conclusions: Trapping volumetric measurement with multidetector CT is a promising method for the quantification of COPD. It is important to know the effect of various CT thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements.

  1. High-resolution gene expression profiling using RNA sequencing in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Kristine; Kutlu, Burak; Fox, Brian

    2015-01-01

    pathways and assess the similarity between the experimental models and human disease. RNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies from CD patients, UC patients and non-IBD controls. Genes shown to be significantly dysregulated in human IBD were used to study gene expression in colons from a piroxicam......Proper interpretation of data from preclinical animal studies requires a thorough knowledge about the pathophysiology of both the human disease and animal models. In this study, the expression of IBD-associated genes was characterised in mouse models of colitis to examine the underlying molecular......-accelerated colitis interleukin-10 knockout (PAC IL-10 k.o.), an adoptive transfer (AdTr) and a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis mouse model. 92 out of 115 literature-defined genes linked to IBD were significantly differentially expressed in inflamed mucosa of CD and/or UC patients compared with non-IBD controls...

  2. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri; Gholamreza Hamsi; Tayeb Ramim

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM) of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed...

  3. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  4. Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient

  5. {sup 18}F-FDG PET of the hands with a dedicated high-resolution PEM system (arthro-PET): correlation with PET/CT, radiography and clinical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhlanga, Joyce C.; Lodge, Martin [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Hao [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology Biostatistics Division, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wahl, Richard L. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University Hospitals, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the feasibility and compare the novel use of a positron emission mammography (PEM) scanner with standard PET/CT for evaluating hand osteoarthritis (OA) with {sup 18}F-FDG. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective study in which 14 adults referred for oncological {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT underwent dedicated hand PET/CT followed by arthro-PET using the PEM device. Hand radiographs were obtained and scored for the presence and severity of OA. Summed qualitative and quantitative joint glycolytic scores for each modality were compared with the findings on plain radiography and clinical features. Eight patients with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of OA comprised the OA group (mean age 73 ± 7.7 years). Six patients served as the control group (53.7 ± 9.3 years). Arthro-PET quantitative and qualitative joint glycolytic scores were highly correlated with PET/CT findings in the OA patients (r = 0.86. p = 0.007; r = 0.94, p = 0.001). Qualitative arthro-PET and PET/CT joint scores were significantly higher in the OA patients than in controls (38.7 ± 6.6 vs. 32.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.02; 37.5 ± 5.4 vs. 32.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.03, respectively). Quantitative arthro-PET and PET/CT maximum SUV-lean joint scores were higher in the OA patients, although they did not reach statistical significance (20.8 ± 4.2 vs. 18 ± 1.8, p = 0.13; 22.8 ± 5.38 vs. 20.1 ± 1.54, p= 0.21). By definition, OA patients had higher radiographic joint scores than controls (30.9 ± 31.3 vs. 0, p = 0.03). Hand imaging using a small field of view PEM system (arthro-PET) with FDG is feasible, performing comparably to PET/CT in assessing metabolic joint activity. Arthro-PET and PET/CT showed higher joint FDG uptake in OA. Further exploration of arthro-PET in arthritis management is warranted. (orig.)

  6. New frontiers in CT imaging of airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Philippe A.; Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine; Fetita, Catalin; Preteux, Francoise; Brauner, Michel W.; Lenoir, Stephane

    2002-01-01

    Combining helical volumetric CT acquisition and thin-slice thickness during breath hold provides an accurate assessment of both focal and diffuse airway diseases. With multiple detector rows, compared with single-slice helical CT, multislice CT can cover a greater volume, during a simple breath hold, and with better longitudinal and in-plane spatial resolution and improved temporal resolution. The result in data set allows the generation of superior multiplanar and 3D images of the airways, including those obtained from techniques developed specifically for airway imaging, such as virtual bronchography and virtual bronchoscopy. Complementary CT evaluation at suspended or continuous full expiration is mandatory to detect air trapping that is a key finding for depicting an obstruction on the small airways. Indications for CT evaluation of the airways include: (a) detection of endobronchial lesions in patients with an unexplained hemoptysis; (b) evaluation of extent of tracheobronchial stenosis for planning treatment and follow-up; (c) detection of congenital airway anomalies revealed by hemoptysis or recurrent infection; (d) detection of postinfectious or postoperative airway fistula or dehiscence; and (e) diagnosis and assessment of extent of bronchiectasis and small airway disease. Improvement in image analysis technique and the use of spirometrically control of lung volume acquisition have made possible accurate and reproducible quantitative assessment of airway wall and lumen areas and lung density. This contributes to better insights in physiopathology of obstructive lung disease, particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. (orig.)

  7. Pathophysiology of acute small bowel disease with CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwani, N.; Tappouni, R.; Tice, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of acute small bowel diseases, and to correlate the mechanisms of disease with computed tomography (CT) findings. Disease entities will be classified into the following: immune mediated and infectious causes, vascular causes, mechanical causes, trauma, and others. Having an understanding of acute small bowel pathophysiology is a useful teaching tool, and can lead to imaging clues to the most likely diagnosis of acute small bowel disorders.

  8. Veno-occlusive disease of the colon - CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademaker, J.

    1998-01-01

    Venous occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic bowel disease and is usually brought about by thrombosis that may occur as a complication of systemic disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus, Behcet disease or Churg-Strauss syndrome. This report describes a patient with veno-occlusive disease of the colon caused by lymphocytic phlebitis. Typical CT findings included homogeneous bowel wall thickening and vascular engorgement. (orig.) (orig.)

  9. Veno-occlusive disease of the colon - CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademaker, J [Department of Radiology I, Medical School Hannover (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    Venous occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic bowel disease and is usually brought about by thrombosis that may occur as a complication of systemic disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus, Behcet disease or Churg-Strauss syndrome. This report describes a patient with veno-occlusive disease of the colon caused by lymphocytic phlebitis. Typical CT findings included homogeneous bowel wall thickening and vascular engorgement. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  10. UGT1A1 (TA)n genotyping in sickle-cell disease: high resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis or direct sequencing, what is the best way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent; Mazard, Blandine; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Gagnieu, Marie-Claude; Joly, Philippe

    2013-09-23

    Minucci et al. have proposed in 2010 a rapid, simple and cost-effective HRM method on the LightCycler 480® apparatus (Roche) for the determination of the 6/6, 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes of the (TA)n UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism. However, they have not studied the n=5 and n=8 alleles which can be quite frequent in sickle-cell disease patients. The aim of our study was to test this HRM protocol to all the 10 possible (TA)n UGT1A1 genotypes (i.e. 5/5, 5/6, 5/7, 5/8, 6/6, 6/7, 6/8, 7/7, 7/8 and 8/8) by using our SCD cohort of patients. All genotypes could be unambiguously identified except 6/7 and 6/8 which give a similar HRM profile. For those two genotypes, the differentiation necessitates either a direct Sanger sequencing or a second PCR protocol followed by a 3% agarose gel migration. For the (TA)n UGT1A1 promoter genotyping of African patients, each lab has to wonder what is the best way between (i) direct Sanger sequencing of all patients and (ii) HRM protocol for all patients followed by a complementary analysis to differentiate the 6/7 and 6/8 genotypes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Schneider, E.; Hacker, H.; Fischer, P.A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution. (orig.)

  12. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H; Schneider, E; Hacker, H; Fischer, P A [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neurologie)

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution.

  13. Correlation of CT perfusion and CT volumetry in patients with Alzheimers disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecka, A.; Zimny, A.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Both brain atrophy and decrease of perfusion are observed in dementive diseases. The aim of the study was to correlate the results of brain perfusion CT (pCT) and CT volumetry in patients with Alzheimers disease (AD). Material/Methods: Forty-eight patients with AD (mean age of 71.3 years) underwent brain pCT and CT volumetry. The pCT was performed at the level of basal ganglia after the injection of contrast medium (50 ml, 4 ml/sec.) with serial scanning (delay 7 sec, 50 scans, 1 scan/sec). Volumetric measurements were carried out on the basis of source images, with the use of a dedicated CT software combined with manual outlining of the regions of interest in extracerebral and intraventricular CSF spaces. Perfusion parameters of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) from the grey matter of frontal and temporal as well as basal ganglia were compared statistically with the volumetric measurements of frontal and temporal cortical atrophy as well as subcortical atrophy. Results: A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the values of CBF and CBV in the basal ganglia and the volumes of the lateral and third ventricles. The comparison of CBF and CBV results with the volumetric measurements in the areas of the frontal and temporal lobes showed mostly negative correlations, but none of them was of statistical significance. Conclusions: In patients with AD, the degree of cortical atrophy is not correlated with the decrease of perfusion in the grey matter and subcortical atrophy is not correlated with the decrease of perfusion in the basal ganglia region. It suggests that functional and structural changes in AD are not related to each other. (authors)

  14. Value of CT scan in synovial diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamisier, J.N.; Regent, D.; Thomas, P.; Pere, P.; Gaucher, A.; Capesius, P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique of CT arthroscan which, by the use of a gas or opaque contrast medium, is able to demonstrate the synovial structures of the knee, the shoulder and the hip. Among the essential indications, they include the demonstration of neoplasia of the synovium and the evaluation of the pannus in rheumatoid arthritis. Their secondary indications include the demonstration of fluid effusions in the hip, the precise evaluation of hyperostotic lesions in the same joint, the detection of ossification phenomena in the capsule of the inter-apophyseal joints in ankylosing spondylitis and, in some cases, following negative or doubtful arthrography for the detection of synovial plica. They also recall the usefulness or the arthroscan in the diagnosis of lesions of the labrum glenoidale [fr

  15. Value of CT scan in synovial diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamisier, J.N.; Regent, D.; Thomas, P.; Pere, P.; Gaucher, A.; Capesius, P.

    1986-02-01

    The authors have developed a technique of CT arthroscan which, by the use of a gas or opaque contrast medium, is able to demonstrate the synovial structures of the knee, the shoulder and the hip. Among the essential indications, they include the demonstration of neoplasia of the synovium and the evaluation of the pannus in rheumatoid arthritis. Their secondary indications include the demonstration of fluid effusions in the hip, the precise evaluation of hyperostotic lesions in the same joint, the detection of ossification phenomena in the capsule of the inter-apophyseal joints in ankylosing spondylitis and, in some cases, following negative or doubtful arthrography for the detection of synovial plica. They also recall the usefulness or the arthroscan in the diagnosis of lesions of the labrum glenoidale.

  16. PET/CT and vascular disease: Current concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti Filho, Jose Leite Gondim; Souza Leao Lima, Ronaldo de [CDPI and Multi-Imagem Clinics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Radiology, Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Machado Neto, Luiz de [CDPI and Multi-Imagem Clinics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kayat Bittencourt, Leonardo, E-mail: lkayat@terra.com.br [CDPI and Multi-Imagem Clinics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Radiology, Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cortes Domingues, Romeu [CDPI and Multi-Imagem Clinics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [CDPI and Multi-Imagem Clinics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Radiology, Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Since its introduction in 2001, positron emission tomography associated to computed tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a standard tool in cancer evaluation. Being a multimodality imaging method, it combines in a single session the sensitivity granted by PET for detection of molecular targets within the picomolar range, with an underlying submilimetric resolution inherent to CT, that can precisely localize the PET findings. In this last decade, there have been new insights regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, particularly about plaque rupture and vascular remodeling. This has increased the interest for research on PET/CT in vascular diseases as a potential new diagnostic tool, since some PET molecular targets could identify diseases before the manifestation of gross anatomic features. In this review, we will describe the current applications of PET/CT in vascular diseases, emphasizing its usefulness in the settings of vasculitis, aneurysms, vascular graft infection, aortic dissection, and atherosclerosis/plaque vulnerability. Although not being properly peripheral vascular conditions, ischemic cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be briefly addressed as well, due to their widespread prevalence and importance.

  17. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  18. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  19. Multi-section CT angiography compared with digital subtraction angiography in diagnosing major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyare, Harpreet; Desigan, Sharmini; Nicholl, Helen; Guiney, Michael J.; Brookes, Jocelyn A.; Lees, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Major arterial hemorrhage is an uncommon but serious complication of pancreatitis with high morbidity and mortality. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been the gold standard for the detection of a visceral artery pseudoaneurysm or for the site of active bleeding in patients with pancreatitis. Multi-section CT angiography is a minimally invasive technique which can provide high-resolution and high-contrast images of the arterial lumen and wall, with a much lower risk of complication and morbidity compared to DSA. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of multi-section CT angiography for the diagnosis of arterial complications of inflammatory pancreatitic disease. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing visceral angiography for major bleeding as a complication of pancreatitis between 1998 and 2004 was performed. Twenty-nine studies in 25 patients (20 males, 5 females) with a mean age of 50.9 years (range 11-67 years) were identified where multi-section CT angiography was performed in the 24 h preceding the digital subtraction angiogram. Results: Digital subtraction angiography detected a pseudoaneurysm or contrast extravasation in 19 studies and no bleeding was demonstrated in 9 studies. CT angiography correctly identified the site and type of bleeding in 18 of the 19 positive studies. CT angiography detected extravasation of contrast in one study that was not demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography. The sensitivity and specificity for multi-section CT angiography for the detection of major arterial bleeding on a background of pancreatitis were 0.947 and 0.900, respectively. Conclusion: Multi-section CT angiography is a sensitive and accurate technique for the detection of major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease and should be considered as the first investigation in the management of these patients

  20. Intraosseous lipomata in Paget's disease: an unusual CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbie, M.J.; Pratsis, K.K.; Lockie, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A case of multiple intraosseous lumbar vertebral lipomata is reported occurring in the prescence of Paget's disease. The pathology and radiology are correlated. An 84 year old man with Paget's disease presented after a cerebrovascular accident which caused him a mild right hemiparesis. Lumbar vertebral lesions were noted incidentally on abdominal radiographs and a CT scan was performed to define the abnormal areas. CT appearance favoured a slow growing non-invasive lesion. However, it failed to show the lower attenuation expected of a fatty lesion such as a lipoma. It is estimated that CT can be diagnostic if it does show fat level attenuation while Magnetic Resonance Imaging can define the lesion in the sagittal and coronal planes as well as provide the signal characteristics of fat (high signal on T1 and T2 weighted images) irrespective of its myxoid ground substance content

  1. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kyoko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Nakaji, Shunsuke; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Imanishi et al. have previously reported that the changes in CT values reveal not only the change in iodine concentration in thyroid follicles, but also represent secondary changes in follicular content and follicular cells and/or interstitial structures. Thus, we performed thyroid CT without contrast material in 138 controls, 417 cases with diffuse thyroid diseases, and 279 cases with thyroid nodules, and evaluated the CT images based on the relation between the change in CT values and pathological changes. In 89% of the controls and 43% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, the thyroid CT revealed diffuse high density. In contrast, the 94% of thyroids that demonstrated diffuse low density were from patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. Eighty-four percent of malignant nodules and 64% of benign nodules had inhomogeneous densities, and only 26% of benign thyroid nodules had homogeneous density. However, 71% of nodules that showed high and low densities with regular and clear borders, and 82% of nodules that showed papillary proliferation in a cyst pattern were benign. Although only 58% of nodules with calcification were malignant, 66% of nodules with calcification in the central portion, and 86% of nodules with calcification of a disseminated and convergent pattern in distribution were malignant. Sixty-two percent of thyroids that surrounded nodules had chronic thyroiditis, hypoplasia and/or adenomatous goiter. Thus, unclear borders between a nodule and the surrounding thyroid tissue did not increase the possibility of malignancy. However, the unclear and/or lobulated border between a nodule and extra thyroid tissue increased the possibility of malignancy. We concluded that thyroid CT without contrast material is useful for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (author)

  2. Hydatid disease of the spleen; Ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden))

    1992-09-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG).

  3. Comparison of high resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests in diagnosis of mild emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Matsuba, Kenichi; Ikeda, Togo

    1989-01-01

    To assess the ability of high resolution CT scan and pulmonary function tests in detecting and grading mild emphysema, we correlated the high resolution CT scan and pulmonary function tests with the pathologic grade of emphysema and the destructive index of lung specimens from 42 patients undergoing thoracotomy for solitary pulmonary nodules. Using the high resolution CT scan, we could identify the pathologic grade of mild and moderate emphysema. By measuring diffusing capacity per unit alveolar gas volume (DLco/VA), it seemed to be possible to detect the mildest degree of alveolar destruction assessed by the destructive index, which was not detected by high resolution CT scan. The reason for these results seemed to be that we assessed the severity of emphysema by detecting the air space enlargement on high resolution CT scan images caused by the destruction of alveolar walls, which were detectable by measuring DLco/VA. We conclude that it is possible to detect mild emphysema using the combination of high resolution CT scan and pulmomary function tests. (author)

  4. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  5. Evaluation of the extent of ground-glass opacity on high-resolution CT in patients with interstitial pneumonia associated with systemic sclerosis: Comparison between quantitative and qualitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Tsukamoto, H.; Horiuchi, T.; Sunami, S.; Kamitani, T.; Jinnouchi, M.; Nagao, M.; Akashi, K.; Honda, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To verify whether quantitative analysis of the extent of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) could show a stronger correlation with the therapeutic response of interstitial pneumonia (IP) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared with qualitative analysis. Materials and methods: Seventeen patients with IP associated with SSc received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) and were followed up using HRCT and pulmonary function tests. Two thoracic radiologists assessed the extent of GGO on HRCT using a workstation. Therapeutic effect was assessed using the change of vital capacity (VC) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco) before and 12 months after PBSCT. Interobserver agreement was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the Bland–Altman method. Correlation with the therapeutic response between quantitative and qualitative analysis was assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results: Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed good agreement, but Bland–Altman plots showed that proportional error could be suspected. Quantitative analysis showed stronger correlation than the qualitative analysis based on the relationships between the change in extent of GGO and VC, and change in extent of GGO and DLco. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the change in extent of GGO showed stronger correlation with the therapeutic response of IP with SSc after auto-PBSCT than with the qualitative analysis. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of GGO in IP showed strong correlation with therapeutic effect. • Qualitative analysis might be limited by interobserver variance. • Other parameters including reticular opacities remain in a future investigation

  6. 99mTc-IgG-Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Malakizadeh, Hasan; Monavvarsadegh, Gholamhossein; Ilkhani Pak, Hoda; Sadeghi, Azadeh; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The discrimination of inactive inflammatory processes from the active form of the disease is of great importance in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-IgG scan for the detection of severity of disease compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT). Eight known cases of ILD including four cases of Mustard gas (MG) intoxication and four patients with ILD of unknown cause were included in this study. A population of six patients without lung disease was considered as the control group. The patients underwent PFT and high-resolution computed tomography, followed by 99mTc-IgG scan. They were followed up for one year. 99mTc-IgG scan assessment of IgG uptake was accomplished both qualitatively (subjectively) and semiquantitatively. All eight ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-IgG uptake in the lungs, compared to the control patients. The 99mTc-IgG scan scores were higher in the patient group (0.64[95% confidence interval(CI)=0.61-0.69])) than the control group (0.35 (0.35[95% CI=0.28-0.40]), (P<0.05)). In patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was detected between 99mTc-IgG scan and HRCT scores (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.92, P < 0.008). The 99mTc-Human Immunoglobulin (HIG) scores were not significantly correlated with PFT findings (including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC), O 2 saturation and age (P values > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between 99mTc-IgG score and HRCT patterns including ground glass opacity, reticular fibrosis and honeycombing (P value > 0.05). The present results confirmed that 99mTc-IgG scan could be applied to detect the severity of pulmonary involvement, which was well correlated with HRCT findings. This data also showed that the 99mTc-IgG scan might be used as a complement to HRCT in the functional evaluation of the clinical status in ILD; however, further studies are

  7. Serial CT scans and Menkes' kinky hair disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Eizo; Kameyama, Junji; Yoshimitsu, Hajime; Mori, Mikio; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Yoshimitsu, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Menkes' kinky hair disease is a sex-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterized by progressive psychomotor deterioration, seizures, and peculiar hair structure. We examined serial CT scans of patients with this disease. A 2,210-g male infant was delivered after an uneventful gestation of 36 weeks. His one-minute Apgar score was 9. His uncle had died at 1 year of age. His first cousin was also diagnosed as having Menkes' kinky hair disease when our patient was 2 years old. Shortly after birth he had mild respiratory distress. At 5 days of age, he developed setting-sun signs. The first CT scan, at 10 days of age, revealed mild posterior fossa hemorrhages. At 3 months of age, myoclonic seizures began, and the CT scan revealed subdural effusion and mild brain atrophy. The seizures were controllable by using phenobarbital, valproic acid, and nitrazepam. He did not follow light or a fixate, but the fundi were normal. He was diffusely hypotonic. At 9 months of age, the seizures became uncontrollable. The CT scans at 15 and 31 months of age showed subdural hemorrhage and/or brain atrophy. At 15 months of age, the serum copper level was 42 μ g/dl, while the serum ceruloplasmin level was 3.2 mg/dl. He exhibited severe developmental failure. At 4 years of age, he died. (author)

  8. Serial CT scans and Menkes' kinky hair disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Eizo; Kameyama, Junji; Yoshimitsu, Hajime; Mori, Mikio; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Yoshimitsu, Kazunori.

    1988-02-01

    Menkes' kinky hair disease is a sex-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterized by progressive psychomotor deterioration, seizures, and peculiar hair structure. We examined serial CT scans of patients with this disease. A 2,210-g male infant was delivered after an uneventful gestation of 36 weeks. His one-minute Apgar score was 9. His uncle had died at 1 year of age. His first cousin was also diagnosed as having Menkes' kinky hair disease when our patient was 2 years old. Shortly after birth he had mild respiratory distress. At 5 days of age, he developed setting-sun signs. The first CT scan, at 10 days of age, revealed mild posterior fossa hemorrhages. At 3 months of age, myoclonic seizures began, and the CT scan revealed subdural effusion and mild brain atrophy. The seizures were controllable by using phenobarbital, valproic acid, and nitrazepam. He did not follow light or a fixate, but the fundi were normal. He was diffusely hypotonic. At 9 months of age, the seizures became uncontrollable. The CT scans at 15 and 31 months of age showed subdural hemorrhage and/or brain atrophy. At 15 months of age, the serum copper level was 42 ..mu.. g/dl, while the serum ceruloplasmin level was 3.2 mg/dl. He exhibited severe developmental failure. At 4 years of age, he died.

  9. Helical CT scan for emergent patients with cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Masato; Sato, Naoki; Nakano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Youichi; Kodama, Namio

    1995-01-01

    We studied 44 emergent patients with cerebrovascular diseases (18 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, 15 of occlusive lesions, 7 of intracerebral hematoma and 4 of suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage) using helical CT scan. The helical CT scan was performed with contrast medium at a rate of 3 ml/sec with a delay of 20 sec, and was carried out before conventional angiography. The reconstruction time of 3D-CTA was within 10 min. We were able to obtain findings for the lesion on 3D-CTA before those on conventional angiography. The 3D-CTA yielded excellent images of the vascular structures and anatomical relationships of the aneurysm, its neck and parent artery, and surrounding arteries. However, it proved difficult to visualize vessels of less than 1 mm in diameter, especially the perforating arteries. In occlusive diseases, the degree of stenosis depended on the changes in CT number threshold: at present, evaluations of the lesions should be made by conventional angiography. 3D-CTA using helical CT scan can thus be applied for emergent patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Surgical simulation images of 3D-CTA were especially useful at the time of operation. (author)

  10. Helical CT scan for emergent patients with cerebrovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masato; Sato, Naoki; Nakano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Youichi; Kodama, Namio [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    We studied 44 emergent patients with cerebrovascular diseases (18 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, 15 of occlusive lesions, 7 of intracerebral hematoma and 4 of suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage) using helical CT scan. The helical CT scan was performed with contrast medium at a rate of 3 ml/sec with a delay of 20 sec, and was carried out before conventional angiography. The reconstruction time of 3D-CTA was within 10 min. We were able to obtain findings for the lesion on 3D-CTA before those on conventional angiography. The 3D-CTA yielded excellent images of the vascular structures and anatomical relationships of the aneurysm, its neck and parent artery, and surrounding arteries. However, it proved difficult to visualize vessels of less than 1 mm in diameter, especially the perforating arteries. In occlusive diseases, the degree of stenosis depended on the changes in CT number threshold: at present, evaluations of the lesions should be made by conventional angiography. 3D-CTA using helical CT scan can thus be applied for emergent patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Surgical simulation images of 3D-CTA were especially useful at the time of operation. (author).

  11. A correlation study between high resolution CT appearances and expression of transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor-α in radiation-induced lung injury of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lili; Cheng Guangjun; Li Shaodong; Xu Kai

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between high resolution computed tomography manifestations and expression of transforming growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha in radiation- induced lung injury of rats, and to investigate the values of cytokine detection and HRCT scanning for the prediction and early diagnosis of radiation-induced lung injury. Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into eight groups, group A was normal control group, and group B- H were irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy to the lungs. HRCT scanning was performed before and 1 week, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 weeks after radiation in group A-H respectively. The expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha were detected with ELISA. All the rats were killed to observe pathological changes of their lungs. HRCT signs, levels of cytokine were simultaneously compared and analyzed. The t-test and Spearman rank correlation were used for the statistics. Results: Four HRCT signs were observed during the 24 weeks after radiation, including ground-glass opacity (1 case), patchy consolidation (8 cases), massive consolidation (7 cases) and fibrosis (3 cases). The average levels of TGF-beta in group B-H [(3.33± 0.47), (3.20±0.65), (3.12±0.45), (3.54±0.80), (3.30±1.13), (2.49±0.67), (4.19± 0.22) μg/L, respectively] were higher than the control group [(0.45±0.14) μg/L, P 0.05). There were no rank correlations between HRCT manifestations and expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha (r s = 0.5570 and 0.1013,P>0.05). HRCT signs were correlated with pathological changes. Conclusions: The monitoring of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in the serum after irradiation can predict the development of radiation-induced lung injury. There are no rank correlations between HRCT manifestations and expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha. (authors)

  12. CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Hideki; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Kanaya, Kiyoshi; Hanyu, Haruo; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Katsunuma, Hideyo

    1988-02-01

    CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases were studied in 111 patients with atrial fibrillation (Af). One of these patients had cerebral hemorrhage, and another, subarachnoid hemorrhage, while the others all had cerebral infarctions. CT revealed 122 lesions with a low-density area (LDA) in 105 patients. Based on the cerebral artery territory, the 122 CT lesions were classified into the following 8 types: 10 hemispheric, 43 superficial, 23 deep, 28 superficial+deep, 1 anterior cerebral artery, 6 posterior cerebral artery, 10 watershed, and 1 vertebrobasilar. Therefore, infarctions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) system, including 94 infarctions of the middle cerebral artery territory, were most frequent, accounting for 94% of all lesions. The ratio of the left to the right infarctions of the ICA system was 1.1:1. However, it should be noted that non-embolic infarctions can occur even patients with Af.

  13. CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hideki; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Kanaya, Kiyoshi; Hanyu, Haruo; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Katsunuma, Hideyo

    1988-01-01

    CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases were studied in 111 patients with atrial fibrillation (Af). One of these patients had cerebral hemorrhage, and another, subarachnoid hemorrhage, while the others all had cerebral infarctions. CT revealed 122 lesions with a low-density area (LDA) in 105 patients. Based on the cerebral artery territory, the 122 CT lesions were classified into the following 8 types: 10 hemispheric, 43 superficial, 23 deep, 28 superficial+deep, 1 anterior cerebral artery, 6 posterior cerebral artery, 10 watershed, and 1 vertebrobasilar. Therefore, infarctions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) system, including 94 infarctions of the middle cerebral artery territory, were most frequent, accounting for 94% of all lesions. The ratio of the left to the right infarctions of the ICA system was 1.1:1. However, it should be noted that non-embolic infarctions can occur even patients with Af. (author)

  14. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  15. Brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: A CT-scan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkstein, S.E.; Folstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; McDonnell, A.; Folstein, M.

    1989-01-01

    CT-scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were carried out in 34 patients with Huntington's disease (HD). While a significant correlation was observed between parameters of subcortical atrophy (bicaudate ratio, bifrontal ratio and third ventricular ratio) and duration of the disease, there was no significant correlation between these parameters and age. On the other hand, measurements of cortical atrophy (frontal fissure ratio and cortical sulci ratio) correlated significantly with age but not with duration of the disease. When a group of 24 HD patients were compared on CT-scan measurements with a group of 24 age-matched normal controls, significant differences were obtained for all the variables examined, but the bicaudate ratio showed the highest sensitivity and specificity. Even mildly affected patients, with duration of motor symptoms less than 3 years had higher bicaudate ratios than age-matched controls. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of airway lesion in obstructive lung diseases by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ueda, Tetsuya; Mishima, Michiaki

    2002-01-01

    Airway lesion in obstructive pulmonary diseases, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has recently been assessed quantitatively. Especially in asthma, wall thickening of central airways, and its relation to the severity of disease or airflow obstruction has been clarified. Pathophysiologic importance of peripheral airway lesion has also been highlighted by pathologic or physiologic studies. However, direct evaluation of peripheral airway lesion is beyond resolutional limitation of CT. To assess airway trapping, an indirect CT finding of peripheral airway disease, by quantitative and semiquantitative measures and compare them with clinical indices such as pulmonary function, airway responsiveness, or airway inflammation. Patients with stable asthma (n=20) were studied. HRCT at 3 levels of both lungs were scanned. Low attenuation area (LAA)% and mean lung density were quantitatively assessed by an automatic method. Distribution of mosaic pattern was visually scored semiquantitatively. LAA% and mean lung density at full expiratory phase correlated with the degree of airflow obstruction. Mosaic score at full inspiratory phase correlated with the severity of disease and airflow obstruction. Expiratory/inspiratory ratio of mean lung density was also associated with airway responsiveness or residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC). These CT findings may be useful as markers of asthma pathophysiology. (author)

  17. Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, T.E.; Primack, S.L.; Kang, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean±SD extent, 30±16%) and irregular lines (mean±SD extent, 17±7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean±SD extent, 10±6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean±SD extent, 51±26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean±SD extent, 5±5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p 2 test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors)

  18. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  19. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  20. The role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of preoperative and postoperative complications caused by acquired cholesteatomas; CT und MRT des erworbenen Cholesteatoms: Prae- und postoperative Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, C.; Czerny, C. [Abteilung fuer Osteologie, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Gstoettner, W. [Univ.-Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Frankfurt (Germany); Franz, P. [Univ.-Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Wien (Austria)

    2003-03-01

    The role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of preoperative and postoperative complications caused by acquired cholesteatomas will be described in this paper. The pre- and postoperative imaging of the temporal bone was performed with HRCT and MRI. HRCT and MRI were performed in the axial and coronal plane. MRI was done with T2 weighted and T1 weighted sequences both before and after the intravenous application of contrast material. All imaging findings were confirmed clinically or surgically. The preoperative cholesteatoma-caused complications depicted by HRCT included bony erosions of the ossicles, scutum, facial canal in the middle ear, tympanic walls including the tegmen tympani, and of the labyrinth. The preoperative cholesteatoma-caused complications depicted by MRI included signs indicative for labyrinthitis, and brain abscess. Postoperative HRCT depicted bony erosions caused by recurrent cholesteatoma, bony defects of the facial nerve and of the labyrinth, and a defect of the tegmen tympani with a soft tissue mass in the middle ear. Postoperative MRI delineated neuritis of the facial nerve, labyrinthitis, and a meningo-encephalocele protruding into the middle ear. HRCT and MRI are excellent imaging tools to depict either bony or soft tissue complications or both if caused by acquired cholesteatomas. According to our findings and to the literature HRCT and MRI are complementary imaging methods to depict pre- or postoperative complications of acquired cholesteatomas if these are suspected by clinical examination. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wird die Rolle der hochaufloesenden Computertomographie (HRCT) und der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zur Abklaerung prae- und postoperativ bedingter Komplikationen erworbener Cholesteatome beschrieben. Die Bildgebung wurde sowohl mit der HRCT als auch mit der MRT durchgefuehrt. Die HRCT und die MRT wurden in axialer und koronaler Ebene (auch

  1. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) of the pleura and chest wall: Normal findings and pathological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, R.C.; Schnoy, N.; Schoenfeld, N.; Grassot, A.; Loddenkemper, R.; Lode, H.; Kaiser, D.; Krumhaar, D.; Felix, R.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the value of high-resolution MRI in pleural and chest wall diseases, the normal and pathologic costal pleura and adjacent chest wall between paravertebral and the axillar region were examined with contrast enhanced high-resolution T 1 -weighted MRI images using a surface coil. Normal anatomy was evaluated in 5 healthy volunteers and a normal specimen of the thoracic wall, and correlation was made with corresponding HR-CT and histologic sections. CT-proved focal and diffuse changes of the pleura and the chest wall in 36 patients underwent HR-MRI, and visual comparison of MRI and CT was done retrospectively. Especially sagittal T 1 -weighted HR-MRI images allowed accurate delineation of the peripleural fat layer (PFL) and the innermost intercostal muscle (IIM), which served as landmarks of the intact inner chest wall. PFL and IIM were well delineated in 3/4 patients with tuberculous pleuritis, and in all 7 patients with non-specific pleuritis, as opposed to impairment of the PFL and/or the IIM, which was detected in 15/18 malignancies as a pattern of malignant chest wall involvement. In one case of tuberculous pleural empyema with edema of the inner chest wall HR-MRI produced false positive diagnosis of malignant disease. HR-MRI images improved non-invasive evaluation of pleural and chest wall diseases, and allowed for differentiation of bengin and malignant changes. (orig./MG) [de

  2. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation; Opacidades em vidro fosco nas doencas pulmonares difusas: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira; Vianna, Alberto Domingues; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Radiologia; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2003-12-01

    Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its un specificity, association with other radiological, clinical and pathological findings must be considered for an accurate diagnostic interpretation. In this paper were reviewed 62 computed tomography examinations of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases of 14 different etiologies in which ground-glass opacity was the only or the most remarkable finding, and correlated this findings with pathology abnormalities seen on specimens obtained from biopsies or necropsies. In pneumocystosis, ground-glass opacities correlated histologically with alveolar occupation by a foaming material containing parasites, in bronchiole alveolar cell carcinoma with thickening of the alveolar septa and occupation of the lumen by mucus and tumoral cells, in paracoccidioidomycosis with thickening of the alveolar septa, areas of fibrosis and alveolar bronchopneumonia exudate, in sarcoidosis with fibrosis or clustering of granulomas and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with alveolar septa thickening due to fibrosis. Alveolar occupation by blood was found in cases of leptospirosis, idiopathic hemo siderosis, metastatic kidney tumor and invasive aspergillosis whereas oily vacuole were seen in lipoid pneumonia, proteinaceous and lipo proteinaceous material in silico proteinosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and edematous fluid in cardiac failure. (author)

  4. Application of 2 mm thin-slice scanning with bone algorithm on conventional CT in diagnosis of the pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianheng; Li Xiuhua; Wang Fenghua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of 2 mm thin-slice conventional CT scan with bone algorithm in diagnosis and differential diagnosis in the pulmonary diseases. Methods: In total 135 cases of the pulmonary diseases were routinely scanned by conventional scan, 10 mm per slice, with standard algorithm, then the 2 mm thin-slice scan with bone algorithm was performed at the interested region of the lungs. Result: According to the comparative study of the CT signs between 10 mm slice scan with standard algorithm and 2 mm thin-slice scan with bone algorithm, the latter was better on displaying the pulmonary axial interstium, intralobular septum, subpleura lines, honeycombing, 2-5 mm nodulars and anomalies of bronchial wall. Conclusion: According to the study of 135 cases, 2 mm thin-slice scan with bone algorithm is superior to 10 mm slice scan with standard algorithm in demonstrating the pulmonary lesions. It has a similar value with high-resolution spiral CT in the diagnosis of the pulmonary solitary or diffuse nodules, pulmonary diffuse interstitial lesions and the lesions of the airway. It is practical and advisable in the community hospital

  5. Haemodynamic findings on cardiac CT in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2011-01-01

    In patients with congenital heart disease, haemodynamic findings demonstrated on cardiac CT might provide useful hints for understanding the haemodynamics of cardiac defects. In contrast to morphological features depicted on cardiac CT, such haemodynamic findings on cardiac CT have not been comprehensively reviewed in patients with congenital heart disease. This article describes normal haemodynamic phenomena of cardiovascular structures and various abnormal haemodynamic findings with their mechanisms and clinical significance on cardiac CT in patients with congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative measurement of lung density with x-ray CT and positron CT, (2). Diseased subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kengo; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-05-01

    Lung density was quantitatively measured on six diseased patients with X-ray CT (XCT) and Positron CT(PCT). The findings are as follows: In the silicosis, extravascular lung density was found to be remarkably increased compared to normals (0.29gcm/sup 3/), but blood volume was in normal range. In the post-irradiated lung cancers, extravascular lung density increased in the irradiated sites compared to the non-irradiated opposite sites, and blood volume varied in each case. In a patient with chronic heart failure, blood volume decreased (0.11mlcm/sup 3/) with increased extravascular lung density (0.23gcm/sup 3/). In the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both extravascular lung density and blood volume decreased (0.11gcm/sup 3/ and 0.10mlcm/sup 3/ respectively). Lung density measured with XCT was constantly lower than that with PCT in all cases. But changes in the values of lung density measured, correlated well with each other. In conclusion, the method presented here may clarify the etiology of the diffuse pulmonary diseases, and be used to differentiate and grade the diseases.

  7. Value of computed tomography in diagnosis of intestinal diseases. CT findings in nontumoral bowel diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Koichi; Yamane, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Miura, Yoshio; Kato, Yoshitaka; Yahata, Noriko; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Katsuta, Shizutomo

    1987-03-01

    CT findings of 46 cases with inflammatory and other nontumoral bowel diseases were retrospectively studied. Patients were given 500 to 1000 ml of lukewarm water orally or rectally to distend the intestinal lumen. In all cases water-soluble iodine contrast media was administered intravenously. The CT findings in Crohn's disease included mural thickening, luminal narrowing, bowel wall enhancement, wall rigidity, serration of intestinal border, dilatation of mesenteric vessels, periintestinal blurring (inflamatory reaction of mesentery), fibrofatty proliferation, effusion, abscess and fistula. Many of these findings suggested the transmural nature of the disease and gave diagnostic clues of the disease. In cases with ulcerative colitis, thickening of bowel wall was insignificant and extraintestinal complications were absent. CT appears to play an important role in distinguishing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Luminal narrowing and mural thickening were also observed in a case with intestinal ischemia, but these mural changes were not accompanied by mesenteric abnormalities to the degree of Crohn's disease. In cases with penetrating peptic ulcer and diverticulitis, CT demonstrated inflammatory reactions of surrounding tissue such as thickening of neighboring fascia, increase in attenuation value of mesenteric fat, effusion and abscess. Even in cases with confusing clinical symptoms, appendicitis was easily diagnosed on CT which showed swelling of appendix and inflammatory changes of surrounding structures. Mechanical obstruction of the intestine could be identified on CT by a notable change of luminal sizes at the site of obstruction. CT appearances of intussusception were distinctive and a soft tissue mass (intussusceptum) and mesenteric fat was seen within a markedly dilated intussuscipiens. CT could also reveal pancreatitis and splenic infarction as the causes of clinically-undiagnosed paralytic ileus. (J.P.N.).

  8. Longitudinal micro-CT as an outcome measure of interstitial lung disease in TNF-transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Bell

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD is a debilitating condition with poor survival prognosis. High resolution computed tomography (CT is a common clinical tool to diagnose RA-ILD, and is increasingly being adopted in pre-clinical studies. However, murine models recapitulating RA-ILD are lacking, and CT outcomes for inflammatory lung disease have yet to be formally validated. To address this, we validate μCT outcomes for ILD in the tumor necrosis factor transgenic (TNF-Tg mouse model of RA.Cross sectional μCT was performed on cohorts of male TNF-Tg mice and their WT littermates at 3, 4, 5.5 and 12 months of age (n = 4-6. Lung μCT outcomes measures were determined by segmentation of the μCT datasets to generate Aerated and Tissue volumes. After each scan, lungs were obtained for histopathology and 3 sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Automated histomorphometry was performed to quantify the tissue area (nuclei, cytoplasm, and extracellular matrix and aerated area (white space within the tissue sections. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the extent of association between μCT imaging and histopathology endpoints.TNF-Tg mice had significantly greater tissue volume, total lung volume and mean intensity at all timepoints compared to age matched WT littermates. Histomorphometry also demonstrated a significant increase in tissue area at 3, 4, and 5.5 months of age in TNF-Tg mice. Lung tissue volume was correlated with lung tissue area (ρ = 0.81, p<0.0001, and normalize lung aerated volume was correlated with normalized lung air area (ρ = 0.73, p<0.0001.We have validated in vivo μCT as a quantitative biomarker of ILD in mice. Further, development of longitudinal measures is critical for dissecting pathologic progression of ILD, and μCT is a useful non-invasive method to study lung inflammation in the TNF-Tg mouse model.

  9. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  10. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  11. CT volumetric measurements of the orbits in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahe, T.; Schlolaut, K.H.; Poss, T.; Trier, H.G.; Lackner, K.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The volumes of the four recti muscles and the orbital fat was measured by CT in 40 normal persons and in 60 patients with clinically confirmed Graves' disease. Compared with normal persons, 42 patients (70%) showed an increase in muscle volume and 28 patients (46.7%) an increase in the amount of fat. In nine patients (15%) muscle volume was normal, but the fat was increased. By using volumetric measurements, the amount of fat in the orbits in patients with Graves' disease could be determined. (orig.) [de

  12. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  13. CT findings of diffuse pleural diseases: differentiation of malignant disease from tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, In Gye; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Young Rae; Chin, Seung Bum; Park, Yoon Ok; Park, Hae Won

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether or not previously known CT criteria for differentiating malignant and benign pleural diseases are useful in the differentiation of diffuse malignant pleural diseases and tuberculosis. We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of 42 patients comprising 20 cases of malignant pleural diseases and 22 cases of tuberculous pleural diseases, according to previously known CT criteria for differentiating malignant and benign pleural diseases. The most common shape of pleural effusion was crescentic in malignant pleural diseases and loculated in tuberculosis. The aggressive nature of pleural effusion, pleural rind, and pleura thickening was 1.5 times more frequently observed in malignant pleural diseases than in tuberculosis. Smooth thickening or smooth nodular pleural thickening and extrapleural deposition of fat were 1.5 times more frequently found in tuberculous than in malignant pleural diseases. Interruption of pleural thickening was found twice as frequently in malignant pleural diseases as in tuberculosis. Decreased lung volume was found twice as frequently in tuberculous as in malignant pleural diseases. Anatomical mediastinal pleural involvement was three times, and irregular nodular pleural thickening nine times more frequent in malignant pleural diseases than in tuberculosis. The sensitivity and specificity of CT findings above 70%, and thus suggesting malignant pleural diseases, were as follows : 1) aggressive nature of pleural fluid collection extending to the azygoesophageal recess or tongue of the lung (51.5%, 75%); 2) involvement of anatomical mediastinal pleura (69.2%, 73.7%); 3) irregular nodular pleural thickening (87.5%, 69%). Although there in overlap between previously known CT criteria for the differentiation of benign and malignant pleural diseases, the aggressive nature of pleural fluid collection extending to the azygoesophageal recess or tongue of the lung, the involvement of anatomical mediastinal pleura and irregular nodular

  14. Comparison of Direct Sequencing, Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melt (PCR-HRM) and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis for Genotyping of Common Thiopurine Intolerant Variant Alleles NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT c.719A>G (TPMT*3C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Wai-Ying; Ho, Chi-Chun; Poon, Wing-Tat

    2017-05-12

    Thiopurine intolerance and treatment-related toxicity, such as fatal myelosuppression, is related to non-function genetic variants encoding thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and Nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15). Genetic testing of the common variants NUDT15:NM_018283.2:c.415C>T (Arg139Cys, dbSNP rs116855232 T allele) and TPMT: NM_000367.4:c.719A>G (TPMT*3C, dbSNP rs1142345 G allele) in East Asians including Chinese can potentially prevent treatment-related complications. Two complementary genotyping approaches, real-time PCR-high resolution melt (PCR-HRM) and PCR-restriction fragment length morphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis were evaluated using conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing genotyping as the gold standard. Sixty patient samples were tested, revealing seven patients (11.7%) heterozygous for NUDT15 c.415C>T, one patient homozygous for the variant and one patient heterozygous for the TPMT*3C non-function allele. No patient was found to harbor both variants. In total, nine out of 60 (15%) patients tested had genotypic evidence of thiopurine intolerance, which may require dosage adjustment or alternative medication should they be started on azathioprine, mercaptopurine or thioguanine. The two newly developed assays were more efficient and showed complete concordance (60/60, 100%) compared to the Sanger sequencing results. Accurate and cost-effective genotyping assays by real-time PCR-HRM and PCR-RFLP for NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT*3C were successfully developed. Further studies may establish their roles in genotype-informed clinical decision-making in the prevention of morbidity and mortality due to thiopurine intolerance.

  15. Albendazole treatment of cerebral hydatid disease: evaluation of results with CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaitzoglou, I.; Drevelengas, A.; Petridis, A.; Palladas, P.

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of cerebral hydatid disease demonstrated by CT and MRI, treated with albendazole. Follow-up showed complete dissapearance of the cysts with residual focal calcification on CT and presumed gliosis on MRI. (orig.)

  16. Lung scintigraphy with nonspecific human immunoglobulin G (99mTc-HIG) in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in connective tissue diseases: correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostopoulos, C.; Toubanakis, C.; Mamoulakis, C.; Gialafos, E.; Mavrikakis, M.; Koutsikos, J.; Zerva, C.; Leondi, A.; Moulopoulos, L.A.; Sfikakis, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    In patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD), the early detection and evaluation of the severity of the pulmonary involvement is mandatory. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are considered to be valuable noninvasive diagnostic modalities. Radiopharmaceuticals have also been used for this purpose. Our aim was the evaluation of technetium-labeled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (HIG) lung scintigraphy in the early detection and assessment of the severity of the pulmonary involvement in CTD patients. Fifty-two nonsmoking CTD patients were studied by PFTs, HRCT, and HIG. According to PFTs, patients were divided in group A (impaired PFTs - abnormal pulmonary function) and group B (normal pulmonary function). Semiquantitative analysis was done on HIG and HRCT and corresponding scores were obtained. Significant difference was found between HIG scores in the two groups (0.6 ± 0.07 vs 0.51 ± 0.08, P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between HIG scores and PFTs results and a positive correlation between HIG and HRCT scores. HIG demonstrated similar clinical performance to HRCT. At the best cut-off levels of their score (0.56 and 7, respectively), HIG had a superior sensitivity (77.5 vs 57.5%) with lower specificity (75 vs 91.7%). The combination of the two methods increased the sensitivity of abnormal findings at the expense of specificity. HIG scintigraphy can be used in the early detection and evaluation of the severity of the pulmonary involvement in CTD, whereas, when used in combination with HRCT, the detection of affected patients can be further improved. (orig.)

  17. Retroperitoneal Castleman's disease: US, CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, Claudio; Boretti, Juan J.; Villavicencio, Roberto; Oxilia, Hector; Costamagna, Cecilia; Ferrer, Jaime; Secchi, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To describe de imaging features of this unusual localization of Castleman's disease. Materials and methods: Two patients (man: 62 years old, woman: 27 years old) with epigastric abdominal pain were studied. The physical examination was negative in the woman while in the other case a peri umbilical tumor was observed. The laboratory and the tumor markers were negative. Both patients had a history of appendectomy. US, TC and MRI were performed. After surgery the pathological examination included stain techniques with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's techniques and PAS. Results: Retroperitoneal Castleman's disease in peri pancreatic localization (extremely rare). The US showed slight hypoechoic homogeneous lesions with clear rims. CT without contrast revealed isodense lesions and one of them presented a small calcification, the e.v. contrast CT showed a clear homogeneous reinforcement. MRI demonstrated hypointense lesions on T1, hyperintense on T2, and after the administration of gadolinium these lesions showed a marked reinforcement on the arterial phase, which persisted on the late venous phase. The differential diagnosis with pancreatic tumoral pathology was difficult. The pathological examination revealed a lymphoid angio follicular hyperplasia of hyaline vascular type. Conclusion: Retroperitoneal Castlelman's disease is a rare entity. The different imaging methods did not provide an accurate diagnosis of this entity since there are no pathognomonic features. The pathological examination was required to define the diagnosis in both reported cases. (author)

  18. Treatment of alzheimer disease with CT scans - a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Moore, E.R. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States); Hosfeld, V.D. [MidMichigan Health, Midland, MI (United States); Nadolski, D.L. [Midland Internal Medicine Associates PC, Midland, MI (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects older adults. This neurodegenerative disorder is the most common cause of dementia and is a leading source of their morbidity and mortality. U.S. patient care costs are about 200 billion dollars and will more than double by 2040. This case report describes the remarkable improvement of an advanced AD patient in hospice, who received five CT scans of the brain, about 40 mGy each, over a period of three months. The mechanism appears to be radiation-induced up-regulation of the patient's adaptive protection systems against AD, which partially restored cognition, memory, speech, movement, and appetite. (author)

  19. Treatment of alzheimer disease with CT scans - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.; Moore, E.R.; Hosfeld, V.D.; Nadolski, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects older adults. This neurodegenerative disorder is the most common cause of dementia and is a leading source of their morbidity and mortality. U.S. patient care costs are about 200 billion dollars and will more than double by 2040. This case report describes the remarkable improvement of an advanced AD patient in hospice, who received five CT scans of the brain, about 40 mGy each, over a period of three months. The mechanism appears to be radiation-induced up-regulation of the patient's adaptive protection systems against AD, which partially restored cognition, memory, speech, movement, and appetite. (author)

  20. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  1. Usefulness of CT based SPECT Fusion Image in the lung Disease : Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, SPECT/CT system has been applied to many diseases, however, the application is not extensively applied at pulmonary disease. Especially, in case that, the pulmonary embolisms suspect at the CT images, SPECT is performed. For the accurate diagnosis, SPECT/CT tests are subsequently undergoing. However, without SPECT/CT, there are some limitations to apply these procedures. With SPECT/CT, although, most of the examination performed after CT. Moreover, such a test procedures generate unnecessary dual irradiation problem to the patient. In this study, we evaluated the amount of unnecessary irradiation, and the usefulness of fusion images of pulmonary disease, which independently acquired from SPECT and CT. Using NEMA PhantomTM (NU2-2001), SPECT and CT scan were performed for fusion images. From June 2011 to September 2010, 10 patients who didn't have other personal history, except lung disease were selected (male: 7, female: 3, mean age: 65.3±12.7). In both clinical patient and phantom data, the fusion images scored higher than SPECT and CT images. The fusion images, which is combined with pulmonary vessel images from CT and functional images from SPECT, can increase the detection possibility in detecting pulmonary embolism in the resin of lung parenchyma. It is sure that performing SPECT and CT in integral SPECT/CT system were better. However, we believe this protocol can give more informative data to have more accurate diagnosis in the hospital without integral SPECT/CT system.

  2. CT and MRI of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This book addresses a variety of topics in thoracic imaging, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in thoracic lymphoma; focal and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of diffuse lung disease; imaging and disorders of the pleura, diaphragm, and mediastinum; and the increasingly important topic of the immunocompromised patient. Eight case studies close out the volume

  3. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  4. MR-Venography Using High Resolution True-FISP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuentrup, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Stuber, M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Philips Med. Syst., Best (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    A new fast MR-venography approach using a high resolution True-FISP imaging sequence was investigated in 20 patients suffering from 23 deep vein thromboses. Diagnosis was proven by X-ray venography, CT or ultrasound examination. The presented technique allowed for clear thrombus visualization with a high contrast to the surrounding blood pool even in calf veins. Acquisition time was less than 10 minutes for imaging the pelvis and the legs. No contrast media was needed. The presented high resolution True-FISP MR-veography is a promising non-invasive, fast MR-venography approach for detection of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Eine neue schnelle, oertlich hochaufgeloeste MR-Phlebographietechnik mit einer axialen True-FISP Bildgebungssequenz wurde an 20 Patienten mit 23 nach-gewiesenen tiefen Beinvenenthrombosen untersucht. Die Befunde wurden mit einer konventionellen Roentgenphlebographie, einer CT oder einer Sonographie gesichert. Die vorgestellte Technik erlaubte in allen Faellen eine Thrombusdarstellung mit hohem Kontrast zum umgebenden venoesen Blut, wobei aufgrund der hohen Ortsaufloesung auch die Unterschenkelvenen beurteilt werden konnten. Die Datenaufnahmezeit zur Untersuchung des Beckens und der Beine betrug weniger als 10 Minuten. Kontrastmittel wurde nicht benoetigt. Die vorgestellte MR-Phlebographietechnik unter Verwendung einer oertlich hochauf-geloesten True-FISP Sequenz ist eine neue, vielversprechende, nicht-invasive Technik zur Diagnostik der tiefen Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombose. (orig.)

  5. PET/CT in sarcoidosis associated with oncological disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, C.; Servente, L.; Valuntas, L.; García Fontes, L.; Engler, H.

    2017-01-01

    Purposes: To describe the radiological findings of sarcoidosis or sarcoid-like reactions in cancer patients being monitored by positron emission computed tomography (PET/CT). Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 18 PET/CT studies performed over 3 years in patients with lymphomas and solid tumours who presented with hypermetabolic hiliar-mediastinal adenopathies. The morphological pattern of these adenopathies, the distribution, and in some cases the association with pulmonary nodules, might suggest sarcoidosis as a differential diagnosis. Results: Oncological diseases corresponded to breast (4), prostate (3), ovary (2), and others (9). The adenopathies were classified in 7 of the 18 patients as benign after histological confirmation of sarcoidosis, anthracosis or sarcoid-like reaction. The evolutionary behaviour in 5 patients was compatible with benign lesions. The biopsy of 2 patients indicated secondary lesions and malignancy was confirmed by the evolution of the 4 remaining cases. There was a total of 12 (66%) benign lesions. Discussion: Sarcoidosis must be suspected in the presence of hypermetabolic hiliar-mediastinal adenopathies with a characteristic morphological pattern and pulmonary changes. However, biopsy is required to rule out oncological recurrence. The use of new PET/CT markers for differential diagnosis represents a challenge. Aminoacid synthesis tracers such as “1”8F-fluorothymidine (FLT) and “1”8F-fluoromethyltyrosine (FMT) are useful in the differentiation between malignancy and granulomatous diseases in oncologic patients. Conclusion: The differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis should be considered in the presence of bilateral symmetric mediastinal hilum lymphadenopathies. (authors) [es

  6. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  7. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  8. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  9. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  10. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  11. Aspects of pulmonary histiocytosis X on high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.S.S.; Castro Lessa Angela, M.T. de; Angelo Junior, J.R.L.; Silva, F.M.D.; Kavakama, J.; Carvalho, C.R.R. de; Cerri, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is a disease that occurs in young adults and presents with nodules and cysts, mainly in upper lobes, with consequent pulmonary fibrosis. These pulmonary changes are virtually pathognomonic findings on high resolution computed tomography, that allows estimate the area of the lung involved and distinguish histiocytosis X from other disorders that also produces nodules and cysts. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs, 6 figs

  12. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Yukio; Gomi, Shiho; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Hirobumi; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Aso, Tomohiko; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Takaaki; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Tochigi, Naobumi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT) scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT) scanners. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm × 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm × 16 or 0.5 mm × 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images fr...

  13. CT characterization of inflammatory paranasal sinus disease in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggesboe, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) the prevalence of paranasal sinus affection approaches 100%. We hypothesized that the hyper viscous mucus reducing mucociliary clearance in CF patients could give sinonasal inflammatory patterns different from those in non-CF patients. We wanted to compare the extent and distribution of paranasal sinus disease and the inflammatory patterns in these two groups of patients. Material and Methods: One-hundred-and-eight CF patients (3-54 years old) and 79 controls (7-51 years old) with paranasal sinus disease confirmed at coronal CT were compared. The extent of disease was noted for each sinus and summed for all sinuses. Inflammatory patterns were identified and classified into: 1) routine surgery group (sporadic, infundibular and ostiomeatal complex (OMC) patterns) and 2) complex surgery group (sinonasal polyposis and sphenoethmoid recess (SER) patterns). Results: CF patients had more widespread sinonasal inflammatory changes and more advanced disease for each sinus. Most CF patients displayed sinonasal polyposis and SER patterns while most controls displayed sporadic, infundibular or OMC patterns. As a result, 67% of CF patients were classified to the complex surgery group, compared to only 19% of controls. Conclusion: The impaired mucociliary clearance in CF causes widespread inflammatory paranasal sinus disease, with inflammatory patterns more often requiring extensive surgery, with a higher risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak or bleeding, or involving areas that are more difficult to reach with the endoscope

  14. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.

  15. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  16. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  17. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  18. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  19. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  20. Pelvic Hydatid Disease: CT and MRI Findings Causing Sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Yildirim, Duzgun [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, 06018, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2007-12-15

    Pelvic masses, especially hydatid disease, rarely present with sciatica. We present the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 49-year-old female patient with presacral hydatid disease, who was evaluated for her sciatica. We also want to emphasize the importance of assessing the pelvis of patients with symptoms and clinical findings that are inconsistent and that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the spinal imaging findings. isc herniation in the lumbar spine is a well-known etiology of back pains and sciatica, but whenever disc herniation of the lumbar spine is excluded by the employed imaging modalities, then the pelvis should be examined for other possible etiologies of nerve compression. We describe here a patient, who was complaining of sciatica, with no abnormal findings in her lumbar spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The cause of her sciatica was found to be associated with a pelvic hydatid cyst compressing the lumbosacral nerve plexus. In conclusion, if no pathology is evident for the lumbar discal structures, in connection with the cause of sciatica and lumbar back pains, then the pelvis should also be examined for the possible etiologies of compression of the lumbosacral nerve plexus. Whenever a multiseptated cyst is come across in a patient of an endemic origin with a positive history for hydatid disease like surgery, indicating recurrence, hydatid cyst is the most likely diagnosis.

  1. Pelvic Hydatid Disease: CT and MRI Findings Causing Sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Yildirim, Duzgun

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic masses, especially hydatid disease, rarely present with sciatica. We present the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 49-year-old female patient with presacral hydatid disease, who was evaluated for her sciatica. We also want to emphasize the importance of assessing the pelvis of patients with symptoms and clinical findings that are inconsistent and that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the spinal imaging findings. isc herniation in the lumbar spine is a well-known etiology of back pains and sciatica, but whenever disc herniation of the lumbar spine is excluded by the employed imaging modalities, then the pelvis should be examined for other possible etiologies of nerve compression. We describe here a patient, who was complaining of sciatica, with no abnormal findings in her lumbar spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The cause of her sciatica was found to be associated with a pelvic hydatid cyst compressing the lumbosacral nerve plexus. In conclusion, if no pathology is evident for the lumbar discal structures, in connection with the cause of sciatica and lumbar back pains, then the pelvis should also be examined for the possible etiologies of compression of the lumbosacral nerve plexus. Whenever a multiseptated cyst is come across in a patient of an endemic origin with a positive history for hydatid disease like surgery, indicating recurrence, hydatid cyst is the most likely diagnosis

  2. Current Roles and Future Applications of Cardiac CT: Risk Stratification of Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeonyee Elizabeth [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Tae-Hwan [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a noninvasive modality for the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD), and has been rapidly integrated into clinical cares. CT has changed the traditional risk stratification based on clinical risk to image-based identification of patient risk. Cardiac CT, including coronary artery calcium score and coronary CT angiography, can provide prognostic information and is expected to improve risk stratification of CAD. Currently used conventional cardiac CT, provides accurate anatomic information but not functional significance of CAD, and it may not be sufficient to guide treatments such as revascularization. Recently, myocardial CT perfusion imaging, intracoronary luminal attenuation gradient, and CT-derived computed fractional flow reserve were developed to combine anatomical and functional data. Although at present, the diagnostic and prognostic value of these novel technologies needs to be evaluated further, it is expected that all-in-one cardiac CT can guide treatment and improve patient outcomes in the near future.

  3. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  4. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  5. The clinical evaluation of CT and radionuclide examination in renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutani, Wataru; Ishida, Hirofumi; Shirakawa, Shigetoshi; Shintaku, Takao; Funaki, Ryo

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and twelve cases of renal diseases were studied by computed tomography (CT) using EMI 5005/12. Of them, 60 were examined by both CT and renal scintigraphy, and comparatively evaluated. The CT units were checked before and after the contrast enhancement. Renal scintigrams were obtained by gamma cameras (PHO/GAMMA HP 6406, PHO/GAMMA LFOV) using 99 M Tc-DMSA. CT was especially useful in diagnosing the renal cysts and the hydronephrosis. Cysts in other organs (liver, spleen and pancreas) were simultaneously ascertained in polycystic diseases. CT was not helpful in diagnosing nephritis and diabetic nephropathy. Floating kidney and horse-shoe kidney were difficult to diagnose with CT. The renal scintigram was the reflection of the renal function, and was relatively more useful than CT in diagnosing horse-shoe kidney, floating kidney and nephritis, while it was not useful for non-functioning kidneys. (author)

  6. High-resolution computed tomography of the lung in smokers: Visual and computer-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Leisse, C.; Otto, A.; Berger, F.; Schmitz, E.; Guenther, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: It has been the aim of the study to assess parenchymal changes in the lung with high-resolution CT in healthy heavy, moderate, and non-smokers. Material and methods: We prospectively evaluated CT changes in 42 healthy heavy smokers (gr. (group) 2, ≥30 pack-years), 40 moderate smokers (gr. 1, R , Kontron GmbH, Munich, Germany). Results: Productive cough, dyspnoea and chronic bronchitis were more common in smokers than in non-smokers (p [de

  7. High resolution muon computed tomography at neutrino beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suerfu, B.; Tully, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials

  8. Spiral CT during pharmacoangiography with angiotensin II in patients with pancreatic disease. Technique and diagnostic efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, C.; Mihara, N.; Hosomi, N.; Inoue, E.; Fujita, M. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ohigashi, H.; Ishikawa, O. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan). Dept. of Surgery; Nakaizumi, A. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Deseases (Japan). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Ishiguro, S. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    1998-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic efficacy of pancreatic pharmacoangiographic CT using angiotensin II with conventional angiographic CT. Material and Methods: Eighteen patients with space-occupying pancreatic disease were examined in this study. Pharmacoangiographic CT was performed with a 1-3-{mu}/6-ml solution of angiotensin II injected through a catheter into the celiac artery during spiral CT. Results: In 17 of the 18 (94%) patients, the area of pancreatic parenchymal enhancement was the same or larger at pharmacoangiographic CT than at conventional angiographic CT. The attenuation value of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly increased at pharmacoangiographic CT (p=0.0010). Although the attenuation value of tumors was also increased on images obtained after the injection of angiotensin II, the tumor-to-pancreas contrast was significantly greater at pharmacoangiographic CT (p=0.0479). The mean differences in attenuation between tumor and pancreas at angiographic CT with and without angiotensin II were respectively 182 HU and 115 HU. Conclusion: Pharmacoangiographic CT with angiotensin II proved superior to conventional angiographic CT in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. We therefore recommend it as a supplementary technique at the angiographic examination of patients with suspected pancreatic tumor. (orig.).

  9. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  10. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  11. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  12. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  13. High resolution neutron spectroscopy for helium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; Klages, H.O.; Schmalz, G.; Haesner, B.H.; Kecskemeti, J.; Schwarz, P.; Wilczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution fast neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described, neutron time-of-flight spectra are taken using a specially designed TDC in connection to an on-line computer. The high time-of-flight resolution of 5 ps/m enabled the study of the total cross section of 4 He for neutrons near the 3/2 + resonance in the 5 He nucleus. The resonance parameters were determined by a single level Breit-Winger fit to the data. (orig.)

  14. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  15. CT diagnosis of colonic lymphadenitis in the cat-scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Xiongjie; Wang Jingqun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To make a further understanding of CT manifestations of colonic lymphadenitis in the cat scratch disease (CSD). Methods: The clinical data and CT features of colonic lymphadenitis in two cases of CSD were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Both patients had cat contact history. The CT findings were colonic lymphadenitis with solid mass, and marked enhancement after contrast administration. There were no colon narrownest and necrosis of colonic mucous membranes, besides lymph node enlargement along the regional lymphatic drainage. Conclusion: Combination of the cat contact history, CT scanning is of great value in the cat scratch disease. (authors)

  16. Angio-CT in congenital heart disease and kidney pathology in children, preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biejat, A.; Zielinski, T.; Tarnowska, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to recent development in computer tomography technique especially in the field of spiral CT, additional computer programming support for 3D reconstruction and automatic contrast media syringe systems, CT is a useful diagnostic tool in pediatric radiology in patients with congenital heart disease and kidneys pathology. Between July 2001 and June 2003 in our CT department 31 angio CT examinations were performed (19 in congenital heart disease and 12 in patients with kidneys pathology). The most important group consists patients after surgical correction of aortic coarctation (CoA)-13 cases. In the kidney pathology group the most common indication for the CT was arterial hypertension - 7 cases. CT examinations were performed using Toshiba ASTEION single - detector system with modified Rogalla et al. protocols. Regular CT scans were complemented with additional multiplane presentations and 3D and MIP reconstructions of the vessels. Original protocols were modified mostly in reduction of contrast media administration (up to 1ml/kg) and pitch increase to 1.2-1.7. Patients with heart disease in contrary to kidney pathology patients were also diagnosed with invasive procedures. In congenital heart disease group recoarctation was diagnosed in angio CT in 7 cases and in 5 cases in angiography. In remaining group CT confirmed angiography results in 3 cases (complex heart anomaly). In 2 cases of anomalous pulmonary venosus return and double aortic arch angiography confirmed CT results. In 7 cases with arterial hypertension Angio-CT revealed: nephrosclerosis in 1 case and IVC thrombosis in another. In remaining 5 cases CT results were normal. Angio-CT in pediatric patients should be performed with automatic syringes proper contrast media administration and physical parameters (mAs, kV) and can limit the indications for invasive procedures. (author)

  17. Addison's disease due to adrenal tuberculosis: Contrast-enhanced CT features and clinical duration correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yingkun; Yang Zhigang; Li Yuan; Ma Ensen; Deng Yuping; Min Pengqiu; Yin Longlin; Hu Jian; Zhang Xiaochun; Chen Tianwu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe CT morphology of untreated adrenal tuberculosis during the different stages of the natural history of the disease and to evaluate the diagnostic implications of CT features. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated CT features in 42 patients with documented adrenal tuberculosis for the location, size, morphology, and enhancement patterns shown on CT images. The clinical duration were correlated with the CT features. Results: Of the 42 patients with untreated adrenal tuberculosis, bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands were revealed in 38 cases (91%), unilaterally enlarged in 3 cases (7%), and normal size in 1 case (2%). Of the 41 cases (98%) with enlargement, mass-like enlargement was seen in 20 cases (49%) and enlargement with preserved contours in 21 cases (51%). Peripheral rim enhancement presented in 22 cases (52%) on contrast-enhanced CT. Non-enhanced CT scan revealed calcification in 21 cases (50%). As the duration of Addison's disease increased, the presence of calcification and contour preservation increased concomitantly (p < 0.001), whereas peripheral rim enhancement and mass-like enlargement decreased concomitantly on CT images (p < 0.001). Conclusion: CT may be helpful in diagnosing adrenal tuberculosis when clinically suspected, and CT features are correlated to the clinical duration of Addison's disease

  18. CT and MRI findings in cerebral hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topal, U.; Parlak, M.; Kilic, E.; Sivri, Z.; Sadikoglu, M.Y.; Tuncel, E.

    1995-01-01

    CT is the primary modality for the diagnosis. Two forms of cerebral hydatid cysts have been reported on the basis of CT appearances: unilocular and multilocular. Demonstration of the cyst wall is important for the diagnosis. MRI is superior to CT for demonstrating the cyst capsule and perifocal oedema. We retrospectively reveiwed the CT and MRI findings of 6 surgically proven cases of cerebral hydatid cyst and compared the two modalities on the basis of their demonstration of findings helpful in the diagnosis, such as the capsule and perifocal oedema. In 1 case CT showed the capsule. In 2 cases MRI showed a hypointense capsule around the cyst on T2-weighted images. While CT is the modality of choice, in clinical practice MRI is superior for demonstrating the cyst capsule, which is a helpful finding in the diagnosis and can be used in inconclusive cases. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of CF lung disease using motion corrected PROPELLER MRI: a comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi [General Hospital Ca' Foncello, Radiology Department, Treviso (Italy); Sophia Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Pulmonology Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Serra, Goffredo; Cata