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Sample records for disease differential effects

  1. Differentiated effects of deep brain stimulation and medication on somatosensory processing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kousik Sarathy; Højlund, Andreas; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg; Sunde, Niels Aagaard; Johansen, Lars Gottfried; Beniczky, Sándor; Østergaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and dopaminergic medication effectively alleviate the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but their effects on the sensory symptoms of PD are still not well understood. To explore early somatosensory processing in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) from thirteen DBS-treated PD patients and ten healthy controls during median nerve stimulation. PD patients were measured during DBS-treated, untreated and dopaminergic-medicated states. We focused on early cortical somatosensory processing as indexed by N20m, induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz and 55-100Hz) and induced beta suppression (13-30Hz). PD patients' motor symptoms were assessed by UPDRS-III. Using Bayesian statistics, we found positive evidence for differentiated effects of treatments on the induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz) with highest gamma in the dopaminergic-medicated state and lowest in the DBS-treated and untreated states. In contrast, UPDRS-III scores showed beneficial effects of both DBS and dopaminergic medication on the patients' motor symptoms. Furthermore, treatments did not affect the amplitude of N20m. Our results suggest differentiated effects of DBS and dopaminergic medication on cortical somatosensory processing in PD patients despite consistent ameliorating effects of both treatments on PD motor symptoms. The differentiated effect suggests differences in the effect mechanisms of the two treatments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunological functioning in Alzheimer's disease: differential effects of relative left versus right temporoparietal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Roosa, Katelyn M; Williams, Megan R; Witt, John C; Heilman, Kenneth M; Drago, Valeria

    2013-10-15

    The cerebral hemispheres are differentially involved in regulating immunological functioning and the neuropathology associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is asymmetrical. Thus, subgroups of AD patients may exhibit different patterns of immunological dysfunction. We explored this possibility in a group of AD patients and found that patients with low white blood cell counts and low lymphocyte numbers exhibited better performance on tests of right temporoparietal functioning. Also, a significant positive relationship exists between lymph numbers and performance on a test of left temporoparietal functioning. Thus, some AD patients have greater immunological dysfunction based on relative left versus right temporoparietal functioning. © 2013.

  3. Differential effectiveness of depression disease management for rural and urban primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott J; Xu, Stanley; Dong, Fran; Fortney, John; Rost, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    Federally qualified health centers across the country are adopting depression disease management programs following federally mandated training; however, little is known about the relative effectiveness of depression disease management in rural versus urban patient populations. To explore whether a depression disease management program has a comparable impact on clinical outcomes over 2 years in patients treated in rural and urban primary care practices and whether the impact is mediated by receiving evidence-based care (antidepressant medication and specialty care counseling). A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted in a consecutively sampled cohort of 479 depressed primary care patients recruited from 12 practices in 10 states across the country participating in the Quality Enhancement for Strategic Teaming study. Depression disease management improved the mental health status of urban patients over 18 months but not rural patients. Effects were not mediated by antidepressant medication or specialty care counseling in urban or rural patients. Depression disease management appears to improve clinical outcomes in urban but not rural patients. Because these programs compete for scarce resources, health care organizations interested in delivering depression disease management to rural populations need to advocate for programs whose clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated for rural residents.

  4. Effectiveness of diffusion tensor imaging in differentiating early-stage subcortical ischemic vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chien Tu

    of 73.8% in discriminating patients with SIVD from those with AD. In combined analysis of the patients with SIVD and AD (n = 75, the total FAB score was positively correlated with FA within the bilateral forceps minor, genu of the corpus callosum, left forceps major, left uncinate fasciculus, and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (p = 0.001 ~ 0.038, and inversely correlated with MD within the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, genu and body of the corpus callosum, bilateral forceps minor, right uncinate fasciculus, and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (p = 0.003 ~ 0.040.Our findings suggest the effectiveness of DTI measurements in distinguishing patients with early-stage AD from those with SIVD, with discernible changes in spatial distribution and magnitude of significance of the DTI parameters. Strategic FA assessments provided the most robust discriminative power to differentiate SIVD from AD, and FAB may serve as an additional cognitive marker. We also identified the neuronal substrates responsible for FAB performance.

  5. Differential effects of lesion mimic mutants in barley on disease development by facultative pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Graham R. D.; Steed, , Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous necrotic spots and chlorotic leaves as a result of mis-regulated cell death programmes. Typically these mutants have increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but their response to facultative fungi that cause necrotrophic diseases is less well studied. The effect of altered cell death regulation on the development of disease caused by Ramularia collo-cygni, Fusarium culmorum and Oculimacula yallundae was explored using a collection of barley necrotic (nec) lesion mimic mutants. nec8 mutants displayed lower levels of all three diseases compared to nec9 mutants, which had increased R. collo-cygni but decreased F. culmorum disease symptoms. nec1 mutants reduced disease development caused by both R. collo-cygni and F. culmorum. The severity of the nec1-induced lesion mimic phenotype and F. culmorum symptom development was reduced by mutation of the negative cell death regulator MLO. The significant reduction in R. collo-cygni symptoms caused by nec1 was completely abolished in the presence of the mlo-5 allele and both symptoms and fungal biomass were greater than in the wild-type. These results indicate that physiological pathways involved in regulation of cell death interact with one another in their effects on different fungal pathogens. PMID:25873675

  6. Differential diagnosis of rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingg, G.; Schorn, C.

    2006-01-01

    Which imaging modalities are appropriate for the Differential diagnosis of Rheumatic diseases. MRI has far most the highest sensitivity and is unequaled in its brilliant presentation of Anatomy and Pathology. But it is sometimes forgotten, that this is at least in part the result of carefully selected sequences, dedicated to the expected result. In a method totally independent of any result, this should not be the case. In contrary this method should be highly standardised and regardless what will be the findings. This is true for Plain X-ray. It will be shown, that already the outer silhouette of the soft parts with different features of swelling, and differences in density and even more - defects or appositions of the bony silhouette in the majority of cases at least will allow to classify the patient for a group of diseases and in many cases will lead to a definite diagnosis. Differential diagnoses like Rheumatoid Arthritis versus Psoriatic Arthritis or simply but not always simple - inflammatory Arthritis versus degenerative disease - are allowed to be answered definitely, not always so in MRI. The condition of the subchondral bone can give hints, how advanced and how active the disease is at present. Plain X-ray offers high specifity in the differential diagnoses of Rheumatic diseases, it is well standardised and it is a device, to use independent from any suspected findings. So it is the method of choice for questions of differential diagnosis. This is even more true, thinking of the possibility, to investigate all clinically involved regions with not to much extended efforts, whereas MRI and CT are used normally for only one region. (orig.) [de

  7. Differential pharmacological effects on brain reactivity and plasticity in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharine eBrem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI are the most commonly prescribed monotherapeutic medications for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, their underlying neurophysiological effects remain largely unknown.We investigated the effects of monotherapy (AChEI and combination therapy (AChEI and memantine on brain reactivity and plasticity. Patients treated with monotherapy (AChEI (N=7 were compared to patients receiving combination therapy (COM (N=9 and a group of age-matched, healthy controls (HC (N=13. Cortical reactivity and plasticity of the motor cortex (MC were examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Cognitive functions were assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, activities of daily living with the ADCS-ADL. In addition we assessed the degree of brain atrophy by measuring brain-scalp distances in seven different brain areas.Patient groups differed in resting motor threshold and brain atrophy, with COM showing a lower motor threshold but less atrophy than AChEI. COM showed similar plasticity effects as the HC group, while plasticity was reduced in AChEI. Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI was impaired in both patient groups when compared to HC. ADAS-Cog scores were positively correlated with LICI measures and with brain atrophy, specifically in the left IPL.AD patients treated with mono- or combination therapy show distinct neurophysiological patterns. Further studies should investigate whether these measures might serve as biomarkers of treatment response and whether they could guide other therapeutic interventions.

  8. Differentiating lipedema and Dercum's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, K; Herbst, K L

    2017-02-01

    People with lipedema or Dercum's disease (DD) can have a similar distribution of excess painful nodular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), making them difficult to differentiate. Case series of 94 patients with DD, 160 with lipedema and 18 with both diagnoses (Lip+DD) from a single clinic in an academic medical center to improve identification and differentiation of these disorders by comparison of clinical findings, prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM2), hypermobility by the Beighton score and assessment of a marker of inflammation, Total complement activity (CH50). Differences between groups were by Student's t-test with α of 0.05. The Lipedema Group had significantly greater weight, body mass index (BMI), gynoid distributed nodular SAT and fibrotic and heavy tissue than the DD Group. Hypermobility was significantly higher in the Lipedema (58±0.5%) than DD Group (23±0.4%; Pfibromyalgia, migraines and lipomas were more prevalent in the DD Group. The percentage of patients with elevated CH50 was significantly positive in both groups. The significantly lower prevalence of DM2 in people with lipedema compared with DD may be due to the greater amount of gynoid fat known to be protective against metabolic disorders. The high percentage of hypermobility in lipedema patients indicates that it may be a comorbid condition. The location of fat, high average daily pain, presence of lipomas and comorbid painful disorders in DD patients may help differentiate from lipedema.

  9. Differential effects of professional leaders on health care teams in chronic disease management groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; Disch, Joanne; White, Katie M; Powell, Adam; Rector, Thomas S; Sahay, Anju; Heidenreich, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Leadership by health care professionals is likely to vary because of differences in the social contexts within which they are situated, socialization processes and societal expectations, education and training, and the way their professions define and operationalize key concepts such as teamwork, collaboration, and partnership. This research examines the effect of the nurse and physician leaders on interdependence and encounter preparedness in chronic disease management practice groups. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of complementary leadership by nurses and physicians involved in jointly producing a health care service on care team functioning. The design is a retrospective observational study based on survey data. The unit of analysis is heart failure care groups in U.S. Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Survey and administrative data were collected in 2009 from 68 Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Key variables include nurse and physician leadership, interdependence, psychological safety, coordination, and encounter preparedness. Reliability and validity of survey measures were assessed with exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach alphas. Multivariate analyses tested hypotheses. Professional leadership by nurses and physicians is related to encounter preparedness by different paths. Nurse leadership is associated with greater team interdependence, and interdependence is positively associated with respect. Physician leadership is positively associated with greater psychological safety, respect, and shared goals but is not associated with interdependence. Respect is associated with involvement in learning activities, and shared goals are associated with coordination. Coordination and involvement in learning activities are positively associated with encounter preparedness. By focusing on increasing interdependence and a constructive climate, nurse and physician leaders have the opportunity to increase care coordination

  10. Differential Effects of Tango Versus Dance for PD in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Marie E.; Mai, Marina M.; Duncan, Ryan P.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD) are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model, which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson’s (D4PD). Participants in the D4PD group were matched to participants in an ongoing community-based exercise study who participated in tango dance. The groups received 12 weeks of intervention, attending 1-h group classes twice a week. Participants were evaluated off anti-PD medication before and after intervention. Measures of balance, repeated sit-to-stand performance and endurance (mini-balance evaluation systems test, four square step test, five times sit to stand, 6-min walk time) improved from pre to post similarly in both groups. Motor sign severity (movement disorders society unified Parkinson disease rating scale motor subsection) and functional mobility (timed up and go) improved in the tango group and worsened in the D4PD group. Gait velocity was not affected by either intervention. Direct comparisons of different interventions are ­critical for developing optimal exercise interventions designed to specifically target motor impairments in PD. Tango dance interventions may preferentially improve mobility and motor signs in people with PD, compared to D4PD. PMID:26733865

  11. Differential effects of tango versus Dance for PD in Parkinson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E McNeely

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson’s (D4PD. Participants in the D4PD group were matched to participants in an ongoing community-based exercise study who participated in tango dance. The groups received 12 weeks of intervention, attending one-hour group classes twice a week. Participants were evaluated off anti-PD medication before and after intervention. Measures of balance, repeated sit-to-stand performance and endurance (Mini-BESTest, four square step test, five times sit to stand, six minute walk time improved from pre to post similarly in both groups. Motor sign severity (MDS-UPDRS-III and functional mobility (TUG improved in the tango group and worsened in the D4PD group. Gait velocity was not affected by either intervention. Direct comparisons of different interventions are critical for developing optimal exercise interventions designed to specifically target motor impairments in PD. Tango dance interventions may preferentially improve mobility and motor signs in people with PD, compared to D4PD.

  12. Differential effect of environmental risk factors on postural instability gait difficulties and tremor dominant Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, G O; Muller, B; Haugarvoll, K; Larsen, J P; Tysnes, O B

    2010-09-15

    Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have examined environmental risk factors in a Norwegian population of incident PD patients and controls, the Norwegian ParkWest study. All five neurological wards in the study area of Western Norway participated in the study. A 4-step diagnostic procedure was used to establish a representative cohort of patients with incident PD at a high level of diagnostic accuracy. 212 incident PD patients and 175 age- and gender-matched controls were included. PD patients and controls were asked for information on occupation, education, exposure to pesticides, tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Agricultural work was associated with a higher risk of PD (OR 1.75 (1.03-3.0) P = 0.009). There were no differences as to other occupations. Smoking (OR 0.63 (0.42-0.95) P = 0.016) and alcohol use (OR 0.55 P = 0.008) were associated with a lower risk for PD. Interestingly, this inverse association was only seen in postural instability gait difficulties (PIGD) PD (P = 0.046 for smoking, P = 0.07 for alcohol consumption), and not in tremor dominant (TD) PD which was similar to controls. Consumption of coffee was lower in PD patients (3.3 ± 1.8 cups per day vs. 3.8 ± 2.0 in controls P = 0.02). In the regression model including intake of alcohol, coffee, and smoke, only coffee (P = 0.007) and alcohol intake (P = 0.021) remained significant whereas smoking was no longer significant. Thus, it seems as though only coffee intake reduces the risk of PD in general while associations to alcohol and smoking differ between PIGD and TD-PD patients. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye Syndrome: Differential Effects of Vitamin D on Ocular Diseases.

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    Donghyun Jee

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES, and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD, diabetic retinopathy (DR, cataract, and DES.A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies.The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55-1.30, P for trend = 0.076 after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30-1.64 and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.99 were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76 and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81 were lower in men.The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES.

  14. Degenerative cerebellar diseases and differential diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Roumia, S.; Dietrich, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging investigations are also helpful for the differentiation. Axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted sequences can sometimes show a signal increase in the pons as a sign of degeneration of pontine neurons and transverse fibers in the basilar part of the pons. The imaging is particularly necessary to exclude other diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), multi-infarct dementia and cerebellar lesions. (orig.) [de

  15. [Degenerative cerebellar diseases and differential diagnoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, W; Roumia, S; Dietrich, P

    2016-11-01

    Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging investigations are also helpful for the differentiation. Axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted sequences can sometimes show a signal increase in the pons as a sign of degeneration of pontine neurons and transverse fibers in the basilar part of the pons. The imaging is particularly necessary to exclude other diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), multi-infarct dementia and cerebellar lesions.

  16. Bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Rodríguez-Oroz, Maria-Cruz; Obeso, Jose A; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2013-05-01

    It has been proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates response inhibition and conflict resolution through the fronto-basal ganglia pathways. Our aim was to compare the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease using a single task. We used the conditional Stop signal reaction time task that provides the Stop signal reaction time (SSRT) as a measure of reactive inhibition, the response delay effect (RDE) as a measure of proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing (CIS) as a measure of conflict resolution. DBS of the STN significantly prolonged SSRT relative to stimulation off. However, while the RDE measure of proactive inhibition was not significantly altered by DBS of the STN, relative to healthy controls, RDE was significantly lower with DBS off but not DBS on. DBS of the STN did not alter the mean CIS but produced a significant differential effect on the slowest and fastest RTs on conflict trials, further prolonging the slowest RTs on the conflict trials relative to DBS off and to controls. These results are the first demonstration, using a single task in the same patient sample, that DBS of the STN produces differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and on conflict resolution, suggesting that these effects are likely to be mediated through the impact of STN stimulation on different fronto-basal ganglia pathways: hyperdirect, direct and indirect.

  17. Differential diagnosis of Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ross W; Torres-Chae, Charles C; Kuo, Amy L; Ando, Tim; Nguyen, Elizabeth A; Wong, Katherine; DeArmond, Stephen J; Haman, Aissa; Garcia, Paul; Johnson, David Y; Miller, Bruce L; Geschwind, Michael D

    2012-12-01

    To identify the misdiagnoses of patients with sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (sCJD) during the course of their disease and determine which medical specialties saw patients with sCJD prior to the correct diagnosis being made and at what point in the disease course a correct diagnosis was made. Retrospective medical record review. A specialty referral center of a tertiary academic medical center. One hundred sixty-three serial patients over a 5.5-year period who ultimately had pathologically proven sCJD. The study used the subset of 97 patients for whom we had adequate medical records. Other diagnoses considered in the differential diagnosis and types of medical specialties assessing patients with sCJD. Ninety-seven subjects' records were used in the final analysis. The most common disease categories of misdiagnosis were neurodegenerative, autoimmune/paraneoplastic, infectious, and toxic/metabolic disorders. The most common individual misdiagnoses were viral encephalitis, paraneoplastic disorder, depression, vertigo, Alzheimer disease, stroke, unspecified dementia, central nervous system vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, and Hashimoto encephalopathy. The physicians who most commonly made these misdiagnoses were primary care physicians and neurologists; in the 18% of patients who were diagnosed correctly at their first assessment, the diagnosis was almost always by a neurologist. The mean time from onset to diagnosis was 7.9 months, an average of two-thirds of the way through their disease course. Diagnosis of sCJD is quite delayed. When evaluating patients with rapidly progressive dementia with suspected neurodegenerative, autoimmune, infectious, or toxic/metabolic etiology, sCJD should also be included in the differential diagnosis, and appropriate diagnostic tests, such as diffusion brain magnetic resonance imaging, should be considered. Primary care physicians and neurologists need improved training in sCJD diagnosis.

  18. Selective left, right and bilateral stimulation of subthalamic nuclei in Parkinson's disease: differential effects on motor, speech and language function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Geralyn M; Hosey, Lara A; Bradberry, Trent J; Stager, Sheila V; Lee, Li-Ching; Pawha, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Braun, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but may produce a worsening of speech and language performance at rates and amplitudes typically selected in clinical practice. The possibility that these dissociated effects might be modulated by selective stimulation of left and right STN has never been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we analyzed motor, speech and language functions of 12 patients implanted with bilateral stimulators configured for optimal motor responses. Behavioral responses were quantified under four stimulator conditions: bilateral DBS, right-only DBS, left-only DBS and no DBS. Under bilateral and left-only DBS conditions, our results exhibited a significant improvement in motor symptoms but worsening of speech and language. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature demonstrating that bilateral STN DBS compromises speech and language function and suggests that these negative effects may be principally due to left-sided stimulation. These findings may have practical clinical consequences, suggesting that clinicians might optimize motor, speech and language functions by carefully adjusting left- and right-sided stimulation parameters.

  19. Differentiation of testicular diseases via dynamic MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Reinges, T.; Miersch, W.D.; Vogel, J.

    1994-01-01

    The present study aimed at resolving whether dynamic MRT can improve diagnostic relevance in diseases of the testes compared with conventional spin echo images. The testes of 20 healthy volunteers and of 16 patients of the Department of Urology of the University of Bonn were examined by means of MR tomography. Within 12 hours after MR tomography the patients were surgically explored, biopsied and if necessary orchiectomised. Results obtained with the volunteers were uniform and well reproducible, independent of external influences. On comparing the maximal enhancement curves of the examined various testicular tumors with the standard values established by examining the healthy volunteers, the curves obtained with the malignant testicular tumors were always clearly above the chosen confidence range of 3 standard deviations so that malignancy diagnosis was easy. However, the degree of maximal enhancement did not enable us to arrive at a conclusion in respect of the tumor type or the degree of malignancy. The greatest enhancement occurred with the tumor of Sertoli's cell which could thus be clearly differentiated against the other malignant testicular tumors. Due to masking of the gadolinium effect by haemosiderin deposits, haemorrhagica in the tumor tissue should be excluded by means of T 2 -weighted spin echo sequences before following up a suspicion of malignant testicular tomor. Benign intratesticular changes could be safely separated from malignant findings by means of the maximal enhancement curve lying in the normal range or below the curve of the volunteers. As with other organs, dynamic MR tomography yields definitely more and better information than conventional MR tomography also in the diagnosis of testicular tumours. However, these ''pros'' do not offset the ''cons'' of high costs of such examinations. (orig.) [de

  20. Differential equations with applications in cancer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is a process by which a real world problem is described by a mathematical formulation. The cancer modeling is a highly challenging problem at the frontier of applied mathematics. A variety of modeling strategies have been developed, each focusing on one or more aspects of cancer. The vast majority of mathematical models in cancer diseases biology are formulated in terms of differential equations. We propose an original mathematical model with small parameter for the interactions between these two cancer cell sub-populations and the mathematical model of a vascular tumor. We work on the assumption that, the quiescent cells' nutrient consumption is long. One the equations system includes small parameter epsilon. The smallness of epsilon is relative to the size of the solution domain. MATLAB simulations obtained for transition rate from the quiescent cells' nutrient consumption is long, we show a similar asymptotic behavior for two solutions of the perturbed problem. In this system, the small parameter is an asymptotic variable, different from the independent variable. The graphical output for a mathematical model of a vascular tumor shows the differences in the evolution of the tumor populations of proliferating, quiescent and necrotic cells. The nutrient concentration decreases sharply through the viable rim and tends to a constant level in the core due to the nearly complete necrosis in this region. Many mathematical models can be quantitatively characterized by ordinary differential equations or partial differential equations. The use of MATLAB in this article illustrates the important role of informatics in research in mathematical modeling. The study of avascular tumor growth cells is an exciting and important topic in cancer research and will profit considerably from theoretical input. Interpret these results to be a permanent collaboration between math's and medical oncologists.

  1. Clonal analysis of stem cells in differentiation and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Bartomeu; Jones, Philip H

    2016-12-01

    Tracking the fate of individual cells and their progeny by clonal analysis has redefined the concept of stem cells and their role in health and disease. The maintenance of cell turnover in adult tissues is achieved by the collective action of populations of stem cells with an equal likelihood of self-renewal or differentiation. Following injury stem cells exhibit striking plasticity, switching from homeostatic behavior in order to repair damaged tissues. The effects of disease states on stem cells are also being uncovered, with new insights into how somatic mutations trigger clonal expansion in early neoplasia. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential diagnosis of Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, RW; Torres-Chae, CC; Kuo, AL; Ando, T; Nguyen, EA; Wong, K; DeArmond, SJ; Haman, A; Garcia, P; Johnson, DY; Miller, BL; Geschwind, MD

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the misdiagnoses of patients with sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (sCJD) during the course of their disease and determine which medical specialties saw patients with sCJD prior to the correct diagnosis being made and at what point in the disease course a correct diagnosis was made. Design: Retrospective medical record review. Setting: A specialty referral center of a tertiary academic medical center. Participants: One hundred sixty-three serial patients over a 5.5-y...

  3. Differential anti-ischaemic effects of muscarinic receptor blockade in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease; impaired vs normal left ventricular function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van den Heuvel; D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); G.L. Bartels; M. van der Ent (Martin); W.J. Remme (Willem)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: In patients with coronary artery disease acetylcholine (a muscarinic agonist) causes vasoconstriction. The effect of atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) on coronary vasotone in patients with normal or impaired left ventricular function is unknown.

  4. Differentiating Crohn's disease from intestinal tuberculosis at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with non-caseating granulomas, as these suggest a very real possibility of ITB. ... There were no significant differences in smoking status, symptom duration or perianal disease. ..... CD, requires a degree of immune competence. This is ...

  5. [Differentiation therapy for non-acidic gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishchuk, N B; Simanenkov, V I; Tikhonov, S V

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the clinical and pathogenetic features of the non-acidic types of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to evaluate the impact of combined therapy versus monotherapy on the course of this disease. The investigation enrolled 62 patients with non-acidic GERD. The follow-up period was 6 weeks. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) weakly acidic gastroesophageal refluxes (GER); 2) weakly alkaline GER. Then each group was distributed, thus making up 4 groups: 1) 19 patients with weakly acidic GER who received monotherapy with rabeprazole 20 mg/day; 2) 21 patients with weakly acidic GER had combined therapy with rabeprazole 20 mg and itopride; 3) 8 patients with weakly alkaline GER who received ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) monotherapy; and 4) 14 patients with weakly alkaline GER who had combined therapy with UDCA and itopride, The clinical symptoms of the disease, the endoscopic pattern of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mucosa, histological changes in the esophageal and gastric mucosa, and the results of 24-hour impedance pH monitoring were assessed over time. During differentiation therapy, the majority of patients reported positive clinical changes and an improved or unchanged endoscopic pattern. Assessment of impedance pH monitoring results revealed decreases in the overall number of GERs, the presence of a bolus in the esophagus, and the number of proximal refluxes. These changes were noted not only in patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but also in those treated with UDCA monotherapy or combined PPI and prokinetic therapy. A differentiated approach to non-acidic GER treatment contributes to its efficiency. Adding the prokinetic itomed (itopride hydrochloride) to PPI therapy in a patient with weakly acidic GER enhances the efficiency of treatment, by positively affecting upper GIT motility. The mainstay of therapy for GERD with a predominance of weakly alkaline refluxes is UDCA, the combination of the latter and the

  6. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden. PMID:26633456

  7. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Green

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1 overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2 extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3 no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  8. [Diseases to differentiate from COPD, with emphasis on bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Minoru

    2007-04-01

    Differential diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from asthma is not a difficult task for many clinicians. Patients with COPD have a history of heavy smoking and show a slowly progressive dyspnea on exertion and there is little variability in symptoms, and they show a poor response to bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Asthma usually begins in early childhood with atopy, shows episodic dyspnea with wheezing, especially during night and early morning. Some patients, however, show adult onset, irreversible airflow limitation, and neutrophilic airway inflammation. The airway remodeling in asthma may be the cause of confusing pathophysiology. Other diseases showing airway hyperresponsiveness, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and left heart failure presenting cardiac asthma, may sometimes show similar clinical pictures to COPD. Chronic airway diseases are also possible candidates for differential diagnosis of COPD. Bronchiectasis, sinobronchial syndrome, diffuse panbronchiolitis, obliterative bronchiolitis, and other chronic airway diseases should be considered. Some interstitial lung diseases, such as smoking-related interstitial lung diseases and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, often show obstructive ventilatory impairment, and therefore should be considered in differential diagnosis of COPD.

  9. Differential effects of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers by severity of maternal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported no benefit of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers in intent-to-treat analyses. Since early weaning was poorly accepted, we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate whether beneficial effects may have been hidden.958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized to abrupt weaning at 4 months (intervention or to continued breastfeeding (control. Children were followed to 24 months with regular HIV PCR tests and examinations to determine HIV infection or death. Detailed behavioral data were collected on when all breastfeeding ended. Most participants were recruited before antiretroviral treatment (ART became available. We compared outcomes among mother-child pairs who weaned earlier or later than intended by study design adjusting for potential confounders.Of infants alive, uninfected and still breastfeeding at 4 months in the intervention group, 16.1% who weaned as instructed acquired HIV or died by 24 months compared to 16.0% who did not comply (p = 0.98. Children of women with less severe disease during pregnancy (not eligible for ART had worse outcomes if their mothers weaned as instructed (RH = 2.60 95% CI: 1.06-6.36 compared to those who continued breastfeeding. Conversely, children of mothers with more severe disease (eligible for ART but did not receive it who weaned early had better outcomes (p-value interaction = 0.002. In the control group, weaning before 15 months was associated with 3.94-fold (95% CI: 1.65-9.39 increase in HIV infection or death among infants of mothers with less severe disease.Incomplete adherence did not mask a benefit of early weaning. On the contrary, for women with less severe disease, early weaning was harmful and continued breastfeeding resulted in better outcomes. For women with more advanced disease, ART should be given during pregnancy for maternal health and to reduce transmission, including through breastfeeding

  10. Differential effects of gaseous versus injectable anesthetics on changes in regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism induced by l-DOPA in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimpisidis, Zisis; Öberg, Carl M; Maslava, Natallia; Cenci, M Angela; Lundblad, Cornelia

    2017-06-01

    Preclinical imaging of brain activity requires the use of anesthesia. In this study, we have compared the effects of two widely used anesthetics, inhaled isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine cocktail, on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in a rat model of Parkinson's disease and l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Specific tracers were used to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF - [ 14 C]-iodoantipyrine) and regional cerebral metabolic rate (rCMR - [ 14 C]-2-deoxyglucose) with a highly sensitive autoradiographic method. The two types of anesthetics had quite distinct effects on l-DOPA-induced changes in rCBF and rCMR. Isoflurane did not affect either the absolute rCBF values or the increases in rCBF in the basal ganglia after l-DOPA administration. On the contrary, rats anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine showed lower absolute rCBF values, and the rCBF increases induced by l-DOPA were masked. We developed a novel improved model to calculate rCMR, and found lower metabolic activities in rats anesthetized with isoflurane compared to animals anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine. Both anesthetics prevented changes in rCMR upon l-DOPA administration. Pharmacological challenges in isoflurane-anesthetized rats indicated that drugs mimicking the actions of ketamine/xylazine on adrenergic or glutamate receptors reproduced distinct effects of the injectable anesthetics on rCBF and rCMR. Our results highlight the importance of anesthesia in studies of cerebral flow and metabolism, and provide novel insights into mechanisms mediating abnormal neurovascular responses to l-DOPA in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential effectiveness of placebo treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Karin; Fässler, Margrit; Rücker, Gerta

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE When analyzing results of randomized clinical trials, the treatment with the greatest specific effect compared with its placebo control is considered to be the most effective one. Although systematic variations of improvements in placebo control groups would have important implications...... relevant sources through February 2012 and contacted the authors to identify randomized clinical trials on the prophylaxis of migraine with an observation period of at least 8 weeks after randomization that compared an experimental treatment with a placebo control group. We calculated pooled random-effects...... and sham surgery are associated with higher responder ratios than oral pharmacological placebos. Clinicians who treat patients with migraine should be aware that a relevant part of the overall effect they observe in practice might be due to nonspecific effects and that the size of such effects might differ...

  12. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

  13. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  14. Chronic wasting disease prion infection of differentiated neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Mathiason, Candace K; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward A

    2017-07-04

    A possible strategy to develop more diverse cell culture systems permissive to infection with naturally occurring prions is to exploit culture of neurospheres from transgenic mice expressing the normal prion protein (PrP) of the native host species. Accordingly, we developed differentiated neurosphere cultures from the cervid PrP-expressing mice to investigate whether this in vitro system would support replication of non-adapted cervid-origin chronic wasting disease (CWD) prions. Here we report the successful amplification of disease-associated PrP in differentiated neurosphere cultures within 3 weeks after exposure to CWD prions from both white-tailed deer or elk. This neurosphere culture system provides a new in vitro tool that can be used to assess non-adapted CWD prion propagation and transmission.

  15. Thyroid Ultrasonography in Differentiation between Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishdad, P; Pishdad, G R; Tavanaa, S; Pishdad, R; Jalli, R

    2017-03-01

    Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the most common causes of hyper and hypothyroidism, respectively. Differentiation of these 2 diseases, if the patient is euthyroid, may sometimes be extremely difficult on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of gray scale sonography in differentiation of Graves' disease from Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study included 149 patients divided into three groups, patients with Graves' disease (34 patients, mean age = 36.8 ± 10.17 years), Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (62 patients, mean age = 33.4 ± 12.16 years) and control group (53 healthy people, mean age = 34.74 ± 16.87 years). Members of all groups were referred to a single radiologist for thyroid sonography for evaluation of thyroid echogenicity pattern. A total of 117 women and 32 men were examined by sonography. The most common sonographic pattern in Hashimoto and Graves' was homogenous hypo-echogenicity which was observed in 45.2% and 47.1% of cases, respectively. Peripheral hypo-echogenicity pattern was seen in 40.3% of Hashimoto's group with 100% specificity and 40.3% sensitivity. Central-hypoechogenic pattern was observed in 17.6% of Graves' group with 100% and 17.6% specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Our findings indicate that sonography has high specificity but low sensitivity in the diagnosis of either Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is therefore not possible to differentiate between these two diseases using sonography alone. Confirmation by laboratory data is also needed.

  16. Radiological diagnosis in AIDS - associated diseases: survey and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademaker, J.; Frahm, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acute manifestations of illnesses in patients with HIV-infection or AIDS will benefit from rapid diagnosis. Radiologic examinations provide substantial information to narrow the differential diagnosis. This article reviews clinically important HIV-associated diseases for the radiologist. The braod spectrum of possible manifestations is illustrated by the accompanying case reports that typify the complexity of diagnoses in this growing problem worldwide. (orig.) [de

  17. Differential diagnosis of granulomatous lung disease: clues and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Ohshimo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that have a wide spectrum of pathologies with variable clinical manifestations and outcomes. Precise clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, pulmonary function testing, radiological imaging including high-resolution computed tomography and often histopathological assessment contribute to make a confident diagnosis of granulomatous lung diseases. Differential diagnosis is challenging, and includes both infectious (mycobacteria and fungi and noninfectious lung diseases (sarcoidosis, necrotising sarcoid granulomatosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hot tub lung, berylliosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, rheumatoid nodules, talc granulomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and bronchocentric granulomatosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, transbronchial cryobiopsy, positron emission tomography and genetic evaluation are potential candidates to improve the diagnostic accuracy for granulomatous lung diseases. As granuloma alone is a nonspecific histopathological finding, the multidisciplinary approach is important for a confident diagnosis.

  18. Parkinsonian syndroms: Clinical phenotype, differential diagnosis and disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parkinsonian syndromes include idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), other neurodegenerative diseases with parkinsonism, the so-called atypical parkinsonian syndromes, and symptomatic parkinsonian syndromes, such as Wilson's disease. IPD is the most frequent disease with parkinsonism as the main clinical feature and is responsible for approx. 80% of all parkinsonian syndromes. Atypical parkinsonian syndromes are the most important differential diagnoses of IPD. The two most frequent types are multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). For clinical diagnosis it is essential to take a careful medical history and to examine the patients physically in regular intervals. However, various clinico-pathological studies have shown that approx. 25% of patients with clinical diagnosis of IPD may have other causes of parkinsonism. Selected technical investigations, in particular functional imaging of the central dopaminergic system using PET or SPECT, may help to make clinical diagnosis more secure. This paper reviews the clinical features and diagnostic findings in diseases with parkinsonism and summarises the difficulties in establishing early and differential diagnoses. (orig.) [de

  19. CT findings of diffuse pleural diseases: differentiation of malignant disease from tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, In Gye; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Young Rae; Chin, Seung Bum; Park, Yoon Ok; Park, Hae Won

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether or not previously known CT criteria for differentiating malignant and benign pleural diseases are useful in the differentiation of diffuse malignant pleural diseases and tuberculosis. We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of 42 patients comprising 20 cases of malignant pleural diseases and 22 cases of tuberculous pleural diseases, according to previously known CT criteria for differentiating malignant and benign pleural diseases. The most common shape of pleural effusion was crescentic in malignant pleural diseases and loculated in tuberculosis. The aggressive nature of pleural effusion, pleural rind, and pleura thickening was 1.5 times more frequently observed in malignant pleural diseases than in tuberculosis. Smooth thickening or smooth nodular pleural thickening and extrapleural deposition of fat were 1.5 times more frequently found in tuberculous than in malignant pleural diseases. Interruption of pleural thickening was found twice as frequently in malignant pleural diseases as in tuberculosis. Decreased lung volume was found twice as frequently in tuberculous as in malignant pleural diseases. Anatomical mediastinal pleural involvement was three times, and irregular nodular pleural thickening nine times more frequent in malignant pleural diseases than in tuberculosis. The sensitivity and specificity of CT findings above 70%, and thus suggesting malignant pleural diseases, were as follows : 1) aggressive nature of pleural fluid collection extending to the azygoesophageal recess or tongue of the lung (51.5%, 75%); 2) involvement of anatomical mediastinal pleura (69.2%, 73.7%); 3) irregular nodular pleural thickening (87.5%, 69%). Although there in overlap between previously known CT criteria for the differentiation of benign and malignant pleural diseases, the aggressive nature of pleural fluid collection extending to the azygoesophageal recess or tongue of the lung, the involvement of anatomical mediastinal pleura and irregular nodular

  20. Differential effects of the essential oils of Lavandula luisieri and Eryngium duriaei subsp. juresianum in cell models of two chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Ana T; Ferreira, Isabel; Judas, Fernando; Salgueiro, Lígia; Lopes, M Celeste; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Mendes, Alexandrina F

    2015-08-01

    Effective drugs to treat osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are needed. To identify essential oils (EOs) with anti-inflammatory activity in cell models of OA and IBD. EOs from Eryngium duriaei subsp. juresianum (M. Laínz) M. Laínz (Apiaceae), Laserpitium eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium Sennen & Pau (Apiaceae), Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martínez (Lamiaceae), Othantus maritimus (L.) Hoff. & Link (Asteraceae), and Thapsia villosa L. (Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of EOs (5-200 μg/mL) was evaluated by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation (total and phosphorylated IκB-α), in primary human chondrocytes and the intestinal cell line, C2BBe1, stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), respectively. The EO of L. luisieri significantly reduced iNOS (by 54.9 and 81.0%, respectively) and phosphorylated IκB-α (by 87.4% and 62.3%, respectively) in both cell models. The EO of E. duriaei subsp. juresianum caused similar effects in human chondrocytes, but was inactive in intestinal cells, even at higher concentrations. The EOs of L. eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium and O. maritimus decreased iNOS expression by 45.2 ± 8.7% and 45.2 ± 6.2%, respectively, in C2BBe1 cells and were inactive in chondrocytes. The EO of T. villosa was inactive in both cell types. This is the first study showing anti-inflammatory effects of the EOs of L. luisieri and E. duriaei subsp. juresianum. These effects are specific of the cell type and may be valuable to develop new therapies or as sources of active compounds with improved efficacy and selectivity towards OA and IBD.

  1. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na’ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  2. DMPD: Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in health and disease. PubmedID 18251777 Title Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease...thol Int. 2008 Mar;58(3):143-55. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage differentiation and function

  3. Degenerative cerebellar diseases and differential diagnoses; Degenerative Kleinhirnerkrankungen und Differenzialdiagnosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Roumia, S.; Dietrich, P. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging investigations are also helpful for the differentiation. Axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted sequences can sometimes show a signal increase in the pons as a sign of degeneration of pontine neurons and transverse fibers in the basilar part of the pons. The imaging is particularly necessary to exclude other diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), multi-infarct dementia and cerebellar lesions. (orig.) [German] Klinisch imponieren Kleinhirnsyndrome durch Ataxie, Dysarthrie, Dysmetrie, Intentionstremor und Augenbewegungsstoerungen. Neben der Anamnese und klinischen Untersuchung ist die Bildgebung v. a. wichtig um andere Erkrankungen wie Hydrozephalus und Multiinfarktdemenz von degenerativen Kleinhirnerkrankungen zu differenzieren. Zu den degenerativen Erkrankungen mit Kleinhirnbeteiligung gehoeren der Morbus Parkinson, die Multisystematrophie sowie weitere Erkrankungen einschliesslich der spinozerebellaeren Ataxien. Neben der MRT sind auch nuklearmedizinische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung hilfreich. Axiale Fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery(FLAIR)- und T2-gewichtete Sequenzen koennen mitunter eine Signalsteigerung im Pons als Ausdruck einer Degeneration der pontinen Neuronen und transversalen Bahnen im Brueckenfuss zeigen. Die Bildgebung ist aber v. a. notwendig, um andere Erkrankungen wie Normaldruckhydrozephalus

  4. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case report and differential diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Tatsuno, Brent K; Inaba, Michiko; Velligas, Stephanie; Masaki, Kamal; Liow, Kore K

    2013-04-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology that causes rapidly progressive dementia. This disease is uniformly fatal and most patients die within 12 months. Clinical findings include myoclonus, visual disturbances, and cerebellar and pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs in addition to rapidly progressive cognitive and functional impairment. These findings are all non-specific and it is often difficult and challenging to diagnose premortem because of low awareness and clinical suspicion. We present a 66-year-old woman with a 5-month history of rapidly progressive dementia. After a series of extensive diagnostic examinations and continuous follow-up, she was diagnosed with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria, with key findings of rapidly progressive dementia, blurry vision, extrapyramidal signs (cogwheel rigidity), and abnormal hyperintensity signals on diffusion-weighted MRI. Her symptoms progressively worsened and she died 7 months after the onset. The postmortem brain autopsy demonstrated the presence of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein by Western Blot analysis. A literature review was performed on differential diagnoses that present with rapidly progressive dementia and thereby mimic sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. These include Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy Bodies, frontotemporal dementia, meningoencephalitis, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, CADASIL, and paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis.

  5. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: a differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important manifestation of LGV is a proctitis, with a clinical presentation and endoscopic findings resembling those of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). LGV is considered new in Scandinavia. This case report focuses on difficulties in differentiating LGV and IBD. This case report used a systematic search in the literature using PubMed and clinical cases from the Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark (Cases 1-3) and the Section of Surgery, Hamar Hospital, Norway (Case 4). Clinical and endoscopic findings in LGV and IBD resemble each other. All cases were MSM. Three out of four were HIV-positive. Three out of four contacted their general practitioner (GP) due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and were referred to a gastroenterologist (GE) with suspicion of IBD. Because of non-successful IBD treatment, control of HIV status, relapses of GI-symptoms or extended information concerning sexual habits, LGV was suspected and diagnosed. All patients responded with remission of GI-symptoms and endoscopic findings after oral treatment with doxycycline. Due to similarities between LGV and IBD, LGV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with proctitis or IBD-related symptoms, especially among HIV-positive men. Hence LGV patients may be spared long-lasting examination, mistreatment and surgery.

  6. The combination of disease and Zheng (syndrome on the basic of differentiation of six channels: a new pattern of disease diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM was formed two thousand years ago, and developed in the following centuries. TCM has a unique way of looking at health and illness. Zheng (syndrome is the basic unit and key term in TCM theory. Zheng is the pathological generalization of a certain stage in the development of disease. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation of TCM is the basic principle to know and treat diseases,and a kind of special method to study diseases in TCM. In Han Dynasty (200 AD, doctor Zhang Zhongjing proposed Liujing Bianzheng (the differential diagnosis in accordance with the theory of six channels to diagnose and treat diseases in Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases. In other words, he divided diseases into six channels diseases based on patient’s Zhengs. Six channels diseases almost include all of the disease according to his classification standards. In addition, there are development rules in the progress of six channels diseases.Therefore, we hypothesized that combination of six channels disease and Zheng on the basic of differentiation of six channels is a new pattern of diagnosis and treatment diseases in TCM, which is beneficial to the understanding of a certain disease and makes disease treatment more convenient, fast and effective.

  7. [Effects of TCM treatment according to syndrome differentiation on expressions of nuclear factor-kappaB and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of various syndrome types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xin-Yue; Shao, Yu-Meng

    2007-05-01

    To explore the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment according to syndrome differentiation in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by observing the changes of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) expression levels in rats. COPD model was established by modified method of combining fumigation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intra-tracheal dripping. Model rats were treated respectively for succesive 14 days according to their syndrome, that is, Xiaoqinglong Decoction to the rats of cold-phlegm accumulation in Fei, Maxing Shigan Decoction to those of heat-phlegm accumulation in Fei, Yupingfeng Decoction to those of Fei-qi deficiency, Liujunzi Decoction to those of Pi-qi deficiency, Renshen Gejie Decoction to those of Shen qi-deficiency. Besides, model rats in the model control group received 2mL normal saline daily, and no intervention was applied in the normal control group. The expression of gamma-GCS and NF-kappaB was detected by immunochemistry before and after treatment. Compared with that in the normal rats, the expressions of gamma-GCS and NF-kappaB in bronchial and alveolar epithelium of COPD rats before treatment were significantly higher, but the positive expression rates were lowered after treatment significantly (Psyndrome differentiation could rectify imbalance of oxidation/anti-oxidation and alleviate inflammatory reaction in COPD rats, thus to treat COPD effectively.

  8. Effect of resveratrol on proliferation and differentiation of embryonic cardiomyoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, C.-W.; Wong, C.H.; Lao, S.-C.; Leong, Emilia Conceicao; Lao, Iok Fong; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Fung, Kwok Pui; Tsang, Kam Sze; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Wang Yitao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2007-01-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound found largely in the skins of red grapes, has been used as a nutritional supplement or an investigational new drug for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports showed that resveratrol had a protective effect against oxidative agent-induced cell injury. Our studies indicate that resveratrol plays a role in the differentiation of cardiomyoblasts. The cardiomyoblast cell line, H9c2, was exposed to 30-120 μM resveratrol for up to 5 days. Resveratrol inhibits cardiomyoblast proliferation without causing cells injury. Moreover, resveratrol treatment modulated the differentiation of morphological characteristics including elongation and cell fusion in cardiomyoblasts. Proliferation and differentiation of H9c2 cells were further revealed by measurement of the mRNA expression of a cell cycle marker (CDK2), a differentiation marker (myogenin), and a contractile apparatus protein (MLC-2). Gene expression analysis revealed that resveratrol promoted entry into cell cycle arrest but extended the myogenic differentiation progress. These results have implications for the role of resveratrol in modulating cell cycle control and differentiation in cardiomyoblasts

  9. Differential Disease Progression in Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Late-Onset Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Moritz; Lambertus, Stanley; Mauschitz, Matthias M; Bax, Nathalie M; Kersten, Eveline; Lüning, Anna; Nadal, Jennifer; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Schmid, Matthias; Holz, Frank G; Hoyng, Carel B; Fleckenstein, Monika

    2017-02-01

    To compare the disease course of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy secondary to age-related macula degeneratio (AMD) and late-onset Stargardt disease (STGD1). Patients were examined longitudinally by fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Areas of RPE atrophy were quantified using semi-automated software, and the status of the fovea was evaluated based on autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance images. Mixed-effects models were used to compare atrophy progression rates. BCVA loss and loss of foveal integrity were analyzed using Turnbull's estimator. A total of 151 patients (226 eyes) with RPE atrophy secondary to AMD and 38 patients (66 eyes) with RPE atrophy secondary to late-onset STGD1 were examined for a median time of 2.3 years (interquartile range, 2.7). Mean baseline age was 74.2 years (SD, 7.6) in AMD and 63.4 (SD, 9.9) in late-onset STGD1 (P = 1.1 × 10-7). Square root atrophy progression was significantly faster in AMD when compared with late-onset STGD1 (0.28 mm/year [SE, 0.01] vs. 0.23 [SE, 0.03]; P = 0.030). In late-onset STGD1, the median survival of the fovea was significantly longer when compared with eyes with AMD (8.60 vs. 3.35 years; P = 0.005) with a trend to a later BCVA loss of ≥3 lines (5.97 vs. 4.37 years; P = 0.382). These natural history data indicate differential disease progression in AMD versus late-onset STGD1. The results underline the relevance of refined phenotyping in elderly patients presenting with RPE atrophy in regard to prognosis and design of interventional trials.

  10. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    each other. All cases were MSM. Three out of four were HIV-positive. Three out of four contacted their general practitioner (GP) due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and were referred to a gastroenterologist (GE) with suspicion of IBD. Because of non-successful IBD treatment, control of HIV status...... as a differential diagnosis in patients with proctitis or IBD-related symptoms, especially among HIV-positive men. Hence LGV patients may be spared long-lasting examination, mistreatment and surgery.......Abstract Objective. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important...

  11. A novel joint analysis framework improves identification of differentially expressed genes in cross disease transcriptomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Qin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Detecting differentially expressed (DE genes between disease and normal control group is one of the most common analyses in genome-wide transcriptomic data. Since most studies don’t have a lot of samples, researchers have used meta-analysis to group different datasets for the same disease. Even then, in many cases the statistical power is still not enough. Taking into account the fact that many diseases share the same disease genes, it is desirable to design a statistical framework that can identify diseases’ common and specific DE genes simultaneously to improve the identification power. Results We developed a novel empirical Bayes based mixture model to identify DE genes in specific study by leveraging the shared information across multiple different disease expression data sets. The effectiveness of joint analysis was demonstrated through comprehensive simulation studies and two real data applications. The simulation results showed that our method consistently outperformed single data set analysis and two other meta-analysis methods in identification power. In real data analysis, overall our method demonstrated better identification power in detecting DE genes and prioritized more disease related genes and disease related pathways than single data set analysis. Over 150% more disease related genes are identified by our method in application to Huntington’s disease. We expect that our method would provide researchers a new way of utilizing available data sets from different diseases when sample size of the focused disease is limited.

  12. Disease elimination and re-emergence in differential-equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Scott; Galvani, Alison P; Medlock, Jan

    2015-12-21

    Traditional differential equation models of disease transmission are often used to predict disease trajectories and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies. However, such models cannot account explicitly for probabilistic events, such as those that dominate dynamics when disease prevalence is low during the elimination and re-emergence phases of an outbreak. To account for the dynamics at low prevalence, i.e. the elimination and risk of disease re-emergence, without the added analytical and computational complexity of a stochastic model, we develop a novel application of control theory. We apply our approach to analyze historical data of measles elimination and re-emergence in Iceland from 1923 to 1938, predicting the temporal trajectory of local measles elimination and re-emerge as a result of disease migration from Copenhagen, Denmark. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic biomarkers for brain hemisphere differentiation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Mou'ath; Mendes, Alexandre; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2007-11-01

    This work presents a study on the genetic profile of the left and right hemispheres of the brain of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal is to characterize, in a genetic basis, PD as a disease that affects these two brain regions in different ways. Using the same whole-genome microarray expression data introduced by Brown et al. (2002) [1], we could find significant differences in the expression of some key genes, well-known to be involved in the mechanisms of dopamine production control and PD. The problem of selecting such genes was modeled as the MIN (α,β)—FEATURE SET problem [2]; a similar approach to that employed previously to find biomarkers for different types of cancer using gene expression microarray data [3]. The Feature Selection method produced a series of genetic signatures for PD, with distinct expression profiles in the Parkinson's model and control mice experiments. In addition, a close examination of the genes composing those signatures shows that many of them belong to genetic pathways or have ontology annotations considered to be involved in the onset and development of PD. Such elements could provide new clues on which mechanisms are implicated in hemisphere differentiation in PD.

  14. Infectious diseases of the brain: imaging and differential diagnosis; Infektioese Hirnerkrankungen: Bildgebung und differenzialdiagnostische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, S.; Seitz, A. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany); Storch-Hagenlocher, B. [Abt. Neurologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Infectious diseases of the central nervous system have to be considered in differential diagnosis particularly in immunocompromised persons. Neuro-imaging, specifically advanced techniques such as diffusion weighted MRI and perfusion MRI contribute much to the differentiation of brain infections and for differentiating brain infections from other, for instance, neoplastic diseases. In this review we present the imaging criteria of the most important brains infections in adults and in pediatric patients and discuss differential diagnostic aspects in detail. (orig.)

  15. Patterns of population differentiation of candidate genes for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Keyue

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basis for ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD susceptibility is not fully understood. We investigated patterns of population differentiation (FST of a set of genes in etiologic pathways of CVD among 3 ethnic groups: Yoruba in Nigeria (YRI, Utah residents with European ancestry (CEU, and Han Chinese (CHB + Japanese (JPT. We identified 37 pathways implicated in CVD based on the PANTHER classification and 416 genes in these pathways were further studied; these genes belonged to 6 biological processes (apoptosis, blood circulation and gas exchange, blood clotting, homeostasis, immune response, and lipoprotein metabolism. Genotype data were obtained from the HapMap database. Results We calculated FST for 15,559 common SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.10 in at least one population in genes that co-segregated among the populations, as well as an average-weighted FST for each gene. SNPs were classified as putatively functional (non-synonymous and untranslated regions or non-functional (intronic and synonymous sites. Mean FST values for common putatively functional variants were significantly higher than FST values for nonfunctional variants. A significant variation in FST was also seen based on biological processes; the processes of 'apoptosis' and 'lipoprotein metabolism' showed an excess of genes with high FST. Thus, putative functional SNPs in genes in etiologic pathways for CVD show greater population differentiation than non-functional SNPs and a significant variance of FST values was noted among pairwise population comparisons for different biological processes. Conclusion These results suggest a possible basis for varying susceptibility to CVD among ethnic groups.

  16. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  17. Differential effects of gender on entropy perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcharoen, Kleddao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine differences in perception of entropy (color intensity) between male and female computer users. The objectives include identifying gender-based differences in entropy intention and exploring the potential effects of these differences (if any) on user interface design. The research is an effort to contribute to an emerging field of interest in gender as it relates to science, engineering and technology (SET), particularly user interface design. Currently, there is limited evidence on the role of gender in user interface design and in use of technology generally, with most efforts at gender-differentiated or customized design based on stereotypes and assumptions about female use of technology or the assumption of a default position based on male preferences. Image entropy was selected as a potential characteristic where gender could be a factor in perception because of known differences in color perception acuity between male and female individuals, even where there is no known color perception abnormality (which is more common with males). Although the literature review suggested that training could offset differences in color perception and identification, tests in untrained subject groups routinely show that females are more able to identify, match, and differentiate colors, and that there is a stronger emotional and psychosocial association of color for females. Since image entropy is associated with information content and image salience, the ability to identify areas of high entropy could make a difference in user perception and technological capabilities.

  18. Temperature effects in differential mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Evgeny V.; Coy, Stephen L.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.

    2009-01-01

    Drift gas temperature and pressure influence differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) performance, changing DMS peak positions, heights and widths. This study characterizes the effect of temperature on DMS peak positions. Positive ions of methyl salicylate, DMMP, and toluene, and negative ions of methyl salicylate and the reactant ion peaks were observed in purified nitrogen in the Sionex microDMx planar DMS. Measurements were made at ambient pressure (1 atm) at temperatures from 25 °C to 150 °C in a planar sensor with height 0.5 mm. Peak value of the separation voltage asymmetric waveform was scanned from 500 V to 1500 V. Compensation voltage (DMS peak position) showed a strong variation with temperature for all investigated ions. By generalizing the concept of effective ion temperature to include the effects of inelastic ion-molecular collisions, we have been able to condense peak position dependence on separation field and temperature to dependence on a redefined effective temperature including a smoothly varying inelasticity correction. It allows prediction and correction of the gas temperature effect on DMS peak positions.

  19. Differential Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Epitopes as a Function of Tuberculosis Disease History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Carpenter, Chelsea; Pro, Sebastian Carrasco; Sidney, John; Musvosvi, Munyaradzi; Rozot, Virginie; Seumois, Grégory; Rosales, Sandy L; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Goletti, Delia; Makgotlho, Edward; Hanekom, Willem; Hatherill, Mark; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro; Arlehamn, Cecilia S Lindestam

    2017-09-15

    Individuals with a history of tuberculosis (TB) disease are at elevated risk of disease recurrence. The underlying cause is not known, but one explanation is that previous disease results in less-effective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We hypothesized that the repertoire of Mtb-derived epitopes recognized by T cells from individuals with latent Mtb infection differs as a function of previous diagnosis of active TB disease. T-cell responses to peptide pools in samples collected from an adult screening and an adolescent validation cohort were measured by IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay or intracellular cytokine staining. We identified a set of "type 2" T-cell epitopes that were recognized at 10-fold-lower levels in Mtb-infected individuals with a history of TB disease less than 6 years ago than in those without previous TB. By contrast, "type 1" epitopes were recognized equally well in individuals with or without previous TB. The differential epitope recognition was not due to differences in HLA class II binding, memory phenotypes, or gene expression in the responding T cells. Instead, "TB disease history-sensitive" type 2 epitopes were significantly (P < 0.0001) more homologous to sequences from bacteria found in the human microbiome than type 1 epitopes. Preferential loss of T-cell reactivity to Mtb epitopes that are homologous to bacteria in the microbiome in persons with previous TB disease may reflect long-term effects of antibiotic TB treatment on the microbiome.

  20. Revealing Pathway Dynamics in Heart Diseases by Analyzing Multiple Differential Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of heart diseases is driven by dynamic changes in both the activity and connectivity of gene pathways. Understanding these dynamic events is critical for understanding pathogenic mechanisms and development of effective treatment. Currently, there is a lack of computational methods that enable analysis of multiple gene networks, each of which exhibits differential activity compared to the network of the baseline/healthy condition. We describe the iMDM algorithm to identify both unique and shared gene modules across multiple differential co-expression networks, termed M-DMs (multiple differential modules. We applied iMDM to a time-course RNA-Seq dataset generated using a murine heart failure model generated on two genotypes. We showed that iMDM achieves higher accuracy in inferring gene modules compared to using single or multiple co-expression networks. We found that condition-specific M-DMs exhibit differential activities, mediate different biological processes, and are enriched for genes with known cardiovascular phenotypes. By analyzing M-DMs that are present in multiple conditions, we revealed dynamic changes in pathway activity and connectivity across heart failure conditions. We further showed that module dynamics were correlated with the dynamics of disease phenotypes during the development of heart failure. Thus, pathway dynamics is a powerful measure for understanding pathogenesis. iMDM provides a principled way to dissect the dynamics of gene pathways and its relationship to the dynamics of disease phenotype. With the exponential growth of omics data, our method can aid in generating systems-level insights into disease progression.

  1. Infectious diseases of brain parenchyma in adults: imaging and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, S.; Kress, B.; Stippich, C.; Sartor, K.; Seitz, A.; Storch-Hagenlocher, B.; Forsting, M.; Jansen, O.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases of the central nervous system have often to be considered in differential diagnosis, particularly in immunocompromised persons. Neuroimaging, specifically advanced techniques such as diffusion-weighted MRI and perfusion MRI contribute much to the differentiation of various brain infections and to delineation of brain infections from other, for instance, neoplastic diseases. In this review we present the imaging criteria for the most important brain infections in adults and discuss in detail differential diagnostic aspects. (orig.)

  2. Rethinking Differentiation--Using Teachers' Time Most Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The goals of differentiation are laudable, but in recent years, many question whether it is really possible for a teacher to tailor instruction for 20 to 30 different students and whether it's desirable to differentiate by learning styles. Differentiation is just one factor in effective instruction. Supervisors who walk into a classroom looking…

  3. Dissection of regulatory networks that are altered in disease via differential co-expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Amar

    Full Text Available Comparing the gene-expression profiles of sick and healthy individuals can help in understanding disease. Such differential expression analysis is a well-established way to find gene sets whose expression is altered in the disease. Recent approaches to gene-expression analysis go a step further and seek differential co-expression patterns, wherein the level of co-expression of a set of genes differs markedly between disease and control samples. Such patterns can arise from a disease-related change in the regulatory mechanism governing that set of genes, and pinpoint dysfunctional regulatory networks. Here we present DICER, a new method for detecting differentially co-expressed gene sets using a novel probabilistic score for differential correlation. DICER goes beyond standard differential co-expression and detects pairs of modules showing differential co-expression. The expression profiles of genes within each module of the pair are correlated across all samples. The correlation between the two modules, however, differs markedly between the disease and normal samples. We show that DICER outperforms the state of the art in terms of significance and interpretability of the detected gene sets. Moreover, the gene sets discovered by DICER manifest regulation by disease-specific microRNA families. In a case study on Alzheimer's disease, DICER dissected biological processes and protein complexes into functional subunits that are differentially co-expressed, thereby revealing inner structures in disease regulatory networks.

  4. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Perez-Mercader, Juan; Visser, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from QFT to the case of

  5. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, David [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Carratera Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon, Madrid, (Spain); Molina-Paris, Carmen [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Perez-Mercader, Juan [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Visser, Matt [Physics Department, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from

  6. Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C.; Sullivan, Aideen M.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on ne...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA differentiates Alzheimer's disease from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesniy, Petar; Llorens, Franc; Golanska, Ewa; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Pawel; Zerr, Inga; Trullas, Ramon

    2016-05-01

    Low content of cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a biomarker of early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether mtDNA is altered in a rapid neurodegenerative dementia such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is unknown. CSF mtDNA was measured using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) in two independent cohorts comprising a total of 112 patients diagnosed with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), probable AD, or non-Alzheimer's type dementia. Patients with AD exhibit low mtDNA content in CSF compared with patients diagnosed with sCJD or with non-Alzheimer's type dementias. The CSF concentration of mtDNA does not correlate with Aβ, t-tau, p-tau, and 14-3-3 protein levels in CSF. Low-CSF mtDNA is not a consequence of brain damage and allows the differential diagnosis of AD from sCJD and other dementias. These results support the hypothesis that mtDNA in CSF is a pathophysiological biomarker of AD. Copyright © 2015 Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploration of Serum Proteomic Profiling and Diagnostic Model That Differentiate Crohn's Disease and Intestinal Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenming Zhang

    Full Text Available To explore the diagnostic models of Crohn's disease (CD, Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB and the differential diagnostic model between CD and ITB by analyzing serum proteome profiles.Serum proteome profiles from 30 CD patients, 21 ITB patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs were analyzed by using weak cationic magnetic beads combined with MALDI-TOF-MS technique to detect the differentially expressed proteins of serum samples. Three groups were made and compared accordingly: group of CD patients and HCs, group of ITB patients and HCs, group of CD patients and ITB patients. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to screen the ten most differentiated protein peaks (P < 0.05. Genetic algorithm combining with support vector machine (SVM was utilized to establish the optimal diagnostic models for CD, ITB and the optimal differential diagnostic model between CD and ITB. The predictive effects of these models were evaluated by Leave one out (LOO cross validation method.There were 236 protein peaks differently expressed between group of CD patients and HCs, 305 protein peaks differently expressed between group of ITB patients and HCs, 332 protein peaks differently expressed between group of CD patients and ITB patients. Ten most differentially expressed peaks were screened out between three groups respectively (P < 0.05 to establish diagnostic models and differential diagnostic model. A diagnostic model comprising of four protein peaks (M/Z 4964, 3029, 2833, 2900 can well distinguish CD patients and HCs, with a specificity and sensitivity of 96.7% and 96.7% respectively. A diagnostic model comprising four protein peaks (M/Z 3030, 2105, 2545, 4210 can well distinguish ITB patients and HCs, with a specificity and sensitivity of 93.3% and 95.2% respectively. A differential diagnostic model comprising three potential biomarkers protein peaks (M/Z 4267, 4223, 1541 can well distinguish CD patients and ITB patients, with a specificity and sensitivity of 76.2% and 80

  9. Ethnic and Gender Differentials in Non-Communicable Diseases and Self-Rated Health in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Results Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Conclusion Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people. PMID

  10. Ethnic and gender differentials in non-communicable diseases and self-rated health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K L; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people.

  11. Ethnic and gender differentials in non-communicable diseases and self-rated health in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane K L Teh

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD, arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia.Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses.Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD, followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health.Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people.

  12. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1, niacin (vitamin B3, pyridoxine (vitamin B6, and menadione (vitamin K3. In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10⁶ colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml. Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  13. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea , respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10 6 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea . The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea . Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  14. Myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient bone marrow cells improve Alzheimer's disease-related symptoms and pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, W.; Liu, Y.; Liu, S.; Walter, S.; Grimm, M.O.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Penke, B.; Hartmann, T.; Rube, C.E.; Menger, M.D.; Fassbender, K.

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid beta peptide in the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that amyloid beta peptide injures neurons both directly and indirectly by triggering neurotoxic innate immune responses. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 is the key

  15. Serum Fragments of Tau for the Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inekci, Dilek; Henriksen, K.; Linemann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of AD is still a challenge due to overlapping features with other types of dementia. Biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of AD can improve the diagnostic value of the disease and ensure an appropriate treatment of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  16. Characterization of Verticillium dahliae disease reactions in lettuce differential cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne diseases significantly affect high value crops in coastal California, including lettuce and strawberry. Breeding crops for pathogen resistance is a strategy for the sustainable management of crop disease. Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes wilt and economic losses in a ...

  17. On the Problem of Differential Diagnosis of Inflammatory and Functional Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ya. Budzak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the problems of differential diagnosis of inflammatory (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and functional (irritable bowel syndrome disease of the intestine. The necessity of such differential diagnosis in certain categories of patients was noted. The possibilities of instrumental and laboratory methods of study are shown. Particular attention is paid to the definition of fecal tests — calprotectin and lactoferrin. An analysis of the studies of their information content has been carried out.

  18. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  19. Differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases using structural MRI data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Rhodius-Meester, Hanneke; Tolonen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    individuals was used for evaluation. The cross-validated classification accuracy was 70.6% and balanced accuracy was 69.1% for the five disease groups using only automatically determined MRI features. Vascular dementia patients could be detected with high sensitivity (96%) using features from FLAIR images....... Controls (sensitivity 82%) and Alzheimer's disease patients (sensitivity 74%) could be accurately classified using T1-based features, whereas the most difficult group was the dementia with Lewy bodies (sensitivity 32%). These results were notable better than the classification accuracies obtained...... characteristics from T1 images, and vascular characteristics from FLAIR images. Classification was performed using a multi-class classifier based on Disease State Index methodology. The classifier provided continuous probability indices for each disease to support clinical decision making. A dataset of 504...

  20. Role of thalamic diffusion for disease differentiation between multiple sclerosis and ischemic cerebral small vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge; Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Salk, Ismail; Topalkara, Kamil; Erkoc, Mustafa F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) both harbor multiple, T2-hyperintense white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We aimed to determine the microstructural changes via diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing thalami. We hypothesized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values would be different in CSVD and MS, since the extent of arterial involvement is different in these two diseases. DWI was performed for 50 patients with CSVD and 35 patients with MS along with gender- and age-matched controls whose conventional MRI revealed normal findings. DWI was done with 1.5 Tesla MR devices using echo planar imaging (EPI) for b = 0, 1000 s/mm 2 . ADC values were obtained from the thalami which appeared normal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Standard oval regions of interest (ROIs) of 0.5 cm 2 which were oriented parallel to the long axis of the thalamus were used for this purpose. The mean ADC value of the thalamus was (0.99 ± 0.16) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in patients with CSVD, whereas the mean ADC value was (0.78 ± 0.06) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in the control group. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in patients with CSVD compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of the thalamus were (0.78 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in MS patients, and (0.75 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in the control group, which are not significantly different (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a difference in the diffusion of the thalami between CSVD and MS. DWI may aid in the radiological disease differentiation. (orig.)

  1. Role of thalamic diffusion for disease differentiation between multiple sclerosis and ischemic cerebral small vessel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge; Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Salk, Ismail [Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sivas (Turkey); Topalkara, Kamil [Bayindir Hospital, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Erkoc, Mustafa F. [Bozok University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) both harbor multiple, T2-hyperintense white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We aimed to determine the microstructural changes via diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing thalami. We hypothesized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values would be different in CSVD and MS, since the extent of arterial involvement is different in these two diseases. DWI was performed for 50 patients with CSVD and 35 patients with MS along with gender- and age-matched controls whose conventional MRI revealed normal findings. DWI was done with 1.5 Tesla MR devices using echo planar imaging (EPI) for b = 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC values were obtained from the thalami which appeared normal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Standard oval regions of interest (ROIs) of 0.5 cm{sup 2} which were oriented parallel to the long axis of the thalamus were used for this purpose. The mean ADC value of the thalamus was (0.99 ± 0.16) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in patients with CSVD, whereas the mean ADC value was (0.78 ± 0.06) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in patients with CSVD compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of the thalamus were (0.78 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in MS patients, and (0.75 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group, which are not significantly different (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a difference in the diffusion of the thalami between CSVD and MS. DWI may aid in the radiological disease differentiation. (orig.)

  2. Differential overexpression of SERPINA3 in human prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, S; Moda, F; Zattoni, M; Bistaffa, E; De Cecco, E; Rossi, M; Giaccone, G; Tagliavini, F; Haïk, S; Deslys, J P; Zanusso, G; Ironside, J W; Ferrer, I; Kovacs, G G; Legname, G

    2017-11-15

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with sporadic, genetic or acquired etiologies. The molecular alterations leading to the onset and the spreading of these diseases are still unknown. In a previous work we identified a five-gene signature able to distinguish intracranially BSE-infected macaques from healthy ones, with SERPINA3 showing the most prominent dysregulation. We analyzed 128 suitable frontal cortex samples, from prion-affected patients (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) n = 20, iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) n = 11, sporadic CJD (sCJD) n = 23, familial CJD (gCJD) n = 17, fatal familial insomnia (FFI) n = 9, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS)) n = 4), patients with Alzheimer disease (AD, n = 14) and age-matched controls (n = 30). Real Time-quantitative PCR was performed for SERPINA3 transcript, and ACTB, RPL19, GAPDH and B2M were used as reference genes. We report SERPINA3 to be strongly up-regulated in the brain of all human prion diseases, with only a mild up-regulation in AD. We show that this striking up-regulation, both at the mRNA and at the protein level, is present in all types of human prion diseases analyzed, although to a different extent for each specific disorder. Our data suggest that SERPINA3 may be involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of prion diseases, representing a valid tool for distinguishing different forms of these disorders in humans.

  3. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important...

  4. Osteomesopyknosis associated to renal lithiasis. Case report. Differential diagnosis of the axial osteoesclerosant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Gerardo; Fernandez, Andres; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Rojas, Adriana; Calvo, Enrique; Rondon, Federico; Sanchez, Alvaro; Forero, Elias; Iglesias, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    In this article we present a brief description of the bone diseases characterized by osteosclerosis. We present our experience with their morpho-radiological changes, we describe a case of osteomesopyknosis associated to renal lithiasis and we propose a classification for osteosclerosant diseases of the axial skeleton with practical differential diagnosis of these conditions

  5. Differential replication of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a let...

  6. Differential diagnosis of genetic disease by DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; Defesche, J. C.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) are used for diagnosis of genetic disease in families known to be affected by specific disorders, but RFLPs can be also useful for the differential diagnosis of hereditary disease. An RFLP pattern represents the inheritance of chromosomal markers

  7. Complex and differential glial responses in Alzheimer's disease and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José J; Butt, Arthur M; Gardenal, Emanuela; Parpura, Vladimir; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells and their association with neurones are fundamental for brain function. The emergence of complex neurone-glial networks assures rapid information transfer, creating a sophisticated circuitry where both types of neural cells work in concert, serving different activities. All glial cells, represented by astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and NG2-glia, are essential for brain homeostasis and defence. Thus, glia are key not only for normal central nervous system (CNS) function, but also to its dysfunction, being directly associated with all forms of neuropathological processes. Therefore, the progression and outcome of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases depend on glial reactions. In this review, we provide a concise account of recent data obtained from both human material and animal models demonstrating the pathological involvement of glia in neurodegenerative processes, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as physiological ageing.

  8. Differentiated cells derived from fetal neural stem cells improve motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Hao Song; Aifang Shen; Chao Chen; Yanming Liu; Yabing Dong; Fabin Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Parkinson’s disease(PD), which is one of the most common neuro‐degenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopamine(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fetal neural stem cells(NSCs) have therapeutic effects in neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD. Methods: NSCs were isolated from 14‐week‐old embryos and induced to differentiate into neurons, DA neurons, and glial cells, and these cells were characterized by their expression of the following markers: βⅢ‐tubulin and microtubule‐associated protein 2(neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase(DA neurons), and glial fibrillary acidic protein(glial cells). After a 6‐hydroxydopamine(6‐OHDA)‐lesioned rat model of PD was generated, the differentiated cells were transplanted into the striata of the 6‐OHDA‐lesioned PD rats. Results: The motor behaviors of the PD rats were assessed by the number of apomorphine‐induced rotation turns. The results showed that the NSCs differentiated in vitro into neurons and DA neurons with high efficiencies. After transplantation into the striata of the PD rats, the differentiated cells significantly improved the motor deficits of the transplanted PD rats compared to those of the control nontransplanted PD rats by decreasing the apomorphine‐induced turn cycles as early as 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the differentiated DA neurons survived more than 16 weeks. Conclusions: Our results showed that cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat PD model, which suggests that differentiated cells may be an effective treatment for patients with PD.

  9. Five-class differential diagnostics of neurodegenerative diseases using random undersampling boosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Tong; Ledig, Christian; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Differentiating between different types of neurodegenerative diseases is not only crucial in clinical practice when treatment decisions have to be made, but also has a significant potential for the enrichment of clinical trials. The purpose of this study is to develop a classification framework......-wise grading features) and non-imaging features (CSF measures) were extracted for each subject. In clinical practice, the prevalence of different dementia types is imbalanced, posing challenges for learning an effective classification model. Therefore, we propose the use of the RUSBoost algorithm in order...... to train classifiers and to handle the class imbalance training problem. Furthermore, a multi-class feature selection method based on sparsity is integrated into the proposed framework to improve the classification performance. It also provides a way for investigating the importance of different features...

  10. Differential patterns of histone acetylation in inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Ian M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifications of histones, particularly acetylation, are associated with the regulation of inflammatory gene expression. We used two animal models of inflammation of the bowel and biopsy samples from patients with Crohn's disease (CD to study the expression of acetylated histones (H 3 and 4 in inflamed mucosa. Acetylation of histone H4 was significantly elevated in the inflamed mucosa in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of colitis particularly on lysine residues (K 8 and 12 in contrast to non-inflamed tissue. In addition, acetylated H4 was localised to inflamed tissue and to Peyer's patches (PP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-treated rat models. Within the PP, H3 acetylation was detected in the mantle zone whereas H4 acetylation was seen in both the periphery and the germinal centre. Finally, acetylation of H4 was significantly upregulated in inflamed biopsies and PP from patients with CD. Enhanced acetylation of H4K5 and K16 was seen in the PP. These results demonstrate that histone acetylation is associated with inflammation and may provide a novel therapeutic target for mucosal inflammation.

  11. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    PM collections from both urban and industrial sites caused 50% oxidative degradation of DNA in vitro at concentrations as low ... chemical analysis in order that progress can be made in ... One popular hypothesis is that PM exerts toxic effects.

  12. Differential Effects of Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Ion, Rotenone, and Paraquat on Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barbosa Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ, a cationic nonselective bipyridyl herbicide, has been used as neurotoxicant to modulate Parkinson’s disease in laboratory settings. Other compounds like rotenone (ROT, a pesticide, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ have been widely used as neurotoxicants. We compared the toxicity of these three neurotoxicants using differentiated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y human cells, aiming to elucidate their differential effects. PQ-induced neurotoxicity was shown to be concentration and time dependent, being mitochondrial dysfunction followed by neuronal death. On the other hand, cells exposure to MPP+ induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but not cellular lyses. Meanwhile, ROT promoted both mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death, revealing a biphasic pattern. To further elucidate PQ neurotoxic mechanism, several protective agents were used. SH-SY5Y cells pretreatment with tiron (TIR and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid sodium salt (NaSAL, both antioxidants, and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. Additionally, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenylmethoxy]ethyl-4-(3-phenyl-propylpiperazine (GBR 12909, a dopamine transporter inhibitor, and cycloheximide (CHX, a protein synthesis inhibitor, also partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PQ, MPP+, and ROT exerted differential toxic effects on dopaminergic cells. PQ neurotoxicity occurred through exacerbated oxidative stress, with involvement of uptake through the dopamine transporter and protein synthesis.

  13. Valvular Heart Disease in Women, Differential Remodeling, and Response to New Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Dangas, George; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-09-11

    In the United States, valvular heart disease (VHD) has a prevalence of 2.5%, most commonly presenting as aortic stenosis (AS) or mitral valve regurgitation (MR) and increasingly observed to be of a degenerative etiology. Women frequently have latent symptoms despite significant disease, and it is therefore pertinent to consider both clinical symptoms and imaging findings for decision-making on treatment. Indeed, significant advances have been made in noninvasive imaging allowing for more accurate diagnosis and disease prognostication. While echo remains the standard diagnostic test, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide complementary information on aortic valve calcification and left ventricular (LV) function, respectively. For any given calcification load or increase in calcification density of the aortic valve, women have greater increase in aortic valve stenosis severity than men; thus, moderate AS in women warrants closer attention. MRI allows identification of different patterns of hypertrophy and remodeling, extent of LV fibrosis, and insights into differential reverse remodeling and clinical outcomes in men and women. In conjunction with surgical treatment, percutaneous technologies are being increasingly used in the management of VHD. Nearly 50% of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are women. In high- or intermediate-risk subjects with significant symptomatic AS, TAVR has been shown to be noninferior to surgical AVR (SAVR). Notably, whereas both treatment strategies are equally effective in men, transfemoral TAVR has been shown to be superior to SAVR resulting in better survival in women. Analogously, few data have examined sex differences with percutaneous MitraClip devices in the treatment of degenerative MR, and men and women appear to have equivalent composite outcomes. Randomized clinical trial data are presently awaited for outcomes in the percutaneous treatment of

  14. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  15. Ileitis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica - X-ray differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingg, G.; Hering, L.; Tanneberger, D.

    1981-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of the characteristic features of the clinical and roentgenological course and the various stages of enteritis caused by Yersinia. Basing on three cases of ileitis caused by Yersinia, the far-reaching similarity with the early changes and even the advanced stages of Crohn's diseases are demonstrated. Attention is drawn to the possibilities of differentiating between the two disease patterns. (orig.) [de

  16. Ileitis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica - X-ray differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Hering, L.; Tanneberger, D.

    1981-12-01

    The article gives a brief description of the characteristic features of the clinical and roentgenological course and the various stages of enteritis caused by Yersinia. Basing on three cases of ileitis caused by Yersinia, the far-reaching similarity with the early changes and even the advanced stages of Crohn's diseases are demonstrated. Attention is drawn to the possibilities of differentiating between the two disease patterns.

  17. Differential susceptibility according to gender in the association between air pollution and mortality from respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Marcio Sacramento de; Leon,Antônio Ponce de; Mattos,Inês Echenique; Koifman,Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the association between air pollution and deaths from respiratory diseases, considering differential susceptibility according to gender. The authors used daily deaths from respiratory diseases (ICD-10, J00-J99), PM10, SO2, and O3 levels, and meteorological indicators in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from January 2002 to December 2006. The association was estimated by Poisson regression using generalized additive models, where the increase in risk of deaths f...

  18. Differentiation of diffuse liver disease with computer-aided tissue echo quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Byung Ihm; Yun, Eun Joo; Ko, Young Hwan; Song, Chi Sung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Jong Hyo

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of computer-aided tissue echo quantification technique in the differentiation of diffuse liver diseases. Sixty-five patients with chronic liver disease including chronic hepatitis in 21 patients, fatty liver in 11, and liver cirrhosis in 33, and 55 normal volunteers were included in this study. The sonographic images by the Sono-PACS(MARO, Seoul) was recalled and the analysis was done for the hepatic parenchymal coarseness by the program using Visual C++. Difference histogram variation (DHV), edge density (ED) and intertia of concurrence matrix (ICM) were used as the coarseness index. These three indexes were statistically significant (p<0.05) in the differentiation of these four groups. The accuracy of the differentiation between any two of four groups was 83.0%. The accuracy of the differentiation of these four groups was 70.8% at the same time. The computer-aided tissue echo quantification technique is a complementary study for the differentiation of diffuse liver disease.

  19. Application of 18F-FDG PET for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klisarova, A.; Bochev, P.; Deleva, N.; Dimitrov, I.; Ivanov, B.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia are the two most frequent disorders among degenerative dementias. Their clinical identification and differential diagnosis are often difficult in the early stages when, on the other hand treatment is most effective. FDG-PET assessment of region brain metabolism is a proven method and its application demented patients ensures a higher diagnostic accuracy even at the preclinical stage. It helps resolving cases with difficult differential diagnosis as well. In this paper we discuss the application of the method in Alzheimer's disease and Lev body dementia; we present typical cases of both disorder which were assessed by FDG-PET for the first time in Bulgaria highlighting the methodology and the characteristic imaging findings

  20. Differential susceptibility according to gender in the association between air pollution and mortality from respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcio Sacramento de; Leon, Antônio Ponce de; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Koifman, Sérgio

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between air pollution and deaths from respiratory diseases, considering differential susceptibility according to gender. The authors used daily deaths from respiratory diseases (ICD-10, J00-J99), PM(10), SO(2), and O(3) levels, and meteorological indicators in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from January 2002 to December 2006. The association was estimated by Poisson regression using generalized additive models, where the increase in risk of deaths from PM(10) to lag 1 was 10.01% (95%CI: 1.81-18.88%) in the total female population and 10.04% (95%CI: 0.90-20.02%) in elderly women. The increase in risk of deaths from PM(10) to lag 9 was 8.25% in the total male population (95%CI: 0.86-16.18%) and 10.80% (95%CI: 2.18-20.15%) in elderly men. For exposure to SO(2) and O(3), the risk was significant in the total male population and the elderly, respectively. The results emphasize the need for further studies, focusing on modification of the effects of air pollution on health.

  1. Differential susceptibility according to gender in the association between air pollution and mortality from respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Sacramento de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the association between air pollution and deaths from respiratory diseases, considering differential susceptibility according to gender. The authors used daily deaths from respiratory diseases (ICD-10, J00-J99, PM10, SO2, and O3 levels, and meteorological indicators in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from January 2002 to December 2006. The association was estimated by Poisson regression using generalized additive models, where the increase in risk of deaths from PM10 to lag 1 was 10.01% (95%CI: 1.81-18.88% in the total female population and 10.04% (95%CI: 0.90-20.02% in elderly women. The increase in risk of deaths from PM10 to lag 9 was 8.25% in the total male population (95%CI: 0.86-16.18% and 10.80% (95%CI: 2.18-20.15% in elderly men. For exposure to SO2 and O3, the risk was significant in the total male population and the elderly, respectively. The results emphasize the need for further studies, focusing on modification of the effects of air pollution on health.

  2. Network analysis of differential expression for the identification of disease-causing genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nitsch

    Full Text Available Genetic studies (in particular linkage and association studies identify chromosomal regions involved in a disease or phenotype of interest, but those regions often contain many candidate genes, only a few of which can be followed-up for biological validation. Recently, computational methods to identify (prioritize the most promising candidates within a region have been proposed, but they are usually not applicable to cases where little is known about the phenotype (no or few confirmed disease genes, fragmentary understanding of the biological cascades involved. We seek to overcome this limitation by replacing knowledge about the biological process by experimental data on differential gene expression between affected and healthy individuals. Considering the problem from the perspective of a gene/protein network, we assess a candidate gene by considering the level of differential expression in its neighborhood under the assumption that strong candidates will tend to be surrounded by differentially expressed neighbors. We define a notion of soft neighborhood where each gene is given a contributing weight, which decreases with the distance from the candidate gene on the protein network. To account for multiple paths between genes, we define the distance using the Laplacian exponential diffusion kernel. We score candidates by aggregating the differential expression of neighbors weighted as a function of distance. Through a randomization procedure, we rank candidates by p-values. We illustrate our approach on four monogenic diseases and successfully prioritize the known disease causing genes.

  3. Clinical applicability of quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy in differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases with Raynaud's phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chang Wu

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: The nailfold capillaroscopic (NC patterns may be useful in the differential diagnosis of CTDs with RP. The NC patterns for SSc and PM/DM are both sensitive and specific to the diseases, while the SLE and MCTD patterns exhibit high specificity but relatively low sensitivity.

  4. Accuracy of MR markers for differentiating Progressive Supranuclear Palsy from Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Zanigni

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although several quantitative brain MR markers provided high diagnostic accuracy in differentiating Progressive Supranuclear Palsy-Richardson's Syndrome from Parkinson's disease, the morphometric assessment of midbrain area is the best single diagnostic marker and should be routinely included in the neuroradiological work-up of parkinsonian patients.

  5. Random forest to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauwan, Meenakshi; van der Zande, Jessica J.; van Dellen, Edwin; Sommer, Iris E C; Scheltens, Philip; Lemstra, Afina W.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to build a random forest classifier to improve the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to quantify the relevance of multimodal diagnostic measures, with a focus on electroencephalography

  6. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  7. Differential Diagnosis of Gynecologic Organ-Related Diseases in Women Presenting with Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Huei Cheng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascites is a pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity, and usually develops as a result of liver disease, congestive heart failure or nephrotic syndrome. Ascites is also a common manifestation of some gynecologic diseases. It is important that health care workers consider gynecologic problems among the potential differential diagnoses in patients presenting with ascites. Various kinds of ovarian diseases, such as epithelial ovarian cancer, benign ovarian fibroma, stromal hyperplasia, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, endometriosis and peritoneal tuberculosis, should be kept in mind when women are found to have ascites.

  8. Stem cell therapy. Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells as replacement therapy for treating disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Ira J; Daley, George Q; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) directed to various cell fates holds promise as source material for treating numerous disorders. The availability of precisely differentiated PSC-derived cells will dramatically affect blood component and hematopoietic stem cell therapies and should facilitate......, and industry is critical for generating new stem cell-based therapies....... treatment of diabetes, some forms of liver disease and neurologic disorders, retinal diseases, and possibly heart disease. Although an unlimited supply of specific cell types is needed, other barriers must be overcome. This review of the state of cell therapies highlights important challenges. Successful...

  9. How to differentiate non-erosive reflux disease from functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mei Yun

    2012-12-01

    Heartburn is a common symptom in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination can differentiate between reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), but not between NERD and functional heartburn. With the development of new techniques, more NERD patients could be identified among those previously diagnosed with functional heartburn. Most patients with NERD, however, could be identified based on their clinical characteristics and response to proton pump inhibitors and/or integrated anti-gastroesophageal reflux therapy. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junrong; An, Shengshu; Hu, Wenji; Teng, Meiyu; Wang, Xue; Qu, Yidi; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Di

    2016-11-01

    Hericium erinaceus , an edible and medicinal mushroom, displays various pharmacological activities in the prevention of dementia in conditions such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The present study explored the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus mycelium polysaccharide-enriched aqueous extract (HE) on an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu)-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cellular apoptosis model and an AlCl₃ combined with d-galactose-induced Alzheimer's disease mouse model. The data revealed that HE successfully induced PC12 cell differentiation. A 3 h HE incubation at doses of 50 and 100 µg/mL before 25 mM of l-Glu effectively reversed the reduction of cell viability and the enhancement of the nuclear apoptosis rate in DPC12 cells. Compared with l-Glu-damaged cells, in PC12 cells, HE suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, blocked Ca 2+ overload and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization. In the Alzheimer's disease mouse model, HE administration enhanced the horizontal and vertical movements in the autonomic activity test, improved the endurance time in the rotarod test, and decreased the escape latency time in the water maze test. It also improved the central cholinergic system function in the Alzheimer's mice, demonstrated by the fact that it dose-dependently enhanced the acetylcholine (Ach) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) concentrations in both the serum and the hypothalamus. Our findings provide experimental evidence that HE may provide neuroprotective candidates for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. A decision tree for differentiating multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease using 3-T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shalini Rajandran; Tan, Li Kuo; Mohd Ramli, Norlisah; Lim, Shen Yang; Rahmat, Kartini; Mohd Nor, Hazman

    2013-06-01

    To develop a decision tree based on standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging to differentiate multiple system atrophy (MSA) from Parkinson's disease (PD). 3-T brain MRI and DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) were performed on 26 PD and 13 MSA patients. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the putamen, substantia nigra, pons, middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) and cerebellum. Linear, volumetry and DTI (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) were measured. A three-node decision tree was formulated, with design goals being 100 % specificity at node 1, 100 % sensitivity at node 2 and highest combined sensitivity and specificity at node 3. Nine parameters (mean width, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of MCP; anteroposterior diameter of pons; cerebellar FA and volume; pons and mean putamen volume; mean FA substantia nigra compacta-rostral) showed statistically significant (P decision tree. Threshold values were 14.6 mm, 21.8 mm and 0.55, respectively. Overall performance of the decision tree was 92 % sensitivity, 96 % specificity, 92 % PPV and 96 % NPV. Twelve out of 13 MSA patients were accurately classified. Formation of the decision tree using these parameters was both descriptive and predictive in differentiating between MSA and PD. • Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy can be distinguished on MR imaging. • Combined conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging improves the accuracy of diagnosis. • A decision tree is descriptive and predictive in differentiating between clinical entities. • A decision tree can reliably differentiate Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy.

  12. The Effect of Antidepressants on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jeffrey S; Bermeo, Sandra; Skarratt, Kristen K; Fuller, Stephen J; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-02-01

    Use of antidepressant medications has been linked to detrimental impacts on bone mineral density and osteoporosis; however, the cellular basis behind these observations remains poorly understood. The effect does not appear to be homogeneous across the whole class of drugs and may be linked to affinity for the serotonin transporter system. In this study, we hypothesized that antidepressants have a class- and dose-dependent effect on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, which may affect bone metabolism. Human MSCs (hMSCs) were committed to differentiate when either adipogenic or osteogenic media was added, supplemented with five increasing concentrations of amitriptyline (0.001-10 µM), venlafaxine (0.01-25 µM), or fluoxetine (0.001-10 µM). Alizarin red staining (mineralization), alkaline phosphatase (osteoblastogenesis), and oil red O (adipogenesis) assays were performed at timed intervals. In addition, cell viability was assessed using a MTT. We found that fluoxetine had a significant inhibitory effect on mineralization. Furthermore, adipogenic differentiation of hMSC was affected by the addition of amitriptyline, venlafaxine, and fluoxetine to the media. Finally, none of the tested medications significantly affected cell survival. This study showed a divergent effect of three antidepressants on hMSC differentiation, which appears to be independent of class and dose. As fluoxetine and amitriptyline, but not venlafaxine, affected both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis, this inhibitory effect could be associated to the high affinity of fluoxetine to the serotonin transporter system.

  13. Congenital heart disease: a hard case for differential diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonçalves Nordon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Congenital heart diseases are important malformations that might compromise not only the patient's survival, but also his/her quality of life. We present the case of a female newborn who presented cardiovascular unbalance and cianosis in spite of her previous month of life without any complication. Her differential diagnosis was rather difficult, due not only to restrictions of exams available for diagnosis, but also to their sensibility and specificity. We discuss such differential diagnosis and the complicated development of the case.

  14. A Novel Method to Identify Differential Pathways in Hippocampus Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Han; Liu, Lian

    2017-05-08

    BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. The objective of this paper is to propose a novel method to identify differential pathways in hippocampus AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS We proposed a combined method by merging existed methods. Firstly, pathways were identified by four known methods (DAVID, the neaGUI package, the pathway-based co-expressed method, and the pathway network approach), and differential pathways were evaluated through setting weight thresholds. Subsequently, we combined all pathways by a rank-based algorithm and called the method the combined method. Finally, common differential pathways across two or more of five methods were selected. RESULTS Pathways obtained from different methods were also different. The combined method obtained 1639 pathways and 596 differential pathways, which included all pathways gained from the four existing methods; hence, the novel method solved the problem of inconsistent results. Besides, a total of 13 common pathways were identified, such as metabolism, immune system, and cell cycle. CONCLUSIONS We have proposed a novel method by combining four existing methods based on a rank product algorithm, and identified 13 significant differential pathways based on it. These differential pathways might provide insight into treatment and diagnosis of hippocampus AD.

  15. Microglial response to Alzheimer's disease is differentially modulated by voluntary wheel running and enriched environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J J; Noristani, H N; Verkhratsky, A

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an untreatable neurodegenerative disease that deteriorates memory. Increased physical/cognitive activity reduces dementia risk by promoting neuronal and glial response. Although few studies have investigated microglial response in wild-type rodents following exposure to physical/cognitive stimulation, environmental-induced changes of microglia response to AD have been neglected. We investigated effects of running (RUN) and enriched (ENR) environments on numerical density (N v, #/mm(3)) and morphology of microglia in a triple transgenic (3×Tg-AD) mouse model of AD that closely mimics AD pathology in humans. We used immunohistochemical approach to characterise microglial domain by measuring their overall cell surface, volume and somata volume. 3×Tg-AD mice housed in standard control (STD) environment showed significant increase in microglial N v (11.7 %) in CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare (S.Mol) of the hippocampus at 12 months compared to non-transgenic (non-Tg) animals. Exposure to combined RUN and ENR environments prevented an increase in microglial N v in 3×Tg-AD and reduced microglial numbers to non-Tg control levels. Interestingly, 3×Tg-AD mice housed solely in ENR environment displayed significant decrease in microglial N v in CA1 subfield (9.3 % decrease), stratum oriens (11.5 % decrease) and S.Mol (7.6 % decrease) of the hippocampus compared to 3×Tg-AD mice housed in STD environment. Morphological analysis revealed microglial hypertrophy due to pronounced increase in microglia surface, volume and somata volume (61, 78 and 41 %) in 3×Tg-AD mice housed in RUN (but not in ENR) compared to STD environment. These results indicate that exposure to RUN and ENR environments have differential effects on microglial density and activation-associated changes in microglial morphology.

  16. Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sengstock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan.Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (≥20 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≥1.5 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions but not with low-concentration treatments (≤10 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≤1.0 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions. Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of

  17. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  18. Effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention in geometry in senior secondary schools was examined. The study employed experimental research design of pretest, posttest control group. The area of this study is Abuja Municipal Area Council, the Federal Capital Territory. The target population ...

  19. Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... and Maroon (Al tolerant) were grown on hydroponic solution (non modified Hoagland) containing AlCl3 (0-100-200-300 μM). Factorial ...

  20. Periostin differentially induces proliferation, contraction and apoptosis of primary Dupuytren's disease and adjacent palmar fascia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vi, Linda; Feng, Lucy; Zhu, Rebecca D.; Wu, Yan; Satish, Latha; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease, (DD), is a fibroproliferative condition of the palmar fascia in the hand, typically resulting in permanent contracture of one or more fingers. This fibromatosis is similar to scarring and other fibroses in displaying excess collagen secretion and contractile myofibroblast differentiation. In this report we expand on previous data demonstrating that POSTN mRNA, which encodes the extra-cellular matrix protein periostin, is up-regulated in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue relative to phenotypically normal palmar fascia. We demonstrate that the protein product of POSTN, periostin, is abundant in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue while little or no periostin immunoreactivity is evident in patient-matched control tissues. The relevance of periostin up-regulation in DD was assessed in primary cultures of cells derived from diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia from the same patients. These cells were grown in type-1 collagen-enriched culture conditions with or without periostin addition to more closely replicate the in vivo environment. Periostin was found to differentially regulate the apoptosis, proliferation, α smooth muscle actin expression and stressed Fibroblast Populated Collagen Lattice contraction of these cell types. We hypothesize that periostin, secreted by disease cord myofibroblasts into the extra-cellular matrix, promotes the transition of resident fibroblasts in the palmar fascia toward a myofibroblast phenotype, thereby promoting disease progression.

  1. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  2. [Placebo effect in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hideto

    2007-02-01

    "Placebo" is Latin for "I shall please". The placebo effect has been widely documented by randomized placebo-controlled drug studies. One of the best examples of placebo effectiveness is that have been shown in clinical trials of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The placebo effect is observable not only in drug trials but also with deep brain stimulation. Recent advances in research on the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease (PD) have suggested that motor symptoms of PD can be essentially improved by placebo. A recent study using positron emission tomography (PET) with raclopride demonstrated that release of endogeneous dopamine in the dorsal striatum occurs in placebo-responsive patients with PD. This suggests that placebo-induced expectation of clinical improvement may activate endogenous dopamine in the striatum, and that placebo effectiveness is thus achieved by endogenous dopamine supplementation. Indeed, decreased neuronal activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), that were recorded during surgery to implant deep brain stimulation electrodes, correlated well with placebo-induced clinical improvement in patients with PD. Although the detailed pathophysiological mechanism underlying the placebo effects remains uncertain, theoretically, the placebo effect has generally been explained by two different mechanisms: one is conditioning theory (pavlovian conditioning), and the other is cognitive theory (expectation of clinical improvement). Although both mechanisms may contribute to placebo effects, the placebo effect in PD may be attributed more to cognitive mechanisms such as expectation of improvement, because the placebo effect can be obtained in de novo PD patients. There have been accumulating findings that suggest a functional relationship between dopamine and the expectation of clinical improvement (reward). Further basic studies are required to clarify the complex link between dopamine and the reward system, but such findings will contribute to a better

  3. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS MODEL RESEARCH BY MEANS OF THE POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS METHOD FOR NEUROLOGY DISEASES CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Stetsyuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Informatization in medicine offers a lot of opportunities to enhance quality of medical support, accuracy of diagnosis and provides the use of accumulated experience. Modern program systems are utilized now as additional tools to get appropriate advice. This article offers the way to provide help for neurology department doctor of NCSH «OKHMATDYT» during diagnosis determining. It was decided to design the program system for this purpose based on differential diagnostic model. The key problems in differential diagnosis are symptoms similarity between each other in one disease group and the absence of key symptom. Therefore the differential diagnostic model is needed. It is constructed using the potential function method in characteristics space. This characteristics space is formed by 100-200 points - patients with their symptoms. The main feature of this method here is that the decision function is building during recognition step united with learning that became possible with the help of modern powerful computers.

  4. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-01-01

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells

  5. Metabolic differentiation of early Lyme disease from southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, Claudia R; Ashton, Laura V; Wormser, Gary P; Andre, Barbara G; Hess, Ann M; Delorey, Mark J; Pilgard, Mark A; Johnson, Barbara J; Webb, Kristofor; Islam, M Nurul; Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Molla, Irida; Jewett, Mollie W; Belisle, John T

    2017-08-16

    Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the eastern United States. By applying an unbiased metabolomics approach with sera retrospectively obtained from well-characterized patients, we defined biochemical and diagnostic differences between early Lyme disease and STARI. Specifically, a metabolic biosignature consisting of 261 molecular features (MFs) revealed that altered N -acyl ethanolamine and primary fatty acid amide metabolism discriminated early Lyme disease from STARI. Development of classification models with the 261-MF biosignature and testing against validation samples differentiated early Lyme disease from STARI with an accuracy of 85 to 98%. These findings revealed metabolic dissimilarity between early Lyme disease and STARI, and provide a powerful and new approach to inform patient management by objectively distinguishing early Lyme disease from an illness with nearly identical symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Effects of Substrate and Co-Culture on Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Erin Boote [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of stem and progenitor cells has moved to the forefront of research. Since the isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells in 1988 and the subsequent discovery of a self renewing population of multipotent cells in many tissues, many researchers have envisioned a better understanding of development and potential clinical usage in intractable diseases. Both these goals, however, depend on a solid understanding of the intracellular and extracellular forces that cause stem cells to differentiate to a specific cell fate. Many diseases of large scale cell loss have been suggested as candidates for stem cell based treatments. It is proposed that replacing the function of the damaged or defective cells by specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells could treat the disease. Before cells can be directed to specific lineages, the mechanisms of differentiation must be better understood. Differentiation in vivo is an intensively complex system that is difficult to study. The goal of this research is to develop further understanding of the effects of soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells with the use of a simplified in vitro culture system. Specific research objectives are to study the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in response to astrocyte conditioned medium and protein substrate composition and concentration. In an effort to reveal the mechanism of the conditioned medium interaction, a test for the presence of a feedback loop between progenitor cells and astrocytes is presented along with an examination of conditioned medium storage temperature, which can reveal enzymatic dependencies. An examination of protein substrate composition and concentration will help to reveal the role of any ECM interactions on differentiation. This thesis is organized into a literature review covering recent advances in use of external modulators of differentiation such as surface coatings, co

  7. Differential diagnosis of thyroid diseases with 131I and 201TlCl scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, Machiko; Ishida, Osamu

    1979-01-01

    Scintigraphic study with 131 I and 201 TlCl was performed on the differential diagnosis of various kinds of thyroid disease. When thyroid nodules are cold by scintigraphy with 131 I and hot with 201 TlCl, the lesions were proved to be solid tumor, that is, mostly follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and also most probably chronic thyroiditis. Accumulation of 201 TlCl, however, is not observed in cystic lesions, and is very high with high frequency in metastatic lesion of the lymph nodes as well as the thyroid cancer, especially in well differentiated follicular carcinoma. Therefore 201 TlCl was very useful to confirm the metastatic tumors from the thyroid cancer. These features in accumulation of 131 I and 201 TlCl in thyroid disease suggest the imaging technique with 201 TlCl combined with 131 I seem to provide more pathological information on the thyroid and metastatic lesions. (author)

  8. Identification of the Causative Disease of Intermittent Claudication through Walking Motion Analysis: Feature Analysis and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuyou Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent claudication is a walking symptom. Patients with intermittent claudication experience lower limb pain after walking for a short time. However, rest relieves the pain and allows the patient to walk again. Unfortunately, this symptom predominantly arises from not 1 but 2 different diseases: LSS (lumber spinal canal stenosis and PAD (peripheral arterial disease. Patients with LSS can be subdivided by the affected vertebra into 2 main groups: L4 and L5. It is clinically very important to determine whether patients with intermittent claudication suffer from PAD, L4, or L5. This paper presents a novel SVM- (support vector machine- based methodology for such discrimination/differentiation using minimally required data, simple walking motion data in the sagittal plane. We constructed a simple walking measurement system that is easy to set up and calibrate and suitable for use by nonspecialists in small spaces. We analyzed the obtained gait patterns and derived input parameters for SVM that are also visually detectable and medically meaningful/consistent differentiation features. We present a differentiation methodology utilizing an SVM classifier. Leave-one-out cross-validation of differentiation/classification by this method yielded a total accuracy of 83%.

  9. Thyroid Ultrasonography in Differentiation between Graves’ Disease and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishdad, P.; Pishdad, G.R.; Tavanaa, S.; Pishdad, R.; Jalli, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the most common causes of hyper and hypothyroidism, respectively. Differentiation of these 2 diseases, if the patient is euthyroid, may sometimes be extremely difficult on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of gray scale sonography in differentiation of Graves’ disease from Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Methods: This study included 149 patients divided into three groups, patients with Graves’ disease (34 patients, mean age = 36.8 ± 10.17 years), Patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (62 patients, mean age = 33.4 ± 12.16 years) and control group (53 healthy people, mean age = 34.74 ± 16.87 years). Members of all groups were referred to a single radiologist for thyroid sonography for evaluation of thyroid echogenicity pattern. Results: A total of 117 women and 32 men were examined by sonography. The most common sonographic pattern in Hashimoto and Graves’ was homogenous hypo-echogenicity which was observed in 45.2% and 47.1% of cases, respectively. Peripheral hypo-echogenicity pattern was seen in 40.3% of Hashimoto’s group with 100% specificity and 40.3% sensitivity. Central-hypoechogenic pattern was observed in 17.6% of Graves’ group with 100% and 17.6% specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that sonography has high specificity but low sensitivity in the diagnosis of either Graves’ disease or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. It is therefore not possible to differentiate between these two diseases using sonography alone. Confirmation by laboratory data is also needed. PMID:28451576

  10. Differentiation of mucosal disease from partial development of the paranasal sinuses in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerinckx, A.J.; Whyte, A.M.; Lufkin, R.B.; Hall, T.R.; Kangarloo, H.

    1988-01-01

    On magnetic resonance (MR) images of pediatric patients, sinus mucosal disease may have an appearance similar to that of the normal partially developed sinus, leading to an increase in the number of patients labeled as having incidental sinusitis. The paranasal sinuses were retrospectively evaluated in 27 infants and children aged 0-11 years undergoing brain MR imaging for indications both unrelated and related to sinus disease. The authors developed criteria for grading paranasal sinus development and mucosal disease. Incidental mucosal disease is not uncommon, occurring in 28% of patients aged 0-7 years. In children under 3 years of age, inflammatory mucosal thickening and marrow surrounding the partially developed sinus have a high signal on many MR sequences and may be confused. Recognition of the low-intensity peripheral cortical margin of the sinus and awareness of the stages of normal sinus development allow differentiation

  11. Stimulatory effect of undecylenic acid on mouse osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hee; Shim, Ki Shuk; Lee, Su-Ui; Kim, Young Sup; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2010-04-01

    Natural compounds with bone-forming (or anabolic) activity have been recently focused on in bone research. The present study investigated the effect of undecylenic acid (UA) on osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and primary mouse calvarial cells. Low concentrations of UA (up to 5 microM) exhibited no cytotoxicity and significantly increased the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase (early differentiation marker of osteoblast) and calcium deposition with the induction of expression of the osteocalcin gene in both cells. Interestingly, at low concentration of UA, the induction of NF-kappaB p65 translocation into nucleus and the up-regulation of AP-1 and NFATc1 transcript levels were also observed, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of UA on osteoblast differentiation could be mediated through the activation of transcription factors. Additionally, although the patterns of UA-induced activation of MAP kinases (JNK and p38) were not completely consistent with the increase of both ALP activity and calcium deposition by UA, MAP kinases might be partially involved in the biological function of UA during the early and late stages of osteoblast differentiation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Differential expression of miR-145 in children with Kawasaki disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Shimizu

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of childhood that can result in structural damage to the coronary arteries. Previous studies have implicated the TGF-β pathway in disease pathogenesis and generation of myofibroblasts in the arterial wall. microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and can be transported between cells in extracellular vesicles. To understand the role that microRNAs play in modifying gene expression in Kawasaki disease, we studied microRNAs from whole blood during the acute and convalescent stages of the illness.RNA isolated from the matched whole blood of 12 patients with acute and convalescent Kawasaki disease were analyzed by sequencing of small RNA. This analysis revealed six microRNAs (miRs-143, -199b-5p, -618, -223, -145 and -145* (complementary strand whose levels were significantly elevated during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. The result was validated using targeted qRT-PCR using an independent cohort (n = 16. miR-145, which plays a critical role in the differentiation of neutrophils and vascular smooth muscle cells, was expressed at high levels in blood samples from acute Kawasaki disease but not adenovirus-infected control patients (p = 0.005. miR-145 was also detected in small extracellular vesicles isolated from acute Kawasaki disease plasma samples. Pathway analysis of the predicted targets of the 6 differentially expressed microRNAs identified the TGF-β pathway as the top pathway regulated by microRNAs in Kawasaki disease.Sequencing of small RNA species allowed discovery of microRNAs that may participate in Kawasaki disease pathogenesis. miR-145 may participate, along with other differentially expressed microRNAs, in regulating expression of genes in the TGF-β pathway during the acute illness. If the predicted target genes are confirmed, our findings suggest a model of Kawasaki disease pathogenesis whereby miR-145 modulates TGF

  13. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Apparent Transverse Relaxation Rate Differentiate Parkinson Disease and Atypical Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, G; Lewis, M M; Kanekar, S; Sterling, N W; He, L; Kong, L; Li, R; Huang, X

    2017-05-01

    Both diffusion tensor imaging and the apparent transverse relaxation rate have shown promise in differentiating Parkinson disease from atypical parkinsonism (particularly multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy). The objective of the study was to assess the ability of DTI, the apparent transverse relaxation rate, and their combination for differentiating Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and controls. A total of 106 subjects (36 controls, 35 patients with Parkinson disease, 16 with multiple system atrophy, and 19 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were included. DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate measures from the striatal, midbrain, limbic, and cerebellar regions were obtained and compared among groups. The discrimination performance of DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate among groups was assessed by using Elastic-Net machine learning and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Compared with controls, patients with Parkinson disease showed significant apparent transverse relaxation rate differences in the red nucleus. Compared to those with Parkinson disease, patients with both multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy showed more widespread changes, extending from the midbrain to striatal and cerebellar structures. The pattern of changes, however, was different between the 2 groups. For instance, patients with multiple system atrophy showed decreased fractional anisotropy and an increased apparent transverse relaxation rate in the subthalamic nucleus, whereas patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed an increased mean diffusivity in the hippocampus. Combined, DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate were significantly better than DTI or the apparent transverse relaxation rate alone in separating controls from those with Parkinson disease/multiple system atrophy/progressive supranuclear palsy; controls from those with Parkinson

  14. Early-stage differentiation between presenile Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia using arterial spin labeling MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steketee, Rebecca M.E.; Meijboom, Rozanna; Lugt, Aad van der; Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Houston, Gavin C. [GE Healthcare, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Mutsaerts, Henri J.M.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mendez Orellana, Carolina P. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jong, Frank Jan de; Swieten, John C. van [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI for the early diagnosis of and differentiation between the two most common types of presenile dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and for distinguishing age-related from pathological perfusion changes. Thirteen AD and 19 FTD patients, and 25 age-matched older and 22 younger controls underwent 3D pseudo-continuous ASL-MRI at 3 T. Gray matter (GM) volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF), corrected for partial volume effects, were quantified in the entire supratentorial cortex and in 10 GM regions. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic performance were evaluated in regions showing significant CBF differences between patient groups or between patients and older controls. AD compared with FTD patients had hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex, differentiating these with a diagnostic performance of 74 %. Compared to older controls, FTD patients showed hypoperfusion in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas AD patients showed a more widespread regional hypoperfusion as well as atrophy. Regional atrophy was not different between AD and FTD. Diagnostic performance of ASL to differentiate AD or FTD from controls was good (78-85 %). Older controls showed global hypoperfusion compared to young controls. ASL-MRI contributes to early diagnosis of and differentiation between presenile AD and FTD. (orig.)

  15. Early-stage differentiation between presenile Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia using arterial spin labeling MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steketee, Rebecca M.E.; Meijboom, Rozanna; Lugt, Aad van der; Smits, Marion; Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan; Houston, Gavin C.; Mutsaerts, Henri J.M.M.; Mendez Orellana, Carolina P.; Jong, Frank Jan de; Swieten, John C. van

    2016-01-01

    To investigate arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI for the early diagnosis of and differentiation between the two most common types of presenile dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and for distinguishing age-related from pathological perfusion changes. Thirteen AD and 19 FTD patients, and 25 age-matched older and 22 younger controls underwent 3D pseudo-continuous ASL-MRI at 3 T. Gray matter (GM) volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF), corrected for partial volume effects, were quantified in the entire supratentorial cortex and in 10 GM regions. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic performance were evaluated in regions showing significant CBF differences between patient groups or between patients and older controls. AD compared with FTD patients had hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex, differentiating these with a diagnostic performance of 74 %. Compared to older controls, FTD patients showed hypoperfusion in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas AD patients showed a more widespread regional hypoperfusion as well as atrophy. Regional atrophy was not different between AD and FTD. Diagnostic performance of ASL to differentiate AD or FTD from controls was good (78-85 %). Older controls showed global hypoperfusion compared to young controls. ASL-MRI contributes to early diagnosis of and differentiation between presenile AD and FTD. (orig.)

  16. ESC-Derived BDNF-Overexpressing Neural Progenitors Differentially Promote Recovery in Huntington's Disease Models by Enhanced Striatal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Zimmermann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is characterized by fatal motoric failures induced by loss of striatal medium spiny neurons. Neuronal cell death has been linked to impaired expression and axonal transport of the neurotrophin BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor. By transplanting embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors overexpressing BDNF, we combined cell replacement and BDNF supply as a potential HD therapy approach. Transplantation of purified neural progenitors was analyzed in a quinolinic acid (QA chemical and two genetic HD mouse models (R6/2 and N171-82Q on the basis of distinct behavioral parameters, including CatWalk gait analysis. Explicit rescue of motor function by BDNF neural progenitors was found in QA-lesioned mice, whereas genetic mouse models displayed only minor improvements. Tumor formation was absent, and regeneration was attributed to enhanced neuronal and striatal differentiation. In addition, adult neurogenesis was preserved in a BDNF-dependent manner. Our findings provide significant insight for establishing therapeutic strategies for HD to ameliorate neurodegenerative symptoms.

  17. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  18. CT findings of pleural lesions: differential diagnosis between malignant benign diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Yon; Lim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Woo Sun; Park, Kwang Gil [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    A number of benign and malignant diseases may cause pleural abnormalities. Since the resolution of computed tomography (CT) has been improved, the detailed anatomy of pleura can now be well delineated in various pleural diseases. We reviewed retrospectively the CT findings of 60 patients with pathologically proved pleural diseases in order to find out the differential points between benign and malignant diseases. Thirty-six patients had malignant diseases (20 adenocarcinoma, 8 squamous cell carcinoma, 4 small cell carcinoma, 2 lung metastasis, 1 large cell carcinoma, 1 small and large cell carcinoma), and 24 patients had benign diseases (16 tuberculosis including empyema, 3 bacterial empyema, 3 pneumonia, 1 lung abscess, 1 lung contusion). The CT features that suggested malignant pleural diseases were high-grade mediastinal involvement (57.9%, {rho} < 0.1), thick and irregular thickening with nodularity and mass formations (38.5%, {rho} < 0.1), Circumferential pleural thickening 132.1%, {rho} < 0.01), and aggressive pleural effusion 122.2%, {rho} < 0.05). Benign pleural lesions were typically represented by pleural calcification (50%) and extrapleural fat accumulation (45.8%)

  19. Differential Diagnosis of the pancreatic disease : significance of perivascular changes at celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryang; Kim, Ki Whang; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Dong Guk; Lee, Sung Il; Ahn, Chang Soo; Oh, Sei Jung [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Kim, Young Hwan [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to classify perivascular change in the celiac trunk and SMA occurring in pancreatic disease and to evaluate its significance in differential diagnosis. In 73 patients with pancreatic disease (42, acute pancreatitis; 14, chronic pancreatitis; 17, pancreatic cancer) abdominal CT findings were retrospectively reviewed. We defined infiltration as linear or irregular density and thickening as presence of a soft tissue mantle surrounding the vessel, and statistically evaluated the usefulness of these factors for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. Thickening of the celiac trunk and SMA is a valuable finding in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic inflammatory disease and pancreatic cancer. When applied to the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease, perivascular change should be classified as either infiltration or thickening. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  20. Differential Diagnosis of the pancreatic disease : significance of perivascular changes at celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ryang; Kim, Ki Whang; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Dong Guk; Lee, Sung Il; Ahn, Chang Soo; Oh, Sei Jung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to classify perivascular change in the celiac trunk and SMA occurring in pancreatic disease and to evaluate its significance in differential diagnosis. In 73 patients with pancreatic disease (42, acute pancreatitis; 14, chronic pancreatitis; 17, pancreatic cancer) abdominal CT findings were retrospectively reviewed. We defined infiltration as linear or irregular density and thickening as presence of a soft tissue mantle surrounding the vessel, and statistically evaluated the usefulness of these factors for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. Thickening of the celiac trunk and SMA is a valuable finding in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic inflammatory disease and pancreatic cancer. When applied to the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease, perivascular change should be classified as either infiltration or thickening. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Differential Diagnosis of Erythmato-Squamous Diseases Using Classification and Regression Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghooli, Keivan; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Shahmoradi, Leila; Habibi-Koolaee, Mahdi; Jebraeily, Mohamad; Bouraghi, Hamid

    2016-10-01

    Differential diagnosis of Erythmato-Squamous Diseases (ESD) is a major challenge in the field of dermatology. The ESD diseases are placed into six different classes. Data mining is the process for detection of hidden patterns. In the case of ESD, data mining help us to predict the diseases. Different algorithms were developed for this purpose. we aimed to use the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) to predict differential diagnosis of ESD. we used the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) methodology. For this purpose, the dermatology data set from machine learning repository, UCI was obtained. The Clementine 12.0 software from IBM Company was used for modelling. In order to evaluation of the model we calculate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the model. The proposed model had an accuracy of 94.84% (. 24.42) in order to correct prediction of the ESD disease. Results indicated that using of this classifier could be useful. But, it would be strongly recommended that the combination of machine learning methods could be more useful in terms of prediction of ESD.

  2. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF NATIONAL VS. REGIONAL CELEBRITIES ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha JAIN; Subhadip ROY; Abhishek KUMAR; Anusha KABRA

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the differential effects of having a National/Regional celebrity in an advertisement/ endorsement. More specifically the study intends to find out whether a National celebrity would have a more favorable impact on consumer attitudes than a Regional celebrity when endorsing the same product. Experimental design was used as the research methodology. A 3 (National Celebrity/Regional Celebrity/No Celebrity) X 2 (High/Low Involvement Product) design was conducted on stud...

  3. Temperature effect compensation for fast differential pressure decay testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Tong, Xiaomeng; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the long temperature recovery period with differential pressure decay for leak detection, a novel method with temperature effect compensation is proposed to improve the testing efficiency without full stabilization of temperature. The mathematical model of conventional differential pressure decay testing is established to analyze the changes of temperature and pressure during the measuring period. Then the differential pressure is divided into two parts: the exponential part caused by temperature recovery and the linear part caused by leak. With prior information obtained from samples, parameters of the exponential part can be identified precisely, and the temperature effect will be compensated before it fully recovers. To verify the effect of the temperature compensated method, chambers with different volumes are tested under various pressures and the experiments show that the improved method is faster with satisfactory precision, and an accuracy less than 0.25 cc min −1  can be achieved when the compensation time is proportional to four times the theoretical thermal-time constant. (paper)

  4. Real parameter optimization by an effective differential evolution algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wagdy Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Effective Differential Evolution (EDE algorithm for solving real parameter optimization problems over continuous domain. The proposed algorithm proposes a new mutation rule based on the best and the worst individuals among the entire population of a particular generation. The mutation rule is combined with the basic mutation strategy through a linear decreasing probability rule. The proposed mutation rule is shown to promote local search capability of the basic DE and to make it faster. Furthermore, a random mutation scheme and a modified Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA mutation scheme are merged to avoid stagnation and/or premature convergence. Additionally, the scaling factor and crossover of DE are introduced as uniform random numbers to enrich the search behavior and to enhance the diversity of the population. The effectiveness and benefits of the proposed modifications used in EDE has been experimentally investigated. Numerical experiments on a set of bound-constrained problems have shown that the new approach is efficient, effective and robust. The comparison results between the EDE and several classical differential evolution methods and state-of-the-art parameter adaptive differential evolution variants indicate that the proposed EDE algorithm is competitive with , and in some cases superior to, other algorithms in terms of final solution quality, efficiency, convergence rate, and robustness.

  5. Usefulness of pinhole collimator in differential diagnosis of metastatic disease and degenerative joint disease in the vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Kawahara, Syunji; Ishibashi, Akihiko; Tamura, Kohei; Tsukatani, Yasushi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo.

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of pinhole collimator (PHC) imaging combined with an X-ray for vertebral metastasis, our prospective study has employed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis in 21 patients, 11 with osseous metastasis and 15 with degenerative joint disease in the lumbar vertebrae. PHC imaging provided better anatomic information on the extent of 99m Tc-MDP accumulation. PHC vertebral scintigraphy had a considerable impact on the decision-making process, although with variations and not very satisfactory results among the physicians with little experience. Our study suggests that PHC imaging and X-ray film are useful in differentiating between osseous metastasis and degenerative joint disease in the vertebra. (author)

  6. Radionuclide and differential radiodiagnosis of renal parenchymal tumors versus nontumorous renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khripta, F.P.

    1981-01-01

    Modern radiation semiotics of kidney parenchyma cancer and nontumoural diseases of kidney parenchyma is described. Their new indices are shown, the place and significance of radionuclide and roentgenologic methods for the differential diagnosis of kidney parenchyma cancer and nontumoural kidney parenchyma diseases are shown. The plan described is nowadays one of the most rational diagrams. The diagnostic value of roen-- tgenologic and radionuclide investigations of kidney parenchyma cancer is not equivalent. Radio-indication methods state changes which are not characteristic of a particular disease. Therefore, they are used as tests for the further purpose ful special roentgenologic investigation with the minimum traumaticity which improves the diagnosis of kidney parenchyma cancer and permits to reduce investigation periods and material expenditure [ru

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid markers in the differentiation of molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitterová, K; Heinemann, U; Krasnianski, A; Gawinecka, J; Zerr, I

    2016-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis supports the clinical diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) when applied within an adequate clinical context. A diagnostic potential has been attributed to CSF proteins such as 14-3-3, but also tau protein, phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau) protein, amyloid β1-42 , S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). There has been only limited information available about the contribution of CSF analysis in the differentiation of various molecular sCJD subtypes. The CSF levels of the aforementioned proteins from 73 sCJD patients with distinct molecular subtypes were determined. Differences in tau values were significant amongst the homozygous patients (MM and VV genotype) compared to the heterozygous group (P = 0.07 and P = 0.02 respectively). Significantly higher CSF tau levels (P = 0.003) and NSE (P = 0.02) but lower p-tau/tau ratio (P = 0.01) were observed in MM1 compared to MM2 patients. The p-tau/tau ratio enabled the differentiation of MV genotype with higher levels in PrP(sc) type 2 (P = 0.04). Elevation of S100B (P disease duration and clinical stage influenced the test sensitivity in all proteins. Cerebrospinal fluid protein levels might be useful in the pre-mortem differentiation of molecular sCJD subtypes when the codon 129 genotype is known. © 2016 EAN.

  8. Differential effects of the loss of intrachain- versus interchain-disulfide bonds in the cystine-knot domain of von Willebrand factor on the clinical phenotype of von Willebrand disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjernberg, Pernilla; Vos, Hans L.; Spaargaren-van Riel, Caroline C.; Luken, Brenda M.; Voorberg, Jan; Bertina, Rogier M.; Eikenboom, Jeroen C. J.

    2006-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) contains a large number of cysteine residues, which all form disulfide bonds. Mutations of cysteines located in the cystine-knot (CK) domain of VWF have been identified in both qualitative type 2A (IID) and quantitative type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD). Our objective

  9. Clinical applicability of quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy in differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-Chang; Huang, Min-Nung; Kuo, Yu-Min; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Yu, Chia-Li

    2013-08-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a useful tool to distinguish primary from secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) by examining the morphology of nailfold capillaries but its role in disease diagnosis is not clearly established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the roles of quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy in differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs) with RP. The data between the year 2005 and 2009 were retrieved from the nailfold capillaroscopic database of National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Only the data from the patients with RP were analyzed. The criteria for interpretation of capillaroscopic findings were predefined. The final diagnoses of the patients were based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for individual diseases, independent of nailfold capillaroscopic findings. The sensitivity and the specificity of each capillaroscopic pattern to the diseases were determined. The data from a total of 67 patients were qualified for the current study. We found the sensitivity and specificity of scleroderma pattern for systemic sclerosis (SSc) were 89.47% and 80%, and the specificity of the early, active, and late scleroderma patterns for SSc reached 87.5%, 97.5%, and 95%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pattern for SLE and polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) pattern for PM/DM were 33.33%/95.45% and 60%/96.3%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) pattern for MCTD were 20%/100%. The nailfold capillaroscopic (NC) patterns may be useful in the differential diagnosis of CTDs with RP. The NC patterns for SSc and PM/DM are both sensitive and specific to the diseases, while the SLE and MCTD patterns exhibit high specificity but relatively low sensitivity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. NMR-based lipidomic analysis of blood lipoproteins differentiates the progression of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostara, Christina E; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Cung, Manh Thong; Elisaf, Moses S; Goudevenos, John; Bairaktari, Eleni T

    2014-05-02

    Abnormal lipid composition and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). A (1)H NMR-based lipidomic approach was used to investigate the correlation of coronary artery stenosis with the atherogenic (non-HDL) and atheroprotective (HDL) lipid profiles in 99 patients with CHD of various stages of disease and compared with 60 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA), all documented in coronary angiography. The pattern recognition models created from lipid profiles predicted the presence of CHD with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 88% in the HDL model and with 90% and 89% in the non-HDL model, respectively. Patients with mild, moderate, and severe coronary artery stenosis were progressively differentiated from those with NCA in the non-HDL model with a statistically significant separation of severe stage from both mild and moderate. In the HDL model, the progressive differentiation of the disease stages was statistically significant only between patients with mild and severe coronary artery stenosis. The lipid constituents of lipoproteins that mainly characterized the initial stages and then the progression of the disease were the high levels of saturated fatty acids in lipids in both HDL and non-HDL particles, the low levels of HDL-phosphatidylcholine, HDL-sphingomyelin, and omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid in lipids in non-HDL particles. The conventional lipid marker, total cholesterol, found in low levels in HDL and in high levels in non-HDL, also contributed to the onset of the disease but with a much lower coefficient of significance. (1)H NMR-based lipidomic analysis of atherogenic and atheroprotective lipoproteins could contribute to the early evaluation of the onset of coronary artery disease and possibly to the establishment of an appropriate therapeutic option.

  11. Effects of PARP-1 Deficiency on Th1 and Th2 Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sambucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell differentiation to effector Th cells such as Th1 and Th2 requires the integration of multiple synergic and antagonist signals. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. Recently, many reports showed that PARP-1, the prototypical member of the PARP family, plays a role in immune/inflammatory responses. Consistently, its enzymatic inhibition confers protection in several models of immune-mediated diseases, mainly through an inhibitory effect on NF-κB (and NFAT activation. PARP-1 regulates cell functions in many types of immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Our results show that PARP-1KO cells displayed a reduced ability to differentiate in Th2 cells. Under both nonskewing and Th2-polarizing conditions, naïve CD4 cells from PARP-1KO mice generated a reduced frequency of IL-4+ cells, produced less IL-5, and expressed GATA-3 at lower levels compared with cells from wild type mice. Conversely, PARP-1 deficiency did not substantially affect differentiation to Th1 cells. Indeed, the frequency of IFN-γ+ cells as well as IFN-γ production, in nonskewing and Th1-polarizing conditions, was not affected by PARP-1 gene ablation. These findings demonstrate that PARP-1 plays a relevant role in Th2 cell differentiation and it might be a target to be exploited for the modulation of Th2-dependent immune-mediated diseases.

  12. Theory of the negative differential conductivity effect in semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Hong Anh; Nguyen Hong Shon; Le Vu Ky

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) effect in semiconductor superlattices (SL) is proposed and analysed that is due to the conduction electron trapping by donor centers. It is shown that the NDC effect occurs for sufficently high (but reasonable) impurity concentration and not too large value of the τ ε /τ c ratio (where τ ε is the electron energy relaxation time and τ c the electron life time in the conduction band) when the applied d.c. electric field reaches certain critical value defined by the physical parameters of the sample. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  13. Schwinger effect and negative differential conductivity in holographic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankhadeep Chakrabortty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of the Schwinger effect for conductivity are computed for strong coupling systems using holography. The one-loop diagram on the flavor brane introduces an O(λNc imaginary part in the effective action for a Maxwell flavor gauge field. This in turn introduces a real conductivity in an otherwise insulating phase of the boundary theory. Moreover, in certain regions of parameter space the differential conductivity is negative. This is computed in the context of the Sakai–Sugimoto model.

  14. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present PET study was (i) to investigate the neural correlates of object recognition, i.e. the matching of visual forms to memory, and (ii) to test the hypothesis that this process is more difficult for natural objects than for artefacts. This was done by using object decision...... tasks where subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or non-objects. The object decision tasks differed in their difficulty (the degree of perceptual differentiation needed to perform them) and in the category of the real objects used (natural objects versus artefacts). A clear effect...... be the neural correlate of matching visual forms to memory, and the amount of activation in these regions may correspond to the degree of perceptual differentiation required for recognition to occur. With respect to behaviour, it took significantly longer to make object decisions on natural objects than...

  15. Effects of Internet Sales Promotion on a Differential Advertising Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising and sales promotion are two important specific marketing communications tools. In this paper, Internet sales promotion is introduced into a differential advertising model and investigated quantitatively. The conditions for the existence and stability of periodic solutions are obtained. Flip bifurcation of periodic solution is investigated analytically. The results show that the sales promotion parameter can modify the stability of the differential advertising model and lead to chaos through flip bifurcation, the sales level will eventually be no less than a given value by adjusting the value of the sales promotion parameter, and the optimal sales promotion strategy can lead to maximum profit. Numerical results for periodic solutions, bifurcation diagrams, and the effects of sales promotion strategies, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. These results have certain significant theoretical and practical value in related markets.

  16. Differentiation between mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and depression by means of cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, E; Engelborghs, S; De Raedt, R; De Deyn, P P; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I

    2007-05-01

    Discriminating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from depression is a challenge in psychogeriatric medicine. A study was set up to ascertain whether cued recall could be useful in differentiating early AD and MCI from depression among elderly individuals. The Visual Association Test (VAT) and the Memory Impairment Screen-plus (MIS-plus) were administered together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to 40 MCI patients, 35 mild AD patients, 46 depressed patients and 52 healthy control subjects. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Scheffé tests showed that AD patients had significantly lower cued recall scores (i.e. combined VAT and MIS-plus scores) than MCI patients, who in turn had lower scores than depressed patients. The scores of depressed patients and controls were not significantly different. Discriminant analysis revealed that 94% of the AD patients and 96% of the depressed patients could be classified correctly by means of the GDS and the cued recall sores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified an optimal cut-off score of 8 (maximum score 12) for differentiating AD and MCI patients from depressed elderly patients and controls. Applying this cut-off, a sensitivity of 83% (58%) and a specificity of 85% (85%) was obtained when differentiating AD (MCI) from depression. Cued recall, operationalized by the combined scores of VAT and MIS-plus, is a useful method for differentiating AD patients from depressed individuals and healthy controls. Probably because of the great heterogeneity among MCI patients, the diagnostic power of cued recall decreases when applied to differentiate MCI from depression.

  17. The effect of dexamethasone and triiodothyronine on terminal differentiation of primary bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Thomas M; Schildberg, Frank A; Alini, Mauro; Wimmer, Matthias D; Haddouti, El-Mustapha; Gravius, Sascha; Ito, Keita; Stoddart, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The newly evolved field of regenerative medicine is offering solutions in the treatment of bone or cartilage loss and deficiency. Mesenchymal stem cells, as well as articular chondrocytes, are potential cells for the generation of bone or cartilage. The natural mechanism of bone formation is that of endochondral ossification, regulated, among other factors, through the hormones dexamethasone and triiodothyronine. We investigated the effects of these hormones on articular chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, hypothesizing that these hormones would induce terminal differentiation, with chondrocytes and differentiated stem cells being similar in their response. Using a 3D-alginate cell culture model, bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated stem cells were cultured in presence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone, and cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production were investigated. Collagen mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Col X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase were monitored as markers of terminal differentiation, a prerequisite of endochondral ossification. The alginate culture system worked well, both for the culture of chondrocytes and for the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Dexamethasone led to an increase in glycosaminoglycan production. Triiodothyronine increased the total collagen production only in chondrocytes, where it also induced signs of terminal differentiation, increasing both collagen X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase activity. Dexamethasone induced terminal differentiation in the differentiated stem cells. The immature articular chondrocytes used in this study seem to be able to undergo terminal differentiation, pointing to their possible role in the onset of degenerative osteoarthritis, as well as their potential for a cell source in bone tissue engineering. When chondrocyte-like cells, after their differentiation, can indeed be moved on towards terminal

  18. Differential diagnosis of metastatic bone disease and benign bone disease on spine SPECT in patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin

    2001-01-01

    One or more abnormal vertebrae detected on bone scintigraphy is a common finding in clinical practice, and it could pose a diagnostic dilemma especially in cancer patients, as either metastasis or benign disease may cause scintigraphic abnormality. The purpose of this study was to determine whether additional spine SPECT has a role in differentiating malignant from benign lesions in patients with back pain. We reviewed spine SPECT studies obtained over a three-year period in 108 patients. Among them, forty-five patients with abnormal SPECT and clinically followed records were evaluated (20 cancer patients were included). Uptake patterns were classified as follows: 1. Body: diffusely increased uptake, linear increased uptake of end plate, segmental increased uptake, and cold defect, 2 Posterior element; posterior to body (pedicle), posterior to intervertebral disc space (facet joint), and spinous process. Lesions were correlated with radiological findings and with final diagnosis. Sixty-nine bone lesions were detected on SPECT images, including 18 metastases, 28 degenerative diseases and 21 compression fractures. Cold defect (6) and segmental increased uptake (5) were dominant findings in metastasis: linear increased uptake (12), and facet joint uptake (15) were in degenerative change; and diffuse increased uptake (9), and linear increased uptake (9) were in compression fracture. Cold defect and segmental increased uptake of body were characteristic findings of metastasis, but care should be taken because compression fracture also shows segmental increased uptake in some cases. Degenerative disease was easily diagnosed because of the typical finding of linear increased uptake of end plate and facet joint. Therefore, additional bone SPECT after planar bone scan would be helpful for differentiating metastasis from benign condition in cancer patients

  19. Role of color Doppler in differentiation of Graves' disease and thyroiditis in thyrotoxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkol, Ragab Hani; Nada, Aml Mohamed; Boughattas, Sami

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of thyroid blood flow assessment by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and compare it to technetium pertechnetate thyroid scanning. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with thyrotoxicosis were included in the study. Clinical history was taken and physical examination and thyroid function tests were performed for all patients. Thyroid autoantibodies were measured. The thyroid glands of all patients were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography for size, shape and echotexture. Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography of the thyroid tissue was performed and spectral flow analysis of both inferior thyroid arteries was assessed. Technetium99 pertechnetate scanning of the thyroid gland was done for all patients. According to thyroid scintigraphy, the patients were divided into two groups: 18 cases with Graves’ disease and 8 cases with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. All patients had suppressed thyrotropin. The diagnosis of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was supported by the clinical picture and follow up of patients. RESULTS: Peak systolic velocities of the inferior thyroid arteries were significantly higher in patients with Graves’ disease than in patients with thyroiditis (P = 0.004 in the right inferior thyroid artery and P = 0.001 in left inferior thyroid artery). Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography parameters demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 87.5% in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. CONCLUSION: Color Doppler flow of the inferior thyroid artery can be used in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis, especially when there is a contraindication of thyroid scintigraphy by radioactive material in some patients. PMID:23671754

  20. Disease-Specific Mortality of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients in Korea: A Multicenter Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLittle is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients and its risk factors in Korea.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005.ResultsMean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97% and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%. Mean size of the primary tumor was 1.6±1.0 cm. Approximately 40% of patients had cervical lymph node (LN metastases and 1.3% had synchronous distant metastases. During 11.3 years of follow-up, 150 disease-specific mortalities (1.9% occurred; the 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rate was 98%. According to the year of diagnosis, the number of disease-specific mortality was not different. However, the rate of disease-specific mortality decreased during the study period (from 7.7% to 0.7%. Older age (≥45 years at diagnosis, male, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC versus PTC, larger tumor size (>2 cm, presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM stage were independent risk factors of disease-specific mortality of DTC patients.ConclusionThe rate of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients was 1.9%; the 10-year DSS rate was 98% during 1996 to 2005. Older age at diagnosis, male, FTC, larger tumor size, presence of ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages were significant risk factors of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients.

  1. (131)I treatment in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A J M; Vázquez, R G; Cuenca, J I C; Brocca, M A M; Castilla, J; Martínez, J M M; González, E N

    2016-01-01

    Radioiodine (RAI) is a cornerstone in the treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC). In patients on haemodialysis due to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), it must be used cautiously, considering the renal clearance of this radionuclide. Also, the safety of the procedure and subsequent long-term outcome is still not well defined. In 2001, we described a dosimetric method and short-term results in three patients, with a good safety profile. We hypothesize that our method is safe in a long-term scenario without compromising the prognosis of both renal and thyroid disease. Descriptive-retrospective study. A systematic search was carried out using our clinical database from 2000 to 2014. DTC and radioiodine treatment while on haemodialysis. peritoneal dialysis. Final sample n=9 patients (n=5 males), age 48 years (median age 51 years males, 67 years female group); n=8 papillary thyroid cancer, n=1 follicular thyroid cancer; n=5 lymph node invasion; n=1 metastatic disease. Median RAI dose administered on haemodialysis 100mCi. 7.5 years after radioiodine treatment on haemodialysis, n=7 deemed free of thyroid disease, n=1 persistent non-localised disease. No complications related to the procedure or other target organs were registered. After 3.25 years, n=4 patients underwent successful renal transplantation; n=4 patients did not meet transplantation criteria due to other conditions unrelated to the thyroid disease or its treatment. One patient died due to ischemic cardiomyopathy (free of thyroid disease). Radioiodine treatment during haemodialysis is a long-term, safe procedure without worsening prognosis of either renal or thyroid disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-stress and neuronal cell differentiation induction effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Myra O; Ikeya, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kazunori; Arfa, Abdelkarim Ben; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-12-22

    Mood disorder accounts for 13 % of global disease burden. And while therapeutic agents are available, usually orally administered, most have unwanted side effects, and thus making the inhalation of essential oils (EOs) an attractive alternative therapy. Rosmarinus officinalis EO (ROEO), Mediterranean ROEO reported to improve cognition, mood, and memory, the effect on stress of which has not yet been determined. Here, the anti-stress effect of ROEO on stress was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Six-week-old male ICR mice were made to inhale ROEO and subjected to tail suspension test (TST). To determine the neuronal differentiation effect of ROEO in vitro, induction of ROEO-treated PC12 cells differentiation was observed. Intracellular acetylcholine and choline, as well as the Gap43 gene expression levels were also determined. Inhalation of ROEO significantly decreased the immobility time of ICR mice and serum corticosterone level, accompanied by increased brain dopamine level. Determination of the underlying mechanism in vitro revealed a PC12 differentiation-induction effect through the modulation of intracellular acetylcholine, choline, and Gap43 gene expression levels. ROEO activates the stress response system through the NGF pathway and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting dopamine production and secretion. The effect of ROEO may be attributed to its bioactive components, specifically to α-pinene, one of its major compounds that has anxiolytic property. The results of this study suggest that ROEO inhalation has therapeutic potential against stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  3. Tuberculosis in pregnancy:a challenging differential diagnosisfor inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, E F M; Araujo Júnior, E; Campanharo, F F; Sarmento, S G P; Saito, C S; Moron, F A

    2014-08-01

    To describe a case of tuberculosis with intestinal variant in a pregnant woman in the 17th week of pregnancy. Case report. Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo-SP, Brazil. Tuberculosis is a public health problem that concerns many countries in the world. It was declareda public emergency by the World Health Organization in 2005. Its presence during pregnancy brings maternal risk and fetal impairment if not treated quickly and properly. The intestinal variant is not the most common form of the disease and may be confused with inflammatory bowel diseases, especially Crohns disease. Knowledge of the specific characteristics, combined with a detailed medical history and appropriate diagnostic methods can make all the difference in gestational prognosis. We report the case of a pregnant woman who wrongly underwent treatment for inflammatory bowel disease at another service. After admission to our university hospital, fruitful diagnostic clarification was achieved and the patient was diagnosed and treated for tuberculosis. We describe the details of the investigation and, in particular, review the main characteristics in the literature for differentiating the two diseases.

  4. Ultrasonographic differentiation between Kikuchi's disease and lymphoma in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Wu-Chia [Department of Otolaryngology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Cheng [Department of Pediatrics, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Chin [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yao-Peng [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liao, Li-Jen, E-mail: liaolj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Otolaryngology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    characteristics (size, shape, rims, matting and echotexture) helps differentiate cervical lymph nodes in patients with Kikuchi's disease and lymphoma. Cervical lymphadenopathies in patients with Kikuchi's disease have smaller size, less round, less micronodular reticular echotexture, and more signs of matting and cortical widening than those with lymphoma examined under ultrasound.

  5. End-stage renal disease, dialysis, kidney transplantation and their impact on CD4+ -T-cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaier, Matthias; Leick, Angele; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Kälble, Florian; Morath, Christian; Eckstein, Volker; Ho, Anthony; Mueller-Tidow, Carsten; Meuer, Stefan; Mahnke, Karsten; Sommerer, Claudia; Zeier, Martin; Steinborn, Andrea

    2018-05-02

    Premature aging of both CD4 + -regulatory- (Tregs) and CD4 + -responder-T-cells (Tresps) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is expected to affect the success of later kidney transplantation. Both T-cell populations are released from the thymus as inducible co-stimulatory (ICOS + -) and ICOS - -recent thymic emigrant (RTE)-Tregs/Tresps, which differ primarily in their proliferative capacities. In this study, we analysed the effect of ESRD and subsequent renal replacement therapies on the differentiation of ICOS + - and ICOS - -RTE-Tregs/Tresps into ICOS + - or ICOS - -CD31 - -Memory-Tregs/Tresps and examined whether diverging pathways affected the suppressive activity of ICOS + - and ICOS - -Tregs in co-culture with autologous Tresps. Compared to healthy controls, we found an increased differentiation of ICOS + -RTE-Tregs/Tresps and ICOS - -RTE-Tregs via CD31 + -memory-Tregs/Tresps into CD31 - -memory-Tregs/Tresps in ESRD and dialysis patients. In contrast, ICOS - -RTE-Tresps showed an increased differentiation via ICOS - -mature naïve (MN)-Tresps into CD31 - -memory-Tresps. Thereby, the ratio of ICOS + -Tregs/ICOS + -Tresps was not changed, while that of ICOS - -Tregs/ICOS - -Tresps was significantly increased. This differentiation preserved the suppressive activity of both Treg populations in ESRD and partly in dialysis patients. After transplantation, the increased differentiation of ICOS + - and ICOS - -RTE-Tresps proceeded, while that of ICOS + -RTE-Tregs ceased and that of ICOS - -RTE-Tregs switched to an increased differentiation via ICOS - -MN-Tregs. Consequently, the ratios of ICOS + -Tregs/ICOS + -Tresps and of ICOS - -Tregs/ICOS - -Tresps decreased significantly, reducing the suppressive activity of Tregs markedly. Our data reveal that an increased tolerance-inducing differentiation of ICOS + - and ICOS - -Tregs preserves the functional activity of Tregs in ESRD patients, but this cannot be maintained during long-term renal replacement therapy

  6. Identification of Differentially Methylated Sites with Weak Methylation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA methylation is an epigenetic alteration crucial for regulating stress responses. Identifying large-scale DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution is made possible by whole genome bisulfite sequencing. An essential task following the generation of bisulfite sequencing data is to detect differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs among treatments. Most statistical methods for DMC detection do not consider the dependency of methylation patterns across the genome, thus possibly inflating type I error. Furthermore, small sample sizes and weak methylation effects among different phenotype categories make it difficult for these statistical methods to accurately detect DMCs. To address these issues, the wavelet-based functional mixed model (WFMM was introduced to detect DMCs. To further examine the performance of WFMM in detecting weak differential methylation events, we used both simulated and empirical data and compare WFMM performance to a popular DMC detection tool methylKit. Analyses of simulated data that replicated the effects of the herbicide glyphosate on DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana show that WFMM results in higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting DMCs compared to methylKit, especially when the methylation differences among phenotype groups are small. Moreover, the performance of WFMM is robust with respect to small sample sizes, making it particularly attractive considering the current high costs of bisulfite sequencing. Analysis of empirical Arabidopsis thaliana data under varying glyphosate dosages, and the analysis of monozygotic (MZ twins who have different pain sensitivities—both datasets have weak methylation effects of <1%—show that WFMM can identify more relevant DMCs related to the phenotype of interest than methylKit. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs are genomic regions with different DNA methylation status across biological samples. DMRs and DMCs are essentially the same

  7. Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C; Sullivan, Aideen M

    2012-04-01

    The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on neurones. In an attempt to establish an useful model to study the direct neuronal influence of GDF5, we have characterised the effects of GDF5 on a human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. Our results show that GDF5 has the capability to promote neuronal but not dopaminergic differentiation. We also show that it promotes neuronal survival in vitro following a 6-hydroxydopamine insult. Our results show that application of GDF5 to SH-SY5Y cultures induces the SMAD pathway which could potentially be implicated in the intracellular transmission of GDF5's neurotrophic effects. Overall, our study shows that the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line provides an excellent neuronal model to study the neurotrophic effects of GDF5.

  8. Ultrasonographic differentiation between Kikuchi's disease and lymphoma in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Wu-Chia; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yao-Peng; Liao, Li-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Kikuchi's disease, or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a self-limited necrotizing lymphadenitis. Clinically, it resembles lymphoma. We want to compare the sonographic features between Kikuchi's disease and lymphoma in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Materials and methods: The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board. Two hundred and twenty six cervical lymph nodes (137 nodes from 21 Kikuchi's disease patients and 89 nodes from 20 malignant lymphoma patients) were examined. The demographic and ultrasonographic characteristics of lymph nodes were collected and analyzed. Results: The Kikuchi's disease patients (mean age, 24.2 years; range, 8–57 years) were younger than those with lymphoma (mean age, 54 years; range, 13–81 years). There was no difference in laterality of nodes (p = 0.19). The nodal distribution demonstrated most enlarged neck lymph nodes located at level II, III and V. The ranges of short-axis and long-axis length were 6.5 ± 2.3 mm (mean ± SD) versus 13.4 ± 5.1 mm and 13.4 ± 5.0 mm versus 21.2 ± 9.2 mm for Kikuchi's disease versus lymphoma (p 0.05). Conclusion: Analysis of basic ultrasonographic characteristics (size, shape, rims, matting and echotexture) helps differentiate cervical lymph nodes in patients with Kikuchi's disease and lymphoma. Cervical lymphadenopathies in patients with Kikuchi's disease have smaller size, less round, less micronodular reticular echotexture, and more signs of matting and cortical widening than those with lymphoma examined under ultrasound.

  9. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  10. Differentiating Graves' disease from subacute thyroiditis using ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn; Bhasipol, Adikan

    2016-09-01

    The measurement of free thyroid hormone, instead of the total form, is more commonly used in current practice. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the ratio of serum free triiodothyronine (FT3, pg/mL) to free thyroxine (FT4, ng/dL) for differentiating Graves' disease from subacute thyroiditis. Medical records of thyrotoxic patients aged >15 years who had measurement of FT3, FT4 and thyrotropin on the first diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis before initiating treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from all clinics, and were not limited to the endocrine clinic. Pregnant women were excluded. A total of 548 patients (468 with Graves' disease, 40 with subacute thyroiditis and 40 with toxic adenoma/multinodular goiter) were recruited. Mean age was 43.9 ± 15.4 years. Most were female 434 (79.2%), and goiter was present in 55.3%. Prevalence of T3-toxicosis and T4-toxicosis were 5.6% and 6.6%, respectively. Mean FT3/FT4 ratios were 4.62 ± 2 (10(-2) pg/ng) in patients with Graves' disease and 2.73 ± 0.5 in subacute thyroiditis. The area under the ROC curve of the FT3/FT4 ratio for diagnosis of Graves' disease was 0.83 (95%CI, 0.76-0.91). Cutoff level of this ratio >4.4 offered sensitivity of 47.2% and specificity of 92.8%. FT3/FT4 ratio of >4.4 (10(-2) pg/ng) may help in differentiating the cause of thyrotoxicosis.

  11. [Retrospective analysis of influence of differential protein intake on renal prognosis for progressive chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wendi; Yin, Daoxin; Cui, Wenying; Liu, Wenhu

    2014-01-28

    To explore retrospectively the influence of differential protein intake on renal prognosis for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 159 chronic kidney disease patients at stages 2, 3 and 4 were enrolled and a questionnaire survey was conducted from January 2009 to July 2012. They were followed monthly and their clinical data collected, including primary disease, blood pressure, body mass index and adverse events. Laboratory tests were performed every 3 months, including biochemical parameters, protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), diet reviews and daily protein intake (DPI). A simplified MDRD formula was employed to evaluate the level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). According to the level of DPI, they were divided into 3 groups of very low protein diet (VLPD): DPI ≤ 0.6 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), low-protein diet (LPD): DPI >0.6-protein diet (NPD): DPI ≥ 0.8 · g · kg(-1) · d(-1). Among them, 4 cases (2.50%) progressed to uremia stage and received renal replacement therapy, 2(1.25%) experienced rapid decline in renal function, 9(5.66%) were hospitalized from cardio-cerebral diseases and the 2-year kidney survival rate was 97.5%. At the end of study, among 9 patients of PEM, 2 subjects had a serum level of albumin under 32 g/L and another 7 with a BMI 0.05). Within a certain range, differential protein intake may not significantly affect the prognosis of kidney for progressive CKD patients.

  12. Corpus callosum involvement: a useful clue for differentiating Fabry disease from multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Olivo, Gaia; Pontillo, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Dario; Imbriaco, Massimo; Brunetti, Arturo; Tedeschi, Enrico; Riccio, Eleonora; Migliaccio, Silvia; Pisani, Antonio; Russo, Camilla; Feriozzi, Sandro; Veroux, Massimiliano; Battaglia, Yuri; Concolino, Daniela; Pieruzzi, Federico; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Caronia, Aurelio; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed as a possible differential diagnosis for Fabry disease (FD). The aim of this work was to evaluate the involvement of corpus callosum (CC) on MR images and its possible role as a radiological sign to differentiate between FD and MS. In this multicentric study, we retrospectively evaluated the presence of white matter lesions (WMLs) on the FLAIR images of 104 patients with FD and 117 patients with MS. The incidence of CC-WML was assessed in the two groups and also in a subgroup of 37 FD patients showing neurological symptoms. WMLs were detected in 50 of 104 FD patients (48.1%) and in all MS patients. However, a lesion in the CC was detected in only 3 FD patients (2.9%) and in 106 MS patients (90.6%). In the FD subgroup with neurological symptoms, WMLs were present in 26 of 37 patients (70.3%), with two subjects (5.4%) showing a definite callosal lesion. FD patients have a very low incidence of CC involvement on conventional MR images compared to MS, independently from the clinical presentation and the overall degree of WM involvement. Evaluating the presence of CC lesions on brain MR scans can be used as a radiological sign for a differential diagnosis between MS and FD, rapidly addressing the physician toward a correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment options. (orig.)

  13. Role of neuropsychological assessment in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Maria Lima Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of dementia increases significantly from the age of 65 years, doubling every five years thereafter. Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD constitute the two main dementia types. Differentiating them encompasses anamnesis, neurological examination, laboratory and neuroimaging exams and neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological assessment produces different findings for each dementia type, and reveals those areas most impaired as well as those most preserved. The aim of the present article was to describe the role of neuropsychology in diagnosing dementia and achieving a differential diagnosis between AD and VaD. A general overview follows of the most widely known instruments used to assess cognitive function in dementia, and the cognitive changes seen in AD and VaD. The conclusion drawn was that there is significant overlap in cognitive changes between both these dementia types, while each type has its own specific characteristics which are identifiable and quantifiable on neuropsychological assessments and provide the basis for reaching a differential diagnosis.

  14. Limited Diagnostic Utility of Plasma Adrenocorticotropic Hormone for Differentiation between Adrenal Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, I Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Ahn, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level has been recommended as the first diagnostic test for differentiating between ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and ACTH-dependent CS. When plasma ACTH values are inconclusive, a differential diagnosis of CS can be made based upon measurement of the serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level and results of the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDST). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of plasma ACTH to differentiate adrenal CS from Cushing' disease (CD) and compare it with that of the HDST results and serum DHEA-S level. We performed a retrospective, multicenter study from January 2000 to May 2012 involving 92 patients with endogenous CS. The levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) after the HDST, and serum DHEA-S were measured. Fifty-seven patients had adrenal CS and 35 patients had CD. The area under the curve of plasma ACTH, serum DHEA-S, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 0.954, 0.841, 0.950, and 0.997, respectively (all Pdisease, especially when the plasma ACTH level alone is not conclusive.

  15. Corpus callosum involvement: a useful clue for differentiating Fabry disease from multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Olivo, Gaia; Pontillo, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Dario; Imbriaco, Massimo; Brunetti, Arturo; Tedeschi, Enrico [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Riccio, Eleonora; Migliaccio, Silvia; Pisani, Antonio [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Public Health, Nephrology Unit, Naples (Italy); Russo, Camilla [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Feriozzi, Sandro [Belcolle Hospital, Nephrology and Dialysis Department, Viterbo (Italy); Veroux, Massimiliano [University Hospital of Catania, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies, Catania (Italy); Battaglia, Yuri [St. Anna Hospital-University, Department of Specialized Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Ferrara (Italy); Concolino, Daniela [University Magna Graecia, Department of Pediatrics, Catanzaro (Italy); Pieruzzi, Federico [University of Milano-Bicocca, Nephrology Unit, Milan (Italy); Tuttolomondo, Antonino [University of Palermo, Internal Medicine, DiBiMIS, Palermo (Italy); Caronia, Aurelio [Triolo Zancia Care Home, Palermo (Italy); Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Neurosciences and Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed as a possible differential diagnosis for Fabry disease (FD). The aim of this work was to evaluate the involvement of corpus callosum (CC) on MR images and its possible role as a radiological sign to differentiate between FD and MS. In this multicentric study, we retrospectively evaluated the presence of white matter lesions (WMLs) on the FLAIR images of 104 patients with FD and 117 patients with MS. The incidence of CC-WML was assessed in the two groups and also in a subgroup of 37 FD patients showing neurological symptoms. WMLs were detected in 50 of 104 FD patients (48.1%) and in all MS patients. However, a lesion in the CC was detected in only 3 FD patients (2.9%) and in 106 MS patients (90.6%). In the FD subgroup with neurological symptoms, WMLs were present in 26 of 37 patients (70.3%), with two subjects (5.4%) showing a definite callosal lesion. FD patients have a very low incidence of CC involvement on conventional MR images compared to MS, independently from the clinical presentation and the overall degree of WM involvement. Evaluating the presence of CC lesions on brain MR scans can be used as a radiological sign for a differential diagnosis between MS and FD, rapidly addressing the physician toward a correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment options. (orig.)

  16. Therapeutic Targeting of Redox Signaling in Myofibroblast Differentiation and Age-Related Fibrotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Sampson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofibroblast activation plays a central role during normal wound healing. Whereas insufficient myofibroblast activation impairs wound healing, excessive myofibroblast activation promotes fibrosis in diverse tissues (including benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH leading to organ dysfunction and also promotes a stromal response that supports tumor progression. The incidence of impaired wound healing, tissue fibrosis, BPH, and certain cancers strongly increases with age. This paper summarizes findings from in vitro fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation systems that serve as cellular models to study fibrogenesis of diverse tissues. Supported by substantial in vivo data, a large body of evidence indicates that myofibroblast differentiation induced by the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta is driven by a prooxidant shift in redox homeostasis due to elevated production of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4-derived hydrogen peroxide and supported by concomitant decreases in nitric oxide/cGMP signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation can be inhibited and reversed by restoring redox homeostasis using antioxidants or NOX4 inactivation as well as enhancing nitric oxide/cGMP signaling via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclases or inhibition of phosphodiesterases. Current evidence indicates the therapeutic potential of targeting the prooxidant shift in redox homeostasis for the treatment of age-related diseases associated with myofibroblast dysregulation.

  17. Differential Radiosensitizing Effect of Valproic Acid in Differentiation Versus Self-Renewal Promoting Culture Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeb, Bisrat G.; Xu Wei; Mok, Henry; Li Li; Robertson, Fredika; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, Jim; Lucci, Anthony; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that valproic acid (VA) enhances the proliferation and self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells and that breast cancer stem/progenitor cells can be resistant to radiation. From these data, we hypothesized that VA would fail to radiosensitize breast cancer stem/progenitor cells grown to three-dimensional (3D) mammospheres. Methods and Materials: We used the MCF7 breast cancer cell line grown under stem cell-promoting culture conditions (3D mammosphere) and standard nonstem cell monolayer culture conditions (two-dimensional) to examine the effect of pretreatment with VA on radiation sensitivity in clonogenic survival assays and on the expression of embryonic stem cell transcription factors. Results: 3D-cultured MCF-7 cells expressed higher levels of Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. The 3D passage enriched self-renewal and increased radioresistance in the 3D mammosphere formation assays. VA radiosensitized adherent cells but radioprotected 3D cells in single-fraction clonogenic assays. Moreover, fractionated radiation sensitized VA-treated adherent MCF7 cells but did not have a significant effect on VA-treated single cells grown to mammospheres. Conclusion: We have concluded that VA might preferentially radiosensitize differentiated cells compared with those expressing stem cell surrogates and that stem cell-promoting culture is a useful tool for in vitro evaluation of novel cancer therapeutic agents and radiosensitizers.

  18. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Plasma Biomarkers Differentiate Parkinson’s Disease From Atypical Parkinsonism Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsien Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parkinson’s disease (PD has significant clinical overlaps with atypical parkinsonism syndromes (APS, which have a poorer treatment response and a more aggressive course than PD. We aimed to identify plasma biomarkers to differentiate PD from APS.Methods: Plasma samples (n = 204 were obtained from healthy controls and from patients with PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, corticobasal degeneration (CBD, or frontotemporal dementia (FTD with parkinsonism (FTD-P or without parkinsonism. We measured plasma levels of α-synuclein, total tau, p-Tau181, and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42 by immunomagnetic reduction-based immunoassay.Results: Plasma α-synuclein level was significantly increased in patients with PD and APS when compared with controls and FTD without parkinsonism (p < 0.01. Total tau and p-Tau181 were significantly increased in all disease groups compared to controls, especially in patients with FTD (p < 0.01. A multivariate and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that a cut-off value for Aβ42 multiplied by p-Tau181 for discriminating patients with FTD from patients with PD and APS was 92.66 (pg/ml2, with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.932. An α-synuclein cut-off of 0.1977 pg/ml could separate FTD-P from FTD without parkinsonism (AUC 0.947. In patients with predominant parkinsonism, an α-synuclein cut-off of 1.388 pg/ml differentiated patients with PD from those with APS (AUC 0.87.Conclusion: Our results suggest that integrated plasma biomarkers improve the differential diagnosis of PD from APS (PSP, CBD, DLB, and FTD-P.

  20. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Zhu

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. Although integrin αVβ6 receptor has been identified as primary FMDV receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. Thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this tissue specificity. We hypothesized that differences in certain biological activities due to differential gene expression determine FMDV tropism and applied whole genome gene expression profiling to identify genes differentially expressed between FMDV-targeted and non-targeted tissues in terms of supporting primary infection, secondary replication including vesicular lesions, and persistence. Using statistical and bioinformatic tools to analyze the differential gene expression, we identified mechanisms that could explain FMDV tissue tropism based on its association with differential expression of integrin αVβ6 heterodimeric receptor (FMDV receptor, fibronectin (ligand of the receptor, IL-1 cytokines, death receptors and the ligands, and multiple genes in the biological pathways involved in extracellular matrix turnover and interferon signaling found in this study. Our results together with reported findings indicate that differences in (1 FMDV receptor availability and accessibility, (2 type I interferon-inducible immune response, and (3 ability to clear virus infected cells via death receptor signaling play roles in determining FMDV tissue tropism and the additional increase of high extracellular matrix turnover induced by FMDV infection, likely via triggering the signaling of highly expressed IL-1 cytokines, play a key role in the pathogenesis of vesicular lesions.

  1. Perfusion SPECT studies with mapping of Brodmann areas in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal degeneration syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies with mapping of Brodmann areas (BAs) in the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTLD) syndromes. Thirty-nine patients with AD and 73 patients with FTLD syndromes [behavioural variant FTLD (bvFTLD); language variant FTLD (lvFTLD), including semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA); and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndromes] underwent brain perfusion SPECT. The NeuroGam software was used for the semiquantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs of the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Compared with those in AD patients, BAs with statistically significant hypoperfusion were found in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of FTLD and bvFTLD patients; in the temporal and prefrontal cortices and Broca's areas of lvFTLD patients; in the left temporal gyrus of SD patients; in premotor and supplementary motor, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporal and anterior cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of PNFA patients; and in the prefrontal, temporal, posterior cingulated and primary and secondary visual cortices of CBD/PSP patients. BA 46R could differentiate AD patients from FTLD and bvFTLD patients; 21L and 25L were found to be independent predictors for lvFTLD in comparison with AD, and 25R, 21L and 23R could differentiate AD patients from PNFA, SD and CBD/PSP patients, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping in AD and FTLD patients could improve the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated in these disorders, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis.

  2. Utility of susceptibility-weighted MRI in differentiating Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Deepak; Saini, Jitender; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Sarma, P.S.; Kishore, Asha

    2010-01-01

    Neuropathological studies report varying patterns of brain mineralization in Parkinson's diseases (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is the ideal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to detect mineralization of the brain. The purpose of this study was to test if SWI can differentiate PD, PSP, and MSA-P. Eleven patients with PD, 12 with PSP, 12 with MSA-P, and 11 healthy controls underwent SWI of the brain. Hypointensity of putamen, red nucleus, substantia nigra, and dentate nucleus in all groups were measured using an objective grading scale and scored from 0 to 3. In PSP, hypointensity score of red nucleus was higher than that in MSA-P (p = 0.001) and PD (p = 0.001), and a score of ≥2 differentiated the PSP group from the PD and MSA-P groups. Putaminal hypointensity score was higher in PSP when compared to that in PD (p = 0.003), and a score of ≥2 differentiated PSP from PD groups. SWI hypointensity scores of red nucleus and putamen had an excellent intrarater and interrater correlation. Substantia nigra hypointensity score of the PSP group was higher than that of the MSA-P (p = 0.004) and PD (p = 0.006) groups, but the scores had only a moderate intrarater and interrater correlation. SWI shows different patterns of brain mineralization in clinically diagnosed groups of PD, PSP, and MSA-P and may be considered as an additional MR protocol to help differentiate these conditions. (orig.)

  3. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS. In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group, patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group, and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group. Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases.

  4. An Effect Size Measure for Raju's Differential Functioning for Items and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Keith D.; Oshima, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study established an effect size measure for differential functioning for items and tests' noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF). The Mantel-Haenszel parameter served as the benchmark for developing NCDIF's effect size measure for reporting moderate and large differential item functioning in test items. The effect size of…

  5. Viroses confundíveis com febre aftosa Viral diseases to be differentiated from foot-and-mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Revisam-se as doenças que devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de febre aftosa. Dentre as doenças vesiculares ou erosivas, descrevem-se os principais aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico da estomatite vesicular, diarréia viral bovina, febre catarral maligna, infecções por herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5, e uma estomatite ulcerativa associada a parvovírus bovino, que ocorreu no Rio Grande do Sul; língua azul, para a qual tem sido detectados anticorpos em bovinos e ovinos do Rio Grande do Sul; mamilite herpética que ocorre em outros Estados do País;peste bovina, que foi diagnosticada e erradicada no Estado de São Paulo em 1921; estomatite popular; e duas doenças exóticas:exantema vesicular e doença vesicular do suíno.Diseases to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease are reviewed. The main aspects relating to the diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis, bovine virus diarrhea, malignant catarrhal fever, bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5, andem ulcerative stomatitis associated with bovine parvovirus are described. Bluetongue, that probably occurs in Rio Grande do Sul because antibodies to the virus have been detected in cattle and sheep; is refered. Bovine ulcerative mammilitis, reported in other Brazilian States, rinderpest, reported and eradicated in the State of São Paulo in 1921, and popular stomatitis are also cited, and so are two exotic diseases: vesicular exanthema and swine vesicular disease.

  6. My belief or yours? Differential theory of mind deficits in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouc, Raphaël; Lenfant, Pierre; Delbeuck, Xavier; Ravasi, Laura; Lebert, Florence; Semah, Franck; Pasquier, Florence

    2012-10-01

    Theory of mind reasoning-the ability to understand someone else's mental states, such as beliefs, intentions and desires-is crucial in social interaction. It has been suggested that a theory of mind deficit may account for some of the abnormalities in interpersonal behaviour that characterize patients affected by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. However, there are conflicting reports as to whether understanding someone else's mind is a key difference between behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and other neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Literature data on the relationship between theory of mind abilities and executive functions are also contradictory. These disparities may be due to underestimation of the fractionation within theory of mind components. A recent theoretical framework suggests that taking someone else's mental perspective requires two distinct processes: inferring someone else's belief and inhibiting one's own belief, with involvement of the temporoparietal and right frontal cortices, respectively. Therefore, we performed a neuropsychological and neuroimaging study to investigate the hypothesis whereby distinct cognitive deficits could impair theory of mind reasoning in patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. We used a three-option false belief task to assess theory of mind components in 11 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 20 healthy elderly control subjects. The patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and those with Alzheimer's disease were matched for age, gender, education and global cognitive impairment. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging was used to investigate neural correlates of theory of mind reasoning deficits. Performance in the three-option false belief task revealed differential impairments in the components of theory of mind

  7. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using 99mTc-citrate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Jin Jianhua; Li Sijin; Li Xianfeng; Zhang Xiaojuan; Ren Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using 99m Tc- citrate scintigraphy. Methods: Thirty-nine patients (92 lesions) with confirmed malignant bone disease or degenerative benign bone disease were studied, for which the results of 99m Te-methylene diphosphonate( 99m Tc- MDP) scintigraphy were positive. 99m Tc-citrate scintigraphy was performed within a time interval of 2-7 days after 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy. Visual analysis and semiquantitative analysis were applied. Each lesion was scored as malignant or benign, which was independently verified, using conventional techniques (histopathology, X-ray, CT, MRI and clinical follow up). Results: In visual analysis of 99m Tc-citrate imaging, most malignant lesions (35/48, 72.92%) clearly showed high radioactivity accumulation, while most benign lesions (39/44, 88.64%) had not obviously visible uptake of 99m Tc-citrate. In semiquantitative analysis of 99m Tc- citrate image, malignant lesions demonstrated a higher lesion-to-background radioisotope uptake ratio (RUR) than that of benign degenerative lesions (1.47 ± 0.42 vs. 1.09 ± 0.38, t=2.887, P 99m Tc-MDP in the two groups is of the same (1.96 ± 0.25 vs. 1.87 ± 0.21, t=1.178, P>0.20). Conclusion: 99m Tc- citrate scintigraphy is a promising method to differentiate malignant from benign degenerative lesions seen as areas of increased activity on 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. (authors)

  8. effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    show that retention ability was significantly higher in the experimental group ... Differentiated instruction, Lecture , Cognitive Achievement ,Retention ability, Geometry. ... thinking. Based on this knowledge, differentiated instruction applies an ...

  9. [The systemic and differential psychoprophylaxis of vascular brain diseases in the workers of an industrial enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A G

    1994-01-01

    Basing on epidemiological, prospective and clinicopsychological data obtained on 1900 industrial workers of Nizhni Novgorod city, the system of psychoprophylaxis and psychotherapy of cerebrovascular diseases has been developed. The system of psychoprophylaxis was used with consideration of the disease stage and phase, psychic and psychosomatic status in risk groups, in subjects with initial and apparent symptoms of cerebrovascular failure. The psychoprophylactic system proved effective in the conditions of a large industrial enterprise.

  10. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  11. Differential Diagnosis of Parkinson Disease, Essential Tremor, and Enhanced Physiological Tremor with the Tremor Analysis of EMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the differential diagnostic value of tremor analysis of EMG on Parkinson’s disease (PD, essential tremor (ET, and enhanced physiological tremor (EPT. Clinical data from 25 patients with PD, 20 patients with ET, and 20 patients with EPT were collected. The tremor frequency and muscle contraction pattern of the resting, posture, and 500 g and 1000 g overload were recorded. The frequency of PD tremor was 4–6 Hz, and the frequency of ET was also in this range; the frequency of EPT is 6–12 hz having some overlap with PD. The muscle contraction patterns of the ET and EPT group were mainly synchronous contraction, and the muscle contraction mode of the PD group was mainly alternating contraction. Having tremor latency from rest to postural position and having changes in tremor amplitude after mental concentration in PD might distinguish ET. Tremor analysis of EMG was able to distinguish PD from ET and EPT by varying the tremor frequency and muscle contraction pattern. It can also differentiate between PD and ET by the latency and concentration effect and ET and EPT by weight load effect.

  12. Effects of the imposed pressure differential conditions on duoplasmatron performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztarhan, A.

    1988-01-01

    The duoplasmatron plasma source (D.P.T.) was modified to allow access to the arc discharge (to measure the discharge properties) and to vary independently the pressures in different volumes of the arc with the aim of seeing if this freedom would help in optimising the output. The duoplasmatron plasma source was operated under normal running condition (N.R.C.), positive imposed pressure differential condition (P.I.P.D.C.) and negative imposed pressure differential condition (N.I.P.D.C.) and the corresponding properties of the plasma output were measured. Running the duoplasmatron under P.I.P.D. condition did not seem to improve the output as compared to that under N.R.C. However, running the duoplasmatron under N.I.P.D. condition seemed to be advantageous as the output increased by about 30%. It was observed that the back pressure was critical in maintaining the arc and the gap pressure could be lowered much below the normal minimum (while the arc was on) if back pressure was kept above a critical value. The results showed that the effects of varying the dimensions of the intermediate electrode nozzle on the output could be understood in terms of the effect of changes in these dimensions on the relative pressures. An empirical expression for the effect of the pressure ratio was developed from the observations and compared with the experimental results. The reasons for various results can be related to the plasma emission mechanism. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  13. Differential diagnosis of white matter diseases in the tropics: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In hospitals in the tropics, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI facilities in urban areas and especially in teaching institutions have resulted in white matter diseases being frequently reported in a variety of clinical settings. Unlike the west where multiple sclerosis (MS is the commonest white matter disease encountered, in the tropics, there are myriad causes for the same. Infectious and post infectious disorders probably account for the vast majority of these diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection tops the list of infective conditions. Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis occasionally presents with patchy parenchymal lesions unaccompanied by meningeal involvement. Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV infection and cystic inflammatory lesions such as neurocysticercosis are important causes to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Diagnosing post infectious demyelinating disorders is equally challenging since more than a third of cases seen in the tropics do not present with history of past infection or vaccinations. Metabolic and deficiency disorders such as Wernicke′s encephalopathy, osmotic demyelinating syndrome associated with extra pontine lesions and Vitamin B12 deficiency states can occassionaly cause confusion in diagnosis. This review considers a few important disorders which manifest with white matter changes on MRI and create diagnostic difficulties in a population in the tropics.

  14. Finger tapping movements of Parkinson's disease patients automatically rated using nonlinear delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, C; Rowat, P; Schettino, L; Lee, D; Song, D; Letellier, C; Poizner, H

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative condition whose severity is assessed by clinical observations of motor behaviors. These are performed by a neurological specialist through subjective ratings of a variety of movements including 10-s bouts of repetitive finger-tapping movements. We present here an algorithmic rating of these movements which may be beneficial for uniformly assessing the progression of the disease. Finger-tapping movements were digitally recorded from Parkinson's patients and controls, obtaining one time series for every 10 s bout. A nonlinear delay differential equation, whose structure was selected using a genetic algorithm, was fitted to each time series and its coefficients were used as a six-dimensional numerical descriptor. The algorithm was applied to time-series from two different groups of Parkinson's patients and controls. The algorithmic scores compared favorably with the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores, at least when the latter adequately matched with ratings from the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Moreover, when the two sets of mean scores for all patients are compared, there is a strong (r = 0.785) and significant (p<0.0015) correlation between them.

  15. Racial differences in hypertension knowledge: effects of differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian J; Trivedi, Ranak; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2009-01-01

    Health-related knowledge is an important component in the self-management of chronic illnesses. The objective of this study was to more accurately assess racial differences in hypertension knowledge by using a latent variable modeling approach that controlled for sociodemographic factors and accounted for measurement issues in the assessment of hypertension knowledge. Cross-sectional data from 1,177 participants (45% African American; 35% female) were analyzed using a multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling approach. Available sociodemographic data included race, education, sex, financial status, and age. All participants completed six items on a hypertension knowledge questionnaire. Overall, the final model suggested that females, Whites, and patients with at least a high school diploma had higher latent knowledge scores than males, African Americans, and patients with less than a high school diploma, respectively. The model also detected differential item functioning (DIF) based on race for two of the items. Specifically, the error rate for African Americans was lower than would be expected given the lower level of latent knowledge on the items, on the questions related to: (a) the association between high blood pressure and kidney disease, and (b) the increased risk African Americans have for developing hypertension. Not accounting for DIF resulted in the difference between Whites and African Americans to be underestimated. These results are discussed in the context of the need for careful measurement of health-related constructs, and how measurement-related issues can result in an inaccurate estimation of racial differences in hypertension knowledge.

  16. The Effect of Traditional Chinese Formula Danchaiheji on the Differentiation of Regulatory Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs, a newly described dendritic cell subset with potent immunomodulatory function, have attracted increased attention for their utility in treating immune response-related diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, hypersensitivity, and autoimmune diseases. Danchaiheji (DCHJ is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used for many years in the clinic. However, whether DCHJ can program dendritic cells towards a regulatory phenotype and the underlying mechanism behind this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigate the effects of traditional Chinese DCHJ on DCregs differentiation and a mouse model of skin transplantation. The current study demonstrates that DCHJ can induce dendritic cells to differentiate into DCregs, which are represented by high CD11b and low CD86 and HLA-DR expression as well as the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, DCHJ inhibited DC migration and T cell proliferation, which correlated with increased IDO expression. Furthermore, DCHJ significantly prolonged skin graft survival time in a mouse model of skin transplantation without any liver or kidney toxicity. The traditional Chinese formula DCHJ has the potential to be a potent immunosuppressive agent with high efficiency and nontoxicity.

  17. The Effect of Traditional Chinese Formula Danchaiheji on the Differentiation of Regulatory Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Tong, Jingzhi; Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs), a newly described dendritic cell subset with potent immunomodulatory function, have attracted increased attention for their utility in treating immune response-related diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, hypersensitivity, and autoimmune diseases. Danchaiheji (DCHJ) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used for many years in the clinic. However, whether DCHJ can program dendritic cells towards a regulatory phenotype and the underlying mechanism behind this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigate the effects of traditional Chinese DCHJ on DCregs differentiation and a mouse model of skin transplantation. The current study demonstrates that DCHJ can induce dendritic cells to differentiate into DCregs, which are represented by high CD11b and low CD86 and HLA-DR expression as well as the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, DCHJ inhibited DC migration and T cell proliferation, which correlated with increased IDO expression. Furthermore, DCHJ significantly prolonged skin graft survival time in a mouse model of skin transplantation without any liver or kidney toxicity. The traditional Chinese formula DCHJ has the potential to be a potent immunosuppressive agent with high efficiency and nontoxicity. PMID:27525028

  18. Identification of differential gene expression patterns in human arteries from patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe, Jane; Skov, Vibe; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uremia accelerates atherosclerosis but little is known about affected pathways in human vasculature. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed arterial transcripts in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Methods: Global mRNA expression was estimated by microarray...... hybridization in iliac arteries (n=14) from renal transplant recipients and compared with renal arteries from healthy living kidney donors (n=19) in study 1. Study 2 compared non-atherosclerotic internal mammary arteries (IMA) from five patients with elevated plasma creatinine levels and age and gender matched...... controls with normal levels. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for selected proteins was performed on a subset of study 1 samples. RESULTS: 15 gene transcripts with fold changes (FC)>1.05 were significantly different between the two groups in study 1, with false discovery rates (FDR) of

  19. How to differentiate renal senescence from chronic kidney disease in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos G; Jauregui, Jose R

    2016-09-01

    Renal aging is frequently confused with chronic nephropathy in clinical practice, since there are some similarities between them, particularly regarding reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, there are many differences between these two entities which can help any practitioner to distinguish between them, such as: GFR deterioration rate, hematocrit, renal handling of urea, creatinine and some electrolytes, tubular acidification, urinalysis, and renal imaging. Differentiation between renal aging and chronic renal disease is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary medicalization of what is a physiological change associated with the healthy aging process, and the potential harmful consequences of such overdiagnosis. A recently described equation (HUGE), as well as an adequate nephrological evaluation and follow up can help physicians to distinguish both entities.

  20. Differentiating Patients with Parkinson's Disease from Normal Controls Using Gray Matter in the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Li; Xie, Liang; Shen, Hui; Luo, Zhiguo; Fang, Peng; Hou, Yanan; Tang, Beisha; Wu, Tao; Hu, Dewen

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in the world. Previous studies have focused on the basal ganglia and cerebral cortices. To date, the cerebellum has not been systematically investigated in patients with PD. In the current study, 45 probable PD patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, and we used support vector machines combining with voxel-based morphometry to explore the cerebellar structural changes in the probable PD patients relative to healthy controls. The results revealed that the gray matter alterations were primarily located within the cerebellar Crus I, implying a possible important role of this region in PD. Furthermore, the gray matter alterations in the cerebellum could differentiate the probable PD patients from healthy controls with accuracies of more than 95 % (p cerebellum in the clinical diagnosis of PD.

  1. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van Loenhoud, Anita C; van den Berg, Stan F; Berendse, Henk W; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Klein, Martin; Stoffers, Diederick; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i) CTh, SA, and (sub)cortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii) the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i) CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii) SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii) volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i) CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii) VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

  2. Eco-geographical differentiation among Colombian populations of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Triana, Omar; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Dotson, Ellen M; Marcet, Paula L

    2013-12-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is currently the main vector of Chagas disease in Mexico, most Central American countries and several zones of Ecuador and Colombia. Although this species has been the subject of several recent phylogeographic studies, the relationship among different populations within the species remains unclear. To elucidate the population genetic structure of T. dimidiata in Colombia, we analyzed individuals from distinct geographical locations using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and 7 microsatellite loci. A clear genetic differentiation was observed among specimens from three Colombian eco-geographical regions: Inter Andean Valleys, Caribbean Plains and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain (SNSM). Additionally, evidence of genetic subdivision was found within the Caribbean Plains region as well as moderate gene flow between the populations from the Caribbean Plains and SNSM regions. The genetic differentiation found among Colombian populations correlates, albeit weakly, with an isolation-by-distance model (IBD). The genetic heterogeneity among Colombian populations correlates with the eco-epidemiological and morphological traits observed in this species across regions within the country. Such genetic and epidemiological diversity should be taken into consideration for the development of vector control strategies and entomological surveillance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Tremor pattern differentiates drug-induced resting tremor from Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, R; Fratto, A; Vescio, B; Arabia, G; Sciacca, G; Morelli, M; Labate, A; Salsone, M; Novellino, F; Nicoletti, A; Petralia, A; Gambardella, A; Zappia, M; Quattrone, A

    2016-04-01

    DAT-SPECT, is a well-established procedure for distinguishing drug-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the usefulness of blink reflex recovery cycle (BRrc) and of electromyographic parameters of resting tremor for the differentiation of patients with drug-induced parkinsonism with resting tremor (rDIP) from those with resting tremor due to PD. This was a cross-sectional study. In 16 patients with rDIP and 18 patients with PD we analysed electrophysiological parameters (amplitude, duration, burst and pattern) of resting tremor. BRrc at interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 750 msec was also analysed in patients with rDIP, patients with PD and healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent DAT-SPECT. Rest tremor amplitude was higher in PD patients than in rDIP patients (p tremor showed a synchronous pattern in all patients with rDIP, whereas it had an alternating pattern in all PD patients (p tremor can be considered a useful investigation for differentiating rDIP from PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Slow flow and mural thrombus in aortic diseases: Spin-echo MR findings and their differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of spin-echo MR imaging to differentiate slow flow from mural thrombus in aortic diseases, we reviewed the spin-echo MR images of 13 patients with intraaortic thrombus documented by CT (N=11) or aortography (N=2). Six patients had aortic aneurysms and seven had aortic dissections. Intraaortic mural thrombi were accompanied by flow-related intraluminal signal of various pattern and extents in all 13 patients. On 10 gated MR studies, slow flow regions showed ever-echo rephasing phenomenon (N=8), interslice variation of signal intensities of the intraluminal signal (N=7) and flow-related ghost artifact (N=2). However, these MR flow phenomena were obscured on two of three non-gated studies. Seven of 13 intraaortic thrombi remained hyperintense on T2-weighted second-echo images. In these circumstance, a hypointense boundary layer between slow flow and mural thrombus, which was caused by either ' boundary layer dephasing phenomenon' of slow flow or 'paramagnetic T2 shortening' of fresh clot at the edge of mural thrombus, was very useful in discriminating the area of slow flow from that of mural thrombus. Proper interpretation of spin-echo MR images may obviate the need for phase display imaging or gradient-echo imaging in differentiating slow flow and mural thrombus

  5. The disease related deaths due to differentiated thyroid carcinomas treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, Lj.; Kermeci, K.; Malesevic, M.; Mihailovic, J.; Srbovan, D.; Popadic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the disease related deaths of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine. Patients and Methods: 364 DTC patients were treated from 1977 to the end of 2000. All patients were operated, treated by radioiodine and by hormonal therapy, external radiotherapy was applied in 22 and chemotherapy in 6 of them. 54 treated patients were lost from the follow-up. The course of disease and outcomes are known in 310 patients, among them 53 patients died. The disease related deaths occurred in 33 (10.6%) patients. Results: Between 33 patients whose deaths were in relation with DTC the disease progression was the cause of deaths in 30 (9.7% of treated) patients (the locoregional disease in 10, distant metastases /M1/ in 17, locoregional disease + M1 in 3 patients). From the late complications of treatment died 3 (1%) patients (all of them were in complete remission to the deaths). The mean survival of these 33 patients from the diagnosis to the end of the life was 6.9 years, median 5.1 years, range 2 months to 23.9 years. The five years survived 54.6% of them, 10 years 21.2% and more than 20 years 3%. M1 had 72.7% of patients (lung and/or bone M1 were present in 91.7% of them), N1 had 69.7% and in 30.3% local tumor was T4. In relation to all treated patients died 14.6% men compared to 9% women (p<0.05), 15.7% of patients 45 years old or older compared to 4.4% of younger then 45 years (p<0.001) and 21.3% of patients with follicular type of DTC compared to 7.3% with papillary type (p<0.001). From all patients without radioiodine accumulation in tumor tissue died 60%. Conclusion: The DTC related deaths were the consequence of M1 and less frequently the result of locoregional disease (T4 and/or N1) in about 1/10 of all treated patients. The deaths as result of the late complications of treatment were exceptional. The deaths were significantly more frequent between males, patients 45 years old or older and patients

  6. Predictive Factors for Differentiating Between Septic Arthritis and Lyme Disease of the Knee in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Brusalis, Christopher M; Nduaguba, Afamefuna M; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2016-05-04

    Differentiating between septic arthritis and Lyme disease of the knee in endemic areas can be challenging and has major implications for patient management. The purpose of this study was to identify a prediction rule to differentiate septic arthritis from Lyme disease in children presenting with knee pain and effusion. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients younger than 18 years of age with knee effusions who underwent arthrocentesis at our institution from 2005 to 2013. Patients with either septic arthritis (positive joint fluid culture or synovial white blood-cell count of >60,000 white blood cells/mm(3) with negative Lyme titer) or Lyme disease (positive Lyme immunoglobulin G on Western blot analysis) were included. To avoid misclassification bias, undiagnosed knee effusions and joints with both a positive culture and positive Lyme titers were excluded. Historical, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between groups to identify variables for comparison. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictive variables. One hundred and eighty-nine patients were studied: 23 with culture-positive septic arthritis, 26 with culture-negative septic arthritis, and 140 with Lyme disease. Multivariate binary logistic regression identified pain with short arc motion, history of fever reported by the patient or a family member, C-reactive protein of >4 mg/L, and age younger than 2 years as independent predictive factors for septic arthritis. A simpler model was developed that showed that the risk of septic arthritis with none of these factors was 2%, with 1 of these factors was 18%, with 2 of these factors was 45%, with 3 of these factors was 84%, or with all 4 of these factors was 100%. Although septic arthritis of the knee and Lyme monoarthritis share common features that can make them difficult to distinguish clinically, the presence of pain with short arc motion, C-reactive protein of >4.0 mg/L, patient-reported history of

  7. Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi; Kidwai, Fahad Karim; Zou, Yu; Tong, Huei Jinn; Liu, Xiaochen; Islam, Intekhab; Toh, Wei Seong; Raghunath, Michael; Cao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Culture microenvironment plays a critical role in the propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progenies. Although high efficiency of hESC differentiation to keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) has been achieved, little is known regarding the effects of early culture microenvironment and pertinent extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions during epidermal commitment on subsequent proliferative capacity of hESC-Kert. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the different ECM microenvironments during hESC differentiation on subsequent replicative life span of hESC-Kert. In doing so, H1-hESCs were differentiated to keratinocytes (H1-Kert) in two differentiation systems. The first system employed autologous fibroblast feeder support, in which keratinocytes (H1-Kert(ACC)) were derived by coculture of hESCs with hESC-derived fibroblasts (H1-ebFs). The second system employed a novel decellularized matrix from H1-ebFs to create a dermoepidermal junction-like (DEJ) matrix. H1-Kert(AFF) were derived by differentiation of hESCs on the feeder-free system employing the DEJ matrix. Our study indicated that the feeder-free system with the use of DEJ matrix was more efficient in differentiation of hESCs toward epidermal progenitors. However, the feeder-free system was not sufficient to support the subsequent replicative capacity of differentiated keratinocytes. Of note, H1-Kert(AFF) showed limited replicative capacity with reduced telomere length and early cellular senescence. We further showed that the lack of cell-cell interactions during epidermal commitment led to heightened production of TGF-β1 by hESC-Kert during extended culture, which in turn was responsible for resulting in the limited replicative life span with cellular senescence of hESC-Kert derived under the feeder-free culture system. This study highlights for the first time the importance of the culture microenvironment and cell-ECM interactions during

  8. Disease susceptibility of the human macula: differential gene transcription in the retinal pigmented epithelium/choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeke, Monte J; Peterson, Katie E; Johnson, Lincoln V; Anderson, Don H

    2007-09-01

    The discoveries of gene variants associated with macular diseases have provided valuable insight into their molecular mechanisms, but they have not clarified why the macula is particularly vulnerable to degenerative disease. Its predisposition may be attributable to specialized structural features and/or functional properties of the underlying macular RPE/choroid. To examine the molecular basis for the macula's disease susceptibility, we compared the gene expression profile of the human RPE/choroid in the macula with the profile in the extramacular region using DNA microarrays. Seventy-five candidate genes with differences in macular:extramacular expression levels were identified by microarray analysis, of which 29 were selected for further analysis. Quantitative PCR confirmed that 21 showed statistically significant differences in expression. Five genes were expressed at higher levels in the macula. Two showed significant changes in the macular:extramacular expression ratio; another two exhibited changes in absolute expression level, as a function of age or AMD. Several of the differentially expressed genes have potential relevance to AMD pathobiology. One is an RPE cell growth factor (TFPI2), five are extracellular matrix components (DCN, MYOC, OGN, SMOC2, TFPI2), and six are related to inflammation (CCL19, CCL26, CXCL14, SLIT2) and/or angiogenesis (CXCL14, SLIT2, TFPI2, WFDC1). The identification of regional differences in gene expression in the RPE/choroid is a first step in clarifying the macula's propensity for degeneration. These findings lay the groundwork for further studies into the roles of the corresponding gene products in the normal, aged, and diseased macula.

  9. Pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma in stage I: risk factor analysis for disease free survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Nobuyuki; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Ito, Koichi; Sugino, Kiminori; Mimura, Takashi; Nagahama, Mitsuji; Kitagawa, Wataru; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ohkuwa, Keiko; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Hirakawa, Shohei

    2009-01-01

    To examine the outcomes and risk factors in pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients who were defined as TNM stage I because some patients develop disease recurrence but treatment strategy for such stage I pediatric patients is still controversial. We reviewed 57 consecutive TNM stage I patients (15 years or less) with DTC (46 papillary and 11 follicular) who underwent initial treatment at Ito Hospital between 1962 and 2004 (7 males and 50 females; mean age: 13.1 years; mean follow-up: 17.4 years). Clinicopathological results were evaluated in all patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to reveal the risk factors for disease-free survival (DFS) in these 57 patients. Extrathyroid extension and clinical lymphadenopathy at diagnosis were found in 7 and 12 patients, respectively. Subtotal/total thyroidectomy was performed in 23 patients, modified neck dissection in 38, and radioactive iodine therapy in 10. Pathological node metastasis was confirmed in 37 patients (64.9%). Fifteen patients (26.3%) exhibited local recurrence and 3 of them also developed metachronous lung metastasis. Ten of these 15 achieved disease-free after further treatments and no patients died of disease. In multivariate analysis, male gender (p = 0.017), advanced tumor (T3, 4a) stage (p = 0.029), and clinical lymphadenopathy (p = 0.006) were risk factors for DFS in stage I pediatric patients. Male gender, tumor stage, and lymphadenopathy are risk factors for DFS in stage I pediatric DTC patients. Aggressive treatment (total thyroidectomy, node dissection, and RI therapy) is considered appropriate for patients with risk factors, whereas conservative or stepwise approach may be acceptable for other patients

  10. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer's Disease Affected Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Puthiyedth

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation.The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC, Hippocampus (HIP, Middle temporal gyrus (MTG, Posterior cingulate cortex (PC, Superior frontal gyrus (SFG and visual cortex (VCX brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets.We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD. In addition, we

  11. Coenzyme Q10 effects in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Spindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Meredith Spindler1, M Flint Beal1,2, Claire Henchcliffe1,21Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and as a dietary supplement it has recently gained attention for its potential role in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders derives from animal models, studies of mitochondria from patients, identification of genetic defects in patients with neurodegenerative disease, and measurements of markers of oxidative stress. Studies of in vitro models of neuronal toxicity and animal models of neurodegenerative disorders have demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects of CoQ10. With this data in mind, several clinical trials of CoQ10 have been performed in Parkinson’s disease and atypical Parkinson’s syndromes, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer disease, Friedreich’s ataxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with equivocal findings. CoQ10 is widely available in multiple formulations and is very well tolerated with minimal adverse effects, making it an attractive potential therapy. Phase III trials of high-dose CoQ10 in large sample sizes are needed to further ascertain the effects of CoQ10 in neurodegenerative diseases.Keywords: coenzyme Q10, neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, mitochondrial dysfunction

  12. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Alicia Herweg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (experiment 1-3. In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (experiment 4. In a modified Posner task (experiment 5, the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  13. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Nora A; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (Experiments 1-3). In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (Experiment 4). In a modified Posner task (Experiment 5), the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  14. Value of serum IgG4 in the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease and in differentiation from rheumatic diseases and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Tabeya, Tetsuya; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Yajima, Hidetaka; Ishigami, Keisuke; Shimizu, Yui; Obara, Mikiko; Suzuki, Chisako; Yamashita, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Sugaya, Toshiaki; Ishida, Tadao; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Himi, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Honda, Saho; Takahashi, Hiroki; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2012-06-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel disease entity that includes Mikulicz's disease, autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), and many other conditions. It is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and abundant IgG4-bearing plasmacyte infiltration of involved organs. We postulated that high levels of serum IgG4 would comprise a useful diagnostic tool, but little information is available about IgG4 in conditions other than IgG4-RD, including rheumatic diseases. Several reports have described cutoff values for serum IgG4 when diagnosing IgG4-RD, but these studies mostly used 135 mg/dL in AIP to differentiate from pancreatic cancer instead of rheumatic and other common diseases. There is no evidence for a cutoff serum IgG4 level of 135 mg/dL for rheumatic diseases and common diseases that are often complicated with rheumatic diseases. The aim of this work was to re-evaluate the usual cutoff serum IgG4 value in AIP (135 mg/dL) that is used to diagnose whole IgG4-RD in the setting of a rheumatic clinic by measuring serum IgG4 levels in IgG4-RD and various disorders. We therefore constructed ROC curves of serum IgG4 levels in 418 patients who attended Sapporo Medical University Hospital due to IgG4-RD and various rheumatic and common disorders. The optimal cut-off value of serum IgG4 for a diagnosis of IgG4-RD was 144 mg/dL, and the sensitivity and specificity were 95.10 and 90.76%, respectively. Levels of serum IgG4 were elevated in IgG4-RD, Churg-Strauss syndrome, multicentric Castleman's disease, eosinophilic disorders, and in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, chronic hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis. The usual cut-off value of 135 mg/dL in AIP is useful for diagnosing whole IgG4-RD, but high levels of serum IgG4 are sometimes observed in not only IgG4-RD but also other rheumatic and common diseases.

  15. Effects of Cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin from Geopropolis on Osteoclast Differentiation and Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Ramos-Junior, Erivan Schnaider; Franchin, Marcelo; Taira, Thaise Mayumi; Beutler, John A; Franco, Gilson Cesar Nobre; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Fukada, Sandra Yasuyo; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2017-06-23

    Bone-loss-related diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, and periodontitis are associated with high rates of morbidity worldwide. These disorders are characterized by an imbalance between the formation and activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, leading to bone loss. In this context, we evaluated the effect of cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (CNM), an anti-inflammatory coumarin found in Melipona scutellaris geopropolis, on key targets related to bone remodeling. In the present study we investigated the in vitro effects of CNM on osteoclast differentiation and M-CSF+RANKL-induced osteoclastogenic marker expression. Additionally, the interference of CNM treatment on osteoclast activity was evaluated by zymography and resorption area. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the compound to mitigate alveolar bone loss in vivo in experimental murine periodontitis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis. We observed that treatment with CNM impaired osteoclast differentiation, as evidenced by a reduced number of tartrate-resistant acid-phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells (TRAP+) as well as the expression of osteoclastogenic markers upon M-CSF+RANKL-induced stimulation. Similarly, we observed reduced gelatinolytic and resorption capacity in M-CSF+RANKL-induced cells in vitro. Lastly, CNM attenuated alveolar bone loss in an experimental murine periodontitis model. These findings indicate that CNM may be considered a promising treatment for bone loss diseases.

  16. Anxiety disorders and onset of cardiovascular disease: the differential impact of panic, phobias and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Neeltje M; ten Have, Margreet; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Tuithof, Marlous; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety has been linked to onset of cardiovascular disease. This study examines the differential impact of types of anxiety (panic, phobia and worry) on 3-year onset of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). By investigating anxiety disorders as opposed to anxiety symptoms and by using a reliable diagnostic instrument to assess anxiety, limitations of previous studies are considered. 5149 persons at risk for CVD were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The panic-type included panic disorder and panic attacks; the phobic-type included agoraphobia and social phobia, and the worry-type included generalized anxiety disorder. CVD was self-reported and required treatment or monitoring by a doctor. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, behavioral variables, and comorbid somatic and psychiatric disorders. During follow-up, 62 persons (1.2%) developed CVD. Baseline generalized anxiety disorder was strongly associated with onset of CVD (adjusted OR: 3.39). Further research should replicate findings and focus on biological underpinnings of this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MR volumetric measurement of medial temporal lobe in differentiating Alzheimer disease and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Li Kuncheng; Liu Shuliang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of measurement of medial temporal structure by MR imaging volumetry in the differential diagnosis for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Methods: Thirty-three probable patients of AD, 33 normal controls, and 17 patients suspected with SIVD had been scanned by MRI, and volumetric measurements of amygdala (AMY), hippocampal formations (HF), entorhinal cortices (EC), parahippocampal gyri (PHG), and temporal horn of lateral ventricle (TH) were done on a serial reconstructed MR images. Results: Both atrophy of HF and dilatation of TH were significant (P<0.05) in SIVD group compared with that in control group. All the measurements with the exception of TH were atrophied significantly (P<0.001) in AD group compared with that in SIVD group and could significantly discriminate the two group. Among these indexes, the left EC provided the best discrimination with the specificity of 82.4%, sensitivity of 87.9%, and accuracy of 86.0%, respectively, and the average accuracy of bilateral EC in discrimination was 85%. Conclusion: The MR imaging volumetric measurements of medial temporal structure could offer useful information in discriminating individuals with AD from that with SIVD. Meanwhile, it should be understood that the AD-type pathological changes could also be induced by cerebrovascular disease

  18. Differential Atrophy of Hippocampal Subfields: A Comparative Study of Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Watson, Rosie; Firbank, Michael; Blamire, Andrew; O'Brien, John

    2016-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by relative preservation of the medial temporal lobe compared with Alzheimer disease (AD). The differential involvement of the hippocampal subfields in both diseases has not been clearly established, however. We aim to investigate hippocampal subfield differences in vivo in a clinical cohort of DLB and AD subjects. 104 participants (35 DLBs, 36 ADs, and 35 healthy comparison [HC] subjects) underwent clinical assessment and 3T T1-weighted imaging. A Bayesian model implemented in Freesurfer was used to automatically segment the hippocampus and its subfields. We also examined associations between hippocampal subfields and tests of memory function. Both the AD and DLB groups demonstrated significant atrophy of the total hippocampus relative to HC but the DLB group was characterized by preservation of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), fimbria, and fissure. In contrast, all the hippocampal subfields except the fissure were significantly atrophied in AD compared with both DLB and HC groups. Among DLB subjects, CA1 was correlated with the Recent Memory score of the CAMCOG and Delayed Recall subscores of the HVLT. DLB is characterized by milder hippocampal atrophy that was accompanied by preservation of the CA1. The CA1 was also associated with memory function in DLB. Our findings highlight the promising role of hippocampal subfield volumetry, particularly that of the CA1, as a biomarker for the distinction between AD and DLB. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of handwriting kinematics and pressure for differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotár, Peter; Mekyska, Jiří; Rektorová, Irena; Masarová, Lucia; Smékal, Zdeněk; Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos

    2016-02-01

    We present the PaHaW Parkinson's disease handwriting database, consisting of handwriting samples from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls. Our goal is to show that kinematic features and pressure features in handwriting can be used for the differential diagnosis of PD. The database contains records from 37 PD patients and 38 healthy controls performing eight different handwriting tasks. The tasks include drawing an Archimedean spiral, repetitively writing orthographically simple syllables and words, and writing of a sentence. In addition to the conventional kinematic features related to the dynamics of handwriting, we investigated new pressure features based on the pressure exerted on the writing surface. To discriminate between PD patients and healthy subjects, three different classifiers were compared: K-nearest neighbors (K-NN), ensemble AdaBoost classifier, and support vector machines (SVM). For predicting PD based on kinematic and pressure features of handwriting, the best performing model was SVM with classification accuracy of Pacc=81.3% (sensitivity Psen=87.4% and specificity of Pspe=80.9%). When evaluated separately, pressure features proved to be relevant for PD diagnosis, yielding Pacc=82.5% compared to Pacc=75.4% using kinematic features. Experimental results showed that an analysis of kinematic and pressure features during handwriting can help assess subtle characteristics of handwriting and discriminate between PD patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential replication of Foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciabue, Marco; García-Núñez, María Soledad; Delgado, Fernando; Currá, Anabella; Marrero, Rubén; Molinari, Paula; Rieder, Elizabeth; Carrillo, Elisa; Gismondi, María Inés

    2017-09-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a lethal virus (A01L) caused death within 24-48h independently of the dose used. Both viruses caused a systemic infection with pathological changes in the exocrine pancreas. Virus A01L reached higher viral loads in plasma and organs of inoculated mice as well as increased replication in an ovine kidney cell line. Complete consensus sequences revealed 6 non-synonymous changes between A01L and A10NL genomes that might be linked to replication differences, as suggested by in silico prediction studies. Our results highlight the biological significance of discrete genomic variations and reinforce the usefulness of this animal model to study viral determinants of lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergetic effect of topological cue and periodic mechanical tension-stress on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Yang, Guang; Ji, Huanzhong; Xiang, Tao; Luo, En; Zhou, Shaobing

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesenchymal origin, making them to be significant for cell-based therapies, such as metabolic bone diseases and bone repair. Regulating the differentiation of MSCs is significant for bone regeneration. Electrospun fibers mimicking natural extracellular matrix (ECM), is an effective artificial ECM to regulate the behaviors and fates of MSCs. The aligned electrospun fibers can modulate polar cell pattern of bone mesenchymal stem cells, which leads to more obvious osteogenic differentiation. Apart from the topographic effect of electrospun fibers, mechanical cues can also intervene the cell behaviors. In this study, the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated, which were cultured on aligned/random electrospun fiber mats materials under mechanical tension intervention. Scanning electron microscope and immune-fluorescent staining were used to directly observe the polarity changing of cellular morphology and cytoskeleton. The results proved that aligned electrospun fibers could be more conducive to promote osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells and this promotion of osteogenic differentiation was enhanced by tension intervention. These results were correlated to the quantitative real-time PCR assay. In general, culturing rat bone mesenchymal stem cells on electrospun fibers under the intervention of mechanical tension is an effective way to mimic a more real cellular microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity? An approach to clinical differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Toufic A; Vanga, Rohini R; Leffler, Daniel A; Villafuerte-Galvez, Javier; Pallav, Kumar; Hansen, Joshua; Mukherjee, Rupa; Dennis, Melinda; Kelly, Ciaran P

    2014-05-01

    Differentiating between celiac disease (CD) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is important for appropriate management but is often challenging. We retrospectively reviewed records from 238 patients who presented for the evaluation of symptoms responsive to gluten restriction without prior diagnosis or exclusion of CD. Demographics, presenting symptoms, serologic, genetic, and histologic data, nutrient deficiencies, personal history of autoimmune diseases, and family history of CD were recorded. NCGS was defined as symptoms responsive to a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the setting of negative celiac serology and duodenal biopsies while on a gluten-containing diet or negative human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8 testing. Of the 238 study subjects, 101 had CD, 125 had NCGS, 9 had non-celiac enteropathy, and 3 had indeterminate diagnosis. CD subjects presented with symptoms of malabsorption 67.3% of the time compared with 24.8% of the NCGS subjects (Pdiseases (P=0.002), or nutrient deficiencies (P2× upper limit of normal IgA trans-glutaminase antibody (tTG) or IgA/IgG deaminated gliadan peptide antibody (DGP) with clinical response to GFD was 130 (confidence interval (CI): 18.5-918.3). The positive likelihood ratio of the combination of gluten-responsive symptoms and negative IgA tTG or IgA/IgG DGP on a regular diet for NCGS was 9.6 (CI: 5.5-16.9). When individuals with negative IgA tTG or IgA/IgG DGP also lacked symptoms of malabsorption (weight loss, diarrhea, and nutrient deficiencies) and CD risk factors (personal history of autoimmune diseases and family history of CD), the positive likelihood ratio for NCGS increased to 80.9. On the basis of our findings, we have developed a diagnostic algorithm to differentiate CD from NCGS. Subjects with negative celiac serologies (IgA tTG or IgA/IgG DGP) on a regular diet are unlikely to have CD. Those with negative serology who also lack clinical evidence of malabsorption and CD risk factors are highly likely to have

  3. Longitudinal Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Sustained Differential Gene Expression Signature in Patients Treated for Acute Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Jerome; Soloski, Mark J.; Swei, Andrea; Cheadle, Chris; Federman, Scot; Billaud, Jean-Noel; Rebman, Alison W.; Kabre, Beniwende; Halpert, Richard; Boorgula, Meher

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and approximately 10 to 20% of patients report persistent symptoms lasting months to years despite appropriate treatment with antibiotics. To gain insights into the molecular basis of acute Lyme disease and the ensuing development of post-treatment symptoms, we conducted a longitudinal transcriptome study of 29 Lyme disease patients (and 13 matched controls) enrolled at the time of diagnosis and followed for up to 6 months. The differential gene expression signature of Lyme disease following the acute phase of infection persisted for at least 3 weeks and had fewer than 44% differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in common with other infectious or noninfectious syndromes. Early Lyme disease prior to antibiotic therapy was characterized by marked upregulation of Toll-like receptor signaling but lack of activation of the inflammatory T-cell apoptotic and B-cell developmental pathways seen in other acute infectious syndromes. Six months after completion of therapy, Lyme disease patients were found to have 31 to 60% of their pathways in common with three different immune-mediated chronic diseases. No differential gene expression signature was observed between Lyme disease patients with resolved illness to those with persistent symptoms at 6 months post-treatment. The identification of a sustained differential gene expression signature in Lyme disease suggests that a panel of selected human host-based biomarkers may address the need for sensitive clinical diagnostics during the “window period” of infection prior to the appearance of a detectable antibody response and may also inform the development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:26873097

  4. Patterns of population differentiation and natural selection on the celiac disease background risk network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Aaron; Hawks, John

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common small intestinal inflammatory condition induced by wheat gluten and related proteins from rye and barley. Left untreated, the clinical presentation of CD can include failure to thrive, malnutrition, and distension in juveniles. The disease can additionally lead to vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and osteoporosis. Therefore, CD potentially negatively affected fitness in past populations utilizing wheat, barley, and rye. Previous analyses of CD risk variants have uncovered evidence for positive selection on some of these loci. These studies also suggest the possibility that risk for common autoimmune conditions such as CD may be the result of positive selection on immune related loci in the genome to fight infection. Under this evolutionary scenario, disease phenotypes may be a trade-off from positive selection on immunity. If this hypothesis is generally true, we can expect to find a signal of natural selection when we survey across the network of loci known to influence CD risk. This study examines the non-HLA autosomal network of gene loci associated with CD risk in Europe. We reject the null hypothesis of neutrality on this network of CD risk loci. Additionally, we can localize evidence of selection in time and space by adding information from the genome of the Tyrolean Iceman. While we can show significant differentiation between continental regions across the CD network, the pattern of evidence is not consistent with primarily recent (Holocene) selection across this network in Europe. Further localization of ancient selection on this network may illuminate the ecological pressures acting on the immune system during this critically interesting phase of our evolution.

  5. Patterns of population differentiation and natural selection on the celiac disease background risk network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sams

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a common small intestinal inflammatory condition induced by wheat gluten and related proteins from rye and barley. Left untreated, the clinical presentation of CD can include failure to thrive, malnutrition, and distension in juveniles. The disease can additionally lead to vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and osteoporosis. Therefore, CD potentially negatively affected fitness in past populations utilizing wheat, barley, and rye. Previous analyses of CD risk variants have uncovered evidence for positive selection on some of these loci. These studies also suggest the possibility that risk for common autoimmune conditions such as CD may be the result of positive selection on immune related loci in the genome to fight infection. Under this evolutionary scenario, disease phenotypes may be a trade-off from positive selection on immunity. If this hypothesis is generally true, we can expect to find a signal of natural selection when we survey across the network of loci known to influence CD risk. This study examines the non-HLA autosomal network of gene loci associated with CD risk in Europe. We reject the null hypothesis of neutrality on this network of CD risk loci. Additionally, we can localize evidence of selection in time and space by adding information from the genome of the Tyrolean Iceman. While we can show significant differentiation between continental regions across the CD network, the pattern of evidence is not consistent with primarily recent (Holocene selection across this network in Europe. Further localization of ancient selection on this network may illuminate the ecological pressures acting on the immune system during this critically interesting phase of our evolution.

  6. Molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of the Egyptian foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shehawy, Laila I; Abu-Elnaga, Hany I; Rizk, Sonia A; Abd El-Kreem, Ahmed S; Mohamed, A A; Fawzy, Hossam G

    2014-03-01

    In February 2012, a massive new foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak struck Egypt. In this work, one-step RT-PCR assays were used for in-house detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Egypt in this year using pan-serotypic and serotype-targeting sequence primers. FMDV SAT2 was the dominant virus in the examined isolates from the epidemic. The complete VP1 coding regions of two isolates were sequenced. The two isolates had 99.2 % sequence identity to most contemporary Egyptian SAT2 reference viruses, whereas they had 89.7-90.1 % identity to the SAT2/EGY/2/2012 isolate, which was collected from Alexandria, Egypt, and previously sequenced by WRLFMD. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Egypt had one topotype and two lineage of FMDV SAT2 in 2012. The Egyptian and the Palestinian 2012 strains were associated mainly with topotype VII, lineage SAT2/VII/Ghb-12, while the virus isolated from Alexandria Governorate belonged to the SAT2/VII/Alx-12 lineage. Topotype VII also comprised lineages that included strains isolated from Libya in 2012 and 2003. Furthermore, within the same topotype, the Egyptian SAT2/2012 isolates were related to strains from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon and Nigeria. Nevertheless, more epidemiological work with neighboring countries is needed to prevent cross-border spread of disease and to reach a precise conclusion about the origin of the 2012 FMDV SAT2 emergency in the Middle East.

  7. Osthole promotes neuronal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in an Alzheimer's disease model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yingjia [School of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian 116600 (China); Gao, Zhong [Department of Interventional Therapy, Dalian Municipal Central Hospital, Dalian 116033 (China); Liang, Wenbo [Medical College of Dalian University, Dalian 116600, Liaoning (China); Kong, Liang; Jiao, Yanan; Li, Shaoheng; Tao, Zhenyu; Yan, Yuhui [School of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang, Jingxian, E-mail: jingxianyang@yahoo.com [School of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Neurogenesis is the process by which neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate and differentiate into neurons. This is diminished in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the deposition of amyloid (A)β peptides and neuronal loss. Stimulating NSCs to replace lost neurons is therefore a promising approach for AD treatment. Our previous study demonstrated that osthole modulates NSC proliferation and differentiation, and may reduce Aβ protein expression in nerve cells. Here we investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of osthole on NSCs. We found that osthole enhances NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation while suppressing apoptosis, effects that were exerted via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These results provide evidence that osthole can potentially be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • An Alzheimer's disease model was successfully established by transfecting APP gene into neural stem cells in vitro. • Roles of osthole in experimental AD cells were studied. • Osthole promotes proliferation and differentiation into neurons and inhibits accumulation of Aβ{sub 1–42} peptide and apoptosis. • Osthole exerts protection via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  8. Osthole promotes neuronal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in an Alzheimer's disease model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yingjia; Gao, Zhong; Liang, Wenbo; Kong, Liang; Jiao, Yanan; Li, Shaoheng; Tao, Zhenyu; Yan, Yuhui; Yang, Jingxian

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis is the process by which neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate and differentiate into neurons. This is diminished in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the deposition of amyloid (A)β peptides and neuronal loss. Stimulating NSCs to replace lost neurons is therefore a promising approach for AD treatment. Our previous study demonstrated that osthole modulates NSC proliferation and differentiation, and may reduce Aβ protein expression in nerve cells. Here we investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of osthole on NSCs. We found that osthole enhances NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation while suppressing apoptosis, effects that were exerted via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These results provide evidence that osthole can potentially be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • An Alzheimer's disease model was successfully established by transfecting APP gene into neural stem cells in vitro. • Roles of osthole in experimental AD cells were studied. • Osthole promotes proliferation and differentiation into neurons and inhibits accumulation of Aβ 1–42 peptide and apoptosis. • Osthole exerts protection via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  9. Differentiating non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease from controls and hemifacial spasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Yong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-motor symptoms (NMS are important manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD that reduce patients' health-related quality of life. Some NMS may also be caused by age-related changes, or manifested as a psychological reaction to a chronic neurological condition. This case-control study compared the NMS burden among PD patients, healthy controls and hemifacial spasm (HFS patients. In addition, we determined the NMS that discriminated between PD and non-PD subjects. METHODS: 425 subjects were recruited from a tertiary hospital in Singapore (200 PD patients, 150 healthy controls and 75 HFS patients. NMS burden in subjects was measured using the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS. RESULTS: NMSS total score was significantly higher in PD patients (37.9±2.6 compared to healthy controls (11.2±0.9 (p<0.0001 and HFS patients (18.0±2.1 (p<0.0001. In addition, NMSS total score was significantly higher in HFS patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.003. PD patients experienced a higher NMS burden than healthy controls in all domains, and a higher NMS burden than HFS patients in all but attention/memory and urinary domains. NMS burden for HFS and healthy controls differed only in the sleep/fatigue and urinary domains. Using stepwise logistic regression, problems of 'constipation', 'restless legs', 'dribbling saliva', 'altered interest in sex' and 'change in taste or smell' were found to have significant discriminative power in differentiating between PD patients and healthy controls and between PD patients and HFS patients. CONCLUSION: PD patients experienced a greater overall NMS burden compared to both healthy controls and HFS patients. HFS patients demonstrated a higher NMS burden than controls, and some NMS may be common to chronic neurological conditions while others are more specific to PD. Differentiating patients using NMS domains may help refine the clinical management of NMS in PD patients.

  10. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Caspers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD often show impairments in executive function (EF like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON. We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC and left dorsal premotor region (PMd in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part.

  11. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers' students ( n = 416). Teachers' instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development.

  12. A Differentiated Approach to the Prescription of Antihistamines in Allergic Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Abaturov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of current data on pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and side effects of the first generation drug antihistamine demetinden and the third-generation levocetirizinum is presented. Levocetirizinum shows the highest selectivity to H1-receptor having anta­gonist properties does not penetrate the central nervous system and has no sedative effects. The drug has anti-inflammatory effects due to suppression of release of inflammation mediators and cellular response. Levocetirizinum has favorable pharmacokinetics and half-life, no drug interactions. The clinical stu­dies demonstrated its high efficiency in ruducing the symptoms of allergic diseases.

  13. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muffley, Lara A.; Pan, Shin-Chen; Smith, Andria N.; Ga, Maricar; Hocking, Anne M.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: ► Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. ► Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. ► Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. ► Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell production of nitric oxide. ► Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root

  14. Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Baek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. To achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE on the differentiation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells. CIE inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts and of filamentous-actin rings and disrupted the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. CIE strongly inhibited Akt, GSK3β, and IκB phosphorylation in RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophages and did not show any effects on MAP kinases, including p38, ERK, and JNK. Interestingly, CIE also enhanced primary osteoblast differentiation via upregulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase and the level of extracellular calcium concentrations during the early and terminal stages of differentiation, respectively. Our results revealed that CIE could have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related disorders through its dual effects on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.

  15. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  16. Esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance differentiates gastroesophageal reflux disease from functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandulski, Arne; Weigt, Jochen; Caro, Carlos; Jechorek, Doerthe; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Mucosal integrity can be assessed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by measuring intraluminal baseline impedance (BI). However, it is not clear whether BI is abnormal in patients with functional heartburn (FH), or can be used to distinguish them from patients with GERD. We compared differences in BI between patients with FH vs GERD. We performed a prospective study of 52 patients (16 men; mean age, 55 y; range, 23-78 y) seen at a tertiary university hospital from February 2009 through December 2012. Thirty-five patients had GERD (19 had nonerosive reflux disease [NERD], 16 had erosive reflux disease [ERD]) and 17 had FH. All patients discontinued proton pump inhibitor therapy and then underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring. BI was assessed at 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, and 17 cm proximal to the lower esophageal sphincter in recumbent patients. Biopsy specimens were taken from 3 cm above the gastroesophageal junction; histology analysis was performed to identify and semiquantitatively score (scale, 0-3) dilated intercellular spaces. Baseline impedance in the distal esophagus was significantly lower in patients with NERD or erosive reflux disease (ERD) than FH (P = .0006). At a cut-off value of less than 2100 Ω, BI measurements identified patients with GERD with 78% sensitivity and 71% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 75%. Also in the proximal esophagus, reduced levels of BI levels were found only in patients with ERD. There were negative correlations between level of BI and acid exposure time (r = -0.45; P = .0008), number of acidic reflux episodes (r = -0.45; P = .001), and proximal extent (r = -0.40; P = .004). Biopsy specimens from patients with NERD or ERD had significant increases in dilation of intercellular spaces, compared with those from patients with FH; there was an inverse association between dilated intercellular spaces and BI in the distal esophagus

  17. Effect of coumarins on HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-eight coumarins, including 7 furocoumarins, were examined for their activity of induction of terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing, nonspecific esterase, specific esterase and phagocytic activities. Esculetin, nordalbergin, 6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and imperatorin had strong activity among the coumarins examined. HL-60 cells treated with these coumarins differentiated into mature monocyte/macrophage. The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that 6,7-dihydroxy moiety had an important role in the induction of differentiation of HL-60.

  18. Pyrosequencing analysis of the gyrB gene to differentiate bacteria responsible for diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X-L; Cao, Q-Y; Jia, H-Y; Chen, Z

    2008-07-01

    Pathogens causing acute diarrhea include a large variety of species from Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. A method based on pyrosequencing was used here to differentiate bacteria commonly associated with diarrhea in China; the method is targeted to a partial amplicon of the gyrB gene, which encodes the B subunit of DNA gyrase. Twenty-eight specific polymorphic positions were identified from sequence alignment of a large sequence dataset and targeted using 17 sequencing primers. Of 95 isolates tested, belonging to 13 species within 7 genera, most could be identified to the species level; O157 type could be differentiated from other E. coli types; Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica could be identified at the serotype level; the genus Shigella, except for S. boydii and S. dysenteriae, could also be identified. All these isolates were also subjected to conventional sequencing of a relatively long ( approximately1.2 kb) region of gyrB DNA; these results confirmed those with pyrosequencing. Twenty-two fecal samples were surveyed, the results of which were concordant with culture-based bacterial identification, and the pathogen detection limit with simulated stool specimens was 10(4) CFU/ml. DNA from different pathogens was also mixed to simulate a case of multibacterial infection, and the generated signals correlated well with the mix ratio. In summary, the gyrB-based pyrosequencing approach proved to have significant reliability and discriminatory power for enteropathogenic bacterial identification and provided a fast and effective method for clinical diagnosis.

  19. Early-stage differentiation between presenile Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia using arterial spin labeling MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.E. Steketee (Rebecca); E.E. Bron (Esther); R. Meijboom (Rozanna); G.C. Houston (Gavin); S. Klein (Stefan); H.J.M.M. Mutsaerts (Henri J. M.); C. Méndez Orellana (Carolina); F.J. De Jong (Frank J.); J.C. van Swieten (John); A. van der Lugt (Aad); M. Smits (Marion)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI for the early diagnosis of and differentiation between the two most common types of presenile dementia: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and for distinguishing age-related from pathological perfusion

  20. Early-stage differentiation between presenile Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia using arterial spin labeling MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.E. Steketee (Rebecca); E.E. Bron (Esther); Meijboom, R. (Rozanna); Houston, G.C. (Gavin C.); Klein, S. (Stefan); H.J.M.M. Mutsaerts (Henri J. M.); Orellana, C.P.M. (Carolina P. Mendez); F.J. de Jong (Fransina); J.C. van Swieten (John); A. van der Lugt (Aad); M. Smits (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI for the early diagnosis of and differentiation between the two most common types of presenile dementia: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and for distinguishing age-related from pathological perfusion

  1. Clinical Utility of Short Social Cognitive Tests in Early Differentiation of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia from Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Christian; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cognitive tests used in clinical practice may not be sensitive enough for the early differentiation of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of literature has shown that deficits in various aspects of social cognition can be f...

  2. Differential Effect of Electroacupuncture on Inflammatory Adipokines in Two Rat Models of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline J.T. Liaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which are characterized by altered levels of production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. The dysregulation of the production of inflammatory adipokines and their functions in obese individuals leads to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and may promote obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Electroacupuncture (EA was tested to see if there was a difference in its effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine levels in the blood serum and the white adipose tissue of obese Zucker fatty rats and high-fat diet-induced obese Long Evans rats. In the two rat models of obesity, on Day 12 of treatment, repeated applications of EA were seen to have had a significant differential effect for serum tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, the adiponectin:leptin ratio, and blood glucose. For the adipose tissue, there was a differential effect for adiponectin that was on the borderline of significance. To explore these changes further and how they might affect insulin resistance would require a modification to the research design to use larger group sizes for the two models or to give a greater number of EA treatments.

  3. Color perception differentiates Alzheimer's Disease (AD) from Vascular Dementia (VaD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutoglou, N A; Arnaoutoglou, M; Nemtsas, P; Costa, V; Baloyannis, S J; Ebmeier, K P

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common causes of dementia in older people. Both diseases appear to have similar clinical symptoms, such as deficits in attention and executive function, but specific cognitive domains are affected. Current cohort studies have shown a close relationship between αβ deposits and age-related macular degeneration (Johnson et al., 2002; Ratnayaka et al., 2015). Additionally, a close link between the thinning of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and AD patients has been described, while it has been proposed that AD patients suffer from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al., 2003). Our study included 103 individuals divided into three groups: A healthy control group (n = 35), AD (n = 32) according to DSM-IV-TR, NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and VaD (n = 36) based on ΝΙΝDS-AIREN, as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results. The severity of patient's cognitive impairment, was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and was classified according to the Reisberg global deterioration scale (GDS). Visual perception was examined using the Ishihara plates: "Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate." The three groups were not statistically different for demographic data (age, gender, and education). The Ishihara color blindness test has a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 87.5% to discriminate AD and VaD patients when an optimal (32.5) cut-off value of performance is used. Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate is a promising potential method as an easy and not time-consuming screening test for the differential diagnosis of dementia between AD and VaD.

  4. Differential expression of proteomics models of colorectal cancer, colorectal benign disease and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shu-Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is often diagnosed at a late stage with concomitant poor prognosis. The hypersensitive analytical technique of proteomics can detect molecular changes before the tumor is palpable. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectra (SELDI-TOF-MS is a newly-developed technique of evaluating protein separation in recent years. The protein chips have established the expression of tumor protein in the serum specimens and become the newly discovered markers for tumor diagnosis. The objective of this study was to find new markers of the diagnosis among groups of CRC, colorectal benign diseases (CBD and healthy controls. The assay of SELDI-TOF-MS with analytical technique of protein-chip bioinformatics was used to detect the expression of protein mass peaks in the sera of patients or controls. One hundred serum samples, including 52 cases of colorectal cancer, 27 cases of colorectal benign disease, and 21 cases of healthy controls, were examined by SELDI-TOF-MS with WCX2 protein-chips. Results The diagnostic models (I, II and III were setup by analyzed the data and sieved markers using Ciphergen - Protein-Chip-Software 5.1. These models were combined with 3 protein mass peaks to discriminate CRC, CBD, and healthy controls. The accuracy, the sensitivity and the particularity of cross verification of these models are all highly over 80%. Conclusions The SELDI-TOF-MS is a useful tool to help diagnose colorectal cancer, especially during the early stage. However, identification of the significantly differentiated proteins needs further study.

  5. Intergroup differentiation in computer-mediated communication : Effects of depersonalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    Two studies examined intergroup discussions via computer-mediated communication systems. It was hypothesized that depersonalization, in comparison with individuated interaction, would increase the tendency for intergroup differentiation in attitudes and stereotypes, In Study 1, 24 groups

  6. The role of nailfold capillaroscopy in interstitial lung diseases - can it differentiate idiopathic cases from collagen tissue disease associated interstitial lung diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmakçı Karadoğan, Dilek; Balkarlı, Ayşe; Önal, Özgür; Altınışık, Göksel; Çobankara, Veli

    2015-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) is a non-invasive diagnostic test that is mostly used for early diagnosis of collagen tissue diseases (CTDs). We aimed to evaluate whether NFC findings could be a clue for discriminating idiopathic interstitial lung diseases (ILD) from CTD associated ILDs (CTD-ILD). Additionally it was aimed to determine whether NFC could be helpful in discriminating usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern from non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. We grouped patients into three main groups: 15 CTD-ILD, 18 idiopathic ILD, and 17 patients in the control group. The CTD-ILD group was split into two subgroups: 8 patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SJS)-associated ILD and 7 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ILD. The idiopathic-ILD group consisted of 10 idiopathic NSIP and 8 IPF patients. The control group consisted of 10 SJS and 7 RA patients without lung disease. None of the patients were on acute exacerbation at the time of examination, and none had Reynaud's phenomenon. Mean capillary density was significantly reduced only in the CTD-ILD group as compared to the control group (p= 0.006). In subgroup analysis, it was determined that RA-ILD, IPF, and SJS-ILD subgroups had more severe capillaroscopic abnormalities. Mean capillary density in patients with the UIP pattern was reduced compared to patients with the NSIP pattern and those in the control group; p values were 0.008 and nailfold capillaroscopic findings of patients with NSIP and UIP patterns. NFC findings can be helpful in discriminating UIP patterns from NSIP patterns. But to show its role in differentiating idiopathic disease, more studies with more patients are needed.

  7. Longitudinal Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Sustained Differential Gene Expression Signature in Patients Treated for Acute Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Jerome; Soloski, Mark J; Swei, Andrea; Cheadle, Chris; Federman, Scot; Billaud, Jean-Noel; Rebman, Alison W; Kabre, Beniwende; Halpert, Richard; Boorgula, Meher; Aucott, John N; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-02-12

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and approximately 10 to 20% of patients report persistent symptoms lasting months to years despite appropriate treatment with antibiotics. To gain insights into the molecular basis of acute Lyme disease and the ensuing development of post-treatment symptoms, we conducted a longitudinal transcriptome study of 29 Lyme disease patients (and 13 matched controls) enrolled at the time of diagnosis and followed for up to 6 months. The differential gene expression signature of Lyme disease following the acute phase of infection persisted for at least 3 weeks and had fewer than 44% differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in common with other infectious or noninfectious syndromes. Early Lyme disease prior to antibiotic therapy was characterized by marked upregulation of Toll-like receptor signaling but lack of activation of the inflammatory T-cell apoptotic and B-cell developmental pathways seen in other acute infectious syndromes. Six months after completion of therapy, Lyme disease patients were found to have 31 to 60% of their pathways in common with three different immune-mediated chronic diseases. No differential gene expression signature was observed between Lyme disease patients with resolved illness to those with persistent symptoms at 6 months post-treatment. The identification of a sustained differential gene expression signature in Lyme disease suggests that a panel of selected human host-based biomarkers may address the need for sensitive clinical diagnostics during the "window period" of infection prior to the appearance of a detectable antibody response and may also inform the development of new therapeutic targets. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infection in the United States, and some patients report lingering symptoms lasting months to years despite antibiotic treatment. To better understand the role of the human host response in acute Lyme disease and the

  8. Enhanced dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells by synergistic effect of Bcl-xL and reduced oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Christina; Courtois, Elise; Jensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. Here we investigated the effect of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) and oxygen tension on dopaminergic different......Neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. Here we investigated the effect of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) and oxygen tension on dopaminergic...... days at 20% oxygen, hVMbcl-x(L) cultures contained proportionally more tyrosine hydroxylase(TH)-positive cells than hVM1 control cultures. This difference was significantly potentiated from 11 +/- 0.8% to 17.2 +/- 0.2% of total cells when the oxygen tension was lowered to 3%. Immunocytochemistry and Q...

  9. Breast disease with skin thickening: differential diagnosis with mammography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Rok; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Hye Seong; Kim, Ki Tae; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Diffuse skin thickening of the breast is produced by lymphedema usually secondary to obstruction of the axillary lymphatics. On physical examination, the affected breast is, due to increased fluid content, larger, heavier, and of higher overall density. Mammography reveals an increased coarse reticular pattern. Thickening of the skin can have many causes. It may be a result of tumor invasion or a tumor in the dermal lymphatics ; or because of lymphatic congestion through obstruction of lymphatic drainage within the breast, in the axilla, or centrally in the mediastinum. Further causes may be congestive heart failure, benign inflammation, primary skin processes such as psoriasis, or systemic diseases which involve the skin. Mammographic appearance is known to be nonspecific. Ultrasound can demonstrate skin thickening directly, but despite some reports suggesting that the cause of skin thickening can be inferred from the results of ultrasound, this is not usually of practical importance. The purpose of this study is to review the causes of skin thickening of the breast and to use mammography and US to differentiate the causes.

  10. Neuropsychological Profiles Differentiate Alzheimer Disease from Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia in an Autopsy-Defined Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Gomez, Liliana; Zheng, Ling; Reed, Bruce; Kramer, Joel; Mungas, Dan; Zarow, Chris; Vinters, Harry; Ringman, John M; Chui, Helena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of neuropsychological tests to differentiate autopsy-defined Alzheimer disease (AD) from subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). From a sample of 175 cases followed longitudinally that underwent autopsy, we selected 23 normal controls (NC), 20 SIVD, 69 AD, and 10 mixed cases of dementia. Baseline neuropsychological tests, including Memory Assessment Scale word list learning test, control oral word association test, and animal fluency, were compared between the three autopsy-defined groups. The NC, SIVD, and AD groups did not differ by age or education. The SIVD and AD groups did not differ by the Global Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. Subjects with AD performed worse on delayed recall (p < 0.01). A receiver operating characteristics analysis comparing the SIVD and AD groups including age, education, difference between categorical (animals) versus phonemic fluency (letter F), and the first recall from the word learning test distinguished the two groups with a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 67%, and positive likelihood ratio of 2.57 (AUC = 0.789, 95% CI 0.69-0.88, p < 0.0001). In neuropathologically defined subgroups, neuropsychological profiles have modest ability to distinguish patients with AD from those with SIVD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Differentiation of semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R Rhys; Dawson, Kate; Mioshi, Eneida; Erzinçlioğlu, Sharon; Hodges, John R

    2008-04-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a simple diagnostic tool bridging the gap between the very brief Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) and much longer test batteries used by neuropsychologists which has proven extremely popular internationally. We aimed to assess the ability of the ACE to differentiate semantic dementia (SD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ACE was administered to three groups: SD patients (n = 40) and two separate groups of AD patients (n = 40 in each), matched for overall ACE or MMSE score. Significant differences were found between SD and both AD groups for the ACE sub-scores of naming, reading and orientation in time. Discriminant analysis (SD versus AD) led to the formulation of a 'semantic index' (naming plus reading minus scores for serial-7s, orientation in time and drawing). Application of the semantic index to the patient data found values of less than zero to be predictive of SD rather than AD with 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Validation analysis in an independent sample of 24 SD and AD patients proved even more favourable. The overall ACE score is known to be a sensitive, and specific, indicator of early neurodegenerative dementia; this study shows that the ACE can also be used to detect SD through application of the semantic index.

  12. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid proteomes differentiate post-treatment lyme disease from chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS and Chronic Fatigue (CFS are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS.Pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS, coupled with immunoaffinity depletion methods to reduce protein-masking by abundant proteins. Individual patient and healthy control CSF samples were analyzed directly employing a MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics approach. We found that both groups, and individuals within the groups, could be distinguished from each other and normals based on their specific CSF proteins (p<0.01. CFS (n = 43 had 2,783 non-redundant proteins, nPTLS (n = 25 contained 2,768 proteins, and healthy normals had 2,630 proteins. Preliminary pathway analysis demonstrated that the data could be useful for hypothesis generation on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these two related syndromes.nPTLS and CFS have distinguishing CSF protein complements. Each condition has a number of CSF proteins that can be useful in providing candidates for future validation studies and insights on the respective mechanisms of pathogenesis. Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.

  13. Laser Raman detection of platelet as a non-invasive approach for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P; Wang, X H; Cheng, Y; Peng, J; Shen, A G; Hu, J M; Tian, Q; Shang, X L; Liu, Z C; Yao, X Q; Wang, J Z; Baek, S J; Park, A

    2011-01-01

    Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a problem that puzzled many doctors. Reliable markers in easy-assembling samples are of considerable clinical diagnostic value. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed a new method that potentially allows early and differential diagnosis of AD from the platelet sample. Raman spectra of platelets isolated from different ages of AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls were collected and analyzed. Multilayer perceptron networks (MLP) classification method was used to classify spectra and establish the diagnostic models. For differential diagnosis, spectra of platelets isolated from AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and vascular dementia (VD) mice were also discriminated. Two notable spectral differences at 740 and 1654 cm -1 were revealed in the mean spectrum of platelets isolated from AD transgenic mice and the controls. MLP displayed a powerful ability in the classifying of early, advanced AD and the control group, and in differential diagnosis of PD and advanced AD, as well as VD and advanced AD. The results suggest that platelet detecting by LRS coupled with MLP analysis appears to be an easy and accurate method for early and differential diagnosis of AD. This technique could be rapidly promoted from laboratory to the hospital

  14. Survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms of human stem cells complexed with neurotrophin-3-releasing pharmacologically active microcarriers in an ex vivo model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviaud, Nicolas; Garbayo, Elisa; Sindji, Laurence; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto; Schiller, Paul C; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2015-06-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative therapies hold great potential for the treatment of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently reported the repair and functional recovery after treatment with human marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells adhered to neurotrophin-3 (NT3) releasing pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) in hemiparkinsonian rats. In order to comprehend this effect, the goal of the present work was to elucidate the survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms of MIAMI cells and human neural stem cells (NSCs), both adhering to NT3-releasing PAMs in an ex vivo organotypic model of nigrostriatal degeneration made from brain sagittal slices. It was shown that PAMs led to a marked increase in MIAMI cell survival and neuronal differentiation when releasing NT3. A significant neuroprotective effect of MIAMI cells adhering to PAMs was also demonstrated. NSCs barely had a neuroprotective effect and differentiated mostly into dopaminergic neuronal cells when adhering to PAM-NT3. Moreover, those cells were able to release dopamine in a sufficient amount to induce a return to baseline levels. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stanniocalcin-1 as potential mediators of the neuroprotective effect of MIAMI cells and NSCs, respectively. It was also shown that VEGF locally stimulated tissue vascularization, which might improve graft survival, without excluding a direct neuroprotective effect of VEGF on dopaminergic neurons. These results indicate a prospective interest of human NSC/PAM and MIAMI cell/PAM complexes in tissue engineering for PD. Stem cell-based regenerative therapies hold great potential for the treatment of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The present work elucidates and compares the survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms

  15. Effects of opium consumption on cardiometabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudkabir, Farzad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    Opium is the second-most-commonly abused substance (after tobacco) in developing countries of the Middle East region, and in many Asian nations. One of the reasons for the high prevalence of opium abuse in these countries is a traditional belief among Eastern people, even including some medical staff, that opium might have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and in the control of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. In this Perspectives article, we summarize the current understanding of the pharmacotoxicology of opium and its specific effects on glycaemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis. On the basis of the available evidence, we believe not only that opium has no ameliorating effect on cardiovascular diseases, but also that the use of this drug might have adverse effects on these conditions. Therefore, people should be educated about the hazardous effects of opium consumption on cardiometabolic diseases.

  16. Modulatory effects of quercetin on proliferation and differentiation of the human colorectal cell line Caco-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dihal, A.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.v.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Stierum, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin was investigated on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Confluent Caco-2 monolayers exposed to quercetin showed a biphasic effect on cell proliferation and a decrease in cell differentiation (0.001

  17. [Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo

    2008-02-01

    Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.

  18. Differential patterns of implicit emotional processing in Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Fusari, Anna; Rodríguez, Beatriz; Hernández, José Martín Zurdo; Ellgring, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Implicit memory for emotional facial expressions (EFEs) was investigated in young adults, healthy old adults, and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Implicit memory is revealed by the effect of experience on performance by studying previously encoded versus novel stimuli, a phenomenon referred to as perceptual priming. The aim was to assess the changes in the patterns of priming as a function of aging and dementia. Participants identified EFEs taken from the Facial Action Coding System and the stimuli used represented the emotions of happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust. In the study phase, participants rated the pleasantness of 36 faces using a Likert-type scale. Subsequently, the response to the 36 previously studied and 36 novel EFEs was tested when they were randomly presented in a cued naming task. The results showed that implicit memory for EFEs is preserved in AD and aging, and no specific age-related effects on implicit memory for EFEs were observed. However, different priming patterns were evident in AD patients that may reflect pathological brain damage and the effect of stimulus complexity. These findings provide evidence of how progressive neuropathological changes in the temporal and frontal areas may affect emotional processing in more advanced stages of the disease.

  19. Differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and essential tremor using the smartphone's accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Barrantes

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis between patients with essential tremor (ET and those with Parkinson's disease (PD whose main manifestation is tremor may be difficult unless using complex neuroimaging techniques such as 123I-FP-CIT SPECT. We considered that using smartphone's accelerometer to stablish a diagnostic test based on time-frequency differences between PD an ET could support the clinical diagnosis.The study was carried out in 17 patients with PD, 16 patients with ET, 12 healthy volunteers and 7 patients with tremor of undecided diagnosis (TUD, who were re-evaluated one year after the first visit to reach the definite diagnosis. The smartphone was placed over the hand dorsum to record epochs of 30 s at rest and 30 s during arm stretching. We generated frequency power spectra and calculated receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC curves of total spectral power, to establish a threshold to separate subjects with and without tremor. In patients with PD and ET, we found that the ROC curve of relative energy was the feature discriminating better between the two groups. This threshold was then used to classify the TUD patients.We could correctly classify 49 out of 52 subjects in the category with/without tremor (97.96% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity and 27 out of 32 patients in the category PD/ET (84.38% discrimination accuracy. Among TUD patients, 2 of 2 PD and 2 of 4 ET were correctly classified, and one patient having PD plus ET was classified as PD.Based on the analysis of smartphone accelerometer recordings, we found several kinematic features in the analysis of tremor that distinguished first between healthy subjects and patients and, ultimately, between PD and ET patients. The proposed method can give immediate results for the clinician to gain valuable information for the diagnosis of tremor. This can be useful in environments where more sophisticated diagnostic techniques are unavailable.

  20. Differential disease resistance response in the barley necrotic mutant nec1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunga Laura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ion fluxes are considered to be an integral part of signal transduction during responses to pathogens, only a few ion channels are known to participate in the plant response to infection. CNGC4 is a disease resistance-related cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Arabidopsis thaliana CNGC4 mutants hlm1 and dnd2 display an impaired hypersensitive response (HR, retarded growth, a constitutively active salicylic acid (SA-mediated pathogenesis-related response and elevated resistance against bacterial pathogens. Barley CNGC4 shares 67% aa identity with AtCNGC4. The barley mutant nec1 comprising of a frame-shift mutation of CNGC4 displays a necrotic phenotype and constitutively over-expresses PR-1, yet it is not known what effect the nec1 mutation has on barley resistance against different types of pathogens. Results nec1 mutant accumulated high amount of SA and hydrogen peroxide compared to parental cv. Parkland. Experiments investigating nec1 disease resistance demonstrated positive effect of nec1 mutation on non-host resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst at high inoculum density, whereas at normal Pst inoculum concentration nec1 resistance did not differ from wt. In contrast to augmented P. syringae resistance, penetration resistance against biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, the causal agent of powdery mildew, was not altered in nec1. The nec1 mutant significantly over-expressed race non-specific Bgh resistance-related genes BI-1 and MLO. Induction of BI-1 and MLO suggested putative involvement of nec1 in race non-specific Bgh resistance, therefore the effect of nec1on mlo-5-mediated Bgh resistance was assessed. The nec1/mlo-5 double mutant was as resistant to Bgh as Nec1/mlo-5 plants, suggesting that nec1 did not impair mlo-5 race non-specific Bgh resistance. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that nec1 mutation alters activation of systemic acquired resistance

  1. Molecular Differentiation of Risk for Disease Progression: Delineating Stage-Specific Therapeutic Targets for Disease Management in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worsham, Maria J; Raju, Usha; Chase, Gary; Lu, Mei

    2004-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to 1a: identify an informative set of specific genetic alterations that underlie the pathogenesis of disease progression to serve as targets for management of disease at the earliest stages and 1b...

  2. Molecular Differentiation of Risk for Disease Progression: Delineating Stage-Specific Therapeutic Targets for Disease Management in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worsham, Maria J; Raju, Usha; Lu, Mei

    2006-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to 1a: identify an informative set of specific genetic alterations that underlie the pathogenesis of disease progression to serve as targets for management of disease at the earliest stages and 1b...

  3. An automated classification system for the differentiation of obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Nam Kug; Lee, Young Kyung; Kim, Song Soo; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, June Goo

    2007-01-01

    To develop an automated classification system for the differentiation of obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images, and to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of the system. For textural analysis, histogram features, gradient features, run length encoding, and a co-occurrence matrix were employed. A Bayesian classifier was used for automated classification. The images (image number n = 256) were selected from the HRCT images obtained from 17 healthy subjects (n = 67), 26 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans (n = 70), 28 patients with mild centrilobular emphysema (n = 65), and 21 patients with panlobular emphysema or severe centrilobular emphysema (n = 63). An five-fold cross-validation method was used to assess the performance of the system. Class-specific sensitivities were analyzed and the overall accuracy of the system was assessed with kappa statistics. The sensitivity of the system for each class was as follows: normal lung 84.9%, bronchiolitis obliterans 83.8%, mild centrilobular emphysema 77.0%, and panlobular emphysema or severe centrilobular emphysema 95.8%. The overall performance for differentiating each disease and the normal lung was satisfactory with a kappa value of 0.779. An automated classification system for the differentiation between obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images was developed. The proposed system discriminates well between the various obstructive lung diseases and the normal lung

  4. The effect of differential motivation on IRT linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittelhaëuser, M.A.; Béguin, A.A.; Sijtsma, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated differential motivation between the stakes for operational tests and anchor items produces an invalid linking result if the Rasch model is used to link the operational tests. This was done for an external anchor design and a variation of

  5. Effect of citrus flavonoids on HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-seven Citrus flavonoids were examined for their activity of induction of terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing, nonspecific esterase, specific esterase, and phagocytic activities. 10 flavonoids were judged to be active (percentage of NBT reducing cells was more than 40% at a concentration of 40 microM), and the rank order of potency was natsudaidain, luteolin, tangeretin, quercetin, apigenin, 3, 3, '4, '5, 6, 7, 8-heptamethoxyflavone, nobiletin, acacetin, eriodictyol, and taxifolin. These flavonoids exerted their activity in a dose-dependent manner. HL-60 cells treated with these flavonoids differentiated into mature monocyte/macrophage. The structure-activity relationship established from comparison between flavones and flavanones revealed that ortho-catechol moiety in ring B and C2-C3 double bond had an important role for induction of differentiation of HL-60. In polymethoxylated flavones, hydroxyl group at C3 and methoxyl group at C8 enhanced the differentiation-inducing activity.

  6. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  7. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references

  8. Differential effects of rapamycin and dexamethasone in mouse models of established allergic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Mushaben

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR plays an important role in cell growth/differentiation, integrating environmental cues, and regulating immune responses. Our lab previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin prevented house dust mite (HDM-induced allergic asthma in mice. Here, we utilized two treatment protocols to investigate whether rapamycin, compared to the steroid, dexamethasone, could inhibit allergic responses during the later stages of the disease process, namely allergen re-exposure and/or during progression of chronic allergic disease. In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized to HDM (three i.p. injections and administered two intranasal HDM exposures. After 6 weeks of rest/recovery, mice were re-exposed to HDM while being treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone. In protocol 2, mice were exposed to HDM for 3 or 6 weeks and treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone during weeks 4-6. Characteristic features of allergic asthma, including IgE, goblet cells, airway hyperreactivity (AHR, inflammatory cells, cytokines/chemokines, and T cell responses were assessed. In protocol 1, both rapamycin and dexamethasone suppressed goblet cells and total CD4(+ T cells including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells in the lung tissue, with no effect on AHR or total inflammatory cell numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Rapamycin also suppressed IgE, although IL-4 and eotaxin 1 levels were augmented. In protocol 2, both drugs suppressed total CD4(+ T cells, including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells and IgE levels. IL-4, eotaxin, and inflammatory cell numbers were increased after rapamycin and no effect on AHR was observed. Dexamethasone suppressed inflammatory cell numbers, especially eosinophils, but had limited effects on AHR. We conclude that while mTOR signaling is critical during the early phases of allergic asthma, its role is much more limited once disease is established.

  9. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential

  10. Ascorbic Acid-Induced Cardiac Differentiation of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells: Transcriptional Profiling and Effect of a Small Molecule Synergist of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ivanyuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproducible and efficient differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs to cardiomyocytes (CMs is essential for their use in regenerative medicine, drug testing and disease modeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some previously reported cardiogenic substances on cardiac differentiation of mouse PSCs. Methods: Differentiation was performed by embryoid body (EB-based method using three different murine PSC lines. The differentiation efficiency was monitored by RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and the effect mechanistically evaluated by transcriptome analysis of treated EBs. Results: Among the five tested compounds (ascorbic acid, dorsomorphin, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, cardiogenol C, cyclosporin A only ascorbic acid (AA exerted a strong and reproducible cardiogenic effect in CGR8 cells which was less consistent in other two PSC lines. AA induced only minor changes in transcriptome of CGR8 cells after administration during the initial two days of differentiation. Cardiospecific genes and transcripts involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis were up-regulated on day 5 but not on days 2 or 3 of differentiation. The cardiac differentiation efficiency was improved when QS11, a small-molecule synergist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was added to cultures after AA-treatment. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that only minor transcriptional changes are sufficient for enhancement of cardiogenesis of murine PSCs by AA and that AA and QS11 exhibit synergistic effects and enhance the efficiency of CM differentiation of murine PSCs.

  11. Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    structures have attracted considerable attention. Since the initial discovery of ... cause apoptotic cell death in the pathogenesis of diverse human diseases ..... Gong J, Traganos F and Darzynkie W Z 1994 A selective pro- cedure for DNA ...

  12. Modeling Human Neurological and Neurodegenerative Diseases: From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Neuronal Differentiation and Its Applications in Neurotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmad, Hisham; Hadadeh, Ola; Chamaa, Farah; Cheaito, Katia; Darwish, Batoul; Makkawi, Ahmad-Kareem; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    2017-01-01

    With the help of several inducing factors, somatic cells can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) lines. The success is in obtaining iPSCs almost identical to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), therefore various approaches have been tested and ultimately several ones have succeeded. The importance of these cells is in how they serve as models to unveil the molecular pathways and mechanisms underlying several human diseases, and also in its potential roles in the development of regenerative medicine. They further aid in the development of regenerative medicine, autologous cell therapy and drug or toxicity screening. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the recent development in the field of iPSCs research, specifically for modeling human neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, and its applications in neurotrauma. These are mainly characterized by progressive functional or structural neuronal loss rendering them extremely challenging to manage. Many of these diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been explored in vitro . The main purpose is to generate patient-specific iPS cell lines from the somatic cells that carry mutations or genetic instabilities for the aim of studying their differentiation potential and behavior. This new technology will pave the way for future development in the field of stem cell research anticipating its use in clinical settings and in regenerative medicine in order to treat various human diseases, including neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlidospour, Mahsa; Ghanbari, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs. Our results showed that the number and size of resulting neurospheres and also the percentage of cells differentiated into neurons decreased significantly with increasing exposure duration to GSM 900-MHz radiofrequency (RF)-electromagnetic field (EMF). In contrast, exposure to GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF at different durations did not influence cell viability and apoptosis of NSCs and also their astrocytic differentiation. It is concluded that accumulating dose of GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF might have devastating effects on NSCs proliferation and neurogenesis requiring more causations in terms of using mobile devices. PMID:28713615

  14. A study on an automated computerized differential diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, based only on hepatic scintigrams using sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Michimasa; Fujii, Susumu; Kaneda, Yukio

    1980-01-01

    Hepatic scintigrams using sup(99m)Tc-compounds are now routinely performed. In this study, automated computerized pattern characterizations of right lateral hepatic scintigrams using sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid were studied to extract characteristic indicators, which are effective for an automated computerized differential diagnosis. The program, developed by us, of the automated computerized pattern characterization and the automated computerized differential diagnosis can be performed without the aid of professional doctors' ability of pattern recognition. The right lateral hepatic scintigrams of fifty one cases, which are accurately diagnosed by biopsy, are applied as the training group. The results of the automated computerized differential diagnosis were as follows: Three cases were accurately diagnosed among 3 normal cases; Three among 3 acute hepatitis; Seven among 7 chronic inactive hepatitis; Twenty among 22 chronic active hepatitis; Sixteen among 16 liver cirrhosis. Only two cases of chronic active hepatitis are falsely-diagnosed as chronic inactive hepatitis and as liver cirrhosis respectively. The over all accuracy rate was 96% in the training group. With this result, the automated computerized differential diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases is suggested to be possible, based on the hepatic scintigram. (author)

  15. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  16. Effects of host social hierarchy on disease persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ross S; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R

    2008-08-07

    The effects of social hierarchy on population dynamics and epidemiology are examined through a model which contains a number of fundamental features of hierarchical systems, but is simple enough to allow analytical insight. In order to allow for differences in birth rates, contact rates and movement rates among different sets of individuals the population is first divided into subgroups representing levels in the hierarchy. Movement, representing dominance challenges, is allowed between any two levels, giving a completely connected network. The model includes hierarchical effects by introducing a set of dominance parameters which affect birth rates in each social level and movement rates between social levels, dependent upon their rank. Although natural hierarchies vary greatly in form, the skewing of contact patterns, introduced here through non-uniform dominance parameters, has marked effects on the spread of disease. A simple homogeneous mixing differential equation model of a disease with SI dynamics in a population subject to simple birth and death process is presented and it is shown that the hierarchical model tends to this as certain parameter regions are approached. Outside of these parameter regions correlations within the system give rise to deviations from the simple theory. A Gaussian moment closure scheme is developed which extends the homogeneous model in order to take account of correlations arising from the hierarchical structure, and it is shown that the results are in reasonable agreement with simulations across a range of parameters. This approach helps to elucidate the origin of hierarchical effects and shows that it may be straightforward to relate the correlations in the model to measurable quantities which could be used to determine the importance of hierarchical corrections. Overall, hierarchical effects decrease the levels of disease present in a given population compared to a homogeneous unstructured model, but show higher levels of

  17. Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging in Differentiation Between Graves' Disease and Painless Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd Allah, Sieza Samir; El-Said, Amr Abd El-Hamid

    2017-01-01

    To assess the role of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis. A prospective study was conducted among 37 consecutive patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis (25 female and 12 male; mean age of 44 years) and 15 ageand sex-matched controls. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the thyroid gland was performed in patients and controls. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the thyroid gland was calculated and correlated with Tc-99m uptake and thyroid function tests of the patients. There was a significant difference in the ADC value of the thyroid gland between patients and the control group ( P =0.001). The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in Graves' disease was 2.03±0.28×10 -3 mm 2 /sec, and in patients with painless thyroiditis 1.46±0.22×10 -3 mm 2 /sec, respectively. There was a significant difference in the ADC values between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis ( P =0.001). When the ADC value of 1.45×10 -3 mm 2 /sec was used as a threshold value for differentiating Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis, the best result was obtained with area under the curve of 0.934, accuracy of 83.8%, sensitivity of 95.8%, and specificity of 61.5%. The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in patients positively correlated with serum TRAb and Tc-99m uptake ( r =0.57, P =0.001 and r =0.74, P =0.001, respectively). We concluded that ADC values of the thyroid gland can be used to differentiate Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis.

  18. Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging in Differentiation Between Graves’ Disease and Painless Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; El-Said, Amr Abd El-hamid

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To assess the role of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation between Graves’ disease and painless thyroiditis. Material/Methods A prospective study was conducted among 37 consecutive patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis (25 female and 12 male; mean age of 44 years) and 15 ageand sex-matched controls. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the thyroid gland was performed in patients and controls. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the thyroid gland was calculated and correlated with Tc-99m uptake and thyroid function tests of the patients. Results There was a significant difference in the ADC value of the thyroid gland between patients and the control group (P=0.001). The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in Graves’ disease was 2.03±0.28×10–3 mm2/sec, and in patients with painless thyroiditis 1.46±0.22×10–3 mm2/sec, respectively. There was a significant difference in the ADC values between Graves’ disease and painless thyroiditis (P=0.001). When the ADC value of 1.45×10–3 mm2/sec was used as a threshold value for differentiating Graves’ disease from painless thyroiditis, the best result was obtained with area under the curve of 0.934, accuracy of 83.8%, sensitivity of 95.8%, and specificity of 61.5%. The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in patients positively correlated with serum TRAb and Tc-99m uptake (r=0.57, P=0.001 and r=0.74, P=0.001, respectively). Conclusions We concluded that ADC values of the thyroid gland can be used to differentiate Graves’ disease from painless thyroiditis in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis. PMID:29662585

  19. Effect of TCEA3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yue; Tong, Hui-Li; Li, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yun-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro. TCEA3 expression gradually increased during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs and peaked on the 5th day of differentiation. TCEA3 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of bovine MDSCs, and its expression was not detected in the nucleus. The level of TCEA3 was relatively higher in myotubes at a higher degree of differentiation than during early differentiation. After transfection with a TCEA3-activating plasmid vector (TCEA3 overexpression) for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of the muscle differentiation-related loci myogenin (MYOG) and myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) increased significantly during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs. After transfection with a TCEA3-inhibiting plasmid vector for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of MYOG and MYH3 decreased significantly. Our results indicated, for the first time, that TCEA3 promotes the differentiation of bovine MDSCs and have implications for meat production and animal rearing. - Highlights: • Muscle-derived satellite cell differentiation is promoted by TCEA3. • TCEA3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm, but not nuclei of bovine MDSCs. • TCEA3 levels increased as myotube differentiation increased. • TCEA3 affected myotube fusion, myotube counts, and MYOG and MYH3 levels.

  20. Hand osteoarthritis: Differential diagnosis with inflammatory joint diseases and treatment policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Olyunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA usually affects certain joint groups selectively and the hand joints (HJ are one of its classical locations. Hand OA is widespread in the population. In their practice rheumatologists encounter HJ injury in OA in 38% of cases. It is conventional to identify three main types of hand OA. These are 1 interphalangeal OA that may or may not be accompanied by nodulation; 2 first carpometacarpal OA; and 3 erosive OA. At the same time, the rate of clinical forms ranges from 2.0 to 6.2%; it is 4.7 to 20.4% in the elderly. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are most commonly used to relieve pain that is the main manifestation of the disease. The risk for NSAID-related adverse gastrointestinal (GI events is substantially reduced by the drugs that exert their effects mainly on cyclooxygenase 2. These include nimesulide in particular. Undesirable GI effects may be also considerably minimized by using NSAIDs that have both their gastroprotective and antiinflammatory activities. By suppressing pain and inflammatory changes, the recently designed NSAID amtolmetin guacil simultaneously exerts a protective effect on the GI mucosa, by elevating its nitric oxide levels.

  1. Pyroelectric effect in tryglicyne sulphate single crystals - Differential measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybus, M.

    2018-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of the pyroelectric phenomenon was used to explain the electric response of the TGS (triglycine sulphate) samples in the linear heating process in ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Experimental verification of mathematical model was realized. TGS single crystals were grown and four electrode samples were fabricated. Differential measurements of the pyroelectric response of two different regions of the samples were performed and the results were compared with data obtained from the model. Experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  2. Effects of differential mobility on biased diffusion of two species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipolito, R S; Zia, R K P; Schmittmann, B

    2003-01-01

    Using simulations and a simple mean-field theory, we investigate jamming transitions in a two-species lattice gas under non-equilibrium steady-state conditions. The two types of particles diffuse with different mobilities on a square lattice, subject to an excluded volume constraint and biased in opposite directions. Varying filling fraction, differential mobility and drive, we map out the phase diagram, identifying first order and continuous transitions between a free-flowing disordered and a spatially inhomogeneous jammed phase. Ordered structures are observed to drift, with a characteristic velocity, in the direction of the more mobile species

  3. Histomorphological differentiation of non-erosive reflux disease and functional heartburn in patients with PPI-refractory heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandulski, A; Jechorek, D; Caro, C; Weigt, J; Wex, T; Mönkemüller, K; Malfertheiner, P

    2013-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory heartburn may be due to persistent gastro-oesophageal reflux, oesophageal hypersensitivity or functional heartburn (FH). The differentiation between non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and FH may be very difficult. However, this differentiation is important for appropriate therapeutic management. Dilated intercellular spaces (DIS), papillary elongation (PE) and basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) can be all assessed by light microscopy. Whether these mucosal abnormalities allow the differentiation of NERD from FH in PPI-refractory patients is uncertain. To assess histopathological findings by light microscopy in patients with refractory heartburn to differentiate NERD from FH. Sixty-two patients with PPI-refractory symptoms underwent EGD and MII-pH after pausing PPI medication for 2 weeks before investigation. Twenty-five subjects without upper gastrointestinal symptoms were included as controls. Symptom assessment was based on the reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ). Biopsies were taken 3-5 cm above the gastro-oesophageal junction. DIS, PE, BCH and infiltration of immune cells were evaluated and a sum score was calculated. Based on endoscopy and MII-pH, GERD was diagnosed in 43 patients (NERD: 20; ERD: 23) and FH in 19 patients. There was no difference in symptoms between the groups. Each individual histopathological item was different between the groups (P < 0.0001). Between NERD and FH, the most significant difference was found for DIS and the histopathological sum score (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that oesophageal biopsies are useful to differentiate NERD from FH. Increased DIS and a histological sum score are the most significant histopathological abnormalities in NERD as compared with FH. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Whole Body Plethysmography Reveals Differential Ventilatory Responses to Ozone in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasingly, urban air pollution is recognized as an important determinant of cardiovascular disease. Host susceptibility to air pollution can vary due to genetic predisposition and underlying disease. To elucidate key factors of host ...

  5. Evaluation of pathological effects in people occupationally exposed to radioiodine and problems of differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, D.; Milivojevic, K.; Vracaric, Lj.; Veljkovic, D.; Ubovic, Z.; Trajkovic, M.; Djukic, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The results of medical supervision of people occupationally exposed for 20 years to low-level radiation are presented. The study group was selected according to characteristics of work (production of radioiodine in the Boris Kidric Institute and applications in medicine and radiation research), occupation, sex, age, and dosimetric data. Medical controls included a general clinical examination of physiological systems with special regard to the thyroid gland and its hormone measurements (triiodothyronine, thyroxine); biochemical analyses; haematologic examinations for quantitative changes of leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelets; incidence of cytomorphological aberrations in white blood cells; changes in values of haemoglobin and haematocryte; and radiotoxicological procedures for evaluation of internal contamination with 131 I. The problems of differential diagnosis of some states and diseases according to the physiological systems were analysed with special attention to focuses in the organism which can give morphological and functional changes or as far as their look is concerned that could be very similar to changes caused by effects of ionizing radiation. The analysis included also the incidence of diseases of the thyroid gland performed by clinical and laboratory criteria for diagnosis. (author)

  6. Three Dimensional Human Neuro-Spheroid Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Differentiated Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Kyu; Velazquez Sanchez, Clara; Chen, Mei; Morin, Peter J.; Wells, John M.; Hanlon, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    The testing of candidate drugs to slow progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requires clinical trials that are lengthy and expensive. Efforts to model the biochemical milieu of the AD brain may be greatly facilitated by combining two cutting edge technologies to generate three-dimensional (3D) human neuro-spheroid from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from AD subjects. We created iPSC from blood cells of five AD patients and differentiated them into 3D human neuronal culture. We characterized neuronal markers of our 3D neurons by immunocytochemical staining to validate the differentiation status. To block the generation of pathologic amyloid β peptides (Aβ), the 3D-differentiated AD neurons were treated with inhibitors targeting β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretases. As predicted, both BACE1 and γ-secretase inhibitors dramatically decreased Aβ generation in iPSC-derived neural cells derived from all five AD patients, under standard two-dimensional (2D) differentiation conditions. However, BACE1 and γ-secretase inhibitors showed less potency in decreasing Aβ levels in neural cells differentiated under 3D culture conditions. Interestingly, in a single subject AD1, we found that BACE1 inhibitor treatment was not able to significantly reduce Aβ42 levels. To investigate underlying molecular mechanisms, we performed proteomic analysis of 3D AD human neuronal cultures including AD1. Proteomic analysis revealed specific reduction of several proteins that might contribute to a poor inhibition of BACE1 in subject AD1. To our knowledge, this is the first iPSC-differentiated 3D neuro-spheroid model derived from AD patients’ blood. Our results demonstrate that our 3D human neuro-spheroid model can be a physiologically relevant and valid model for testing efficacy of AD drug. PMID:27684569

  7. Identifying differential miR and gene consensus patterns in peripheral blood of patients with cardiovascular diseases from literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatrauskienė, Agnė; Navickas, Rokas; Laucevičius, Aleksandras; Huber, Heinrich J

    2017-06-30

    Numerous recent studies suggest the potential of circulating MicroRNAs (miRs) in peripheral blood samples as diagnostic or prognostic markers for coronary artery disease (CAD), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure (HF). However, literature often remains inconclusive regarding as to which markers are most indicative for which of the above diseases. This shortcoming is mainly due to the lack of a systematic analyses and absence of information on the functional pathophysiological role of these miRs and their target genes. We here provide an-easy-to-use scoring approach to investigate the likelihood of regulation of several miRs and their target genes from literature by identifying consensus patterns of regulation. We therefore have screened over 1000 articles that study mRNA markers in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and devised a scoring algorithm to identify consensus means for miRs and genes regulation across several studies. We then aimed to identify differential markers between CAD, ACS and HF. We first identified miRs (miR-122, -126, -223, -138 and -370) as commonly regulated within a group of metabolic disease, while investigating cardiac-related pathologies (CAD, ACS, HF) revealed a decisive role of miR-1, -499, -208b, and -133a. Looking at differential markers between cardiovascular disease revealed miR-1, miR-208a and miR-133a to distinguish ACS and CAD to HF. Relating differentially expressed miRs to their putative gene targets using MirTarBase, we further identified HCN2/4 and LASP1 as potential markers of CAD and ACS, but not in HF. Likewise, BLC-2 was found oppositely regulated between CAD and HF. Interestingly, while studying overlap in target genes between CAD, ACS and HF only revealed little similarities, mapping these genes to gene ontology terms revealed a surprising similarity between CAD and ACS compared to HF. We conclude that our analysis using gene and miR scores allows the extraction of meaningful markers and the elucidation

  8. Enhanced proliferation and dopaminergic differentiation of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells by synergistic effect of FGF2 and reduced oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Gramsbergen, Jan-Bert; Zimmer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Effective numerical expansion of dopaminergic precursors might overcome the limited availability of transplantable cells in replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation o...... enzyme activity, which may explain the elevated dopamine levels. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of oxygen tension is a recognizable factor for in vitro expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic midbrain precursor cells....... of rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic neuroblasts cultured at high (20%) and low (3%) oxygen tension. More cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine in cultures expanded at low as compared to high oxygen tension, and after 6 days of differentiation there were significantly more neuronal cells in low than......, switching FGF2-expanded cultures from low to high oxygen tension during the last two days of differentiation significantly enhanced dopamine release and intracellular dopamine levels as compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the short-term exposure to high oxygen enhanced in situ assessed TH...

  9. Effect of restriction vegan diet's on muscle mass, oxidative status, and myocytes differentiation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, Daniela; Messina, Giovanni; Lama, Stefania; Bitti, Giuseppe; Ambrosio, Pasqualina; Tenore, Giancarlo; Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Zappavigna, Silvia; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Novellino, Ettore; Monda, Marcellino; Stiuso, Paola

    2018-01-10

    This study was conceived to evaluate the effects of three different diets on body composition, metabolic parameters, and serum oxidative status. We enrolled three groups of healthy men (omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans) with similar age, weight and BMI, and we observed a significant decrease in muscle mass index and lean body mass in vegan compared to vegetarian and omnivore groups, and higher serum homocysteine levels in vegetarians and vegans compared to omnivores. We studied whether serum from omnivore, vegetarian, and vegan subjects affected oxidative stress, growth and differentiation of both cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 and H-H9c2 (H9c2 treated with H 2 O 2 to induce oxidative damage). We demonstrated that vegan sera treatment of both H9c2 and H-H9c2 cells induced an increase of TBARS values and cell death and a decrease of free NO 2- compared to vegetarian and omnivorous sera. Afterwards, we investigated the protective effects of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore sera on the morphological changes induced by H 2 O 2 in H9c2 cell line. We showed that the omnivorous sera had major antioxidant and differentiation properties compared to vegetarian and vegan sera. Finally, we evaluated the influence of the three different groups of sera on MAPKs pathway and our data suggested that ERK expression increased in H-H9c2 cells treated with vegetarian and vegan sera and could promote cell death. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that restrictive vegan diet could not prevent the onset of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases nor protect by oxidative damage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Physical inactivity is associated with decreased growth differentiation factor 11 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka R

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rie Tanaka,1 Hisatoshi Sugiura,1 Mitsuhiro Yamada,1 Tomohiro Ichikawa,1 Akira Koarai,1 Naoya Fujino,1 Satoru Yanagisawa,1 Katsuhiro Onodera,1 Tadahisa Numakura,1 Kei Sato,1 Yorihiko Kyogoku,1 Hirohito Sano,1 Shun Yamanaka,1 Tatsuma Okazaki,1 Tsutomu Tamada,1 Motohiko Miura,2 Tsuneyuki Takahashi,3 Masakazu Ichinose1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Wakabayashi Hospital, Wakabayashi-ku, Sendai, Japan Background: Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11 is reported to possess anti-aging and rejuvenating effects, including muscle regeneration and to be highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Recently, we demonstrated that the levels of plasma GDF11 were decreased in COPD. However, the effect of decreased circulating GDF11 in the pathophysiology of COPD remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the plasma GDF11 levels and various clinical parameters in patients with COPD. Patients and methods: Eighteen ex-smokers as control subjects and 70 COPD patients participated in the current study. We measured the levels of plasma GDF11 using immunoblotting, lung function, physical activity using a triaxial accelerometer, quadriceps strength, exercise capacity, and systemic inflammatory markers. We investigated the association between the levels of plasma GDF11 and these clinical parameters. Results: The levels of plasma GDF11 in the COPD patients had significant positive correlations with the data of lung function. Furthermore, the levels of plasma GDF11 were significantly correlated with the physical activity, quadriceps strength, and exercise capacity. Moreover, the levels of plasma GDF11 were significantly correlated with the data of inflammatory markers. Although various factors were

  11. Chondroitin sulfate effects on neural stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David R; Brelsford, Natalie R; Lovett, Neil W

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the role chondroitin sulfate has on cell interactions during neural plate formation in the early chick embryo. Using tissue culture isolates from the prospective neural plate, we have measured neural gene expression profiles associated with neural stem cell differentiation. Removal of chondroitin sulfate from stage 4 neural plate tissue leads to altered associations of N-cadherin-positive neural progenitors and causes changes in the normal sequence of neural marker gene expression. Absence of chondroitin sulfate in the neural plate leads to reduced Sox2 expression and is accompanied by an increase in the expression of anterior markers of neural regionalization. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of chondroitin sulfate in the anterior chick embryo is instrumental in maintaining cells in the neural precursor state.

  12. Neurocognitive differential diagnosis of dementing diseases: Alzheimer's Dementia, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Alyssa J; Parsons, Thomas D; McCue, Robert; Sellers, Alfred; Burns, William J

    2006-11-01

    Similarities in presentation of Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder, pose differential diagnosis challenges. The current study identifies specific neuropsychological patterns of scores for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychological domains directly assessed in the study included: immediate memory, delayed memory, confrontational naming, verbal fluency, attention, concentration, and executive functioning. The results reveal specific neuropsychological comparative profiles for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. The identification of these profiles will assist in the differential diagnosis of these disorders and aid in patient treatment.

  13. Amyloid protein-mediated differential DNA methylation status regulates gene expression in Alzheimer’s disease model cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Hye Youn; Choi, Eun Nam; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Oh, Seikwan; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in Alzheimer’s disease model cell line. ► Integrated analysis of CpG methylation and mRNA expression profiles. ► Identify three Swedish mutant target genes; CTIF, NXT2 and DDR2 gene. ► The effect of Swedish mutation on alteration of DNA methylation and gene expression. -- Abstract: The Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP-sw) has been reported to dramatically increase beta amyloid production through aberrant cleavage at the beta secretase site, causing early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). DNA methylation has been reported to be associated with AD pathogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism of APP-sw-mediated epigenetic alterations in AD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We analyzed genome-wide interplay between promoter CpG DNA methylation and gene expression in an APP-sw-expressing AD model cell line. To identify genes whose expression was regulated by DNA methylation status, we performed integrated analysis of CpG methylation and mRNA expression profiles, and identified three target genes of the APP-sw mutant; hypomethylated CTIF (CBP80/CBP20-dependent translation initiation factor) and NXT2 (nuclear exporting factor 2), and hypermethylated DDR2 (discoidin domain receptor 2). Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored mRNA expression of these three genes, implying methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation. The profound alteration in the methylation status was detected at the −435, −295, and −271 CpG sites of CTIF, and at the −505 to −341 region in the promoter of DDR2. In the promoter region of NXT2, only one CpG site located at −432 was differentially unmethylated in APP-sw cells. Thus, we demonstrated the effect of the APP-sw mutation on alteration of DNA methylation and subsequent gene expression. This epigenetic regulatory mechanism may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  14. Multicolor microRNA FISH effectively differentiates tumor types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Neil; Cekan, Pavol; Masry, Paul A.; McGeary, Sean E.; Miller, Jason B.; Hafner, Markus; Li, Zhen; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Morozov, Pavel; Brown, Miguel; Gogakos, Tasos; Mobin, Mehrpouya B.; Snorrason, Einar L.; Feilotter, Harriet E.; Zhang, Xiao; Perlis, Clifford S.; Wu, Hong; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Feng, Huichen; Shuda, Masahiro; Moore, Patrick S.; Tron, Victor A.; Chang, Yuan; Tuschl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are excellent tumor biomarkers because of their cell-type specificity and abundance. However, many miRNA detection methods, such as real-time PCR, obliterate valuable visuospatial information in tissue samples. To enable miRNA visualization in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, we developed multicolor miRNA FISH. As a proof of concept, we used this method to differentiate two skin tumors, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), with overlapping histologic features but distinct cellular origins. Using sequencing-based miRNA profiling and discriminant analysis, we identified the tumor-specific miRNAs miR-205 and miR-375 in BCC and MCC, respectively. We addressed three major shortcomings in miRNA FISH, identifying optimal conditions for miRNA fixation and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) retention using model compounds and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, enhancing signal amplification and detection by increasing probe-hapten linker lengths, and improving probe specificity using shortened probes with minimal rRNA sequence complementarity. We validated our method on 4 BCC and 12 MCC tumors. Amplified miR-205 and miR-375 signals were normalized against directly detectable reference rRNA signals. Tumors were classified using predefined cutoff values, and all were correctly identified in blinded analysis. Our study establishes a reliable miRNA FISH technique for parallel visualization of differentially expressed miRNAs in FFPE tumor tissues. PMID:23728175

  15. Effects of ultrasound on the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblast lineage cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inubushi, T.; Tanaka, E.; Rego, E.B.; Kitagawa, M.; Kawazoe, A.; Ohta, A.; Okada, H.; Koolstra, J.H.; Miyauchi, M.; Takata, T.; Tanne, K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation on the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblast lineage cells. Methods: An immortalized human periodontal ligament cell line (HPL) showing immature cementoblastic

  16. The effectiveness of an educational programme on occupational disease reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P. B. A.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Braam, I.; Spreeuwers, D.; Lenderink, A. F.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Occupational diseases are under reported. Targeted education of occupational physicians (OPs) may improve their rate of reporting occupational diseases. Aim: To study the effectiveness of an active multifaceted workshop aimed at improving OPs' reporting of occupational diseases. Methods:

  17. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  18. Distinct Histopathologic and Molecular Alterations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Intestinal Adenocarcinoma: c-MYC Amplification is Common and Associated with Mucinous/Signet Ring Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Douglas J; Binion, David G; Regueiro, Miguel D; Miller, Caitlyn; Herbst, Cameron; Pai, Reetesh K

    2018-05-17

    Chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of intestinal adenocarcinoma. The underlying molecular alterations in IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinoma remain largely unknown. We compared the clinicopathologic and molecular features of 35 patients with 47 IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinomas with a consecutive series of 451 patients with sporadic colorectal carcinoma identified at our institution and published data on sporadic colorectal carcinoma. c-MYC amplification was the most frequent molecular alteration identified in 33% of IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinoma that is a significantly higher frequency than in sporadic colorectal carcinoma (8%) (P = 0.0001). Compared to sporadic colorectal carcinoma, IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinomas more frequently demonstrated mucinous differentiation (60% vs 25%, P < 0.001) and signet ring cell differentiation (28% vs 4%, P < 0.001). Mucinous and signet ring cell differentiation were significantly associated with the presence of c-MYC amplification (both with P < 0.05). HER2 positivity (11%), KRAS exon 2 or 3 mutation (10%), and IDH1 mutation (7%) were less commonly observed in IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinoma. There was an association between poor survival and HER2 status with 3 of 4 patients having HER2-positive adenocarcinoma dead of disease at last clinical follow-up; however, no statistically significant survival effect was identified for any of the molecular alterations identified. We demonstrate that IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinomas have a high frequency of c-MYC amplification that is associated with mucinous and signet ring cell differentiation. Many of the identified molecular alterations have potential therapeutic relevance, including HER2 amplification, IDH1 mutation, and low frequency KRAS mutation.

  19. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  20. Effects of Angular Variation on Split D Differential Eddy Current Probe Response (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0327 EFFECTS OF ANGULAR VARIATION ON SPLIT D DIFFERENTIAL EDDY CURRENT PROBE RESPONSE (POSTPRINT) Ryan D...March 2014 – 22 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EFFECTS OF ANGULAR VARIATION ON SPLIT D DIFFERENTIAL EDDY CURRENT PROBE RESPONSE (POSTPRINT... Current Probe Response Ryan D. Mooers1, a) and John C. Aldrin2 1United States Air Force Research Labs, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Structural

  1. Differential and enhanced response to climate forcing in diarrheal disease due to rotavirus across a megacity of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pamela P; King, Aaron A; Yunus, Mohammad; Faruque, A S G; Pascual, Mercedes

    2016-04-12

    The role of climate forcing in the population dynamics of infectious diseases has typically been revealed via retrospective analyses of incidence records aggregated across space and, in particular, over whole cities. Here, we focus on the transmission dynamics of rotavirus, the main diarrheal disease in infants and young children, within the megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We identify two zones, the densely urbanized core and the more rural periphery, that respond differentially to flooding. Moreover, disease seasonality differs substantially between these regions, spanning variation comparable to the variation from tropical to temperate regions. By combining process-based models with an extensive disease surveillance record, we show that the response to climate forcing is mainly seasonal in the core, where a more endemic transmission resulting from an asymptomatic reservoir facilitates the response to the monsoons. The force of infection in this monsoon peak can be an order of magnitude larger than the force of infection in the more epidemic periphery, which exhibits little or no postmonsoon outbreak in a pattern typical of nearby rural areas. A typically smaller peak during the monsoon season nevertheless shows sensitivity to interannual variability in flooding. High human density in the core is one explanation for enhanced transmission during troughs and an associated seasonal monsoon response in this diarrheal disease, which unlike cholera, has not been widely viewed as climate-sensitive. Spatial demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental heterogeneity can create reservoirs of infection and enhance the sensitivity of disease systems to climate forcing, especially in the populated cities of the developing world.

  2. Differential cytotoxic effects of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on blastomere-derived embryonic stem cells and differentiating neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chun Kyu; Kim, Suel-Kee; Ko, Duck Sung; Cho, Jea Won; Jun, Jin Hyun; An, Su-Yeon; Han, Jung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Potential applications of embryonic stem (ES) cells are not limited to regenerative medicine but can also include in vitro screening of various toxicants. In this study, we established mouse ES cell lines from isolated blastomeres of two-cell stage embryos and examined their potential use as an in vitro system for the study of developmental toxicity. Two ES cell lines were established from 69 blastomere-derived blastocysts (2.9%). The blastomere-derived ES (bm-ES) cells were treated with mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in an undifferentiated state or after directed differentiation into early neural cell types. We observed significantly decreased cell viability when undifferentiated bm-ES cells were exposed to a high dose of MEHP (1000 μM). The cytotoxic effects of MEHP were accompanied by increased DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, and activation of Caspase-3, which are biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. Compared to undifferentiated bm-ES cells, considerably lower doses of MEHP (50 and 100 μM) were sufficient to induce cell death in early neurons differentiated from bm-ES cells. At the lower doses, the number of neural cells positive for the active form of Caspase-3 was greater than that for undifferentiated bm-ES cells. Thus, our data indicate that differentiating neurons are more sensitive to MEHP than undifferentiated ES cells, and that undifferentiated ES cells may have more efficient defense systems against cytotoxic stresses. These findings might contribute to the development of a new predictive screening method for assessment of hazards for developmental toxicity.

  3. Bilateral Renal Lymphoma a Differential Diagnosis of Policyst Renal Disease. Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda S, Cesar A; Rodriguez P, Jose L

    2010-01-01

    A case report of a patient with abdominal pain, diaphoresis and fever of three months duration imaging studies were interpreted as polycystic kidneys. The patient went to another institution, where a different approach led to a kidney biopsy that confirmed renal lymphoma. The case is interesting, by the way it is diagnosed and it is important to note the differential diagnosis.

  4. Differential Epidemiology: IQ, Neuroticism, and Chronic Disease by the 50 U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesta, Bryan J.; Bertsch, Sharon; McDaniel, Michael A.; Mahoney, Christine B.; Poznanski, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Current research shows that geo-political units (e.g., the 50 U.S. states) vary meaningfully on psychological dimensions like intelligence (IQ) and neuroticism (N). A new scientific discipline has also emerged, differential epidemiology, focused on how psychological variables affect health. We integrate these areas by reporting large correlations…

  5. Osteoblast CFTR inactivation reduces differentiation and osteoprotegerin expression in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis-related bone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Stalvey

    Full Text Available Low bone mass and increased fracture risk are recognized complications of cystic fibrosis (CF. CF-related bone disease (CFBD is characterized by uncoupled bone turnover--impaired osteoblastic bone formation and enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Intestinal malabsorption, vitamin D deficiency and inflammatory cytokines contribute to CFBD. However, epidemiological investigations and animal models also support a direct causal link between inactivation of skeletal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR, the gene that when mutated causes CF, and CFBD. The objective of this study was to examine the direct actions of CFTR on bone. Expression analyses revealed that CFTR mRNA and protein were expressed in murine osteoblasts, but not in osteoclasts. Functional studies were then performed to investigate the direct actions of CFTR on osteoblasts using a CFTR knockout (Cftr-/- mouse model. In the murine calvarial organ culture assay, Cftr-/- calvariae displayed significantly less bone formation and osteoblast numbers than calvariae harvested from wildtype (Cftr+/+ littermates. CFTR inactivation also reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in cultured murine calvarial osteoblasts. Although CFTR was not expressed in murine osteoclasts, significantly more osteoclasts formed in Cftr-/- compared to Cftr+/+ bone marrow cultures. Indirect regulation of osteoclastogenesis by the osteoblast through RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling was next examined. Although no difference in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (Rankl mRNA was detected, significantly less osteoprotegerin (Opg was expressed in Cftr-/- compared to Cftr+/+ osteoblasts. Together, the Rankl:Opg ratio was significantly higher in Cftr-/- murine calvarial osteoblasts contributing to a higher osteoclastogenesis potential. The combined findings of reduced osteoblast differentiation and lower Opg expression suggested a possible defect in canonical Wnt signaling. In fact, Wnt3a and PTH-stimulated canonical Wnt

  6. Human dental pulp stem cells derived from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease demonstrate hepatic-like differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Huang, Anderson H C; Chan, Anthony W S; Lin, L M

    2016-06-01

    Reviewing the literature, hepatic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease has not been studied. This study is aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that hDPSCs from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease could possess potential hepatic differentiation. Forty vital extracted teeth with disease recruited for hDPSCs isolation, stem cell characterization and hepatic differentiation were randomly and equally divided into group A (liquid nitrogen-stored dental pulp tissues) and group B (freshly derived dental pulp tissues). Samples of hDPSCs isolated from groups A and B but without hepatic growth factors formed negative controls. A well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cell line was employed as a positive control. All the isolated hDPSCs from groups A and B showed hepatic-like differentiation with morphological change from a spindle-shaped to a polygonal shape and normal karyotype. Differentiated hDPSCs and the positive control expressed hepatic metabolic function genes and liver-specific genes. Glycogen storage of differentiated hDPSCs was noted from day 7 of differentiation-medium culture. Positive immunofluorescence staining of low-density lipoprotein and albumin was observed from day 14 of differentiation-medium culture; urea production in the medium was noted from week 6. No hepatic differentiation was observed for any of the samples of the negative controls. We not only demonstrated the feasibility of hepatic-like differentiation of hDPSCs from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease but also indicated that the differentiated cells possessed normal karyotype and were functionally close to normal hepatic-like cells. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Differential effect of a patient-education transition intervention in adolescents with IBD vs. diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Markwart, Henriette; Bomba, Franziska; Muehlan, Holger; Findeisen, Annette; Kohl, Martina; Menrath, Ingo; Thyen, Ute

    2018-04-01

    Patient education programs (PEPs) to improve disease management are part of standard and regular treatment in adolescents with diabetes. In Germany, youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receive individual counseling but not PEPs in group settings. Generic PEPs have been developed in order to improve transition from child-centered to adolescent health services. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a transition-oriented PEP on quality of life (QoL) and self-management in young patients with IBD (PEP naive), compared to patients with diabetes (familiar with PEPs). A 2-day transition workshop was oriented at improving psychosocial skills and addressed both generic as well as specific aspects of the condition. A controlled trial on the outcomes of a generic transition-oriented PEP was conducted in 14- to 20-year-old patients with IBD (n = 99) and diabetes (n = 153). Transition competence and QoL were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Results show that the intervention lead to a significant increase in QoL only in patients with IBD. The PEP significantly improved transition competence in both groups, however to a higher extent in subjects with IBD. Transition-oriented PEPs can have differential effects in different patient groups. However, this needs further longitudinal investigations. What is Known: • To date, evidence has accumulated concerning the effectiveness of patient education programs (PEPs) in pediatric health care for chronic conditions such as type 1 diabetes, asthma, atopic dermatitis, or obesity but is less documented in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, PEPs in the transition period have not been investigated in youth with IBD. • The current study focuses on evaluating a PEP for transition preparation and management designed to be generically used across different chronic conditions since many aspects of managing chronic conditions share commonalities across conditions. The 2-day workshop

  8. Value of analyzing deep gray matter and occipital lobe perfusion to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Soichiro; Hanyu, Haruo; Hirao, Kentaro; Sato, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2008-12-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is generally characterized by a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the occipital lobe. However, not all patients with DLB have this feature. We explored characteristics of rCBF pattern changes to improve the identification of DLB, in addition to occipital hypoperfusion. The study population comprised 30 patients with probable DLB and 49 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who underwent single-photon emission computed tomography. The data were analyzed using Neurological Statistical Image Analysis Software (NEUROSTAT). We established a template of the region of interest (ROI) presenting the parietal lobe, posterior cingulate, striatum, thalamus, and occipital lobe on the standard brain atlas. We then compared the mean Z scores in each ROI between DLB and AD. Moreover, we investigated the value of analyzing relative rCBF changes in both the deep gray matter and occipital lobe in differentiating DLB from AD. The DLB group showed a significant relative rCBF increase in the bilateral striatum and thalamus, and a significant relative rCBF decrease in the bilateral occipital lobe when compared with the AD group. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed that determining the hyperperfusion in the thalamus together with the hypoperfusion in the occipital lobe enabled a more accurate differentiation between DLB and AD than studying individual areas. Studying the relative increase of rCBF in the deep gray matter, and the relative decrease of that in the occipital lobe achieved a high differentiation between DLB and AD. This suggests that determining both an increase and a decrease in rCBF pattern may be important in differentiating between the two diseases.

  9. Regenerative medicine for Parkinson's disease using differentiated nerve cells derived from human buccal fat pad stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Haruka; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks. After the morphology of hBFP-ASCs changed to neural-like cells, the medium was replaced with neural maintenance medium. Cells differentiated from hBFP-ASCs showed neuron-like structures and expressed neuron markers (β3-tubulin, neurofilament 200, and microtubule-associated protein 2), an astrocyte marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein), or dopaminergic neuron-related marker (tyrosine hydroxylase). Induced neural cells were transplanted into a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat hemi-parkinsonian model. At 4 weeks after transplantation, 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were subjected to apomorphine-induced rotation analysis. The transplanted cells survived in the brain of rats as dopaminergic neural cells. No tumor formation was found after cell transplantation. We demonstrated differentiation of hBFP-ASCs into neural cells, and that transplantation of these neural cells improved the symptoms of model rats. Our results suggest that neurons differentiated from hBFP-ASCs would be applicable to cell replacement therapy of PD.

  10. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody is not useful to differentiate between Crohn′s disease and intestinal tuberculosis in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoshal U

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Clinical, endoscopic, radiological and histological parameters of intestinal tuberculosis (IT and Crohn′s disease (CD are so similar that differentiation between these two diseases, which require different treatment, is difficult. Anti- Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA, which is often present in the sera of patients with CD, may be potentially useful to differentiate CD from IT. Aim : To evaluate the role of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for ASCA in serum in differentiating CD from intestinal tuberculosis. Settings and Design : Prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with IT, 16 CD, 36 UC diagnosed using standard parameters and 12 controls (11 healthy subjects and one with colonic carcinoma were tested for IgG ASCA in serum. Statistical Analysis Used : Categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square test with Yates′ correction, as applicable. Continuous variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results : Eight of 16 (50% patients with IT, 10 of 16 with CD (62%, nine of 35 with UC (26% and one of 12 controls tested positive for ASCA in serum. Though the frequency of ASCA in serum was comparable among patients with IT and CD (8/16 vs. 10/16, P = ns, IT and UC (8/16 vs. 9/35, P =ns, CD and UC (10/16 vs. 9/35, P =ns, its frequency in CD or IT but not in UC was higher than healthy controls ( P < 0.01. Conclusions : Serum ASCA is unlikely to be useful to differentiate between CD and IT in India.

  11. Value of analyzing deep gray matter and occipital lobe perfusion to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Soichiro; Hanyu, Haruo; Hirao, Kentaro; Sato, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is generally characterized by a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the occipital lobe. However, not all patients with DLB have this feature. We explored characteristics of rCBF pattern changes to improve the identification of DLB, in addition to occipital hypoperfusion. The study population comprised 30 patients with probable DLB and 49 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who underwent single-photon emission computed tomography. The data were analyzed using Neurological Statistical Image Analysis Soft-ware (NEUROSTAT). We established a template of the region of interest (ROI) presenting the parietal lobe, posterior cingulate, striatum, thalamus, and occipital lobe on the standard brain atlas. We then compared the mean Z scores in each ROI between DLB and AD. Moreover, we investigated the value of analyzing relative rCBF changes in both the deep gray matter and occipital lobe in differentiating DLB from AD. The DLB group showed a significant relative rCBF increase in the bilateral striatum and thalamus, and a significant relative rCBF decrease in the bilateral occipital lobe when compared with the AD group. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed that determining the hyperperfusion in the thalamus together with the hypoperfusion in the occipital lobe enabled a more accurate differentiation between DLB and AD than studying individual areas. Studying the relative increase of rCBF in the deep gray matter, and the relative decrease of that in the occipital lobe achieved a high differentiation between DLB and AD. This suggests that determining both an increase and a decrease in rCBF pattern may be important in differentiating between the two diseases. (author)

  12. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: An Approach Toward Retinal Degenerative Diseases Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Parvini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells as the cells with a capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into various specificcell types have been highly regarded in regenerative medicine studies. To repair the eye disease damages, thedifferentiation into retinal pigment epithelial cells of pluripotent stem cells has gained great importance inrecent decades because the inappropriate function of these cells is the main cause of degenerative diseases suchas the age-related macular degeneration. Millions of people in the world suffer this disease.To restore the damaged cells and, finally, to improve the vision, numerous studies have been conducted on usingpluripotent stem cells, their differentiation into retinal pigment epithelial cells, and finally, their applicationin cell therapy. Based on this, many researchers have attempted to produce highly efficient retinal pigmentepithelial cells, such that they show a proper function after transplant, along with the host cells. In this reviewarticle, the importance and the role of pigment epithelial cells, as well as, the studies on the in vitro productionof these cells were examined

  14. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junrong Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus, an edible and medicinal mushroom, displays various pharmacological activities in the prevention of dementia in conditions such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The present study explored the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus mycelium polysaccharide-enriched aqueous extract (HE on an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12 cellular apoptosis model and an AlCl3 combined with d-galactose-induced Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. The data revealed that HE successfully induced PC12 cell differentiation. A 3 h HE incubation at doses of 50 and 100 µg/mL before 25 mM of l-Glu effectively reversed the reduction of cell viability and the enhancement of the nuclear apoptosis rate in DPC12 cells. Compared with l-Glu-damaged cells, in PC12 cells, HE suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, blocked Ca2+ overload and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP depolarization. In the Alzheimer’s disease mouse model, HE administration enhanced the horizontal and vertical movements in the autonomic activity test, improved the endurance time in the rotarod test, and decreased the escape latency time in the water maze test. It also improved the central cholinergic system function in the Alzheimer’s mice, demonstrated by the fact that it dose-dependently enhanced the acetylcholine (Ach and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT concentrations in both the serum and the hypothalamus. Our findings provide experimental evidence that HE may provide neuroprotective candidates for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junrong; An, Shengshu; Hu, Wenji; Teng, Meiyu; Wang, Xue; Qu, Yidi; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus, an edible and medicinal mushroom, displays various pharmacological activities in the prevention of dementia in conditions such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The present study explored the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus mycelium polysaccharide-enriched aqueous extract (HE) on an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu)-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cellular apoptosis model and an AlCl3 combined with d-galactose-induced Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. The data revealed that HE successfully induced PC12 cell differentiation. A 3 h HE incubation at doses of 50 and 100 µg/mL before 25 mM of l-Glu effectively reversed the reduction of cell viability and the enhancement of the nuclear apoptosis rate in DPC12 cells. Compared with l-Glu-damaged cells, in PC12 cells, HE suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, blocked Ca2+ overload and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization. In the Alzheimer’s disease mouse model, HE administration enhanced the horizontal and vertical movements in the autonomic activity test, improved the endurance time in the rotarod test, and decreased the escape latency time in the water maze test. It also improved the central cholinergic system function in the Alzheimer’s mice, demonstrated by the fact that it dose-dependently enhanced the acetylcholine (Ach) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) concentrations in both the serum and the hypothalamus. Our findings provide experimental evidence that HE may provide neuroprotective candidates for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27809277

  16. Evaluating construct validity of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire through analysis of differential item functioning and differential item effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the construct validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) by means of tests for differential item functioning (DIF) and differential item effect (DIE). METHODS: We used a Danish general population postal survey (n = 4,732 with 3,517 wage earners) with a ...

  17. Differential Effects of Carbohydrates on Arabidopsis Pollen Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsche, Jörg; García Fernández, José M; Stabentheiner, Edith; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination. Whereas several di- and oligosaccharides supported pollen germination, hexoses such as glucose, fructose and mannose did not support and even considerably inhibited pollen germination when added to germination-supporting medium. Complementary experiments using glucose analogs with varying functional features, the hexokinase inhibitor mannoheptulose and the glucose-insensitive hexokinase-deficient Arabidopsis mutant gin2-1 suggested that mannose- and glucose-mediated inhibition of sucrose-supported pollen germination depends partially on hexokinase signaling. The results suggest that, in addition to their role as energy source, sugars act as signaling molecules differentially regulating the complex process of pollen germination depending on their structural properties. Thus, a sugar-dependent multilayer regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination is supported, which makes this approach a valuable experimental system for future studies addressing sugar sensing and signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Differential network analysis reveals genetic effects on catalepsy modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu D Iancu

    Full Text Available We performed short-term bi-directional selective breeding for haloperidol-induced catalepsy, starting from three mouse populations of increasingly complex genetic structure: an F2 intercross, a heterogeneous stock (HS formed by crossing four inbred strains (HS4 and a heterogeneous stock (HS-CC formed from the inbred strain founders of the Collaborative Cross (CC. All three selections were successful, with large differences in haloperidol response emerging within three generations. Using a custom differential network analysis procedure, we found that gene coexpression patterns changed significantly; importantly, a number of these changes were concordant across genetic backgrounds. In contrast, absolute gene-expression changes were modest and not concordant across genetic backgrounds, in spite of the large and similar phenotypic differences. By inferring strain contributions from the parental lines, we are able to identify significant differences in allelic content between the selected lines concurrent with large changes in transcript connectivity. Importantly, this observation implies that genetic polymorphisms can affect transcript and module connectivity without large changes in absolute expression levels. We conclude that, in this case, selective breeding acts at the subnetwork level, with the same modules but not the same transcripts affected across the three selections.

  19. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, Michael F.; Bruhwiler, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach

  20. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Computer Accelerator Physics Conference Williamsburg, Virginia 1996)

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Differentiation between active and chronic Crohn's disease using MRI small-bowel motility examinations — Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickelhaupt, S.; Froehlich, J.M.; Cattin, R.; Patuto, N.; Tutuian, R.; Wentz, K.U.; Culmann, J.L.; Raible, S.; Bouquet, H.; Bill, U.; Patak, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    active Crohn's disease alters small-bowel motility in distant, non-affected segments. The motility patterns revealed reduced contraction-wave frequencies, amplitudes, and decreased luminal occlusion rates. Thus evaluation of these characteristics potentially helps to differentiate between chronic and active Crohn's disease

  2. Differential diagnosis of depression and Alzheimer's disease with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotomskis, Augustinas; Margevičiūtė, Ramunė; Germanavičius, Arūnas; Kaubrys, Gintaras; Budrys, Valmantas; Bagdonas, Albinas

    2015-04-17

    One of the usual problems psychologists and clinicians face in clinical practice is differential diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease and depression. It has been reported that the ACE and ACE-R could discriminate the cognitive dysfunctions due to depression from that due to dementia, although this is not uniform in all studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of the ACE-R to differentiate late-life onset depression (with severe episode) from mild-moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This study received approval from the Lithuanian Bioethics Committee. All participants were older than 50 years (mean age = 66.52 (±8.76) years). The study sample consisted of 295 individuals: 117 with severe depression, 85 with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 94 age, gender and education matched participants of control group. The ACE-R had high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (81%) at detecting cognitive impairments related to AD. Patients with late-life onset depression (ACE-R mean 76.82, SD = 7.36) performed worse than controls (ACE-R mean 85.08, SD = 7.2), but better than the AD group (ACE-R mean 54.74, SD = 12.19). Participants with late-life onset depression were differentiated by mild impairment in the ACE-R total score with mild memory (13.79, SD = 6.29) and greater deficits in letter fluency (3.65, SD = 1.21) than in semantic fluency (4.68, SD = 1.23). Participants with AD were differentiated by severely impaired performance on attention and orientation (11.80, SD = 2.93), memory (8.25, SD = 3.47) and language subtests (17.21, SD = 4.04), and moderately impaired performance on verbal fluency (6.07, SD = 2.74). ACE-R has diagnostic accuracy in detecting people with AD and can be used in differential diagnostics of late-life onset depression (severe episode) and AD. Diagnostic accuracy may be improved by analyzing the neuropsychological profiles and using lower cutoffs for different age groups.

  3. HIRSCHSPRUNG'S DISEASE—The Clinical Differentiation and Treatment of Children with Hirschsprung's Disease and Pseudo-Hirschsprung's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Mark M.

    1958-01-01

    Hirschsprung's disease is marked by constipation from the time of birth, with the development, if uncorrected, of a protuberant abdomen and flared costal margins. The rectal ampulla is empty and the abdomen is filled with fecal masses. Pain is not prominent. Flatus is passed in large amounts. Encopresis does not occur. Barium enema shows the characteristic narrowed distal rectal segment and biopsy of the rectum shows absence of the ganglion cells of the myenteric plexus. Treatment is operative resection of the distal narrow segment and a primary anastomosis. Hirschsprung's disease may be mimicked in children with: 1. Psychogenic constipation—pseudo-Hirschsprung's disease. Unlike Hirschsprung's disease, symptoms do not appear at birth, encopresis is common, and the barium enema shows no narrow distal segment. 2. Mental retardation and cerebral defect. 3. Corrected imperforate anus—on the basis of stenosis, imperfect innervation or poor habit training. 4. Cretinism—with severe constipation and intestinal dilatation perhaps the presenting symptoms. Treatment of these four groups of children with severe constipation not due to Hirschsprung's disease is: For Group 1, open discussion with parent and child. Assumption by the physician of full control of the details of treatment, and relegation of parent to the role of the physician's agent in following the prescribed regimen. For Group 2, an enema regimen. Whereas fairly rapid restoration (and then persistence) of normal bowel habit can be expected in Group 1, the basic defects in Group 2 may require indefinite continuation of treatment. For Group 3, regular enema regimen, in the less severe cases—one identical with that used in Group 1, and dilatation of strictures or anoplasty. In Group 4, thyroid hormone therapy relieves the constipation of hypothyroidism and causes reversion of radiographic changes in the colon and rectum. PMID:13561108

  4. Effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli; Jin Changqing; Chen Libo; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of pulmonary metastases were studied utilizing chest X-ray, pulmonary function test and 99 Tc m -DTPA aerosol clearance examination. Results: The data of pulmonary function test were of no difference between groups of various radiation doses cumulation (P > 0.05). The differences of vital capacity (VC), fast vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) were not remarkable between the two groups of male or female patients (P > 0.05), but the difference of maximal volume ventilation (MVV) was P 99 Tc m -DTPA aerosol clearance rates between various groups were of no difference (P > 0.05). Only for one female, 43 years old who had received an accumulative dose of 51.8 GBq radioiodine over an 8-yr period, her pulmonary function test showed evidence of restrictive lung disease, chest X-ray showed haziness and DTPA half-time clearance was 26.4 min, which is suggestive of interstitial fibrosis. Conclusion: The cumulative dose of radioiodine and gender of the patients had not statistically significant effects on the pulmonary function. Interstitial fibrosis must be carefully watched when the cumulative radioiodine dose is over 37 GBq

  5. Usefulness of acute phase proteins in differentiating between feline infectious peritonitis and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazuchova, Katarina; Held, Susanne; Neiger, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of acute phase proteins (APPs) as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions. Methods Cats with pleural, abdominal or pericardial effusion were prospectively enrolled. Cats were classified as having or not having FIP based on immunohistochemistry (if available) or a sophisticated statistical method using machine learning methodology with concepts from game theory. Cats without FIP were further subdivided into three subgroups: cardiac disease, neoplasia and other diseases. Serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α 1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured in serum and effusion, using assays previously validated in cats. Results Serum and effusion samples were available for the measurement of APPs from 88 and 67 cats, respectively. Concentrations of the APPs in serum and effusion were significantly different in cats with and without FIP ( P <0.001 for all three APPs). The best APP to distinguish between cats with and without FIP was AGP in the effusion; a cut-off value of 1550 µg/ml had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% each for diagnosing FIP. Conclusions and relevance AGP, particularly if measured in effusion, was found to be useful in differentiating between FIP and other diseases, while SAA and Hp were not. The concentration of all three APPs in some diseases (eg, septic processes, disseminated neoplasia) was as high as in cats with FIP; therefore, none of these can be recommended as a single diagnostic test for FIP.

  6. The effect of radioactive iodine treatment in well differentiated thyroid carcinoma with lymphnode metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, M. J.; Lin, J. D.; Chao, T. C.; Wen, H. F.; Ho, Y. S.

    1994-01-01

    Background: To exam the effect of radioactive iodine treatment for thyroid remnant ablation and/or distant metastasis. A total of 134 well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients with cervical lymphnode metastasis at the time of diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed at Chang Gung Medical Center in Taiwan from 1977 to 1995. Methods: Among them, 126 cases were papillary carcinomas and 8 cases were follicular carcinomas. The mean age was 37.0 ± 14.6 years old. After the operation, 127 (95 %) patients received 131 I treatment (mean dose: 146.6 ± 109.5 mCi, range 30 - 550 mCi) and long-term follow-up. The mean follow-up period is 5.9 ± 3.9 yrs. All patients were restage at the end of 1995. Clinical biochemical results were also analyzed. Results: Among 127 cases who received postoperative radioactive iodine treatment, the majority of cases (92.5 % in papillary ca. vs. 57.1 % in follicular ca.) improved to stage I, 11 (8.6 %) cases remained on the same disease and stages. 13 cases (10.2 %, 10 papillary and 3 follicular) deteriorated to stage III or IV. However, in the non-treatment group, only 33.3 % of papillary carcinoma patients improved to stage I and 16.7 % of the patients remained as stage II. There were 5 cases (3.7 %) of mortality. Two cases with stage IV papillary carcinomas died of metastatic or recurrent malignancy, and the other 2 cases with stage I or III papillary carcinomas died of tracheal cancer or valvular heart disease. One patient with stage IV follicular carcinoma died of cerebral vascular accident. Conclusions: Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) treatment plays a significant role in the management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with cervical lymphnode metastasis. The effect of postoperative 131 I treatment on papillary carcinoma was better than that on follicular carcinoma. The optimal dosage and frequency of radioactive iodine treatment warrant further study. (author)

  7. Functional microRNAs in Alzheimer’s disease and cancer: differential regulation of common mechanisms and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N Holohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the main research priorities in the United States are cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, which are attributed to abnormal patterns of cellular behavior. MicroRNAs (miRNA have been implicated as regulators of cellular metabolism, and thus are an active topic of investigation in both disease areas. There is presently a more extensive body of work on the role of miRNAs in cancer compared to neurodegenerative diseases, and therefore it may be useful to examine whether there is any concordance between the functional roles of miRNAs in these diseases. As a case study, the roles of miRNAs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their functions in various cancers will be compared. A number of miRNA expression patterns are altered in individuals with AD compared with healthy older adults. Among these, some have also been shown to correlate with neuropathological changes including plaque and tangle accumulation, as well as expression levels of other molecules known to be involved in disease pathology. Importantly, these miRNAs have also been shown to have differential expression and or functional roles in various types of cancer. To examine possible intersections between miRNA functions in cancer and AD, we review the current literature on eight of these miRNAs in cancer and AD, focusing on their roles in known biological pathways. We propose a pathway-driven model in which some molecular processes show an inverse relationship between cancer and neurodegenerative disease (e.g., proliferation and apoptosis whereas others are more parallel in their activity (e.g., immune activation and inflammation. A critical review of these and other molecular mechanisms in cancer may shed light on the pathophysiology of AD, and highlight key areas for future research. Conclusions from this work may be extended to other neurodegenerative diseases for which some molecular pathways have been identified but which have not yet been extensively researched for mi

  8. Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    and tuberculosis), parasitic lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... Methods: A literature search on global warming and respiratory diseases was carried out through the internet .... (COPD) The main factor to consider here is.

  9. Formulaic Language in Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: Complementary Effects of Subcortical and Cortical Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Choi, JiHee; Alken, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The production of formulaic expressions (conversational speech formulas, pause fillers, idioms, and other fixed expressions) is excessive in the left hemisphere and deficient in the right hemisphere and in subcortical stroke. Speakers with Alzheimer's disease (AD), having functional basal ganglia, reveal abnormally high proportions of formulaic language. Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), having dysfunctional basal ganglia, were predicted to show impoverished formulaic expressions in contrast to speakers with AD. This study compared participants with PD, participants with AD, and healthy control (HC) participants on protocols probing production and comprehension of formulaic expressions. Method Spontaneous speech samples were recorded from 16 individuals with PD, 12 individuals with AD, and 18 HC speakers. Structured tests were then administered as probes of comprehension. Results The PD group had lower proportions of formulaic expressions compared with the AD and HC groups. Comprehension testing yielded opposite contrasts: participants with PD showed significantly higher performance compared with participants with AD and did not differ from HC participants. Conclusions The finding that PD produced lower proportions of formulaic expressions compared with AD and HC supports the view that subcortical nuclei modulate the production of formulaic expressions. Contrasting results on formal testing of comprehension, whereby participants with AD performed significantly worse than participants with PD and HC participants, indicate differential effects on procedural and declarative knowledge associated with these neurological conditions. PMID:26183940

  10. Synchronous myeloproliferative and inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: an interesting differential diagnostic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Iván; Gábor, Vass; Zsolt, Bella; László, Tiszlavicz; József, Jóri

    2009-09-01

    The authors present a case of synchronous manifestation of a myeloproliferative--extramedullary plasmocytoma--and a chronic inflammatory disease of the nose and the paranasal sinuses. They emphasise the importance of imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis. They discuss on the basis of published articles the new classification, clinical manifestations, diagnostic and therapeutical approaches of this tumour belonging to the group of monoclonal gammopathies, which originates from an abnormal proliferation of mature B-lymphocytes, and is a rarity in the literature even nowadays.

  11. Quantitative thyroid scintigraphy for the differentiation of Graves' disease and hyperthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlmann, C.O.; Siefker, U.; Lehmann, K.; Harms, E.; Conrad, M.; Meller, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the evaluation of the TCTUs in the differentiation between AIT and GD in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: We determined the TCTUs in 59 patients with untreated hyperthyroid GD and in 51 patients with AIT who had subclinical or manifest hyperthyroidism without medication. Patients with GD were characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, decreased echogenicity of the thyroid, elevation of TSH-receptor autoantibodies (TRAb). AIT was defined by a decreased echogenicity of the thyroid, absence of elevated TSH-receptor autoantibodies (TRAb), autoantibodies against the thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and spontaneous remission or development of subclinical hypothyroidism within 3 months. Results: Thyroid volumes of patients with AIT were significantly lower than those of patients with GD (p 99m TcO 4 - offered rapid and reliable differentiation between hyperthyroid GD and AIT. (orig.)

  12. Incidence of symptomatic salivary disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni E, Ignacio; Selt A, Guillermo Vander; Ruiz A, Catalina; Leon R, Augusto; Solar G, Antonieta; Orellana B, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer can produce severe and frequent salivary symptoms, during the treatment or later. Aim: To analyze the incidence, severity and characteristics of the salivary signs and symptoms in these patients. Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive anal isis of 106 patients with confirmed diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, treated with surgery and radioactive iodine, that completed a telephonic survey for the evaluation of salivary symptoms. Results: 26 (24.52%) patients presented with salivary symptoms or signs after the radioactive iodine therapy (mean 5 months). The average doses of I 131 was 128,5 mCi. Xerostomy, pain, xeroftalmy, inflammation, sialoadenitis and dysgeusia, were the most frequent clinical symptoms. Conclusions: After radioactive iodine therapy the salivary symptoms and signs incidence is high. We conclude that the indication for this treatment must be selective, but in accordance with the oncological risk of each patient

  13. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  14. Differential facilitative effects of glucose administration on Stroop task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gibson, E Leigh; Rackie, James M

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that glucose administration improves memory performance. These glucose facilitation effects have been most reliably demonstrated in medial temporal lobe tasks with the greatest effects found for cognitively demanding tasks. The aim of the proposed research was to first explore whether such effects might be demonstrated in a frontal lobe task. A second aim was to investigate whether any beneficial effects of glucose may arise more prominently under tasks of increasing cognitive demand. To achieve these aims, the Stroop Task was administered to participants and effects of a drink of glucose (25 g) were compared with an aspartame-sweetened control drink on performance in young adults. Results demonstrated that glucose ingestion significantly reduced RTs in the congruent and incongruent conditions. No effect on error rates was observed. Of most importance was the finding that this glucose facilitative effect was significantly greatest in the most cognitively demanding task, that is, the incongruent condition. The present results support the contention that the glucose facilitation effect is most robust under conditions of enhanced task difficulty and demonstrate that such benefits extend to frontal lobe function.

  15. Decreased health-related quality of life in disease-free survivors of differentiated thyroid cancer in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kwang-Won

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of long-term survivors of thyroid cancer has risen due to the rapid increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer, which generally has an excellent prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of HRQOL in disease-free survivors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC and to evaluate the important determinants of HRQOL. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which we interviewed consecutive disease-free survivors of DTC. Three different validated questionnaires ("EORTC QLQ-C30" for various functional domains, the "brief fatigue inventory (BFI" and the "hospital anxiety and depression scale" (HADS were used. Data from a large, population based survey of 1,000 people were used as a control. Results The response rate for the questionnaires was 78.9% (316/401. Disease-free survivors of DTC showed a decreased HRQOL in all five functional domains (physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social on the EORTC QLQ-C30 compared with controls (P P Conclusions Although disease-free survivors of DTC are expected to have disease-specific survival comparable to the general population, they experience a significantly decreased HRQOL. Anxiety, depression, and fatigue were the major determinants of the decreased HRQOL. Supportive psychological care should be integrated into the management of long-term survivors of DTC.

  16. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; Briesen, Hagen von; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4–21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  17. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; von Briesen, Hagen; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4-21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  18. Differential Disease Susceptibilities in Experimentally Reptarenavirus-Infected Boa Constrictors and Ball Pythons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Garcia, Valentina E.; Layton, Marylee L.; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L.; Boback, Scott M.; Keel, M. Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery. We therefore conducted a long-term challenge experiment to test the hypothesis that reptarenaviruses cause IBD. We infected boa constrictors and ball pythons by cardiac injection of purified virus. We monitored the progression of viral growth in tissues, blood, and environmental samples. Infection produced dramatically different disease outcomes in snakes of the two species. Ball pythons infected with Golden Gate virus (GoGV) and with another reptarenavirus displayed severe neurological signs within 2 months, and viral replication was detected only in central nervous system tissues. In contrast, GoGV-infected boa constrictors remained free of clinical signs for 2 years, despite high viral loads and the accumulation of large intracellular inclusions in multiple tissues, including the brain. Inflammation was associated with infection in ball pythons but not in boa constrictors. Thus, reptarenavirus infection produces inclusions and inclusion body disease, although inclusions per se are neither necessarily associated with nor required for disease. Although the natural distribution of reptarenaviruses has yet to be described, the different outcomes of infection may reflect differences in geographical origin. IMPORTANCE New DNA sequencing technologies have made it easier than ever to identify the sequences of microorganisms in diseased tissues, i

  19. The Effects of High Glucose on Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Gestational Tissue-Derived MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawan Hankamolsiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most type 2 diabetic patients are obese who have increased number of visceral adipocytes. Those visceral adipocytes release several factors that enhance insulin resistance making diabetic treatment ineffective. It is known that significant percentages of visceral adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and high glucose enhances adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs. However, the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow and gestational tissue-derived MSCs is still poorly characterized. This study aims to investigate the effects of high glucose on proliferation as well as adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs derived from bone marrow and several gestational tissues including chorion, placenta, and umbilical cord. We found that high glucose reduced proliferation but enhanced adipogenic differentiation of all MSCs examined. The expression levels of some adipogenic genes were also upregulated when MSCs were cultured in high glucose. Although high glucose transiently downregulated the expression levels of some osteogenic genes examined, its effect on the osteogenic differentiation levels of the MSCs is not clearly demonstrated. The knowledge gained from this study will increase our understanding about the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and might lead to an improvement in the diabetic treatment in the future.

  20. Differential effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Simmler, Linda D; Crockett, Molly J; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition is important in everyday-life social interactions. The social cognitive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate (both used for neuroenhancement and as party drugs) are largely unknown. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA (75 mg), methylphenidate (40 mg) and placebo using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task, Multifaceted Empathy Test, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Social Value Orientation Test and the Moral Judgment Task in a cross-over study in 30 healthy subjects. Additionally, subjective, autonomic, pharmacokinetic, endocrine and adverse drug effects were measured. MDMA enhanced emotional empathy for positive emotionally charged situations in the MET and tended to reduce the recognition of sad faces in the Facial Emotion Recognition Task. MDMA had no effects on cognitive empathy in the Multifaceted Empathy Test or social cognitive inferences in the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. MDMA produced subjective 'empathogenic' effects, such as drug liking, closeness to others, openness and trust. In contrast, methylphenidate lacked such subjective effects and did not alter emotional processing, empathy or mental perspective-taking. MDMA but not methylphenidate increased the plasma levels of oxytocin and prolactin. None of the drugs influenced moral judgment. Effects on emotion recognition and emotional empathy were evident at a low dose of MDMA and likely contribute to the popularity of the drug. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  2. [Intestinal cleaning for colonoscopy in children: effectiveness, adherence and adverse effects of schemes differentiated by age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Isabel; Arancibia, María Eugenia; Alliende, Francisco; Ríos, Gloria; Rodríguez, Lorena; Lucero, Yalda; Saelzer, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Adequate intestinal cleanliness is crucial to achieve optimal colonoscopy performance. Several bowel preparation (BP) schemes have been proposed, but there is still no consensus as regards which is the most suitable in paediatric patients. To describe the effectiveness, adherence, and adverse effects of BP protocols differentiated by age group in paediatric patients subjected to colonoscopy. Prospective, study that included patients PEG 3350 without electrolytes); 4y-9y 11 m (PEG 3350 without electrolytes + bisacodyl); 10 y-18 y (PEG 3350 with electrolytes). Demographic, clinical information, adherence and adverse effects were registered. Effectiveness was determined using a validated scale (Boston modified) during colonoscopy. A total of 159 patients were included, of which 87 (55%) were males, and with a median age of 4 years (range 1 m-17 years). Seventy eight percent of patients achieved successful BP. The higher effectiveness was observed in the groups of < 6 m (96%) and 10-18 y (91%). Constipation was significantly more frequent (29%) in the 4 yo-9 yo 11 m in which lower effectiveness was observed (69%). Good adherence was observed in 87% of patients. Adverse effects were observed in a third of patients, although they were mild and did not lead to the suspension of the BP. Satisfactory results were achieved with the BP schemes used, with a successful BP being obtained in 4 out of 5 patients. Results were different between groups, which is probably related to previous bowel transit and indicated medication.

  3. How we developed, at the Centre/Institute for Neuromuscular Diseases, differential diagnostics of Spinal Muscle Atrophies / Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (SMA/ALS) and tried to influence the development of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jušić, Anica

    2014-10-01

    In our research, we placed the emphasis on delimiting fatal diseases against those that have some similar symptoms, but can be improved, even completely cured. More often we succeeded in differentiating the local compressive factor. In our search for early symptoms, we also found physiological, although quite unusual EMG phenomena. High amplitude neural potentials confirmed the malignant disease diagnosis. The spinal angiography discovered arterial pathology, while CT demonstrated localised hydromyelia. Amyotrophic syndromes caused by chronic led intoxications represented a separate group. Patients would recover significantly on d-penicillamine. We applied it successfully in amyotrophic syndromes with laboratory confirmed copper metabolism disorders. A very significant therapeutic effect was obtained in a patient with SMA without similar laboratory, even in recidivism. Exceptionally, we were able to achieve significant remission with corticosteroids, too. The remaining patients, differentiated as certainly fatal, represented a separate group. We tried to elaborate the special psychosocial and ethical problems connected with its outcome in "round table discussions". The first one was in 1989, at the workshop with King Engel, and the second in 1990, on the Fourth Yugoslav Symposium on Neuromuscular Diseases. In 1990, I visited Cicely Saunders and the St. Christopher's hospice in London, and in 1994 I started to organised hospice movement in Croatia.

  4. Effect of cell density on adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hongxu; Guo, Likun; Wozniak, Michal J.; Kawazoe, Naoki; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Zhang, Xingdong; Chen, Guoping

    2009-01-01

    The effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was investigated by using a patterning technique to induce the formation of a cell density gradient on a micropatterned surface. The adipogenic differentiation of MSCs at a density gradient from 5 x 10 3 to 3 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 was examined. Lipid vacuoles were observed at all cell densities after 1-3 weeks of culture in adipogenic differentiation medium although the lipid vacuoles were scarce at the low cell density and abundant at the high cell density. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that adipogenesis marker genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) were detected in the MSCs cultured at all cell densities. The results suggest that there was no apparent effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs.

  5. Gallium scanning in differentiating malignant from benign asbestos-related pleural disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teirstein, A.S.; Chahinian, P.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Sorek, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the utility of 67gallium citrate in delineating malignant pleural mesothelioma from benign asbestos-related pleural disease, 49 patients with malignant mesothelioma and 16 with benign asbestos-related pleural disease were studied. Seven patients with malignant mesothelioma had no history of asbestos exposure, while the remaining 58 patients were exposed. Forty-three of the 49 patients (88%) with malignant mesothelioma had a positive 67gallium scan including 36 of the 42 (86%) patients with asbestos exposure and all 7 patients without a history of asbestos exposure. Three of 16 patients (19%) with benign asbestos-related pleural disease had a positive scan. 67Gallium radionuclide imaging is nonspecific but may be valuable in noninvasive monitoring of asbestos-exposed populations, which have a high risk for the late development of benign and/or malignant pleural disease

  6. Differential glucose metabolism in mice and humans affected by McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L

    2016-01-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is a disease caused by myophosphorylase deficiency leading to "blocked" glycogen breakdown. A significant but varying glycogen accumulation in especially distal hind limb muscles of mice affected by McArdle disease has recently been demonstrated......, which could lead to lower glycogen accumulation. In comparison, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and soleus had massive glycogen accumulation, but few, if any, changes or adaptations in glucose metabolism compared with wild-type mice. The findings suggest plasticity in glycogen metabolism....... In this study, we investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects glucose metabolism in hind limb muscle of 20-wk-old McArdle mice and vastus lateralis muscles from patients with McArdle disease. Western blot analysis and activity assay demonstrated that glycogen synthase was inhibited in glycolytic muscle...

  7. X-ray diagnostic sign for the differentiation of neurogenic and primary muscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.; Gallai, M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors give an account of X-ray examinations of the limb musculature of 70 patients suffering from neurogenic muscular diseases, 42 suffering from primary muscular diseases and 45 suffering from senile degeneration of the muscles. Different degree of damage to different parts of the same muscle could only been observed in one case of neurogenic atrophy (in the postpoliomyelitic states) and in two cases of senile degeneration, while it was found in 11 cases (20%) for the other muscular diseases. In the latter cases the more severe muscle damage, which could be demonstrated radiographically, was always found in the part of the muscle adjacent to a tendon. On the above reasons the authors consider that radiographically demonstrable partial or uneven damage to any particular muscle can be used as a new diagnostical information in distinguishing muscular diseases from neurogenic muscular atrophy. (orig.) [de

  8. Differential effects of collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation on skeletal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica P Homan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the genes encoding cartilage associated protein (CRTAP and prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1 encoded by LEPRE1 were the first identified causes of recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI. These proteins, together with cyclophilin B (encoded by PPIB, form a complex that 3-hydroxylates a single proline residue on the α1(I chain (Pro986 and has cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity essential for proper collagen folding. Recent data suggest that prolyl 3-hydroxylation of Pro986 is not required for the structural stability of collagen; however, the absence of this post-translational modification may disrupt protein-protein interactions integral for proper collagen folding and lead to collagen over-modification. P3H1 and CRTAP stabilize each other and absence of one results in degradation of the other. Hence, hypomorphic or loss of function mutations of either gene cause loss of the whole complex and its associated functions. The relative contribution of losing this complex's 3-hydroxylation versus PPIase and collagen chaperone activities to the phenotype of recessive OI is unknown. To distinguish between these functions, we generated knock-in mice carrying a single amino acid substitution in the catalytic site of P3h1 (Lepre1(H662A . This substitution abolished P3h1 activity but retained ability to form a complex with Crtap and thus the collagen chaperone function. Knock-in mice showed absence of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at Pro986 of the α1(I and α1(II collagen chains but no significant over-modification at other collagen residues. They were normal in appearance, had no growth defects and normal cartilage growth plate histology but showed decreased trabecular bone mass. This new mouse model recapitulates elements of the bone phenotype of OI but not the cartilage and growth phenotypes caused by loss of the prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex. Our observations suggest differential tissue consequences due to selective inactivation of P3H1 hydroxylase

  9. The role of diffusion weighted MR imaging for differentiation between Graves' disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, T; Bozgeyik, Z; Ozturk, F; Burakgazi, G; Akyol, M; Coskun, S; Ozkan, Y; Ogur, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) for differentation between Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Fifty patients (27 Graves diseases and 23 Hashimoto thyroiditis) and twenty healthy volunteers were examined using T1, T2 and DWMRI. The patients were diagnosed on the basis of physical findings and the results of thyroid function tests and serological tests. Circular ROIs were positioned on the bilateral thyroid lobes and isthmus. All measurements were repeated three different b values including 100, 600 and 1000 s/mm2 in all cases. ADC (Apparent diffusion coefficient) maps were calculated automatically with the MR system. Mean ADC values were 2.93 × 10-3, 1.97 × 10-3 and 1.62 × 10-3 mm2/s in the healthy volunteers; 3.47 × 10-3, 2.25 × 10-3 and 1.64 × 10-3 mm2/s in Graves' disease; 2.53 × 10-3, 1.76 × 10-3, 1.28 × 10-3 mm2/s in Hashimoto thyroiditis for b100, b600 and b1000, respectively. The ADC values of the Graves diseases were higher than healty volunteers and Hashimoto thyroiditis. ADC values were statistically significant for differentation between Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease all b values (p Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease.

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of IgA expression differentiates IgG4-related disease from plasma cell-type Castleman disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Akihiro; Igawa, Takuro; Takeuchi, Mai; Gion, Yuka; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2017-03-01

    Plasma cell-type Castleman disease (PCD) is often encountered when differentiating IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Given that serum IgA is often elevated in Castleman disease, we investigated whether IgA expression levels in histological specimens can be used to differentiate between the two diseases. Lymph node lesions obtained from 12 IgG4-RD and 11 PCD patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry with anti-IgG, -IgG4, and -IgA antibodies. In addition to all 12 cases of IgG4-RD, 8/11 cases (72.7 %) of PCD also met the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD (serum IgG4 ≥135 mg/dl and IgG4/IgG-positive cells ≥40 %). IgA-positive cells were sparsely and densely distributed in IgG4-RD and PCD cases, respectively. The median number of IgA-positive cells ± SD in all 12 cases of IgG4-RD was 31 ± 37 cells per three high-powered fields (3HPFs) (range 4-118 cells/3HPFs). In contrast, the median number of IgA-positive cells, which was significantly higher in all 11 cases of PCD, was 303 ± 238 cells/3HPFs (range 74-737 cells/3HPFs) (P IgG4-RD.

  11. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using Tc-99m Citrate and Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J.; Guo, R.; Li, S.-J.; Ren, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: For the evaluation of bone metastases in patients (pts) with cancer, 99mTcMDP bone scintigraphy is an important tool, but some limitations exist. One of these is the differential diagnosis of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease. The aim of this study was to differentiate them using 99mTcCitrate and 99mTcMDP scintigraphy. Methods: 39 pts (92 lesions) with known malignant or degenerative benign bone disease were studied. 23 pts had malignant bone disease (48 lesions, group 1), the other 16 pts had degenerative benign bone disease (44 lesions, group2), for which the results of 99mTcMDP scintigraphy were positive. In both groups, 99mTcCitrate scintigraphy was performed within a time interval of 2-7 days after 99mTcMDP scintigraphy (555∼740MBq. static, 3hr, planar or SPECT i m a g e s w h e n r e q u i r e d ) . The 99mTccitrate/99mTcMDP lesion-to-background radioisotope uptake ratio (RUR) was calculated for each lesion. Conventional techniques (histopathology, X-ray, CT, MRI and clinical follow up) were considered to be proof of the presence of bone metastases and degenerative benign bone disease. Results: Uptake of 99mTcMDP in the two groups is the same (1.96±0.25 vs. 1.87±0.21; t=1.178, P>0.20), while in 99mTcCitrate image, malignant lesions demonstrated a higher uptake of lesion activity than that of benign degenerative lesions (1.47±0.42 vs. 1.09±0.38; t=2.887, P<0.01). The mean 99mTccitrate/99mTcMDP RUR in the malignant group was significantly higher than the mean in the benign group (0.78±0.21 vs. 0.54±0.19; t=3.646, P<0.001). Conclusions: The preliminary results of the study confirm the usefulness and feasibility of 99mTcCitrate scintigraphy for differentiating malignant from benign degenerative lesions seen as areas of increased activity on 99mTcMDP bone scintigraphy. (author)

  12. Chinese Traditionality Matters: Effects of Differentiated Empowering Leadership on Followers’ Trust in Leaders and Work Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S-L; Huo, Y; Long, L-R

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of the integrative model of organizational trust, this study proposes a multi-level model for whether, how, and when differentiated empowering leadership influences followers’ trust in leaders and their work outcomes. Drawing on a sample of 372 followers from 97 teams in China, it was found that the negative effect of differentiated empowering leadership on followers’ trust in leaders became salient when followers’ Chinese traditionality was low. Moreover, followers’ trus...

  13. The different effect of consumer learning on incentives to differentiate in Cournot and Bertrand competition

    OpenAIRE

    Conze, Maximilian; Kramm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We combine two extensions of the differentiated duopoly model of Dixit (1979), namely Caminal and Vives (1996) and Brander and Spencer (2015a,b), to analyze the effect of consumer learning on firms' incentives to differentiate their products in models of Cournot and Bertrand competition. Products are of different quality, consumers buy sequentially and are imperfectly informed about the quality of the goods. Before simultaneously competing in quantities, firms simultaneously choose their inve...

  14. How to differentiate acute pelvic inflammatory disease from acute appendicitis? A decision tree based on CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hentour, Kim; Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emmanuelle; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice [Lapeyronie Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier (France); Molinari, Nicolas [UMR 5149 IMAG, CHU, Department of Medical Information and Statistics, Montpellier (France)

    2018-02-15

    To construct a decision tree based on CT findings to differentiate acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from acute appendicitis (AA) in women with lower abdominal pain and inflammatory syndrome. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was waived. Contrast-enhanced CT studies of 109 women with acute PID and 218 age-matched women with AA were retrospectively and independently reviewed by two radiologists to identify CT findings predictive of PID or AA. Surgical and laboratory data were used for the PID and AA reference standard. Appropriate tests were performed to compare PID and AA and a CT decision tree using the classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm was generated. The median patient age was 28 years (interquartile range, 22-39 years). According to the decision tree, an appendiceal diameter ≥ 7 mm was the most discriminating criterion for differentiating acute PID and AA, followed by a left tubal diameter ≥ 10 mm, with a global accuracy of 98.2 % (95 % CI: 96-99.4). Appendiceal diameter and left tubal thickening are the most discriminating CT criteria for differentiating acute PID from AA. (orig.)

  15. How to differentiate acute pelvic inflammatory disease from acute appendicitis? A decision tree based on CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hentour, Kim; Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emmanuelle; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice; Molinari, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    To construct a decision tree based on CT findings to differentiate acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from acute appendicitis (AA) in women with lower abdominal pain and inflammatory syndrome. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was waived. Contrast-enhanced CT studies of 109 women with acute PID and 218 age-matched women with AA were retrospectively and independently reviewed by two radiologists to identify CT findings predictive of PID or AA. Surgical and laboratory data were used for the PID and AA reference standard. Appropriate tests were performed to compare PID and AA and a CT decision tree using the classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm was generated. The median patient age was 28 years (interquartile range, 22-39 years). According to the decision tree, an appendiceal diameter ≥ 7 mm was the most discriminating criterion for differentiating acute PID and AA, followed by a left tubal diameter ≥ 10 mm, with a global accuracy of 98.2 % (95 % CI: 96-99.4). Appendiceal diameter and left tubal thickening are the most discriminating CT criteria for differentiating acute PID from AA. (orig.)

  16. Application of disease-associated differentially expressed genes – Mining for functional candidate genes for mastitis resistance in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwerin Manfred

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the mRNA differential display method was applied to identify mastitis-associated expressed DNA sequences based on different expression patterns in mammary gland samples of non-infected and infected udder quarters of a cow. In total, 704 different cDNA bands were displayed in both udder samples. Five hundred-and-thirty two bands, (75.6% were differentially displayed. Ninety prominent cDNA bands were isolated, re-amplified, cloned and sequenced resulting in 87 different sequences. Amongst the 19 expressed sequence tags showing a similarity with previously described genes, the majority of these sequences exhibited homology to protein kinase encoding genes (26.3%, to genes involved in the regulation of gene expression (26.3%, to growth and differentiation factor encoding genes (21.0% and to immune response or inflammation marker encoding genes (21.0%. These sequences were shown to have mastitis-associated expression in the udder samples of animals with and without clinical mastitis by quantitative RT-PCR. They were mapped physically using a bovine-hamster somatic cell hybrid panel and a 5000 rad bovine whole genome radiation hybrid panel. According to their localization in QTL regions based on an established integrated marker/gene-map and their disease-associated expression, four genes (AHCY, PRKDC, HNRPU, OSTF1 were suggested as potentially involved in mastitis defense.

  17. Korean Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (K-ACER) for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yong Tae; Yang, Youngsoon; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2010-10-01

    Sensitive, specific neuropsychological screening tests, such as the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R), are essential for dementia diagnosis. We aimed to validate the use of the Korean version of ACE-R (K-ACER) to differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Standard tests for dementia screening were applied to 156 subjects (84 controls, 30 AD, 42 SIVD), and total and sub-domain scores on the K-ACER, as well as the sub-domain ratio (VLOM), were compared. The reliability of the K-ACER was very good (α-coefficient 0.84), and cut-off score for dementia was determined (cut-off value 78, sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.95). The likelihood ratio for dementia was calculated as between 78 and 82. At a cut-off of 78, the likelihood of dementia was 18.6:1. Although a comparison of K-ACER scores between AD and SIVD patients revealed significant differences in verbal fluency, language domain and VLOM ratio, sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis between AD and SVID proved less accurate. The K-ACER is a rapid, sensitive and specific dementia screening test. Though sub-domains of items may be useful for differentiating between AD and SIVD, sensitivity and specificity is less accurate than dementia screening itself. © 2010 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Accuracy of neuropsychological tests and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in differential diagnosis between Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Santoro Bahia

    Full Text Available Abstract The differential diagnosis between frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD is sometimes difficult. Objectives: To verify the accuracy of neuropsychological tests and a behavioral disorders scale in the differential diagnosis between FTLD and AD. Methods: Retrospective data on 12 FTD patients and 12 probable AD patients were analyzed. The scores on neuropsychological tests (MMSE score, reverse digit span, delayed recall for drawings, semantic fluency of animals and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in both groups were compared. Results: Both groups had similar performance on neuropsychological tests. All FTD patients and 50% of AD patients had neuropsychiatric abnormalities. The NPI score was 58.0±19.3 for the FTD patients, and 3.6±4.7 for the AD patients (p<0.01. Using a NPI cut-off score of 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% in this sample. The four most common neuropsychiatric disturbances in FTD patients were: apathy, aberrant motor behavior, disinhibition and eating abnormalities. Apathy and dysphoria/depression were the most common behavioral symptoms among the AD patients. Conclusions: In this study, NPI was found to be a useful tool for the differential diagnosis between FTD and AD. The neuropsychological tests commonly used in the medical office were unable to distinguish between the two groups.

  19. Insight into podocyte differentiation from the study of human genetic disease: nail-patella syndrome and transcriptional regulation in podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Roy; Lee, Brendan

    2002-05-01

    In recent years, our understanding of the molecular basis of kidney development has benefited from the study of rare genetic diseases affecting renal function. This has especially been the case with the differentiation of the highly specialized podocyte in the pathogenesis of human disorders and mouse phenotypes affecting the renal filtration barrier. This filtration barrier represents the end product of a complex series of signaling events that produce a tripartite structure consisting of interdigitating podocyte foot processes with intervening slit diaphragms, the glomerular basement membrane, and the fenestrated endothelial cell. Dysregulation of unique cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins in genetic forms of nephrotic syndrome has shown how specific structural proteins contribute to podocyte function and differentiation. However, much less is known about the transcriptional determinants that both specify and maintain this differentiated cell. Our studies of a skeletal malformation syndrome, nail-patella syndrome, have shown how the LIM homeodomain transcription factor, Lmx1b, contributes to transcriptional regulation of glomerular basement membrane collagen expression by podocytes. Moreover, they raise intriguing questions about more global transcriptional regulation of podocyte morphogenesis.

  20. Differential Effects of Naja naja atra Venom on Immune Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qun Kou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Naja naja atra venom (NNAV inhibited inflammation and adjuvant arthritis. Here we investigated the role of NNAV in regulation of immune responses in mice. Oral administration of NNAV to normal mice showed significant increase in natural killer cell activity, B lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by lipopolysaccharides, and antibody production in response to sheep red blood cells. Meanwhile, NNAV markedly decreased T lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A, arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, and suppressed CD4 and CD8 T cell divisions. Furthermore, NNAV inhibited the dinitrofluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. This modulation of immune responses may be partly attributed to the selective increase in Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4 secretion and inhibition of Th17 cytokine (IL-17 production. In dexamethasone-induced immunosuppressed mice, NNAV restored the concentration of serum IgG and IgM, while decreasing the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. These results indicate that NNAV enhances the innate and humoral immune responses while inhibiting CD4 Th17 and CD8 T cell actions, suggesting that NNAV could be a potential therapeutic agent for autoimmune diseases.

  1. Differential Effects of Leptin and Adiponectin in Endothelial Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Adya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health burden with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. In relation to this, adipose tissue secreted factors termed “adipokines” have been reported to modulate endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on two of the most abundant circulating adipokines, that is, leptin and adiponectin, in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Leptin has been documented to influence a multitude of organ systems, that is, central nervous system (appetite regulation, satiety factor and cardiovascular system (endothelial dysfunction leading to atherosclerosis. Adiponectin, circulating at a much higher concentration, exists in different molecular weight forms, essentially made up of the collagenous fraction and a globular domain, the latter being investigated minimally for its involvement in proinflammatory processes including activation of NF-κβ and endothelial adhesion molecules. The opposing actions of the two forms of adiponectin in endothelial cells have been recently demonstrated. Additionally, a local and systemic change to multimeric forms of adiponectin has gained importance. Thus detailed investigations on the potential interplay between these adipokines would likely result in better understanding of the missing links connecting CVD, adipokines, and obesity.

  2. Do Some Schools Narrow the Gap? Differential School Effectiveness Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little research has explored whether schools differ in their effectiveness for different group of pupils (e.g. by ethnicity, poverty or gender), for different curriculum subjects (e.g. English, mathematics or science) or over time (different cohorts). This paper uses multilevel modelling to analyse the national test results at age 7 and…

  3. Differential effect of opioids in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staahl, Camilla; Dimcevski, Georg; Andersen, Søren Due

    2007-01-01

    and morphine on experimental pain in patients with pain caused by chronic pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients took part in this blinded, cross-over study. The analgesic effects of morphine (30 mg, oral), oxycodone (15 mg, oral) and placebo were tested against multimodal (mechanical, thermal...

  4. Differential effects of active and passive coping on secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, JA; de Geus, E.J.C.; Kelder, A.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Hoogstraten, J.; van Nieuw Amerongen, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the acute immunological effects of two laboratory stressors, expected to evoke distinct patterns of cardiac autonomic activity; namely an "active coping" time-paced memory test, and a "passive coping" stressful video showing surgical operations. We measured salivary S-IgA,

  5. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  6. Differential Effects of Learning Games on Mathematics Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Evans, Michael A.; Kim, Sunha; Norton, Anderson; Samur, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a learning game, [The Math App] on the mathematics proficiency of middle school students. For the study, researchers recruited 306 students, Grades 6-8, from two schools in rural southwest Virginia. Over a nine-week period, [The Math App] was deployed as an intervention for investigation. Students were assigned…

  7. Application of convolutional artificial neural networks to echocardiograms for differentiating congenital heart diseases in a pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Douglas P.; Bueno, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Andrea; Marx, Gerald R.; del Nido, Pedro J.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we describe a pilot study, where machine learning methods are used to differentiate between congenital heart diseases. Our approach was to apply convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to echocardiographic images from five different pediatric populations: normal, coarctation of the aorta (CoA), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and single ventricle (SV). We used a single network topology that was trained in a pairwise fashion in order to evaluate the potential to differentiate between patient populations. In total we used 59,151 echo frames drawn from 1,666 clinical sequences. Approximately 80% of the data was used for training, and the remainder for validation. Data was split at sequence boundaries to avoid having related images in the training and validation sets. While training was done with echo images/frames, evaluation was performed for both single frame discrimination as well as sequence discrimination (by majority voting). In total 10 networks were generated and evaluated. Unlike other domains where this network topology has been used, in ultrasound there is low visual variation between classes. This work shows the potential for CNNs to be applied to this low-variation domain of medical imaging for disease discrimination.

  8. Skeletal diseases. Diagnostic clinical radiology and differential diagnostics. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1997-01-01

    The book focuses on the diagnostic evaluation of idiopathic diseases of the skeleton and bone joints, also including the fundamental healing processes of bone fractures, particularly of stress-induced and pathologic fractures. Ample space has been given to the description and imaging of the course of diseases under treatment by up-to-date therapies, as e.g. for ostitis deformans Paget's disease, or skeletal metastases. This second edition of the book incorporates the progress achieved over the last five years in skeletal diagnostics. The advances in this field have been resulting from basic research work, for instance in molecular biology, or from a variety of completed studies relating to clinical medicine, laboratory chemistry, histopathology and radiology of skeletal diseases, and from experience obtained with the diagnostic radiology methods and techniques, with the potentials and constraints of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) today being more critically assessed than five years ago. MRI is a modality currently meeting with interest in the context of search for additional diagnostic information, new definition of complete pictures of diseases, or false or overinterpretation of diagnostic findings. (orig./MG). 431 figs [de

  9. Critical appraisal of the differential effects of antihypertensive agents on arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Kum

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Kum, Janaka KarallieddeUnit for Metabolic Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Kings College-Waterloo Campus, King’s College London, United KingdomAbstract: Increased central arterial stiffness, involving accelerated vascular ageing of the aorta, is a powerful and independent risk factor for early mortality and provides prognostic information above and beyond traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Central arterial stiffness is an important determinant of pulse pressure; therefore, any pathological increase may result in left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired coronary perfusion. Central artery stiffness can be assessed noninvasively by measurement of aortic pulse wave velocity, which is the gold standard for measurement of arterial stiffness. Earlier, it was believed that changes in arterial stiffness, which are primarily influenced by long-term pressure-dependent structural changes, may be slowed but not reversed by pharmacotherapy. Recent studies with drugs that inhibit the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, advanced glycation end products crosslink breakers, and endothelin antagonists suggest that blood pressure (BP-independent reduction and reversal of arterial stiffness are feasible. We review the recent literature on the differential effect of antihypertensive agents either as monotherapy or combination therapy on arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness is an emerging therapeutic target for CVD risk reduction; however, further clinical trials are required to confirm whether BP-independent changes in arterial stiffness directly translate to a reduction in CVD events.Keywords: aortic pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, blood pressure, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system

  10. Differential effects of gemfibrozil and fenofibrate on reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages to feces in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotllan, Noemí; Llaverías, Gemma; Julve, Josep; Jauhiainen, Matti; Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2011-02-01

    Gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, two of the fibrates most used in clinical practice, raise HDL cholesterol (HDLc) and are thought to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. These drugs act as PPARα agonists and upregulate the expression of genes crucial in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In the present study, we determined the effects of these two fibrates on RCT from macrophages to feces in vivo in human apoA-I transgenic (hApoA-ITg) mice. [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled mouse macrophages were injected intraperitoneally into hApoA-ITg mice treated with intragastric doses of fenofibrate, gemfibrozil or a vehicle solution for 17days, and radioactivity was determined in plasma, liver and feces. Fenofibrate, but not gemfibrozil, enhanced [(3)H]cholesterol flux to plasma and feces of female hApoA-ITg mice. Fenofibrate significantly increased plasma HDLc, HDL phospholipids, hApoA-I levels and phospholipid transfer protein activity, whereas these parameters were not altered by gemfibrozil treatment. Unlike gemfibrozil, fenofibrate also induced the generation of larger HDL particles, which were more enriched in cholesteryl esters, together with higher potential to generate preβ-HDL formation and caused a significant increase in [(3)H]cholesterol efflux to plasma. Our findings demonstrate that fenofibrate promotes RCT from macrophages to feces in vivo and, thus, highlight a differential action of this fibrate on HDL. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of pox and pox-like diseases in dromedary Camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Abdelmalik I; Al-Busada, Khalid A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M

    2015-07-07

    Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. Three distinct viruses may cause them: camelpox virus (CMLV), camel parapox virus (CPPV) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (CdPV). These diseases are often difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost-and timesaving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a multiplex PCR assay able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets and was validated with viral genomic DNA extracted from known virus strains (n = 14) and DNA extracted from homogenized clinical skin specimens (n = 86). The assay detects correctly the target pathogens by amplification of targeted genes, even in case of co-infection. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. This assay provide rapid, sensitive and specific method for identifying three important viruses in specimens collected from dromedary camels with varying clinical presentations.

  12. Data set of interactomes and metabolic pathways of proteins differentially expressed in brains with Alzheimer׳s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Minjarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer׳s disease is one of the main causes of dementia in the elderly and its frequency is on the rise worldwide. It is considered the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, being many of them unknown. Therefore, there is a dire necessity for the identification of novel molecular players for the understanding of this disease. In this data article we determined the protein expression profiles of whole protein extracts from cortex regions of brains from patients with Alzheimer׳s disease in comparison to a normal brain. We identified 721 iTRAQ-labeled polypeptides with more than 95% in confidence. We analyzed all proteins that changed in their expression level and located them in the KEGG metabolic pathways, as well as in the mitochondrial complexes of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase. In addition, we analyzed the over- and sub-expressed polypeptides through IPA software, specifically Core I and Biomarkers I modules. Data in this article is related to the research article “Identification of proteins that are differentially expressed in brains with Alzheimer’s disease using iTRAQ labeling and tandem mass spectrometry” (Minjarez et al., 2016 [1].

  13. Radiomics-based differentiation of lung disease models generated by polluted air based on X-ray computed tomography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigeti, Krisztián; Szabó, Tibor; Korom, Csaba; Czibak, Ilona; Horváth, Ildikó; Veres, Dániel S; Gyöngyi, Zoltán; Karlinger, Kinga; Bergmann, Ralf; Pócsik, Márta; Budán, Ferenc; Máthé, Domokos

    2016-02-11

    Lung diseases (resulting from air pollution) require a widely accessible method for risk estimation and early diagnosis to ensure proper and responsive treatment. Radiomics-based fractal dimension analysis of X-ray computed tomography attenuation patterns in chest voxels of mice exposed to different air polluting agents was performed to model early stages of disease and establish differential diagnosis. To model different types of air pollution, BALBc/ByJ mouse groups were exposed to cigarette smoke combined with ozone, sulphur dioxide gas and a control group was established. Two weeks after exposure, the frequency distributions of image voxel attenuation data were evaluated. Specific cut-off ranges were defined to group voxels by attenuation. Cut-off ranges were binarized and their spatial pattern was associated with calculated fractal dimension, then abstracted by the fractal dimension -- cut-off range mathematical function. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis (KW) and Mann-Whitney post hoc (MWph) tests were used. Each cut-off range versus fractal dimension function plot was found to contain two distinctive Gaussian curves. The ratios of the Gaussian curve parameters are considerably significant and are statistically distinguishable within the three exposure groups. A new radiomics evaluation method was established based on analysis of the fractal dimension of chest X-ray computed tomography data segments. The specific attenuation patterns calculated utilizing our method may diagnose and monitor certain lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, tuberculosis or lung carcinomas.

  14. Differential Muscle Involvement in Mice and Humans Affected by McArdle Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L

    2016-01-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings...... to those in McArdle disease patients. Muscle contractions in the McArdle mice were affected by structural degeneration due to glycogen accumulation, and glycolytic muscles fatigued prematurely, as occurs in the muscles of McArdle disease patients. Homozygous McArdle mice showed muscle fiber disarray...... no substitution for the missing muscle isoform. In the mice, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were invariably more damaged than the quadriceps muscles. This may relate to a 7-fold higher level of myophosphorylase in TA compared to quadriceps in wild-type mice and suggests higher glucose turnover in the TA. Thus...

  15. Differential effects of cognitive inhibition and intelligence on creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Mathias; Franz, Fabiola; Heene, Moritz; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2012-01-01

    There are different conceptions about how cognitive inhibition is related to creativity. Creativity has either been associated with effective inhibition, or with disinhibition, or with an adaptive engagement of inhibition. In this study, we examined the relationship of cognitive inhibition, assessed by means of the random motor generation task, with different measures of creativity. We also analyzed whether this relation is mediated by intelligence. We generally found a positive correlation o...

  16. The effects of female status on sex differentiated mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Fhionna R.

    2007-01-01

    Mate preferences provide an opportunity to explore the validity of evolutionary and social role origin theories of sex differences in human behaviour. In evolutionary models, preferences are sex-specific adaptive responses to constraints to reproductive success. In social role models, sex differences arise from the allocation of men and women to different gender roles. I explored the effects of the status of women on preferences to assess the validity of the origin theories....

  17. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Herweg, Nora A.; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy whe...

  18. Effects of differentiated music on cycling time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H B T; Atkinson, G; Karageorghis, C I; Eubank, M R; Eubank, M M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of music introduced and removed during a 10-km cycling time trial with reference to Rejeski's parallel processing theory and Karageorghis, Terry and Lane's conceptual framework for the prediction of responses to asynchronous music during sub-maximal exercise. A range of performance variables, ratings of perceived exertion, positive affect, negative affect, and blood lactate were assessed. Eleven males (mean age=24.9, s=6.1 years) completed a 10-km time trial under three conditions; no music, music played initially then removed between 5-10 km, and music played between 5-10 km only. Variables of time, power, cadence, speed, RPE, blood lactate, positive and negative affect were analysed using a ConditionxDistance ANOVA. There was no significant main effect for music conditions for the performance variables, perceived exertion, blood lactate, and affect (p>0.05). Nevertheless, a significant interaction effect for ConditionxDistance was found for cycling speed, with participants cycling 1-1.25 km/h faster at the start of the music introduced time trial than in both the music removed and no music time trials (pmusic during exercise and this finding can be used to extend current theory as it does not specifically address the periodic use music. The fact that participants exercised harder when they expected music to be introduced at a later stage illustrates the behavioural influences that music can engender during self-paced exercise.

  19. Maternal age, birth order, and race: differential effects on birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Edwards, Sharon; Gelfand, Alan; James, Sherman A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies examining the influence of maternal age and birth order on birthweight have not effectively disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42 weeks’ gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education, marital status, tobacco use and race. Results Mean birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001), but only age less than 25 years was a significant contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals, p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the largest incremental increase from first to second births. Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. Conclusion Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with signficantly different effects across racial subgroups. PMID:21081308

  20. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  1. Genetics of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease and Its Differential Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is a hepatorenal fibrocystic disorder that is characterized by enlarged kidneys with progressive loss of renal function and biliary duct dilatation and congenital hepatic fibrosis that leads to portal hypertension in some patients. Mutations in the PKHD1 gene are the primary cause of ARPKD; however, the disease is genetically not as homogeneous as long thought and mutations in several other cystogenes can phenocopy ARPKD. The family history usually is negative, both for recessive, but also often for dominant disease genes due to de novo arisen mutations or recessive inheritance of variants in genes that usually follow dominant patterns such as the main ADPKD genes PKD1 and PKD2. Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of polycystic kidney disease (PKD. A reduced dosage of disease proteins leads to the disruption of signaling pathways underlying key mechanisms involved in cellular homeostasis, which may help to explain the accelerated and severe clinical progression of disease course in some PKD patients. A comprehensive knowledge of disease-causing genes is essential for counseling and to avoid genetic misdiagnosis, which is particularly important in the prenatal setting (e.g., preimplantation genetic diagnosis/PGD. For ARPKD, there is a strong demand for early and reliable prenatal diagnosis, which is only feasible by molecular genetic analysis. A clear genetic diagnosis is helpful for many families and improves the clinical management of patients. Unnecessary and invasive measures can be avoided and renal and extrarenal comorbidities early be detected in the clinical course. The increasing number of genes that have to be considered benefit from the advances of next-generation sequencing (NGS which allows simultaneous analysis of a large group of genes in a single test at relatively low cost and has become the mainstay for genetic diagnosis. The broad phenotypic and genetic

  2. Disease-associated extracellular loop mutations in the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G1 (ADGRG1; GPR56) differentially regulate downstream signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Ayush; Hall, Randy A

    2017-06-09

    Mutations to the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor ADGRG1 (G1; also known as GPR56) underlie the neurological disorder bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. Disease-associated mutations in G1 studied to date are believed to induce complete loss of receptor function through disruption of either receptor trafficking or signaling activity. Given that N-terminal truncation of G1 and other adhesion G protein-coupled receptors has been shown to significantly increase the receptors' constitutive signaling, we examined two different bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria-inducing extracellular loop mutations (R565W and L640R) in the context of both full-length and N-terminally truncated (ΔNT) G1. Interestingly, we found that these mutations reduced surface expression of full-length G1 but not G1-ΔNT in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, the mutations ablated receptor-mediated activation of serum response factor luciferase, a classic measure of Gα 12/13 -mediated signaling, but had no effect on G1-mediated signaling to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) luciferase. Given these differential signaling results, we sought to further elucidate the pathway by which G1 can activate NFAT luciferase. We found no evidence that ΔNT activation of NFAT is dependent on Gα q/11 -mediated or β-arrestin-mediated signaling but rather involves liberation of Gβγ subunits and activation of calcium channels. These findings reveal that disease-associated mutations to the extracellular loops of G1 differentially alter receptor trafficking, depending on the presence of the N terminus, and differentially alter signaling to distinct downstream pathways. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The Qualitative Scoring MMSE Pentagon Test (QSPT: A New Method for Differentiating Dementia with Lewy Body from Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Caffarra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis across different variants of degenerative diseases is sometimes controversial. This study aimed to validate a qualitative scoring method for the pentagons copy test (QSPT of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE based on the assessment of different parameters of the pentagons drawing, such as number of angles, distance/intersection, closure/opening, rotation, closing-in, and to verify its efficacy to differentiate dementia with Lewy Body (DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD. We established the reliability of the qualitative scoring method through the inter-raters and intra-subjects analysis. QSPT was then applied to forty-six AD and forty-six DLB patients, using two phases statistical approach, standard and artificial neural network respectively. DLB patients had significant lower total score in the copy of pentagons and number of angles, distance/intersection, closure/opening, rotation compared to AD. However the logistic regression did not allow to establish any suitable modeling, whereas using Auto-Contractive Map (Auto-CM the DLB was more strongly associated with low scores in some qualitative parameters of pentagon copying, i.e. number of angles and opening/closure and, for the remaining subitems of the MMSE, in naming, repetition and written comprehension, and for demographic variables of gender (male and education (6–13 years. Twist system modeling showed that the QSPT had a good sensitivity (70.29% and specificity (78.67% (ROC-AUC 0.74. The proposed qualitative method of assessment of pentagons copying used in combination with non-linear analysis, showed to be consistent and effective in the differential diagnosis between Lewy Body and Alzheimer’s dementia.

  4. Indirect Genetic Effects and the Spread of Infectious Disease: Are We Capturing the Full Heritable Variation Underlying Disease Prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Bijma, Piter; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing disease prevalence through selection for host resistance offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment. Selection for host resistance has proven difficult, however, due to low heritability estimates. These low estimates may be caused by a failure to capture all the relevant genetic variance in disease resistance, as genetic analysis currently is not taylored to estimate genetic variation in infectivity. Host infectivity is the propensity of transmitting infection upon contact with a susceptible individual, and can be regarded as an indirect effect to disease status. It may be caused by a combination of physiological and behavioural traits. Though genetic variation in infectivity is difficult to measure directly, Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE) models, also referred to as associative effects or social interaction models, allow the estimation of this variance from more readily available binary disease data (infected/non-infected). We therefore generated binary disease data from simulated populations with known amounts of variation in susceptibility and infectivity to test the adequacy of traditional and IGE models. Our results show that a conventional model fails to capture the genetic variation in infectivity inherent in populations with simulated infectivity. An IGE model, on the other hand, does capture some of the variation in infectivity. Comparison with expected genetic variance suggests that there is scope for further methodological improvement, and that potential responses to selection may be greater than values presented here. Nonetheless, selection using an index of estimated direct and indirect breeding values was shown to have a greater genetic selection differential and reduced future disease risk than traditional selection for resistance only. These findings suggest that if genetic variation in infectivity substantially contributes to disease transmission, then breeding designs which explicitly incorporate IGEs might help reduce disease

  5. A Nonlinear differential equation model of Asthma effect of environmental pollution using LHAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, G. Arul; Balamuralitharan, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigated a nonlinear differential equation mathematical model to study the spread of asthma in the environmental pollutants from industry and mainly from tobacco smoke from smokers in different type of population. Smoking is the main cause to spread Asthma in the environment. Numerical simulation is also discussed. Finally by using Liao’s Homotopy analysis Method (LHAM), we found that the approximate analytical solution of Asthmatic disease in the environmental.

  6. The Differential Effect of Various Stakeholder Groups in Place Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshuis, Jasper; Braun, Erik; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses whether involving various stakeholder groups in place marketing has effects on the content of place brands, and on how place marketing influences other policy fields, i.e. spatial planning and tourism/leisure policies. The research applies structural equation modelling...... businesses increases influence on tourism/leisure policies. Other studies have shown varying influence of stakeholder groups in cases, but not in quantitative studies. The research also addresses the mechanisms at play in Germany and the Netherlands, showing mainly commonalities....

  7. Differential effect of procaine on irradiated mammalian cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, B.

    1979-01-01

    HeLa and V-79 Chinese hamster cells temporarily stored in ampoules were treated with the local anesthetic procaine. Postirradiation treatment increased lethality in HeLa cells depending on drug concentration, duration of treatment, and cell density, as measured by colony-forming ability upon plating. If present during irradiation only, procaine protected from irradiation. In V-79 cells, procaine potentiated radiation lethality only in freshly trypsinized cells. Procaine effect was thus cell type specific and most likely involved the cell membrane

  8. Differentiated-effect shims for medium field levels and saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richie, A.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement of shims on the upstream and downstream ends of magnets may be based on the independent effects of variations in the geometric length and degree of saturation at the edges of the poles. This technique can be used to match the bending strength of an accelerator's magnets at two field levels (medium fields and maximum fields) and thus save special procedures (mixing the laminations, local compensation for errors by arranging the magnets in the appropriate order) and special devices (for instance, correcting dipoles) solely for correcting bending strengths at low field levels. (Auth.)

  9. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective: To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design: Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results: 1 There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10, but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180. 2 For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group. 3 The association (adjusted continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4 The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions: The effect of low maternal age

  10. Topographical Short-Term Memory Differentiates Alzheimer's Disease From Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bird, C.M.; Chan, D.; Hartley, T.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Rossor, M.N.; Burgess, N.

    2010-01-01

    We used a recently developed test of spatial memory-the Four Mountains Test-to investigate the core cognitive processes underpinning topographical disorientation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Performance of these clinical groups was

  11. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van Loenhoud, Anita C; van den Berg, Stan F; Berendse, Henk W; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Klein, Martin; Stoffers, Diederick; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does,

  12. Dipyridamole Body Surface Potential Mapping: Noninvasive Differentiation of Syndrome X from Coronary Artery Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Anger, Z.; Aschermann, M.; Vojáček, J.; Tomečková, Marie

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 181-191 ISSN 0022-0736 R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ4038 Keywords : body surface potential mapping * dipyridamole * coronary artery disease * syndrome X Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.599, year: 2002

  13. Brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging differentiates between inflammatory neuropathies and does not predict disease course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, BA; Bos, Jeroen W; Rutgers, Dirk; van der Pol, WL; van den Berg, Leonard H

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the distribution of brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities and clinical weakness, and to evaluate the value of brachial plexus MRI in predicting disease course and response to treatment in

  14. Human apolipoprotein E genotypes differentially modify house dust mite-induced airway disease in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Xianglan; Dai, Cuilian; Fredriksson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an endogenous negative regulator of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and mucous cell metaplasia in experimental models of house dust mite (HDM)-induced airway disease. The gene encoding human apoE is polymorphic, with three common alleles (e2, e3, and e4) reflecting single ...

  15. Recent onset neck pain with associated neurological deficit--Pott's disease remains an important differential diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bourke, M G

    2010-11-05

    The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. In Ireland, half of all cases seen in the most recent decade for which figures are available were diagnosed in 2005-2007, the three most recent years for which there is complete data. We discuss a patient who presented with neurological complications due to destructive spinal tuberculous disease affecting the sixth cervical vertebra.

  16. Effect of Differential Diffusion in Two-Component Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingel', L. Kh.

    2017-03-01

    Examples are presented of an exact solution of a nonstationary problem on the development of convection in a binary mixture (seawater) near an infinite vertical surface in which the buoyancy disturbances are determined both by the temperature and by the disturbances of the impurity (salt) concentration. Consideration is given to the development of convection in a homogeneous medium near an infinite vertical surface at whose boundary specification is made of constant (after ″switching on″ at the initial moment) heat fluxes and impurities or variations of these substances, i.e., problems with boundary conditions of 1st and 2nd kind are considered. The obtained analytical solutions demonstrate the possibility of a nontrivial effect associated with the difference in the values of the coefficients of transfer of two substances: the inflows of positive buoyancy may lead, contrary to intuitive notions, to the origination of descending motion of the medium rather than the ascending one. Clarification is provided for the physical meaning of such effects, which can be substantial, for example, in melting of sea ice.

  17. Liver Effects of Clinical Drugs Differentiated in Human Liver Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E. M. Vickers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drugs with clinical adverse effects are compared in an ex vivo 3-dimensional multi-cellular human liver slice model. Functional markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, glutathione GSH and ATP levels, were affected by acetaminophen (APAP, 1 mM, diclofenac (DCF, 1 mM and etomoxir (ETM, 100 μM. Drugs targeting mitochondria more than GSH were dantrolene (DTL, 10 μM and cyclosporin A (CSA, 10 μM, while GSH was affected more than ATP by methimazole (MMI, 500 μM, terbinafine (TBF, 100 μM, and carbamazepine (CBZ 100 μM. Oxidative stress genes were affected by TBF (18%, CBZ, APAP, and ETM (12%–11%, and mitochondrial genes were altered by CBZ, APAP, MMI, and ETM (8%–6%. Apoptosis genes were affected by DCF (14%, while apoptosis plus necrosis were altered by APAP and ETM (15%. Activation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial energy, heat shock, ER stress, apoptosis, necrosis, DNA damage, immune and inflammation genes ranked CSA (75%, ETM (66%, DCF, TBF, MMI (61%–60%, APAP, CBZ (57%–56%, and DTL (48%. Gene changes in fatty acid metabolism, cholestasis, immune and inflammation were affected by DTL (51%, CBZ and ETM (44%–43%, APAP and DCF (40%–38%, MMI, TBF and CSA (37%–35%. This model advances multiple dosing in a human ex vivo model, plus functional markers and gene profile markers of drug induced human liver side-effects.

  18. Effect Size Measures for Differential Item Functioning in a Multidimensional IRT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngsuk

    2016-01-01

    This study adapted an effect size measure used for studying differential item functioning (DIF) in unidimensional tests and extended the measure to multidimensional tests. Two effect size measures were considered in a multidimensional item response theory model: signed weighted P-difference and unsigned weighted P-difference. The performance of…

  19. The Effect of Instrument-Specific Rater Training on Interrater Reliability and Counseling Skills Performance Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Paul Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of instrument-specific rater training on interrater reliability (IRR) and counseling skills performance differentiation. Strong IRR is of primary concern to effective program evaluation (McCullough, Kuhn, Andrews, Valen, Hatch, & Osimo, 2003; Schanche, Nielsen, McCullough, Valen, &…

  20. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine for differentiation of multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is often hard to differentiate Parkinson's disease (PD and parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P, especially in the early stages. Cardiac sympathetic denervation and putaminal rarefaction are specific findings for PD and MSA-P, respectively. PURPOSE: We investigated diagnostic accuracy of putaminal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC test for MSA-P and (123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scintigram for PD, especially in early-stage patients. METHODS: The referral standard diagnosis of PD and MSA-P were the diagnostic criteria of the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Criteria and the second consensus criteria, respectively. Based on the referral standard criteria, diagnostic accuracy [area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity] of the ADC and MIBG tests was estimated retrospectively. Diagnostic accuracy of these tests performed within 3 years of symptom onset was also investigated. RESULTS: ADC and MIBG tests were performed on 138 patients (20 MSA and 118 PD. AUC was 0.95 and 0.83 for the ADC and MIBG tests, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 85.0% and 89.0% for MSA-P diagnosis by ADC test and 67.0% and 80.0% for PD diagnosis by MIBG test. When these tests were restricted to patients with disease duration ≤ 3 years, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.0% and 91.4% for the ADC test (MSA-P diagnosis and 47.7% and 92.3% for the MIBG test (PD diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Both tests were useful in differentiating between PD and MSA-P, even in the early stages. In early-stage patients, elevated putaminal ADC was a diagnostic marker for MSA-P. Despite high specificity of the MIBG test, careful neurological history and examinations were required for PD diagnosis because of possible false-negative results.

  2. An efficient approach for differentiating Alzheimer's disease from normal elderly based on multicenter MRI using gray-level invariant features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muwei Li

    Full Text Available Machine learning techniques, along with imaging markers extracted from structural magnetic resonance images, have been shown to increase the accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal elderly controls. Several forms of anatomical features, such as cortical volume, shape, and thickness, have demonstrated discriminative capability. These approaches rely on accurate non-linear image transformation, which could invite several nuisance factors, such as dependency on transformation parameters and the degree of anatomical abnormality, and an unpredictable influence of residual registration errors. In this study, we tested a simple method to extract disease-related anatomical features, which is suitable for initial stratification of the heterogeneous patient populations often encountered in clinical data. The method employed gray-level invariant features, which were extracted from linearly transformed images, to characterize AD-specific anatomical features. The intensity information from a disease-specific spatial masking, which was linearly registered to each patient, was used to capture the anatomical features. We implemented a two-step feature selection for anatomic recognition. First, a statistic-based feature selection was implemented to extract AD-related anatomical features while excluding non-significant features. Then, seven knowledge-based ROIs were used to capture the local discriminative powers of selected voxels within areas that were sensitive to AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The discriminative capability of the proposed feature was measured by its performance in differentiating AD or MCI from normal elderly controls (NC using a support vector machine. The statistic-based feature selection, together with the knowledge-based masks, provided a promising solution for capturing anatomical features of the brain efficiently. For the analysis of clinical populations, which are inherently heterogeneous

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine for differentiation of multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Atsushi; Oeda, Tomoko; Hayashi, Ryutaro; Tomita, Satoshi; Kohsaka, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Sawada, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is often hard to differentiate Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P), especially in the early stages. Cardiac sympathetic denervation and putaminal rarefaction are specific findings for PD and MSA-P, respectively. We investigated diagnostic accuracy of putaminal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) test for MSA-P and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigram for PD, especially in early-stage patients. The referral standard diagnosis of PD and MSA-P were the diagnostic criteria of the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Criteria and the second consensus criteria, respectively. Based on the referral standard criteria, diagnostic accuracy [area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity] of the ADC and MIBG tests was estimated retrospectively. Diagnostic accuracy of these tests performed within 3 years of symptom onset was also investigated. ADC and MIBG tests were performed on 138 patients (20 MSA and 118 PD). AUC was 0.95 and 0.83 for the ADC and MIBG tests, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 85.0% and 89.0% for MSA-P diagnosis by ADC test and 67.0% and 80.0% for PD diagnosis by MIBG test. When these tests were restricted to patients with disease duration ≤ 3 years, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.0% and 91.4% for the ADC test (MSA-P diagnosis) and 47.7% and 92.3% for the MIBG test (PD diagnosis). Both tests were useful in differentiating between PD and MSA-P, even in the early stages. In early-stage patients, elevated putaminal ADC was a diagnostic marker for MSA-P. Despite high specificity of the MIBG test, careful neurological history and examinations were required for PD diagnosis because of possible false-negative results.

  4. The emotional memory effect: differential processing or item distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Saari, Bonnie

    2007-12-01

    A color-naming task was followed by incidental free recall to investigate how emotional words affect attention and memory. We compared taboo, nonthreatening negative-affect, and neutral words across three experiments. As compared with neutral words, taboo words led to longer color-naming times and better memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Color naming of negative-emotion nontaboo words was slower than color naming of neutral words only during block presentation and at relatively short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The nontaboo emotion words were remembered better than neutral words following blocked and random presentation and at both long and short ISIs, but only in mixed-list designs. Our results support multifactor theories of the effects of emotion on attention and memory. As compared with neutral words, threatening stimuli received increased attention, poststimulus elaboration, and benefit from item distinctiveness, whereas nonthreatening emotional stimuli benefited only from increased item distinctiveness.

  5. Differential effects of myostatin deficiency on motor and sensory axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maria R; Villalón, Eric; Northcutt, Adam J; Calcutt, Nigel A; Garcia, Michael L

    2017-12-01

    Deletion of myostatin in mice (MSTN -/- ) alters structural properties of peripheral axons. However, properties like axon diameter and myelin thickness were analyzed in mixed nerves, so it is unclear whether loss of myostatin affects motor, sensory, or both types of axons. Using the MSTN -/- mouse model, we analyzed the effects of increasing the number of muscle fibers on axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internode length in motor and sensory axons. Axon diameter and myelin thickness were increased in motor axons of MSTN -/- mice without affecting internode length or axon number. The number of sensory axons was increased without affecting their structural properties. These results suggest that motor and sensory axons establish structural properties by independent mechanisms. Moreover, in motor axons, instructive cues from the neuromuscular junction may play a role in co-regulating axon diameter and myelin thickness, whereas internode length is established independently. Muscle Nerve 56: E100-E107, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Differential Effect of Various Stakeholder Groups in Place Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshuis, Jasper; Braun, Erik; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses whether involving various stakeholder groups in place marketing has effects on the content of place brands, and on how place marketing influences other policy fields, i.e. spatial planning and tourism/leisure policies. The research applies structural equation modelling...... to nationwide surveys in the Netherlands and Germany among professionals in place marketing (N = 444). The study shows that different stakeholder groups have a varied influence; involving residents and public managers increases the influence of place marketing on spatial planning policies, whereas involving...... businesses increases influence on tourism/leisure policies. Other studies have shown varying influence of stakeholder groups in cases, but not in quantitative studies. The research also addresses the mechanisms at play in Germany and the Netherlands, showing mainly commonalities....

  7. Differential effects of chronic monocyte depletion on macrophage populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, A.; Chang, N.C.; Strausbauch, P.H.; Morahan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The administration of the bone-seeking isotope, 89 Sr, to mice results in severe monocytopenia without any apparent effect on the numbers of resident peritoneal macrophages (M luminal diameter). An explanation for this dichotomy was sought by determining whether the residual blood monocytes were still an effective source of M luminal diameter after 89 Sr treatment. Stem cell enumeration showed that a 90% fall in bone marrow macrophage colony-forming cells after 89 Sr was accompanied by a 10-fold rise in splenic M-CFC. Splenectomy performed before 89 Sr treatment, however, resulted in little additional monocytopenia and had no affect on the numbers of resident peritoneal M luminal diameter even when sampling was extended to 31 days, an interval beyond the accepted half-time for peritoneal M luminal diameter. Intraperitoneal injections of thioglycollate or Corynebacterium parvum elicited few or no monocyte-M luminal diameter during respective intervals of 4 and 7 days. Elicitation with thioglycollate was attempted in tritiated thymidine-labeled mice 26 days after 89 Sr. Four days later only a 2-fold increase in labeled peritoneal M luminal diameter was found in the 89 Sr-treated mice compared with a 150-fold increase in the controls. Studies of the ectoenzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and leucine aminopeptidase in such elicitation experiments suggested that the observed changes in activities reflected the direct stimulation of resident M luminal diameter rather than monocyte immigration. Overall, the results indicate that treatment with 89 Sr distinguishes two large populations of M luminal diameter on the basis of their dependence on bone marrow. M luminal diameter of inflammation reflect the monocytopenia and are severely and rapidly depleted by such treatment

  8. Quantitative thyroid scintigraphy for the differentiation of Graves' disease and hyperthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlmann, C.O.; Siefker, U.; Lehmann, K.; Harms, E.; Conrad, M.; Meller, J. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is the evaluation of the TCTUs in the differentiation between AIT and GD in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: We determined the TCTUs in 59 patients with untreated hyperthyroid GD and in 51 patients with AIT who had subclinical or manifest hyperthyroidism without medication. Patients with GD were characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, decreased echogenicity of the thyroid, elevation of TSH-receptor autoantibodies (TRAb). AIT was defined by a decreased echogenicity of the thyroid, absence of elevated TSH-receptor autoantibodies (TRAb), autoantibodies against the thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and spontaneous remission or development of subclinical hypothyroidism within 3 months. Results: Thyroid volumes of patients with AIT were significantly lower than those of patients with GD (p<0.05). TRAb levels were significantly higher in GD-patients (median: 19.5 U/ml; range: 15.3-35 U/ml) than in AIT-patients (median: 1.3 U/ml; range: 0-4.1 U/ml). 73% (38/59) of patients with GD had elevated anti-TPO levels. In these patients anti-TPO levels (median: 768 U/l; range: 83-6397 U/l) were not significantly different from anti-TPO levels of patients with AIT (median: 834 U/l; range: 107-8675 U/l; p=0.17). TCTUs values of patients with AIT were significantly lower (p<0.05; median: 0.9%; range: 0.1-3.2%) than those of patients with GD (median: 5.7%; range: 1.9-28.3%). Conclusion: In our patients quantitative thyroid scintigraphy with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} offered rapid and reliable differentiation between hyperthyroid GD and AIT. (orig.)

  9. Early vitrectomy effective for Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mark K; Drenser, Kimberly A; Capone, Antonio; Trese, Michael T

    2010-04-01

    To review our experience with Norrie disease to determine if early vitrectomy abrogates the natural history of this rare disease; namely, bilateral no light perception visual acuity and phthisis bulbi. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients seen in our tertiary care pediatric retinal clinical practice from 1988 through 2008 with a potential diagnosis of Norrie disease. Inclusion required not only clinical findings consistent with Norrie disease but also genetics and/or a family history consistent with Norrie disease. Medical record review revealed 14 boys with clinically diagnosed Norrie disease and either Norrie disease gene (NDP) mutations noted on genetic testing (13 patients) and/or a clear family history consistent with Norrie disease (4 patients). All 14 boys with definite Norrie disease had vitrectomy with or without lensectomy in at least 1 eye prior to 12 months of age. Of the 14 boys with definite Norrie disease, 7 maintained at least light perception visual acuity in 1 eye and 3 had no light perception visual acuity bilaterally; visual acuity data were not available for 4 patients. Only 2 of 24 (8%) eyes became phthisical. Historically, no treatment has been offered to mitigate the dismal natural history of Norrie disease. We recommend consideration of early vitrectomy in Norrie disease.

  10. Differential effects of biochar on soils within an eroded field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas; Chintala, Rajesh; Sandhu, Saroop; Kumar, Sandeep; Clay, Dave; Gelderman, Ron; Papiernik, Sharon; Malo, Douglas; Clay, Sharon; Julson, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Future uses of biochar will in part be dependent not only on the effects of biochar on soil processes but also on the availability and economics of biochar production. If pyrolysis for production of bio-oil and syngas becomes wide-spread, biochar as a by-product of bio-oil production will be widely available and relatively inexpensive compared to the production of biochar as primary product. Biochar produced as a by-product of optimized bio-oil production using regionally available feedstocks was examined for properties and for use as an amendment targeted to contrasting soils within an eroded field in an on-farm study initiated in 2013 at Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plant based biochar materials produced from carbon optimized gasification of corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were applied at a 1% (w/w) rate to a Maddock soil (Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) located in an eroded upper landscape position and a Brookings soil (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) located in a depositional landscape position. The cropping system within this agricultural landscape was a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. Biochar physical and chemical properties for each of the feedstocks were determined including pH, surface area, surface charge potential, C-distribution, ash content, macro and micro nutrient composition. Yields, nutrient content, and carbon isotope ratio measurements were made on the harvested seed. Soil physical properties measured included water retention, bulk density, and water infiltration from a ponded double ring infiltrometer. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of biochar on partitioning of nitrate and phosphorus at soil surface exchange complex and the extracellular enzymes activity of C and N cycles. Crop yields were increased only in the Maddock soil. Biochar interacted with each

  11. Ideal Standards, Acceptance, and Relationship Satisfaction: Latitudes of Differential Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Buyukcan-Tetik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether the relations of consistency between ideal standards and perceptions of a current romantic partner with partner acceptance and relationship satisfaction level off, or decelerate, above a threshold. We tested our hypothesis using a 3-year longitudinal data set collected from heterosexual newlywed couples. We used two indicators of consistency: pattern correspondence (within-person correlation between ideal standards and perceived partner ratings and mean-level match (difference between ideal standards score and perceived partner score. Our results revealed that pattern correspondence had no relation with partner acceptance, but a positive linear/exponential association with relationship satisfaction. Mean-level match had a significant positive association with actor’s acceptance and relationship satisfaction up to the point where perceived partner score equaled ideal standards score. Partner effects did not show a consistent pattern. The results suggest that the consistency between ideal standards and perceived partner attributes has a non-linear association with acceptance and relationship satisfaction, although the results were more conclusive for mean-level match.

  12. From symptoms to social functioning: differential effects of antidepressant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S

    1999-05-01

    Significant impairments in social functioning frequently occur simultaneously with depressive symptoms. The implications of such impairments extend beyond the depressed individual to their family, friends and society at large. Classical rating scales such as the Hamilton rating scale for depression primarily assess the core symptoms of depression. A range of rating scales are available, both self-reporting and administered by clinician; however, many have been criticised for their unspecified conceptual background and for being complex and time-consuming. While antidepressants in general appear to improve social functioning, no clear advantage for any single class of agent has been reported. Recently, a new self-report rating scale, the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale, has been developed and used to compare the novel selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. The noradrenergic agent, reboxetine, was shown to be significantly more effective in improving social functioning than the serotonergic agent, fluoxetine. These findings are consistent with previous observations that noradrenaline may preferentially improve vigilance, motivation and self-perception.

  13. Differentiating clinical care from disease prevention: a prerequisite for practicing quaternary prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Dalcanale Tesser

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article contends that the distinction between clinical care (illness and prevention of future disease is essential to the practice of quaternary prevention. The authors argue that the ongoing entanglement of clinical care and prevention transforms healthy into "sick" people through changes in disease classification criteria and/or cut-off points for defining high-risk states. This diverts health care resources away from those in need of care and increases the risk of iatrogenic harm in healthy people. The distinction in focus is based on: (a management of uncertainty (more flexible when caring for ill persons; (b guarantee of benefit (required only in prevention; (c harm tolerance (nil or minimal in prevention. This implies attitudinal differences in the decision-making process: greater skepticism, scientism and resistance towards preventive action. These should be based on high-quality scientific evidence of end-outcomes that displays a net positive harm/benefit ratio.

  14. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. Detection of interferon alpha protein reveals differential levels and cellular sources in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Decalf, Jérémie; Bondet, Vincent; Hunt, David; Rice, Gillian I; Werneke, Scott; McGlasson, Sarah L; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Barnerias, Christine; Bellon, Nathalia; Belot, Alexandre; Bodemer, Christine; Briggs, Tracy A; Desguerre, Isabelle; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Hully, Marie; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Melki, Isabelle; Meyts, Isabelle; Musset, Lucile; Pelzer, Nadine; Quartier, Pierre; Terwindt, Gisela M; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wiseman, Stewart; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Rose, Yoann; Neven, Bénédicte; Hertel, Christina; Hayday, Adrian; Albert, Matthew L; Rozenberg, Flore; Crow, Yanick J; Duffy, Darragh

    2017-05-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential mediators of antiviral responses. These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus, and dermatomyositis, as well as monogenic type I interferonopathies. Despite a fundamental role in health and disease, the direct quantification of type I IFNs has been challenging. Using single-molecule array (Simoa) digital ELISA technology, we recorded attomolar concentrations of IFNα in healthy donors, viral infection, and complex and monogenic interferonopathies. IFNα protein correlated well with functional activity and IFN-stimulated gene expression. High circulating IFNα levels were associated with increased clinical severity in SLE patients, and a study of the cellular source of IFNα protein indicated disease-specific mechanisms. Measurement of IFNα attomolar concentrations by digital ELISA will enhance our understanding of IFN biology and potentially improve the diagnosis and stratification of pathologies associated with IFN dysregulation. © 2017 Rodero et al.

  16. Differential Diagnoses of Overgrowth Syndromes: The Most Important Clinical and Radiological Disease Manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, L.S.; Alves, U.D.; Zanier, J.F.C.; Machado, D.C.; Camilo, G.B.; Machado, D.C.; Camilo, G.B.; Lopes, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by excessive tissue development. Some of these syndromes may be associated with dysfunction in the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/PI3K/AKT pathway, which results in an increased expression of the insulin receptor. In the current review, four overgrowth syndromes were characterized (Proteus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome, Made lung’s disease, and neurofibromatosis type I) and illustrated using cases from our institution. Because these syndromes have overlapping clinical manifestations and have no established genetic tests for their diagnosis, radiological methods are important contributors to the diagnosis of many of these syndromes. The correlation of genetic discoveries and molecular pathways that may contribute to the phenotypic expression is also of interest, as this may lead to potential therapeutic interventions

  17. gamAID: Greedy CP tensor decomposition for supervised EHR-based disease trajectory differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jette; Ho, Joyce; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2017-07-01

    We propose gamAID, an exploratory, supervised nonnegative tensor factorization method that iteratively extracts phenotypes from tensors constructed from medical count data. Using data from diabetic patients who later on get diagnosed with chronic kidney disorder (CKD) as well as diabetic patients who do not receive a CKD diagnosis, we demonstrate the potential of gamAID to discover phenotypes that characterize patients who are at risk for developing a disease.

  18. The clinical differentiation of fronto-temporal dementia from psychiatric disease

    OpenAIRE

    Panegyres, Peter K; Graves, Angela; Frencham, Kate AR

    2007-01-01

    Objective Frontal and/or temporal lobar atrophy (F/TA) is sometimes detected on neuroimaging in patients with psychiatric disease. This observation leads to difficulty in distinguishing whether patients have fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) or psychiatric illness. This paper sets out to develop clinical profiles that might be useful at first presentation to distinguish these two populations. Methods 29 patients were selected from a database of 250 current patients attending young onset dementia...

  19. Preschoolers’ Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

  20. Differential effect of visual masking in perceptual categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélie, Sébastien; Cousineau, Denis

    2015-06-01

    This article explores the visual information used to categorize stimuli drawn from a common stimulus space into verbal and nonverbal categories using 2 experiments. Experiment 1 explores the effect of target duration on verbal and nonverbal categorization using backward masking to interrupt visual processing. With categories equated for difficulty for long and short target durations, intermediate target duration shows an advantage for verbal categorization over nonverbal categorization. Experiment 2 tests whether the results of Experiment 1 can be explained by shorter target duration resulting in a smaller signal-to-noise ratio of the categorization stimulus. To test for this possibility, Experiment 2 used integration masking with the same stimuli, categories, and masks as Experiment 1 with a varying level of mask opacity. As predicted, low mask opacity yielded similar results to long target duration while high mask opacity yielded similar results to short target duration. Importantly, intermediate mask opacity produced an advantage for verbal categorization over nonverbal categorization, similar to intermediate target duration. These results suggest that verbal and nonverbal categorization are affected differently by manipulations affecting the signal-to-noise ratio of the stimulus, consistent with multiple-system theories of categorizations. The results further suggest that verbal categorization may be more digital (and more robust to low signal-to-noise ratio) while the information used in nonverbal categorization may be more analog (and less robust to lower signal-to-noise ratio). This article concludes with a discussion of how these new results affect the use of masking in perceptual categorization and multiple-system theories of perceptual category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Update on celiac disease – etiology, differential diagnosis, drug targets, and management advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlon SA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Samantha A Scanlon1, Joseph A Murray1,21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by exposure to wheat gluten and similar proteins found in rye and barley that affects genetically susceptible persons. This immune-mediated enteropathy is characterized by villous atrophy, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and crypt hyperplasia. Once thought a disease that largely presented with malnourished children, the wide spectrum of disease activity is now better recognized and this has resulted in a shift in the presenting symptoms of most patients with CD. New advances in testing, both serologic and endoscopic, have dramatically increased the detection and diagnosis of CD. While the gluten-free diet is still the only treatment for CD, recent investigations have explored alternative approaches, including the use of altered nonimmunogenic wheat variants, enzymatic degradation of gluten, tissue transglutaminase inhibitors, induction of tolerance, and peptides to restore integrity to intestinal tight junctions.Keywords: immune-mediated enteropathy, gliadin, gluten, epidemiology, CD diagnosis, therapy

  2. Robust photonic differentiator employing slow light effect in photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Cheng, Ziwei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated.......A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated....

  3. Differentiation of hypertensive heart disease with hypertrophy and hepertrophic cardiomyopathy using consecutive time-course images of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kouichi; Isibashi, Yutaka; Shimada, Toshio; Tsukihashi, Hironori; Sato, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Jun; Morioka, Shigefumi; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    1996-01-01

    We used consecutive time-course Gd-DTPA contrast magnetic resonance images to differentiate hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) from hypertensive heart disease with hypertrophy (HHD). Seventeen patients with HCM, 6 patients with HHD and 5 normal subjects (control) were studied. ECG-gated MRI with 1.5T system was performed before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1mmol/Kg) using spin echo sequence. Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI was repeated every 10 to 55 minutes. We measured signal intensity (SI) of midleft ventricular myocardium and skeletal muscle, and then calculated the ratio between myocardial SI and skeletal muscle SI. Myocardium was enhanced by Gd-DTPA in all patients. However, there was difference in the decay of enhancement effect by Gd-DTPA between HCM and HHD. The decay in HCM was more slowly than in both HHD and control. There was no difference in the decay between HHD and control. The difference in the decay between HCM and HHD became significant 25 minutes after Gd-DTPA injection and lasted until 55 minutes. We conclude that the time-course of the decay of enhancement effect by Gd-DTPA is helpful to differentiate HCM from HHD and the difference of the decay might reflect structural changes of myocardium. (author)

  4. Logistic discriminant parametric mapping: a novel method for the pixel-based differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, P.D.; Mozley, P.D.; Kung, H.F.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of the dopaminergic system is a powerful tool for distinguishing groups of patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the differential diagnosis of individual subjects presenting early in the progress of the disease is much more difficult, particularly using region-of-interest analysis where small localized differences between subjects are diluted. In this paper we present a novel pixel-based technique using logistic discriminant analysis to distinguish between a group of PD patients and age-matched healthy controls. Simulated images of an anthropomorphic head phantom were used to test the sensitivity of the technique to striatal lesions of known size. The methodology was applied to real clinical SPET images of binding of technetium-99m labelled TRODAT-1 to dopamine transporters in PD patients (n=42) and age-matched controls (n=23). The discriminant model was trained on a subset (n=17) of patients for whom the diagnosis was unequivocal. Logistic discriminant parametric maps were obtained for all subjects, showing the probability distribution of pixels classified as being consistent with PD. The probability maps were corrected for correlated multiple comparisons assuming an isotropic Gaussian point spread function. Simulated lesion sizes measured by logistic discriminant parametric mapping (LDPM) gave strong correlations with the known data (r 2 =0.985, P<0.001). LDPM correctly classified all PD patients (sensitivity 100%) and only misclassified one control (specificity 95%). All patients who had equivocal clinical symptoms associated with early onset PD (n=4) were correctly assigned to the patient group. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) had a sensitivity of only 24% on the same patient group. LDPM is a powerful pixel-based tool for the differential diagnosis of patients with PD and healthy controls. The diagnosis of disease even

  5. Enamel Matrix Derivative has No Effect on the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveldt, Lisanne C.; Knuth, Callie; Witte-Bouma, Janneke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Special Dental Care and Orthodontics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); O’Brien, Fergal J. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Department of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Wolvius, Eppo B.; Farrell, Eric, E-mail: e.farrell@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Special Dental Care and Orthodontics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-02

    Background: Treatment of large bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, or congenital abnormalities is challenging. Bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising treatment option. However, the quantity and quality of engineered bone tissue are not sufficient to fill large bone defects. The aim of this study was to determine if the addition of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) improves in vitro chondrogenic priming of MSCs to ultimately improve in vivo MSC mediated endochondral bone formation. Methods: MSCs were chondrogenically differentiated in 2.0 × 10{sup 5} cell pellets in medium supplemented with TGFβ3 in the absence or presence of 1, 10, or 100 μg/mL EMD. Samples were analyzed for gene expression of RUNX2, Col II, Col X, and Sox9. Protein and glycoaminoglycan (GAG) production were also investigated via DMB assays, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were also assessed. Results: The addition of EMD did not negatively affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. EMD did not appear to alter GAG production or expression of chondrogenic genes. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were also unaffected though a trend toward decreased adipogenic gene expression was observed. Conclusion: EMD does not affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. As such the use of EMD in combination with chondrogenically primed MSCs for periodontal bone tissue repair is unlikely to have negative effects on MSC differentiation.

  6. Enamel Matrix Derivative has No Effect on the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveldt, Lisanne C.; Knuth, Callie; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; O’Brien, Fergal J.; Wolvius, Eppo B.; Farrell, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of large bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, or congenital abnormalities is challenging. Bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising treatment option. However, the quantity and quality of engineered bone tissue are not sufficient to fill large bone defects. The aim of this study was to determine if the addition of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) improves in vitro chondrogenic priming of MSCs to ultimately improve in vivo MSC mediated endochondral bone formation. Methods: MSCs were chondrogenically differentiated in 2.0 × 10 5 cell pellets in medium supplemented with TGFβ3 in the absence or presence of 1, 10, or 100 μg/mL EMD. Samples were analyzed for gene expression of RUNX2, Col II, Col X, and Sox9. Protein and glycoaminoglycan (GAG) production were also investigated via DMB assays, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were also assessed. Results: The addition of EMD did not negatively affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. EMD did not appear to alter GAG production or expression of chondrogenic genes. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were also unaffected though a trend toward decreased adipogenic gene expression was observed. Conclusion: EMD does not affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. As such the use of EMD in combination with chondrogenically primed MSCs for periodontal bone tissue repair is unlikely to have negative effects on MSC differentiation.

  7. Differential effects of childhood trauma and cannabis use disorders in patients suffering from schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, G; Godin, O; Lajnef, M; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Brunel, L; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Fond, G; Gabayet, F; Laouamri, H; Lancon, C; Le Strat, Y; Tronche, A M; Misdrahi, D; Rey, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Urbach, M; Vidalhet, P; Llorca, P M; Schürhoff, F

    2016-08-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) and cannabis use are both environmental and modifier risk factors for schizophrenia. However, little is known about how they interact in schizophrenia. We examined the main effect of each of these two environmental factors on the clinical expression of the disease using a large set of variables, and we tested whether and how cannabis and CT interact to influence the course and the presentation of the illness. A sample of 366 patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia was recruited through the FACE-SCZ (Fondamental Advanced Centre of Expertise - Schizophrenia) network. Patients completed a large standardized clinical evaluation including Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I (SCID-I), Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Short-Quality of Life-18 (S-QoL-18), and Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS). We assessed CT with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and cannabis status with SCID-I. CT significantly predicted the number of hospitalizations, GAF, and S-QoL-18 scores, as well as the PANSS total, positive, excitement, and emotional distress scores. Cannabis use disorders significantly predicted age of onset, and MARS. There was no significant interaction between CT and cannabis use disorders. However, we found evidence of a correlation between these two risk factors. CT and cannabis both have differential deleterious effects on clinical and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Our results highlight the need to systematically assess the presence of these risk factors and adopt suitable therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Concomitant diseases and their effect on disease prognosis in Meniere's disease: diabetes mellitus identified as a negative prognostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieskä, Teemu; Kotimäki, Jouko; Männikkö, Minna; Sorri, Martti; Hietikko, Elina

    2018-01-01

    To study comorbidities and their effect on the disease progression in Meniere's disease (MD). Retrospective study on 350 definite MD patients diagnosed according to AAO-HNS 1995 criteria using hospital records and postal questionnaire. The prevalence of migraine, hypothyroidism, allergies, coronary heart disease and autoimmune diseases was more common in MD patients than reported in the general population of Finland. Diabetes mellitus was associated with both more severe hearing impairment (p = .033) and more frequent vertigo (p = .028) in MD patients. The number of concomitant diseases was associated with more frequent vertigo (p = .021). A patient's concomitant diseases, especially diabetes, should be treated effectively because they might affect the progression of MD. Further studies on the effects of concomitant diseases on MD prognosis are needed.

  9. Differential effects of multiplicity of infection on Helicobacter pylori-induced signaling pathways and interleukin-8 gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Birgit; Kilian, Petra; Reboll, Marc Rene; Resch, Klaus; DiStefano, Johanna Kay; Frank, Ronald; Beil, Winfried; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2011-02-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. We used four different H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease to examine their differential effects on signaling pathways and IL-8 gene response in gastric epithelial cells. IL-8 mRNA level is elevated in response to high (100) multiplicity of infection (MOI) independent of cagA, vacA, and dupA gene characteristics. By lower MOIs (1 or 10), only cagA ( + ) strains significantly induce IL-8 gene expression. This is based on differential regulation of IL-8 promoter activity. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways indicates that H. pylori clinical isolates induce IL-8 gene transcription through NF-κB p65, but by a MOI-dependent differential activation of MAPK pathways. Thus, the major virulence factors of H. pylori CagA, VacA, and DupA might play a minor role in the level of IL-8 gene response to a high bacterial load.

  10. Apraxia for differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from subcortical vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Ozkan,1 Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar,1 Nese Tuncer Elmaci,2 Didem Arslantas31Department of Neurology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, TurkeyAbstract: Although ideomotor limb apraxia is considered to be a typical sign of cortical pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it has been also reported in subcortical neurodegenerative diseases and vascular lesions. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Ninety-six AD, 72 SVaD, and 84 MCI patients were assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating (CDR and the apraxia screening test of TULIA (AST. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients (32.3% than in both of the SVaD (16.7% and MCI (4.8% patients. The frequency of apraxia was also significantly higher in SVaD patients than in MCI patients. AD patients had significantly lower apraxia scores than both SVaD and MCI patients. In addition, a significant difference was found between SVaD and MCI patients in terms of apraxia scores. These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.Keywords: apraxia, Alzheimer’s disease, subcortical vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment

  11. Erasing the methyl mark: histone demethylases at the center of cellular differentiation and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloos, Paul A C; Christensen, Jesper; Agger, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The enzymes catalyzing lysine and arginine methylation of histones are essential for maintaining transcriptional programs and determining cell fate and identity. Until recently, histone methylation was regarded irreversible. However, within the last few years, several families of histone...... demethylases erasing methyl marks associated with gene repression or activation have been identified, underscoring the plasticity and dynamic nature of histone methylation. Recent discoveries have revealed that histone demethylases take part in large multiprotein complexes synergizing with histone deacetylases......, histone methyltransferases, and nuclear receptors to control developmental and transcriptional programs. Here we review the emerging biochemical and biological functions of the histone demethylases and discuss their potential involvement in human diseases, including cancer....

  12. Therapeutic effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation in advanced Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kaseda, Yumiko; Ikeda, Junko; Sugihara, Katsunobu; Yamawaki, Takemori; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of rehabilitation therapy in Parkinson's disease is well recognized. However, the effects of an inpatient rehabilitation program for advanced Parkinson's disease have not been fully investigated. Aim To assess the effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation. Methods We enrolled 31 patients (mean age 69.5 ? 9.4 years; mean disease duration 8.8 ? 6.4 years) with advanced Parkinson's disease, without severe cognitive impairment. The median Hoehn?Yahr stage wa...

  13. Effects of Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera) on neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Tohda, Chihiro; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases commonly induce irreversible destruction of central nervous system (CNS) neuronal networks, resulting in permanent functional impairments. Effective medications against neurodegenerative diseases are currently lacking. Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera Dunal) is used in traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) for general debility, consumption, nervous exhaustion, insomnia, and loss of memory. In this review, we summarize various effects and mechanisms of Ashwagandha extracts and related compounds on in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury.

  14. LABORATORY BIOMARKERS TO FACILITATE DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN MEASLES AND KAWASAKI DISEASE IN A PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY ROOM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Buonsenso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was conducted to analyze clinical and laboratoristic parameters to individuate specific differences and facilitate differential diagnosis between Measles and Kawasaki Disease (KD at first evaluation in a emergency room. We found similar clinical features as duration of fever and number of KD criteria (p >0.5 but significant differences in white blood cell count, neutrophils, CRP and LDH levels (p < 0.001. LDH value ≥ 800 mg/dl had sensibility of 89% and specificity of 90% for Measles while CRP ≥ 3 mg/dl had sensibility 89% and specificity of 85% for KD. The combined use of CRP, LDH and AST showed accuracy of 86.67%.

  15. Multiparametric computer-aided differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia using structural and advanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan; Smits, Marion; Steketee, Rebecca M.E.; Meijboom, Rozanna; Papma, Janne M.; Swieten, John C. van; Groot, Marius de; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the added diagnostic value of arterial spin labelling (ASL) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to structural MRI for computer-aided classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and controls. This retrospective study used MRI data from 24 early-onset AD and 33 early-onset FTD patients and 34 controls (CN). Classification was based on voxel-wise feature maps derived from structural MRI, ASL, and DTI. Support vector machines (SVMs) were trained to classify AD versus CN (AD-CN), FTD-CN, AD-FTD, and AD-FTD-CN (multi-class). Classification performance was assessed by the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) and accuracy. Using SVM significance maps, we analysed contributions of brain regions. Combining ASL and DTI with structural MRI resulted in higher classification performance for differential diagnosis of AD and FTD (AUC = 84%; p = 0.05) than using structural MRI by itself (AUC = 72%). The performance of ASL and DTI themselves did not improve over structural MRI. The classifications were driven by different brain regions for ASL and DTI than for structural MRI, suggesting complementary information. ASL and DTI are promising additions to structural MRI for classification of early-onset AD, early-onset FTD, and controls, and may improve the computer-aided differential diagnosis on a single-subject level. (orig.)

  16. Waveform analysis of tremor may help to differentiate Parkinson's disease from drug-induced parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, W; Han, J; Kim, I Y; Park, J; Kim, J-S; Cho, J W; Koh, S-B; Chung, S J; Kim, H-T

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the waveform characteristics of resting tremor by accelerometer recordings in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We prospectively recruited 12 patients with tremulous PD and 12 patients with DIP presenting with resting tremor. Tremor was recorded from the more affected side and was recorded twice for a 60 s period in each patient. Peak frequency, amplitude and all harmonic peaks were obtained, and the asymmetry of the decay of the autocorrelation function, third momentum and time-reversal invariance were also computed using a mathematical algorithm. Among the parameters used in the waveform analysis, the harmonic ratio, time-reversal invariance and asymmetric decay of the autocorrelation function were different between PD and DIP at a statistically significant level (all p < 0.01). The total harmonic peak power and third momentum in the time series were not significantly different. The clinical characteristics of DIP patients may be similar to those of PD patients in some cases, which makes the clinical differentiation between DIP and PD challenging. Our study shows that the identification of parameters reflecting waveform asymmetry might be helpful in differentiating between DIP and PD. (note)

  17. Validation of mobile eye tracking as novel and efficient means for differentiating progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eMarx

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decreased ability to carry out vertical saccades is a key symptom of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP. Objective measurement devices can help to reliably detect subtle eye-movement disturbances to improve sensitivity and specificity of the clinical diagnosis. The present study aims at transferring findings from restricted stationary video-oculography to a wearable head-mounted device, which can be readily applied in clinical practice.Methods: We investigated the eye movements in 10 possible or probable PSP patients, 11 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls (HC using a mobile, gaze-driven video camera setup (EyeSeeCam. Ocular movements were analyzed during a standardized fixation protocol and in an unrestricted real-life scenario while walking along a corridor.Results: The EyeSeeCam detected prominent impairment of both saccade velocity and amplitude in PSP patients, differentiating them from PD and HCs. Differences were particularly evident for saccades in the vertical plane, and stronger for saccades than for other eye movements. Differences were more pronounced during the standardized protocol than in the real-life scenario. Conclusions: Combined analysis of saccade velocity and saccade amplitude during the fixation protocol with the EyeSeeCam provides a simple, rapid (< 20s and reliable tool to differentiate clinically established PSP patients from PD and HCs. As such, our findings prepare the ground for using wearable eye-tracking in patients with uncertain diagnoses.

  18. Multiparametric computer-aided differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia using structural and advanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan [Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Office Na2502, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Smits, Marion; Steketee, Rebecca M.E.; Meijboom, Rozanna [Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Papma, Janne M.; Swieten, John C. van [Erasmus MC, Department of Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Groot, Marius de [Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Office Na2502, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Office Na2502, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Imaging Physics, Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To investigate the added diagnostic value of arterial spin labelling (ASL) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to structural MRI for computer-aided classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and controls. This retrospective study used MRI data from 24 early-onset AD and 33 early-onset FTD patients and 34 controls (CN). Classification was based on voxel-wise feature maps derived from structural MRI, ASL, and DTI. Support vector machines (SVMs) were trained to classify AD versus CN (AD-CN), FTD-CN, AD-FTD, and AD-FTD-CN (multi-class). Classification performance was assessed by the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) and accuracy. Using SVM significance maps, we analysed contributions of brain regions. Combining ASL and DTI with structural MRI resulted in higher classification performance for differential diagnosis of AD and FTD (AUC = 84%; p = 0.05) than using structural MRI by itself (AUC = 72%). The performance of ASL and DTI themselves did not improve over structural MRI. The classifications were driven by different brain regions for ASL and DTI than for structural MRI, suggesting complementary information. ASL and DTI are promising additions to structural MRI for classification of early-onset AD, early-onset FTD, and controls, and may improve the computer-aided differential diagnosis on a single-subject level. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of the clinical and CT findings for differentiating Kikuchi's disease and tuberculous lymphadenitis presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hye Jin; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Ha Young; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2014-11-01

    To determine the optimal clinical and CT findings for differentiating Kikuchi's disease (KD) and tuberculous lymphadenitis (TB) in patients presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy. From 2006 to 2010, 87 consecutive patients who were finally diagnosed with KD or TB were enrolled. Two radiologists performed independent analysis of contrast-enhanced neck CT images with regard to the involvement pattern, nodal or perinodal changes, and evidence of the previous infection. Significant clinical and CT findings of KD were determined by statistical analyses. Of the 87 patients, 27 (31%) were classified as having KD and 60 (69%) as having TB. Statistically significant findings of KD patients were younger age, presence of fever, involvement of ≥5 nodal levels or the bilateral neck, no or minimal nodal necrosis, marked perinodal infiltration, and no evidence of upper lung lesion or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The presence of four or more statistically significant clinical and CT findings of KD had the largest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (A z = 0.861; 95% confidence intervals 0.801, 0.909), with a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 83%. CT can be a helpful tool for differentiating KD from TB, especially when it is combined with the clinical findings.

  20. Differential Effects for Sexual Risk Behavior: An Application of Finite Mixture Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Kugler, Kari C.; Mathur, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the multiple factors that place individuals at risk for sexual risk behavior is critical for developing effective intervention programs. Regression-based methods are commonly used to estimate the average effects of risk factors, however such results can be difficult to translate to prevention implications at the individual level. Although differential effects can be examined to some extent by including interaction terms, as risk factors and moderators are added to the model inte...

  1. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua; Li, Zubing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. ► Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. ► Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. ► Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular asymmetry.

  2. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Zubing, E-mail: lizubing0827@163.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular

  3. Effects of nano-emulsion preparations of tocopherols and tocotrienols on oxidative stress and osteoblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Liang-Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols and tocotrienols are two groups of compounds in the vitamin E family, of which the tocopherols are widely used as antioxidant dietary supplements. Recent studies have shown mixed observations for tocopherol functions in bone homeostasis. We have evaluated the potency of suspension- and nano-emulsion formulation-based delivery of different vitamin E family members in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced oxidative stress and osteoblast differentiation. Our results showed the both tocopherols and tocotrienols could reduce oxidative stress as evaluated by the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Their effects were enhanced when applied in the nano-emulsion mode of delivery due to increased bioavailability. In addition, our results showed that tocotrienols increased osteoblast differentiation, while tocopherols showed reduced osteoblast differentiation, which may be due to their differential effects on SMAD and p65 signaling. Together, these findings indicate that tocotrienols delivered through nano-emulsion exhibit superior antioxidant properties and osteoblast differentiation, and could serve as a better alternative to tocopherol-based vitamin E supplements.

  4. Mycophenolate Mofetil Modulates Differentiation of Th1/Th2 and the Secretion of Cytokines in an Active Crohn's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing-Kang; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Li, Su-Nan; Gao, Ying-Jie; Lv, Yan; Xu, Zi-Peng; Huang, Bing-Xu; Xu, Shi-Yao; Yang, Dong-Xue; Zeng, Ya-Long; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-06

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an alternative immunosuppressive agent that has been reported to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of MMF on intestinal injury and tissue inflammation, which were caused by Crohn's disease (CD). Here, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-relapsing (TNBS) colitis was induced in mice; then, we measured the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells in mouse splenocytes by flow cytometry and the secretion of cytokines in mice with TNBS-induced colitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR/ELISA). The results show that MMF significantly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β in mice with TNBS-induced colitis; however, MMF did not inhibit the expression of IL-10 mRNA. Additionally, ELISA showed that the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β were down-regulated in a TNBS model of colitis. Flow cytometric analysis showed MMF markedly reduced the percentages of Th1 and Th2 splenocytes in the CD mouse model. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) also significantly decreased the percentages of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro. Furthermore, MMF treatment not only significantly ameliorated diarrhea, and loss of body weight but also abrogated the histopathologic severity and inflammatory response of inflammatory colitis, and increased the survival rate of TNBS-induced colitic mice. These results suggest that treatment with MMF may improve experimental colitis and induce inflammatory response remission of CD by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulation of the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells.

  5. PARP activity and inhibition in fetal and adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells: Effect on cell survival and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarro, Vito A; Marchesini, Alessandra; Giardino, Luciana; Calzà, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family members are ubiquitously expressed and play a key role in cellular processes, including DNA repair and cell death/survival balance. Accordingly, PARP inhibition is an emerging pharmacological strategy for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Consistent evidences support the critical involvement of PARP family members in cell differentiation and phenotype maturation. In this study we used an oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) enriched system derived from fetal and adult brain to investigate the role of PARP in OPCs proliferation, survival, and differentiation. The PARP inhibitors PJ34, TIQ-A and Olaparib were used as pharmacological tools. The main results of the study are: (i) PARP mRNA expression and PARP activity are much higher in fetal than in adult-derived OPCs; (ii) the culture treatment with PARP inhibitors is cytotoxic for OPCs derived from fetal, but not from adult, brain; (iii) PARP inhibition reduces cell number, according to the inhibitory potency of the compounds; (iv) PARP inhibition effect on fetal OPCs is a slow process; (v) PARP inhibition impairs OPCs maturation into myelinating OL in fetal, but not in adult cultures, according to the inhibitory potency of the compounds. These results have implications for PARP-inhibition therapies for diseases and lesions of the central nervous system, in particular for neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of graphene oxide on undifferentiated and retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Zhang, Yujie; Liang, Le; Wei, Min; Hu, Wenbing; Li, Xiaoming; Huang, Qing

    2012-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), has created an unprecedented opportunity for development and application in biology, due to its abundant functional groups and well water solubility. Recently, the potential toxicity of GO in the environment and in humans has garnered more and more attention. In this paper, we systematically studied the cytotoxicity of GO nanosheets via examining the effect of GO on the morphology, viability and differentiation of a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, which was an ideal model used to study neuronal disease in vitro. The results suggested that GO had no obvious cytotoxicity at low concentration (cells exhibited dose- and time-dependent decreases at high concentration (>=80 μg mL-1). Moreover, GO did not induce apoptosis. Very interestingly, GO significantly enhanced the differentiation of SH-SY5Y induced-retinoic acid (RA) by evaluating neurite length and the expression of neuronal marker MAP2. These data provide a promising application for neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Effects of fear factors in disease propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubo; Xiao, Gaoxi; Wong, Limsoon; Fu, Xiuju; Ma, Stefan; Hiang Cheng, Tee

    2011-09-01

    Upon an outbreak of a dangerous infectious disease, people generally tend to reduce their contacts with others in fear of getting infected. Such typical actions apparently help slow down the spreading of infection. Thanks to today's broad public media coverage, the fear factor may even contribute to preventing an outbreak from happening. We are motivated to study such effects by adopting a complex network approach. First we evaluate the simple case where connections between individuals are randomly removed due to the fear factor. Then we consider a different case where each individual keeps at least a few connections after contact reduction. Such a case is arguably more realistic since people may choose to keep a few social contacts, e.g., with their family members and closest friends, at any cost. Finally, a study is conducted on the case where connection removals are carried out dynamically while the infection is spreading out. Analytical and simulation results show that the fear factor may not easily prevent an epidemic outbreak from happening in scale-free networks. However, it significantly reduces the fraction of the nodes ever getting infected during the outbreak.

  8. Effects of fear factors in disease propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yubo; Xiao Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang; Wong Limsoon; Fu Xiuju; Ma, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Upon an outbreak of a dangerous infectious disease, people generally tend to reduce their contacts with others in fear of getting infected. Such typical actions apparently help slow down the spreading of infection. Thanks to today's broad public media coverage, the fear factor may even contribute to preventing an outbreak from happening. We are motivated to study such effects by adopting a complex network approach. First we evaluate the simple case where connections between individuals are randomly removed due to the fear factor. Then we consider a different case where each individual keeps at least a few connections after contact reduction. Such a case is arguably more realistic since people may choose to keep a few social contacts, e.g., with their family members and closest friends, at any cost. Finally, a study is conducted on the case where connection removals are carried out dynamically while the infection is spreading out. Analytical and simulation results show that the fear factor may not easily prevent an epidemic outbreak from happening in scale-free networks. However, it significantly reduces the fraction of the nodes ever getting infected during the outbreak. (paper)

  9. Brain Chagas'disease: increasing differential diagnosis of brain mass in immunosuppressed patients - a case report and literature revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Laercio Leitao; centola, Crescencio A.P.; Kakudate, Milton Y.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a case of Chagas'disease as tumor-like lesion of the brain, in a patient with Aids, simulating the lesions most frequently found in these patients, as toxoplasmosis, lymphoma and cryptococcosis. Furthermore, the case reported have peculiarity to be the only with lesion documented in cerebellum, and unusual due to be secondary by reactivation of chronic Chagas disease. Moreover, emphasize analysis of cerebrospinal fluid with realization of sorologic tests to Chagas's disease, as simple as effective method, to make use of biopsy with stereotaxia in unfinished cases and bad evolution. Finally, after a wide world literature review about Chagas'disease as a tumor-like lesion of the brain, emphasizing this publication as the first written in a radiology journal of specialty. (author). 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Radiomics-based differentiation of lung disease models generated by polluted air based on X-ray computed tomography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szigeti, Krisztián; Szabó, Tibor; Korom, Csaba; Czibak, Ilona; Horváth, Ildikó; Veres, Dániel S.; Gyöngyi, Zoltán; Karlinger, Kinga; Bergmann, Ralf; Pócsik, Márta; Budán, Ferenc; Máthé, Domokos

    2016-01-01

    Lung diseases (resulting from air pollution) require a widely accessible method for risk estimation and early diagnosis to ensure proper and responsive treatment. Radiomics-based fractal dimension analysis of X-ray computed tomography attenuation patterns in chest voxels of mice exposed to different air polluting agents was performed to model early stages of disease and establish differential diagnosis. To model different types of air pollution, BALBc/ByJ mouse groups were exposed to cigarette smoke combined with ozone, sulphur dioxide gas and a control group was established. Two weeks after exposure, the frequency distributions of image voxel attenuation data were evaluated. Specific cut-off ranges were defined to group voxels by attenuation. Cut-off ranges were binarized and their spatial pattern was associated with calculated fractal dimension, then abstracted by the fractal dimension -- cut-off range mathematical function. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis (KW) and Mann–Whitney post hoc (MWph) tests were used. Each cut-off range versus fractal dimension function plot was found to contain two distinctive Gaussian curves. The ratios of the Gaussian curve parameters are considerably significant and are statistically distinguishable within the three exposure groups. A new radiomics evaluation method was established based on analysis of the fractal dimension of chest X-ray computed tomography data segments. The specific attenuation patterns calculated utilizing our method may diagnose and monitor certain lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, tuberculosis or lung carcinomas. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12880-016-0118-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  11. Planning and task management in Parkinson's disease: differential emphasis in dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Stefurak, Taresa

    2008-03-01

    Seventeen patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease completed a complex computer-based task that involved planning and management while also performing an attention-demanding secondary task. The tasks were performed concurrently, but it was necessary to switch from one to the other. Performance was compared to a group of healthy age-matched control participants and a group of young participants. Parkinson's patients performed better than the age-matched controls on almost all measures and as well as the young controls in many cases. However, the Parkinson's patients achieved this by paying relatively less attention to the secondary task and focusing attention more on the primary task. Thus, Parkinson's patients can apparently improve their performance on some aspects of a multidimensional task by simplifying task demands. This benefit may occur as a consequence of their inflexible exaggerated attention to some aspects of a complex task to the relative neglect of other aspects.

  12. Differential effects of risk factors on infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis emphasize a different etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Simonsen, Jacob B; Petersen, Janne

    2005-01-01

    regression models. RESULTS: The following variables had significantly differential effects on infant wheezing and AD: parental hay fever, parental asthma, parental AD, sex, maternal age, maternal occupation, smoking during pregnancy, season of birth, birth weight, gestational age, head circumference, breast-feeding...

  13. An Investigation of the Differential Effects of Group versus Individual Treatment on Vocational Indecision and Indecisiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stewart E.; Van Matre, Gene

    The differential effects of individual versus group treatment on career indecision and general indecisiveness among career counseling clients were investigated. Data were obtained from 24 career-undecided students seeking vocational counseling through the counseling center of a midwestern state university. Twelve subjects participated in the group…

  14. Comparison of Effects of Running and Playing Exercises on Differential Leucocyte Count in Young Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenikli, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…

  15. Differential Effects of Reinforcement on the Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Tiffany L.; Haut, Jillian M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without…

  16. Effects of Differential Item Functioning on Examinees' Test Performance and Reliability of Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) on measurement consequences such as total scores, item response theory (IRT) ability estimates, and test reliability in terms of the ratio of true-score variance to observed-score variance and the standard error of estimation for the IRT ability parameter. The…

  17. Theory of insulated gate field effect transistor with negative differential electron mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, A.S.

    1995-09-01

    We study the consequences of negative differential electron mobility in FETs using the field model and the gradual channel approximation. We find that the FET may show convective or absolute instability. The fluctuations growths is governed by diffusion law with negative effective diffusion coefficient. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  18. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  19. Indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect using a novel differential scanning calorimeter with magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stinus; Linderoth, Søren; Pryds, Nini

    2008-01-01

    A simple and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) unit operating under magnetic field has been built for indirect determination of the magnetocaloric effect. The principle of the measuring unit in the calorimeter is based on Peltier elements as heat flow sensors. The high...

  20. Exercise effects in a virtual type 1 diabetes patient: Using stochastic differential equations for model extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, S.; Nørgaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    extension incorporating exercise effects on insulin and glucose dynamics. Our model is constructed as a stochastic state space model consisting of a set of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In a stochastic state space model, the residual error is split into random measurement error...

  1. Differential effect of extracellular matrix derived from papillary and reticular fibroblasts on epidermal development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, David; Rietveld, Marion; Mahé, Christian; Saintigny, Gaëlle; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb

    2017-06-01

    Papillary and reticular fibroblasts have different effects on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects are caused by differential secretion of soluble factors or by differential generation of extracellular matrix from papillary and reticular fibroblasts. To study the effect of soluble factors, keratinocyte monolayer cultures were grown in papillary or reticular fibroblast-conditioned medium. To study the effect of extracellular matrix, keratinocytes were grown on papillary or reticular-derived matrix. Conditioned medium from papillary or reticular fibroblasts did not differentially affect keratinocyte viability or epidermal development. However, keratinocyte viability was increased when grown on matrix derived from papillary, compared with reticular, fibroblasts. In addition, the longevity of the epidermis was increased when cultured on papillary fibroblast-derived matrix skin equivalents compared with reticular-derived matrix skin equivalents. The findings indicate that the matrix secreted by papillary and reticular fibroblasts is the main causal factor to account for the differences in keratinocyte growth and viability observed in our study. Differences in response to soluble factors between both populations were less significant. Matrix components specific to the papillary dermis may account for the preferential growth of keratinocytes on papillary dermis.

  2. Differentiating Major and Incremental New Product Development: The Effects of Functional and Numerical Workforce Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.A.W.; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the differential effects of workforce flexibility on incremental and major new product development (NPD). Drawing on the resource-based theory of the firm, human resource management research, and innovation management literature, the authors distinguish two types of

  3. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  4. The effect of numerical techniques on differential equation based chaotic generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of the numerical solution accuracy on the digital implementation of differential chaos generators. Four systems are built on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA using Euler, mid-point, and Runge-Kutta fourth order techniques

  5. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  6. A NOVEL EFFECT OF DIOXIN: EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY SEVERELY IMPAIRS MAMMARY GLAND DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel effect of dioxin: Exposure during pregnancy severely impairs mammary gland differentiation.Beth A. Vorderstrasse1, Suzanne E. Fenton2, Andrea A. Bohn3, Jennifer A. Cundiff1, and B. Paige Lawrence1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State Universi...

  7. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  8. GLOBOX : A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for

  9. Enhanced computational methods for quantifying the effect of geographic and environmental isolation on genetic differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botta, Filippo; Eriksen, Casper; Fontaine, Michael Christophe; Guillot, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper, Bradburd et al. (2013) proposed a model to quantify the relative effect ofgeographic and environmental distance on genetic differentiation. Here, we enhance this method in several ways. 1. We modify the covariance model so as to fit better with mainstream geostatistical models and

  10. New and Improved T-wave Morphology Parameters to Differentiate Healthy Individuals from those with Cardiomyopathy and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, E. C.; Schlegel, T. T.; Arenare, B.; DePalma, J. L.; Starc, V.; Rahman, M. A.; Delgado, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the ability of several known as well as new ECG repolarization parameters to differentiate healthy individuals from patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy (CM). Advanced high-fidelity 12-lead ECG tests (approx. 5-min supine) were first performed on a "training set" of 99 individuals: 33 with ischemic or dilated CM and low ejection fraction (EF less than 40%); 33 with catheterization-proven obstructive CAD but normal EF; and 33 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. The following multiple parameters of T-wave morphology (TWM) were derived via signal averaging and singular value decomposition (SVD, which yields 8 eigenvalues, rho(sub 1) greater than rho(sub 2)...greater than rho(sub 8) and studied for their retrospective accuracy in detecting underlying disease: 1) Principal component analysis ratio of the T wave (T-PCA) = 100*rho(sub 2)/rho(sub 1); 2) Relative T-wave residuum (rTWR) = 100* SIGMA (rho(sub 4)(sup 2) +...+ rho(sub 8)(sup 2)); 3) Modified complexity ratio of the T wave (T-mCR) = 100*SIGMA(rho(sub 3)(sup 2) +...+rho(sb 8) (sup 2)); and 4) Normalized 3-dimensional volume of the T wave (nTV) = 100*(rho(sub 2)*rho(sub 3)/rho(sub 1)(sup 2). All TWM parameters significantly differentiated CAD from controls (p less than 0.0001), and also CM from controls (p less than 0.0001). Retrospective areas under the ROC curve were 0.77, 0.81, 0.82, and 0.83 (CAD vs. controls) and 0.93, 0.89, 0.95 and 0.96 (CM vs. controls) for T-PCA, rTWR, T-mCR and nTV respectively. The newer TWM parameters (T-mCR and nTV) thus outperformed the more established parameters (T-PCA and rTWR), presumably by putting a greater emphasis on the third T-wave eigenvalue, which in most healthy subjects has little energy compared to the first two eigenvalues. Subsequent prospective analyses have also yielded similar results, such that we conclude that diagnostic differentiation of pathology from non-pathology may be especially aided by detecting

  11. Students' performance in accounting: differential effect of field dependence-independence as a learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the differential moderating effects associated with field dependence-independence and perceptions of stress on students' performance after controlling for SAT Mathematics and Verbal scores as well as students' actual effort on homework. The average performance of 178 third-year accounting majors over three examinations was used to evaluate their understanding of financial accounting. The students also took the Group Embedded Figures Test. While the data indicate that the most significant variables were students' effort, SAT Verbal scores, and their perceptions of stress, these variables were differentially associated with students' performance depending upon whether the student was classified as a field-independent or field-dependent learner.

  12. Differential sex-specific effects of oxygen toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuhao; Lingappan, Krithika

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-established sex-specific differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the molecular mechanism(s) behind these are not completely understood. Pulmonary angiogenesis is critical for alveolarization and arrest in vascular development adversely affects lung development. Human neonatal umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) provide a robust in vitro model for the study of endothelial cell physiology and function. Male and Female HUVECs were exposed to room air (21% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) or hyperoxia (95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) for up to 72 h. Cell viability, proliferation, H 2 O 2 production and angiogenesis were analyzed. Sex-specific differences in the expression of VEGFR2 and modulation of NF-kappa B pathway were measured. Male HUVECs have decreased survival, greater oxidative stress and impairment in angiogenesis compared to similarly exposed female cells. There is differential expression of VEGFR2 between male and female HUVECs and greater activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in female HUVECs under hyperoxic conditions. The results indicate that sex differences exist between male and female HUVECs in vitro after hyperoxia exposure. Since endothelial dysfunction has a major role in the pathogenesis of BPD, these differences could explain in part the mechanisms behind sex-specific differences in the incidence of this disease. - Highlights: • Cellular sex effects viability and oxidative stress in HUVECs exposed to hyperoxia. • Male HUVECs show greater impairment in angiogenesis compared to female cells. • Sex-specific modulation of VEGFR2 and the NF-kappaB pathway was noted.

  13. Effect of blind treatment on stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2010-06-01

    Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also

  14. The happy survivor? Effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Combs, Hannah L; Winning, Ashley; Boehm, Julia K; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Older adults report higher psychological well-being than younger adults. Those highest in well-being also have the lowest risk of mortality. If those with lower well-being die earlier, it could affect the appearance of developmental change in well-being. In adults aged 50 and older (N = 4,458), we estimated effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction by imputing life satisfaction, adjusting for attrition due to death, or estimating life satisfaction using pattern-mixture modeling. There was an increase in life satisfaction with age; however, differential mortality affected the elevation of the curve. Observed life satisfaction, particularly above age 70, is affected by differential mortality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effects of Wnt3a on proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Liwei; Zhou Jiaxi; Peng Sha; Li Juxue; Cao Yujing; Duan Enkui

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells maintain development and homeostasis of mammalian epidermis throughout life. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells are far from clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Wnt3a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling on proliferation and differentiation of human fetal epidermal stem cells. We found both Wnt3a and active β-catenin, two key members of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, were expressed in human fetal epidermis and epidermal stem cells. In addition, Wnt3a protein can promote proliferation and inhibit differentiation of epidermal stem cells in vitro culture. Our results suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in human fetal skin development and homeostasis, which also provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis in human epidermis

  16. Effects of hTERT immortalization on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ayachi Ikbale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data relate to the differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and DPSC immortalized by constitutively expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT through both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages (i.e. to make bone producing and fat producing cells from these dental pulp stem cells. The data augment another study to characterize immortalized DPSC for the study of neurogenetic “Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders” [1]. Two copies of one typical control cell line (technical replicates were used in this study. The data represent the differentiation of primary DPSC into osteoblast cells approximately 60% more effectively than hTERT immortalized DPSC. Conversely, both primary and immortalized DPSC are poorly differentiated into adipocytes. The mRNA expression levels for both early and late adipogenic and osteogenic gene markers are shown. Keywords: Stem cells, Osteogenic, Adipogenic, Immortalized, hTERT, DPSC

  17. Insulin is Differentially Related to Cognitive Decline and Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M.; Honea, Robyn A.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Hutfles, Lewis; Brooks, William M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship of insulin resistance with cognitive decline and brain atrophy over two years in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=48) and nondemented controls (n=61). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were conducted at baseline to determine insulin area-under-the-curve (AUC). A standard battery of cognitive tasks and MRI were conducted at baseline and 2-year follow-up. In nondemented controls, higher baseline insulin AUC was associated with 2-year decline in global cognitive performance (beta=−0.36, p=0.005). In early AD, however, higher insulin AUC was associated with less decline in global cognitive performance (beta=0.26, p=0.06), slower global brain atrophy (beta=0.40, p=0.01) and less regional atrophy in the bilateral hippocampi and cingulate cortices. While insulin resistance is associated with cognitive decline in nondemented aging, higher peripheral insulin may have AD-specific benefits or insulin signaling may be affected by systemic physiologic changes associated with AD. PMID:21745566

  18. Galactographic differentiation between malignant and benign disease in patients with pathologic nipple discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya; Cho, Hyun Yee [Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    To compare the galactographic findings of malignant and benign disease in patients with pathologic nipple discharge and to analyze the features suggesting malignancy. In 24 patients in whom pathologic nipple discharge had occurred, the findings of preoperative galactography were correlated with those of pathology. Nine of the 24 cases were malignant and the other 15 were benign. Intraductal calcification occurred in five malignant cases (56%) and two (13%) which were benign. Seven malignant cases (78%) involved the segmental ducts, and in eight (89%), the peripheral ducts below the subsegmental duct were involved. Five benign cases (33%) involved the lactiferous sinus, seven (47%) the segmental duct, and two (13%) the subsegmental duct. Distal duct dilatation occurred in four benign cases (27%), while ductal stenosis was noted in six cases (67%) and ductal distortion in seven (78%). A malignant tumor appeared as a multiple (n=5, 56%) or irregular (n=5, 56%) filling defect, and a benign tumor as a single (n=12, 80%), oval (n=6, 40%)