WorldWideScience

Sample records for disease control electronic

  1. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS. Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  2. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  3. Predicting changes in hypertension control using electronic health records from a chronic disease management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; McNaughton, Candace D; Zhang, Ping; Perer, Adam; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris; Denny, Joshua C; Kirby, Jacqueline; Lasko, Thomas; Saip, Alexander; Malin, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Common chronic diseases such as hypertension are costly and difficult to manage. Our ultimate goal is to use data from electronic health records to predict the risk and timing of deterioration in hypertension control. Towards this goal, this work predicts the transition points at which hypertension is brought into, as well as pushed out of, control. Method In a cohort of 1294 patients with hypertension enrolled in a chronic disease management program at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, patients are modeled as an array of features derived from the clinical domain over time, which are distilled into a core set using an information gain criteria regarding their predictive performance. A model for transition point prediction was then computed using a random forest classifier. Results The most predictive features for transitions in hypertension control status included hypertension assessment patterns, comorbid diagnoses, procedures and medication history. The final random forest model achieved a c-statistic of 0.836 (95% CI 0.830 to 0.842) and an accuracy of 0.773 (95% CI 0.766 to 0.780). Conclusions This study achieved accurate prediction of transition points of hypertension control status, an important first step in the long-term goal of developing personalized hypertension management plans. PMID:24045907

  4. Predicting changes in hypertension control using electronic health records from a chronic disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; McNaughton, Candace D; Zhang, Ping; Perer, Adam; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris; Denny, Joshua C; Kirby, Jacqueline; Lasko, Thomas; Saip, Alexander; Malin, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    Common chronic diseases such as hypertension are costly and difficult to manage. Our ultimate goal is to use data from electronic health records to predict the risk and timing of deterioration in hypertension control. Towards this goal, this work predicts the transition points at which hypertension is brought into, as well as pushed out of, control. In a cohort of 1294 patients with hypertension enrolled in a chronic disease management program at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, patients are modeled as an array of features derived from the clinical domain over time, which are distilled into a core set using an information gain criteria regarding their predictive performance. A model for transition point prediction was then computed using a random forest classifier. The most predictive features for transitions in hypertension control status included hypertension assessment patterns, comorbid diagnoses, procedures and medication history. The final random forest model achieved a c-statistic of 0.836 (95% CI 0.830 to 0.842) and an accuracy of 0.773 (95% CI 0.766 to 0.780). This study achieved accurate prediction of transition points of hypertension control status, an important first step in the long-term goal of developing personalized hypertension management plans.

  5. Automated electronic reminders to facilitate primary cardiovascular disease prevention: randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Tim A; Thorogood, Margaret; Griffiths, Frances; Munday, Stephen; Friede, Tim; Stables, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary care databases contain cardiovascular disease risk factor data, but practical tools are required to improve identification of at-risk patients. Aim To test the effects of a system of electronic reminders (the ‘e-Nudge’) on cardiovascular events and the adequacy of data for cardiovascular risk estimation. Design of study Randomised controlled trial. Setting Nineteen general practices in the West Midlands, UK. Method The e-Nudge identifies four groups of patients aged over 50 years on the basis of estimated cardiovascular risk and adequacy of risk factor data in general practice computers. Screen messages highlight individuals at raised risk and prompt users to complete risk profiles where necessary. The proportion of the study population in the four groups was measured, as well as the rate of cardiovascular events in each arm after 2 years. Results Over 38 000 patients' electronic records were randomised. The intervention led to an increase in the proportion of patients with sufficient data who were identifiably at risk, with a difference of 1.94% compared to the control group (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38 to 2.50, P<0.001). A corresponding reduction occurred in the proportion potentially at risk but requiring further data for a risk estimation (difference = –3.68%, 95% CI = –4.53 to –2.84, P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the incidence of cardiovascular events (rate ratio = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.10, P = 0.59). Conclusion Automated electronic reminders using routinely collected primary care data can improve the adequacy of cardiovascular risk factor information during everyday practice and increase the visibility of the at-risk population. PMID:20353659

  6. The role of nanotechnology and nano and micro-electronics in monitoring and control of cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    Nanotechnology has been broadly defined as the one for not only the creation of functional materials and devices as well as systems through control of matter at the scale of 1-100 nm, but also the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena at the same scale. Growing needs in the point-of-care (POC) that is an increasing market for improving patient's quality of life, are driving the development of nanotechnologies for diagnosis and treatment of various life threatening diseases. This paper addresses the recent development of nanodiagnostic sensors and nanotherapeutic devices with functionalized carbon nanotube and/or nanowire on a flexible organic thin film electronics to monitor and control of the three leading diseases namely 1) neurodegenerative diseases, 2) cardiovascular diseases, and 3) diabetes and metabolic diseases. The sensors developed include implantable and biocompatible devices, light weight wearable devices in wrist-watches, hats, shoes and clothes. The nanotherapeutics devices include nanobased drug delivery system. Many of these sensors are integrated with the wireless systems for the remote physiological monitoring. The author's research team has also developed a wireless neural probe using nanowires and nanotubes for monitoring and control of Parkinson's disease. Light weight and compact EEG, EOG and EMG monitoring system in a hat developed is capable of monitoring real time epileptic patients and patients with neurological and movement disorders using the Internet and cellular network. Physicians could be able to monitor these signals in realtime using portable computers or cell phones and will give early warning signal if these signals cross a pre-determined threshold level. In addition the potential impact of nanotechnology for applications in medicine is that, the devices can be designed to interact with cells and tissues at the molecular level, which allows high degree of functionality. Devices engineered at nanometer scale imply a

  7. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  8. Electronic control devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartill, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The subject of these lectures is the translation of information from particle detectors to computers. Large solid angle general purpose detectors at the intersection regions of high energy e+e- storage rings and pp and pp storage rings are discussed. Three choices for data acquisition are reviewed: use CAMAC (Computer Aided Measurement and Control), start from scratch and design a system, or wait for the final version of the proposed FASTBUS to be developed. The do-it-yourself procedure includes designs of drift chamber discriminator, time to amplitude converter, and data card block diagram. Trigger systems, the fast decision making systems judging an event interesting enough for a read-out cycle to be initiated, are discussed. Finally, a FASTBUS system layout, with its goals of minimum bus speed, general system topologies, and support multiple smart devices is given

  9. Electron gun controlled smart structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey W.; Main, John Alan; Redmond, James M.; Henson, Tammy D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and system for actively controlling the shape of a sheet of electroactive material; the system comprising: one or more electrodes attached to the frontside of the electroactive sheet; a charged particle generator, disposed so as to direct a beam of charged particles (e.g. electrons) onto the electrode; a conductive substrate attached to the backside of the sheet; and a power supply electrically connected to the conductive substrate; whereby the sheet changes its shape in response to an electric field created across the sheet by an accumulation of electric charge within the electrode(s), relative to a potential applied to the conductive substrate. Use of multiple electrodes distributed across on the frontside ensures a uniform distribution of the charge with a single point of e-beam incidence, thereby greatly simplifying the beam scanning algorithm and raster control electronics, and reducing the problems associated with "blooming". By placing a distribution of electrodes over the front surface of a piezoelectric film (or other electroactive material), this arrangement enables improved control over the distribution of surface electric charges (e.g. electrons) by creating uniform (and possibly different) charge distributions within each individual electrode. Removal or deposition of net electric charge can be affected by controlling the secondary electron yield through manipulation of the backside electric potential with the power supply. The system can be used for actively controlling the shape of space-based deployable optics, such as adaptive mirrors and inflatable antennae.

  10. Controlling electronics boards with PVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of implementing a control system for electronics boards in order to perform remote Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming, hardware configuration, register control, and monitoring, as well as interfacing it to an expert system. The paper presents an implementation, using the Distributed Information Management (DIM) package and the industrial SCADA system PVSS II from ETM, in which the access mechanisms to the board resources are completely generic and in which the device prescription and the handling of mapping between functional parameters and physical registers follow a common structure independent of the board type. The control system also incorporates mechanisms by which it may be controlled from a finite state machine based expert system. Finally the paper suggests an improvement in which the mapping between logical parameters and physical registers is represented by descriptors in the device description such that the translation can be handled by a common m...

  11. Evaluating a Web-Based Coaching Program Using Electronic Health Records for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in China: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; He, Lin; Tao, Yanxia; Sun, Li; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yashu; Shen, Yuehao; Liu, Suyan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Yaogang

    2017-07-21

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now the fourth leading cause of death in the world, and it continues to increase in developing countries. The World Health Organization expects COPD to be the third most common cause of death in the world by 2020. Effective and continuous postdischarge care can help patients to maintain good health. The use of electronic health records (EHRs) as an element of community health care is new technology in China. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Web-based coaching program using EHRs for physical function and health-related quality of life for patients with COPD in China. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2008 to 2015 at two hospitals. The control group received routine care and the intervention group received routine care with the addition of the Web-based coaching program using EHRs. These were used to manage patients' demographic and clinical variables, publish relevant information, and have communication between patients and health care providers. Participants were not blinded to group assignment. The effects of the intervention were evaluated by lung function, including percent of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), percent of forced vital capacity (FVC%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum midexpiratory flow; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC); and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Data were collected before the program, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the program. Of the 130 participants, 120 (92.3%) completed the 12-month follow-up program. There were statistically significant differences in lung function (FEV1%: F1,4=5.47, P=.002; FVC%: F1,4=3.06, P=.02; PEF: F1,4=12.49, Pcoaching program using EHRs in China appears to be useful for patients with COPD when they are discharged from hospital into the community. It promotes the sharing of patients' medical information by hospital and community nurses, and

  12. Electron backscattering for process control in electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardenne, T. von; Panzer, S.

    1983-01-01

    A number of solutions to the automation of electron beam welding is presented. On the basis of electron backscattering a complex system of process control has been developed. It allows an enlarged imaging of the material's surface, improved adjustment of the beam focusing and definite focus positioning. Furthermore, both manual and automated positioning of the electron beam before and during the welding process has become possible. Monitoring of the welding process for meeting standard welding requirements can be achieved with the aid of a control quantity derived from the results of electronic evaluation of the high-frequency electron backscattering

  13. Control of diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C E; Greenough, W B

    1989-01-01

    The tremendous advances made in the control of diarrheal diseases in the past few years indicate what more can be achieved. Even though the lives of an estimated three quarters of a million children are being saved each year, over three million children are still dying from readily preventable diarrheal disease. The challenge is to build on the successes thus far, to learn from experience, to promote changes in health habits that will prevent diarrhea, and to make all of these activities sustainable. From this analysis, we have three specific recommendations for CDD programs in the next decade. 1. ORT programs should move strongly toward promoting home treatment, building on local traditions of giving food-based preparations, with ORS available from health workers and health facilities for those who need it. Local assessment of people's beliefs and practices in caring for diarrhea should lead to simple methods of adapting ORT preparations that are culturally acceptable. Most of these traditional preparations have adequate amounts of the proteins and starches that are now being shown to produce better clinical results than the glucose in the standard ORS formula. Usually, the main change needed is more precision in the quantity of sodium added. Education of parents can then focus simply on how to make these adapted preparations, on starting rehydration early, and on replacing fluid volume as it is lost. The use of ORS packets in health facilities should continue, but the main indicator of progress in CDD should be ORT use including home solutions. Every packet of ORS should have printed on it the locally recommended formula for home ORT. 2. Nutritional support is just as important as rehydration. Diarrhea precipitates and accelerates the progression of malnutrition, which lowers resistance and increases the duration of diarrhea. Nutritional support through continued breast feeding and improved weaning practices using high density, easily digestible, local foods is

  14. Laser control of electron matter waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, E.; Becker, M.; Luiten, O.J.; Batelaan, H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years laser light has been used to control the motion of electron waves. Electrons can now be diffracted by standing waves of light. Laser light in the vicinity of nanostructures is used to affect free electrons, for example, femto-second and atto-second laser-induced electrons are emitted

  15. Integrated control system for electron beam processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, L.; Koleva, E.; Batchkova, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ISO/IEC 62264 standard is widely used for integration of the business systems of a manufacturer with the corresponding manufacturing control systems based on hierarchical equipment models, functional data and manufacturing operations activity models. In order to achieve the integration of control systems, formal object communication models must be developed, together with manufacturing operations activity models, which coordinate the integration between different levels of control. In this article, the development of integrated control system for electron beam welding process is presented as part of a fully integrated control system of an electron beam plant, including also other additional processes: surface modification, electron beam evaporation, selective melting and electron beam diagnostics.

  16. Controlling Electronics Boards with PVS

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    - Introduction - Control System Architecture - Device Description - FPGA Programming - Register Control - Data Subscription - Examples of Graphics User Interfaces - Parameter - Register Translation - Application on the LHCb Timing Fast Control System

  17. Control system for JAERI Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    A control system comprising of the personal computers network and the CAMAC stations for the JAERI Free Electron Laser is designed and is in the development stage. It controls the equipment and analyzes the electron and optical beam experiments. The concept and the prototype of the control system are described. (author)

  18. Community participation in disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, A; Bekui, A

    1993-05-01

    The main determinants of community participation in disease control programmes are identified and a framework with eleven variables is developed. Attention is drawn to the political background, community characteristics, the managerial capacity of the provider and the epidemiology of the disease. The framework is designed to guide health professionals in the systematic assessment and monitoring of participation in disease control programmes. Analysis of the Ghanaian Guinea Worm Eradication Programme and the Nicaraguan Tuberculosis Control Programme are presented as case studies. They show that political support does not guarantee community participation in disease control programmes and stress the importance of other determinants such as commitment to PHC, intersectoral coordination, the project approach and human resources. The relevance of the epidemiology of the disease in determining what degree of community participation will be most effective is highlighted by the case studies.

  19. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  20. Rate control for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellingerhout, A.J.G.; Janocko, M.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Mooij, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for obtaining high-quality rate control for electron gun evaporation are discussed. The design criteria for rate controllers are derived from this analysis. Results are presented which have been obtained with e-guns whose evaporation rate is controlled by a Wehnelt electrode or by sweeping of the electron beam. Further improvements of rate stability can be obtained by improved design of e-guns and power supplies

  1. Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project intends to design and develop an Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller (IESC) for use on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The IESC will advance the...

  2. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery.......Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery....

  3. Monitoring emerging diseases of fish and shellfish using electronic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, M A; Dunn, P L; Peeler, E J

    2012-10-01

    New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment. © 2011 Crown Copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science.

  4. Automatic control variac system for electronic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuocheng; Wang Dan; Jing Lan; Qiao Weimin; Ma Yunhai

    2006-01-01

    An automatic control variac system is designed in order to satisfy the controlling requirement of the electronic accelerator developed by the Institute. Both design and operational principles, structure of the system as well as the software of industrial PC and micro controller unit are described. The interfaces of the control module are RS232 and RS485. A fiber optical interface (FOC) could be set up if an industrial FOC network is necessary, which will extend the filed of its application and make the communication of the system better. It is shown in practice that the system can adjust the variac output voltage automatically and assure the accurate and automatic control of the electronic accelerator. The system is designed in accordance with the general design principles and possesses the merits such as easy operation and maintenance, good expansibility, and low cost, thus it could also be used in other industrial branches. (authors)

  5. Electronically controllable spoof localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong Jin; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Liu; Xun Xiao, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Electronically controllable multipolar spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) are experimentally demonstrated in the microwave frequencies. It has been shown that half integer order LSPs modes exist on the corrugated ring loaded with a slit, which actually arise from the Fabry-Perot-like resonances. By mounting active components across the slit in the corrugated rings, electronic switchability and tunability of spoof LSPs modes have been accomplished. Both simulated and measured results demonstrate efficient dynamic control of the spoof LSPs. These elements may form the basis of highly integrated programmable plasmonic circuits in microwave and terahertz regimes.

  6. Control electronics of the PEP RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Schwarz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The operation of the major components used for controlling the phase and field level of the PEP RF cavities is described. The control electronics of one RF station is composed of several control loops: each cavity has a tuners' servo loop which maintains the frequency constant and also keeps the fields of each cavity balanced; the total gap voltage developed by a pair of cavities is regulated by a gap voltage controller; finally, the phase variation along the amplification chain, the klystron and the cavities are compensated by a phase lock loop. The design criteria of each loop are set forth and the circuit implementation and test results are presented

  7. Control system in the technological electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriskin, V.N.; Akchurin, Yu.I.; Bahmetev, N.N.; Gurin, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The special system has been developed for linac control.It controls the electron beam current,the energy and the position,protects the accelerating and scanning systems from the damage caused by the beam;blocks the modulator and the klystron amplifier in the case of intolerable operating modes;regulates the phase and power of the HF signals in the injecting system and also regulates the source power currents in the magnetic system

  8. Study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.J.; Pancarobo, M.; Denisenko, N.; Aguilar, M.; Rejon, V.; Pena, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics is made. The knowledge of its behaviour allows us to determine accurately the region where the unstable operation could effect the measurements, and also to set the optimal working parameters. Each feedback circuitry compound is discussed as well as their mutual interaction. Different working conditions analysis and results are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  9. Controlled dissemination of Electronic Medical Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Noordende, G.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon a security analysis of the Dutch electronic patient record system, this paper describes an approach to construct a fully decentralized patient record system, using controlled disclosure of references to medical records. This paper identifies several paths that can be used to disclose

  10. Model based design of electronic throttle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Fenin; Ranjan, Ashish; Bhowmick, Pathikrit; Rammohan, A.

    2017-11-01

    With the advent of torque based Engine Management Systems, the precise control and robust performance of the throttle body becomes a key factor in the overall performance of the vehicle. Electronic Throttle Control provides benefits such as improved air-fuel ratio for improving the vehicle performance and lower exhausts emissions to meet the stringent emission norms. Modern vehicles facilitate various features such as Cruise Control, Traction Control, Electronic Stability Program and Pre-crash systems. These systems require control over engine power without driver intervention, which is not possible with conventional mechanical throttle system. Thus these systems are integrated to function with the electronic throttle control. However, due to inherent non-linearities in the throttle body, the control becomes a difficult task. In order to eliminate the influence of this hysteresis at the initial operation of the butterfly valve, a control to compensate the shortage must be added to the duty required for starting throttle operation when the initial operation is detected. Therefore, a lot of work is being done in this field to incorporate the various nonlinearities to achieve robust control. In our present work, the ETB was tested to verify the working of the system. Calibration of the TPS sensors was carried out in order to acquire accurate throttle opening angle. The response of the calibrated system was then plotted against a step input signal. A linear model of the ETB was prepared using Simulink and its response was compared with the experimental data to find out the initial deviation of the model from the actual system. To reduce this deviation, non-linearities from existing literature were introduced to the system and a response analysis was performed to check the deviation from the actual system. Based on this investigation, an introduction of a new nonlinearity parameter can be used in future to reduce the deviation further making the control of the ETB more

  11. Controller for control of pulsed electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryazgin, A.A.; Faktorovich, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The controller is based on the K1816VE31 microprocessor and contains 22-channel integrating 10-digital two-wire analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel 12-digit digital-to-analog converter, 24-digit output register, 16-digit input register pulse generator in the range of 0.5 - 50 Hz with the regulation step of 0.05 Hz and delayed pulse generator. The controller is used for pulsed electron linear accelerator control and is reduced to regulation of the electron beam pulse repetition rate and beam energy. 1 ref., 1 fig

  12. Statistical process control for electron beam monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Luquero-Llopis, Naika; García-Mollá, Rafael; Quirós-Higueras, Juan David; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Juan-Senabre, Xavier Jordi; de Marco-Blancas, Noelia; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos; Santos-Serra, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    To assess the electron beam monitoring statistical process control (SPC) in linear accelerator (linac) daily quality control. We present a long-term record of our measurements and evaluate which SPC-led conditions are feasible for maintaining control. We retrieved our linac beam calibration, symmetry, and flatness daily records for all electron beam energies from January 2008 to December 2013, and retrospectively studied how SPC could have been applied and which of its features could be used in the future. A set of adjustment interventions designed to maintain these parameters under control was also simulated. All phase I data was under control. The dose plots were characterized by rising trends followed by steep drops caused by our attempts to re-center the linac beam calibration. Where flatness and symmetry trends were detected they were less-well defined. The process capability ratios ranged from 1.6 to 9.3 at a 2% specification level. Simulated interventions ranged from 2% to 34% of the total number of measurement sessions. We also noted that if prospective SPC had been applied it would have met quality control specifications. SPC can be used to assess the inherent variability of our electron beam monitoring system. It can also indicate whether a process is capable of maintaining electron parameters under control with respect to established specifications by using a daily checking device, but this is not practical unless a method to establish direct feedback from the device to the linac can be devised. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanically controllable break junctions for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dong; Jeong, Hyunhak; Lee, Takhee; Mayer, Dirk

    2013-09-20

    A mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) represents a fundamental technique for the investigation of molecular electronic junctions, especially for the study of the electronic properties of single molecules. With unique advantages, the MCBJ technique has provided substantial insight into charge transport processes in molecules. In this review, the techniques for sample fabrication, operation and the various applications of MCBJs are introduced and the history, challenges and future of MCBJs are discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An electronically controlled automatic security access gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. ENOKELA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The security challenges being encountered in many places require electronic means of controlling access to communities, recreational centres, offices, and homes. The electronically controlled automated security access gate being proposed in this work helps to prevent an unwanted access to controlled environments. This is achieved mainly through the use of a Radio Frequency (RF transmitter-receiver pair. In the design a microcontroller is programmed to decode a given sequence of keys that is entered on a keypad and commands a transmitter module to send out this code as signal at a given radio frequency. Upon reception of this RF signal by the receiver module, another microcontroller activates a driver circuitry to operate the gate automatically. The codes for the microcontrollers were written in C language and were debugged and compiled using the KEIL Micro vision 4 integrated development environment. The resultant Hex files were programmed into the memories of the microcontrollers with the aid of a universal programmer. Software simulation was carried out using the Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM version 7.7. A scaled-down prototype of the system was built and tested. The electronically controlled automated security access gate can be useful in providing security for homes, organizations, and automobile terminals. The four-character password required to operate the gate gives the system an increased level of security. Due to its standalone nature of operation the system is cheaper to maintain in comparison with a manually operated type.

  15. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  16. Electron beam accelerator energy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Vijay; Rajan, Rehim; Acharya, S.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the energy control of the electron beam accelerator using PLC. The accelerating voltage of 3 MV has been obtained by using parallel coupled voltage multiplier circuit. A autotransformer controlled variable 0-10 KV DC is fed to a tube based push pull oscillator to generate 120 Khz, 10 KV AC. Oscillator output voltage is stepped up to 0-300 KV/AC using a transformer. 0-300 KVAC is fed to the voltage multiplier column to generate the accelerating voltage at the dome 0-3 MV/DC. The control system has been designed to maintain the accelerator voltage same throughout the operation by adjusting the input voltage in close loop. Whenever there is any change in the output voltage either because of beam loading or arcing in the accelerator. The instantaneous accelerator voltage or energy is a direct proportional to 0-10 KVDC obtained from autotransformer. A PLC based control system with user settable energy level has been installed for 3 MeV, EB accelerator. The PLC takes the user defined energy value through a touch screen and compares it to the actual accelerating voltage (obtained using resistive divider). Depending upon the error the PLC generates the pulses to adjust the autotransformer to bring the actual voltage to the set value within the window of error (presently set to +/- 0.1%). (author)

  17. Photonics and electronics for nitrogen vacancy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Deterministic indistinguishable single photon sources are one of the key requirements for the realisation of Optical Quantum Computing. Recent low temperature experiments have shown the potential of the negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV-) centre as a source of indistinguishable photons. Furthermore its ground state spin structure with extensional decoherence time and spin dependent transitions means it can be harnessed as a spin-photon interface. However, development of these potential applications requires exquisite control of te electronic and spin states via Stark and Zeeman shifting, as well as enhanced photon collection through photonic structures. Here we present the integration of micro-fabricated solid immersion lenses with lithographically defined gold electrodes for control and spin manipulation. (author)

  18. Electronic circuit provides automatic level control for liquid nitrogen traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvy, R. R.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic circuit, based on the principle of increased thermistor resistance corresponding to decreases in temperature provides an automatic level control for liquid nitrogen cold traps. The electronically controlled apparatus is practically service-free, requiring only occasional reliability checks.

  19. Open source electronic health records and chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Jason C; Kwon, Nancy J; Nathanson, Ashley; Muckle, Alison E; Brown, Alexa; Cornejo, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    To study and report on the use of open source electronic health records (EHR) to assist with chronic care management within safety net medical settings, such as community health centers (CHC). The study was conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago from April to September 2010. The NORC team undertook a comprehensive environmental scan, including a literature review, a dozen key informant interviews using a semistructured protocol, and a series of site visits to CHC that currently use an open source EHR. Two of the sites chosen by NORC were actively using an open source EHR to assist in the redesign of their care delivery system to support more effective chronic disease management. This included incorporating the chronic care model into an CHC and using the EHR to help facilitate its elements, such as care teams for patients, in addition to maintaining health records on indigent populations, such as tuberculosis status on homeless patients. The ability to modify the open-source EHR to adapt to the CHC environment and leverage the ecosystem of providers and users to assist in this process provided significant advantages in chronic care management. Improvements in diabetes management, controlled hypertension and increases in tuberculosis vaccinations were assisted through the use of these open source systems. The flexibility and adaptability of open source EHR demonstrated its utility and viability in the provision of necessary and needed chronic disease care among populations served by CHC.

  20. Bladder Control and Nerve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be made larger through an operation known as augmentation cystoplasty, in which a part of the diseased ... Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research Programs & Contacts Human Subjects Research Funding Process Research Training & Career Development ...

  1. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRON BEAM HEATING CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W.H.; Reece, J.B.

    1962-09-18

    An improved electron beam welding or melting apparatus is designed which utilizes a high voltage rectifier operating below its temperature saturation region to decrease variations in electron beam current which normally result from the gas generated in such apparatus. (AEC)

  2. Development of the electron gun control system of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dayong; Lin Guoqiang; Liu Dekang; Shen Liren

    2010-01-01

    An electron gun is the key part of a linac, the beam quality of which depends on beam quality of the electron gun, hence the need of a stable control system of the electron gun to ensure its safe operation.In this paper, we report our progresses in developing the linac's electron gun control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). It uses PLC as the device controllers, with the monitoring software developed on EPICS. The whole system is connected by Ethernet. The PLC and Ethernet technology ensures good reliability and easy maintenance of the electron gun control system. (authors)

  3. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  4. [Institutional insertion of Chagas' disease control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Pimenta, Fabiano

    2011-01-01

    After the starting of the Center for studies and prophylaxis of Chagas disease in 1943, with the help of Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, in the city of Bambuí, state of Minas Gerais, technological and methodological basis for the extensive control of the disease were conceived. A main step to achieve success was the introduction of a new insecticide (gammexane, P 530) and the demonstration of its efficacy in the vector control. A consequence of these improvements was the official inauguration of the first prophylactic campaign for Chagas disease in Brazil, held in Uberaba in May, 1950. Even with the knowledge of how to control the vectorial transmission, financial resources were not available by this time, at a necessary degree to make it both regularly and in all the affected area. The institutional allocation of these activities is useful to understand the low priority given to them at that time. Several national services were created in 1941, for diseases as malaria, pest, smallpox, among others, but Chagas was included in a group of diseases with lower importance, inside a Division of Sanitary Organization. In 1956, the National Department of Rural endemies (DNERu) allocate all the major endemic diseases in a single institution, however this was not translated in an implementation program for the control of Chagas disease. After profound changes at the Ministry of Health, in 1970, the Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública (SUCAM) was in charge of all rural endemies including Chagas disease, which now could compete with other diseases transmitted by vectors, formerly priorities, included in the National Division. With this new status, more funds were available, as well as redistribution of personnel and expenses from the malaria program to the vectorial control of Chagas disease. In 1991 the Health National foundation was created to substitute SUCAM in the control of endemic diseases and it included all the units of the Ministry of Health related to

  5. Dutch elm disease control: performance and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    William N., Jr. Cannon; David P. Worley

    1980-01-01

    Municipal programs to suppress Dutch elm disease have had highly variable results. Performance as measured by tree mortality was unrelated to control strategies. Costs for control programs were 37 to 76 percent less than costs without control programs in the 15-year time-span of the study. Only those municipalities that conducted a high-performance program could be...

  6. Constraints on Biological Mechanism from Disease Comorbidity Using Electronic Medical Records and Database of Genetic Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Bagley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease co-occurrence that deviate from statistical independence may represent important constraints on biological mechanism, which sometimes can be explained by shared genetics. In this work we study the relationship between disease co-occurrence and commonly shared genetic architecture of disease. Records of pairs of diseases were combined from two different electronic medical systems (Columbia, Stanford, and compared to a large database of published disease-associated genetic variants (VARIMED; data on 35 disorders were available across all three sources, which include medical records for over 1.2 million patients and variants from over 17,000 publications. Based on the sources in which they appeared, disease pairs were categorized as having predominant clinical, genetic, or both kinds of manifestations. Confounding effects of age on disease incidence were controlled for by only comparing diseases when they fall in the same cluster of similarly shaped incidence patterns. We find that disease pairs that are overrepresented in both electronic medical record systems and in VARIMED come from two main disease classes, autoimmune and neuropsychiatric. We furthermore identify specific genes that are shared within these disease groups.

  7. A new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Molina, J.C.; Guerrero González, A.; Gilabert, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles is presented. This control system is characterized by a distribution in control over two network of type CANBus and Ethernet. This new electronic control system integrates functionalities of AUVs, as the automatic execution of preprogrammed trajectories. The control system also integrates an acoustic positioning system based on USBL. The information of relative positioning is sent through specific...

  8. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2003-01-01

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Page maintained by: Office of Associate Director of Communication, Division of Public ...

  10. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY... for transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system... Design Features The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit...

  11. Two-pulse laser control of nuclear and electronic motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We discuss an explicitly time-dependent two-pulse laser scheme for controlling where nuclei and electrons are going in unimolecular reactions. We focus on electronic motion and show, with HD+ as an example, that one can find non-stationary states where the electron (with some probability...

  12. Efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate/eFlow® CS (nebulized glycopyrrolate) in moderate-to-very-severe COPD: Results from the glycopyrrolate for obstructive lung disease via electronic nebulizer (GOLDEN) 3 and 4 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Edward; Donohue, James F; Goodin, Thomas; Tosiello, Robert; Wheeler, Alistair; Ferguson, Gary T

    2017-11-01

    SUN-101 is a combination of glycopyrrolate delivered through an innovative, electronic nebulizer, intended for the treatment of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of this new drug device combination. Replicate Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate solution administered by an investigational eFlow ® Closed System (eFlow ® CS) nebulizer in subjects with moderate-to-very-severe COPD, including those with continued background use of a long-acting beta 2 -agonist ± inhaled corticosteroid and/or history of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive placebo or glycopyrrolate (25 μg or 50 μg twice daily [BID]) for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) at Week 12 compared with placebo. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in forced vital capacity (FVC) after 12 weeks, change from baseline in health status measured by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at 12 weeks/end of study (EOS), and change in rescue medication use, as well as change from baseline in FEV 1 area under the curve from 0 to 12 h after 12 weeks in the GOLDEN 3 sub-study. Daytime and night-time symptoms were recorded using an electronic diary. Safety was monitored throughout the study, including major adverse cardiovascular events. A total of 653 subjects were randomized in GOLDEN 3 and 641 in GOLDEN 4. Treatment with glycopyrrolate 25 μg BID and 50 μg BID resulted in statistically significant and clinically important changes from baseline in trough FEV 1 compared with placebo at Week 12 (GOLDEN 3: 0.105 L and 0.126 L; p ≤ 0.0001; GOLDEN 4: 0.084 L and 0.082 L; p ≤ 0.0001). Nebulized glycopyrrolate 25 μg BID and 50 μg BID also resulted in improvements in FVC change from baseline versus placebo at

  13. development of an electronic vehicular traffic signal controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION ... The SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimization Technique) signal control system implements an adaptive ... An electronic traffic signal controller is basically a sequential machine whose operation can be modeled using finite ...

  14. High quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbloom, A.M.; Hadley, P.; van der Marel, D.; Mooij, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a high quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation developed and tested for the MBE growth of high temperature superconductors. The system can be applied to any electron gun without altering the electron gun itself. Essential elements of the system are a high bandwidth mass spectrometer, control electronics and a high voltage modulator to sweep the electron beam over the melt at high frequencies. the sweep amplitude of the electron beam is used to control the evaporation flux at high frequencies. The feedback loop of the system has a bandwidth of over 100 Hz, which makes it possible to grow superlattices and layered structures in a fast and precisely controlled manner

  15. Design and remote fiber communication of NSRL electron gun controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weibing; Gao Hui; Hong Jun; Chen Jun; Wang Guicheng; He Duohui; Chen Gang

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of pulse electron gun controller for 200 MeV LINAC at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory was introduced in this paper, including the working principle of the pulse electron gun, the applications of I 2 C serial bus and embedded microcontroller in controlling system. The emphasis is on the hardware design of digital controlled current regulator, digital controlled switch voltage source and high voltage pulse power supply. The software design of fiber communication and PC controlling is also presented. The electron gun controller has successfully been used in NSRL. The result shows that it is quite reliable and the performance is good. This electronic digital system has completely replaced the old mechanical control system. (authors)

  16. Modeling and Control of a teletruck using electronic load sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Iversen, Asger Malte; Jensen, Mads Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    system is most commonly controlled using a hydro-mechanical control scheme called Hydraulic Load Sensing (HLS). However, with the demands for increased efficiency and controllability the HLS solutions are reaching their limits. Motivated by availability of electronic controllable fluid power...... components and the potential of increased dynamic performance and efficiency, this paper investigates how HLS can be replaced with electronic control, i.e. Electronic Load Sensing (ELS). The investigation is performed by taking a specific application, a teletruck, and replace the HLS control with ELS. To aid...... the controller design for the ELS system, a complete model of the teletruck’s articulated arm and fluid power system is developed. To show the feasibility, a preliminary control structure for the ELS system is developed. The controller is tested on the machine, validating that features such as pump pressure...

  17. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  18. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heefner, J.W.; Williams, C.W.; Lauze, R.R.; Karsner, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The ECRH Control System was installed on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) in 1980. The system provides approximately 1 MW of 28 GHz microwave power to the TMX-U plasma. The subsystems of ECRH that must be controlled include high-voltage charging supplies, series pass tubes, and magnet supplies. In addition to the devices that must be controlled, many interlocks must be continuously monitored. The previous control system used relay logic and analog controls to operate the system. This approach has many drawbacks such as lack of system flexibility and maintainability. In order to address these problems, it was decided to go with a CAMAC and Modicon based system that uses a Hewlett-Packard 9836C personal computer to replace the previous analog controls. 2 figs

  19. Electronic control system for irradiation probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluza, E.; Neumann, J.; Zahalka, F.

    1980-01-01

    The EROS-78 system for the supply and power control of six heating sections of the irradiation probe of the CHOUCA type placed in the reactor vessel is described. The system allows temperature control at the location of the heat sensor with an accuracy of +-1% of the rated value within the region of 100 to 1000 degC. The equipment is provided with its own quartz controlled clock. The temperature is picked up by a chromel-alumel jacket thermocouple. The power input of the heating elements is thyristor controlled. (J.B.)

  20. Mitochondrial quality control in cardiac diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis is a hallmark of cardiac diseases. Therefore, maintenance of mitochondrial integrity through different surveillance mechanisms is critical for cardiomyocyte survival. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on the central role of mitochondrial quality control processes including regulation of mitochondrial redox balance, aldehyde metabolism, proteostasis, dynamics and clearance in cardiac diseases, highlighting their potential as therapeutic targets.

  1. The system of RF beam control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnyakov, A.M.; Levichev, A.E.; Chernousov, Yu.D.; Ivannikov, V.I.; Shebolaev, I.V.

    2015-01-01

    The system of RF control of three-electrode electron gun current is described. It consists of a source of microwave signal, coaxial line, coaxial RF switch and RF antenna lead. The system allows one to get the electron beam in the form of bunches with the frequency of the accelerating section to achieve the capture of particles in the acceleration mode close to 100%. The results of calculation and analysis of the elements of the system are presented. Characteristics of the devices are obtained experimentally. The results of using RF control in three-electrode electron gun at electron linear accelerator are described

  2. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang; Cao, Wei; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A new method to coherently control the electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp, then an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained and even shorter pulse is achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes which have never be a...

  3. An Electron-Beam Controlled Semiconductor Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    of the Seventeenth Power Modulator Symposium, Seattle, WA, pp. 214-218. 1986. 21. Bovino , L., ’ioumans,R., Weiner, H., Burke, T . , "Optica lly... Bovino , R. Youmans, M. Weiner, and T. Burke, ’ ’Optically Co ntrolled Semiconducto r Switch for ~lulti-~legawatt Rep-Rated Pulse r s ," Conf. Record...p. 615. (II 1 W. N. Carr, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, p. 531 , 1965. (121 T. Burke, M. Weiner. L. Bovino , and R. Youmans, in Proc

  4. Optimal control for Malaria disease through vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzir, Said; Nasir, Muhammad; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by an amoeba (single-celled animal) type of plasmodium where anopheles mosquito serves as the carrier. This study examines the optimal control problem of malaria disease spread based on Aron and May (1982) SIR type models and seeks the optimal solution by minimizing the prevention of the spreading of malaria by vaccine. The aim is to investigate optimal control strategies on preventing the spread of malaria by vaccination. The problem in this research is solved using analytical approach. The analytical method uses the Pontryagin Minimum Principle with the symbolic help of MATLAB software to obtain optimal control result and to analyse the spread of malaria with vaccination control.

  5. Attosecond control of electron beams at dielectric and absorbing membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuya; Baum, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Ultrashort electron pulses are crucial for time-resolved electron diffraction and microscopy of the fundamental light-matter interaction. In this work, we study experimentally and theoretically the generation and characterization of attosecond electron pulses by optical-field-driven compression and streaking at dielectric or absorbing interaction elements. The achievable acceleration and deflection gradient depends on the laser-electron angle, the laser's electric and magnetic field directions, and the foil orientation. Electric and magnetic fields have similar contributions to the final effect and both need to be considered. Experiments and theory agree well and reveal the optimum conditions for highly efficient, velocity-matched electron-field interactions in the longitudinal or transverse direction. We find that metallic membranes are optimum for light-electron control at mid-infrared or terahertz wavelengths, but dielectric membranes are excellent in the visible and near-infrared regimes and are therefore ideal for the formation of attosecond electron pulses.

  6. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or... Design Features The Gulfstream Model GVI airplane has an electronic flight control system and no direct... impending control surface limiting, piloted or auto-flight system control of the airplane might be...

  7. Electron Gun for Computer-controlled Welding of Small Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Jan; Vlček, Ivan; Zobač, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 62, 2-3 (2001), s. 159-164 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Electron beam-welding machine * Electron gun * Computer- control led beam Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2001

  8. Engineered Surfaces to Control Secondary Electron Yield for Multipactor Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Air Force Institute of Technology AFIT Scholar Theses and Dissertations 9-14-2017 Engineered Surfaces to Control Secondary Electron Yield for...Multipactor Suppression James M. Sattler Follow this and additional works at: https://scholar.afit.edu/etd Part of the Electrical and Electronics Commons... TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

  9. Electronic Monitoring and Family Control in Probation and Parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, James F.; Holman, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined effects of electronic monitoring on family's contribution to external constraint of felony offenders under community supervision. Data from probationers and parolees (n=121) indicated that reported levels of family control did not change significantly during three months of electronic monitoring. Demographic variables, offense type, and…

  10. Tourette's disease with impulse control disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Rajnish; Sidhu, Balwant Singh

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of Tourette's disease (TD) with impulse control disorder which is rare;these type of patients are prone to rage attack and explosive outbursts in the childhood and adolescence which can be detrimental. Hence, a case is reported to understand the phenomenology of its co-morbidity in TD.

  11. Atto-second control of collective electron motion in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borot, Antonin; Malvache, Arnaud; Chen, Xiaowei; Jullien, Aurelie; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Geindre, Jean-Paul; Audebert, Patrick; Mourou, Gerard; Quere, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Today, light fields of controlled and measured waveform can be used to guide electron motion in atoms and molecules with atto-second precision. Here, we demonstrate atto-second control of collective electron motion in plasmas driven by extreme intensity (approximate to 10 18 W cm -2 ) light fields. Controlled few-cycle near-infrared waves are tightly focused at the interface between vacuum and a solid-density plasma, where they launch and guide sub-cycle motion of electrons from the plasma with characteristic energies in the multi-kilo-electron-volt range-two orders of magnitude more than has been achieved so far in atoms and molecules. The basic spectroscopy of the coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation emerging from the light-plasma interaction allows us to probe this collective motion of charge with sub-200 as resolution. This is an important step towards atto-second control of charge dynamics in laser-driven plasma experiments. (authors)

  12. A control system for a free electron laser experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giove, D.

    1992-01-01

    The general layout of a control and data acquisition system for a Free Electron Laser experiment will be discussed. Some general considerations about the requirements and the architecture of the whole system will be developed. (author)

  13. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  14. Controlling front-end electronics boards using commercial solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Beneyton, R; Jost, B; Schmeling, S

    2002-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics experiment under construction at CERN's large hadron collider (LHC) accelerator. This paper will describe the novel approach LHCb is taking toward controlling and monitoring of electronics boards. Instead of using the bus in a crate to exercise control over the boards, we use credit-card sized personal computers (CCPCs) connected via Ethernet to cheap control PCs. The CCPCs will provide a simple parallel, I2C, and JTAG buses toward the electronics board. Each board will be equipped with a CCPC and, hence, will be completely independently controlled. The advantages of this scheme versus the traditional bus-based scheme will be described. Also, the integration of the controls of the electronics boards into a commercial supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system will be shown. (5 refs).

  15. Chaotic behaviour and controlling chaos in free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenjie; Chen Shigang; Du Xiangwan; Wang Guangrui

    1995-01-01

    Chaos in free electron lasers (FEL) is reviewed. Special attention has been paid to the chaotic behaviour of the electrons and the laser field. The problem of controlling and utilizing chaotic motion of the electrons and the laser field has also been discussed. In order to find out the rules of instability and chaos in FEL, some typical methods of the chaotic theory are used. These methods include making the Poincare surface of section, drawing the phase space diagrams of the electron orbits, calculating the Liapunov exponents, and computing the power spectrum, etc. Finally, some problems in FEL research are discussed (103 refs., 54 figs.)

  16. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  17. Laboratory electron exposure of TSS-1 thermal control coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Mccollum, M.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    RM400, a conductive thermal control coating, was developed for use on the exterior shell of the tethered satellite. Testing was performed by the Engineering Physics Division to quantify effects of the space environment on this coating and its conductive and optical properties. Included in this testing was exposure of RM400 to electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 to 1 keV, to simulate electrons accelerated from the ambient space plasma when the tethered satellite is fully deployed. During this testing, the coating was found to luminesce, and a prolonged exposure of the coating to high-energy electrons caused the coating to darken. This report describes the tests done to quantify the degradation of the thermal control properties caused by electron exposure and to measure the luminescence as a function of electron energy and current density to the satellite.

  18. Electronic circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a discharging circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet used for a reactor which is highly reliable and has high performance. The resistor of the circuit comprises a non-linear resistor element and a blocking rectification element connected in series. The discharging circuit can be prevented from short-circuit by selecting a resistor having a resistance value about ten times as great as the coil resistance, even in a case where the blocking rectification element and the non-linear resistor element are failed. Accordingly, reduction of attracting force and the increase of scream releasing time can be minimized. (I.S.)

  19. Treatment of extra-mammary Paget's disease with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Syuji; Kumano, Machiko; Tsuboi, Yoshitaka; Gose, Kyuhei.

    1979-01-01

    10 patients with extra-mammary Paget's disease were treated with high energy electron beam. 3 were treated surgically before irradiation. They were irradiated with the dose from, 6,000 rad in 40 fractions in 53 days to 9,900 rad in 66 fractions in 90 days. 3 recurred within 2 years and 1 recurred after 4.8 years and 1 recurred after 5 years. The early recurrence was observed around the irradiated field, while the late recurrence was seen in the irradiated field. A wider area should be irradiated to control this invasive disease. (author)

  20. Foodborne disease control: a transnational challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käferstein, F K; Motarjemi, Y; Bettcher, D W

    1997-01-01

    In the globalized political economy of the late 20th century, increasing social, political, and economic interdependence is occurring as a result of the rapid movement of people, images, values, and financial transactions across national borders. Another consequence of the increase in transnational trade, travel, and migration is the greater risk of cross-border transmission of infectious diseases. As the world becomes more interconnected, diseases spread more rapidly and effectively. With more than one million people crossing international borders every day, and with the globalization of food production, manufacturing, and marketing, the risk of infectious disease transmission is greater. Economic globalization has also increased the need for governmental budget austerity, and consequent national preparedness has been eroded. The emergence of new infectious diseases, as well as the reemergence of old ones, thus represents a crucial transnational policy issue. These problems cannot be resolved by national governments alone; they require international cooperation. This article analyzes the role of foodborne disease surveillance programs, nationally and internationally, in the control of foodborne diseases.

  1. Advanced and intelligent control in power electronics and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Rodríguez, José

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics and variable frequency drives are continuously developing multidisciplinary fields in electrical engineering, and it is practically not possible to write a book covering the entire area by one individual specialist. Especially by taking account the recent fast development in the neighboring fields like control theory, computational intelligence and signal processing, which all strongly influence new solutions in control of power electronics and drives. Therefore, this book is written by individual key specialist working on the area of modern advanced control methods which penetrates current implementation of power converters and drives. Although some of the presented methods are still not adopted by industry, they create new solutions with high further research and application potential. The material of the book is presented in the following three parts: Part I: Advanced Power Electronic Control in Renewable Energy Sources (Chapters 1-4), Part II: Predictive Control of Power Converters and D...

  2. Development of control system for the electron gun modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Nagasawa, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Hanaki, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing a compact and inexpensive electron gun modulator for the SPring-8 Linac. The modulator was redesigned and manufactured to achieve good maintainability and high controllability. A control system of the modulator and a high voltage station is composed mainly of PLCs as a controller and touch panels for human interface. This simplified construction will result in enhancement of its reliability. The rich graphical user interface on the touch panels greatly extends the function of the control system. (author)

  3. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  4. Gated-controlled electron pumping in connected quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.P.A.; Domínguez-Adame, F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the electronic transport across connected quantum rings attached to leads and subjected to time-harmonic side-gate voltages. Using the Floquet formalism, we calculate the net pumped current generated and controlled by the side-gate voltage. The control of the current is achieved by varying the phase shift between the two side-gate voltages as well as the Fermi energy. In particular, the maximum current is reached when the side-gate voltages are in quadrature. This new design based on connected quantum rings controlled without magnetic fields can be easily integrated in standard electronic devices. - Highlights: • We introduce and study a minimal setup to pump electrons through connected quantum rings. • Quantum pumping is achieved by time-harmonic side-gate voltages instead of the more conventional time-dependent magnetic fluxes. • Our new design could be easily integrated in standard electronic devices

  5. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  6. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2018-01-30

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  7. Dose controlled low energy electron irradiator for biomolecular films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S V K; Tare, Satej T; Upalekar, Yogesh V; Tsering, Thupten

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a multi target, Low Energy Electron (LEE), precise dose controlled irradiator for biomolecular films. Up to seven samples can be irradiated one after another at any preset electron energy and dose under UHV conditions without venting the chamber. In addition, one more sample goes through all the steps except irradiation, which can be used as control for comparison with the irradiated samples. All the samples are protected against stray electron irradiation by biasing them at -20 V during the entire period, except during irradiation. Ethernet based communication electronics hardware, LEE beam control electronics and computer interface were developed in house. The user Graphical User Interface to control the irradiation and dose measurement was developed using National Instruments Lab Windows CVI. The working and reliability of the dose controlled irradiator has been fully tested over the electron energy range of 0.5 to 500 eV by studying LEE induced single strand breaks to ΦX174 RF1 dsDNA.

  8. Dose controlled low energy electron irradiator for biomolecular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. V. K., E-mail: svkk@tifr.res.in; Tare, Satej T.; Upalekar, Yogesh V.; Tsering, Thupten [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2016-03-15

    We have developed a multi target, Low Energy Electron (LEE), precise dose controlled irradiator for biomolecular films. Up to seven samples can be irradiated one after another at any preset electron energy and dose under UHV conditions without venting the chamber. In addition, one more sample goes through all the steps except irradiation, which can be used as control for comparison with the irradiated samples. All the samples are protected against stray electron irradiation by biasing them at −20 V during the entire period, except during irradiation. Ethernet based communication electronics hardware, LEE beam control electronics and computer interface were developed in house. The user Graphical User Interface to control the irradiation and dose measurement was developed using National Instruments Lab Windows CVI. The working and reliability of the dose controlled irradiator has been fully tested over the electron energy range of 0.5 to 500 eV by studying LEE induced single strand breaks to ΦX174 RF1 dsDNA.

  9. Control of Pierce's Disease by Phage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Das

    Full Text Available Pierce's Disease (PD of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xf, is a limiting factor in the cultivation of grapevines in the US. There are presently no effective control methods to prevent or treat PD. The therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of four virulent (lytic phages was evaluated for control of PD. Xf levels in grapevines were significantly reduced in therapeutically or prophylactically treated grapevines. PD symptoms ceased to progress one week post-therapeutic treatment and symptoms were not observed in prophylactically treated grapevines. Cocktail phage levels increased in grapevines in the presence of the host. No in planta phage-resistant Xf isolates were obtained. Moreover, Xf mutants selected for phage resistance in vitro did not cause PD symptoms. Our results indicate that phages have great potential for biocontrol of PD and other economically important diseases caused by Xylella.

  10. Coherent control of single electrons: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerle, Christopher; Glattli, D. Christian; Meunier, Tristan; Portier, Fabien; Roche, Patrice; Roulleau, Preden; Takada, Shintaro; Waintal, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    In this report we review the present state of the art of the control of propagating quantum states at the single-electron level and its potential application to quantum information processing. We give an overview of the different approaches that have been developed over the last few years in order to gain full control over a propagating single-electron in a solid-state system. After a brief introduction of the basic concepts, we present experiments on flying qubit circuits for ensemble of electrons measured in the low frequency (DC) limit. We then present the basic ingredients necessary to realise such experiments at the single-electron level. This includes a review of the various single-electron sources that have been developed over the last years and which are compatible with integrated single-electron circuits. This is followed by a review of recent key experiments on electron quantum optics with single electrons. Finally we will present recent developments in the new physics that has emerged using ultrashort voltage pulses. We conclude our review with an outlook and future challenges in the field.

  11. [Predictive ocular motor control in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Chen, Wei; Gan, Jing; Wang, Wen-An

    2008-02-19

    To investigate the changes of predictive ocular motor function in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to discuss its clinical value. Videonystagmography (VNG) was used to examine 24 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 15 males and 9 females, aged 61 +/- 6 (50-69), and 24 sex and age-matched healthy control subjects on random ocular saccade (with the target moving at random intervals to random positions) and predictive ocular saccade (with the 1.25-second light target moving 10 degrees right or left from the center). In the random ocular saccade program, the latency of saccade of the PD patients was 284 ms +/- 58 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (236 ms +/- 37 ms, P = 0.003). In the predictive ocular saccade pattern, the latency of saccades the PD patients was 150 ms +/- 138 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (59 ms +/- 102 ms, P = 0.002). The appearance rate of predictive saccades (with the latency of saccade <80 ms) in the PD group was 21%, significantly lower than that in the control group (31%, P = 0.003). There is dysfunction of predictive ocular motor control in the PD patients, and the cognitive function may be impaired at the early stage of PD.

  12. Method’s and Test Stand for Electronic PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents method’s and a testing stand for electronic controller using for this a signal generator and a digital oscilloscope respectively the virtual instrumentation and the signal acquisitions from the controllers input and output through an data acquisition board and an PC on that Lab View program runs.

  13. Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A method to coherently control electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp; thus an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained, and even shorter pulses are achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes. In addition, the few-cycle synthesized pulse is expected to be useful for manipulating a wide range of laser-atom interactions

  14. A computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. IV: Electronic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; McShan, Daniel L.; Matrone, Gwynne M.; Weaver, Tamar A.; Lewis, James D.; Kessler, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The design and implementation of a system for electronically tracking relevant plan, prescription, and treatment data for computer-controlled conformal radiation therapy is described. Methods and Materials: The electronic charting system is implemented on a computer cluster coupled by high-speed networks to computer-controlled therapy machines. A methodical approach to the specification and design of an integrated solution has been used in developing the system. The electronic chart system is designed to allow identification and access of patient-specific data including treatment-planning data, treatment prescription information, and charting of doses. An in-house developed database system is used to provide an integrated approach to the database requirements of the design. A hierarchy of databases is used for both centralization and distribution of the treatment data for specific treatment machines. Results: The basic electronic database system has been implemented and has been in use since July 1993. The system has been used to download and manage treatment data on all patients treated on our first fully computer-controlled treatment machine. To date, electronic dose charting functions have not been fully implemented clinically, requiring the continued use of paper charting for dose tracking. Conclusions: The routine clinical application of complex computer-controlled conformal treatment procedures requires the management of large quantities of information for describing and tracking treatments. An integrated and comprehensive approach to this problem has led to a full electronic chart for conformal radiation therapy treatments

  15. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  17. Electron energy distribution function control in gas discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godyak, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and electron temperature in low temperature gas discharge plasmas is analyzed in frames of local and non-local electron kinetics. It is shown, that contrary to the local case, typical for plasma in uniform electric field, there is the possibility for EEDF modification, at the condition of non-local electron kinetics in strongly non-uniform electric fields. Such conditions “naturally” occur in some self-organized steady state dc and rf discharge plasmas, and they suggest the variety of artificial methods for EEDF modification. EEDF modification and electron temperature control in non-equilibrium conditions occurring naturally and those stimulated by different kinds of plasma disturbances are illustrated with numerous experiments. The necessary conditions for EEDF modification in gas discharge plasmas are formulated

  18. Laser pulse control of bridge mediated heterogeneous electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luxia; May, Volkhard

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer from surface attached dye molecules into semiconductor band states is analyzed. The focus is on systems where the dye is separated from the surface by different bridge anchor groups. To simulate the full quantum dynamics of the transfer process a model of reduced dimensionality is used. It comprises the electronic levels of the dye, the bridge anchor group electronic levels and the continuum of semiconductor band states, all defined versus a single intramolecular vibrational coordinate. The effect of the bridge states is demonstrated, firstly, in studying the injection dynamics following an impulsive excitation of the dye. Then, by discussing different control tasks it is demonstrate in which way the charge injection process can be influenced by tailored laser pulses. To highlight the importance of electron wave function interference emphasis is put on asymmetric two-bridge molecule systems which are also characterized by different and complex valued electronic transfer matrix elements.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of an electronic informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Wong, Bob; Rose, Nancy C; Anderson, Rebecca; Fedor, Beth; Stark, Louisa A; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-01

    A pilot study assessed an electronic informed consent model within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants who were recruited for the parent RCT project were randomly selected and randomized to either an electronic consent group (n = 32) or a simplified paper-based consent group (n = 30). Results from the electronic consent group reported significantly higher understanding of the purpose of the study, alternatives to participation, and who to contact if they had questions or concerns about the study. However, participants in the paper-based control group reported higher mean scores on some survey items. This research suggests that an electronic informed consent presentation may improve participant understanding for some aspects of a research study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Infection Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Johnston

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past year, several situations have occurred in Canada in which patients who had recently undergone a surgical procedure were subsequently diagnosed with confirmed or suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. This raised concerns over contamination of surgical instruments: which instruments might have been contaminated from direct exposure to tissues; can instruments become cross-contaminated by exposure to other contaminated instruments; what assessment is necessary to determine cross-contamination; and what should be done with instruments that have been contaminated. Additionally, should there be a patient traceback in the face of potential but unproven exposure? Unfortunately, there are no easy answers to most of the above questions. Australia, the United Kingdom and the World Health Organization have developed guidelines for the infection control management of patients with CJD, as well as instruments and devices that come into contact with them and their tissues (1-3. Health Canada's draft CJD infection control guidelines, withdrawn from the Health Canada Web site until safety concerns regarding sodium hydroxide can be addressed, closely mirrored recommendations made in those documents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for CJD are under revision. However, a recent American publication made recommendations on what procedures should be used for reprocessing items that have been in contact with the prion protein (PrP (4. These recommendations differ substantially from the draft Canadian guidelines. This article reviews current knowledge about CJD, and highlights some of the infection control concerns and controversies.

  1. Monitoring and control system of the Saclay electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafontaine, Antoine

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic monitoring and control system of the 60MeV electron linear accelerator of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. The paper is mostly concerned with the programmation of the system. However, in a real time device, there is a very close association between computer and electronics, the latter are therefore described in details and make up most of the paper. [fr

  2. Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0012 Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures PHILIP Kim HARVARD COLLEGE PRESIDENT...21-02-2018 2.  REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      15 Aug 2015 to 14 Feb 2017 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nano Electronics on...NOTES 14.  ABSTRACT We report molecular beam epitaxial growth and electronic transport properties of high quality topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films

  3. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  4. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  5. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Xun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders (ICDs in Parkinson's disease (PD are common with a frequency of 13.61% , which are associated with impaired functioning and with depressive, anxiety and obsessive symptoms, novelty seeking and impulsivity. These behaviors have a bad influence on PD patients in the quality of life. Different behavioral subtypes suggest pathophysiological differences. Recent large scale studies and converging findings are beginning to provide an understanding of mechanisms underlying ICDs in PD which can guide the prevention of these behaviors and optimize therapeutic approaches. This paper will take a review on the recent advances in the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy of ICDs in PD.

  6. A first approach to runaway electron control in FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, L.; Carnevale, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Esposito, B.; Granucci, G.; Maddaluno, G.; Marocco, D.; Martin-Solis, J.R.; Pucella, G.; Sozzi, C.; Varano, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Plasma Control System (PCS) of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is not equipped with any runaway electron (RE) beam control or suppression tool. In this paper we propose an upgraded PCS including an architecture for the control of disruption-generated REs that, making use of filtering techniques to estimate the onsets of the current quench (CQ) and of the RE beam current plateau, provides a controlled plasma current shut-down and a simultaneous RE position control. The control strategy is based on a nonlinear technique, called Input Allocation, that allows to re-configure the current in the poloidal field (PF) coils and improve the PCS responsiveness needed for RE position control. Preliminary results on the implementation of the Input Allocation and an experimental proposal to test the control scheme architecture are discussed

  7. A first approach to runaway electron control in FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Carnevale, D., E-mail: carnevaledaniele@gmail.com [Dipartimento Ing. Civile ed Ing. Informatica Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cianfarani, C.; Esposito, B. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Granucci, G. [Associazione Euratom-CNR sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Maddaluno, G.; Marocco, D. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Martin-Solis, J.R. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes-Madrid (Spain); Pucella, G. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sozzi, C. [Associazione Euratom-CNR sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Varano, G. [Dipartimento Ing. Civile ed Ing. Informatica Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Vitale, V. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 av. du colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Univ. de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-10-15

    The Plasma Control System (PCS) of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is not equipped with any runaway electron (RE) beam control or suppression tool. In this paper we propose an upgraded PCS including an architecture for the control of disruption-generated REs that, making use of filtering techniques to estimate the onsets of the current quench (CQ) and of the RE beam current plateau, provides a controlled plasma current shut-down and a simultaneous RE position control. The control strategy is based on a nonlinear technique, called Input Allocation, that allows to re-configure the current in the poloidal field (PF) coils and improve the PCS responsiveness needed for RE position control. Preliminary results on the implementation of the Input Allocation and an experimental proposal to test the control scheme architecture are discussed.

  8. Optical polarimeter based on Fourier analysis and electronic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardy, J; Salas, V.; Torres, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show the design and implementation of an optical polarimeter using electronic control and the Fourier analysis. The polarimeter prototype will be used as a main tool for the students of the Universidad Popular del Cesar that belong to the following university programs: Electronics engineering (optoelectronics area), Math and Physics degree and the Master in Physics Sciences, in order to learning the theory and experimental aspects of the state of optical polarization via the Stokes vector measurement. Using the electronic polarimeter proposed in this paper, the students will be able to observe (in an optical bench) and understand the different interactions of the states of optical polarization when the optical waves pass through to the polarizers and retarder waves plates. The electronic polarimeter has a software that captures the optical intensity measurement and evaluates the Stokes vector. (Author)

  9. Two-process approach to electron beam welding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastovirya, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and synthesis of multi-dimensional welding control systems, which require the usage of computers, should be conducted within the temporal range. From the general control theory point two approaches - one-process and two-process - are possible to electron beam welding. In case of two-process approach, subprocesses of heat source formation and direct metal melting are separated. Two-process approach leads to two-profile control system and provides the complete controlability of electron beam welding within the frameworks of systems with concentrated, as well as, with distributed parameters. Approach choice for the given problem solution is determined, first of all, by stability degree of heat source during welding

  10. Help system for control of JAERI FEL (Free Electron laser)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    The control system of JAERI FEL (Free Electron Laser) has a help system to provide the information necessary to operate the machine and to develop the new user interface. As the control software is constructed on the MS-Windows 3.x, the hyper-text feature of the Windows help system can be accessed. It consists of three major parts: (1) on-line help, (2) full document, and (3) tutorial system. (author)

  11. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  12. Control-grid electron gun as a source of modulated electron beam for a collective accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakumenko, A.A.; Belikov, V.V.; Zvyagintsev, A.V.; Lyul'chenko, V.I.; Lymar', A.G.; Martynenko, P.A.; Suryadnyj, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Structure is described and experimental results of investigations into an electron gun with transverse beam compression and control grid are presented. The pulse trailing edge is formed by a sectioned discharger. A modulated electron beam with the following parameters: 110 keV beam energy, 70 A current amplitude, 3-8 MHz modulation frequency, 100% modulation depth, ≅8-6 mm minimal beam diameter, ≅ 10μs pulse duration, 3% pulse top non-uniformity, more than 200 compression degree is obtained when introducing the positive feedback in auto-generator regime to the gun supply circuit. Further it is supposed to use the developed electron gun for heavy ion acceleration by a field of space charge of a modulated electron beam in a corrugated liner. It should be underlined that power supply of such an accelerator does not require powerful outside HF generator. 5 refs.; 1 fig

  13. Radiosterilization process control in plants using electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam parameters deciding the irradiation dose in radiosterilization plants should be continuously controlled during the process. Dosimetric procedure suitable to irradiated material and dose range should be chosen. The practical advice and directions in this subject have been done. 7 refs

  14. 21 CFR 11.200 - Electronic signature components and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... signature components and controls. (a) Electronic signatures that are not based upon biometrics shall: (1) Employ at least two distinct identification components such as an identification code and password. (i... signatures based upon biometrics shall be designed to ensure that they cannot be used by anyone other than...

  15. 75 FR 16235 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... mature standard for the formatting of prescription data, most electronic prescriptions are routed from... prescriptions prior to granting access to sign such prescriptions, two-factor authentication including a hard... practitioner can retain control of a biometric or hard token. Authentication based only on knowledge factors is...

  16. Electronic Performance Monitoring: An Organizational Justice and Concertive Control Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, G. Stoney; Tompkins, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Applies theories of organizational justice/concertive control to account for contradictions inherent in electronic monitoring of workers by organizations. Argues that results are usually positive when workers are involved in the design and implementation of monitoring systems, and monitoring is restricted to performance-related activities with…

  17. Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems in clinical disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, JRBJ

    1996-01-01

    Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems are important for clinical disease management. In this review the most important new systems which have reached clinical application are highlighted. Microbiologically controlled drug delivery is important for gastrointestinal diseases like ulcerative

  18. Palm Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel

    2007-01-01

    A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.

  19. Supply system with microprocessor control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplin, N.I.; Sergeev, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Precision supply system for electron gun used in Auger-spectrometer is described. The supply system consists of control and high-voltage parts, made as separate units. Supply high-voltage unit includes system supply module, filament module to supply electron gun cathode and 6 high-volt modules to supply accelerating, modulating and three focusing electrodes of the gun. High-voltage modules have the following characteristics: U-(100-1000)V output voltage, 5x10 -5 U stability, 10 -5 xU pulsation amplitude, J-(0-5)A filament current change range at 10 -4 xJ stability. Control unit including microprocessor, timer and storage devices forms control voltage for all modules and regulates voltage and current of filament at electrodes

  20. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Y I; Gurin, V A; Demidov, N V

    2001-01-01

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes.

  1. Speed Control of General Purpose Engine with Electronic Governor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawut, Umerujan; Tohti, Gheyret; Takigawa, Buso; Tsuji, Teruo

    This paper presents a general purpose engine speed control system with an electronic governor in order to improve the current system with a mechanical governor which shows unstable characteristics by change of mecanical friction or A/F ratio (Air/Fuel ratio). For the control system above, there are problems that the feedback signal is only a crank angle because of cost and the controlled object is a general purpose engine which is strongly nonlinear. In order to overcome these problems, the system model is shown for the dynamic estimation of the amount of air flow and the robust controller is designed. That is, the proposed system includes the robust sliding-mode controller by the feedback signal of only a crank angle where Genetic Algorithm is applied for the controller design. The simulation and the experiments by MATLAB/Simulink are performed to show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  2. Advance of Mechanically Controllable Break Junction for Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Xiang, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Molecular electronics stands for the ultimate size of functional elements, keeping up with an unstoppable trend over the past few decades. As a vital component of molecular electronics, single molecular junctions have attracted significant attention from research groups all over the world. Due to its pronounced superiority, the mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ) technique has been widely applied to characterize the dynamic performance of single molecular junctions. This review presents a system analysis for single-molecule junctions and offers an overview of four test-beds for single-molecule junctions, thus offering more insight into the mechanisms of electron transport. We mainly focus on the development of state-of-the-art mechanically controlled break junctions. The three-terminal gated MCBJ approaches are introduced to manipulate the electron transport of molecules, and MCBJs are combined with characterization techniques. Additionally, applications of MCBJs and remarkable properties of single molecules are addressed. Finally, the challenges and perspective for the mechanically controllable break junctions technique are provided.

  3. Implementation to spanish protocol of quality control of accelerators to daily control of electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Diaz Fuente, R.; Ferrando Sanchez, A.

    2011-01-01

    A revised procedure for daily control of the electron beams to make measurements more meaningful physically, having a better reproducibility and more in line with the recommendations of the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control in Electron Linear Accelerators Clinical Use. The daily quality control beams of high energy electrons that had been done so far was the finding that the record of a series of measures (symmetry, uniformity, stability, energy, beam central dose) were within tolerance values established. The amendment is to check the beam quality by directly measuring changes in absorption depth at which the dose is reduced to half its maximum value, R50.

  4. Techniques for increasing the reliability of accelerator control system electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utterback, J.

    1993-09-01

    As the physical size of modern accelerators becomes larger and larger, the number of required control system circuit boards increases, and the probability of one of those circuit boards failing while in service also increases. In order to do physics, the experimenters need the accelerator to provide beam reliably with as little down time as possible. With the advent of colliding beams physics, reliability becomes even more important due to the fact that a control system failure can cause the loss of painstakingly produced antiprotons. These facts prove the importance of keeping reliability in mind when designing and maintaining accelerator control system electronics

  5. ASIL determination for motorbike's Electronics Throttle Control System (ETCS) mulfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman Rokhani, Fakhrul; Rahman, Muhammad Taqiuddin Abdul; Ain Kamsani, Noor; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Saripan, M. Iqbal; Samsudin, Khairulmizam; Khair Hassan, Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Electronics Throttle Control System (ETCS) is the principal electronic unit in all fuel injection engine motorbike, augmenting the engine performance efficiency in comparison to the conventional carburetor based engine. ETCS is regarded as a safety-critical component, whereby ETCS malfunction can cause unintended acceleration or deceleration event, which can be hazardous to riders. In this study, Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, an ISO26262 functional safety standard analysis has been applied on motorbike's ETCS to determine the required automotive safety integrity level. Based on the analysis, the established automotive safety integrity level can help to derive technical and functional safety measures for ETCS development.

  6. Runaway electron beam control for longitudinally pumped metal vapor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbychev, G. V.; Kolbycheva, P. D.

    1995-08-01

    Physics and techniques for producing of the pulsed runaway electron beams are considered. The main obstacle for increasing electron energies in the beams is revealed to be a self- breakdown of the e-gun's gas-filled diode. Two methods to suppress the self-breakdown and enhance the volumetric discharge producing the e-beam are offered and examined. Each of them provides 1.5 fold increase of the ceiling potential on the gun. The methods also give the ways to control several guns simultaneously. Resulting in the possibility of realizing the powerful longitudinal pumping of metal-vapor lasers on self-terminated transitions of atoms or ions.

  7. Electron precipitation control of the Mars nightside ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, R. J.; Girazian, Z.; Mitchell, D. L.; Adams, D.; Xu, S.; Benna, M.; Elrod, M. K.; Larson, D. E.; McFadden, J. P.; Andersson, L.; Fowler, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The nightside ionosphere of Mars is known to be highly variable, with densities varying substantially with ion species, solar zenith angle, solar wind conditions and geographic location. The factors that control its structure include neutral densities, day-night plasma transport, plasma temperatures, dynamo current systems driven by neutral winds, solar energetic particle events, superthermal electron precipitation, chemical reaction rates and the strength, geometry and topology of crustal magnetic fields. The MAVEN mission has been the first to systematically sample the nightside ionosphere by species, showing that shorter-lived species such as CO2+ and O+ are more correlated with electron precipitation flux than longer lived species such as O2+ and NO+, as would be expected, and is shown in the figure below from Girazian et al. [2017, under review at Geophysical Research Letters]. In this study we use electron pitch-angle and energy spectra from the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) instruments, ion and neutral densities from the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS), electron densities and temperatures from the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument, as well as electron-neutral ionization cross-sections. We present a comprehensive statistical study of electron precipitation on the Martian nightside and its effect on the vertical, local-time and geographic structure and composition of the ionosphere, over three years of MAVEN observations. We also calculate insitu electron impact ionization rates and compare with ion densities to judge the applicability of photochemical models of the formation and maintenance of the nightside ionosphere. Lastly, we show how this applicability varies with altitude and is affected by ion transport measured by the Suprathermal and thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument.

  8. Externally Controlled Injection of Electrons by a Laser Pulse in a Laser Wakefield Electron Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Szu Yuan; Chen Wei Ting; Chien, Ting-Yei; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Wang, Jyhpyng

    2005-01-01

    Spatially and temporally localized injection of electrons is a key element for development of plasma-wave electron accelerator. Here we report the demonstration of two different schemes for electron injection in a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SM-LWFA) by using a laser pulse. In the first scheme, by implementing a copropagating laser prepulse with proper timing, we are able to control the growth of Raman forward scattering and the production of accelerated electrons. We found that the stimulated Raman backward scattering of the prepulse plays the essential role of injecting hot electrons into the fast plasma wave driven by the pump pulse. In the second scheme, by using a transient density ramp we achieve self-injection of electrons in a SM-LWFA with spatial localization. The transient density ramp is produced by a prepulse propagating transversely to drill a density depression channel via ionization and expansion. The same mechanism of injection with comparable efficiency is also demonstrated wi...

  9. Mechanism of enhancement of controllable secondary-electron emission from fast single electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorikyan, M.P.; Kavalov, R.L.; Trofimchuk, N.N.; Arvanov, A.N.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    For porous KCl films (density approximately 2 percent, thickness 50-400 μm), the controllable secondary electron emission (CSEE) from fast single electrons with energies of 0.7-2 MeV was studied. An electric field E of approximately 10 4 -10 5 V/cm was set up inside the porous films and the emission curves anti sigma = f(E) and the energy spectra of the secondary electrons were measured. The mean emission coefficient anti sigma increases with increasing E, reaching a value of anti sigma approximately equal to 230. Internal enhancement of CSEE under the action of the E field is explained by a process similar to the Townsend semi-self-maintained discharge in gases. The mean free path L/sub e/ of the secondary electrons estimated on the basis of this mechanism of CSEE enhancement is in good agreement with the L/sub e/ value obtained independently from the energy spectra of the secondary electrons. The report examines the effect of the first critical potential U/sub il/ and of the electron affinity of the dielectric α on the formation of CSEE from a porous dielectric film. The possibility of using such films in particle detectors is discussed

  10. Power electronic converters modeling and control with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Seddik; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Modern power electronic converters are involved in a very broad spectrum of applications: switched-mode power supplies, electrical-machine-motion-control, active power filters, distributed power generation, flexible AC transmission systems, renewable energy conversion systems and vehicular technology, among them. Power Electronics Converters Modeling and Control teaches the reader how to analyze and model the behavior of converters and so to improve their design and control. Dealing with a set of confirmed algorithms specifically developed for use with power converters, this text is in two parts: models and control methods. The first is a detailed exposition of the most usual power converter models: ·        switched and averaged models; ·        small/large-signal models; and ·        time/frequency models. The second focuses on three groups of control methods: ·        linear control approaches normally associated with power converters; ·        resonant controllers b...

  11. Control systems for power electronics a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the book covers most of the aspects as a primer on power electronics starting from a simple diode bridge to a DC-DC convertor using PWM control. The thyristor-bridge and the mechanism of designing a closed loop system are discussed in chapter one, two and three. The concepts are applied in the fourth chapter as a case study for buck converter which uses MOSFETs as switching devices and the closed loop system is elaborated in the fifth chapter. Chapter six is focused on the embedded system basics and the implementation of controls in the digital domain. Chapter seven is a case study of application of an embedded control system for a DC motor. With this book, the reader will find it easy to work on the practical control systems with microcontroller implementation. The core intent of this book is to help gain an accelerated learning path to practical control system engineering and transform control theory to an implementable control system through electronics. Illustrations are provided for most of...

  12. Research on fuzzy PID control to electronic speed regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-gang; Chen, Xue-hui; Zheng, Sheng-guo

    2007-12-01

    As an important part of diesel engine, the speed regulator plays an important role in stabilizing speed and improving engine's performance. Because there are so many model parameters of diesel-engine considered in traditional PID control and these parameters present non-linear characteristic.The method to adjust engine speed using traditional PID is not considered as a best way. Especially for the diesel-engine generator set. In this paper, the Fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. Some problems about its utilization in electronic speed regulator are discussed. A mathematical model of electric control system for diesel-engine generator set is established and the way of the PID parameters in the model to affect the function of system is analyzed. And then it is proposed the differential coefficient must be applied in control design for reducing dynamic deviation of system and adjusting time. Based on the control theory, a study combined control with PID calculation together for turning fuzzy PID parameter is implemented. And also a simulation experiment about electronic speed regulator system was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and the Fuzzy-Toolbox. Compared with the traditional PID Algorithm, the simulated results presented obvious improvements in the instantaneous speed governing rate and steady state speed governing rate of diesel-engine generator set when the fuzzy logic control strategy used.

  13. Toroidal electron beam energy storage for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.; Korn, P.; Mondelli, A.; Rostoker, N.

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of an external magnetic field stable equilibria exist for an unneutralized electron beam with ν/γ >1. As a result, it is in principle, possible to store very large quantities of energy in relatively small volumes by confining an unneutralized electron beam in a Tokamak-like device. The energy is stored principally in the electrostatic and self-magnetic fields associated with the beam and is available for rapid heating of pellets for controlled fusion. The large electrostatic potential well in such a device would be sufficient to contain energetic alpha particles, thereby reducing reactor wall bombardment. This approach also avoids plasma loss and wall bombardment by charge exchange neutrals. The conceptual design of an electrostatic Tokamak fusion reactor (ETFR) is discussed. A small toroidal device (the STP machine) has been constructed to test the principles involved. Preliminary experiments on this device have produced electron densities approximately 10% of those required in a reactor

  14. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thai M; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-07-19

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  15. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-07-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  16. Emission spectra of dimethoxybenzenes by controlled electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Teiichiro; Imasaka, Totaro; Toyoda, Minoru; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ishibashi, Nobuhiko

    1975-01-01

    The emission spectra of o-, m-, and p-dimethoxybenzenes under controlled electron impact excitation (200 eV) were measured in the 220 - 450 nm region at very low pressures. The photoemissions of the excited parent species and such fragment species as H, CH, CO, and CO + were observed and assigned. The relative intensities of the photoemissions of the parent species were compared with those of the fluorescence spectra (photoexcitation) in an n-hexane solution. The excited parent species, H, and CH were concluded to be produced in one-electron processes; however, the CO + species were assumed to be produced in both one- and two-electron processes, and the relative contributions are evaluated. It was concluded that the rate of the predissociation of o-dimethoxybenzene was faster than those of the other two isomers, and the observed characteristics of o-dimethoxybenzene had something to do with this faster rate. (auth.)

  17. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath

  18. Comparing electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown white powder to reports received by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Federal Bureau of Investigation: U.S.A., 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Geroncio C; Posid, Joseph; Papagiotas, Stephen; Lowe, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There have been periodic electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown substances (often referred to as "white powder") since the 2001 intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis through the U.S. Postal System. This study reviewed the number of unknown "white powder" incidents reported online by the electronic news media and compared them with unknown "white powder" incidents reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) during a 2-year period from June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011. Results identified 297 electronic news media reports, 538 CDC reports, and 384 FBI reports of unknown "white powder." This study showed different unknown "white powder" incidents captured by each of the three sources. However, the authors could not determine the public health implications of this discordance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Electronic Control Of Small Hydro-Generators Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz B, Pedro; Torres M, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    The present project arises for the Colombian population's necessity to overcome the underdevelopment, the poverty, the education and the level of life in rural areas of difficult access, for an economic rural electrification. The UIS, by means of the advisory committee of investigations of the ability of Physical-mechanical Sciences and the ability of Electricity and Electronic, it begins the process of developing in 1991 a study of economic and reliable control for the handling of small micro-centrals. Providing from electric power to the rural sector is a world problem, and have more than enough this some countries (China, Nepal, Peru, The islands of Papua, New Guinea), they have made investigations, outlining and building central micro controlled by microprocessor. The present study is developed with the objective of carrying out a load control that acts reliable and quickly. Traditionally they have been come using mechanical governors, which are those in charge of making the load control by means of valves that regulate the flow of water in the turbines, involving this way big retards characteristic of any mechanical control. In summary, the electronic governor of load presents on the mechanical governor, the advantage of acting to more speed and consequently to maintain stable the frequency of the system. To continue with the study, the objective that this project must develop, is an electronic control of load which presents to a small hydro generator, a relatively constant and independent electric load that the demanded consumption for the user varies from none to full load, given as initial parameters a constant flow in the turbine and a control in the line tension. This way it seeks to improve the energy quality given by isolated generators

  20. Analysis on electronic control unit of continuously variable transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuanggui

    Continuously variable transmission system can ensure that the engine work along the line of best fuel economy, improve fuel economy, save fuel and reduce harmful gas emissions. At the same time, continuously variable transmission allows the vehicle speed is more smooth and improves the ride comfort. Although the CVT technology has made great development, but there are many shortcomings in the CVT. The CVT system of ordinary vehicles now is still low efficiency, poor starting performance, low transmission power, and is not ideal controlling, high cost and other issues. Therefore, many scholars began to study some new type of continuously variable transmission. The transmission system with electronic systems control can achieve automatic control of power transmission, give full play to the characteristics of the engine to achieve optimal control of powertrain, so the vehicle is always traveling around the best condition. Electronic control unit is composed of the core processor, input and output circuit module and other auxiliary circuit module. Input module collects and process many signals sent by sensor and , such as throttle angle, brake signals, engine speed signal, speed signal of input and output shaft of transmission, manual shift signals, mode selection signals, gear position signal and the speed ratio signal, so as to provide its corresponding processing for the controller core.

  1. Auxiliary controllers for data acquisition from scintillation detector electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonenko, D A; Rybakov, V G; Sen' ko, V A [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1983-01-01

    Structural schemes of auxiliary controllers of three types ensuring compression, filtration and record in buffer storage of data from scintillation detectors electronic equipment are described. The electronics is made according to the CAMAC ideology. The KD-85 controller exercises data readout from analog-to-digital converters (ADC), subtraction of pedestal values, discrimination by the bottom level and record into the buffer storage module. The KD-86 controller summarizes data from all the ADC channels in a crate dicscriminates the summarized data by the upper and bottom levels, and rejects data classified as useless. The KD-90 controller ensures data reading from different modules of the crate according to preset code and records information in the buffer storage module. The considered controllers employ integral microcircuits of the K 155 series. At present the controllers are under experimental operation. Their utilization would permit to adopt new arrangement of data acquisition from experimental facilities in the nearest future and essentially increase the operating efficiency of these facilities.

  2. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CRPP-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2004-05-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The {rho}{sub T}{sup *} (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength.

  3. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G

    2004-01-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The ρ T * (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength

  4. Advances in disease control of tick and tick-borne diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.nfection and treatment method ofimmunisation has been devised ... providing research and training and in extension work on. TBDs. ... systems, cattle types, level of disease risk, disease control policies ... This paper highlights tick .control,.

  5. Control of climatics environments to enhance reliability of electronics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhon, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    The techniques to control temperature and humidity to reduce failures in semiconductor devices are presented. The maximum operating junction temperature affects the electronic system reliability, and the equation for the junction temperature of the device shows that internal and external thermal resistances affect component life. Junction temperature reductions up to 60 C were achieved by the development of heat pipes for microcircuits, which will enhance electronics life by 32 times. Humidity control by improved sealing and use of heaters to prevent moisture condensation proved difficult and costly, and high pressure dehydrators were heavy and expensive. Therefore, low pressure dehydrator was developed which is smaller, lighter, and less expensive. The development of low pressure dehumidifying system including test data is presented

  6. Mechanical design of an electronic control unit using axiomatic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazacu Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If the engine of the car can be considered as the heart, then the E.C.U’s represents the brain of the car. Electronic control units (E.C.U’s are electronic devices which control the way different components of a car (engine, windows, airbags, etc. react in some situations (overheating, button pressed by a passenger, crash, etc.. Axiomatic design is a set of principles that theorizes the act of conceiving a new project. Based on two axiom this method comes into designers help, giving them the option to reach in a short period of time a fully functional and compliant product without supporting the design of the product on chance, past experiences or “try and fail” principle.

  7. The upper level of control system of electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, I.V.; Nedeoglo, F.N.; Shvedunov, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    The upper level software of a three-level control system that supports several electron accelerators is described. This software operates in the Linux and RTLinux (Real Time Linux) environment. The object information model functions on the basis of a parametric description supported by the SQLite Data Base Management System. The Javascript sublanguage is used for script forming, and the Qt Designer application is used to construct the user interface [ru

  8. Pulse energy control through dual loop electronic feedback

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, Cobus

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available University of Stellenbosch WWW.LASER-RESEARCH.CO.ZA University of Stellenbosch Pulse Energy Control Through Dual Loop Electronic Feedback Cobus Jacobs, Steven Kriel Christoph Bollig, Thomas Jones Cobus Jacobs et al. Overview head2righthead2right...What is Laser Pulse Energy Control? head2righthead2rightWhy do we need it? head2righthead2rightHow do we get it? head2righthead2rightSimulation head2righthead2rightExperimental Setup head2righthead2rightResults Cobus Jacobs et al. head2righthead2right...

  9. Control system for 10 MeV irradiation electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Ziqiang; Zhang Lifeng; Lu Weixing; Gao Zhenjiang; Zhang Yan; Han Guangwen; Wang Shuxian

    2005-01-01

    Control system of the 10 MeV electron linac using Distributed Control System (DCS) was studied. The hardware of control system consists of four SIEMENS PLCs and monitor computer, the software bases on STEP 7, Labwindows/CVI and SQL Server. The bus between the monitor computer and the main PLC is 100 M industrial networks, between PLCs is MPI bus, between PLC and remote partner is PROFIBUS, between PLC and terminals is RS485/422. The software of control system can provide a friendly human machine interface to operate the machine, protect the human and equipment from risk, and storage the status of the accelerator real time to the database. The monitor and maintenance of the linac can been carried out not only on local computer or local network, but also in internet. (author)

  10. Mechanics of Disease Control in Production Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease problems develop when the surfaces of susceptible plant tissue (part 1) are colonized by a virulent pathogen (part 2) at the time when conditions are conducive for infection and disease development (part 3). Negatively effect one or more of the three parts, then disease can be minimized or e...

  11. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Control and electronic subsystems for the advanced servomanipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Hamel, W.R.; Killough, S.M.; Spille, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) represents a new generation of electrically driven force-reflecting manipulator systems designed to be remotely maintainable. This ASM is being developed to perform remote maintenance in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant where human access is not allowed. The primary function of the manipulator control system is to maintain stable, accurate master/slave operation while providing sensitive force reflection to the operator. The control system is based upon tightly coupled distributed digital microprocessing methods. The architectural structure of the control system is outlined and is compared to the previously developed Model M-2 control system, and justification for the advances incorporated into the ASM structure are given. The various modes of operation and diagnostics are described, and throughput requirements associated with joint servo-control and counter-balancing are discussed. The fundamental elements of the control system are reviewed, including the processor selection (Motorola MC68000) and the language (FORTH). The purpose of this document is to review the design decisions and the resulting design selections to serve as a base for future improvements. Four main areas will be covered: (1) system overview, (2) hardware implementation, (3) software partitioning, and (4) remote electronics considerations. Each area will address the specifics of the selected equipment or the functional requirements of the control method. 9 references, 4 figures

  13. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). Conclusions: In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings......Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  14. Effectiveness Of Security Controls On Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everleen Wanyonyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Health Record EHR systems enhance efficiency and effectiveness in handling patients information in healthcare. This study focused on the EHR security by initially establishing the nature of threats affecting the system and reviewing the implemented security safeguards. The study was done at a referral hospital level 6 government facility in Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 196 out of 385 staff and a questionnaire designed for qualitative data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Correlations and binary logistic regression were obtained. Binary Logistic Regression BLR was used to establish the effect of the safeguards predictors on EHR security. It was established that physical security contributes more to the security of an information system than administrative controls and technical controls in that order. BLR helped in predicting effective safeguards to control EHR security threats in limited resourced public health facilities.

  15. An Electronically Controlled 8-Element Switched Beam Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.

    2015-02-24

    An 8-element planar antenna array with electronically controlled switchable-beam pattern is proposed. The planar antenna array consists of patch elements and operates in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. The array is integrated with a digitally controlled feed network that provides the required phases to generate 8 fixed beams covering most of the upper hemisphere of the array. Unlike typical switchable beam antenna arrays, which operate only in one plane, the proposed design is the first to provide full 3D switchable beams with simple control. Only a 3-bit digital word is required for the generation of the 8 different beams. The integrated array is designed on a 3-layer PCB on a Taconic substrate (RF60A). The total dimensions of the fabricated array are 187.1 × 261.3 × 1.3mm3.

  16. Electronic device for automatic control of exposure in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, A.S.; Jayakumar, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic instrument for calculating and controlling exposure in radiography practice using radioisotopes is described. When using this equipment, only factor to be known is the dose required by the film for a given density and the thickness of material inspected. It eliminates all the problems arising out of various parameters such as source decay etc in the conventional procedure for calculating exposure time. Principle of operation, the electronic circuitry adopted and the functional aspects of the system are described in detail. Exposure doses for different industrial films have been related to the instrumental readouts. The system reproducibility and reliability have been evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the present system and the future development to overcome the problems are indicated. (author)

  17. A novel grounded to floating admittance converter with electronic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dinesh; Ahmad, Javed; Srivastava, Mayank

    2018-01-01

    This article suggests a new grounded to floating admittance convertor employing only two voltage differencing transconductance amplifiers (VDTAs). The proposed circuit can convert any arbitrary grounded admittance into floating admittance with electronically controllable scaling factor. The presented converter enjoys the following beneficial: (1) no requirement of any additional passive element (2) scaling factor can be tuned electronically through bias currents of VDTAs (3) no matching constraint required (4) low values of active/passive sensitivity indexes and (5) excellent non ideal behavior that indicates no deviation in circuit behavior even under non ideal environment. Application of the proposed configuration in realization of floating resistor and floating capacitor has been presented and the workability of these floating elements has been confirmed by active filter design examples. SPICE simulations have been performed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed circuits.

  18. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  19. Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathnakannan Kailasam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter circuit. The output of the converter circuit is compared with reference voltage, and when the error voltage and the reference are matched the latch is reset so as to generate the PWM signal. Due to the simplicity and accuracy of the compact model, the simulation time and speed are much faster, which makes it potentially applicable in large-scale circuit simulation. This study confirms that the SET-based PWM controller is small in size, consumes ultra low power and operates at high speeds without compromising any performance. In addition these devices are capable of measuring charges of extremely high sensitivity.

  20. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or...). Novel or Unusual Design Features The GVI will have a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system. This system provides an electronic interface between the pilot's flight controls and the flight control...

  1. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  2. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  3. Electronic-state control of amino acids on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masato; Nakayama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Electronic structures of amino acids on the Si(1 1 1) surfaces are investigated by using ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that among various polar amino acids, a histidine is the only one that can be positively ionized when hole carriers are supplied in the Si substrate, by transferring the hole charge from Si substrate to an amino acid. This result indicates that the ionization of a histidine, which will activate the protein functions, can be controlled electrically by producing amino acid/Si junctions

  4. A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: Powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagatay Bayindir, Kamil; Goezuekuecuek, Mehmet Ali; Teke, Ahmet [Cukurova University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Balcali, Saricam, Adana (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The studies for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) have attracted considerable attention because of the necessity of developing alternative methods to generate energy for vehicles due to limited fuel based energy, global warming and exhaust emission limits in the last century. HEV incorporates internal composition engine, electric machines and power electronic equipments. In this study, overview of HEVs with a focus on hybrid configurations, energy management strategies and electronic control units are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are clearly emphasized. The existing powertrain control techniques for HEVs are classified and comprehensively described. Electronic control units used in HEV configuration are also elaborated. The latest trends and technological challenges in the near future for HEVs are discussed. (author)

  5. Chemical potential and reaction electronic flux in symmetry controlled reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-07-15

    In symmetry controlled reactions, orbital degeneracies among orbitals of different symmetries can occur along a reaction coordinate. In such case Koopmans' theorem and the finite difference approximation provide a chemical potential profile with nondifferentiable points. This results in an ill-defined reaction electronic flux (REF) profile, since it is defined as the derivative of the chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate. To overcome this deficiency, we propose a new way for the calculation of the chemical potential based on a many orbital approach, suitable for reactions in which symmetry is preserved. This new approach gives rise to a new descriptor: symmetry adapted chemical potential (SA-CP), which is the chemical potential corresponding to a given irreducible representation of a symmetry group. A corresponding symmetry adapted reaction electronic flux (SA-REF) is also obtained. Using this approach smooth chemical potential profiles and well defined REFs are achieved. An application of SA-CP and SA-REF is presented by studying the Cs enol-keto tautomerization of thioformic acid. Two SA-REFs are obtained, JA'(ξ) and JA'' (ξ). It is found that the tautomerization proceeds via an in-plane delocalized 3-center 4-electron O-H-S hypervalent bond which is predicted to exist only in the transition state (TS) region. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  7. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  8. Electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC).

  9. The electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC). (author)

  10. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  11. Characterization and switching performance of electron-beam controlled discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, J.F.; Kline, L.E.; Heberlein, J.V.R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron-beam sustained discharge switch is an attractive concept for repetitive pulsed power switching because it has a demonstrated capability to interrupt direct current and because it is inherently scalable. The authors report on experiments with this type of switch in a 4-kV dc circuit. A wire-ion-plasma (WIP) electron-beam (e-beam) gun is used to irradiate and sustain a switch discharge with a 100-cm/sup 2/ cross-sectional area in l atm of N/sub 2/ or CH/sub 4/. Interruption of 8-10-μs pulses of up to 1.9 kA, and of 100-μs pulses of 150 A has been demonstrated in methane, and interruption against higher recovery voltages (11 kV) has been performed at 1.2 kA by adding series inductance to the circuit. These values represent power supply limitations rather than limitations of the switch itself. A comparison of the measured discharge characteristics with theoretical predictions shows that the measured switch conductivities are higher than the predicted values for given e-beam current values. A qualitative explanation for this observation is offered by considering the effects of electron reflection from the discharge anode and of nonlinear paths for the beam electrons across the discharge gap. The authors conclude that the switching performance of the e-beam controlled discharge switch corresponds to its design parameters, and that for a given switch size a lower voltage drop during the on time can be expected compared with the voltage drop predicted by previously published theory

  12. Foodborne disease control: a transnational challenge.

    OpenAIRE

    K?ferstein, F. K.; Motarjemi, Y.; Bettcher, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    In the globalized political economy of the late 20th century, increasing social, political, and economic interdependence is occurring as a result of the rapid movement of people, images, values, and financial transactions across national borders. Another consequence of the increase in transnational trade, travel, and migration is the greater risk of cross-border transmission of infectious diseases. As the world becomes more interconnected, diseases spread more rapidly and effectively. With mo...

  13. Controlling sugarcane diseases in Florida: a challenge in constant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are limiting factors for the sugarcane crop in almost any sugarcane growing location. More than 40 diseases have been recorded in Florida, with bown rust, orange rust and yellow leaf currently impacting on sugarcane production. Ideally, these diseases should be controlled using resistant ...

  14. Controlling sugarcane diseases in Florida: a challenge in constant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are limiting factors for the sugarcane crop in almost any sugarcane growing location. More than 40 diseases have been recorded in Florida, with brown rust, orange rust and yellow leaf currently impacting on sugarcane production. Ideally, these diseases should be controlled using resistant c...

  15. Low power RF beam control electronics for the LEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestha, L.K.; Mangino, J.; Brouk, V.; Uher, T.; Webber, R.C.

    1993-05-01

    Beam Control Electronics for the Low Energy Booster (LEB) should provide a fine reference phase and frequency for the High Power RF System. Corrections applied on the frequency of the rf signal will reduce dipole synchrotron oscillations due to power supply regulation errors, errors in frequency source or errors in the cavity voltage. It will allow programmed beam radial position control throughout the LEB acceleration cycle. Furthermore the rf signal provides necessary connections during, adiabatic capture of the beam as injected into the LEB by the Linac and will guarantee LEB rf phase synchronism with the Medium Energy Booster (MEB) rf at a programmed time in the LEB cycle between a unique LEB bucket and a unique MEB bucket. We show in this paper a design and possible interfaces with other subsystems of the LEB such as the beam instrumentation, High Power RF Stations, global accelerator controls and the precision timing system. The outline of various components of the beam control system is also presented followed by some test results

  16. Remote control scanning electron microscope with Web operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, A.; Hirahara, O.; Date, M.; Lozbin, V.; Tsuchida, T.; Sugano, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Recently, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and the other observation instruments are coming to use a LAN (Local Area Network) to save the image in the database. We developed a remote control system in which SEM image and Control interface is indicated on the WEB Browser. In this system, SEM can be controlled by an external (client) PC installed in a general WEB Browser (Internet Explorer). Accordingly, operation interface can be indicated on the WEB browser. A JSM-6700F is connected to a LAN, and so a client PC can control the microscope. The JSM-6700F has two lines to the LAN for image transfer and communication with the SEM control. In order to transfer the image, the image size squeezes from 1280 x 1024-pixels (SEM image size) to 640x480-pixels for quick transfer. The image signal (640 x 480-pixels) is connected to the video server only, and then the image transfers to the client PC via LAN. The SEM control communicates with client PC for external command. On the other hand, the SEM control interface and the image are indicated on WEB Browser (Internet explorer). The SEM control interface is composed of the SEM image area and the SEM control part. The SEM image indicates the 640x480-pixels live image. This live image is being used as a high resolution live image transfer in the image transfer technology which a network is used for at present. If it is LAN beyond 10 base, this indication of an image can be transferred fully. When it is connected in the small line of the capacity, the refresh speed of the image becomes slow because of image data doesn't finish transferring it. In such a case, image size can be changed smaller by the LAN conditions. When a high quality image is necessary, the image of 1280 x 1024-pixels is saved on a SEM (server) side by choosing the image save button. At the same time, the file kept in SEM (server) is transferred to the client PC automatically, so that we can display a high quality image on the client PC side. The

  17. 75 FR 27797 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention of Suicidal Behavior..., discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Prevention of Suicidal Behavior through...

  18. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  19. To the problem of electron temperature control in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galechyan, G.A.; Anna, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main problems in low temperature plasma is control plasma parameters at fixed values of current and gas pressure in the discharge. It is known that an increase in the intensity of sound wave directed along the positive column to values in excess of a definite threshold leads to essential rise of the temperature of electrons. However, no less important is the reduction of electron temperature in the discharge down to the value less than that in plasma in the absence external influence. It is known that to reduce the electron temperature in the plasma of CO 2 laser, easily ionizable admixture are usually introduced in the discharge area with the view of increasing the overpopulation. In the present work we shall show that the value of electron temperature can be reduced by varying of sound wave intensity at its lower values. The experiment was performed on an experimental setup consisted of the tube with length 52 cm and diameter 9.8 cm, two electrodes placed at the distance of 27 cm from each other. An electrodynamical radiator of sound wave was fastened to one of tube ends. Fastened to the flange at the opposite end was a microphone for the control of sound wave parameters. The studies were performed in range of pressures from 40 to 180 Torr and discharge currents from 40 to 110 mA. The intensity of sound wave was varied from 74 to 92 dB. The measurement made at the first resonance frequency f = 150 Hz of sound in the discharge tube, at which a quarter of wave length keep within the length of the tube. The measurement of longitudinal electric field voltage in plasma of positive column was conducted with the help of two probes according to the compensation method. Besides, the measurement of gas temperature in the discharge were taken. Two thermocouple sensors were arranged at the distance of 8 cm from the anode, one of them being installed on the discharge tube axis, the second-fixed the tube wall

  20. To the problem of electron temperature control in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galechyan, G.A. [Institute of Applied Problem of Physics, Yerevan (Armenia); Anna, P.R. [Raritan Valley Community College, Somerville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the main problems in low temperature plasma is control plasma parameters at fixed values of current and gas pressure in the discharge. It is known that an increase in the intensity of sound wave directed along the positive column to values in excess of a definite threshold leads to essential rise of the temperature of electrons. However, no less important is the reduction of electron temperature in the discharge down to the value less than that in plasma in the absence external influence. It is known that to reduce the electron temperature in the plasma of CO{sub 2} laser, easily ionizable admixture are usually introduced in the discharge area with the view of increasing the overpopulation. In the present work we shall show that the value of electron temperature can be reduced by varying of sound wave intensity at its lower values. The experiment was performed on an experimental setup consisted of the tube with length 52 cm and diameter 9.8 cm, two electrodes placed at the distance of 27 cm from each other. An electrodynamical radiator of sound wave was fastened to one of tube ends. Fastened to the flange at the opposite end was a microphone for the control of sound wave parameters. The studies were performed in range of pressures from 40 to 180 Torr and discharge currents from 40 to 110 mA. The intensity of sound wave was varied from 74 to 92 dB. The measurement made at the first resonance frequency f = 150 Hz of sound in the discharge tube, at which a quarter of wave length keep within the length of the tube. The measurement of longitudinal electric field voltage in plasma of positive column was conducted with the help of two probes according to the compensation method. Besides, the measurement of gas temperature in the discharge were taken. Two thermocouple sensors were arranged at the distance of 8 cm from the anode, one of them being installed on the discharge tube axis, the second-fixed the tube wall.

  1. Electronic Control Of Small Hydro-Generators Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez G, Alvaro; Romero A, Carlos E.

    1993-01-01

    This work is the beginning of several applied itineraries, to the government of micro-centrals, mainly directed to the control of electric variables of the generator with the desire of obtaining a system of electric generation to drop it climbs, economic, reliable and with great sense of use of the hydraulic resources guided to poor communities, isolated of the system of national interconnection. In all hydroelectric power station without caring their capacity is fundamental to govern the speed of the system turbine generator, to guarantee a constant frequency of 60 Hz, the stability of this parameter is a measure of the quality of the energy given to the user. The used regulation method is the mechanical governor, its action it is to control the flow of water that it enters to the turbine. For small generation power stations (smaller to 200 Kw), the mechanical governor's cost is comparable to the total cost of the plant, then it is economic to use an electronic load control. The project develops the load control whose function is to add external electric load to the generator to maintain the constant nominal active power and similar to the power nominal mechanics surrendered by the turbine. The microprocessor 8088 dedicated to the control of the system by the complexity of the process, the quantity of variables and the precision in the answer of the system is used. To carry out the investigation project a simulation program it was designed in computer that allows to know the answer of the load control ahead of time for different conditions of the user's operation. These results were answered with the obtained experimental values of the final tests of the team, throwing very near values to those calculated

  2. The Electronic Control of the Employer in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Coelho Moreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The way the work is made has been suffering in the last years countless changes related with the huge increase and development of the use of new information and communication technologies in the work relationship. The theme of privacy and surveillance of the employer have been turning in a matter of considerable interest and surrounded of great controversy in the last years all around the world and Portugal is no exception.The technological innovation allows, through several instruments as the use of video surveillance, GPS, RFID, control of electronic communications, control of online social networks or the internet, the continuous surveillance and monitoring of the workers and new questions arise in the horizon. These new forms of control constitute powerful means of surveillance and of memorization, but also of analysis and of interference in the people’ privacy, and one of the major challenges put today is the regulation of this new forms of control in the workplace because the advancement of modern technology has made it possible to collect and store information on a seemingly limitless scale, while also facilitating access to it. The question that arises before the use of this technology is to know what limits should be established. And the answer is related, it seems, with the principles of data protection, mainly, in Portugal, articles 20, 21 and 22 of Portuguese Labour Code and also the Portuguese Data Protection Act, Law number 67/98, from 26th October, and, most of all, the legitimate principle, the proportionality principle and the transparency principle.This as led to a new form of control much more intrusive and that controls almost everything even the way the worker thinks.

  3. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...... "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem....

  4. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's title is: Crash Prevention Effectiveness in Light-Vehicle...

  5. 78 FR 37958 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Electronic Engine Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...; Electronic Engine Control System Installation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... feature(s) associated with the installation of an electronic engine control. The applicable airworthiness...) fuel. The J182T incorporates an engine controlled by an electronic engine [[Page 37959

  6. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero; Rogério Eiji Hanada; Luadir Gasparotto; Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Neto; Jorge Teodoro de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both f...

  7. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...

  8. Potential Applications and Limitations of Electronic Nose Devices for Plant Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cellini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology has recently been applied to the detection of several plant diseases and pests, with promising results. However, in spite of its numerous advantages, including operational simplicity, non-destructivity, and bulk sampling, drawbacks include a low sensitivity and specificity in comparison with microbiological and molecular methods. A critical review of the use of an electronic nose for plant disease diagnosis and pest detection is presented, describing the instrumental and procedural advances of sensorial analysis, for the improvement of discrimination between healthy and infected or infested plants. In conclusion, the use of electronic nose technology is suggested to assist, direct, and optimise traditionally adopted diagnostic techniques.

  9. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  10. Investigation of thermal management materials for automotive electronic control units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Sabuj; Ekere, Ndy; Best, Chris; Bhatti, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Today's electronics packages are smaller and more powerful than ever before. This leads to ever increasing thermal challenges for the systems designer. The automotive electronic control unit (ECU) package faces the same challenge of thermal management as the industry in general. This is coupled with the latest European Union legislation (Euro 6 standard) which forced the ECU manufacturers to completely re-design their ECU platform with improved hardware and software capability. This will result in increased power densities and therefore, the ability to dissipate heat will be a key factor. A higher thermal conductivity (TC) material for the ECU housing (than the currently used Aluminium) could improve heat dissipation from the ECU. This paper critically reviews the state-of-the-art in thermal management materials which may be applicable to an automotive ECU. This review shows that of the different materials currently available, the Al/SiC composites in particular have very good potential for automotive ECU application. In terms of metal composites processing, the liquid metal infiltration process is recommended as it has a lower processing cost and it also has the ability to produce near net-shape materials.

  11. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: what electronic medical records tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Ramos, Arantxa; Verdú, Jose M; Grau, María; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; del Val García, José L; Consola, Alicia; Comin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence, control, and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Cross-sectional analysis of all individuals attended in the Catalan primary care centers between 2006 and 2009. History of cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, DM2, lipid profile, glycemia and blood pressure data were extracted from electronic medical records. Age-standardized prevalence and levels of management and control were estimated. Individuals aged 35-74 years using primary care databases. A total of 2,174,515 individuals were included (mean age 52 years [SD 11], 47% men). Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor (39% in women, 41% in men) followed by hypercholesterolemia (38% and 40%) and DM2 (12% and 16%), respectively. Diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were most often prescribed for hypertension control (women treated). Hypercholesterolemia was controlled (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol women with no history of cardiovascular disease, despite lipid-lowering treatment, primarily (90%) with statins. The percentage of women and men with DM2 and with glycated hemoglobin DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Vehicle rollover risk and electronic stability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, P A; Marshall, T; Griffin, R; Purcell, M; McGwin, G; Rue, L W

    2008-06-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems were developed to reduce motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) caused by loss of control. Introduced in Europe in 1995 and in the USA in 1996, ESC is designed to improve vehicle lateral stability by electronically detecting and automatically assisting drivers in unfavorable situations. To examine the relationship between vehicle rollover risk and presence of ESC using a large national database of MVCs. A retrospective cohort study for the period 1995 through 2006 was carried out using data obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System. All passenger cars and sport utility vehicles (SUVs)/vans of model year 1996 and later were eligible. Vehicle ESC (unavailable, optional, standard) was determined on the basis of make, model, and model year. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated to compare rollover risk by vehicle ESC group. For all crashes, vehicles equipped with standard ESC had decreased risk of rollover (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.77) compared with vehicles with ESC unavailable. The association was consistent for single-vehicle MVCs (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.82); passenger cars had decreased rollover risk (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.12), but SUVs/vans had a more dramatically decreased risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.61). This study supports previous results showing ESC to be effective in reducing the risk of rollover. ESC is more effective in SUVs/vans for rollovers related to single-vehicle MVCs.

  13. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-31

    isolant. Inoculated dogs develo- ped signs of the disease which included fever , weight loss, lym- phodenopathy, corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of...in Alsatian dogs infected with E. canis, was not seen in thesedogs; however, 2 dogs devel- oped cutaneous petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages at...included fever , weight loss, lymphadenopathy, - -- 19 corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of 3 dogs that died during the course of the study, one died with

  14. Evaluation of electronic stability control effectiveness in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jim; Newstead, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) is an in-vehicle technology aimed at improving primary safety by assisting the driver in avoiding loss of control of the vehicle. The aim of this study was to use available crash data from Australia and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing crash risk and to establish whether benefits estimated from overseas studies have translated to the Australian and New Zealand environments. The sample analysed included 7699 crashed vehicles fitted with ESC which comprised of 90 different models. Poisson regression was used to test whether the differences in the observed and expected crash counts for ESC fitted vehicles were significant, with exposure being induced from counts of rear end impacts. It was found that ESC reduced the risk of single vehicle crashes in which the driver was injured by 68% for 4WDs compared with 27% for passenger cars. The effect of ESC on multiple vehicle crashes in Australia and New Zealand was not clear. The long-term benefits of fitting ESC to all vehicles in Australia were also investigated based on the estimated single vehicle crash reductions.

  15. Development of aromatic VOC control technology by electron beam hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon

    2006-01-01

    As a fundamental study, the decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using electron beam (EB) irradiation has been extensively investigated. EB treatments of VOCs such as toluene and styrene are discussed. The degradation characteristics were intensively investigated under various concentrations and irradiation doses to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. This work illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs generally increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Based on these basic studies, it was found that by-products produced from EB irradiation of VOCs would cause a secondary pollution problem. Therefore, a novel hybrid technology has been applied to control aromatic VOC emissions by annexing the catalyst technique with conventional treatment study using EB technology. The experiments were carried out using a bench-scale at first, then a pilot-scale system was followed. Toluene was selected as a typical VOC for EB hybrid control to investigate by-products, effects of ceramic and catalyst, and factors affecting overall efficiency of degradation. It was concluded that VOCs could be destroyed more effectively by a novel hybrid system than single EB irradiation. (author)

  16. Car drivers' perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Wiklund, Mats; Forward, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver's variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 27 CFR 73.11 - What are the required components and controls for acceptable electronic signatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... components and controls for acceptable electronic signatures? 73.11 Section 73.11 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.11...

  18. Disease surveillance among newly arriving refugees and immigrants--Electronic Disease Notification System, United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Philen, Rossanne; Wang, Zanju; McSpadden, Pamela; Posey, Drew L; Ortega, Luis S; Weinberg, Michelle S; Brown, Clive; Zhou, Weigong; Painter, John A

    2013-11-15

    Approximately 450,000 legal permanent immigrants and 75,000 refugees enter the United States annually after receiving required medical examinations by overseas panel physicians (physicians who follow the CDC medical screening guidelines provided to the U.S. Department of State). CDC has the regulatory responsibility for preventing the introduction, transmission, and spread of communicable diseases into the United States as well as for developing the guidelines, known as technical instructions, for the overseas medical examinations. Other conditions that are not infectious might preclude an immigrant or refugee from entering the United States and also are reported as part of the medical examination. After arrival in the United States, all refugees are recommended to obtain a medical assessment by a health-care provider or a health department within 30 days. In addition, immigrants with certain medical conditions such as noninfectious tuberculosis at the time of the original medical examination are recommended to be evaluated after arrival to ensure that appropriate prevention or treatment measures are instituted. Health departments need timely and accurate notifications of newly arriving immigrants, refugees, and persons with other visa types to facilitate these evaluations. Notifications for all newly arriving refugees (with or without medical conditions) and immigrants with medical conditions are provided by CDC's Electronic Disease Notification (EDN) system. This is the first report describing EDN. This report summarizes notifications by the EDN system during January-December 2009. The EDN system is a centralized electronic reporting system that collects health information on newly arriving refugees and immigrants with Class A and Class B medical conditions. Class A conditions render applicants inadmissible and require a waiver for entry; Class B conditions are admissible but might require treatment or follow-up. Information in the EDN system is used to notify

  19. 78 FR 12621 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... effective date of Direct Final Rule. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within... Disease [[Page 12622

  20. The high pressure electronic control system in liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Stefan; Popeneciu, Gabriel; Toadere, Florin

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Chromatography system can perform a wide variety of measurements and separations especially for the organic liquids, with maximum applications flexibility for less than half price of Gas Chromatography. The repeatability and accuracy of results in quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography are highly dependent on the reproducibility and accuracy of both integrated flow rate and mobile phase composition. Flow rate fluctuation leads to poor reproducibility in both integrated peak areas and retention times. Similarly, poor control of mobile phase composition will cause poor repeatability of retention time and peak heights. The our Solvent Delivery System SDS 200 is a single pump system which provides precise compensated flow rates from 0.01 to 10 mL/min, selectable upper pressure limits of 0 to 100 bar or 10 to 450 bar, and solvent compressibility correction. Ternary solvent system on-line mixing capability saves time, reduces solvent waste and provides more flexibility for difficult separations. The pump itself has two different displacement pistons which are used alternately on both suction and discharge, so that intake of the solvent are synchronous. The evacuated solvent from the two pump's chambers is mixed in the reference unit and then is supplied to the damping unit for flow ripple reduction. The SDS Electronic Module ensures the functions: controls the programmed flow rate, detects and shows the solvent pressure in solvent, supplies the step motor, measures and limits the solvent pressure. The control panel of SDS 200, contains a two-stages flow decimal programmer, a eight-positions knob for upper pressure limits, an alarm LED and a parallel port for connection to a PC system. (authors)

  1. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  2. Knowledge, attitude and control practices of sickle cell disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and control practices of sickle cell disease among youth corps members ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... access to haemopoeitic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in our environment, stronger efforts ...

  3. Satellite technology and the control of parasitic diseases in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential application of these techniques in the surveillance, control and prevention of parasitic diseases in Africa is explored in this write-up. Keywords: surveillance, parasitic diseases, satellite techniques, remote sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning Sytem (GPS), human and robotic, ...

  4. Concepts Concerning 'Disease\\' Causation, Control, and the current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an ethical necessity that doctors understand the complex social, political, environmental and economic dynamics involved in infectious disease outbreaks. This article discusses some important concepts concerning 'disease' causation and control with specific reference to the current cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe ...

  5. Controlling sickle cell disease in Ghana ethics and options | Edwin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and ...

  6. [The control of infectious diseases in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, J.E. van; Timen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal health services (MHSs) carry out the control and prevention of communicable diseases, under the authority of the municipal councils. Mayors have the authority to enforce measures aimed at individuals, such as isolation and quarantine. The mandatory notification of infectious diseases by

  7. Preventing Zika disease with novel vector control approaches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Preventing Zika disease with novel vector control approaches. The highest numbers of dengue cases in Latin America in the last few years have occurred in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. These countries have also faced outbreaks of chikungunya (2014-2015) and Zika (2015-2016). All three diseases are transmitted by the ...

  8. One world health: socioeconomic burden and parasitic disease control priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases present a considerable socio-economic impact to society. Zoonotic parasites can result in a considerable burden of disease in people and substantive economic losses to livestock populations. Ameliorating the effects of these diseases may consist of attempts at eradicating specific diseases at a global level, eliminating them at a national or local level or controlling them to minimise incidence. Alternatively with some parasitic zoonoses it may only be possible to treat human and animal cases as they arise. The choice of approach will be determined by the potential effectiveness of a disease control programme, its cost and the cost effectiveness or cost benefit of undertaking the intervention. Furthermore human disease burden is being increasingly measured by egalitarian non-financial measures which are difficult to apply to livestock. This adds additional challenges to the assessment of socio-economic burdens of zoonotic diseases. Using examples from the group of neglected zoonotic diseases, information regarding the socio-economic effects is reviewed together with how this information is used in decision making with regard to disease control and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intensive glycemic control and cardiovascular disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aparna; Reynolds, L Raymond; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Cardiovascular complications constitute the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) provided consistent evidence that intensive glycemic control prevents the development and progression of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, whether intensive glucose lowering also prevents macrovascular disease and major cardiovascular events remains unclear. Extended follow-up of participants in these studies demonstrated that intensive glycemic control reduced the long-term incidence of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, and Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) results suggested that intensive glycemic control to near normoglycemia had either no, or potentially even a detrimental, effect on cardiovascular outcomes. This article discusses the effects of intensive glycemic control on cardiovascular disease, and examines key differences in the design of these trials that might have contributed to their disparate findings. Recommendations from the current joint ADA, AHA, and ACCF position statement on intensive glycemic control and prevention of cardiovascular disease are highlighted.

  10. Dopamine agonists and risk: impulse control disorders in Parkinson's; disease

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, Valerie; Gao, Jennifer; Brezing, Christina; Symmonds, Mkael; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Fernandez, Hubert; Dolan, Raymond J.; Hallett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Impulse control disorders are common in Parkinson's; disease, occurring in 13.6% of patients. Using a pharmacological manipulation and a novel risk taking task while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the relationship between dopamine agonists and risk taking in patients with Parkinson's; disease with and without impulse control disorders. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects chose between two choices of equal expected value: a ‘Sure’ choice an...

  11. The control of neglected zoonotic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Welburn, Sue; Johansen, Maria Vang

    for Animal Health and WHO tripartite and financially supported by members of the broader international community including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the UK Department for International Development, the European Union, the International Development Research Centre and the CGIAR. WHO’s 2012 Roadmap...... the momentum generated by the NZD community over the past decade, urging the more than 100 participants – including representatives from national governments, international organizations, academia, foundations, the private sector and NGOs – to exert their influence and focus on operations, especially...... in the control of some NZDs, both at national and local levels from across three continents, were provided by many countries....

  12. Simulation of electron beam from two strip electron guns and control of power density by rotation of gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, G K; Baruah, S; Thakur, K B

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam is preferably used for large scale evaporation of refractory materials. Material evaporation from a long and narrow source providing a well collimated wedge shaped atomic beam has applications in isotopic purification of metals relevant to nuclear industry. The electron beam from an electron gun with strip type filament provides a linear heating source. However, the high power density of the electron beam can lead to turbulence of the melt pool and undesirable splashing of molten metal. For obtaining quiet surface evaporation, the linear electron beam is generally scanned along its length. To further reduce the power density to maintain quiet evaporation the width of the vapour source can be controlled by rotating the electron gun on its plane, thereby scanning an inclined beam over the molten pool. The rotation of gun has further advantages. When multiple strip type electron guns are used for scaling up evaporation length, a dark zone appears between two beams due to physical separation of adjacent guns. This dark zone can be reduced by rotating the gun and thereby bringing two adjacent beams closer. The paper presented here provides the simulation results of the electron beam trajectory and incident power density originating from two strip electron guns by using in-house developed code. The effect of electron gun rotation on the electron beam trajectory and power density is studied. The simulation result is experimentally verified with the image of molten pool and heat affected zone taken after experiment. This technique can be gainfully utilized in controlling the time averaged power density of the electron beam and obtaining quiet evaporation from the metal molten pool.

  13. Control of runaway electron energy using externally injected whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2018-03-01

    One way of mitigating runaway damage of the plasma-facing components in a tokamak fusion reactor is by limiting the runaway electron energy under a few MeV, while not necessarily reducing the runaway current appreciably. Here, we describe a physics mechanism by which such momentum space engineering of the runaway distribution can be facilitated by externally injected high-frequency electromagnetic waves such as whistler waves. The drastic impact that wave-induced scattering can have on the runaway energy distribution is fundamentally the result of its ability to control the runaway vortex in the momentum space. The runaway vortex, which is a local circulation of runaways in momentum space, is the outcome of the competition between Coulomb collisions, synchrotron radiation damping, and runaway acceleration by the parallel electric field. By introducing a wave that resonantly interacts with runaways in a particular range of energies which is mildly relativistic, the enhanced scattering would reshape the vortex by cutting off the part that is highly relativistic. The efficiency of resonant scattering accentuates the requirement that the wave amplitude can be small so the power requirement from external wave injection is practical for the mitigation scheme.

  14. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleghorn, D.A.; Nablo, S.V.; Ferro, D.N.; Hagstrum, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil (S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer (R. dominica) and the red flour beetle (T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those 'protected' life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kVx200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60 Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated

  15. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....

  16. Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2012-11-01

    We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron-electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation.

  17. Method for controlling low-energy high current density electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.N.; Oswald, R.B. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for controlling the angle of incidence of low-energy, high current density electron beams are disclosed. The apparatus includes a current generating diode arrangement with a mesh anode for producing a drifting electron beam. An auxiliary grounded screen electrode is placed between the anode and a target for controlling the average angle of incidence of electrons in the drifting electron beam. According to the method of the present invention, movement of the auxiliary screen electrode relative to the target and the anode permits reliable and reproducible adjustment of the average angle of incidence of the electrons in low energy, high current density relativistic electron beams

  18. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magura Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two did not have a significant effect

  19. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two) did not have a significant effect on any outcomes

  20. Investigating the Role of International Law in Controlling Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Kheirkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available International law globally plays a key role in the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, due to changed forms of infectious diseases and individuals' lifestyles as well as individuals' proximity caused by increased air travels, communicable diseases are in an international and cross-border form. In this regard, binding regulations and inconsistent rules adopted in international multilateral institutions like the World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization can be of great use in surveillance and control of communicable diseases. With the globalization of public health, international law can be used as an essential tool in monitoring global health and reducing human vulnerability and mortality.

  1. Identification and Progression of Heart Disease Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients from Longitudinal Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jonnagaddala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risk of its occurrence is a crucial step in predicting serious cardiac events. Identifying heart disease risk factors and tracking their progression is a preliminary step in heart disease risk assessment. A large number of studies have reported the use of risk factor data collected prospectively. Electronic health record systems are a great resource of the required risk factor data. Unfortunately, most of the valuable information on risk factor data is buried in the form of unstructured clinical notes in electronic health records. In this study, we present an information extraction system to extract related information on heart disease risk factors from unstructured clinical notes using a hybrid approach. The hybrid approach employs both machine learning and rule-based clinical text mining techniques. The developed system achieved an overall microaveraged F-score of 0.8302.

  2. First-principles electron dynamics control simulation of diamond under femtosecond laser pulse train irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cong; Jiang Lan; Wang Feng; Li Xin; Yuan Yanping; Xiao Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Lu Yongfeng

    2012-01-01

    A real-time and real-space time-dependent density functional is applied to simulate the nonlinear electron-photon interactions during shaped femtosecond laser pulse train ablation of diamond. Effects of the key pulse train parameters such as the pulse separation, spatial/temporal pulse energy distribution and pulse number per train on the electron excitation and energy absorption are discussed. The calculations show that photon-electron interactions and transient localized electron dynamics can be controlled including photon absorption, electron excitation, electron density, and free electron distribution by the ultrafast laser pulse train. (paper)

  3. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  4. Drug-induced impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, J; Jost, W H

    2011-05-01

    Dopamine replacement treatment with excessive or aberrant dopamine receptor stimulation can cause behavioral disturbances in Parkinson's disease, comprising dopamine dysregulation syndrome, punding, and impulse control disorders. Common impulse control disorders are compulsive buying, pathological gambling, binge eating, hypersexuality, and compulsive reckless driving.

  5. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (pdogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and size control by electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, K A; Dhole, S D; Bhoraskar, V N [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)

    2006-07-14

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by irradiating solutions, prepared by mixing AgNO{sub 3} and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), with 6 MeV electrons. The electron-irradiated solutions and the thin coatings cast from them were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. During electron irradiation, the process of formation of the silver nanoparticles appeared to be initiated at an electron fluence of {approx}2 x 10{sup 13} e cm{sup -2}. This was evidenced from the solution, which turned yellow and exhibited the characteristic plasmon absorption peak around 455 nm. Silver nanoparticles of different sizes in the range 60-10 nm, with a narrow size distribution, could be synthesized by varying the electron fluence from 2 x 10{sup 13} to 3 x 10{sup 15} e cm{sup -2}. Silver nanoparticles of sizes in the range 100-200 nm were also synthesized by irradiating an aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution with 6 MeV electrons.

  7. Modeling and simulation of control system for electron beam machine (EBM) using programmable automation controller (PAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Kwee Wah; Lojius Lombigit; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Ayub Mohamed; Chong Foh Yoong

    2006-01-01

    An EBM electronic model is designed to simulate the control system of the Nissin EBM, which is located at Block 43, MINT complex of Jalan Dengkil with maximum output of 3 MeV, 30 mA using a Programmable Automation Controllers (PAC). This model operates likes a real EBM system where all the start-up, interlocking and stopping procedures are fully followed. It also involves formulating the mathematical models to relate certain output with the input parameters using data from actual operation on EB machine. The simulation involves a set of PAC system consisting of the digital and analogue input/output modules. The program code is written using Labview software (real-time version) on a PC and then downloaded into the PAC stand-alone memory. All the 23 interlocking signals required by the EB machine are manually controlled by mechanical switches and represented by LEDs. The EB parameters are manually controlled by potentiometers and displayed on analogue and digital meters. All these signals are then interfaced to the PC via a wifi wireless communication built-in at the PAC controller. The program is developed in accordance to the specifications and requirement of the original real EB system and displays them on the panel of the model and also on the PC monitor. All possible chances from human errors, hardware and software malfunctions, including the worst-case conditions will be tested, evaluated and modified. We hope that the performance of our model complies the requirements of operating the EB machine. It also hopes that this electronic model can replace the original PC interfacing being utilized in the Nissin EBM in the near future. The system can also be used to study the fault tolerance analysis and automatic re-configuration for advanced control of the EB system. (Author)

  8. Dopamine agonists and risk: impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Gao, Jennifer; Brezing, Christina; Symmonds, Mkael; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Fernandez, Hubert; Dolan, Raymond J; Hallett, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Impulse control disorders are common in Parkinson's disease, occurring in 13.6% of patients. Using a pharmacological manipulation and a novel risk taking task while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the relationship between dopamine agonists and risk taking in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulse control disorders. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects chose between two choices of equal expected value: a 'Sure' choice and a 'Gamble' choice of moderate risk. To commence each trial, in the 'Gain' condition, individuals started at $0 and in the 'Loss' condition individuals started at -$50 below the 'Sure' amount. The difference between the maximum and minimum outcomes from each gamble (i.e. range) was used as an index of risk ('Gamble Risk'). Sixteen healthy volunteers were behaviourally tested. Fourteen impulse control disorder (problem gambling or compulsive shopping) and 14 matched Parkinson's disease controls were tested ON and OFF dopamine agonists. Patients with impulse control disorder made more risky choices in the 'Gain' relative to the 'Loss' condition along with decreased orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate activity, with the opposite observed in Parkinson's disease controls. In patients with impulse control disorder, dopamine agonists were associated with enhanced sensitivity to risk along with decreased ventral striatal activity again with the opposite in Parkinson's disease controls. Patients with impulse control disorder appear to have a bias towards risky choices independent of the effect of loss aversion. Dopamine agonists enhance sensitivity to risk in patients with impulse control disorder possibly by impairing risk evaluation in the striatum. Our results provide a potential explanation of why dopamine agonists may lead to an unconscious bias towards risk in susceptible individuals.

  9. Tests of an electron monitor for routine quality control measurements of electron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, E.B.; Reinstein, L.E.; Meek, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The depth dose for electrons is sensitive to energy and the AAPM Task Group 24 has recommended that tests be performed at monthly intervals to assure electron beam energy constancy by verifying the depth for the 80% dose to within ±3 mm. Typically, this is accomplished by using a two-depth dose ratio technique. Recently, a new device, the Geske monitor, has been introduced that is designed for verifying energy constancy in a single reading. The monitor consists of nine parallel plate detectors that alternate with 5-mm-thick absorbers made of an aluminum alloy. An evaluation of the clinical usefulness of this monitor for the electron beams available on a Varian Clinac 20 has been undertaken with respect to energy discrimination. Beam energy changes of 3 mm of the 80% dose give rise to measurable output changes ranging from 1.7% for 20-MeV electron beams to 15% for 6-MeV electron beams

  10. Teleosts Genomics: Progress and Prospects in Disease Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome wide studies based on conventional molecular tools and upcoming omics technologies are beginning to gain functional applications in the control and prevention of diseases in teleosts fish. Herein, we provide insights into current progress and prospects in the use genomics studies for the control and prevention of fish diseases. Metagenomics has emerged to be an important tool used to identify emerging infectious diseases for the timely design of rational disease control strategies, determining microbial compositions in different aquatic environments used for fish farming and the use of host microbiota to monitor the health status of fish. Expounding the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs as therapeutic agents against different pathogens as well as elucidating their role in tissue regeneration is another vital aspect of genomics studies that had taken precedent in recent years. In vaccine development, prospects made include the identification of highly immunogenic proteins for use in recombinant vaccine designs as well as identifying gene signatures that correlate with protective immunity for use as benchmarks in optimizing vaccine efficacy. Progress in quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping is beginning to yield considerable success in identifying resistant traits against some of the highly infectious diseases that have previously ravaged the aquaculture industry. Altogether, the synopsis put forth shows that genomics studies are beginning to yield positive contribution in the prevention and control of fish diseases in aquaculture.

  11. Teleosts Genomics: Progress and Prospects in Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; David, Lior

    2018-04-04

    Genome wide studies based on conventional molecular tools and upcoming omics technologies are beginning to gain functional applications in the control and prevention of diseases in teleosts fish. Herein, we provide insights into current progress and prospects in the use genomics studies for the control and prevention of fish diseases. Metagenomics has emerged to be an important tool used to identify emerging infectious diseases for the timely design of rational disease control strategies, determining microbial compositions in different aquatic environments used for fish farming and the use of host microbiota to monitor the health status of fish. Expounding the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as therapeutic agents against different pathogens as well as elucidating their role in tissue regeneration is another vital aspect of genomics studies that had taken precedent in recent years. In vaccine development, prospects made include the identification of highly immunogenic proteins for use in recombinant vaccine designs as well as identifying gene signatures that correlate with protective immunity for use as benchmarks in optimizing vaccine efficacy. Progress in quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is beginning to yield considerable success in identifying resistant traits against some of the highly infectious diseases that have previously ravaged the aquaculture industry. Altogether, the synopsis put forth shows that genomics studies are beginning to yield positive contribution in the prevention and control of fish diseases in aquaculture.

  12. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Langendorf, S. J.; Walker, M. L. R.; Keidar, M.

    2015-04-01

    In particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC MCC) simulations and in an experiment we study sheath formation over an emissive floating Al2O3 plate in a direct current discharge plasma at argon gas pressure 10-4 Torr. The discharge glow is maintained by the beam electrons emitted from a negatively biased hot cathode. We observe three types of sheaths near the floating emissive plate and the transition between them is driven by changing the negative bias. The Debye sheath appears at lower voltages, when secondary electron emission is negligible. With increasing applied voltage, secondary electron emission switches on and a first transition to a new sheath type, beam electron emission (BEE), takes place. For the first time we find this specific regime of sheath operation near the floating emissive surface. In this regime, the potential drop over the plate sheath is about four times larger than the temperature of plasma electrons. The virtual cathode appears near the emissive plate and its modification helps to maintain the BEE regime within some voltage range. Further increase of the applied voltage U initiates the second smooth transition to the plasma electron emission sheath regime and the ratio Δφs/Te tends to unity with increasing U. The oscillatory behavior of the emissive sheath is analyzed in PIC MCC simulations. A plasmoid of slow electrons is formed near the plate and transported to the bulk plasma periodically with a frequency of about 25 kHz.

  13. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  15. Trends in Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss trends of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which...... by means of power electronics are changing the future electrical infrastructure but also contributes steadily more to non-carbon based electricity production. Most focus is on the power electronics technologies used. In the case of photovoltaics transformer-less systems are discussed as they have...

  16. Elucidation and control of electronic properties related to organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Nobuo; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structure of organic solids and interfaces plays a crucial role in the performance of optoelectronic devices using organic semiconductors such as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, and photovoltaic cells. The functionality of these organic devices is seriously dominated by the geometric structure, which varies depending on the molecular structure and the sample preparation condition. Due to the rapid progress in sample preparation methods and surface science techniques, we can now discuss in detail the correlation of the electronic structure with the geometric structure of organic solids, films, and interfaces. This paper reviews the recent progress of studies in the geometric and electronic structures related to organic semiconductors. (author)

  17. Design studies on high current and grid control electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinnan; Lu Kun; Chi Yunlong; Zhou Zusheng

    2011-01-01

    Electron gun, the source of electrons, is a kind of ultrahigh vacuum device and plays an important role in different kind of accelerators. With the irradiation accelerator demands, describes the design studies on beam optics optimization. The simulation result shows that the beam current is above 5 A with cathode voltage of 80 kV and beam emittance, gun electric field and beam waist radius meet the accelerator needs. The electron gun manufactured and installed in the test stand, the conditioning and test will be done in the near future. (authors)

  18. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  19. Discovering disease associations by integrating electronic clinical data and medical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony B Holmes

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR systems offer an exceptional opportunity for studying many diseases and their associated medical conditions within a population. The increasing number of clinical record entries that have become available electronically provides access to rich, large sets of patients' longitudinal medical information. By integrating and comparing relations found in the EHRs with those already reported in the literature, we are able to verify existing and to identify rare or novel associations. Of particular interest is the identification of rare disease co-morbidities, where the small numbers of diagnosed patients make robust statistical analysis difficult. Here, we introduce ADAMS, an Application for Discovering Disease Associations using Multiple Sources, which contains various statistical and language processing operations. We apply ADAMS to the New York-Presbyterian Hospital's EHR to combine the information from the relational diagnosis tables and textual discharge summaries with those from PubMed and Wikipedia in order to investigate the co-morbidities of the rare diseases Kaposi sarcoma, toxoplasmosis, and Kawasaki disease. In addition to finding well-known characteristics of diseases, ADAMS can identify rare or previously unreported associations. In particular, we report a statistically significant association between Kawasaki disease and diagnosis of autistic disorder.

  20. Contribution of Electronic Medical Records to the Management of Rare Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bremond-Gignac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Electronic health record systems provide great opportunity to study most diseases. Objective of this study was to determine whether electronic medical records (EMR in ophthalmology contribute to management of rare eye diseases, isolated or in syndromes. Study was designed to identify and collect patients’ data with ophthalmology-specific EMR. Methods. Ophthalmology-specific EMR software (Softalmo software Corilus was used to acquire ophthalmological ocular consultation data from patients with five rare eye diseases. The rare eye diseases and data were selected and collected regarding expertise of eye center. Results. A total of 135,206 outpatient consultations were performed between 2011 and 2014 in our medical center specialized in rare eye diseases. The search software identified 29 congenital aniridia, 6 Axenfeld/Rieger syndrome, 11 BEPS, 3 Nanophthalmos, and 3 Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Discussion. EMR provides advantages for medical care. The use of ophthalmology-specific EMR is reliable and can contribute to a comprehensive ocular visual phenotype useful for clinical research. Conclusion. Routinely EMR acquired with specific software dedicated to ophthalmology provides sufficient detail for rare diseases. These software-collected data appear useful for creating patient cohorts and recording ocular examination, avoiding the time-consuming analysis of paper records and investigation, in a University Hospital linked to a National Reference Rare Center Disease.

  1. Contribution of Electronic Medical Records to the Management of Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Lewandowski, Elisabeth; Copin, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record systems provide great opportunity to study most diseases. Objective of this study was to determine whether electronic medical records (EMR) in ophthalmology contribute to management of rare eye diseases, isolated or in syndromes. Study was designed to identify and collect patients' data with ophthalmology-specific EMR. Ophthalmology-specific EMR software (Softalmo software Corilus) was used to acquire ophthalmological ocular consultation data from patients with five rare eye diseases. The rare eye diseases and data were selected and collected regarding expertise of eye center. A total of 135,206 outpatient consultations were performed between 2011 and 2014 in our medical center specialized in rare eye diseases. The search software identified 29 congenital aniridia, 6 Axenfeld/Rieger syndrome, 11 BEPS, 3 Nanophthalmos, and 3 Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. EMR provides advantages for medical care. The use of ophthalmology-specific EMR is reliable and can contribute to a comprehensive ocular visual phenotype useful for clinical research. Routinely EMR acquired with specific software dedicated to ophthalmology provides sufficient detail for rare diseases. These software-collected data appear useful for creating patient cohorts and recording ocular examination, avoiding the time-consuming analysis of paper records and investigation, in a University Hospital linked to a National Reference Rare Center Disease.

  2. Controlling competing electronic orders via non-equilibrium acoustic phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Michael; Orth, Peter; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael

    The interplay between multiple electronic orders is a hallmark of strongly correlated systems displaying unconventional superconductivity. While doping, pressure, and magnetic field are the standard knobs employed to assess these different phases, ultrafast pump-and-probe techniques opened a new window to probe these systems. Recent examples include the ultrafast excitation of coherent optical phonons coupling to electronic states in cuprates and iron pnictides. In this work, we demonstrate theoretically that non-equilibrium acoustic phonons provide a promising framework to manipulate competing electronic phases and favor unconventional superconductivity over other states. In particular, we show that electrons coupled to out-of-equilibrium anisotropic acoustic phonons enter a steady state in which the effective electronic temperature varies around the Fermi surface. Such a momentum-dependent temperature can then be used to selectively heat electronic states that contribute primarily to density-wave instabilities, reducing their competition with superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon by computing the microscopic steady-state phase diagram of the iron pnictides, showing that superconductivity is enhanced with respect to the competing antiferromagnetic phase.

  3. Myofibroblasts in interstitial lung diseases show diverse electron microscopic and invasive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Henna M; Lehtonen, Siri T; Sormunen, Raija T; Harju, Terttu H; Lappi-Blanco, Elisa; Bloigu, Risto S; Kaarteenaho, Riitta L

    2012-09-01

    The characteristic features of myofibroblasts in various lung disorders are poorly understood. We have evaluated the ultrastructure and invasive capacities of myofibroblasts cultured from small volumes of diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from patients with different types of lung diseases. Cells were cultured from samples of BAL fluid collected from 51 patients that had undergone bronchoscopy and BAL for diagnostic purposes. The cells were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy to achieve ultrastructural localization of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin. The levels of α-SMA protein and mRNA and fibronectin mRNA were measured by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The invasive capacities of the cells were evaluated. The cultured cells were either fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. The structure of the fibronexus, and the amounts of intracellular actin, extracellular fibronectin and cell junctions of myofibroblasts varied in different diseases. In electron and immunoelectron microscopy, cells cultured from interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) expressed more actin filaments and α-SMA than normal lung. The invasive capacity of the cells obtained from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was higher than that from patients with other type of ILDs. Cells expressing more actin filaments had a higher invasion capacity. It is concluded that electron and immunoelectron microscopic studies of myofibroblasts can reveal differential features in various diseases. An analysis of myofibroblasts cultured from diagnostic BAL fluid samples may represent a new kind of tool for diagnostics and research into lung diseases.

  4. Impact and cost-effectiveness of snail control to achieve disease control targets for schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Nathan C.; Gurarie, David; Yoon, Nara; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Bendavid, Eran; Andrews, Jason R.; King, Charles H.

    2018-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects over 240 million people globally. To improve population-level disease control, there is growing interest in adding chemical-based snail control interventions to interrupt the lifecycle of Schistosoma in its snail host to reduce parasite transmission. However, this approach is not widely implemented, and given environmental concerns, the optimal conditions for when snail control is appropriate are unclear. We assessed the potential impact and...

  5. 75 FR 76987 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Epidemiologic and Ecologic...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and...

  6. Utilizing Dental Electronic Health Records Data to Predict Risk for Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Padman, Rema; Vyawahare, Karnali; Darade, Pratiksha; Paranjape, Rhucha

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a major cause for tooth loss and adversely affects individuals' oral health and quality of life. Research shows its potential association with systemic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and social habits such as smoking. This study explores mining potential risk factors from dental electronic health records to predict and display patients' contextualized risk for periodontal disease. We retrieved relevant risk factors from structured and unstructured data on 2,370 patients who underwent comprehensive oral examinations at the Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Predicting overall risk and displaying relationships between risk factors and their influence on the patient's oral and general health can be a powerful educational and disease management tool for patients and clinicians at the point of care.

  7. Capturing structured, pulmonary disease-specific data elements in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronkiewicz, Cynthia; Diamond, Edward J; French, Kim D; Christodouleas, John; Gabriel, Peter E

    2015-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have the potential to improve health-care quality by allowing providers to make better decisions at the point of care based on electronically aggregated data and by facilitating clinical research. These goals are easier to achieve when key, disease-specific clinical information is documented as structured data elements (SDEs) that computers can understand and process, rather than as free-text/natural-language narrative. This article reviews the benefits of capturing disease-specific SDEs. It highlights several design and implementation considerations, including the impact on efficiency and expressivity of clinical documentation and the importance of adhering to data standards when available. Pulmonary disease-specific examples of collection instruments are provided from two commonly used commercial EHRs. Future developments that can leverage SDEs to improve clinical quality and research are discussed.

  8. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) associated with the control surface awareness and mode annunciation of the electronic flight control system... a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller...

  9. Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron–electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation. (review article)

  10. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  11. Control circuits in power electronics practical issues in design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Control circuits are a key element in the operation and performance of power electronics converters. This book describes practical issues related to the design and implementation of these control circuits, and is divided into three parts - analogue control circuits, digital control circuits, and new trends in control circuits.

  12. Backup control airstart performance on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The air start capability of a backup control (BUC) was tested for a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equipped F100 engine, which was installed in an F-15 aircraft. Two air start schedules were tested. Using the group 1 start schedule, based on a 40 sec timer, an air speed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40 and 25% BUC mode spooldown airstarts. If core rotor speed (N2) was less than 40% a stall would occur when the start bleed closed, 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted air starts were successful with the group 1 start schedule. For the group 2 schedule, the time between pressurization and start bleed closure ranged between 50 sec and 72 sec. Idle rps was lower than the desired 65% for air starts at higher altitudes and lower air speeds.

  13. Allosteric control of internal electron transfer in cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Kroneck, Peter M H; Zumft, Walter G

    2003-01-01

    Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase is a bifunctional multiheme enzyme catalyzing the one-electron reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide and the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the internal electron transfer process in the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme have...... been studied and found to be dominated by pronounced interactions between the c and the d1 hemes. The interactions are expressed both in dramatic changes in the internal electron-transfer rates between these sites and in marked cooperativity in their electron affinity. The results constitute a prime...... example of intraprotein control of the electron-transfer rates by allosteric interactions....

  14. Real-time control of electronic motion: Application to NaI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1998-01-01

    + + I- depends on the electron distribution (i.e., where the electron "sits") prior to the time where the bond is broken by a subpicosecond half-cycle unipolar electromagnetic pulse. Thus we control, in real time, which nucleus one of the valence electrons will follow after the bond is broken. (C) 1998......We study theoretically the electronic and nuclear dynamics in NaI. After a femtosecond pulse has prepared a wave packet in the first excited state, we consider the adiabatic and the nonadiabatic electronic dynamics and demonstrate explicitly that a nonstationary electron is created in Na...

  15. Implementation to spanish protocol of quality control of accelerators to daily control of electron beams; Implementacion del protocolo espanol de control de calidad de aceleradores al control diario de haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Diaz Fuente, R.; Ferrando Sanchez, A.

    2011-07-01

    A revised procedure for daily control of the electron beams to make measurements more meaningful physically, having a better reproducibility and more in line with the recommendations of the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control in Electron Linear Accelerators Clinical Use. The daily quality control beams of high energy electrons that had been done so far was the finding that the record of a series of measures (symmetry, uniformity, stability, energy, beam central dose) were within tolerance values established. The amendment is to check the beam quality by directly measuring changes in absorption depth at which the dose is reduced to half its maximum value, R50.

  16. Dual task and postural control in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires de Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with neurodegenerative diseases are required to use cognitive resources while maintaining postural control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a frontal cognitive task on postural control in patients with Alzheimer, Parkinson and controls. Thirty-eight participants were instructed to stand upright on a force platform in two experimental conditions: single and dual task. Participants with Parkinson's disease presented an increase in the coefficient of variation greater than 100% in the dual task as compared to the single task for center of pressure (COP area and COP path. In addition, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease had a higher number of errors during the execution of the cognitive task when compared to the group of elderly without neurodegenerative diseases. The motor cortex, which is engaged in postural control, does not seem to compete with frontal brain regions in the performance of the cognitive task. However, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease presented worsened performance in cognitive task.

  17. Co-simulation of heavy truck tire dynamics and electronic stability control systems (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems have been proven to be an effective means of preventing instability and loss of control on both passenger vehicles and heavy trucks. In addition, roll stability algorithms are an effective means of reducing ...

  18. Power electronics for renewable and distributed energy systems a sourcebook of topologies, control and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kramer, William E

    2013-01-01

    While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage s

  19. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-01

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  20. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-15

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  1. The impact of electronic education on metabolic control indicators in patients with diabetes who need insulin: a randomised clinical control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moattari, Marzieh; Hashemi, Maryam; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad H

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of electronic education on metabolic control indicators in patients with diabetes who were insulin dependent. Education can play an important role in controlling diabetes. Electronic (web-based, telehealth) education may be an efficient way to improve the patients' ability to control this disease. Randomised clinical control study. The participants in this clinical study were 48 insulin-dependent patients referred to diabetes centres in Shiraz, Iran. Serum concentrations of haemoglobin A(1C) , fasting blood sugar, triglycerides and high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. Then the participants were divided randomly into control and experimental groups (n = 24). Participants in the experimental group received a specially designed electronic education programme for twelve weeks. The main components of the programme were a consultation service, quick answers to patients' questions, contact with the healthcare team and educational materials. At the end of the intervention period, all serum values were measured again in both groups. The data were compared using spss v 13·5 software. Serum concentrations of haemoglobin A(1C) (p education programme was useful in lowering two metabolic indicators of diabetes. Electronic education can be associated with increased health and patient satisfaction, and can eliminate the need to train personnel. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Improving the quality of care of patients with rheumatic disease using patient-centric electronic redesign software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Eric D; Lerch, Virginia; Billet, Jon; Berger, Andrea; Kirchner, H Lester

    2015-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are not optimized for chronic disease management. To improve the quality of care for patients with rheumatic disease, we developed electronic data capture, aggregation, display, and documentation software. The software integrated and reassembled information from the patient (via a touchscreen questionnaire), nurse, physician, and EHR into a series of actionable views. Core functions included trends over time, rheumatology-related demographics, and documentation for patient and provider. Quality measures collected included patient-reported outcomes, disease activity, and function. The software was tested and implemented in 3 rheumatology departments, and integrated into routine care delivery. Post-implementation evaluation measured adoption, efficiency, productivity, and patient perception. Over 2 years, 6,725 patients completed 19,786 touchscreen questionnaires. The software was adopted for use by 86% of patients and rheumatologists. Chart review and documentation time trended downward, and productivity increased by 26%. Patient satisfaction, activation, and adherence remained unchanged, although pre-implementation values were high. A strong correlation was seen between use of the software and disease control (weighted Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.5927, P = 0.0095), and a relative increase in patients with low disease activity of 3% per quarter was noted. We describe innovative software that aggregates, stores, and displays information vital to improving the quality of care for patients with chronic rheumatic disease. The software was well-adopted by patients and providers. Post-implementation, significant improvements in quality of care, efficiency of care, and productivity were demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  4. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2932] Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, DN 2932; the...

  5. Spin-controlled nanomechanics induced by single-electron tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, D; Nordenfelt, A; Kadigrobov, A M; Shekhter, R I; Jonson, M; Gorelik, L Y

    2011-12-02

    We consider dc-electronic transport through a nanowire suspended between normal- and spin-polarized metal leads in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that magnetomotive coupling between the electrical current through the nanowire and vibrations of the wire may result in self-excitation of mechanical vibrations. The self-excitation mechanism is based on correlations between the occupancy of the quantized electronic energy levels inside the nanowire and the velocity of the nanowire. We derive conditions for the occurrence of the instability and find stable regimes of mechanical oscillations. © 2011 American Physical Society

  6. Catalysts under Controlled Atmospheres in the Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    of resolution. Using suitably clean gases, modified pumping schemes, and short pathways through dense gas regions, these issues are now circumvented. Here we provide an account of best practice using environmental transmission electron microscopy on catalytic systems illustrated using select examples from......Over time, there has been an increasing interest in observing catalysts in their operating environment at high spatial resolution and ultimately to determine the structure of a catalytically active surface. One tool with the potential to do exactly this in direct space is the transmission electron...

  7. Asthma: epidemiology of disease control in Latin America ? short review

    OpenAIRE

    Sol?, Dirceu; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is reported as one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, impairing the quality of life of patients and their families and incurring high costs to the healthcare system and society. Despite the development of new drugs and the availability of international treatment guidelines, asthma is still poorly controlled, especially in Latin America. Original and review articles on asthma control or epidemiology with high levels of evidence have been selected for analysis among those ...

  8. Size Control Technology of Silver Nanoparticles Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Kim, Byungnam; Kim, Hye Won; Koo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Ji Hyun; Bae, Hyung Bin; Park, Changmoon

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of silver nanoparticles using an electron beam is easy, fast, and highly productive, and it is possible at room temperature with no chemical residuals. Its various advantages therefore make this an important method for manufacturing nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and platinum. In particular, despite the use of electron beam irradiation, the results show that this method makes it possible to produce silver nanoparticles at low cost since low beam energy and low doses are used. This means that middle and high-energy electron beam accelerators are very expensive, but a low-energy electron beam accelerator has a relatively low cost of around 4-5 times, and mass production for a flow reaction without the need for extra radiation shielding is possible. Silver nanoparticles are of great interest to many researchers owing to their ability to be used in many applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronics, optical filters, electromagnetic interference shielding, surface Raman scattering, medical supplies, fabrics, cosmetics, hygiene and kitchen supplies, and electric home appliances

  9. Inventory Control: A Small Electronic Device for Studying Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Shows how the rate of reaction can be studied using a simple electronic device that overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium. The device, used in conjunction with an oscilloscope, supplies the voltages that represent the chemical variables that take part in the equilibrium.…

  10. Size Control Technology of Silver Nanoparticles Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Kim, Byungnam; Kim, Hye Won; Koo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hyun [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyung Bin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Changmoon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The manufacturing of silver nanoparticles using an electron beam is easy, fast, and highly productive, and it is possible at room temperature with no chemical residuals. Its various advantages therefore make this an important method for manufacturing nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and platinum. In particular, despite the use of electron beam irradiation, the results show that this method makes it possible to produce silver nanoparticles at low cost since low beam energy and low doses are used. This means that middle and high-energy electron beam accelerators are very expensive, but a low-energy electron beam accelerator has a relatively low cost of around 4-5 times, and mass production for a flow reaction without the need for extra radiation shielding is possible. Silver nanoparticles are of great interest to many researchers owing to their ability to be used in many applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronics, optical filters, electromagnetic interference shielding, surface Raman scattering, medical supplies, fabrics, cosmetics, hygiene and kitchen supplies, and electric home appliances.

  11. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  12. Radiation control at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), a new high power CW electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, G.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of the design goals and radiation control measures, for a new 4 GeV, 1 MW electron accelerator under construction in the USA. The paper illustrates the importance of cooperation between designers and regulators. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Research on automatic correction of electronic beam path for distributed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xin; Su Haijun; Li Deming; Wang Shengli; Guo Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dynamitron, an electron irradiation accelerator of high-voltage, is used as a radiation source for industrial and agricultural production. The control system is an important component of dynamitron. Purpose: The aim is to improve the control system to meet the performance requirements of dynamitron for the stability. Methods: A distributed control system for the 1.5-MeV dynamitron is proposed to gain better performance. On this basis, an electron beam trajectory automatic correction method based on Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller and Proportional-Integral Derivative (CMAC-PID) controller is designed to improve the function of electron beam extraction system. Results: The distributed control system can meet the control requirements of the accelerator. The stability of the CMAC PID controller is better than that of conventional PID controller for the electron beam trajectory automatic correction system, and hence the CMAC-PID controller can provide better protection of dynamitron when electron beam deflection occurs. Conclusion: The distributed control system and the electron beam trajectory automatic correction method system can effectively improve the performance and reduce the failure probability of the accelerator, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the accelerator. (authors)

  14. knowledge, attitude and control practices of sickle cell disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-01

    Apr 1, 2009 ... psychological, financial and social burden on patients, their care-givers and society at large. Furthermore, there are very few centres with facilities for prenatal diagnosis in Nigeria.24 Suffice to say that current control measures of sickle cell disease in Nigeria are palpably meager in the face of the enormous ...

  15. Quality control assessment of two lentogenic newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Control of Newcastle Disease is principally by vaccination. Both imported and locally produced vaccines are in use in Nigeria. Comparison was made between two lentogenic vaccines imported from France, India and the Vom-produced Lasota in terms of physical outlook, sterility viral viability, immunogenicity and safety.

  16. Outbreaks: Sources of Epidemiological Knowledge in Communicable Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.J.M. Mertens (Paulus Leonardus Johannes Marie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPublic health has been defined as the science and art of disease prevention, prolonging life, and promoting health and well-being through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, the control of communicable infections, the organization of medical and nursing

  17. Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused by Colletotrichum capsici. R. S. Shukla, Abdul-Khaliq and M. Alam*. Department of Plant Pathology, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Council of Scientific and Industrial. Research, P. O. CIMAP, Lucknow–226 015, India.

  18. Dopamine and Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weintraub, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that impulse control disorders (ICDs), including compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behavior, and eating, can occur as a complication of Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, other impulsive or compulsive disorders have been reported to occur, including dopamine

  19. A Paratransgenic Strategy for the Control of Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Hurwitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease results from infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in central and south America. Chagas disease now exists and is detected worldwide because of human migration. Control of Chagas disease has relied mainly on vector eradication however, the development of insect resistance to pesticides, coupled with cost and adverse health effects of insecticide treatments, has prompted our group to investigate novel methods of transmission control. Our laboratory has been instrumental in the development of the paratransgenic strategy to control vectorial transmission of T. cruzi. In this paper, we discuss various components of the paratransgenic approach. Specifically, we describe classes of molecules that can serve as effectors, including antimicrobial peptides, endoglucanases, and highly specific single chain antibodies that target surface glycoprotein tags on the surface of T. cruzi. Furthermore, we address evolving concepts related to field dispersal of engineered bacteria as part of the paratransgenic control strategy and attendant risk assessment evaluation.

  20. Dental disease control in Pine Hill, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Frank J; Cloud, Bill; Finster, Carolyn

    2004-02-01

    One-year results of a community-operated dental disease control project in Pine Hill, New Mexico. The program uses fluoride, chiefly rinse, and has not only reduced the amount of decay in permanent teeth, but has markedly reduced the need for restorative care of primary teeth.

  1. Using electronic patient records to discover disease correlations and stratify patient cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S Roque

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic patient records remain a rather unexplored, but potentially rich data source for discovering correlations between diseases. We describe a general approach for gathering phenotypic descriptions of patients from medical records in a systematic and non-cohort dependent manner. By extracting phenotype information from the free-text in such records we demonstrate that we can extend the information contained in the structured record data, and use it for producing fine-grained patient stratification and disease co-occurrence statistics. The approach uses a dictionary based on the International Classification of Disease ontology and is therefore in principle language independent. As a use case we show how records from a Danish psychiatric hospital lead to the identification of disease correlations, which subsequently can be mapped to systems biology frameworks.

  2. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Incidence and Control of Selakarang Disease In Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Selakarang is a fungal disease attacking horses. Although the mortality rate is low, the morbidity is high leading to economic loss. The island of Sulawesi has about 151.000 horses and they are distributed in 5 provinces: North, Central, West, South, and South-East Sulawesi which potentially has endemic outbreaks caused by the Selakarang fungus, Histoplasma farciminosum. The disease might be endemic throughout Indonesia if the horse trading is not monitored. In Maros, South Sulawesi, the disease is found with symptoms in the form of nasal, cutan, and ocular symptoms. Ignorance of the appropriate authorities will increase the likelihood of spread of the disease. According to the Staatblad act produced in 1912 and the disease belonged to the zoonotic disease and when it is not well handled and properly managed, infection to human may occur. Prevention is better than treatment. In the future, we may propose to produce inactive vaccines and develop serological test to detect antigen and antibody in RIVS collaborating with other government agencies or private parties interested in this disease control.

  4. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were

  5. Biological Control of Plant Disease Caused by Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases in plants are difficult to control. The emphasis is on preventing the spread of the bacteria rather than curing the diseased plant. Integrated management measures for bacterial plant pathogens should be applied for successfull control. Biological control is one of the control measures viz. through the use of microorganisms to suppress the growth and development of bacterial plant pathogen and ultimately reduce the possibility of disease onset. The study of biological control of bacterial plant pathogen was just began compared with of fungal plant pathogen. The ecological nature of diverse bacterial plant pathogens has led scientists to apply different approach in the investigation of its biological control. The complex process of entrance to its host plant for certain soil-borne bacterial plant pathogens need special techniques and combination of more than one biological control agent. Problem and progress in controlling bacterial plant pathogens biologically will be discussed in more detail in the paper and some commercial products of biological control agents (biopesticides will be introduced.     Penyakit tumbuhan karena bakteri sulit dikendalikan. Penekanan pengendalian adalah pada pencegahan penyebaran bakteri patogen dan bukan pada penyembuhan tanaman yang sudah sakit. Untuk suksesnya pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan diperlukan cara pengelolaan yang terpadu. Pengendalian secara biologi merupakan salah satu cara pengendalian dengan menggunakan mikroorganisme untuk menekan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan bakteri patogen tumbuhan dengan tujuan akhir menurunkan kemungkinan timbulnya penyakit. Sifat ekologi bakteri patogen tumbuhan yang berbeda-beda mengharuskan pendekatan yang berbeda pula dalam pengendaliannya secara biologi. Masalah dan perkembangan dalam pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan secara biologi didiskusikan secara detail dalam makalah ini.

  6. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... with an electronic engine control (EEC), also known as a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC... engine design certification, and the certification requirements for engine control systems are driven by... aircraft supplied power and data failures on the engine control system, and the resulting effects on engine...

  7. Using Electronic Patient Records to Discover Disease Correlations and Stratify Patient Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roque, Francisco S.; Jensen, Peter B.; Schmock, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Electronic patient records remain a rather unexplored, but potentially rich data source for discovering correlations between diseases. We describe a general approach for gathering phenotypic descriptions of patients from medical records in a systematic and non-cohort dependent manner. By extracting...... phenotype information from the free-text in such records we demonstrate that we can extend the information contained in the structured record data, and use it for producing fine-grained patient stratification and disease co-occurrence statistics. The approach uses a dictionary based on the International...

  8. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto EF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EF Porto,1,2 AAM Castro,1,3 VGS Schmidt,4 HM Rabelo,4 C Kümpel,2 OA Nascimento,5 JR Jardim5 1Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Adventist University, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Pampa, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Adventist University, 5Respiratory Diseases, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control.Methods: Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using “balance”, “postural control”, and “COPD” as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers.Results: A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the “balance in COPD or postural control in COPD” keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study

  9. Electron dynamics in RF sources with a laser controlled emission

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Metrochenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission radiofrequency (RF) electron sources are sources of electron beams with extremely high brightness. Beam bunching processes in such devices are well studied in case when laser pulse duration is much lower of rf oscillation period.At the same time photoemission RF guns have some merits when operating in 'long-pulse' mode. In this case the laser pulse duration is much higher of rf oscillation period but much lower of rise time of oscillations in a gun cavity. Beam parameters at the gun output are compared for photoemission and thermoemission cathode applications. The paper presents results of a beam dynamics simulation in such guns with different resonance structures. Questions connected with defining of the current pulse peak value that can be obtained in such guns are discussed.

  10. Junction Temperature Control for More Reliable Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Markus; Ma, Ke; Buticchi, Giampaolo

    2018-01-01

    The thermal stress of power electronic components is one of the most important causes of their failure. Proper thermal management plays an important role for more reliable and cost-effective energy conversion. As one of the most vulnerable and expensive components, power semiconductor components ...... the desired cost-benefit tradeoff. This paper analyzes also the many open questions of this research area. Among them, it is worth highlighting that a verification of the actual lifetime extension is still missing....

  11. Postural control and freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Witt, Karsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Fasano, Alfonso; Deuschl, Günther

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We analyzed the impact of FOG on postural control. 31 PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG), 27 PD patients without FOG (PD-FOG) and 22 healthy control (HC) were assessed in the ON state. Postural control was measured with the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale and with center of pressure (COP) analysis during quiet stance and maximal voluntary forward/backward leaning. The groups were balanced concerning age, disease duration and disease severity. PD+FOG performed significantly worse in the FAB scale (21.8 ± 5.8) compared to PD-FOG (25.6 ± 5.0) and HC (34.9 ± 2.4) (mean ± SD, p postural control asymmetry. PD+FOG have reduced postural control compared to PD-FOG and HC. Our results show a relationship between the anterior-posterior COP position during quiet stance and FOG. The COP shift towards posterior in PD+FOG leads to a restricted precondition to generate forward progression during gait initiation. This may contribute to the occurrence of FOG or might be a compensatory strategy to avoid forward falls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Trends of asthma control, disease management and perception in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J T; Wang, W Q; Zhou, X; Yin, K S; Liu, C T; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Chen, P; Yuan, Y D; Cai, S X; Wu, C G; Li, J; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Liu, H G; Gu, Y H; Huang, X G; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Zhou, W; Jiang, P; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Zhang, W; Chen, Y Q; Huang, Y J; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Ye, X W; Hu, C P; Zhang, J; Xu, J Y

    2018-03-12

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of asthma control, disease management and perception in recent years in China. Methods: We conducted 2 multi-center, cross-sectional surveys. Outpatient asthmatic patients from 10 cities in mainland China (2007-2008) and 30 central cities from 30 provinces in China (except Tibet)(2015-2016) were recruited respectively. Data of asthma control, disease management and perception from the 2 surveys were compared for 10 cities which took part in both of the 2 surveys. Chi-square test was used for comparison between groups. Results: The asthma control level improved from 28.7%(839/2 928) in 2007-2008 to 39.2%(533/1 361) in 2015-2016( P control asthma when asthma symptoms deteriorated in 2015-2016, which was higher than the result of 2007-2008(31.8%, 803/2 524)( P control and disease perception in China improved significantly in recent years, while the rate of PFM usage showed no significant improvement. Asthma action plan including PFM monitoring and asthma self-management should be further promoted nationwide.

  13. Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks Award Number Title of Research 30 October 2017 SUBMITTED BY D R. HERBERT L. G INN, Pl DEPT. OF...Naval Research , Philadelphia PA, Aug. 2017. • Ginn, H.L. Bakos J., "Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic...Controller Implementation for MMC Converters", Workshop on Control Architectures for Modular Power Conversion Systems, Office of Naval Research , Arlington VA

  14. Leveraging electronic health records to support chronic disease management: the need for temporal data views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Lipika; Wright, Adam; Wong, Bang T; Linder, Jeffrey A; Bates, David W

    2011-01-01

    The ageing population worldwide is increasingly acquiring multiple chronic diseases. The complex management of chronic diseases could be improved with electronic health records (EHRs) tailored to chronic disease care, but most EHRs in use today do not adequately support longitudinal data management. A key aspect of chronic disease management is that it takes place over long periods, but the way that most EHRs display longitudinal data makes it difficult to trend changes over time and slows providers as they review each patient's unique course. We present five clinical scenarios illustrating longitudinal data needs in complex chronic disease management. These scenarios may function as example cases for software development. For each scenario, we describe and illustrate improvements in temporal data views. Two potential solutions are visualisation for numerical data and disease-oriented text summaries for non-numerical data. We believe that development and widespread implementation of improved temporal data views in EHRs will improve the efficiency and quality of chronic disease management in primary care.

  15. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  16. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring boards. Susceptibility of nuclear electronic pulse equipment to interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisson, Jacques; Cochinal, R.; Duquesnoy, J.; Roquefort, H.

    1972-07-01

    The correct functioning of pulse measurement units in industrial environmental conditions where interference is high, frequently gives rise to many installation problems which are difficult to solve. This paper offers some recommendations with a view to minimising the effect to electric interference on electronic equipment and gives a test method which enables this effect to be assessed qualitatively. It has been devised for nuclear electronic instrumentation but it may also be applied to other equipment and in particular the test method may be used for other cases. After a few preliminaries on how interference acts and on the terminology, the design of the equipment and the recommended connections are mentioned. Test methods are then indicated, followed by various technical comments. (author) [fr

  17. The control computer for the Chalk River electron test accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, G.E.; Fraser, J.S.; McKeown, J.

    1978-02-01

    A versatile control and data acquisition system has been developed for a modest-sized linear accelerator using mainly process I/O hardware and software. This report describes the evolution of the present system since 1972, the modifications needed to satisfy the changing requirements of the various accelerator physics experiments and the limitations of such a system in process control. (author)

  18. The CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] control system architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bork, R.

    1987-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on CEBAF's computer control system. This control system will utilize computers in a distributed, networked configuration. The architecture, networking and operating system of the computers, and preliminary performance data are presented. We will also discuss the design of the operator consoles and the interfacing between the computers and CEBAF's instrumentation and operating equipment

  19. Electronic quality control on dental x-rays equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomares C, Martin

    1996-09-01

    A brief description of dental x-ray equipment is done. The non-invasive quality control is treated as than the responsibilities from the dentists to the patient and the equipment. A propose for quality control for dental x-ray equipment, film and developer is include

  20. Team Electronic Gameplay Combining Different Means of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Palsson, Olafur S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses provided for modifying the effect of an operator controlled input device on an interactive device to encourage the self-regulation of at least one physiological activity by a person different than the operator. The interactive device comprises a display area which depicts images and apparatus for receiving at least one input from the operator controlled input device to thus permit the operator to control and interact with at least some of the depicted images. One effect modification comprises measurement of the physiological activity of a person different from the operator, while modifying the ability of the operator to control and interact with at least some of the depicted images by modifying the input from the operator controlled input device in response to changes in the measured physiological signal.

  1. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention...

  3. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity...

  4. 78 FR 12622 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... of direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions concerning this notice: Ashley A. Marrone, JD, Centers for Disease Control...

  5. Understanding disease control: influence of epidemiological and economic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Oleś

    Full Text Available We present a model of disease transmission on a regular and small world network and compare different control options. Comparison is based on a total cost of epidemic, including cost of palliative treatment of ill individuals and preventive cost aimed at vaccination or culling of susceptible individuals. Disease is characterized by pre-symptomatic phase, which makes detection and control difficult. Three general strategies emerge: global preventive treatment, local treatment within a neighborhood of certain size and only palliative treatment with no prevention. While the choice between the strategies depends on a relative cost of palliative and preventive treatment, the details of the local strategy and, in particular, the size of the optimal treatment neighborhood depend on the epidemiological factors. The required extent of prevention is proportional to the size of the infection neighborhood, but depends on time till detection and time till treatment in a non-nonlinear (power law. The optimal size of control neighborhood is also highly sensitive to the relative cost, particularly for inefficient detection and control application. These results have important consequences for design of prevention strategies aiming at emerging diseases for which parameters are not nessecerly known in advance.

  6. Progress in sub-femtosecond control of electron localization in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-04

    Jan 4, 2014 ... Recent advances in controlled generation of intense, ultrashort ... of the electric field for near infrared (IR) wavelength at 800 nm is about 2.7 fs. .... Furthermore, the oscillation contrast and phase, depends on the kinetic energy.

  7. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolie, V.W.

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  8. The association between periodontal disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Görkem; Baser, Ulku; Kucukcoskun, Meric; Tanrikulu-Kucuk, Sevda; Ademoglu, Evin; Isik, Gulden; Ozkan, Gulcihan; Yalcin, Funda; Kiyan, Esen

    2014-08-01

    Although there are studies evaluating the effects of periodontal health on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the effects of COPD - a systemic disease, on periodontal tissue is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of COPD on periodontal tissues by comparing COPD patients and controls. Fifty-two COPD patients and 38 non-COPD controls were included in this case-control study. Number of teeth, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level and probing depth were included in the periodontal examination. In addition to clinical evaluations, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1 beta (IL-lb) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), and serum hs-CRP levels were measured in COPD patients and the controls. The number of teeth was significantly lower while PI and GI were significantly higher in COPD patients when compared to the controls. As well as serum hs-CRP levels, the GCF levels of hs-CRP, IL-1b and PGE2 were significantly higher in COPD patients than the controls. Our results demonstrated that COPD may be associated with periodontal disease as manifested by lower number of teeth and higher levels of inflammatory mediators especially CRP in GCF. This finding may be a reflection of systemic effects of COPD on periodontal tissues. Poor oral health behavior of COPD patients have to be considered in larger size group studies in the future.

  9. Asthma: epidemiology of disease control in Latin America - short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Dirceu; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is reported as one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, impairing the quality of life of patients and their families and incurring high costs to the healthcare system and society. Despite the development of new drugs and the availability of international treatment guidelines, asthma is still poorly controlled, especially in Latin America. Original and review articles on asthma control or epidemiology with high levels of evidence have been selected for analysis among those published in PubMed referenced journals during the last 20 years, using the following keywords: "asthma control" combined with "Latin America", " epidemiology", "prevalence", "burden", "mortality", "treatment and unmet needs", "children", "adolescents", and "infants". There was a high prevalence and severity of asthma during the period analyzed, especially in children and adolescents. Wheezing in infants was a significant reason for seeking medical care in Latin American health centers. Moreover, the frequent use of quick-relief bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids by these patients indicates the lack of a policy for providing better care for asthmatic patients, as well as poor asthma control. Among adults, studies document poor treatment and control of the disease, as revealed by low adherence to routine anti-inflammatory medications and high rates of emergency care visits and hospitalization. In conclusion, although rare, studies on asthma control in Latin America repeatedly show that patients are inadequately controlled and frequently overestimate their degree of asthma control according to the criteria used by international asthma treatment guidelines. Additional education for doctors and patients is essential for adequate control of this illness, and therefore also for reduction of the individual and social burden of asthma.

  10. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  11. Theory, simulation and experiments for precise deflection control of radiotherapy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R.; Leiva, J.; Moncada, R.; Rojas, L.; Santibanez, M.; Valente, M.; Young, H. [Universidad de la Frontera, Centro de Fisica e Ingenieria en Medicina, Av. Francisco Salazar 1145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Velasquez, J. [Universidad de la Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Francisco Salazar 1145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Zelada, G. [Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Av. Vitacura 5951, 13132 Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Astudillo, R., E-mail: rodolfo.figueroa@ufrontera.cl [Hospital Base de Valdivia, C. Simpson 850, XIV Region de los Rios, Valdivia (Chile)

    2017-10-15

    Conventional radiotherapy is mainly applied by linear accelerators. Although linear accelerators provide dual (electron/photon) radiation beam modalities, both of them are intrinsically produced by a megavoltage electron current. Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques are based on suitable devices inserted or attached to conventional linear accelerators. Thus, precise control of delivered beam becomes a main key issue. This work presents an integral description of electron beam deflection control as required for novel radiotherapy technique based on convergent photon beam production. Theoretical and Monte Carlo approaches were initially used for designing and optimizing devices components. Then, dedicated instrumentation was developed for experimental verification of electron beam deflection due to the designed magnets. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results support the reliability of electrodynamics models used for predict megavoltage electron beam control. (Author)

  12. Theory, simulation and experiments for precise deflection control of radiotherapy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, R.; Leiva, J.; Moncada, R.; Rojas, L.; Santibanez, M.; Valente, M.; Young, H.; Velasquez, J.; Zelada, G.; Astudillo, R.

    2017-10-01

    Conventional radiotherapy is mainly applied by linear accelerators. Although linear accelerators provide dual (electron/photon) radiation beam modalities, both of them are intrinsically produced by a megavoltage electron current. Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques are based on suitable devices inserted or attached to conventional linear accelerators. Thus, precise control of delivered beam becomes a main key issue. This work presents an integral description of electron beam deflection control as required for novel radiotherapy technique based on convergent photon beam production. Theoretical and Monte Carlo approaches were initially used for designing and optimizing devices components. Then, dedicated instrumentation was developed for experimental verification of electron beam deflection due to the designed magnets. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results support the reliability of electrodynamics models used for predict megavoltage electron beam control. (Author)

  13. Comorbidities in rotator cuff disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, Andrew G; White, Jonathan J E; Hinchliffe, Sally R; Tambe, Amol A; Hubbard, Richard B; Clark, David I

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a common condition in the general population, but relatively little is known about its associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and to quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for rotator cuff disease in the community. Our data set included 5000 patients with rotator cuff disease who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice (primary care practice). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range, 44-65 years). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with rotator cuff disease were Achilles tendinitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78), trigger finger (OR = 1.99), lateral epicondylitis (OR = 1.71), and carpal tunnel syndrome (OR = 1.55). Oral corticosteroid therapy (OR = 2.03), oral antidiabetic use (OR = 1.66), insulin use (OR = 1.77), and "overweight" body mass index of 25.1 to 30 (OR = 1.15) were also significantly associated. Current or previous smoking history, body mass index of greater than 30, any alcohol intake, medial epicondylitis, de Quervain syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis were not found to be associated with rotator cuff disease. We have identified a number of comorbidities and risk factors for rotator cuff disease. These include lateral epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, Achilles tendinitis, oral corticosteroid use, and diabetes mellitus. The findings should alert the clinician to comorbid pathologic processes and guide future research into the etiology of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synchronization and sequencing of data acquisition and control electronics at the European X-ray free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessler, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The 3.5 km long European X-Ray Free Electron Laser, currently under construction in northern Germany, will deliver bursts of up to 2700 short X-ray pulses every 100 ms, providing wavelengths between 0.05 and 6 nm, and a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz to several experiment stations. It allows in-depth research in various scientific fields. In order to set-up the beam, position samples and capture the measured variables, information from the accelerator, diagnostic devices and detectors have to be digitized, converted, processed, transferred, concentrated, distributed, reorganized, controlled and saved. All these steps have to be accurately synchronized and sequenced relative to the actual electron bunch or photon pulse in order to guarantee correct data acquisition timings and unique identification of each bunch passing the beamlines. This document provides a complete description of the planning, design, realization and evaluation of the European XFEL Timing System, which implements the synchronization and sequencing of the data acquisition and control electronics for the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility.

  15. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man.

  16. Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Sera, Dezso

    2007-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a demand to double the power capacity within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be set up....... Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production...

  17. Power electronics and control for wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    energy at the end-user should be set up. Deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be increased in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...... the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...

  18. Electrolyte control of photosynthetic electron transport in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    Ion-permeable cells (permeaplasts) of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans were prepared enzymatically and were characterized with respect to several structural and functional indices. The permeaplasts contain intact, ion-impermeable thylakoids and are photosynthetically active. The authors discuss how, employing these cells, they investigated the effects of cations, acting either on the outer, or on the inner thylakoid membrane surface, on photoinduced electron exchanges with anionic donors (Cyt c-550, plastocyanin, innersurface), or anionic acceptors (FeCN 3- ; outer surface). Cations accelerate such exchanges by accumulating near the solution-membrane interfaces and screening the negative surface charge of membranes. Electrostatic screening, however, is not the only contributing factor, and other electrolyte-linked influences must be invoked in order to interpret the experimental observations

  19. Nuclear electronics equipment for control and monitoring panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefort, Henri

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to fix what terminology should be used, to define the main specifications of supplies and to specify the test methods recommended to check these specifications. This document applies to low and high voltage supply sub-units fed by AC or DC mains supply and delivering direct current under stabilised DC voltage. These sub-units are used in nuclear electronics equipment and especially for reactor monitoring. Following the definition of some terms, current notations and a bibliography, the characteristics section and the corresponding test methods section are developed. Each section deals in particular with: input and output characteristics, linearity and display errors, fluctuations, influence and operation errors, variations, drift (stability), variations with the main influence quantities: mains, temperature, load, transient variations, insulation, shielding, microbreakdowns, emergency supply, electromagnetic perturbation sensitivity, reliability, maintainability and characteristics specific to certain supplies used for the polarisation of radiation detectors [fr

  20. Representation of ophthalmology concepts by electronic systems: adequacy of controlled medical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Michael F; Casper, Daniel S; Cimino, James J; Starren, Justin

    2005-02-01

    To assess the adequacy of 5 controlled medical terminologies (International Classification of Diseases 9, Clinical Modification [ICD9-CM]; Current Procedural Terminology 4 [CPT-4]; Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Clinical Terms [SNOMED-CT]; Logical Identifiers, Names, and Codes [LOINC]; Medical Entities Dictionary [MED]) for representing concepts in ophthalmology. Noncomparative case series. Twenty complete ophthalmology case presentations were sequentially selected from a publicly available ophthalmology journal. Each of the 20 cases was parsed into discrete concepts, and each concept was classified along 2 axes: (1) diagnosis, finding, or procedure and (2) ophthalmic or medical concept. Electronic or paper browsers were used to assign a code for every concept in each of the 5 terminologies. Adequacy of assignment for each concept was scored on a 3-point scale. Findings from all 20 case presentations were combined and compared based on a coverage score, which was the average score for all concepts in that terminology. Adequacy of assignment for concepts in each terminology, based on a 3-point Likert scale (0, no match; 1, partial match; 2, complete match). Cases were parsed into 1603 concepts. SNOMED-CT had the highest mean overall coverage score (1.625+/-0.667), followed by MED (0.974+/-0.764), LOINC (0.781+/-0.929), ICD9-CM (0.280+/-0.619), and CPT-4 (0.082+/-0.337). SNOMED-CT also had higher coverage scores than any of the other terminologies for concepts in the diagnosis, finding, and procedure categories. Average coverage scores for ophthalmic concepts were lower than those for medical concepts. Controlled terminologies are required for electronic representation of ophthalmology data. SNOMED-CT had significantly higher content coverage than any other terminology in this study.

  1. Quality control of 131I treatment of graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zeng; Liu Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    To make a preliminary quality control (QC) criteria and apply on the various stages of clinic 131 I treatment of Graves' disease in order to decrease the early happening of hypothyroidism and enhance the onetime 131 I cure rate of Graves' disease, the quality control criteria in the stochastic outpatient with 131 I treatment, such as plan of the indication, contraindication, method of treatment, matters needing attention, follow-up observation and curative effect appraisal, patient selection, RAIU, thyroid gland weight measurement and 131 I dose criteria for the various steps of 131 I medication were determined. The 131 I treatment effects of Graves' disease including the once-cure rate, the improving rate, duplicate cure rate and the early happening rate of hypothyroidism were analyzed in patients with applying QC and without QC ccriteria. The results showed that the oncecure rate in patients with applying QC criteria was increased from 76.6% to 90.9% (P≤0.01); the improving rate was decreased from 12.2% to 7.0% (P≤0.01); the duplicate cure rate was increased from 90.1% to 93.0% (P>0.05); the early happening rate of hypothyroidism was decreased from 11.0% to 2.1% (P≤0.01). The 131 I treatment of Graves' disease applying with QC criteria had tremendously improved the oncecure rate and decreased the early happening of hypothyroidism rate. (authors)

  2. Controlling disease and creating disparities: a fundamental cause perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jo C; Link, Bruce G

    2005-10-01

    The United States and other developed countries experienced enormous improvements in population health during the 20th century. In the context of this dramatic positive change, health disparities by race and socioeconomic status emerged for several potent killers. Any explanation for current health disparities must take these changing patterns into account. Any explanation that ignores large improvements in population health and fails to account for the emergence of disparities for specific diseases is an inadequate explanation of current disparities. We argue that genetic explanations and some prominent social causation explanations are incompatible with these facts. We propose that the theory of "fundamental causes" can account for both vast improvements in population health and the creation of large socioeconomic and racial disparities in mortality for specific causes of death over time. Specifically, we argue that it is our enormously expanded capacity to control disease and death in combination with existing social and economic inequalities that create health disparities by race and socioeconomic status: When we develop the ability to control disease and death, the benefits of this new-found ability are distributed according to resources of knowledge, money, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections. We present data on changing mortality patterns by race and socioeconomic status for two types of diseases: those for which our capacity to prevent death has increased significantly and those for which we remain largely unable to prevent death. Time trends in mortality patterns are consistent with the fundamental cause explanation.

  3. Electronics for the control of the rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Schwarz, H.

    1980-03-01

    This note describes the operation of the major components used for controlling the phase and the field level of the PEP rf cavities. The block diagram of one rf station is decomposed into several control loops: each cavity has a tuners' servo loop which maintains the frequency constant and also keeps the field of each cell at the same level; the total gap voltage developed by a pair of cavities is obeying the command of the gap voltage controller; finally, the phase variation along the amplification chain and the klystron are compensated by a phase lock loop. The design criteria of each loop are set forth and the circuit implementation and test results are presented. The purpose of this report is to acquaint interested people with the design philosophy and to allow them to evaluate the capabilities of this system and its behavior during operation of the machine. 5 refs., 16 figs

  4. Integrated optical transceiver with electronically controlled optical beamsteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; DeRose, Christopher; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2017-08-22

    A beam-steering optical transceiver is provided. The transceiver includes one or more modules, each comprising an antenna chip and a control chip bonded to the antenna chip. Each antenna chip has a feeder waveguide, a plurality of row waveguides that tap off from the feeder waveguide, and a plurality of metallic nanoantenna elements arranged in a two-dimensional array of rows and columns such that each row overlies one of the row waveguides. Each antenna chip also includes a plurality of independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters, each configured to produce a thermo-optical phase shift in a respective row. Each antenna chip also has, for each row, a row-wise heating circuit configured to produce a respective thermo-optic phase shift at each nanoantenna element along its row. The control chip includes controllable current sources for the independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters and the row-wise heating circuits.

  5. Automatic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity from the electronic medical records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    Full Text Available We aimed to mine the data in the Electronic Medical Record to automatically discover patients' Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity at discrete rheumatology clinic visits. We cast the problem as a document classification task where the feature space includes concepts from the clinical narrative and lab values as stored in the Electronic Medical Record.The Training Set consisted of 2792 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 1 included 1749 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 2 included 344 clinical notes for which there were no associated lab values. The Apache clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System was used to analyze the text and transform it into informative features to be combined with relevant lab values.Experiments over a range of machine learning algorithms and features were conducted. The best performing combination was linear kernel Support Vector Machines with Unified Medical Language System Concept Unique Identifier features with feature selection and lab values. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC is 0.831 (σ = 0.0317, statistically significant as compared to two baselines (AUC = 0.758, σ = 0.0291. Algorithms demonstrated superior performance on cases clinically defined as extreme categories of disease activity (Remission and High compared to those defined as intermediate categories (Moderate and Low and included laboratory data on inflammatory markers.Automatic Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity discovery from Electronic Medical Record data is a learnable task approximating human performance. As a result, this approach might have several research applications, such as the identification of patients for genome-wide pharmacogenetic studies that require large sample sizes with precise definitions of disease activity and response to therapies.

  6. Design electronic of manual control for cobalt unit Alcyon II of the National Center of Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morraz V, E.; Campos, X.

    2002-01-01

    A manual control for the cobalt unit, of French production, it was designed by the team of electronic of the national center of radiotherapy with materials found in the national trade. The control has the same characteristics that the original one and it is also adapted a switch from which you can control the lights of the room of the cobalt

  7. An electronic logbook for the HEP control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roediger, G.; Pomatto, P.; Kyriakopulos, J.; Panacek, S.; Canal, P.; Kubarovsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. The author explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries and saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of logbook

  8. An Electronic Logbook for the HEP Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary Roediger

    2001-01-01

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. This paper explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries are saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of the logbook

  9. Audit-Based Access Control for Electronic Health Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Traditional access control mechanisms aim to prevent illegal actions a-priori occurrence, i.e. before granting a request for a document. There are scenarios however where the security decision can not be made on the fly. For these settings we developed a language and a framework for a-posteriori

  10. Measuring Instruments Control Methodology Performance for Analog Electronics Remote Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Hernandez-Jayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the work that has been developed in parallel to the VISIR project. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the validations processes that have been carried out to check the control methodology. This method has been developed with the aim of being independent of the instruments of the labs.

  11. Atomic-Scale Control of Electron Transport through Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y. F.; Kroger, J.; Berndt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-phthalocyanine molecules adsorbed on Ag(111) were contacted with the tip of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope. Orders-of-magnitude variations of the single-molecule junction conductance were achieved by controllably dehydrogenating the molecule and by modifying the atomic structure...

  12. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  13. Audit-Based Access Control for Electronic Health Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; Gadducci, F.

    Traditional access control mechanisms aim to prevent illegal actions a-priori occurrence, i.e.before granting a request for a document. There are scenarios however where the security decision can not be made on the fly. For these settings we developed a language and a framework for a-posteriori

  14. Electronics Controls Assessment for the PATRIOT Air Conditioner System. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-28

    Design, Febru- 3ary 1980. 8. "Solid State Motor Control Gives Smooth Starting", David J. Bak, Design News, April 1981. 9. "The Effect Of Voltage...Sgroi and Don Fetterman it wasE questioned whether or not this data applied to the compressor motor in the TECS units supplied to MTI. Another report No

  15. Molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for disease control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, L; Osmani, M G; Kalam, M A; Chakraborty, R K; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; Hammond, J M; Benigno, C

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh, and to implement an effective FMD control programme, it is essential to understand the complex epidemiology of the disease. Here, we report on the characterization of FMD virus (FMDV) recovered from FMD outbreaks in Bangladesh in late 2009. All isolated viruses belonged to the FMDV serotype O. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all isolates belonged to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype, but fell into two distinct sublineages, one named Ind-2001 (the other has not been named). Within both sublineages, the 2009 Bangladesh isolates were most closely related to viruses from Nepal collected during 2008 and 2009. Additionally, both sublineages contained older viruses from India collected in 2000 and 2001. In South Asia, there is extensive cross-border cattle movement from Nepal and India to Bangladesh. Both these findings have implications for the control of FMD in Bangladesh. Because of the porous borders, a regional FMD control strategy should be developed. Further, animal identification and monitoring animal movements are necessary to identify the cross-border movements and market chain interactions of ruminants, leading to improved border and movement controls. Additionally, a vaccination strategy should be developed with the initial objective of protecting small-scale dairy herds from disease. For any successful FMD control programme, long-term Government commitment and adequate resources are necessary. A sustainable programme will also need farmer education, commitment and financial contributions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Prescribing of Electronic Activity Monitors in Cardiometabolic Diseases: Qualitative Interview-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellicha, Alice; Macé, Sandrine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-23

    The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases, including those such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, so-called cardiometabolic diseases, is high and is increasing worldwide. Strong evidence supports the role of physical activity in management of these diseases. There is general consensus that mHealth technology, including electronic activity monitors, can potentially increase physical activity in patients, but their use in clinical settings remains limited. Practitioners' requirements when prescribing electronic activity monitors have been poorly described. The aims of this qualitative study were (1) to explore how specialist physicians prescribe electronic activity monitors to patients presenting with cardiometabolic conditions, and (2) to better understand their motivation for and barriers to prescribing such monitors. We conducted qualitative semistructured interviews in March to May 2016 with 11 senior physicians from a public university hospital in France with expertise in management of cardiometabolic diseases (type 1 and type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia). Interviews lasted 45 to 60 minutes and were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using directed content analysis. We report our findings following the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) checklist. Most physicians we interviewed had never prescribed electronic activity monitors, whereas they frequently prescribed blood glucose or blood pressure self-monitoring devices. Reasons for nonprescription included lack of interest in the data collected, lack of evidence for data accuracy, concern about work overload possibly resulting from automatic data transfer, and risk of patients becoming addicted to data. Physicians expected future marketing of easy-to-use monitors that will accurately measure physical activity duration and intensity and provide understandable motivating feedback. Features of electronic activity monitors

  17. Co-simulation of heavy truck tire dynamics and electronic stability control systems (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decade, electronic stability controls (ESC) have become increasingly common on vehicles operating in the United States. The acceptance of this technology has progressed to the point where all new passenger vehicles sold in the US are requ...

  18. Remote control of the dissociative ionization of H2 based on electron-H2 + entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ping; He, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The single ionization of H2 in strong laser fields creates the correlated electron-H2 + pair. Based on such a correlation, we conceive a strategy to control the energy spectra of the freed electron or dissociative fragments by simulating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Two attosecond pulses in a train produce the replica of electron-H2 + pairs, which are to be steered by a time-delayed phase-stabilized (mid)infrared laser pulse. By controlling the behavior of the freed electron, the dissociation of H2 + can be controlled even though there is no direct laser-H2 + coupling. On the other hand, the photoelectron energy spectra can be manipulated via laser-H2 + coupling. This study demonstrates the entanglement of molecular quantum wave packets, and affords a route to remotely control molecular dissociative ionization.

  19. Role of Mitochondrial Reverse Electron Transport in ROS Signaling: Potential Roles in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Scialò

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of aging and age-related diseases including cancer, diabetes and Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, mitochondria from old individuals have higher levels of ROS. However, ROS also participate in cellular signaling, are instrumental for several physiological processes and boosting ROS levels in model organisms extends lifespan. The current consensus is that low levels of ROS are beneficial, facilitating adaptation to stress via signaling, whereas high levels of ROS are deleterious because they trigger oxidative stress. Based on this model the amount of ROS should determine the physiological effect. However, recent data suggests that the site at which ROS are generated is also instrumental in determining effects on cellular homeostasis. The best example of site-specific ROS signaling is reverse electron transport (RET. RET is produced when electrons from ubiquinol are transferred back to respiratory complex I, reducing NAD+ to NADH. This process generates a significant amount of ROS. RET has been shown to be instrumental for the activation of macrophages in response to bacterial infection, re-organization of the electron transport chain in response to changes in energy supply and adaptation of the carotid body to changes in oxygen levels. In Drosophila melanogaster, stimulating RET extends lifespan. Here, we review what is known about RET, as an example of site-specific ROS signaling, and its implications for the field of redox biology.

  20. Motor skill learning, retention, and control deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Katharina Pendt

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.

  1. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  2. Materials of the Regional Training Course on Validation and Process Control for Electron Beam Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.; Gluszewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation with electron beams is used in the polymer industry, food, pharmaceutical and medical device industries for sterilization of surfaces. About 20 lectures presented during the Course were devoted to all aspects of control and validation of low energy electron beam processes. They should help the product manufacturers better understand the application of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137 norm, which defines the requirements and standard practices for validation of the irradiation process and the process controls required during routine processing

  3. Trust and Control Dynamics in Agrifood Supply Networks: Communication Strategies for Electronic Transaction Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Melanie; Hausen, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Agrifood supply networks are dynamic structures where firms regularly face the need to search for new market partners. A decision for a transaction with a new partner requires the existence of appropriate control and safeguard mechanisms as well as trust to overcome perceived risk and uncertainties. Electronic transaction environments offer new potentials for the identification of new transaction partners. However, trust and control need to be communicated appropriately in electronic transact...

  4. 21 CFR 1300.03 - Definitions relating to electronic orders for controlled substances and electronic prescriptions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... systems auditor (CISA) means an individual who has been certified by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association as qualified to audit information systems and who performs compliance audits as a... records on its servers. Audit trail means a record showing who has accessed an information technology...

  5. Interface engineering for oxide electronics: tuning electronic properties by atomically controlled growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to develop a controlled growth with atomic precision for the realization of artificial perovskite structures, to exploit the exceptional physical properties of complex oxide materials such as high-temperature superconductors and conducting interfaces between band

  6. [Perspectives of an electronic data processing-controlled anesthesia protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, G; Naujoks, B

    1987-10-01

    There are two ways to introduce electronic data processing in anesthesia recording, which should be combined in the future: (1) computer-aided data collection (during anesthesia) and (2) data analysis. Both procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages. The first step in data collection is a system whereby the on-line registered data are automatically plotted and the discrete data are noted by hand (semi-automatic recording). The second step is to keep the minutes on a display screen instead of on paper, thus producing a protocol in digital form (automatic recording). We discuss the problems of these computer-aided recording systems and future trends, in particular the problems caused by the "human-computer interface" and by uncertainty with respect to the validity of the stored data. For computer-aided data analysis of anesthesia records, one has to select appropriate data in order to build up data bases. This selection is necessary whether the protocol is in analogical or in digital form, and we attempt to develop some general rules, the concrete selection depends, of course, on the aim of the evaluation. As an example we discuss evaluations for administrative purposes. Evaluations for scientific questions are even more affected by the quality of data definitions, and the efforts involved in data management are considerably higher. At the end of this paper we sketch a hybrid information system for computer-aided anesthesia recording that combines data collection and data analysis.

  7. Transport control of intense electron beam using insulator guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, M; Nishiyama, S; Kawata, S; Hanamori, S [Nagaoka Univ. (Japan). Department of Electrical Engineering; Naito, K; Kato, S; Kawakita, Y; Hakoda, M [Nissin Electric, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A new way to transform a quite large part of magnetic energy stored in a Z-pinch plasma into X-rays was first proposed by Rudakov: using an axial magnetic field B{sub z}, a large part of the energy is expected to be transferred by axial electron conductivity to a converter which is placed perpendicularly to the axis of the plasma in order to produce a bright soft X-ray source. In this paper, experimental results obtained on the `AMBIORIX` generator are presented. A hollow cylindrical liner of helium was driven by a current reaching 2 MA in 50 ns. The implosion was studied with and without axial magnetic field, a steady regime of implosion is observed using B{sub z} = 0.3 T. The plasma parameters and the heating of an aluminium converter were measured using various diagnostics. A detailed analysis of The experimental data were analyzed in detail and compared with the results of numerical simulation. (author). 4 figs., 6 refs.

  8. Electronic eye occluder with time-counting and reflection control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karitans, V.; Ozolinsh, M.; Kuprisha, G.

    2008-09-01

    In pediatric ophthalmology 2 - 3 % of all the children are impacted by a visual pathology - amblyopia. It develops if a clear image isn't presented to the retina during an early stage of the development of the visual system. A common way of treating this pathology is to cover the better-seeing eye to force the "lazy" eye to learn seeing. However, children are often reluctant to wear such an occluder because they are ashamed or simply because they find it inconvenient. This fact requires to find a way how to track the regime of occlusion because results of occlusion is a hint that the actual regime of occlusion isn't that what the optometrist has recommended. We design an electronic eye occluder that allows to track the regime of eye occlusion. We employ real-time clock DS1302 providing time information from seconds to years. Data is stored in the internal memory of the CPU (EEPROM). The MCU (PIC16F676) switches on only if a mechanical switch is closed and temperature has reached a satisfactory level. The occlusion is registered between time moments when the infrared signal appeared and disappeared.

  9. Transport control of intense electron beam using insulator guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M.; Nishiyama, S.; Kawata, S.; Hanamori, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new way to transform a quite large part of magnetic energy stored in a Z-pinch plasma into X-rays was first proposed by Rudakov: using an axial magnetic field B z , a large part of the energy is expected to be transferred by axial electron conductivity to a converter which is placed perpendicularly to the axis of the plasma in order to produce a bright soft X-ray source. In this paper, experimental results obtained on the 'AMBIORIX' generator are presented. A hollow cylindrical liner of helium was driven by a current reaching 2 MA in 50 ns. The implosion was studied with and without axial magnetic field, a steady regime of implosion is observed using B z = 0.3 T. The plasma parameters and the heating of an aluminium converter were measured using various diagnostics. A detailed analysis of The experimental data were analyzed in detail and compared with the results of numerical simulation. (author). 4 figs., 6 refs

  10. System Control Device Electronics Smart Home Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safarul Ilham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of information technology is very useful for today’s life and the next, where the human facilitated in doing a variety of activities in the life day to day. By the development of the existing allows people no longer do a job with difficulty. For that, it takes a system safety home using system technology Web-based and complete video streaming CCTV (video streaming a person can see the condition of his home whenever and wherever by using handphone, laptops and other tools are connected to the Internet network. This tool can facilitate someone in the monitor at home and control equipment the House as open and close and the lock the gate, turning on and off the lights so homeowners are no longer have to visit their home and fear the state of the House because fully security and control in the House was handled by the system. based on the above problems Writer try to design work system a tool that can control the simulation tools home using two Microcontroller is Attiny 2313 and Atmega16.

  11. Treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P; Newnham, Ian A; Ball, Colleen M; Wright, Michelle; Pennell, Craig E; Swain, Jonathan; Doherty, Dorota A

    2009-12-01

    To investigate whether treating periodontal disease prevents preterm birth and other major complications of pregnancy. This single-center trial was conducted across six obstetric sites in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Pregnant women identified by history to be at risk (n=3,737) were examined for periodontal disease. Approximately 1,000 women with periodontal disease were allocated at random to receive periodontal treatment commencing around 20 weeks of gestation (n=542) or 6 weeks after the pregnancy was completed (controls; n=540). The treatment included mechanical removal of oral biofilms together with oral hygiene instruction and motivation at a minimum of three weekly visits, with further visits if required. There were no differences between the control and treatment groups in preterm birth (9.3% compared with 9.7%, odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI 0.7-1.58], P=.81), birth weight (3,450 compared with 3,410 g, P=.12), preeclampsia (4.1% compared with 3.4%, OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.44-1.56, P=.55), or other obstetric endpoints. There were four unexplained stillbirths in the control group and no pregnancy losses in the treated group (P=.12). Measures of fetal and neonatal well-being were similar in the two groups, including abnormalities in fetal heart rate recordings (P=.26), umbilical artery flow studies (P=.96), and umbilical artery blood gas values (P=.37). The periodontal treatment was highly successful in improving health of the gums (Pperiodontal disease during pregnancy in this population prevents preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, or preeclampsia. Periodontal treatment was not hazardous to the women or their pregnancies. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00133926. I.

  12. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. López-Antuñano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1 the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2 the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

  13. Electronic Devices for Controlling the Very High Voltage in the ALICE TPC Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccioli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the core of the ALICE experiment at CERN. The TPC Very High Voltage project covers the development of the control system for the power supply that generates the 100kV necessary for the drift field in the TPC. This paper reports on the project progress, introducing the control system architecture from the electronics up to the control level. All the electronic devices will be described, highlighting their communication issues, and the challenges in integrating these devices in a PLC-based control system.

  14. Control and protection system for an electron injector installed in a high-voltage terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Radu, A.; Baciu, G.; Grigore, D.

    1979-01-01

    The basic principles of operation of the control and protection system for an electron accelerator gun are described. The electron gun parameters are independently controlled by using four special secondary windings of the high-voltage transformer providing the accelerating voltage. Four groups of thyristor ac regulators employing phase control are connected so as to provide independent adjustment of each parameter of the gun. The power controller of modular construction has a single-phase supply from the 50 Hz 220 V mains. (orig.)

  15. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  16. Elemental analysis of occupational and environmental lung diseases by electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Toshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Occupational and environmental lung diseases are a group of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of harmful particles, mists, vapors or gases. Mineralogical analysis is not generally required in the diagnosis of most cases of these diseases. Apart from minerals that are encountered rarely or only in specific occupations, small quantities of mineral dusts are present in the healthy lung. As such when mineralogical analysis is required, quantitative or semi-quantitative methods must be employed. An electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer (EPMA-WDS) enables analysis of human lung tissue for deposits of elements by both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. Since 1993, we have analyzed 162 cases of suspected occupational and environmental lung diseases using an EPMA-WDS. Our institute has been accepting online requests for elemental analysis of lung tissue samples by EPMA-WDS since January 2011. Hard metal lung disease is an occupational interstitial lung disease that primarily affects workers exposed to the dust of tungsten carbide. The characteristic pathological findings of the disease are giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) with centrilobular fibrosis, surrounded by mild alveolitis with giant cells within the alveolar space. EPMA-WDS analysis of biopsied lung tissue from patients with GIP has demonstrated that tungsten and/or cobalt is distributed in the giant cells and centrilobular fibrosing lesion in GIP. Pneumoconiosis, caused by amorphous silica, and acute interstitial pneumonia, associated with the giant tsunami, were also elementally analyzed by EPMA-WDS. The results suggest that commonly found elements, such as silicon, aluminum, and iron, may cause occupational and environmental lung diseases. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Project and construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam radiotherapy for skin diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva

    2010-01-01

    There are many radiosensitive epidermotropics diseases such as mycosis fungo-ids and the syndrome of Sezary, coetaneous neoplasics originated from type T lymphocytes. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary not only a very large field size radiation beam, but also deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report no. 23 of the American Association of Physicists in Medi-cine (AAPM), the present study developed an energy scattering and degrading plates and made dosimetry (computational and experimental), supplying subsidies for a future installation of Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET) at the Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built, several materials were analyzed for the plates design based on radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulation results were validated by experimental measurements in order to obtain a large field of radiation with 200 cm x 80 cm that meets the specifications of the AAPM protocol. (author)

  18. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Mehta, Arpan R; Hallett, Mark

    2011-08-01

    The aim is to review the recent advances in the epidemiology and pathophysiology of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease. Large cross-sectional and case-control multicentre studies show that ICDs in Parkinson's disease are common, with a frequency of 13.6%. These behaviours are associated with impaired functioning and with depressive, anxiety and obsessive symptoms, novelty seeking and impulsivity. Behavioural subtypes demonstrate differences in novelty seeking and impulsivity, suggesting pathophysiological differences. Observational and neurophysiological studies point towards a potential mechanistic overlap between behavioural (ICDs) and motor (dyskinesias) dopaminergic sequelae. Converging data suggest dopamine agonists in ICDs appear to enhance learning from rewarding outcomes and impulsive choice. ICD patients also have enhanced risk preference and impaired working memory. Neuroimaging data point towards enhanced bottom-up ventral striatal dopamine release to incentive cues, gambling tasks and reward prediction, and possible inhibition of top-down orbitofrontal influences. Dopamine agonist-related ventral striatal hypoactivity to risk is consistent with impaired risk evaluation. Recent large-scale studies and converging findings are beginning to provide an understanding of mechanisms underlying ICDs in Parkinson's disease, which can guide prevention of these behaviours and optimize therapeutic approaches.

  19. Animal disease outbreak control: the use of crisis management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroschewski, K; Kramer, M; Micklich, A; Staubach, C; Carmanns, R; Conraths, F J

    2006-04-01

    In this era of globalisation the effective control of animal disease outbreaks requires powerful crisis management tools. In the 1990s software packages for different sectors of the government and agricultural industry began to be developed. In 2004, as a special application for tracking the movement of animals and animal products, the European Union developed the Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES) on the basis of its predecessor, the ANImal MOvement (ANIMO) project. The nationwide use of the ANIMO system by the veterinary authorities in Germany marked the beginning of the development in 1993 of a computerised national animal disease reporting system--the TierSeuchenNachrichten (TSN)--using the ANIMO hardware and software components. In addition to TRACES and TSN the third pillar for the management of animal disease outbreaks and crises in Germany is the national cattle and swine database--called Herkunftssicherungs- und Informationssystem für Tiere. A high degree of standardisation is necessary when integrating the different solutions at all levels of government and with the private sector. In this paper, the authors describe the use of these tools on the basis of their experience and in relation to what we can do now and what we should opt for in the future.

  20. Controlling sickle cell disease in Ghana - ethics and options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for “crimes” only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels – preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

  1. Parallel power electronics filters in three-phase four-wire systems principle, control and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Man-Chung; Lam, Chi-Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book describes parallel power electronic filters for 3-phase 4-wire systems, focusing on the control, design and system operation. It presents the basics of power-electronics techniques applied in power systems as well as the advanced techniques in controlling, implementing and designing parallel power electronics converters. The power-quality compensation has been achieved using active filters and hybrid filters, and circuit models, control principles and operational practice problems have been verified by principle study, simulation and experimental results. The state-of-the-art research findings were mainly developed by a team at the University of Macau. Offering background information and related novel techniques, this book is a valuable resource for electrical engineers and researchers wanting to work on energy saving using power-quality compensators or renewable energy power electronics systems. .

  2. Apparatus and methods for controlling electron microscope stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duden, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    Methods and apparatus for generating an image of a specimen with a microscope (e.g., TEM) are disclosed. In one aspect, the microscope may generally include a beam generator, a stage, a detector, and an image generator. A plurality of crystal parameters, which describe a plurality of properties of a crystal sample, are received. In a display associated with the microscope, an interactive control sphere based at least in part on the received crystal parameters and that is rotatable by a user to different sphere orientations is presented. The sphere includes a plurality of stage coordinates that correspond to a plurality of positions of the stage and a plurality of crystallographic pole coordinates that correspond to a plurality of polar orientations of the crystal sample. Movement of the sphere causes movement of the stage, wherein the stage coordinates move in conjunction with the crystallographic coordinates represented by pole positions so as to show a relationship between stage positions and the pole positions.

  3. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  4. Impact and cost-effectiveness of snail control to achieve disease control targets for schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan C; Gurarie, David; Yoon, Nara; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bendavid, Eran; Andrews, Jason R; King, Charles H

    2018-01-23

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects over 240 million people globally. To improve population-level disease control, there is growing interest in adding chemical-based snail control interventions to interrupt the lifecycle of Schistosoma in its snail host to reduce parasite transmission. However, this approach is not widely implemented, and given environmental concerns, the optimal conditions for when snail control is appropriate are unclear. We assessed the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of various snail control strategies. We extended previously published dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness models to simulate mass drug administration (MDA) and focal snail control interventions against Schistosoma haematobium across a range of low-prevalence (5-20%) and high-prevalence (25-50%) rural Kenyan communities. We simulated strategies over a 10-year period of MDA targeting school children or entire communities, snail control, and combined strategies. We measured incremental cost-effectiveness in 2016 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year and defined a strategy as optimally cost-effective when maximizing health gains (averted disability-adjusted life years) with an incremental cost-effectiveness below a Kenya-specific economic threshold. In both low- and high-prevalence settings, community-wide MDA with additional snail control reduced total disability by an additional 40% compared with school-based MDA alone. The optimally cost-effective scenario included the addition of snail control to MDA in over 95% of simulations. These results support inclusion of snail control in global guidelines and national schistosomiasis control strategies for optimal disease control, especially in settings with high prevalence, "hot spots" of transmission, and noncompliance to MDA. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Mary; Leroi, Iracema; Simpson, Jane; Overton, Paul Geoffrey

    2012-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterised by motor symptoms. However, another feature of PD which is receiving increasing attention is the phenomenon of impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling. To date, research into ICDs in PD has centred on a biomedical model of cause, related to the effects of dopamine replacement therapy. However, there are several areas of discrepancy in the current biomedical account of ICDs in PD. In addition, we argue that social and psychological factors also need to be considered to achieve a more complete understanding of the phenomenon. We present a novel conceptual model which combines biomedical and psychosocial factors in the genesis of ICDs in PD and use the model to identify a number of potential treatment intervention points and to highlight important outstanding questions concerning the inter-relationship between psychosocial and biomedical factors in the genesis of ICDs in PD.

  6. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  7. Heritable strategies for controlling insect vectors of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Austin

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are causing a substantial burden of mortality, morbidity and economic loss in many parts of the world, despite current control efforts, and new complementary approaches to controlling these diseases are needed. One promising class of new interventions under development involves the heritable modification of the mosquito by insertion of novel genes into the nucleus or of Wolbachia endosymbionts into the cytoplasm. Once released into a target population, these modifications can act to reduce one or more components of the mosquito population's vectorial capacity (e.g. the number of female mosquitoes, their longevity or their ability to support development and transmission of the pathogen). Some of the modifications under development are designed to be self-limiting, in that they will tend to disappear over time in the absence of recurrent releases (and hence are similar to the sterile insect technique, SIT), whereas other modifications are designed to be self-sustaining, spreading through populations even after releases stop (and hence are similar to traditional biological control). Several successful field trials have now been performed with Aedes mosquitoes, and such trials are helping to define the appropriate developmental pathway for this new class of intervention.

  8. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  9. A Case-Control study of the prevalence of neurological diseases in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurological diseases are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients, but their exact prevalence is unknown. Method We prospectively evaluated the presence of neurological disorders in 121 patients with IBD [51 with Crohn's disease (CD and 70 with ulcerative colitis (UC] and 50 controls (gastritis and dyspepsia over 3 years. Results Our standard neurological evaluation (that included electrodiagnostic testing revealed that CD patients were 7.4 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy than controls (p = 0.045, 7.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.001 and 5.1 times more likely to develop autonomic complaints (p = 0.027. UC patients were 5 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy (p = 0.027 and 3.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.015. Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to prospectively establish that both CD and UC patients are more prone to neuromuscular diseases than patients with gastritis and dyspepsia.

  10. Disease management program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kathryn L; Dewan, Naresh; Bloomfield, Hanna E; Grill, Joseph; Schult, Tamara M; Nelson, David B; Kumari, Sarita; Thomas, Mel; Geist, Lois J; Beaner, Caroline; Caldwell, Michael; Niewoehner, Dennis E

    2010-10-01

    The effect of disease management for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well established. To determine whether a simplified disease management program reduces hospital admissions and emergency department (ED) visits due to COPD. We performed a randomized, adjudicator-blinded, controlled, 1-year trial at five Veterans Affairs medical centers of 743 patients with severe COPD and one or more of the following during the previous year: hospital admission or ED visit for COPD, chronic home oxygen use, or course of systemic corticosteroids for COPD. Control group patients received usual care. Intervention group patients received a single 1- to 1.5-hour education session, an action plan for self-treatment of exacerbations, and monthly follow-up calls from a case manager. We determined the combined number of COPD-related hospitalizations and ED visits per patient. Secondary outcomes included hospitalizations and ED visits for all causes, respiratory medication use, mortality, and change in Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire. After 1 year, the mean cumulative frequency of COPD-related hospitalizations and ED visits was 0.82 per patient in usual care and 0.48 per patient in disease management (difference, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.52; P management reduced hospitalizations for cardiac or pulmonary conditions other than COPD by 49%, hospitalizations for all causes by 28%, and ED visits for all causes by 27% (P management program reduced hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00126776).

  11. Influence of electron beam irradiation on growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi and its control in substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MigdaŁ, Wojciech; Orlikowski, Leszek B.; Ptaszek, Magdalena; Gryczka, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Very extensive production procedure, especially in plants growing under covering, require methods, which would allow quick elimination or substantial reduction of populations of specific pathogens without affecting the growth and development of the cultivated plants. Among soil-borne pathogens, the Phytophthora species are especially dangerous for horticultural plants. In this study, irradiation with electron beam was applied to control Phytophthora cinnamomi. The influence of irradiation dose on the reduction of in vitro growth and the population density of the pathogen in treated peat and its mixture with composted pine bark (1:1), as well as the health of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Lavandula angustifolia plants were evaluated. Application of irradiation at a dose of 1.5 kGy completely inhibited the in vitro development of P. cinnamomi. This irradiation effect was connected with the disintegration of the hyphae and spores of the species. Irradiation of peat and its mixture with composted pine bark with 10 kGy resulted in the inhibition of stem base rot development in Ch. lawsoniana. Symptoms of the disease were not observed when the substrates were treated with 15 kGy. In the case of L. angustifolia, stem root rot was not observed on cuttings transplanted to infected peat irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. Irradiation of the horticultural substrates did not affect plant growth. - Highlights: ► Electron beam irradiation is effective against soil-borne pathogens. ► Application of irradiation at dose 1.5 kGy completely inhibited in vitro development of Phytophthora cinnamomi. ► Irradiation of horticultural substrata did not influence the growth of plants.

  12. Educational interventions for knowledge on the disease, treatment adherence and control of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Ana Laura Galhardo; Boas, Lilian Cristiane Gomes Villas; Coelho, Anna Claudia Martins; Freitas, Maria Cristina Foss de; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2017-04-20

    to assess the effect of educational interventions for knowledge on the disease, medication treatment adherence and glycemic control of diabetes mellitus patients. evaluation research with "before and after" design, developed in a sample of 82 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. To collect the data, the Brazilian version of the Diabetes Knowledge Scale (DKN-A), the Measure of Adherence to Treatments and the electronic system at the place of study were used. The data were collected before and after the end of the educational interventions. The educational activities were developed within 12 months, mediated by the Diabetes Conversation Maps, using the Cognitive Social Theory to conduct the interventions. the knowledge on the disease (pknowledge about diabetes mellitus, the medication treatment adherence and the glycated hemoglobin rates.

  13. Coronary artery disease risk assessment from unstructured electronic health records using text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Ray, Pradeep; Kumar, Manish; Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) often leads to myocardial infarction, which may be fatal. Risk factors can be used to predict CAD, which may subsequently lead to prevention or early intervention. Patient data such as co-morbidities, medication history, social history and family history are required to determine the risk factors for a disease. However, risk factor data are usually embedded in unstructured clinical narratives if the data is not collected specifically for risk assessment purposes. Clinical text mining can be used to extract data related to risk factors from unstructured clinical notes. This study presents methods to extract Framingham risk factors from unstructured electronic health records using clinical text mining and to calculate 10-year coronary artery disease risk scores in a cohort of diabetic patients. We developed a rule-based system to extract risk factors: age, gender, total cholesterol, HDL-C, blood pressure, diabetes history and smoking history. The results showed that the output from the text mining system was reliable, but there was a significant amount of missing data to calculate the Framingham risk score. A systematic approach for understanding missing data was followed by implementation of imputation strategies. An analysis of the 10-year Framingham risk scores for coronary artery disease in this cohort has shown that the majority of the diabetic patients are at moderate risk of CAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early and late scanning electron microscopy findings in diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Sara; Perico, Norberto; Novelli, Rubina; Carrara, Camillo; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2018-03-20

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), the single strongest predictor of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes, is characterized by initial glomerular hyperfiltration with subsequent progressive renal function loss with or without albuminuria, greatly accelerated with the onset of overt proteinuria. Experimental and clinical studies have convincingly shown that early interventions retard disease progression, while treatment if started late in the disease course seldom modifies the slope of GFR decline. Here we assessed whether the negligible renoprotection afforded by drugs in patients with proteinuric DN could be due to loss of glomerular structural integrity, explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In diabetic patients with early renal disease, glomerular structural integrity was largely preserved. At variance SEM documented that in the late stage of proteinuric DN, glomerular structure was subverted with nearly complete loss of podocytes and lobular transformation of the glomerular basement membrane. In these circumstances one can reasonably imply that any form of treatment, albeit personalized, is unlikely to reach a given cellular or molecular target. These findings should persuade physicians to start the putative renoprotective therapy soon after the diagnosis of diabetes or in an early phase of the disease before structural integrity of the glomerular filter is irreversibly compromised.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Genomic Counseling for Patients with Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sweet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development and implementation of a randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of genomic counseling on a cohort of patients with heart failure (HF or hypertension (HTN, managed at a large academic medical center, the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (OSUWMC. Our study is built upon the existing Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC®. OSUWMC patient participants with chronic disease (CD receive eight actionable complex disease and one pharmacogenomic test report through the CPMC® web portal. Participants are randomized to either the in-person post-test genomic counseling—active arm, versus web-based only return of results—control arm. Study-specific surveys measure: (1 change in risk perception; (2 knowledge retention; (3 perceived personal control; (4 health behavior change; and, for the active arm (5, overall satisfaction with genomic counseling. This ongoing partnership has spurred creation of both infrastructure and procedures necessary for the implementation of genomics and genomic counseling in clinical care and clinical research. This included creation of a comprehensive informed consent document and processes for prospective return of actionable results for multiple complex diseases and pharmacogenomics (PGx through a web portal, and integration of genomic data files and clinical decision support into an EPIC-based electronic medical record. We present this partnership, the infrastructure, genomic counseling approach, and the challenges that arose in the design and conduct of this ongoing trial to inform subsequent collaborative efforts and best genomic counseling practices.

  16. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, Efrat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Boop, Frederick A. [Department of Neurosurgery, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods.

  17. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, Efrat; Boop, Frederick A.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods

  18. Can we control all-cause meningococcal disease in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, M; Pollard, A J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis is potentially devastating, with a case fatality rate of 5-15% and high rates of significant sequelae among survivors after septicaemia or meningitis. Capsular group C (MenC) conjugate vaccines have been highly successful in achieving control of MenC disease across Europe, and some countries have also introduced quadrivalent MenACWY conjugate vaccines to reduce disease caused by groups A, W and Y in addition to C. These vaccines putatively elicit protective levels of bactericidal antibodies in all age groups, induce immunologic memory and reduce nasopharyngeal carriage, thereby leading to herd protection. Protein-based meningococcal vaccines based on subcapsular components, and designed primarily to target capsular group B (MenB) disease, have recently been licensed. These vaccines are highly immunogenic in infants and adolescents, inducing bactericidal antibodies against strains expressing high levels of vaccine antigens which are identical to the variants present in the vaccines. Effectiveness of these vaccines at a population level will be determined by whether vaccine-induced antibodies provide cross-protection against variants of the vaccine antigens present on the surface of the diverse collection of circulating invasive strains. The level of serum bactericidal activity induced against strains also seems to depend on the level of expression of the vaccine antigens. The duration of protection and the impact on carriage of meningococci will have a major bearing on the overall effectiveness of the programme. In September 2015 the UK became the first country to introduce the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) into a national routine immunization schedule, and data on the effectiveness of this programme are anticipated in the next few years. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable

  20. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  1. 78 FR 18364 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances Notice of Approved Certification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... II and III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and the Controlled... for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial purposes. \\1\\ The Attorney General's... and security capabilities for electronic applications, DEA amended its regulations to provide...

  2. TUNGRO DISEASE CONTROL THROUGH THE ELIMINATION VECTOR ROLE OF GREEN LEAF HOPPER WITH ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Yuliani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Green leafhopper (GLHplays an important role in tungro disease epidemics. Reduce the activity of GLHsuckasvectorsof tungro virus was effective to limit transmission of the virus. Integrated control of tungro disease may involve multiple components at once including using sambilata with entomopathogenicfungus Metarhiziumanisopliae. This research was conducted to determine the effect of sambilata and M.anisopliaein controlling the GLH as tungro virus vectors. The experiment was conducted in tungro endemic areas in Tanjungsiang,Subang District at dry season 2013 and wet season 2013/2014. Experiments using split plot design with four replications. The main plot was consists of GLH resistant varieties(IR66, tungro resistant varieties (Inpari 9, and check varieties(Ciherang. The subplots were M.anisopliae applications, sambilata, and control. Application was done on rice plant age 14, 28 and 42 days after planting (DAP.The results showed that the intensity of tungro on Ciherang showed the highest intensity compared toIR66 and Inpari9. Effect of entomopathogenic fungus M.anisopliae application to tungro disease showed a lower intensity compared with sambilata extracts and control. The intensity of tungro disease in farmers’ fields as a comparison of experiment was high enough on average between 1 until 69%. In general, the density of GLH population began to increase on the observation of 14 to 28 DAP. GLH population density was highest at 28 DAP. However, the population density of GLH decreased at 42 until 56 DAP.

  3. Influence of electron beam irradiation on growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi and its control in substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    MigdaŁ, Wojciech; Orlikowski, Leszek B.; Ptaszek, Magdalena; Gryczka, Urszula

    2012-08-01

    Very extensive production procedure, especially in plants growing under covering, require methods, which would allow quick elimination or substantial reduction of populations of specific pathogens without affecting the growth and development of the cultivated plants. Among soil-borne pathogens, the Phytophthora species are especially dangerous for horticultural plants. In this study, irradiation with electron beam was applied to control Phytophthora cinnamomi. The influence of irradiation dose on the reduction of in vitro growth and the population density of the pathogen in treated peat and its mixture with composted pine bark (1:1), as well as the health of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Lavandula angustifolia plants were evaluated. Application of irradiation at a dose of 1.5 kGy completely inhibited the in vitro development of P. cinnamomi. This irradiation effect was connected with the disintegration of the hyphae and spores of the species. Irradiation of peat and its mixture with composted pine bark with 10 kGy resulted in the inhibition of stem base rot development in Ch. lawsoniana. Symptoms of the disease were not observed when the substrates were treated with 15 kGy. In the case of L. angustifolia, stem root rot was not observed on cuttings transplanted to infected peat irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. Irradiation of the horticultural substrates did not affect plant growth.

  4. Electron beam deflection control system of a welding and surface modification installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, E.; Dzharov, V.; Gerasimov, V.; Tsvetkov, K.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, we examined the patterns of the electron beam motion when controlling the transverse with respect to the axis of the beam homogeneous magnetic field created by the coils of the deflection system the electron gun. During electron beam processes, the beam motion is determined the process type (welding, surface modification, etc.), the technological mode, the design dimensions of the electron gun and the shape of the processed samples. The electron beam motion is defined by the cumulative action of two cosine-like control signals generated by a functional generator. The signal control is related to changing the amplitudes, frequencies and phases (phase differences) of the generated voltages. We realized the motion control by applying a graphical user interface developed by us and an Arduino Uno programmable microcontroller. The signals generated were calibrated using experimental data from the available functional generator. The free and precise motion on arbitrary trajectories determines the possible applications of an electron beam process to carrying out various scientific research tasks in material processing.

  5. Adaptive Backstepping Sliding-Mode Control of the Electronic Throttle System in Modern Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern automobiles, electronic throttle is a DC-motor-driven valve that regulates air inflow into the vehicle’s combustion system. The electronic throttle is increasingly being used in order to improve the vehicle drivability, fuel economy, and emissions. Electronic throttle system has the nonlinear dynamical characteristics with the unknown disturbance and parameters. At first, the dynamical nonlinear model of the electronic throttle is built in this paper. Based on the model and using the backstepping design technique, a new adaptive backstepping sliding-mode controller of the electronic throttle is developed. During the backstepping design process, parameter adaptive law is designed to estimate the unknown parameter, and sliding-mode control term is applied to compensate the unknown disturbance. The proposed controller can make the actual angle of the electronic throttle track its set point with the satisfactory performance. Finally, a computer simulation is performed, and simulation results verify that the proposed control method can achieve favorable tracking performance.

  6. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-04-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), specifically those related to excessive gambling, eating, sex and shopping, have been observed in a subset of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some initial case reports claimed that dopamine replacement therapies, particularly dopamine agonists, cause ICDs, more recent, larger and better controlled studies indicate a more complicated picture. While dopamine replacement therapy use is related to ICDs, other vulnerabilities, some related to PD and/or its treatment directly and others seemingly unrelated to PD, have also been associated with ICDs in PD. This suggests a complex etiology with multiple contributing factors. As ICDs occur in a sizable minority of PD patients and can be associated with significant distress and impairment, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can predict who may be more likely to develop ICDs. Clinical implications are discussed and topics for future research are offered.

  7. Theory of feedback controlled brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzeni, A.; Celani, A.; Tiana, G.; Vergassola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Limb tremor and other debilitating symptoms caused by the neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease are currently treated by administering drugs and by fixed-frequency deep brain stimulation. The latter interferes directly with the brain dynamics by delivering electrical impulses to neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. While deep brain stimulation has shown therapeutic benefits in many instances, its mechanism is still unclear. Since its understanding could lead to improved protocols of stimulation and feedback control, we have studied a mathematical model of the many-body neural network dynamics controlling the dynamics of the basal ganglia. On the basis of the results obtained from the model, we propose a new procedure of active stimulation, that depends on the feedback of the network and that respects the constraints imposed by existing technology. We show by numerical simulations that the new protocol outperforms the standard ones for deep brain stimulation and we suggest future experiments that could further improve the feedback procedure.

  8. Mathematical models for therapeutic approaches to control HIV disease transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Priti Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses different therapeutic approaches based on different mathematical models to control the HIV/AIDS disease transmission. It uses clinical data, collected from different cited sources, to formulate the deterministic as well as stochastic mathematical models of HIV/AIDS. It provides complementary approaches, from deterministic and stochastic points of view, to optimal control strategy with perfect drug adherence and also tries to seek viewpoints of the same issue from different angles with various mathematical models to computer simulations. The book presents essential methods and techniques for students who are interested in designing epidemiological models on HIV/AIDS. It also guides research scientists, working in the periphery of mathematical modeling, and helps them to explore a hypothetical method by examining its consequences in the form of a mathematical modelling and making some scientific predictions. The model equations, mathematical analysis and several numerical simulations that are...

  9. Suicide and chronic kidney disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Han; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Weng, Shu-Chuan; Bai, Meng-Yi; Chang, Jung-Chen

    2017-09-01

    The association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis with suicide is not well established. The objectives of this study were to assess the association of suicide with CKD and dialysis and investigate whether differences exist between dialysis modalities or the durations of dialysis. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 51 642 patients who died from suicide between 2000 and 2012 and 206 568 living control patients matched by age, gender and residency area were examined. Known risk factors included sociodemographic characteristics, physical comorbidities and psychiatric disorders, which were controlled for as covariates in the analysis. The crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs (aORs) for various risk factors were obtained using conditional logistic regression. After potential confounders were controlled for, CKD was significantly associated with an increased risk of suicide [aOR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.34]. End-stage renal disease patients on haemodialysis (HD) had an increased risk of suicide compared with controls (aOR = 3.35, 95% CI = 3.02-3.72). Moreover, patients who initially underwent dialysis within 0-3 months had a significantly increased risk of suicide (aOR = 20.26, 95% CI = 15.99-25.67). CKD and HD are positively associated with suicide. Suicide is preventable; therefore, assessing mental and physical disorders is essential and recommended to all physicians, particularly those treating patients in the early phase of HD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  11. Management of pelvic inflammatory disease by primary care physicians. A comparison with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessol, N A; Priddy, F H; Bolan, G; Baumrind, N; Vittinghoff, E; Reingold, A L; Padian, N S

    1996-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published recommendations for clinicians on the management of pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is unknown if providers are aware of the guidelines or follow them. To compare pelvic inflammatory disease screening, diagnosis, treatment, and reporting practices among primary care physicians with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for pelvic inflammatory disease. A weighted random sample of California primary care physicians surveyed in November 1992 and January 1993. Of the 1,165 physicians surveyed, 553 (48%) returned completed questionnaires. Among respondents, 302 (55%) reported having treated a case of pelvic inflammatory disease during the last 12 months, and of these, 52% answered that they were unsure of or do not follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for pelvic inflammatory disease. Pediatricians and those with more years since residency were less likely to deviate from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for pelvic inflammatory disease, and family practitioners were more likely to deviate from the guidelines. Pelvic inflammatory disease is commonly encountered by primary care physicians in California. Training and experience were important predictors of compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations; however, substantial divergence from the guidelines occurs.

  12. Speech rate in Parkinson's disease: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; Carro, J; Gómez Íñiguez, C; Millian-Morell, L; Pujante Valverde, I M; López-Alburquerque, T; López, D E

    2016-09-01

    Speech disturbances will affect most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) over the course of the disease. The origin and severity of these symptoms are of clinical and diagnostic interest. To evaluate the clinical pattern of speech impairment in PD patients and identify significant differences in speech rate and articulation compared to control subjects. Speech rate and articulation in a reading task were measured using an automatic analytical method. A total of 39 PD patients in the 'on' state and 45 age-and sex-matched asymptomatic controls participated in the study. None of the patients experienced dyskinesias or motor fluctuations during the test. The patients with PD displayed a significant reduction in speech and articulation rates; there were no significant correlations between the studied speech parameters and patient characteristics such as L-dopa dose, duration of the disorder, age, and UPDRS III scores and Hoehn & Yahr scales. Patients with PD show a characteristic pattern of declining speech rate. These results suggest that in PD, disfluencies are the result of the movement disorder affecting the physiology of speech production systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic control of a 4-speed automatic transmission with lock-up clutch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the electronic control of an automatic 4-speed transmission with lock-up clutch. As compared to purely hydraulically controlled transmissions, this control offers a clearly improved quality of shifting and the possibility of achieving improvements in fuel consumption thanks to a special economy program. The electronic control unit is a Bosch MOTRONIC which has been expanded to include the functions of transmission control. A special feature is the engine torque control which is implemented by way of retarding the ignition when shifting. This opens up an additional degree of freedom for optimizing a transmission in terms of shift comfort, life of the friction elements and the power which can be transmitted.

  14. Driver electronics design and control for a total artificial heart linear motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthan, Kristin; Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Pelletier, Benedikt; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2018-01-27

    For any implantable device size and efficiency are critical properties. Thus, a linear motor for a Total Artificial Heart was optimized with focus on driver electronics and control strategies. Hardware requirements were defined from power supply and motor setup. Four full bridges were chosen for the power electronics. Shunt resistors were set up for current measurement. Unipolar and bipolar switching for power electronics control were compared regarding current ripple and power losses. Here, unipolar switching showed smaller current ripple and required less power to create the necessary motor forces. Based on calculations for minimal power losses Lorentz force was distributed to the actor's four coils. The distribution was determined as ratio of effective magnetic flux through each coil, which was captured by a force test rig. Static and dynamic measurements under physiological conditions analyzed interaction of control and hardware and all efficiencies were over 89%. In conclusion, the designed electronics, optimized control strategy and applied current distribution create the required motor force and perform optimal under physiological conditions. The developed driver electronics and control offer optimized size and efficiency for any implantable or portable device with multiple independent motor coils. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Spatial orientation and postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlitzki, E; Schlenstedt, C; Schmidt, N; Rotkirch, I; Gövert, F; Hartwigsen, G; Witt, K

    2018-02-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling and risky symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how this is mediated by a centrally impaired spatial orientation. Therefore, we performed a spatial orientation study in 21 PD patients (mean age 68years, SD 8.5 years, 9 women) in a medically on condition and 21 healthy controls (mean age 68.9years, SD 5.5years, 14 women). We compared their spatial responses to the horizontal axis (Sakashita's visual target cancellation task), the vertical axis (bucket-test), the sagittal axis (tilt table test) and postural stability using the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB). We found larger deviations on the vertical axis in PD patients, although the direct comparisons of performance in PD patients and healthy controls did not reveal significant differences. While the total scores of the FAB Scale were significantly worse in PD (25.9 points, SD 7.2 points) compared to controls (35.1 points, SD 2.3 points, pbalance control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterizing the transmission dynamics and control of ebola virus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Chowell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carefully calibrated transmission models have the potential to guide public health officials on the nature and scale of the interventions required to control epidemics. In the context of the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in Liberia, Drake and colleagues, in this issue of PLOS Biology, employed an elegant modeling approach to capture the distributions of the number of secondary cases that arise in the community and health care settings in the context of changing population behaviors and increasing hospital capacity. Their findings underscore the role of increasing the rate of safe burials and the fractions of infectious individuals who seek hospitalization together with hospital capacity to achieve epidemic control. However, further modeling efforts of EVD transmission and control in West Africa should utilize the spatial-temporal patterns of spread in the region by incorporating spatial heterogeneity in the transmission process. Detailed datasets are urgently needed to characterize temporal changes in population behaviors, contact networks at different spatial scales, population mobility patterns, adherence to infection control measures in hospital settings, and hospitalization and reporting rates.

  17. Impulse control and related disorders in Mexican Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; González-Latapi, Paulina; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Camacho-Ordoñez, Azyadeh; Weintraub, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are a relatively recent addition to the behavioral spectrum of PD-related non-motor symptoms. Social and economic factors may play a role on the ICD phenotype of PD patients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and characterize the clinical profile of ICDs in a sample of low-income, low-education PD patients with no social security benefits from a Latin American country. We included 300 consecutive PD patients and 150 control subjects. The presence of ICD and related disorders was assessed using a structured interview. After the interview and neurological evaluation were concluded, all subjects completed the Questionnaire for Impulsive-compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale (QUIP-RS). Regarding ICDs and related disorders (hobbyism-punding), 25.6% (n = 77) of patients in the PD group and 16.6% (n = 25) in the control group fulfilled criteria for at least one ICD or related disorder (p = 0.032). There was a statistically significant difference in the QUIP-RS mean score between PD and control subjects (5.6 ± 9.7 and 2.7 ± 4.21, p = 0.001). The most common ICD was compulsive eating for both PD (8.6%) and control (2.6%) groups. The results of this study confirm that for this population, symptoms of an ICD are significantly more frequent in PD subjects than in control subjects. Nevertheless, socioeconomic differences may contribute to a lower overall frequency and distinct pattern of ICDs in PD patients compared with what has been reported in other countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  19. ELECTRONIC CONTROL FOR FUEL SUPPLY OF DIESEL ENGINE ON THE BASIS OF PROGRAMMABLE PID-REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a schematic diagram of the Euro-3 diesel engine electronic control and describes hard- and software platform of the high pressure fuel pump pneumatic actuator control that allows to realize the concept of electronic fuel supply control of diesel engine KamAZ-740. The strategic dependence beetwen the angular position of fuel pump governor lever and the angular position of electronic accelerator pedal were put on the basis of electronic control concept. Implementation of this dependence was carried out by applying a modulated PWM signal with determined duty cycle by the controller to the coil proportional solenoid valve, which is responsible for the amount of air pressure in the working chamber of the power air cylinder, connected by articulated-type to the governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump. In this case, the feedback control by position of governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump was introduced in the control circuit, but engine crankshaft speed control was carried out using a software continuous PID governor. Developed strategy gives possibility to track the deflection  of control parameter from a predetermined value by real-time and almost instantly, to make a control action on actuators to eliminate this deflection, while providing a minimum time of transition. Governor’s setting (proportional, integral and differential component performed empirically using the classical Ziegler – Nichols method, based on the analysis of the safety factor of automatic control system. The results of calculating the coefficients of proportional integral-differential regulator and oscillograms HIL experiment on testing the proposed diesel engine throttle control strategies using visualization CoDeSys V2.3 are given in activity.

  20. ASIL determination for motorbike’s Electronics Throttle Control System (ETCS) mulfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Rokhani Fakhrul Zaman; Abdul Rahman Muhammad Taqiuddin; Kamsani Noor Ain; Mohd Sidek Roslina; Saripan M Iqbal; Samsudin Khairulmizam; Hassan Mohd Khair

    2017-01-01

    Electronics Throttle Control System (ETCS) is the principal electronic unit in all fuel injection engine motorbike, augmenting the engine performance efficiency in comparison to the conventional carburetor based engine. ETCS is regarded as a safety-critical component, whereby ETCS malfunction can cause unintended acceleration or deceleration event, which can be hazardous to riders. In this study, Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, an ISO26262 functional safety standard analysis has been app...

  1. Control electron beam oscillation regimes in Pierce diode with overcritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the delayed feedback on the complex oscillation regimes in the electron flux with the overcritical current in the Pierce diode is studied. The possibility of controlling the oscillation regimes through changing the feedback parameters is shown. The finite-dimensional model, describing the behavior of the electron flux in the Pierce diode hydrodynamic model, is constructed. Its behavior under the effect of the delayed feedback is studied [ru

  2. Positive beliefs and privacy concerns shape the future for the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnbom, E C; Douglas, H E; Makeham, M A B

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR) has been slowly building momentum in Australia. The purpose of the PCEHR is to collect clinically important information from multiple healthcare providers to provide a secure electronic record to patients and their authorised healthcare providers that will ultimately enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare delivery. Reasons for the slow uptake of the PCEHR and future directions to improve its usefulness is discussed later. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Electron/photon matched field technique for treatment of orbital disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Douglas W.; Zwicker, Robert D.; Garmon, Pamela W.; Huang, David T.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A number of approaches have been described in the literature for irradiation of malignant and benign diseases of the orbit. Techniques described to date do not deliver a homogeneous dose to the orbital contents while sparing the cornea and lens of excessive dose. This is a result of the geometry encountered in this region and the fact that the target volume, which includes the periorbital and retroorbital tissues but excludes the cornea, anterior chamber, and lens, cannot be readily accommodated by photon beams alone. To improve the dose distribution for these treatments, we have developed a technique that combines a low-energy electron field carefully matched with modified photon fields to achieve acceptable dose coverage and uniformity. Methods and Materials: An anterior electron field and a lateral photon field setup is used to encompass the target volume. Modification of these fields permits accurate matching as well as conformation of the dose distribution to the orbit. A flat-surfaced wax compensator assures uniform electron penetration across the field, and a sunken lead alloy eye block prevents excessive dose to the central structures of the anterior segment. The anterior edge of the photon field is modified by broadening the penumbra using a form of pseudodynamic collimation. Direct measurements using film and ion chamber dosimetry were used to study the characteristics of the fall-off region of the electron field and the penumbra of the photon fields. >From the data collected, the technique for accurate field matching and dose uniformity was generated. Results: The isodose curves produced with this treatment technique demonstrate homogeneous dose coverage of the orbit, including the paralenticular region, and sufficient dose sparing of the anterior segment. The posterior lens accumulates less than 40% of the prescribed dose, and the lateral aspect of the lens receives less than 30%. A dose variation in the match region of ±12% is confronted when

  4. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  5. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Research on Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies...

  6. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiologic Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy, Funding Opportunity...

  7. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Indoor Environment of Low- Income Renovated...

  8. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  9. 77 FR 19018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in South Africa, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  10. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and...

  11. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and other Respiratory...

  12. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  13. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  14. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel...

  15. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  16. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Agreement on Occupational Health with the World Health Organization...

  17. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  18. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Indoor Environment of Low- Income Renovated...

  19. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  20. Quantum computers based on electron spins controlled by ultrafast off-resonant single optical pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan M; Fu, Kai-Mei C; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-07-27

    We describe a fast quantum computer based on optically controlled electron spins in charged quantum dots that are coupled to microcavities. This scheme uses broadband optical pulses to rotate electron spins and provide the clock signal to the system. Nonlocal two-qubit gates are performed by phase shifts induced by electron spins on laser pulses propagating along a shared waveguide. Numerical simulations of this scheme demonstrate high-fidelity single-qubit and two-qubit gates with operation times comparable to the inverse Zeeman frequency.

  1. Nuclear electronics equipment for control and monitoring panel. Ratemeter data and test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This document first reviews the main notations used, and some definitions, then states its scope and gives a bibliography. The main characteristics of ratemeter electronic sub-assemblies are then given, and corresponding test methods are described. This type of instrument indicates, on a linear or logarithmic scale, the counting rate of pulses applied to its input. The document reviews analogue and digital ratemeters with linear or logarithmic characteristics, for general purpose applications, reactor control, health physics, plant and laboratory applications. The document is intended for electronics manufacturers, designers, persons participating in acceptance trials, plant operators and, generally, for members of the electronics profession [fr

  2. Microelectrode for energy and current control of nanotip field electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüneburg, S.; Müller, M.; Paarmann, A.; Ernstorfer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging experiments and applications in electron microscopy, holography, and diffraction benefit from miniaturized electron guns for compact experimental setups. We present a highly compact microelectrode integrated field emitter that consists of a tungsten nanotip coated with a few micrometers thick polyimide film followed by a several nanometers thick gold film, both positioned behind the exposed emitter apex by approximately 10–30 μm. The control of the electric field strength at the nanometer scale tip apex allows suppression, extraction, and energy tuning of field-emitted electrons. The performance of the microelectrode is demonstrated experimentally and supported by numerical simulations

  3. Control of π-Electron Rotations in Chiral Aromatic Molecules Using Intense Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Manabu; Kono, Hirohiko; Fujimura, Yuichi

    Our recent theoretical studies on laser-induced π-electron rotations in chiral aromatic molecules are reviewed. π electrons of a chiral aromatic molecule can be rotated along its aromatic ring by a nonhelical, linearly polarized laser pulse. An ansa aromatic molecule with a six-membered ring, 2,5-dichloro[n](3,6) pyrazinophane, which belongs to a planar-chiral molecule group, and its simplified molecule 2,5-dichloropyrazine are taken as model molecules. Electron wavepacket simulations in the frozen-molecular-vibration approximation show that the initial direction of π-electron rotation depends on the polarization direction of a linearly polarized laser pulse applied. Consecutive unidirectional rotation can be achieved by applying a sequence of linearly polarized pump and dump pulses to prevent reverse rotation. Optimal control simulations of π-electron rotation show that another controlling factor for unidirectional rotation is the relative optical phase between the different frequency components of an incident pulse in addition to photon polarization direction. Effects of nonadiabatic coupling between π-electron rotation and molecular vibrations are also presented, where the constraints of the frozen approximation are removed. The angular momentum gradually decays mainly owing to nonadiabatic coupling, while the vibrational amplitudes greatly depend on their rotation direction. This suggests that the direction of π-electron rotation on an attosecond timescale can be identified by detecting femtosecond molecular vibrations.

  4. Electronic Transport in Single-Stranded DNA Molecule Related to Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, R. G.; Silva, R. N. O.; Madeira, M. P.; Frazão, N. F.; Sousa, J. O.; Macedo-Filho, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in single chain DNA molecule consisting of 182 nucleotides. The DNA chains studied were extracted from a segment of the human chromosome 4p16.3, which were modified by expansion of CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) triplet repeats to mimics Huntington's disease. The mutated DNA chains were connected between two platinum electrodes to analyze the relationship between charge propagation in the molecule and Huntington's disease. The computations were performed within a tight-binding model, together with a transfer matrix technique, to investigate the current-voltage (I-V) of 23 types of DNA sequence and compare them with the distributions of the related CAG repeat numbers with the disease. All DNA sequences studied have a characteristic behavior of a semiconductor. In addition, the results showed a direct correlation between the current-voltage curves and the distributions of the CAG repeat numbers, suggesting possible applications in the development of DNA-based biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  5. Correlation between obstructive coronary artery disease and electron beam tomography coronary artery calcium scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Yong Kook; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Hyang Mee; Choe, Kyu Ok

    1998-01-01

    To determine the correlation between obstructive coronary artery disease and electron beam tomography coronary artery calcium(EBT CAC) scan and to measure the difference in calcium score according to symptoms. Materials and Methods : Fifty-six patients underwent EBT CAC scanning and either coronary angiography or stress thallium 201 scanning or the treadmill test. When the results were positive, coronary artery obstructive disease(CAOD) was assumed to be present. The patients were divided into three groups : symptomatic CAOD,asymptomatic CAOD, and asymptomatic non- CAOD; those with a previous history of myocardial ischemia or who showed positive results in any of the three tests relating to typical symptoms of angina were assigned to the symptomatic group. Results : The number of cases assigned to group to group 1,2 and 3 was 19, 16 and 21, respectively; total CAC scores were 571 ± 751, 600 ± 726 293± 401, respectively. The difference in CAC score between asymptomatic CAOD and asymptomatic non- CAOD was not statistically significant(p=0.079) but in asymptomatic CAOD, the score tended to be higher. The CAC score was not different between symptomatic and asymptomatic CAOD(p>0.1). When the CAC threshold was 1, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 14%;when the threshold was 200, sensitivity was 60% and specificity was 67%. Conclusion : When the EBT CAC score is high, further evaluation provides early evidence of coronary artery obstructive disease

  6. Contemporary models and prospects of control of parasitic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petričević Saša M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and expert-scientific factors determine activities in connection with the development of the control of parasitic infections in the upcoming period of the 21st century. The primary research activities are directed at studies of the physiological functions of parasites and the ecological relations between the parasite and the host, and all that is undertaken with the objective of securing adequate pharmacotherapy/pharmacoprophylaxis and immunoprophilaxis. As there is a huge expansion in the synthesis of chemical compounds, there is a great number of potential substances for use in the form of a medicine. Along these lines, activities concerning the development of new antiparasitics and/or modification of existing ones are primarily based on securing a quality target spot for its action. Another possibility in the area of research is connected to the problem of resistance of parasites and intensive studies of the biochemical-physiological characteristics of parasites, as well as the development of an active epidemiological-episootiological network for monitoring resistance. In parallel with the development of medicines, the results of investigations of physiological functions of parasites and their mutual relations with their host, are intensely used for the development of immunological control, and the development of vaccines (for example, the development of vaccines for the control of coccidiosis, babesiosis, echinococcosis. The second important approach is related to studies of parasitic zoonoses, the effect of global warming on the epidemiological-episootiological characteristics of parasitic diseases and the selection of resistant animal breeds/hybrids. Animal welfare is also of importance, the perfecting of reliable, rapid and less-costly methods for diagnosing parasitic diseases and the development of in vitro methods for the examination of resistance to antiparasitics.

  7. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  8. Process qualification and control in electron beams--requirements, methods, new concepts and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittendorfer, J.; Gratzl, F.; Hanis, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the status of process qualification and control in electron beam irradiation is analyzed in terms of requirements, concepts, methods and challenges for a state-of-the-art process control concept for medical device sterilization. Aspects from process qualification to routine process control are described together with the associated process variables. As a case study the 10 MeV beams at Mediscan GmbH are considered. Process control concepts like statistical process control (SPC) and a new concept to determine process capability is briefly discussed

  9. Detection of coronary calcium with electron beam tomography in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberl, R.; Knez, A.; Becker, A.; Becker, C.; Bruening, R.; Reiser, M.; Maass, A.; Steinbeck, G.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Coronary calcium is a powerful indicator of arteriosclerosis and can be detected very precisely with electron beam tomography. The method can be applied in patients with known coronary artery disease or in asymptomatic patients at risk of arteriosclerotic disease. Results: At the University of Munich we performed an EBT scan of the heart in 1100 patients within the last year. In 567 patients coronary angiography was performed also (±3 days). Confirming previous reports in the literature, we found a correlation of the calcium score with the age and gender of the patients. Severe coronary artery disease (stenoses ≥ 75%) was associated with significantly more calcium than less severe CAD. The calcium score did not discriminate between one-, two- and three-vessel disease. The site of calcification does not correlate with the localization of stenoses. Thirty-three percent of the patients with significant coronary artery disease showed a normal age-adjusted calcium score; a total of 8.1% of patients with severe stenoses did not reveal any coronary calcification (score =0). With asymptomatic patients there are only a few studies available. Soft plaques cannot be detected with EBT, but in most patients soft plaques occur together with hard plaques. Our results show that spiral CT of the newest generation may also be used for calcium screening. There was an excellent correlation of the calcium scores of EBT and spiral CT at all levels of calcification. Discussion: Coronary calcium is a sensitive marker of coronary artery disease. In the clinical setting EBT is indicated in patients with known coronary artery disease (to evaluate prognosis), in patients who are unable to perform a stress test, and in patients with atypical chest pain. However, lack of calcification may be associated with severe stenoses in a minority of patients. The clinical value in asymptomatic patients needs to be defined: Randomized studies are necessary. We see a possible indication in

  10. Frontoparietal cognitive control of verbal memory recall in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Novraj S; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-01

    Episodic memory retrieval is reliant upon cognitive control systems, of which 2 have been identified with functional neuroimaging: a cingulo-opercular salience network (SN) and a frontoparietal executive network (EN). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathology is distributed throughout higher-order cortices. The hypotheses were that this frontoparietal pathology would impair activity associated with verbal memory recall; and that central cholinesterase inhibition (ChI) would modulate this, improving memory recall. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study normal participants and 2 patient groups: mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Activity within the EN and SN was observed during free recall of previously heard sentences, and related to measures of recall accuracy. In normal subjects, trials with reduced recall were associated with greater activity in both the SN and EN. Better recall was associated with greater activity in medial regions of the default mode network. By comparison, AD patients showed attenuated responses in both the SN and EN compared with either controls or MCI patients, even after recall performance was matched between groups. Following ChI, AD patients showed no modulation of activity within the SN, but increased activity within the EN. There was also enhanced activity within regions associated with episodic and semantic memory during less successful recall, requiring greater cognitive control. The results indicate that in AD, impaired responses of cognitive control networks during verbal memory recall are partly responsible for reduced recall performance. One action of symptom-modifying treatment is partially to reverse the abnormal function of frontoparietal cognitive control and temporal lobe memory networks. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  11. Influence of perturbation velocity on balance control in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars B Oude Nijhuis

    Full Text Available Underlying somatosensory processing deficits of joint rotation velocities may cause patients with Parkinson's disease (PD to be more unstable for fast rather than slow balance perturbations. Such deficits could lead to reduced proprioceptive amplitude feedback triggered by perturbations, and thereby to smaller or delayed stabilizing postural responses. For this reason, we investigated whether support surface perturbation velocity affects balance reactions in PD patients. We examined postural responses of seven PD patients (OFF medication and eight age-matched controls following backward rotations of a support-surface platform. Rotations occurred at three different speeds: fast (60 deg/s, medium (30 deg/s or slow (3.8 deg/s, presented in random order. Each subject completed the protocol under eyes open and closed conditions. Full body kinematics, ankle torques and the number of near-falls were recorded. Patients were significantly more unstable than controls following fast perturbations (26% larger displacements of the body's centre of mass; P<0.01, but not following slow perturbations. Also, more near-falls occurred in patients for fast rotations. Balance correcting ankle torques were weaker for patients than controls on the most affected side, but were stronger than controls for the least affected side. These differences were present both with eyes open and eyes closed (P<0.01. Fast support surface rotations caused greater instability and discriminated Parkinson patients better from controls than slow rotations. Although ankle torques on the most affected side were weaker, patients partially compensated for this by generating larger than normal stabilizing torques about the ankle joint on the least affected side. Without this compensation, instability may have been greater.

  12. Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude control electronics box design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.

  13. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  14. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  15. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m...

  16. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control...

  17. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  18. 75 FR 4406 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... recommendations to the Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training...

  19. 78 FR 12702 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and...; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the Department of Health and... solicited public comment on updates to the Scope and Definitions for its regulations. DATES: The Notice of...

  20. 78 FR 12702 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... rulemaking; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the Department... Rulemaking (NPRM) that solicited public comment on updates to the Scope and Definitions for its regulations...

  1. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  2. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  3. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  4. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  5. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  6. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  7. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Examining the Impact of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  8. Coherent operation of detector systems and their readout electronics in a complex experiment control environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, Stefan [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: koestner@mpi-halle.mpg.de

    2009-09-11

    With the increasing size and degree of complexity of today's experiments in high energy physics the required amount of work and complexity to integrate a complete subdetector into an experiment control system is often underestimated. We report here on the layered software structure and protocols used by the LHCb experiment to control its detectors and readout boards. The experiment control system of LHCb is based on the commercial SCADA system PVSS II. Readout boards which are outside the radiation area are accessed via embedded credit card sized PCs which are connected to a large local area network. The SPECS protocol is used for control of the front end electronics. Finite state machines are introduced to facilitate the control of a large number of electronic devices and to model the whole experiment at the level of an expert system.

  9. A fuzzy logic sliding mode controlled electronic differential for a direct wheel drive EV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkop, Emre; Altas, Ismail H.; Okumus, H. Ibrahim; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a direct wheel drive electric vehicle based on an electronic differential system with a fuzzy logic sliding mode controller (FLSMC) is studied. The conventional sliding surface is modified using a fuzzy rule base to obtain fuzzy dynamic sliding surfaces by changing its slopes using the global error and its derivative in a fuzzy logic inference system. The controller is compared with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and sliding mode controllers (SMCs), which are usually preferred to be used in industry. The proposed controller provides robustness and flexibility to direct wheel drive electric vehicles. The fuzzy logic sliding mode controller, electronic differential system and the overall electrical vehicle mechanism are modelled and digitally simulated by using the Matlab software. Simulation results show that the system with FLSMC has better efficiency and performance compared to those of PID and SMCs.

  10. Effect of tight control management on Crohn's disease (CALM): a multicentre, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Panaccione, Remo; Bossuyt, Peter; Lukas, Milan; Baert, Filip; Vaňásek, Tomas; Danalioglu, Ahmet; Novacek, Gottfried; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Hébuterne, Xavier; Travis, Simon; Danese, Silvio; Reinisch, Walter; Sandborn, William J; Rutgeerts, Paul; Hommes, Daniel; Schreiber, Stefan; Neimark, Ezequiel; Huang, Bidan; Zhou, Qian; Mendez, Paloma; Petersson, Joel; Wallace, Kori; Robinson, Anne M; Thakkar, Roopal B; D'Haens, Geert

    2018-12-23

    Biomarkers of intestinal inflammation, such as faecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein, have been recommended for monitoring patients with Crohn's disease, but whether their use in treatment decisions improves outcomes is unknown. We aimed to compare endoscopic and clinical outcomes in patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease who were managed with a tight control algorithm, using clinical symptoms and biomarkers, versus patients managed with a clinical management algorithm. CALM was an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 study, done in 22 countries at 74 hospitals and outpatient centres, which evaluated adult patients (aged 18-75 years) with active endoscopic Crohn's disease (Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity [CDEIS] >6; sum of CDEIS subscores of >6 in one or more segments with ulcers), a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) of 150-450 depending on dose of prednisone at baseline, and no previous use of immunomodulators or biologics. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to tight control or clinical management groups, stratified by smoking status (yes or no), weight (2 years) after 8 weeks of prednisone induction therapy, or earlier if they had active disease. In both groups, treatment was escalated in a stepwise manner, from no treatment, to adalimumab induction followed by adalimumab every other week, adalimumab every week, and lastly to both weekly adalimumab and daily azathioprine. This escalation was based on meeting treatment failure criteria, which differed between groups (tight control group before and after random assignment: faecal calprotectin ≥250 μg/g, C-reactive protein ≥5mg/L, CDAI ≥150, or prednisone use in the previous week; clinical management group before random assignment: CDAI decrease of 200; clinical management group after random assignment: CDAI decrease of management group, 0·9 years [SD 1·7]; tight control group, 1·0 year [2·3]) were randomly assigned to monitoring groups (n=122 per group

  11. Community Health Worker Impact on Chronic Disease Outcomes Within Primary Care Examined Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Maia; Doubleday, Kevin; Bell, Melanie L; Lohr, Abby; Murrieta, Lucy; Velasco, Maria; Blackburn, John; Sabo, Samantha; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-10-01

    To investigate community health worker (CHW) effects on chronic disease outcomes using electronic health records (EHRs). We examined EHRs of 32 147 patients at risk for chronic disease during 2012 to 2015. Variables included contact with clinic-based CHWs, vitals, and laboratory tests. We estimated a mixed model for all outcomes. Within-group findings showed statistically significant improvements in chronic disease indicators after exposure to CHWs. In health center 1, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) decreased 0.15 millimoles per mole (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.24, -0.06), body mass index decreased 0.29 kilograms per meter squared (CI = -0.39, -0.20), and total cholesterol decreased 11.9 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -13.5, -10.2). In health center 2, HbA1c decreased 0.43 millimoles per mole (CI = -0.7, -0.17), body mass index decreased by 0.08 kilograms per meter squared (CI = -0.14, -0.02), and triglycerides decreased by 22.50 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -39.0, -6.0). Total cholesterol of 3.62 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -6.6, -0.6) in health center 1 was the only improvement tied to CHW contact. Although patients' chronic disease indicators consistently improved, between-group models provided no additional evidence of impact. EHRs' evolution may elucidate CHW contributions moving forward.

  12. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  13. Modeling and control of three phase rectifier with electronic smoothing inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, direct method for deriving the approximate, small-signal, average model and control strategy for three-phase diode bridge rectifier operating with electronic smoothing technique. Electronic smoothing inductor (ESI) performs the function of an inductor that has...... controlled variable impedance. This increases power factor (PF) and reduces total harmonic distortions (THDs) in mains current. The ESI based rectifier enables compact and cost effective design of three phase electric drive as size of passive components is reduced significantly. In order to carry out...

  14. Phase and amplitude feedback control system for the Los Alamos free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.; Higgins, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Phase and amplitude feedback control systems for the Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) are described. Beam-driven voltages are very high in the buncher cavity because the electron gun is pulsed at the fifth subharmonic of the buncher resonant frequency. The high beam loading necessitated a novel feedback and drive configuration for the buncher. A compensation cirucit has been added to the gun/driver system to reduce observed drift. Extremely small variations in the accelerator gradients had dramatic effects on the laser output power. These problems and how they were solved are described and plans for improvements in the feedback control system are discussed. 5 refs., 7 figs

  15. Specific schistosomiasis treatment as a strategy for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The great hope for schistosomiasis treatment began with the development of oxamniquine and praziquantel. These drugs can be administered orally in a single dose and have a high curative power with minor side effects. In this study, we carried out a field experiment involving a population of 3,782 people. The population was examined at four localities in Minas Gerais within the valleys of the Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers. In this cohort, there were 1,790 patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni (47.3% and we showed that only 1,403 (78.4% could be treated with oxamniquine in a single dose of 12.5-20 mg/kg orally. The other 387 (21.6% were not treated during the first stage because of contraindications (pregnancy or impeditive diseases, absences or refusals. It was observed that, on average, 8.8-17% of the infected patients continued to excrete S. mansoni eggs at the end of the 2nd month after treatment and 30-32% of the cohort was infected by the end of the 24th month. In one of the areas that we followed-up for a total of 30 years, the prevalence of the infection with S. mansoni fell from 60.8-19.3% and the hepatosplenic form of the disease dropped from 5.8-1.3%. We conclude that specific treatment of schistosomiasis reduces the prevalence of infection in the short-term and the morbidity due to schistosomiasis in medium to long-term time frames, but does not help to control disease transmission.

  16. Host control of human papillomavirus infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorbar, John

    2018-02-01

    Most human papillomaviruses cause inapparent infections, subtly affecting epithelial homeostasis, to ensure genome persistence in the epithelial basal layer. As with conspicuous papillomas, these self-limiting lesions shed viral particles to ensure population level maintenance and depend on a balance between viral gene expression, immune cell stimulation and immune surveillance for persistence. The complex immune evasion strategies, characteristic of high-risk HPV types, also allow the deregulated viral gene expression that underlies neoplasia. Neoplasia occurs at particular epithelial sites where vulnerable cells such as the reserve or cuboidal cells of the cervical transformation zone are found. Beta papillomavirus infection can also predispose an individual with immune deficiencies to the development of cancers. The host control of HPV infections thus involves local interactions between keratinocytes and the adaptive immune response. Effective immune detection and surveillance limits overt disease, leading to HPV persistence as productive microlesions or in a true latent state. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Applications of Microalgal Biotechnology for Disease Control in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patai Charoonnart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients. Furthermore, some microalgal species possess natural anti-microbial compounds or contain biomolecules that can serve as immunostimulants. In addition, emerging genetic engineering technologies in microalgae offer the possibility of producing ‘functional feed additives’ in which novel and specific bioactives, such as fish growth hormones, anti-bacterials, subunit vaccines, and virus-targeted interfering RNAs, are components of the algal supplement. The evaluation of such technologies for farm applications is an important step in the future development of sustainable aquaculture.

  18. Genetic management strategies for controlling infectious diseases in livestock populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Stephen C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the use of disease resistance genes to control the transmission of infection through an animal population. Transmission is summarised by R0, the basic reproductive ratio of a pathogen. If R0 > 1.0 a major epidemic can occur, thus a disease control strategy should aim to reduce R0 below 1.0, e.g. by mixing resistant with susceptible wild-type animals. Suppose there is a resistance allele, such that transmission of infection through a population homozygous for this allele will be R02 01, where R01 describes transmission in the wildtype population. For an otherwise homogeneous population comprising animals of these two groups, R0 is the weighted average of the two sub-populations: R0 = R01ρ + R02 (1 - ρ, where ρ is the proportion of wildtype animals. If R01 > 1 and R02 0 ≤ 1, i.e. ρ ≤ (R0 - R02/(R01 - R02. If R02 = 0, the proportion of resistant animals must be at least 1 - 1/R01. For an n genotype model the requirement is still to have R0 ≤ 1.0. Probabilities of epidemics in genetically mixed populations conditional upon the presence of a single infected animal were derived. The probability of no epidemic is always 1/(R0 + 1. When R0 ≤ 1 the probability of a minor epidemic, which dies out without intervention, is R0/(R0 + 1. When R0 > 1 the probability of a minor and major epidemics are 1/(R0 + 1 and (R0 - 1/(R0 + 1. Wherever possible a combination of genotypes should be used to minimise the invasion possibilities of pathogens that have mutated to overcome the effects of specific resistance alleles.

  19. Study on the Electronic Magnetic Field Oriented Control Based on D-axis Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Feng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the magnetic field orientation accuracy and system performance, the electronic field oriented control has been a hot research field of the induction motor speed control. Although the vector control of AC machines has many excellent properties, the researchers have been attempting to simplify the calculating steps and the structure of the control system to improve the accuracy of filed-oriented and the performance of AC machine drives. Based on the analysis of the conventional induction motor magnetic field oriented control, this paper puts forward a novel method of stator magnetic field orientation control. By analytical methods, the given current of d-axis can be calculated directly, and the stator flux can be controlled precisely. This method has a fast flux and torque response, and the control performance is unaffected by the rotor parameters.

  20. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  1. Automated Text Markup for Information Retrieval from an Electronic Textbook of Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Kehler, Andrew; Kim, David K.; Yu, Victor L.; Fagan, Lawrence M.

    1998-01-01

    The information needs of practicing clinicians frequently require textbook or journal searches. Making these sources available in electronic form improves the speed of these searches, but precision (i.e., the fraction of relevant to total documents retrieved) remains low. Improving the traditional keyword search by transforming search terms into canonical concepts does not improve search precision greatly. Kim et al. have designed and built a prototype system (MYCIN II) for computer-based information retrieval from a forthcoming electronic textbook of infectious disease. The system requires manual indexing by experts in the form of complex text markup. However, this mark-up process is time consuming (about 3 person-hours to generate, review, and transcribe the index for each of 218 chapters). We have designed and implemented a system to semiautomate the markup process. The system, information extraction for semiautomated indexing of documents (ISAID), uses query models and existing information-extraction tools to provide support for any user, including the author of the source material, to mark up tertiary information sources quickly and accurately.

  2. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Previtali, Valentina [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bruce, Roderik [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Redaelli, Stefano [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, Adriana [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Salvachua Ferrando, Belen [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-06-26

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. We are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were checked to ensure that undesired effects were suppressed. Hardware specifications were based on the Tevatron devices and on preliminary engineering integration studies in the LHC machine. Required resources and a possible timeline were also outlined, together with a brief discussion of alternative halo-removal schemes and of other possible uses of electron lenses to improve the performance of the LHC.

  3. Attosecond-controlled photoemission from metal nanowire tips in the few-electron regime

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, B.

    2017-02-07

    Metal nanotip photoemitters have proven to be versatile in fundamental nanoplasmonics research and applications, including, e.g., the generation of ultrafast electron pulses, the adiabatic focusing of plasmons, and as light-triggered electron sources for microscopy. Here, we report the generation of high energy photoelectrons (up to 160 eV) in photoemission from single-crystalline nanowire tips in few-cycle, 750-nm laser fields at peak intensities of (2-7.3) × 1012 W/cm2. Recording the carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-dependent photoemission from the nanowire tips allows us to identify rescattering contributions and also permits us to determine the high-energy cutoff of the electron spectra as a function of laser intensity. So far these types of experiments from metal nanotips have been limited to an emission regime with less than one electron per pulse. We detect up to 13 e/shot and given the limited detection efficiency, we expect up to a few ten times more electrons being emitted from the nanowire. Within the investigated intensity range, we find linear scaling of cutoff energies. The nonlinear scaling of electron count rates is consistent with tunneling photoemission occurring in the absence of significant charge interaction. The high electron energy gain is attributed to field-induced rescattering in the enhanced nanolocalized fields at the wires apex, where a strong CEP-modulation is indicative of the attosecond control of photoemission.

  4. Tailoring atomic structure to control the electronic transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Wei, Jianwei; Zeng, Xianliang; Xu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculation to study the electronic transport properties of the tailored zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with particular electronic transport channels. Our results demonstrated that tailoring the atomic structure had significantly influenced the electronic transport of the defective nanostructures, and could lead to the metal-semiconducting transition when sufficient atoms are tailored. The asymmetric I–V characteristics as a result of symmetry breaking have been exhibited, which indicates the route to utilize GNR as a basic component for novel nanoelectronics. -- Highlights: ► M–S transition induced by tailoring nanostructure. ► Asymmetric I–V curve due to symmetry breaking. ► Controllable electron transport by designing nanofiguration.

  5. Tailoring atomic structure to control the electronic transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hui [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Zhao, Jun, E-mail: zhaojun@yangtzeu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Wei, Jianwei [College of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Zeng, Xianliang [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Xu, Yang [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2012-10-01

    We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculation to study the electronic transport properties of the tailored zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with particular electronic transport channels. Our results demonstrated that tailoring the atomic structure had significantly influenced the electronic transport of the defective nanostructures, and could lead to the metal-semiconducting transition when sufficient atoms are tailored. The asymmetric I–V characteristics as a result of symmetry breaking have been exhibited, which indicates the route to utilize GNR as a basic component for novel nanoelectronics. -- Highlights: ► M–S transition induced by tailoring nanostructure. ► Asymmetric I–V curve due to symmetry breaking. ► Controllable electron transport by designing nanofiguration.

  6. Solid-state nanopores of controlled geometry fabricated in a transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Egerton, Ray F.

    2017-11-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography were applied to in situ studies of the formation, shape, and diameter of nanopores formed in a silicon nitride membrane in a transmission electron microscope. The nanopore geometry was observed in three dimensions by electron tomography. Drilling conditions, such as probe current, beam convergence angle, and probe position, affect the formation rate and the geometry of the pores. With a beam convergence semi-angle of α = 22 mrad, a conical shaped nanopore is formed but at α = 45 mrad, double-cone (hourglass-shaped) nanopores were produced. Nanopores with an effective diameter between 10 nm and 1.8 nm were fabricated by controlling the drilling time.

  7. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua, E-mail: zhonghua-miao@163.com; Wang, Xiaohua [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Wang, Xuyong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  8. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  9. On-line control system for electron injector based on autoemission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.V.; Karpov, A.G.; Ovsyannikov, D.A.; Prudnikov, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    An original on-line system of control of electron injector parameters on the base of an autoemission cathode is described. The system includes hardware (analog-to-digital and graphical displays, a printer, a magnetic disc memory a plotter) and data control and readout equipment. A high-voltage power source of the 'RACE' is controlled by digital measuring devices connected with a computer data via a special matching device. Software includes servicing subroutines for injector controls and those permitting to display, plot and print results. The main operating program functioning in the interactive mode enables to specify the injector operating conditions and check its characteristics

  10. CT pulmonary densitovolumetry in patients with acromegaly: a comparison between active disease and controlled disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Gustavo B; Carvalho, Alysson R S; Machado, Dequitier C; Mogami, Roberto; Melo, Pedro L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to compare the findings of CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function in patients with active acromegaly and controlled acromegaly and, secondarily, to correlate these findings. Methods: 11 patients with active acromegaly, 18 patients with controlled acromegaly and 17 control subjects, all non-smokers, underwent quantification of lung volume using multidetector CT (Q-MDCT) and pulmonary function tests. Results: Patients with active acromegaly had larger total lung mass (TLM) values than the controls and larger amounts of non-aerated compartments than the other two groups. Patients with active acromegaly also had larger amounts of poorly aerated compartments than the other two groups, a difference that was observed in both total lung volume (TLV) and TLM. TLV as measured by inspiratory Q-MDCT correlated significantly with total lung capacity, whereas TLV measured using expiratory Q-MDCT correlated significantly with functional residual capacity. Conclusion: Patients with active acromegaly have more lung mass and larger amounts of non-aerated and poorly aerated compartments. There is a relationship between the findings of CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function test parameters. Advances in knowledge: Although the nature of our results demands further investigation, our data suggest that both CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function tests can be used as useful tools for patients with acromegaly by assisting in the prediction of disease activity. PMID:26246281

  11. 'Locus of control', health-related quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Federica; Gison, Annalisa; Bonassi, Stefano; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Tonto, Francesca; Giaquinto, Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated locus of control and its subscales in Parkinson's disease. A total of 50 consecutive Parkinson's disease participants and 50 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled. External locus of control was significantly higher in Parkinson's disease participants, whereas internal locus of control had no significant differences. External locus of control and internal locus of control were correlated in control group, but not in Parkinson's disease. In Parkinson's disease participants, external locus of control was negatively associated with health-related quality of life as well as positively associated with emotional distress and disease severity (but not with disability). After adjusting to confound variables, the associations remained. On the other hand, internal locus of control was negatively associated with depression.

  12. HOW to Identify and Control Noninfectious Diseases of Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service Northern Area State & Private Forestry

    Noninfectious tree diseases are those caused by nonliving agents. This type of disease is not transmitted from one plant to another. Extremes in temperature and water supply are the most common causes of this type of disease. Other causes are chemical substances in the soil, water, and air; transplant shock; and mechanical injuries. These nonliving disease agents are a...

  13. Control strategies for foot and mouth disease with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a very contagious disease of mammals with a great potential for causing severe economic losses in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. It is a trans-boundary animal disease, with seven serotypes and all the serotypes produce a disease that is clinically indistinguishable but ...

  14. Implantable electronics of a closed-loop system for controlling prosthetic hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikas Antonios

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of implantable electronics as a part of a system for prosthetic hand control. Purpose of the implant is the sensing of electrical signals originating from biological tissue and the actuation of the same, therefore closing the loop and allowing for an improved control of the prosthetic hand. The implant contains two integrated circuits for eight channel EMG monitoring and four channel stimulation, respectively. An on-board microcontroller allows for local pre-processing. All intracorporeal to extracorporeal communications are running through and are directed by the main processing platform. The external components of the control system include, in addition to the main processing and control platform, the inductive power transfer circuits and the pressure sensors for the sensory feedback. Different assembly and encapsulation options are taken into account for the implantable electronics and are unified in a single PCB design.

  15. Electronic beam CT diagnosis of infant congenital heart disease with the comparison of echocardiogram and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangmin; Zhou Xuhui; Yang Youyou; Meng Quanfei; Peng Qian; Tan Zhiyu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the advantage and limitation in the diagnosis of infant congenital heart disease (CHD) by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT). Methods: Eighty patients suspected or diagnosed as infant CHD underwent dynamic contrast enhanced EBCT imaging. EBCT imaging was carried out in two steps: single slice mode scanning and multiple slice mode scanning. The EBCT results of 80 cases were correlated with echocardiogram and operation records. 39 cases were confirmed by surgery. Chi-Square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Among 80 patients, there were 27 cases in non-cyanosis and 53 cases in cyanosis. In this group including 16 types of CHD, 206 malformations were revealed with EBCT while 159 abnormalities with echocardiogram. 101 lesions were proved by surgery, which demonstrated a diagnosis accuracy of 96% (97/101) with EBCT, and 87% (88/101) with echocardiogram. A statistical significant difference was observed between the two methods (χ 2 =6.231, P<0.01). Conclusion: EBCT scanning can demonstrate the pathological morphology of CHD, especially, EBCT is helpful in the sequential segmental analysis in complex CHD. It is better than echocardiogram in demonstrating the aortic congenital disease and pulmonary artery development and anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

  16. Feasibility of electron beam tomography in diagnosis of congenital heart disease: comparison with echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongmin J.; Kang, Duk-Sik

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of electron beam tomography (EBT) for morphological assessment of congenital heart disease. Materials and methods: Sixteen subjects were examined by EBT, transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac cine angiography and surgery. EBT scan was performed using single slice continuous volume mode to acquire high-resolution static image. Double dose contrast medium was injected by bolus technique after measuring scan delay time and calculation of proper injection rate. The results of EBT and echocardiography were compared based on the results of cardiac cine angiography and surgical findings. All anomalous components were evaluated in all subjects and grouped according to major cardiac structures. Statistical analysis was performed to compare two modalities' ability to evaluate the anomalies of major structures. Results: EBT was more sensitive to evaluate the anomalies of systemic vessels, pulmonary vessels and small systemic arteries such as coronary artery. EBT was less sensitive to identify the abnormality of cardiac valves such as valvular regurgitation. There was no difference of sensitivity in evaluation of cardiac chambers and septa between the two modalities. Conclusion: EBT assisted by transthoracic echocardiography is excellent noninvasive modality to diagnose congenital heart disease

  17. Expression of novel Alzheimer's disease risk genes in control and Alzheimer's disease brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste M Karch

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD etiology is influenced by complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Large-scale genome wide association studies (GWAS for LOAD have identified 10 novel risk genes: ABCA7, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, CLU, CR1, EPHA1, MS4A6A, MS4A6E, and PICALM. We sought to measure the influence of GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and gene expression levels on clinical and pathological measures of AD in brain tissue from the parietal lobe of AD cases and age-matched, cognitively normal controls. We found that ABCA7, CD33, and CR1 expression levels were associated with clinical dementia rating (CDR, with higher expression being associated with more advanced cognitive decline. BIN1 expression levels were associated with disease progression, where higher expression was associated with a delayed age at onset. CD33, CLU, and CR1 expression levels were associated with disease status, where elevated expression levels were associated with AD. Additionally, MS4A6A expression levels were associated with Braak tangle and Braak plaque scores, with elevated expression levels being associated with more advanced brain pathology. We failed to detect an association between GWAS SNPs and gene expression levels in our brain series. The minor allele of rs3764650 in ABCA7 is associated with age at onset and disease duration, and the minor allele of rs670139 in MS4A6E was associated with Braak tangle and Braak plaque score. These findings suggest that expression of some GWAS genes, namely ABCA7, BIN1, CD33, CLU, CR1 and the MS4A family, are altered in AD brains.

  18. Large-area cold-cathode grid-controlled electron gun for Antares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlett, W.R.; Andrews, K.; Jansen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The CO 2 laser amplifiers used in the Antares inertial confinement fusion project require large-area radial beams of high-energy electrons to ionize the laser medium before the main discharge pulse is applied. We have designed a grid-controlled, cold-cathode electron gun with a cylindrical anode having a window area of 9.3 m 2 . A full diameter, 1/4 length prototype of the Antares gun has been built and tested. The design details of the Antares electron gun will be presented as well as test results from the prototype. Techniques used for the prevention and control of emission and breakdown from the grid will also be discussed

  19. Electron spin control and torsional optomechanics of an optically levitated nanodiamond in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Hoang, Thai; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centers, indicating potential applications of NV centers in oxygen gas sensing. For spin-optomechanics, it is important to control the orientation of the nanodiamond and NV centers in a magnetic field. Recently, we have observed the angular trapping and torsional vibration of a levitated nanodiamond, which paves the way towards levitated torsional optomechanics in the quantum regime. NSF 1555035-PHY.

  20. Control circuits for the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, S.; Shiino, K.; Yoshioka, M.; Norimura, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following control circuits for the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron, Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, have been designed and constructed. 1. Variable delay circuits for the timing pulse of the synchrotron. 2. An alarm circuit for sputter ion pumps. 3. A sample and hold circuit for digital display and computer control of the beam intensity. This report describes detailes of the circuits and their specificatons. (author)

  1. Control architecture for an adaptive electronically steerable flash lidar and associated instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Lyle; Craner, Jeremy; Harris, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    An Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL), developed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, allows realtime adaptive control of configuration and data-collection strategy based on recent or concurrent observations and changing situations. This paper reviews, at a high level, some of the algorithms and control architecture built into ESFL. Using ESFL as an example, it also discusses the merits and utility such adaptable instruments in Earth-system studies.

  2. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  3. Development of an interface for an ultrareliable fault-tolerant control system and an electronic servo-control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Charles; Williamson, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center sponsors a research program for the investigation of Intelligent Flight Control Actuation systems. The use of artificial intelligence techniques in conjunction with algorithmic techniques for autonomous, decentralized fault management of flight-control actuation systems is explored under this program. The design, development, and operation of the interface for laboratory investigation of this program is documented. The interface, architecturally based on the Intel 8751 microcontroller, is an interrupt-driven system designed to receive a digital message from an ultrareliable fault-tolerant control system (UFTCS). The interface links the UFTCS to an electronic servo-control unit, which controls a set of hydraulic actuators. It was necessary to build a UFTCS emulator (also based on the Intel 8751) to provide signal sources for testing the equipment.

  4. Periodic quality control of a linear accelerator using electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planes Meseguer, D.; Dorado Rodriguez, M. P.; Esposito, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our solution for the realization of the monthly periodic quality control (CP) geometry - mechanical and multi leaf collimator (MLC), using the electronic system for portal imaging (EPI). We have developed specific programs created with free software. The monitoring results are automatically stored on our web server, along with other information generated in our service.

  5. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-870] Certain Electronic Bark Control... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint and a motion for temporary relief were filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on...

  6. A Multidisciplinary PBL Robot Control Project in Automation and Electronic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Houcine; Domínguez, Carlos; Martínez, Juan-Miguel; Perles, Angel; Capella, Juan-Vicente; Albaladejo, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) project consisting of the development of a robot arm prototype and the implementation of its control system. The project is carried out as part of Industrial Informatics (II), a compulsory third-year course in the Automation and Electronic Engineering (AEE) degree program at the…

  7. The Cradle Coast Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record evaluation research plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, Elizabeth; Cheek, Colleen; Van Der Ploeg, Winifred

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the Federal Government announced funding over two years to create a Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR) for Australians. One of the wave 2 implementation sites is the Cradle Coast in Tasmania. A PCEHR Program Benefits and Evaluation Partner (BEP) has been appointed to u...

  8. Lyapunov-based constrained engine torque control using electronic throttle and variable cam timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Lazar, M.; Gielen, R.H.; Kolmanovsky, I.V.; Di Cairano, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, predictive control of a spark ignition engine equipped with an electronic throttle and a variable cam timing actuator is considered. The objective is to adjust the throttle angle and the engine cam timing in order to reduce the exhaust gas emissions while maintaining fast and

  9. Optically Controlled Electron-Transfer Reaction Kinetics and Solvation Dynamics : Effect of Franck-Condon States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Kriti; Patra, Aniket; Dhole, Kajal; Samanta, Alok Kumar; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental results for optically controlled electron-transfer reaction kinetics (ETRK) and nonequilibrium solvation dynamics (NESD) of Coumarin 480 in DMPC vesicle show their dependence on excitation wavelength λex. However, the celebrated Marcus theory and linear-response-theory-based approaches

  10. Power Electronic Drives, Controls, and Electric Generators for Large Wind Turbines - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Tutelea, L.; Boldea, Ion

    2015-01-01

    and exceed a power rating of 10 MW are discussed. The role of power electronics for improving the operation of wind turbines and ensuring compliance with power grid codes is analyzed with a view at producing fully controllable generation units suitable for tight integration into the power grid and large...

  11. Power Electronics and Controls for Large Wind Turbines and Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Shipurkar, Udai; Ionel, Dan M.

    2017-01-01

    in order to reach and even exceed a power rating of 10 MW are discussed. The role of power electronics for improving the operation of WTs and ensuring compliance with power grid codes is analyzed with a view to produce fully controllable generation units suitable for a tight integration into the power grid...

  12. Possibility of designing television control system for welded joint formation on electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshits, M.L.; Lobanova, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Regression equations (models), connecting seam characteristics: width and depth with the welding bath leading front in joint gap and seam width respectively - are obtained at electron beam welding of circular articles with guaranteed clearance with application of television control system. Dispersion analysis showed the models adequancy to the process in the range, where they were identified

  13. Adoption of electronic prescribing for controlled substances among providers and pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufstader Gabriel, Meghan; Yang, Yi; Vaidya, Varun; Wilkins, Tricia Lee

    2014-11-01

    Electronic prescribing for Schedule II through V controlled substances was legalized in the United States by the Drug Enforcement Administration in June 2010. However, little information exists about adoption and use of the electronic prescribing of controlled substances (EPCS) at the national level. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present the first information about national trends surrounding the adoption and use of the newly allowed EPCS by providers and pharmacies in the United States. Trends of EPCS adoption and use were examined for the number of EPCS, number of pharmacies enabled to accept EPCS, and the number of providers prescribing controlled substances electronically. Using nationally representative transactional Surescripts data from July 2012 to December 2013, we examined EPCS trends. During the study period, the total number of EPCS increased from 1535 to 52,423, and the number and percentage of all pharmacies enabled for EPCS increased from 8768 (13%) to 20,498 pharmacies (30%). The proportion of all providers prescribing controlled substances electronically is currently 1%, but increasing steadily each month. There is a positive national growth for EPCS in pharmacy preparedness to accept EPCS, the number of EPCS prescriptions sent each month, and the number of providers with the ability to send EPCS.

  14. Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Deposition Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor); Martin, Richard E. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A closed-loop control method for an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) process includes detecting a feature of interest during the process using a sensor(s), continuously evaluating the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein, and automatically modifying control parameters to control the EBF(sup 3) process. An apparatus provides closed-loop control method of the process, and includes an electron gun for generating an electron beam, a wire feeder for feeding a wire toward a substrate, wherein the wire is melted and progressively deposited in layers onto the substrate, a sensor(s), and a host machine. The sensor(s) measure the feature of interest during the process, and the host machine continuously evaluates the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein. The host machine automatically modifies control parameters to the EBF(sup 3) apparatus to control the EBF(sup 3) process in a closed-loop manner.

  15. Cognitive Rehabilitation in Alzheimer's Disease: A Controlled Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggen, Katharina; Kasper, Elisabeth; Ochmann, Sina; Pfaff, Henrike; Webel, Steffi; Schneider, Wolfgang; Teipel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Rehabilitation for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an integrative multimodal intervention. It aims to maintain autonomy and quality of life by enhancing the patients' abilities to compensate for decreased cognitive functioning. We evaluated the feasibility of a group-based Cognitive Rehabilitation approach in mild AD dementia and assessed its effect on activities of daily living (ADL). We included 16 patients with AD dementia in a controlled partial-randomized design. We adapted the manual-guided Cognitive Rehabilitation program (CORDIAL) to a group setting. Over the course of three months, one group received the Cognitive Rehabilitation intervention (n = 8), while the other group received a standardized Cognitive Training as an active control condition (n = 8). ADL-competence was measured as primary outcome. The secondary outcome parameters included cognitive abilities related to daily living, functional cognitive state, and non-cognitive domains, e.g., quality of life. For each scale, we assessed the interaction effect 'intervention by time', i.e., from pre-to post-intervention. We found no significant interaction effect of intervention by time on the primary outcome ADL-competence. The interaction effect was significant for quality of life (Cohen's d: -1.43), showing an increase in the intervention group compared with the control group. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of a group-based Cognitive Rehabilitation program for patients with mild AD dementia. The Cognitive Rehabilitation showed no significant effect on ADL, possibly reflecting a lack of transfer between the therapy setting and real life. However, the group setting enhanced communication skills and coping mechanisms. Effects on ADL may not have reached statistical significance due to a limited sample size. Furthermore, future studies might use an extended duration of the intervention and integrate caregivers to a greater extent to increase transfer to activities of daily living.

  16. Development of Electronic Load Controllers for Free-Piston Stirling Convertors Aided by Stirling Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor: the Stirling cycle engine, heat source, linear alternator, controller, and load. So far, it has been used in evaluating the performance of electronic controller designs. Three different controller design concepts were simulated using the model: 1) Controllers with parasitic direct current loading. 2) Controllers with parasitic alternating current loading. 3) Controllers that maintain a reference current. The free-piston Stirling convertor is an electromechanical device that operates at resonance. It is the function of the electronic load controller to ensure that the electrical load seen by the machine is always great enough to keep the amplitude of the piston and alternator oscillation at the rated value. This is done by regulating the load on the output bus. The controller monitors the instantaneous voltage, regulating it by switching loads called parasitic loads onto the bus whenever the bus voltage is too high and removing them whenever the voltage is too low. In the first type of controller, the monitor-ing and switching are done on the direct-current (dc) bus. In the second type, the alternating current bus is used. The model allows designers to test a controller concept before investing time in hardware. The simulation code used to develop the model also offers detailed models of digital and analog electronic components so that the resulting designs are realistic enough to translate directly into hardware circuits.

  17. Wildlife and pastoral society--shifting paradigms in disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Richard; Kebkiba, Bidjeh; Heinonen, Risto; Bedane, Berhanu

    2002-10-01

    The dramatic changes in the human and animal populations in Africa over the last century demand the re-examination of priorities and policies. The introduction of developed medical and other human technologies into the continent has contributed to increases in population and a rapid, unsustainable increase in the utilization of resources. This in turn has led to the destruction of flora and fauna on an unprecedented scale with little real improvement in the human condition. One factor in this has been the increase in livestock in line with human demographic growth, as it is a traditional livelihood of many African peoples. In recent years the growth in livestock populations has slowed owing to a cycle of degradation and disease, affecting especially traditional pastoral systems with a close physical association between people, livestock, and wild animals. Pathogens benefit hugely from the dynamic state created by animal migration, although to some extent the livestock and certainly wildlife show considerable tolerance to this. One of the grave economic consequences of this increase in disease has been collapse of the export trade. In order for Africa to fully benefit and share in world trade, the zoosanitary situation must show improvement. To do this without destroying the natural resource base and traditional pastoral systems, will require a careful, future-oriented land-use policy along ecologically sound criteria. Export livestock will have to be maintained in areas, probably free of ruminant wildlife, with strict veterinary controls. If this can be balanced with sufficient areas retained for traditional pastoralism and wildlife, with perhaps the main income from recreational tourism and local consumption, the benefits will be considerable. The answer may be community-based, low-cost, decentralized health systems for pastoral communities, with less stringent sanitary mandates, a private/parastatal sector servicing, with specialization in wildlife, dairy or

  18. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, M Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M S; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-10-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease.

  19. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah Bivi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3% was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA] (5.0% followed by T1 (5.5%, T5 (5.8%, T3 (8.3%, T6 (8.3%, T4 (13.3%, and T2 (15.8% treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease.

  20. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689