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Sample records for disease classical swine

  1. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  2. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2010-01-01

    for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....

  3. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...... viruses under all conditions tested. The implications for disease spread are discussed....

  4. Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia.

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    Cowled, Brendan D; Garner, M Graeme; Negus, Katherine; Ward, Michael P

    2012-01-16

    Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain and eradicate some wildlife disease epidemics.

  5. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

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    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Classical Swine Fever—An Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. PMID:28430168

  7. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  8. Functional analysis of replication determinantsin classical swine fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne

    and animal pathogens should facilitate finding new approaches for efficient disease control. The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise determinants involved in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Classical swine fever is a highly contagious virus disease of domestic pigs and wild...... in cell culture. Knowledge of these sequence variations and putative long-range interactions will provide valuable insights into mechanisms underlying virustranslation and replication. In manuscript 3, a selection marker has been inserted into a CSFV-based replicon making it suitable for screening...

  9. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Loeffen, W.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic

  10. An approach to model monitoring and surveillance data of wildlife diseases-exemplified by Classical Swine Fever in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnke, N; Liebscher, V; Staubach, C; Ziller, M

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of epidemiological field data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSSs) in wild animals is of great importance in order to evaluate the performance of such systems. By parameter estimation from MOSS data, conclusions about disease dynamics in the observed population can be drawn. To strengthen the analysis, the implementation of a maximum likelihood estimation is the main aim of our work. The new approach presented here is based on an underlying simple SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for a disease scenario in a wildlife population. The three corresponding classes are assumed to govern the intensities (number of animals in the classes) of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. A sampling rate was defined which describes the process of data collection (for MOSSs). Further, the performance of the diagnostics was implemented in the model by a diagnostic matrix containing misclassification rates. Both descriptions of these MOSS parts were included in the Poisson process approach. For simulation studies, the combined model demonstrates its ability to validly estimate epidemiological parameters, such as the basic reproduction rate R0. These parameters will help the evaluation of existing disease control systems. They will also enable comparison with other simulation models. The model has been tested with data from a Classical Swine Fever (CSF) outbreak in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) from a region of Germany (1999-2002). The results show that the hunting strategy as a sole control tool is insufficient to decrease the threshold for susceptible animals to eradicate the disease, since the estimated R0 confirms an ongoing epidemic of CSF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

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    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  12. Recoding structural glycoprotein E2 in classical swine fever virus (CSFV) produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Risatti, Guillermo R; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Carlson, Jolene; Alfano, Marialexia; Rodriguez, Luis L; Carrillo, Consuelo; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-07-01

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) mainly involves vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Experimental CSFV LAVs has been lately developed through reverse genetics using several different approaches. Here we present that codon de-optimization in the major CSFV structural glycoprotein E2 coding region, causes virus attenuation in swine. Four different mutated constructs (pCSFm1-pCSFm4) were designed using various mutational approaches based on the genetic background of the highly virulent strain Brescia (BICv). Three of these constructs produced infectious viruses (CSFm2v, CSFm3v, and CSFm4v). Animals infected with CSFm2v presented a reduced and extended viremia but did not display any CSF-related clinical signs. Animals that were infected with CSFm2v were protected against challenge with virulent parental BICv. This is the first report describing the development of an attenuated CSFV experimental vaccine by codon usage de-optimization, and one of the few examples of virus attenuation using this methodology that is assessed in a natural host. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Assessment of confidence in freedom from Aujeszky's disease and classical swine fever in Danish pigs based on serological sampling—Effect of reducing the number of samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Dahl, J.; Alban, L.

    2013-01-01

    Confirming freedom from disease is important for export of animals and animal products. In Denmark, an intensive surveillance program is in place for Aujeszky's disease (AD) and classical swine fever (CSF), including 34,974 blood samples tested for AD and 37,414 samples tested for CSF (2008 figures...... the posterior probability of freedom (PostPFree) from AD and CSF by use of a scenario tree model. Conventional herds and sows or boars were defined as risk factors (compared to SPF1 herds and finisher pigs), with a relative risk of 2 and 5, respectively. The probability of introduction was modeled...

  14. Classical swine fever in India: current status and future perspective.

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    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Sharad Kumar

    2018-05-04

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a globally significant disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus. The virus affects the wild boars and pigs of all age groups, leading to acute, chronic, late-onset or in-apparent course of the disease. The disease causes great economic loss to the piggery industry due to mortality, stunted growth, poor reproductive performance, and by impeding the international trade of pig and pig products. In India, CSF outbreaks are reported from most of the states wherever pig rearing is practiced and more frequently from northeast states. In spite of the highly devastating nature and frequent outbreaks, CSF remained underestimated and neglected for decades in India. The country requires rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests for an early detection of infection to limit the spread of the disease. Also, effective prophylactics are required to help in control and eradication of the disease for the development of the piggery industry. This review looks into the economic impact; epidemiology of CSF highlighting the temporal and spatial occurrence of outbreaks in the last two decades, circulation, and emergence of the virus genotypes in and around the country; and the constraints in the disease control, with the aim to update the knowledge of current status of the disease in India. The article also emphasizes the importance of the disease and the need to develop rapid specific diagnostics and effective measures to eradicate the disease.

  15. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

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    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  16. Virulence determinants within the E2 glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Camille Melissa; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise

    Classical Swine Fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a member of the pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae. The E2 glycoprotein of CSFV has been shown to be an important factor for the virulence of the virus. In a recent study, we have......Kos (with the SL motif). The results indicate that the E2 residues 763-64 play an important role in CSFV virulence....

  17. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  18. Classical swine fever in pigs: recent developments and future perspectives.

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    Chander, Vishal; Nandi, S; Ravishankar, C; Upmanyu, V; Verma, Rishendra

    2014-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs, causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of clinical signs and similarity in disease manifestations to other diseases make CSF difficult to diagnose with certainty. The disease is further complicated by the presence of a number of different strains belonging to three phylogenetic groups. Advanced diagnostic techniques allow detection of antigens or antibodies in clinical samples, leading to implementation of proper and effective control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, including portable real-time PCR, provide diagnosis in a few hours with precision and accuracy, even at the point of care. The disease is controlled by following a stamping out policy in countries where vaccination is not practiced, whereas immunization with live attenuated vaccines containing the 'C' strain is effectively used to control the disease in endemic countries. To overcome the problem of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, different types of marker vaccines, with variable degrees of efficacy, along with companion diagnostic assays have been developed and may be useful in controlling and even eradicating the disease in the foreseeable future. The present review aims to provide an overview and status of CSF as a whole with special reference to swine husbandry in India.

  19. A serological survey on classical swine fever (CSF), Aujeszky's disease (AD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infections in French wild boars from 1991 to 1998.

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    Albina, E; Mesplède, A; Chenut, G; Le Potier, M F; Bourbao, G; Le Gal, S; Leforban, Y

    2000-11-15

    In early 1992, a CSF epizootic was clinically recognised in a wild boar population of approximately 1300 animals within an area of 250km(2) located in the east of France. In order to check the CSF situation in wild boars outside this area, a serological survey was carried out in the rest of France, for 8 consecutive years (1991-1998). This paper reports on the results obtained during this survey which included wild boars shot during the hunting period but also boars reared within fences. Around 1000-2700 sera a year were tested for the presence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and also to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Out of 12025 sera tested over the whole period, 80 wild boars were found positive for CSF antibodies. Sixty of them were collected on wild boars shot during the years 1992-1994 in the epizootic area located in east of France and 10 were collected in Corsica during the years 1994-1996. The last four positive samples were single reactors coming from areas or farms, which were thereafter confirmed to be serologically negative. These results together with the fact that no disease has been reported so far illustrate that the French wild boar population is probably not concerned by CSF infection (excepted in the east of France where the disease has now become enzootic). Two hundred and forty nine sera were initially detected as CSF positive but confirmed secondarily as positive for border disease (BD) antibodies. This finding shows that wild boars are also susceptible to infection by ruminant pestiviruses. Four hundred and twenty three wild boars have been found positive for ADV antibodies. In addition, from 1993 to 1995, 909 samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Thirty three of them were positive. The results on AD and PRRS antibody detection show that wild boars may constitute a reservoir for various infectious diseases of pigs.

  20. New insights on the management of wildlife diseases using multi-state recapture models: the case of classical swine fever in wild boar.

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    Rossi, Sophie; Toigo, Carole; Hars, Jean; Pol, Françoise; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Depner, Klaus; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of host-parasite systems in wildlife is of increasing interest in relation to the risk of emerging diseases in livestock and humans. In this respect, many efforts have been dedicated to controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in the European Wild Boar. But CSF eradication has not always been achieved even though vaccination has been implemented at a large-scale. Piglets have been assumed to be the main cause of CSF persistence in the wild since they appeared to be more often infected and less often immune than older animals. However, this assumption emerged from laboratory trials or cross-sectional surveys based on the hunting bags. In the present paper we conducted a capture-mark-recapture study in free-ranging wild boar piglets that experienced both CSF infection and vaccination under natural conditions. We used multi-state capture recapture models to estimate the immunization and infection rates, and their variations according to the periods with or without vaccination. According to the model prediction, 80% of the infected piglets did not survive more than two weeks, while the other 20% quickly recovered. The probability of becoming immune did not increase significantly during the summer vaccination sessions, and the proportion of immune piglets was not higher after the autumn vaccination. Given the high lethality of CSF in piglets highlighted in our study, we consider unlikely that piglets could maintain the chain of CSF virus transmission. Our study also revealed the low efficacy of vaccination in piglets in summer and autumn, possibly due to the low palatability of baits to that age class, but also to the competition between baits and alternative food sources. Based on this new information, we discuss the prospects for the improvement of CSF control and the interest of the capture-recapture approach for improving the understanding of wildlife diseases.

  1. Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza epidemcis: Lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koch, G.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is based on a talk which was held in the course of the spring symposium „Impfen statt Keulen“ of the Akademie für Tiergesundheit (AfT) 2011 in Wiesbaden-Naurod. Experience with recent large-scale epidemics of Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza – among others in the

  2. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Herrera-Ibatá

    Full Text Available The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs. Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF and Classical swine fever (CSF introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3. Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF. This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products. The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products, is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  3. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

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    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  4. Implementation and validation of an economic module in the Be-FAST model to predict costs generated by livestock disease epidemics: Application to classical swine fever epidemics in Spain.

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    Fernández-Carrión, E; Ivorra, B; Martínez-López, B; Ramos, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-04-01

    Be-FAST is a computer program based on a time-spatial stochastic spread mathematical model for studying the transmission of infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. The present work describes a new module integrated into Be-FAST to model the economic consequences of the spreading of classical swine fever (CSF) and other infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. CSF is financially one of the most damaging diseases in the swine industry worldwide. Specifically in Spain, the economic costs in the two last CSF epidemics (1997 and 2001) reached jointly more than 108 million euros. The present analysis suggests that severe CSF epidemics are associated with significant economic costs, approximately 80% of which are related to animal culling. Direct costs associated with control measures are strongly associated with the number of infected farms, while indirect costs are more strongly associated with epidemic duration. The economic model has been validated with economic information around the last outbreaks in Spain. These results suggest that our economic module may be useful for analysing and predicting economic consequences of livestock disease epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Classical swine fever vaccines-State-of-the-art.

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    Blome, Sandra; Moß, Claudia; Reimann, Ilona; König, Patricia; Beer, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. These vaccines have usually outstanding efficacy and safety but lack differentiability of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA or marker strategy). In contrast, the first generation of E2 subunit marker vaccines shows constraints in efficacy, application, and production. To overcome these limitations, new generations of marker vaccines are developed. A wide range of approaches have been tried including recombinant vaccines, recombinant inactivated vaccines or subunit vaccines, vector vaccines, and DNA/RNA vaccines. During the last years, especially attenuated deletion vaccines or chimeric constructs have shown potential. At present, especially two new constructs have been intensively tested, the adenovirus-delivered, Semliki Forest virus replicon-vectored marker vaccine candidate "rAdV-SFV-E2" and the pestivirus chimera "CP7_E2alf". The later was recently licensed by the European Medicines Agency. Under field conditions, all marker vaccines have to be accompanied by a potent test system. Particularly this point shows still weaknesses and it is important to embed vaccination in a well-established vaccination strategy and a suitable diagnostic workflow. In summary, conventional vaccines are a standard in terms of efficacy. However, only vaccines with DIVA will allow improved eradication strategies e.g. also under emergency vaccination conditions in free regions. To answer this demand, new generations of marker vaccines have been developed and add now to the tool box of CSF control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid and differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections.

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    Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne

    2009-11-18

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.

  7. Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever. Louise Lohse, Åse Uttenthal, Jens Nielsen. National Veterinary Institute, Division of Virology, Lindholm, Technical University of Denmark. Introduction: In order to limit the far-reaching socio......-economic as well as the animal welfare consequences of an outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF), early diagnosis is essential. However, host-virus interactions strongly influence the course of CSF disease, and the clinical feature is not clear, thus complicating the diagnostic perspective. At the National...... Veterinary Institute, in Denmark, we are conducting a series of animal experiments under standardized conditions in order to investigate new parameters of clinical as well as paraclinical nature that holds the potential as diagnostic tools to improve early detection of CSF. In three recent studies, weaned...

  8. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham J.

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, the nucleotides 47 to 427, including the IRES region of the wt CSFV strain Paderborn, were amplified...... and inserted, under T7 promoter control, into mono- and dicistronic plasmids containing the reporter genes rLuc and fLuc. Mutant fragments of the IRES sequence were generated by overlap PCR and inserted into the reporter plasmids. To evaluate IRES functionality, translation of the rLUC was placed under...... viruses were obtained after one cell culture passage from constructs with more than 75 % translation efficiency compared to the wildtype IRES. cDNA was generated from these clones and sequenced to verify the maintenance of the changes in the IRES. These results show that full-length viable mutant viruses...

  9. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, cDNAs corresponding to the wild type (wt) or mutant forms of the IRES of CSFV strain Paderborn were...... in vitro and electroporated into porcine PK15 cells. Rescued mutant viruses were obtained from RNAs that contained mutations within domain IIIf which retained more than 75% of wt translation efficiency. Sequencing of cDNA generated from these rescued viruses verified the maintenance of the introduced...... changes within the IRES. The growth characteristics of each rescued mutant virus were compared to that of the wt virus. It was shown that viable mutant viruses with reduced translation initiation efficiency can be designed and generated and that viruses containing mutations within domain IIIf of the IRES...

  10. Third generation DIVA vaccine towards classical swine fever virus. Efficacy in face of maternal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova

    General purpose and objectives Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease that causes huge economical losses and animal welfare concerns worldwide. Generally, vaccination is an effective and safe method to control the disease. Following vaccination the pig’s immune system develops...... a new DIVA vaccine candidate. The vaccine candidate “CP7E2alf” is intended for either intramuscular vaccination of domestic pig or for bait vaccination of wild boar. In this thesis as part of the clinical testing of the injection vaccine the efficacy of “CP7E2alf” was evaluated in young piglets...

  11. High IFN-alpha responses associated with depletion of lymphocytes and natural IFN-producing cells during classical swine fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Summerfield, A.; Alves, M.; Ruggli, N.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; McCullough, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    During the acute phase of the viral hemorrhagic disease, classical swine fever (CSF), a severe hematologic depletion in primary lymphoid organs and depletion of peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes are observed. The onset of these pathologic events is before viremia and independent of leukocyte

  12. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...

  13. Comparing the epidemiological and economic effects of control strategies against classical swine fever in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Toft, Nils; Alban, Lis

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, total Danish pork exports were valued at (sic)3.8 billion, corresponding to approximately 5% of the total Danish exports, and an outbreak of a notifiable disease would have dramatic consequences for the agricultural sector in Denmark. Several outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) have...... occurred in Europe within the last decade, and different control strategies have been suggested. The objective of this study was to simulate the epidemiological and economic consequences of such control strategies in a CSF epidemic under Danish conditions with respect to herd demographics and geography...

  14. Prevalence of African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asambe, A; Sackey, A K B; Tekdek, L B

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from a total of 460 pigs, including 416 from 74 piggeries and 44 from Makurdi slaughter slab. The samples were analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit to detect the presence of ASFV antibodies, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to detect antibodies to CSFV. Our findings showed a total ASF prevalence of 13 (2.8%), while prevalences of 7 (1.7%) and 6 (13.6%) were observed in piggeries and in Makurdi slaughter slab, respectively. However, no CSFV antibody sera were detected in this study. Relatively higher ASFV antibody-positive pigs were detected in the slaughter slab than in piggeries. The difference in prevalence of ASF between the two locations was significantly associated (p = 0.017). These findings suggest the presence of ASFV antibody-positive pig in Benue State, Nigeria. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of these diseases among pigs in Nigeria to prevent any fulminating outbreak are recommended.

  15. Estimation of the dynamics and rate of transmission of classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, J; Pech, R; Yip, P

    1992-04-01

    Infectious diseases establish in a population of wildlife hosts when the number of secondary infections is greater than or equal to one. To estimate whether establishment will occur requires extensive experience or a mathematical model of disease dynamics and estimates of the parameters of the disease model. The latter approach is explored here. Methods for estimating key model parameters, the transmission coefficient (beta) and the basic reproductive rate (RDRS), are described using classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs as an example. The tentative results indicate that an acute infection of classical swine fever will establish in a small population of wild pigs. Data required for estimation of disease transmission rates are reviewed and sources of bias and alternative methods discussed. A comprehensive evaluation of the biases and efficiencies of the methods is needed.

  16. Validation of a Real Time PCR for Classical Swine Fever Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Lamas Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF, caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5′NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF.

  17. Validation of a real time PCR for classical Swine Fever diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Natanael Lamas; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Oliveira, Anapolino Macedo; Sales, Erica Bravo; Alves, Bruna Rios Coelho; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF), caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5'NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5'NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF.

  18. Validation of a Real Time PCR for Classical Swine Fever Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Natanael Lamas; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Oliveira, Anapolino Macedo; Sales, Érica Bravo; Alves, Bruna Rios Coelho; Dorella, Fernanda Alves

    2014-01-01

    The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF), caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5′NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF. PMID:24818039

  19. Classical swine fever virus detection: results of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ring trial conducted in the framework of the European network of excellence for epizootic disease diagnosis and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Blome, Sandra; Bonilauri, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    and specificity values. Nevertheless, some in-house systems had unspecific reactions or suboptimal sensitivity with only a single CSFV genotype. Follow-up actions involved either improvement of suboptimal assays or replacement of specific laboratory assays with the FLI protocol, with or without modifications......The current study reports on a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) ring trial for the detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomic RNA undertaken by 10 European laboratories. All laboratories were asked to use their routine in-house real-time RT...

  20. Complex Virus-Host Interactions Involved in the Regulation of Classical Swine Fever Virus Replication: A Minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su; Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Qian; Naveed Anwar, Muhammad; Yu, Shaoxiong; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2017-07-05

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs in many countries. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on the cellular factors for replication. Fundamental aspects of CSFV-host interactions have been well described, such as factors contributing to viral attachment, modulation of genomic replication and translation, antagonism of innate immunity, and inhibition of cell apoptosis. However, those host factors that participate in the viral entry, assembly, and release largely remain to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the virus-host interactions involved in the life cycle of CSFV and analyze the potential mechanisms of viral entry, assembly, and release. We conclude with future perspectives and highlight areas that require further understanding.

  1. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database ...

  2. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell. (SUVEC). Alignment ... development. The finding of ..... were unknown, the results of the BLAST against the human.

  3. Comparison of two real-time RT-PCR assays for differentiation of C-strain vaccinated from classical swine fever infected pigs and wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widén, F.; Everett, H.; Blome, S.

    2014-01-01

    Classical swine fever is one of the most important infectious diseases for the pig industry worldwide due to its economic impact. Vaccination is an effective means to control disease, however within the EU its regular use is banned owing to the inability to differentiate infected and vaccinated a...

  4. Serum neutralization as a differential serological test for classical swine fever virus and other pestivirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.

  5. Classical swine fever (CSF) marker vaccine - Trial I. Challenge studies in weaner pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Le Potier, M.F.; Romero, L.

    2001-01-01

    , -10 or -7, and subsequently challenged at day 0. The challenge virus was CSFV 277, originating from a recent outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF) in Germany. In all groups, only 5 out of 10 pigs were challenged; the remaining 5 pigs served as vaccinated contact controls. Also, three control groups...

  6. Classical Swine Fever Outbreak after Modified Live LOM Strain Vaccination in Naive Pigs, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Sang H.; Kwon, Taeyong; Yoo, Sung J.; Lee, Dong-Uk; Lee, SeungYoon; Richt, Juergen A.

    2018-01-01

    We report classical swine fever outbreaks occurring in naive pig herds on Jeju Island, South Korea, after the introduction of the LOM vaccine strain. Two isolates from sick pigs had >99% identity with the vaccine stain. LOM strain does not appear safe; its use in the vaccine should be reconsidered. PMID:29553332

  7. Variations in the severity of classical swine fever infections in Danish pigs - the clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Bruun, Camilla S.

    Aim The severity of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection is believed to be determined by different factors, including virulence of the specific strain as well as factors related to the host, e.g. age, genetic background and health status of the pig [1, 2]. In recent Danish experiments...

  8. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenen, K.; Uttenthal, Åse; Meindl-Böhmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning....... It is essential that these plans are established during ‘peace-time’ and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance...

  9. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture i...

  10. Sequence adaptations during growth of rescued classical swine fever viruses in cell culture and within infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Friis, Martin Barfred; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    RNA could be detected. However, the animals inoculated with these mutant viruses seroconverted against CSFV. Thus, these mutant viruses were highly attenuated in vivo. All 4 rescued viruses were also passaged up to 20 times in cell culture. Using full genome sequencing, the same two adaptations within......Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important disease of swine. Four different viruses were rescued from full-length cloned cDNAs derived from the Paderborn strain of CSFV. Three of these viruses had been modified by mutagenesis (with 7 or 8 nt changes) within stem 2...... each of four independent virus populations were observed that restored the coding sequence to that of the parental field strain. These adaptations occurred with different kinetics. The combination of reverse genetics and in depth, full genome sequencing provides a powerful approach to analyse virus...

  11. Meta-analysis of classical swine fever prevalence in pigs in India: A 5-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. S.; Suresh, K. P.; Saha, S.; Prajapati, A.; Hemadri, D.; Roy, P.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the overall prevalence of classical swine fever (CSF) in pigs in India, through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. Materials and Methods: Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture, India, Google Scholar, PubMed, annual reports of All India Coordinated Research Project on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance, and All India Animal Disease database of NIVEDI (NADRES) were used for searching and retrieval of CSF prevalence data (seroprevalence, virus antigen, and virus nucleic acid detection) in India using a search strategy combining keywords and related database-specific subject terms from January 2011 to December 2015 in English only. Results: A total of 22 data reports containing 6,158 samples size from 18 states of India were used for the quantitative synthesis, and overall 37% (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.24, 0.51) CSF prevalence in India was estimated. The data were classified into 4 different geographical zones of the country: 20% (95% CI=0.05, 0.55), 31% (95% CI=0.18, 0.47), 55% (95% CI=0.32, 0.76), and 34% (95% CI=0.14, 0.62). CSF prevalence was estimated in northern, eastern, western, and southern regions, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicates that overall prevalence of CSF in India is much lower than individual published reports. PMID:29657420

  12. Preventive vaccination contributes to control classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S; Pol, F; Forot, B; Masse-Provin, N; Rigaux, S; Bronner, A; Le Potier, M-F

    2010-04-21

    Over the last 20 years, oral vaccination implementing a live attenuated vaccine has been experimented in Europe in order to control classical swine fever (CSF) in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa sp.). This has generally led to an enhanced seroprevalence and a decreased viroprevalence at the scale of the whole vaccinated populations, but no quantitative analysis has demonstrated the protective effect of preventive vaccination or intensive baiting. In the present paper we conducted a retrospective analysis at the scale of the municipality, taking into account the local dynamics and possible covariates of infection to test the effect of preventive vaccination and of the baiting effort. To be efficient, vaccination was expected to increase seroprevalence above the level considered as suitable for preventing disease invasion (40-60%) independently of infection, to protect free areas from disease invasion or contribute to control subsequent disease intensity and duration. We also hypothesized that a better baiting effort would be correlated with an improvement of immunisation and disease control. In uninfected municipalities, seroprevalence increased up to 40% after 1 year, i.e., three vaccination campaigns. We observed a significant protective effect of preventive vaccination, especially within municipalities that had been vaccinated at least 1 year before disease emergence and where virus detection did not last more than one quarter. On the other hand, we did not detect a significant effect of the baiting effort on local seroprevalence or disease dynamics, suggesting that the baiting system could be improved. We discuss these results regarding the improvement of management measures and further research perspective. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Uncovering of Classical Swine Fever Virus adaptive response to vaccination by Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Orton, Richard; Höper, Dirk

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has rapidly become the preferred technology in nucleotide sequencing, and can be applied to unravel molecular adaptation of RNA viruses such as Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). However, the detection of low frequency variants within viral populations by NGS...... is affected by errors introduced during sample preparation and sequencing, and so far no definitive solution to this problem has been presented....

  14. Propagation of classical swine fever virus in vitro circumventing heparan sulfate-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymann-Häni, Rita; Leifer, Immanuel; McCullough, Kenneth C; Summerfield, Artur; Ruggli, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Amplification of natural virus isolates in permanent cell lines can result in adaptation, in particular enhanced binding to heparan sulfate (HS)-containing glycosaminoglycans present on most vertebrate cells. This has been reported for several viruses, including the pestivirus classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the causative agent of a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease in pigs. Propagation of CSFV in cell culture is essential in virus diagnostics and research. Adaptation of CSFV to HS-binding has been related to amino acid changes in the viral E(rns) glycoprotein, resulting in viruses with altered replication characteristics in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, a compound blocking the HS-containing structures on cell surfaces was employed to monitor conversion from HS-independency to HS-dependency. It was shown that the porcine PEDSV.15 cell line permitted propagation of CSFV within a limited number of passages without adaptation to HS-binding. The selection of HS-dependent CSFV mutants was also prevented by propagation of the virus in the presence of DSTP 27. The importance of these findings can be seen from the altered ratio of cell-associated to secreted virus upon acquisition of enhanced HS-binding affinity, a phenotype proposed previously to be related to virulence in the natural host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Situation of classical swine fever and the epidemiologic and ecologic aspects affecting its distribution in the American continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Terán, Moisés; Calcagno Ferrat, Nelson; Lubroth, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral transboundary animal disease that is highly contagious among domestic and wild pigs, such as boars and peccaries. Today, far from being what was classically described historically, the disease is characterized as having a varied clinical picture, and its diagnosis depends on resorting to proper sample collection and prompt dispatch to a laboratory that can employ several techniques to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory findings should be complemented with a field analysis of the occurrence of disease to have a better understanding of its epidemiology. The disease is still present in various regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, thus hindering production, trade, and the livestock economy in the region. Consequently, it is among the diseases included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Currently, there are epidemiologic and ecologic aspects that characterize its geographical distribution in the region such as: continued trends in the demand for pork and pork products; an increase in swine investment with low production costs which are able to compete advantageously in international markets; the convention of associating CSF in the syndrome of "swine hemorrhagic diseases" owing to the historical description of its acute presentation and not to the new and more frequent subacute presentations or the diseases with which it may be confused (notably, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and porcine dermopathic nephropathy syndrome, among others); dissemination of the virus through asymptomatic hosts such as piglets infected in utero; frequent lack of quality control and registration of vaccines and vaccinations; feeding of swine with contaminated food waste (swill); the common practice of smuggling animals and by-products across borders; the backyard family production system or extensive open field methods of swine rearing with minimal input in care and feeding; poor

  16. Evolution and molecular epidemiology of classical swine fever virus during a multi-annual outbreak amongst European wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Katja V; Gabriel, Claudia; Dimna, Mireille Le; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie; Staubach, Christoph; Merboth, Matthias; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever is a viral disease of pigs that carries tremendous socio-economic impact. In outbreak situations, genetic typing is carried out for the purpose of molecular epidemiology in both domestic pigs and wild boar. These analyses are usually based on harmonized partial sequences. However, for high-resolution analyses towards the understanding of genetic variability and virus evolution, full-genome sequences are more appropriate. In this study, a unique set of representative virus strains was investigated that was collected during an outbreak in French free-ranging wild boar in the Vosges-du-Nord mountains between 2003 and 2007. Comparative sequence and evolutionary analyses of the nearly full-length sequences showed only slow evolution of classical swine fever virus strains over the years and no impact of vaccination on mutation rates. However, substitution rates varied amongst protein genes; furthermore, a spatial and temporal pattern could be observed whereby two separate clusters were formed that coincided with physical barriers.

  17. Classical swine fever virus induces pyroptosis in the peripheral lymphoid organs of infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Zhu, Mengjiao; Deng, Shaofeng; Fan, Shuangqi; Xu, Hailuan; Liao, Jiedan; Li, Peng; Zheng, Jingfang; Zhao, Mingqiu; Chen, Jinding

    2018-05-02

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly lethal disease in pigs, which is characterized by immunosuppression. Leukopenia is known to be a possible mechanism of immunosuppression during CSFV infection. As a new and specialized form of cell death, pyroptosis is the key response of the innate immune system to pathogens, and is widely involved in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. However, the relationship between CSFV and pyroptosis has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of pyroptosis in pigs following CSFV infection. According to qRT-PCR assay results, the prevalence of this virus in peripheral lymphoid organs (tonsils, lymph nodes, and spleen) was much higher than that in other organs. Severe bleeding, necrosis, and a significant reduction in lymphocytes were found in the peripheral lymphoid organs of CSFV-infected pigs based on histological examination. In-depth studies showed that an increased ratio of deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were present in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group according to immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the p10 subunit and activity of caspase-1, which is a regulator of pyroptosis, the N-terminal domain of gasdermin D, which is an executor of pyroptosis, and the cleavage and secretion of IL-1b, which is a product of pyroptosis were increased in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group. Together, these results demonstrated that pyroptosis is involved in CSFV-induced cell death in vivo, which provides a new understanding of the mechanism associated with lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in pigs infected with this virus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The untranslated regions of classic swine fever virus RNA trigger apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Hsu

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever virus (CSFV causes a broad range of disease in pigs, from acute symptoms including high fever and hemorrhages, to chronic disease or unapparent infection, depending on the virus strain. CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. It carries a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES in the 5' untranslated region (UTR drives the translation of a single open reading frame encoding a 3898 amino acid long polypeptide chain. The open reading frame is followed by a 3' UTR comprising four highly structured stem-loops. In the present study, a synthetic RNA composed of the 5' and 3' UTRs of the CSFV genome devoid of any viral coding sequence and separated by a luciferase gene cassette (designated 5'UTR-Luc-3'UTR triggered apoptotic cell death as early as 4 h post-transfection. The apoptosis was measured by DNA laddering analysis, TUNEL assay, annexin-V binding determined by flow cytometry, and by analysis of caspase activation. Contrasting with this, only trace DNA laddering was observed in cells transfected with the individual 5' or 3' UTR RNA; even when the 5' UTR and 3' UTR were co-transfected as separate RNA molecules, DNA laddering did not reach the level induced by the chimeric 5'UTR-Luc-3'UTR RNA. Interestingly, RNA composed of the 5'UTR and of stem-loop I of the 3'UTR triggered much stronger apoptosis than the 5' or 3'UTR alone. These results indicate that the 5' and 3' UTRs act together in cis induce apoptosis. We furthered obtained evidence that the UTR-mediated apoptosis required double-stranded RNA and involved translation shutoff possibly through activation of PKR.

  19. A Review of Classical Swine Fever Virus and Routes of Introduction into the United States and the Potential for Virus Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R. Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is caused by CSF virus (CSFV which can be the source of substantial morbidity and mortality events in affected swine. The disease can take one of several forms (acute, chronic, or prenatal and depending on the virulence of the inoculating strain may result in a lethal infection irrespective of the form acquired. Because of the disease-free status of the United States and the high cost of a viral incursion, a summary of US vulnerabilities for viral introduction and persistence is provided. The legal importation of live animals as well as animal products, byproducts, and animal feed serve as a potential route of viral introduction. Current import regulations are described as are mitigation strategies that are commonly utilized to prevent pathogens, including CSFV, from entering the US. The illegal movement of suids and their products as well as an event of bioterrorism are both feasible routes of viral introduction but are difficult to restrict or regulate. Ultimately, recommendations are made for data that would be useful in the event of a viral incursion. Population and density mapping for feral swine across the United States would be valuable in the event of a viral introduction or spillover; density data could further contribute to understanding the risk of infection in domestic swine. Additionally, ecological and behavioral studies, including those that evaluate the effects of anthropogenic food sources that support feral swine densities far above the carrying capacity would provide invaluable insight to our understanding of how human interventions affect feral swine populations. Further analyses to determine the sampling strategies necessary to detect low levels of antibody prevalence in feral swine would also be valuable.

  20. A Review of Classical Swine Fever Virus and Routes of Introduction into the United States and the Potential for Virus Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R; Bevins, Sarah N

    2018-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is caused by CSF virus (CSFV) which can be the source of substantial morbidity and mortality events in affected swine. The disease can take one of several forms (acute, chronic, or prenatal) and depending on the virulence of the inoculating strain may result in a lethal infection irrespective of the form acquired. Because of the disease-free status of the United States and the high cost of a viral incursion, a summary of US vulnerabilities for viral introduction and persistence is provided. The legal importation of live animals as well as animal products, byproducts, and animal feed serve as a potential route of viral introduction. Current import regulations are described as are mitigation strategies that are commonly utilized to prevent pathogens, including CSFV, from entering the US. The illegal movement of suids and their products as well as an event of bioterrorism are both feasible routes of viral introduction but are difficult to restrict or regulate. Ultimately, recommendations are made for data that would be useful in the event of a viral incursion. Population and density mapping for feral swine across the United States would be valuable in the event of a viral introduction or spillover; density data could further contribute to understanding the risk of infection in domestic swine. Additionally, ecological and behavioral studies, including those that evaluate the effects of anthropogenic food sources that support feral swine densities far above the carrying capacity would provide invaluable insight to our understanding of how human interventions affect feral swine populations. Further analyses to determine the sampling strategies necessary to detect low levels of antibody prevalence in feral swine would also be valuable.

  1. Immunogenicity in Swine of Orally Administered Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Expressing Classical Swine Fever Virus E2 Protein in Conjunction with Thymosin α-1 as an Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Guan, Xue-Ting; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Tian, Chang-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever, caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease that results in enormous economic losses in pig industries. The E2 protein is one of the main structural proteins of CSFV and is capable of inducing CSFV-neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities in vivo. Thymosin α-1 (Tα1), an immune-modifier peptide, plays a very important role in the cellular immune response. In this study, genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria expressing CSFV E2 protein alone (L. plantarum/pYG-E2) and in combination with Tα1 (L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1) were developed, and the immunogenicity of each as an oral vaccine to induce protective immunity against CSFV in pigs was evaluated. The results showed that recombinant L. plantarum/pYG-E2 and L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 were both able to effectively induce protective immune responses in pigs against CSFV infection by eliciting immunoglobulin A (IgA)-based mucosal, immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based humoral, and CTL-based cellular immune responses via oral vaccination. Significant differences (P plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 and L. plantarum/pYG-E2, suggesting a better immunogenicity of L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 as a result of the Tα1 molecular adjuvant that can enhance immune responsiveness and augment specific lymphocyte functions. Our data suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus microecological agent expressing CSFV E2 protein combined with Tα1 as an adjuvant provides a promising strategy for vaccine development against CSFV. PMID:25819954

  2. Postnatal persistent infection with classical Swine Fever virus and its immunological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Muñoz-González

    Full Text Available It is well established that trans-placental transmission of classical swine fever virus (CSFV during mid-gestation can lead to persistently infected offspring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of CSFV to induce viral persistence upon early postnatal infection. Two litters of 10 piglets each were infected intranasally on the day of birth with low and moderate virulence CSFV isolates, respectively. During six weeks after postnatal infection, most of the piglets remained clinically healthy, despite persistent high virus titres in the serum. Importantly, these animals were unable to mount any detectable humoral and cellular immune response. At necropsy, the most prominent gross pathological lesion was a severe thymus atrophy. Four weeks after infection, PBMCs from the persistently infected seronegative piglets were unresponsive to both, specific CSFV and non-specific PHA stimulation in terms of IFN-γ-producing cells. These results suggested the development of a state of immunosuppression in these postnatally persistently infected pigs. However, IL-10 was undetectable in the sera of the persistently infected animals. Interestingly, CSFV-stimulated PBMCs from the persistently infected piglets produced IL-10. Nevertheless, despite the addition of the anti-IL-10 antibody in the PBMC culture from persistently infected piglets, the response of the IFN-γ producing cells was not restored. Therefore, other factors than IL-10 may be involved in the general suppression of the T-cell responses upon CSFV and mitogen activation. Interestingly, bone marrow immature granulocytes were increased and targeted by the virus in persistently infected piglets. Taken together, we provided the first data demonstrating the feasibility of CSFV in generating a postnatal persistent disease, which has not been shown for other members of the Pestivirus genus yet. Since serological methods are routinely used in CSFV surveillance, persistently infected pigs

  3. Alteration of a second putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus alters virus replication and virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2, the major envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), is involved in several critical virus functions including cell attachment, host range susceptibility, and virulence in natural hosts. Functional structural analysis of E2 based on Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity dis...

  4. Comparison of two Next Generation sequencing platforms for full genome sequencing of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Höper, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    to the consensus sequence. Additionally, we got an average sequence depth for the genome of 4000 for the Iontorrent PGM and 400 for the FLX platform making the mapping suitable for single nucleotide variant (SNV) detection. The analysis revealed a single non-silent SNV A10665G leading to the amino acid change D......Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is becoming more adopted into viral research and will be the preferred technology in the years to come. We have recently sequenced several strains of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) by NGS on both Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX) and Iontorrent PGM platforms...

  5. First molecular identification and characterization of classical swine fever virus isolates from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Jha, Vijay C; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Becher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a major constraint to pig production worldwide, and in many developing countries, the epidemiological status is unknown. Here, for the first time, molecular identification and characterization of CSFV isolates from two recent outbreaks in Nepal are presented. Analysis of full-length E2-encoding sequences revealed that these isolates belonged to CSFV subgenotype 2.2 and had highest genetic similarity to isolates from India. Hence, for CSFV, Nepal and India should be regarded as one epidemiological unit. Both Nepalese isolates exhibited significant sequence differences, excluding a direct epidemiological connection and suggesting that CSFV is endemic in that country.

  6. Complete Genomes of Classical Swine Fever Virus Cloned into Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I.; Uttenthal, Åse

    Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for the generation of modified pestiviruses. We have used our full-genome amplification strategy for generation of amplicons representing complete genomes of classical swine fever virus. The amplicons were cloned directly into a stabl...... single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) generating full-length pestivirus DNAs from which infectious RNA transcripts could be also derived. Our strategy allows construction of stable infectious BAC DNAs from a single full-length PCR product....

  7. Early protection events in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Holinka

    Full Text Available Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv. We previously reported that FlagT4Gv intramuscular (IM administered conferred effective protection against intranasal challenge with virulent CSFV (BICv as early as 7 days post-vaccination. Here we report that FlagT4Gv is able to induce protection against disease as early as three days post-vaccination. Immunohistochemical testing of tissues from FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals showed that tonsils were colonized by the vaccine virus by day 3 post-inoculation. There was a complete absence of BICv in tonsils of FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals which had been intranasal (IN challenged with BICv 3 days after FlagT4Gv infection, confirming that FlagT4Gv inoculation confers sterile immunity. Analysis of systemic levels of 19 different cytokines in vaccinated animals demonstrated an increase of IFN-α three days after FlagT4Gv inoculation compared with mock infected controls.

  8. Emergency vaccination for classical swine fever will not be cost-effective for countries with a large export

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Toft, Nils; Alban, Lis

    2009-01-01

    the epidemiological and economic consequences of such control strategies under Danish conditions with respect to herd demographics and geography as well as to investigate the effect of extra biosecurity on farms. We used InterSpread Plus to model the effect of nine different control strategies: the minimum measures......,H.M., Smak,J.A., Pluimers,F.H., 1999. The classical swine fever epidemic 1997-1998 in The Netherlands: descriptive epidemiology, Prev.Vet.Med., 42, 157-184. Fritzemeier,J., Teuffert,J., Greiser,Wilke,I, Staubach,Ch, Schlüter,H., Moennig,V., 2000. Epidemiology of classical swine fever in Germany in the 1990s......, Vet.Microbiol. 77, 29-41. MacKinnon, J.D., 2001. Some clinical and epidemiological aspects of the outbreak of Classical Swine Fe-ver in East Anglia in 2000, State Vet.J,, 11, 2-7....

  9. Humoral and cellular immune response in mice induced by the classical swine fever virus E2 protein fused to the porcine CD154 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Yusmel; Suárez, Marisela; Caraballo, Rosalina; Sardina, Talía; Brown, Emma; Duarte, Carlos; Lugo, Joanna; Gil, Lázaro; Perez, Danny; Oliva, Ayme; Vargas, Milagros; Santana, Elaine; Valdés, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, María Pilar

    2018-03-01

    The development of subunit vaccines against classical swine fever is a desirable goal, because it allows discrimination between vaccinated and infected animals. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response elicited in inbred BALB/c mice by immunization with a recombinant classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein fused to porcine CD154 antigen (E2CD154) was assessed. This model was used as a predictor of immune response in swine. Mice were immunized with E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50V2 or dissolved in saline on days 1 and 21. Another group received E2His antigen, without CD154, in the same adjuvant. Montanide ISA50V2 or saline served as negative controls for each experimental group. Animals immunized with 12.5 and 2.5 μg/dose of E2CD154 developed the highest titers (>1:2000) of CSFV neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, CSFV specific splenocyte gamma-interferon production, measured after seven and twenty-eight days of immunization, was significantly higher in mice immunized with 12.5 μg of E2CD154. As a conclusion, E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50 V2 was able to induce a potent humoral and an early cellular immune response in inbred BALB/c mice. Therefore, this immunogen might be an appropriate candidate to elicit immune response in swine, control CSF disease and to eliminate CSFV in swine. Copyright © 2018 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Restoration of glycoprotein Erns dimerization via pseudoreversion partially restores virulence of classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucakov, Anna Katharina; Yavuz, Sabine; Schürmann, Eva-Maria; Mischler, Manjula; Klingebeil, Anne; Meyers, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) represents one of the most important pathogens of swine. The CSFV glycoprotein E rns is an essential structural protein and an important virulence factor. The latter is dependent on the RNase activity of this envelope protein and, most likely, its secretion from the infected cell. A further important feature with regard to its function as a virulence factor is the formation of disulfide-linked E rns homodimers that are found in virus-infected cells and virions. Mutant CSFV lacking cysteine (Cys) 171, the residue responsible for intermolecular disulfide bond formation, were found to be attenuated in pigs (Tews BA, Schürmann EM, Meyers G. J Virol 2009;83:4823-4834). In the course of an animal experiment with such a dimerization-negative CSFV mutant, viruses were reisolated from pigs that contained a mutation of serine (Ser) 209 to Cys. This mutation restored the ability to form disulphide-linked E rns homodimers. In transient expression studies E rns mutants carrying the S209C change were found to form homodimers with about wt efficiency. Also the secretion level of the mutated proteins was equivalent to that of wt E rns . Virus mutants containing the Cys171Ser/Ser209Cys configuration exhibited wt growth rates and increased virulence when compared with the Cys171Ser mutant. These results provide further support for the connection between CSFV virulence and E rns dimerization.

  11. Simulated epidemiological and economic effects of measures to reduce piglet supply during a classical swine fever epidemic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Nielen, M.; Burrell, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of additional measures adopted during a classical swine fever (CSF) epidemic to reduce piglet supply, namely, an insemination ban, abortion of sows and killing of young piglets, are studied using a stochastic, spatial, dynamic epidemiological simulation model of the pig sector in the

  12. Cross border Classical Swine Fever control: Improving Dutch and German crisis management systems by an integrated public-private approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, O.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Schütz, V.; Brinkmann, D.; Petersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research approach is to analyse in which ways crisis management measures against Classical Swine Fever (CSF) can be improved by a public private cross border model. A core activity contains the analysis of information and communication systems: In a case study it has been

  13. The risk of the introduction of classical swine fever virus at regional level in the European Union: a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics in the European Union (EU) have clearly shown that preventing the introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) deserves high priority. Insight into all the factors contributing to the risk of CSFV introduction is a prerequisite for deciding which preventive actions

  14. Analysis of classical swine fever virus RNA replication determinants using replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Gullberg, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-replicating RNAs (replicons), with or without reporter gene sequences, derived from the genome of the Paderborn strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) have been produced. The full-length viral cDNA, propagated within a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), was modified by targeted...... recombination within E. coli. RNA transcripts were produced in vitro and introduced into cells by electroporation. The translation and replication of the replicon RNAs could be followed by the accumulation of luciferase (from Renilla reniformis or Gaussia princeps) protein expression (where appropriate......), as well as by detection of the CSFV NS3 protein production within the cells. Inclusion of the viral E2 coding region within the replicon was advantageous for the replication efficiency. Production of chimeric RNAs, substituting the NS2 and NS3 coding regions (as a unit) from the Paderborn strain...

  15. Diagnostic value of meat juice in early detection of classical swine fever infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2011-01-01

    samples originated from pigs infected with low virulence CSFV strains and/or when samples were collected within the first days after infection. In conclusion, while not the first choice for sample material for CSFV diagnosis, meat juice may constitute a useful alternative for herd-based studies or when......To evaluate the diagnostic potential of meat juice for early detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), meat juice and serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different strains of CSFV were compared for virus load. From all samples, viral RNA was extracted by automated procedure...... blood and/or target organ material is not available. Strain virulence and time points for sample collection after infection are factors of importance for diagnostic success....

  16. Immunogenicity of Recombinant Classic Swine Fever Virus CD8+ T Lymphocyte Epitope and Porcine Parvovirus VP2 Antigen Coexpressed by Lactobacillus casei in Swine via Oral Vaccination ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yigang; Cui, Lichun; Tian, Changyong; Zhang, Guocai; Huo, Guicheng; Tang, Lijie; Li, Yijing

    2011-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) are highly contagious pathogens, resulting in enormous economic losses in pig industries worldwide. Because vaccines play an important role in disease control, researchers are seeking improved vaccines that could induce antiviral immune responses against CSFV and PPV at the mucosal and systemic levels simultaneously. In this study, a genetically engineered Lactobacillus strain coexpressing the CSFV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope 290 and the VP2 antigen of PPV was developed, and its immunopotentiating capacity as an oral vaccine in pigs was analyzed. The data demonstrated that in the absence of any adjuvant, the recombinant Lactobacillus strain can efficiently stimulate mucosal and systemic CSFV-specific CD8+ CTL responses to protect pigs against CSFV challenge. Moreover, anti-PPV-VP2 serum IgG and mucosal IgA were induced in pigs immunized orally with the recombinant Lactobacillus strain, showing a neutralizing effect on PPV infection. The results suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus microecological agent may be a valuable component of a strategy for development of a vaccine against CSFV and PPV. PMID:21940406

  17. Multiple linear B-cell epitopes of classical swine fever virus glycoprotein E2 expressed in E.coli as multiple epitope vaccine induces a protective immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jian-Chao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus, an OIE list A pathogen. Epitope-based vaccines is one of the current focuses in the development of new vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Two B-cell linear epitopes rE2-ba from the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV, rE2-a (CFRREKPFPHRMDCVTTTVENED, aa844-865 and rE2-b (CKEDYRYAISSTNEIGLLGAGGLT, aa693-716, were constructed and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as multiple epitope vaccine. Fifteen 6-week-old specified-pathogen-free (SPF piglets were intramuscularly immunized with epitopes twice at 2-week intervals. All epitope-vaccinated pigs could mount an anamnestic response after booster vaccination with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. At this time, the pigs were subjected to challenge infection with a dose of 1 × 106 TCID50 virulent CSFV strain. After challenge infection, all of the rE2-ba-immunized pigs were alive and without symptoms or signs of CSF. In contrast, the control pigs continuously exhibited signs of CSF and had to be euthanized because of severe clinical symptoms at 5 days post challenge infection. The data from in vivo experiments shown that the multiple epitope rE2-ba shown a greater protection (similar to that of HCLV vaccine than that of mono-epitope peptide(rE2-a or rE2-b. Therefore, The results demonstrated that this multiple epitope peptide expressed in a prokaryotic system can be used as a potential DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals vaccine. The E.coli-expressed E2 multiple B-cell linear epitopes retains correct immunogenicity and is able to induce a protective immune response against CSFV infection.

  18. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, F; Uttenthal, A; Meindl-Böhmer, A

    2007-12-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning contingency plans. These plans should ensure that in the event of an outbreak access to facilities, equipment, resources, trained personnel, and all other facilities needed for the rapid and efficient eradication of the outbreak is guaranteed, and that the procedures to follow are well rehearsed. It is essential that these plans are established during 'peace-time' and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those involved in order to reduce the administrative load, is also discussed.

  19. Evaluation of classical swine fever virus antibody detection assays with an emphasis on the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, S.; von Rosen, Tanya; Blome, S.

    2012-01-01

    vaccinated animals (DIVA). The Chekit* CSF-Sero and the HerdChek* CSFV Ab, both of which detect antibodies against the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), had the highest sensitivity. Both tests were practicable and showed good reproducibility. Comparable sensitivity was shown by the Chekit......The aim of this study was to evaluate the general characteristics of commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect antibody against classical swine fever (CSF), as well as to assess their potential use as accompanying marker tests able to differentiate infected from......* CSF-Marker, an Erns ELISA. However, this test does not allow differentiation between antibodies directed against ruminant pestiviruses and those against CSFV. Therefore, it is not suitable for use with the chimeric marker vaccines tested. The PrioCHECK® CSFV Erns was the only ELISA suitable for use...

  20. Two outbreaks of classical swine fever in wild boar in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, F; Rossi, S; Mesplède, A; Kuntz-Simon, G; Le Potier, M-F

    2008-06-21

    In 2002 and 2003, two successive outbreaks of classical swine fever were declared in wild boar in northern France. The first was in Moselle, near the town of Thionville and the border with Luxembourg, and the second was in the northern Vosges area, near the German border. The outbreaks were investigated by serological and virological diagnosis of dead or shot animals. Hunting restrictions were applied to limit the spread of the outbreaks. The virus was detected eight times between April and July 2002 in the Thionville area, an area well delimited by natural or artificial barriers such as rivers or highways. Cooperation between the authorities concerned was good, and hunting restrictions were applied for one year. No virus was detected after July 2002 and the Thionville outbreak was officially considered over in March 2005. In the northern Vosges the situation was different, with no barriers to animal movements, continuous forest, difficulties in establishing hunting restrictions in this huge area, and the circulation of the virus in Germany close to the frontier. Virus of a different strain from that isolated in the Thionville outbreak was still being isolated in the northern Vosges in 2004, and owing to the failure of the hunting restrictions, the French health authorities decided to vaccinate wild boar.

  1. Five years' experience of classical swine fever polymerase chain reaction ring trials in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, F; Le Dimna, M; Le Potier, M F

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004, the French National Reference Laboratory for classical swine fever (CSF) has conducted an annual proficiency test (PT) to evaluate the ability of local veterinary laboratories to perform real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CSF virus. The results of five years of testing (2004-2008) are described here. The PT was conducted under blind conditions on 20 samples. The same batch of samples was used for all five years. The number of laboratories that analysed the samples increased from four in 2004 to 13 in 2008. The results of the PT showed the following: cross-contamination between samples and deficiencies in RNA preparation can occur even in experienced laboratories; sample homogeneity should be checked carefully before selection; samples stored at-80 degrees C for several years remain stable; and poor shipment conditions do not damage the samples with regard to detection of CSF virus genome. These results will enable redesign of the panel to improve the overall quality of the PT, which will encourage laboratories to check and improve their PCR procedures and expertise. This is an excellent way to determine laboratory performance.

  2. Short communication: Stability and integrity of classical swine fever virus RNA stored at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarys Relova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide cooperation between laboratories working with classical swine fever virus (CSFV requires exchange of virus isolates. For this purpose, shipment of CSFV RNA is a safe alternative to the exchange of infectious material. New techniques using desiccation have been developed to store RNA at room temperature and are reported as effective means of preserving RNA integrity. In this study, we evaluated the stability and integrity of dried CSFV RNA stored at room temperature. First, we determined the stability of CSFV RNA covering CSFV genome regions used typically for the detection of viral RNA in diagnostic samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. To this end, different concentrations of in vitro-transcribed RNAs of the 5’-untranslated region and of the NS5B gene were stored as dried RNA at 4, 20, and 37oC for two months. Aliquots were analyzed every week by CSFV-specific quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neither the RNA concentration nor the storage temperature did affect CSFV RNA yields at any of the time evaluated until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, it was possible to recover infectious CSFV after transfection of SK-6 cells with dried viral RNA stored at room temperature for one week. The full-length E2 of CSFV was amplified from all the recovered viruses, and nucleotide sequence analysis revealed 100% identity with the corresponding sequence obtained from RNA of the original material. These results show that CSFV RNA stored as dried RNA at room temperature is stable, maintaining its integrity for downstream analyses and applications.

  3. Efficacy of chimeric Pestivirus vaccine candidates against classical swine fever: protection and DIVA characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblé, P L; Geurts, Y; Quak, S; Moonen-Leusen, H W; Blome, S; Hofmann, M A; Koenen, F; Beer, M; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-03-23

    Currently no live DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) are available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chimeric pestivirus vaccine candidates (CP7_E2alf, Flc11 and Flc9) are able to protect pigs against clinical signs, and to reduce virus shedding and virus transmission, after a challenge with CSF virus (CSFV), 7 or 14 days after a single intramuscular vaccination. In these vaccine candidates, either the E2 or the E(rns) encoding genome region of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus strain were combined with a cDNA copy of CSFV or vice versa. Furthermore, currently available serological DIVA tests were evaluated. The vaccine candidates were compared to the C-strain. All vaccine candidates protected against clinical signs. No transmission to contact pigs was detected in the groups vaccinated with C-strain, CP7_E2alf and Flc11. Limited transmission occurred in the groups vaccinated with Flc9. All vaccine candidates would be suitable to stop on-going transmission of CSFV. For Flc11, no reliable differentiation was possible with the current E(rns)-based DIVA test. For CP7_E2alf, the distribution of the inhibition percentages was such that up to 5% false positive results may be obtained in a large vaccinated population. For Flc9 vaccinated pigs, the E2 ELISA performed very well, with an expected 0.04% false positive results in a large vaccinated population. Both CP7_E2alf and Flc9 are promising candidates to be used as live attenuated marker vaccines against CSF, with protection the best feature of CP7_E2alf, and the DIVA principle the best feature of Flc9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequence-based comparative study of classical swine fever virus genogroup 2.2 isolate with pestivirus reference strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Chandra, Tribhuwan; Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; Saxena, Arpit; Chaudhary, Dheeraj; Kumar, Ajay; Pandey, Awadh Bihari

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim to compare and establish the genetic relatedness between classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genogroup 2.2 isolate and pestivirus reference strains. The available complete genome sequences of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 strain and other pestivirus reference strains were retrieved from GenBank. The complete genome sequence, complete open reading frame, 5' and 3' non-coding region (NCR) sequences were analyzed and compared with reference pestiviruses strains. Clustal W model in MegAlign program of Lasergene 6.0 software was used for analysis of genetic heterogeneity. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA 6.06 software package. The complete genome sequence alignment of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate and reference pestivirus strains showed 58.9-72% identities at the nucleotide level and 50.3-76.9% at amino acid level. Sequence homology of 5' and 3' NCRs was found to be 64.1-82.3% and 22.9-71.4%, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, overall tree topology was found similar irrespective of sequences used in this study; however, whole genome phylogeny of pestivirus formed two main clusters, which further distinguished into the monophyletic clade of each pestivirus species. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate placed with the CSFV Eystrup strain in the same clade with close proximity to border disease virus and Aydin strains. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 exhibited the analogous genomic organization to those of all reference pestivirus strains. Based on sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis, the isolate showed close homology to Aydin/04-TR virus and distantly related to Bungowannah virus.

  5. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Goldbach, Stine G.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2008-01-01

    of CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild......Denmark has no free-range wild-boar population. However, Danish wildlife organizations have suggested that wild boar should be reintroduced into the wild to broaden national biodiversity. Danish pig farmers fear that this would lead to a higher risk of introduction of classical swine fever virus...

  6. Classical eyeblink conditioning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, I; Schugens, M M; Breitenstein, C; Topka, H; Spieker, S

    1996-11-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impairments of a range of motor learning tasks, including tracking or serial reaction time task learning. Our study investigated whether such deficits would also be seen on a simple type of motor learning, classic conditioning of the eyeblink response. Medicated and unmediated patients with PD showed intact unconditioned eyeblink responses and significant learning across acquisition; the learning rates did not differ from those of healthy control subjects. The overall frequency of conditioned responses was significantly higher in the medicated patients with PD relative to control subjects, and there was also some evidence of facilitation in the unmedicated patients with PD. Conditioning of electrodermal and electrocortical responses was comparable in all groups. The findings are discussed in terms of enhanced excitability of brainstem pathways in PD and of the involvement of different neuronal circuits in different types of motor learning.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the codon usage patterns in the envelope glycoprotein E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chen

    Full Text Available The classical swine fever virus (CSFV, circulating worldwide, is a highly contagious virus. Since the emergence of CSFV, it has caused great economic loss in swine industry. The envelope glycoprotein E2 gene of the CSFV is an immunoprotective antigen that induces the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, it is essential to study the codon usage of the E2 gene of the CSFV. In this study, 140 coding sequences of the E2 gene were analyzed. The value of effective number of codons (ENC showed low codon usage bias in the E2 gene. Our study showed that codon usage could be described mainly by mutation pressure ENC plot analysis combined with principal component analysis (PCA and translational selection-correlation analysis between the general average hydropathicity (Gravy and aromaticity (Aroma, and nucleotides at the third position of codons (A3s, T3s, G3s, C3s and GC3s. Furthermore, the neutrality analysis, which explained the relationship between GC12s and GC3s, revealed that natural selection had a key role compared with mutational bias during the evolution of the E2 gene. These results lay a foundation for further research on the molecular evolution of CSFV.

  8. Determination of the sequence of the complete open reading frame and the 5 ' NTR of the Paderborn isolate of classical swine fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Normann, Preben

    2003-01-01

    The classical swine fever (CSF) epidemic in the Netherlands in 1997-1998 lasted 14 months, during which 429 infected and 1300 at risk herds were culled, at an estimated economical cost of 2 billion US dollars. Despite the overwhelming scale of the epizootic, the CSF virus (CSFV) strain causing th...

  9. Comparison of the protective efficacy of recombinant pseudorabies viruses against pseudorabies and classical swine fever in pigs,, influence of different promoters on gene expression and on protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van B.J.L.; Wind, de N.; Wensvoort, G.; Kimman, T.G.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The glycoprotein E (gE) locus in the genome of pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used as an insertion site for the expression of glycoprotein E1 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Transcription of E1 in the recombinants M401, M402 or M403 was regulated by the gD promoter of PRV, the immediate early

  10. Expert groups in Denmark with special reference to Classical and African swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    surveillance, in Contingency planning exercises and many efforts is done to keep the group updated on the current international situation for swine fevers. The group has been very stabile and especially our participation in a Taiex workshop in 2005 in Romania was a very good basis for our fruitful...... collaboration. In many later discussions our experiences then when we observed the problems in vivo. The obligations of the expert group are both to follow the progress of eradication but definitely also to take care of some of the more time consuming discussions that could otherwise burden the Veterinary...

  11. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  12. Tissue expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4 and 7 in swine in response to the Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi; Zheng, Minping; Lv, Huifang; Guo, Kangkang; Zhang, Yanming

    2018-01-01

    The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system provide the host with the ability to detect and respond to viral infections. The present study aimed to investigate the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, 3, 4 and 7 in porcine tissues upon infection with the highly virulent Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of CSFV and TLR, whereas western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of TLR proteins. In addition, tissues underwent histological examination and immunohistochemistry to reveal the histopathological alterations associated with highly virulent CSFV infection and to detect TLR antigens. Furthermore, porcine monocyte-derived macrophages (pMDMs) were prestimulated with peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus (PGN-SA), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)], lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 055:B5 (LPS-B5) or imiquimod (R837) in order to analyze the association between TLR expression and CSFV replication. Following stimulation for 12 h (with TLR-specific ligands), cells were infected with CSFV Shimen strain. The results revealed that the expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 were increased in the lung and kidney, but were decreased in the spleen and lymph nodes in response to CSFV. TLR3 was strongly expressed in the heart and slightly upregulated in the spleen in response to CSFV Shimen strain infection, and TLR7 was increased in all examined tissues in the presence of CSFV. Furthermore, R837 and LPS-B5 exerted inhibitory effects on CSFV replication in pMDMs, whereas PGN-SA and poly(I:C) had no significant effect. These findings highlight the potential role of TLR expression in the context of CSFV infection. PMID:29568891

  13. Porcine Mx1 Protein Inhibits Classical Swine Fever Virus Replication by Targeting Nonstructural Protein NS5B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Gao, Zhi-Can; Liu, Chun-Chun; Zhang, Yun-Na; Hou, Jin-Xiu; Li, Zhao-Yao; Kan, Lin; Li, Wen-Liang; Zhou, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Mx proteins are interferon (IFN)-induced GTPases that have broad antiviral activity against a wide range of RNA and DNA viruses; they belong to the dynamin superfamily of large GTPases. In this study, we confirmed the anti-classical swine fever virus (CSFV) activity of porcine Mx1 in vitro and showed that porcine Mx2 (poMx2), human MxA (huMxA), and mouse Mx1 (mmMx1) also have anti-CSFV activity in vitro Small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments revealed that depletion of endogenous poMx1 or poMx2 enhanced CSFV replication, suggesting that porcine Mx proteins are responsible for the antiviral activity of interferon alpha (IFN-α) against CSFV infection. Confocal microscopy, immunoprecipitation, glutathione S -transferase (GST) pulldown, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that poMx1 associated with NS5B, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of CSFV. We used mutations in the poMx1 protein to elucidate the mechanism of their anti-CSFV activity and found that mutants that disrupted the association with NS5B lost all anti-CSV activity. Moreover, an RdRp activity assay further revealed that poMx1 undermined the RdRp activities of NS5B. Together, these results indicate that porcine Mx proteins exert their antiviral activity against CSFV by interacting with NS5B. IMPORTANCE Our previous studies have shown that porcine Mx1 (poMx1) inhibits classical swine fever virus (CSFV) replication in vitro and in vivo , but the molecular mechanism of action remains largely unknown. In this study, we dissect the molecular mechanism of porcine Mx1 and Mx2 against CSFV in vitro Our results show that poMx1 associates with NS5B, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of CSFV, resulting in the reduction of CSFV replication. Moreover, the mutants of poMx1 further elucidate the mechanism of their anti-CSFV activities. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Prion infectivity detected in swine challenged with chronic wasting disease via the intracerebral or oral route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of North American cervids. The potential for swine to serve as a host for the agent of chronic wasting disease is unknown. In the US, feeding of ruminant by-products to ruminants is prohibited, but feeding of rum...

  15. HuR binding to AU-rich elements present in the 3' untranslated region of Classical swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chin-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV is the member of the genus Pestivirus under the family Flaviviridae. The 5' untranslated region (UTR of CSFV contains the IRES, which is a highly structured element that recruits the translation machinery. The 3' UTR is usually the recognition site of the viral replicase to initiate minus-strand RNA synthesis. Adenosine-uridine rich elements (ARE are instability determinants present in the 3' UTR of short-lived mRNAs. However, the presence of AREs in the 3' UTR of CSFV conserved in all known strains has never been reported. This study inspects a possible role of the ARE in the 3' UTR of CSFV. Results Using RNA pull-down and LC/MS/MS assays, this study identified at least 32 possible host factors derived from the cytoplasmic extracts of PK-15 cells that bind to the CSFV 3' UTR, one of which is HuR. HuR is known to bind the AREs and protect the mRNA from degradation. Using recombinant GST-HuR, this study demonstrates that HuR binds to the ARE present in the 3' UTR of CSFV in vitro and that the binding ability is conserved in strains irrespective of virulence. Conclusions This study identified one of the CSFV 3' UTR binding proteins HuR is specifically binding to in the ARE region.

  16. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  17. Toward the development of a one-dose classical swine fever subunit vaccine: antigen titration, immunity onset, and duration of immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Rachel F.; Wang, Lihua; Gong, Wenjie; Burakova, Yulia; Buist, Sterling; Nietfeld, Jerome; Henningson, Jamie; Cino-Ozuna, Ada G.; Tu, Changchun

    2018-01-01

    Highly contagious classical swine fever (CSF) remains a major trade and health problem in the pig industry, resulting in large economic losses worldwide. In CSF-endemic countries, attenuated CSF virus (CSFV) vaccines have been routinely used to control the disease. However, eradication of CSFV in a geographical area would require permanent reduction to zero presence of the virus. It is therefore of paramount importance to develop a safe, potent, and non-infectious CSF vaccine. We have previously reported on a cost-effective CSF E2 subunit vaccine, KNB-E2, which can protect against CSF symptoms in a single dose containing 75 µg of recombinant CSFV glycoprotein E2. In this study, we report on a series of animal studies undertaken to elucidate further the efficacy of KNB-E2. We found that pigs vaccinated with a single KNB-E2 dose containing 25 µg of recombinant CSFV glycoprotein E2 were protected from clinical symptoms of CSF. In addition, KNB-E2-mediated reduction of CSF symptoms was observed at two weeks post-vaccination and the vaccinated pigs continued to exhibit reduced CSF clinical signs when virus challenged at two months and four months post-vaccination. These results suggest that KNB-E2 effectively reduces CSF clinical signs, indicating the potential of this vaccine for safely minimizing CSF-related losses. PMID:29510474

  18. Data-Driven Risk Assessment from Small Scale Epidemics: Estimation and Model Choice for Spatio-Temporal Data with Application to a Classical Swine Fever Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamado, Kokouvi; Marion, Glenn; Porphyre, Thibaud

    2017-01-01

    Livestock epidemics have the potential to give rise to significant economic, welfare, and social costs. Incursions of emerging and re-emerging pathogens may lead to small and repeated outbreaks. Analysis of the resulting data is statistically challenging but can inform disease preparedness reducing potential future losses. We present a framework for spatial risk assessment of disease incursions based on data from small localized historic outbreaks. We focus on between-farm spread of livestock pathogens and illustrate our methods by application to data on the small outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) that occurred in 2000 in East Anglia, UK. We apply models based on continuous time semi-Markov processes, using data-augmentation Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques within a Bayesian framework to infer disease dynamics and detection from incompletely observed outbreaks. The spatial transmission kernel describing pathogen spread between farms, and the distribution of times between infection and detection, is estimated alongside unobserved exposure times. Our results demonstrate inference is reliable even for relatively small outbreaks when the data-generating model is known. However, associated risk assessments depend strongly on the form of the fitted transmission kernel. Therefore, for real applications, methods are needed to select the most appropriate model in light of the data. We assess standard Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) model selection tools and recently introduced latent residual methods of model assessment, in selecting the functional form of the spatial transmission kernel. These methods are applied to the CSF data, and tested in simulated scenarios which represent field data, but assume the data generation mechanism is known. Analysis of simulated scenarios shows that latent residual methods enable reliable selection of the transmission kernel even for small outbreaks whereas the DIC is less reliable. Moreover, compared with DIC, model choice

  19. An avirulent chimeric Pestivirus with altered cell tropism protects pigs against lethal infection with classical swine fever virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Ilona; Depner, Klaus; Trapp, Sascha; Beer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A chimeric Pestivirus was constructed using an infectious cDNA clone of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) [J. Virol. 70 (1996) 8606]. After deletion of the envelope protein E2-encoding region, the respective sequence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Alfort 187 was inserted in-frame resulting in plasmid pA/CP7 E 2alf. After transfection of in vitro-transcribed CP7 E 2alf RNA, autonomous replication of chimeric RNA in bovine and porcine cell cultures was observed. Efficient growth of chimeric CP7 E 2alf virus, however, could only be demonstrated on porcine cells, and in contrast to the parental BVDV strain CP7, CP7 E 2alf only inefficiently infected and propagated in bovine cells. The virulence, immunogenicity, and 'marker vaccine' properties of the generated chimeric CP7 E 2alf virus were determined in an animal experiment using 27 pigs. After intramuscular inoculation of 1 x 10 7 TCID 50 , CP7 E 2alf proved to be completely avirulent, and neither viremia nor virus transmission to contact animals was observed; however, CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected from day 11 after inoculation. In addition, sera from all animals reacted positive in an E2-specific CSFV-antibody ELISA, but were negative for CSFV-E RNS -specific antibodies as determined with a CSFV marker ELISA. After challenge infection with highly virulent CSFV strain Eystrup, pigs immunized with CP7 E 2alf were fully protected against clinical signs of CSFV infection, viremia, and shedding of challenge virus, and almost all animals scored positive in a CSFV marker ELISA. From our results, we conclude that chimeric CP7 E 2alf may not only serve as a tool for a better understanding of Pestivirus attachment, entry, and assembly, but also represents an innocuous and efficacious modified live CSFV 'marker vaccine'

  20. Effective surveillance for early classical swine fever virus detection will utilize both virus and antibody detection capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasing, Yaowalak; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Ji, Ju; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Early recognition and rapid elimination of infected animals is key to controlling incursions of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In this study, the diagnostic characteristics of 10 CSFV assays were evaluated using individual serum (n = 601) and/or oral fluid (n = 1417) samples collected from -14 to 28 days post inoculation (DPI). Serum samples were assayed by virus isolation (VI), 2 commercial antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), virus neutralization (VN), and 3 antibody ELISAs. Both serum and oral fluid samples were tested with 3 commercial real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays. One or more serum samples was positive by VI from DPIs 3 to 21 and by antigen-capture ELISAs from DPIs 6 to 17. VN-positive serum samples were observed at DPIs ≥ 7 and by antibody ELISAs at DPIs ≥ 10. CSFV RNA was detected in serum samples from DPIs 2 to 28 and in oral fluid samples from DPIs 4 to 28. Significant differences in assay performance were detected, but most importantly, no single combination of sample and assay was able to dependably identify CSFV-inoculated pigs throughout the 4-week course of the study. The results show that effective surveillance for CSFV, especially low virulence strains, will require the use of PCR-based assays for the detection of early infections (<14 days) and antibody-based assays, thereafter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel alphavirus replicon-vectored vaccine delivered by adenovirus induces sterile immunity against classical swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Li, Hong-Yu; Tian, Da-Yong; Han, Qiu-Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Na; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2011-10-26

    Low efficacy of gene-based vaccines due to inefficient gene delivery and expression has been major bottleneck of their applications. Efforts have been made to improve the efficacy, such as gene gun and electroporation, but the strategies are difficult to put into practical use. In this study, we developed and evaluated an adenovirus-delivered, alphavirus replicon-vectored vaccine (chimeric vector-based vaccine) expressing the E2 gene of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) (rAdV-SFV-E2). Rabbits immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 developed CSFV-specific antibodies as early as 9 days and as long as 189 days and completely protected from challenge with C-strain. Pigs immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 (n=5) developed robust humoral and cell-mediated responses to CSFV and were completely protected from subsequent lethal CSFV infection clinically and virologically. The level of immunity and protection induced by rAdV-SFV-E2 was comparable to that provided by the currently used live attenuated vaccine, C-strain. In contrast, both the conventional alphavirus replicon-vectored vaccine pSFV1CS-E2 and conventional adenovirus-vectored vaccine rAdV-E2 provided incomplete protection. The chimeric vector-based vaccine represents the first gene-based vaccine that is able to confer sterile immunity and complete protection against CSFV. The new-concept vaccination strategy may also be valuable in vaccine development against other pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient purification of cell culture-derived classical swine fever virus by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruining WANG,Yubao ZHI,Junqing GUO,Qingmei LI,Li WANG,Jifei YANG,Qianyue JIN,Yinbiao WANG,Yanyan YANG,Guangxu XING,Songlin QIAO,Mengmeng ZHAO,Ruiguang DENG,Gaiping ZHANG

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of cell culture-based classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccine is hampered by the adverse reactions caused by contaminants from host cell and culture medium. Hence, we have developed an efficient method for purifying CSFV from cell-culture medium. Pure viral particles were obtained with two steps of tangential-flow filtration (TFF and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC, and were compared with particles from ultracentrifugation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, infectivity and recovery test, and real time fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR. TFF concentrated the virus particles effectively with a retention rate of 98.5%, and 86.2% of viral particles were obtained from the ultrafiltration retentate through a Sepharose 4 F F column on a biological liquid chromatography system. CSFV purified by TFF-SEC or ultracentrifugation were both biologically active from 1.0×10-4.25 TCID50·mL-1 to 3.0×10-6.25 TCID50·mL-1, but the combination of TFF and SEC produced more pure virus particles than by ultracentrifugation alone. In addition, pure CSFV particles with the expected diameter of 40—60 nm were roughly spherical without any visible contamination. Mice immunized with CSFV purified by TFF-SEC produced higher antibody levels compared with immunization with ultracentrifugation-purified CSFV (P<0.05. The purification procedures in this study are reliable technically and feasible for purification of large volumes of viruses.

  3. Molecular tracing of classical swine fever viruses isolated from wild boars and pigs in France from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Le Dimna, Mireille; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Pol, Françoise

    2013-10-25

    There were three outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) in north-eastern France between 2002 and 2011. The first two occurred in April 2002 in the Moselle department, in a wild boar and pig herd, respectively, while the third occurred in April 2003, in the Bas-Rhin department, in a wild boar. A survey was subsequently implemented in wild boar and domestic pig populations, during which 43 CSF viruses (CSFVs) were genetically characterized to provide information on virus sources, trace virus evolution and help in the monitoring of effective control measures. Phylogenetic analyses, based on fragments of the 5'NTR, E2 and NS5B genes, showed that all French CSFVs could be assigned to genotype 2, subgenotype 2.3. CSFVs isolated in Moselle were classified in the "Rostock" lineage, a strain first described in 2001 in wild boar populations in the Eifel region of north-western Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany, and in Luxemburg. In contrast, the CSFVs isolated in Bas-Rhin were homologous to strains from the "Uelzen" lineage, a strain previously isolated from wild boars in south-eastern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, as well as in Vosges du Nord, France, during a previous outbreak that had occurred in wild boars between 1992 and 2001. The outbreak in Moselle domestic pigs was quickly resolved as it concerned only one herd. The infection in wild boars from Moselle was extinguished after a few months whereas wild boars from Bas-Rhin remained infected until 2007. Molecular tracing showed that the Bas-Rhin index virus strain evolved slightly during the period but that no strain from a novel lineage was introduced until this outbreak ended after application of a vaccination scheme for six years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Predominance of genotype 1.1 and emergence of genotype 2.2 classical swine fever viruses in north-eastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, P; Sarma, D K; Rajkhowa, S; Munir, M; Kuchipudi, S V

    2014-08-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and the most important disease of pigs worldwide.CSF is enzootic in pig herds in India and continues to cause huge economic losses to pig farmers. Nearly 40% of the total pig population of India is present in the north-eastern (NE) states where pig husbandry plays an important role in the socio-economic development. Pigs reared in the backyards are the only source of livelihood for a majority of poor tribal population in the region. Hardly any CSF vaccination is currently being undertaken in the unorganized pig farming in the NE region due to economic reasons and vaccine unavailability. A thorough understanding of the current epidemiological status of CSF is essential for the effective control of the disease in the NE region. Hence, we carried out molecular characterization of CSFV isolates from field outbreaks during 2011-2012 in the entire north-eastern region of India to establish the genetic groups of prevalent CSF viruses in the region. A total of 17 CSFV isolates obtained from different parts of the NE region were characterized by comparing the sequences of three partial genomic regions of the virus, that is 150 nt of 5' UTR, 190 nt of E2 and 409 nt of NS5B. Of the 17 CSFV isolates, 15 isolates belonged to 1.1 (88.2%) and two isolates (11.8%) belonged to 2.2 subgenogroup. The genogroup 2.2 CSFV were associated with outbreaks in Arunachal Pradesh that shares international borders with Bhutan, Myanmar and China. Genogroup 2.2 CSFV isolated in the present study shared high level of sequence similarity with 2.2 viruses form China, raising the possibility of virus incursion from this region. In summary, we found a continued predominance of 1.1 subgroup and an emergence of 2.2 subgroup CSFV in NE region of India. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Genetic variation of classical swine fever virus based on palindromic nucleotide substitutions, a genetic marker in the 5' untranslated region of RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three strains of classical swine fever (hog cholera virus (CSFV from outbreaks in pigs in Europe, Asia and America, two strains from commercial CSFV modified live vaccines and a strain isolated from a diseased lamb from Spain were subjected to analyses of nucleotide sequence variations in the 5’ terminal region of the genome. These isolates were divided into three clusters, namely: CSFV-1, CSFV-2, and CSFV-3, based on palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5’ untranslated region (UTR. The homology degree, according to nucleotide base pairing variation in the secondary palindromic structure of the three variable loci V1, V2 and V3, was 60% in the CSFV species, with a mean divergence value of 6.19 base pairs (bp. relatedness within genotypes ranged from 71.11% to 100%, with mean divergence values from 5.5 to 0.73 base pairs. Subgenotypes showed a divergence ranging from 1 to 9 base pairs within the genotype. Genotype CSFV-1 revealed 15 base pair combinations with 13 divergent base pairs, resulting in 4 subgenotypes with 6 variants in subgenotype CSFV-1.1, including the reference strain Brescia and 6 variants in subgenotype CSFV-1.2, including the Alfort reference strain. Subgenotypes CSFV-1.3 and CSFV-1.4 comprised one and two variants, respectively. Genotype CSFV-2 was represented by the Spanish ovine isolate 5440/99 and the genotype CSFV-3 included the Japanese strains Okinawa/86 and Kanagawa/74. CSFV genotypes revealed a strong relationship with Border disease virus strains, showing relatively low divergence values when compared to other pestivirus species. Evaluation of nucleotide base pair divergence among genotypes and expression of evolutionary changes in the CSFV species led to the construction of a phylogenetic tree based on secondary structure.

  6. Classical patterns of interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Mang, C.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the most important non-invasive tool in the diagnostics and follow-up of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). A systematic review of the HRCT patterns of ILD was carried out and the most relevant differential diagnoses are discussed in order to provide a road map for the general radiologist to successfully navigate the complex field of ILD. Using HRCT four basic patterns of ILD can be identified: linear and reticular patterns, the nodular pattern, the high attenuation and low attenuation patterns. These patterns can be further differentiated according to their localization within the secondary pulmonary lobule (SPL), e.g. centrilobular or perilymphatic and their distribution within the lungs (e.g. upper or lower lobe predominance). Relevant clinical data, such as smoking history and course of the disease provide useful additional information in the diagnosis of ILD. On the basis of the pattern and anatomical distribution on HRCT, an accurate diagnosis can be achieved in some cases of ILD; however, due to morphological and clinical overlap the final diagnosis of many ILDs requires close cooperation between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. (orig.) [de

  7. Signifiance of Arginine 20 in the 2A protease for swine vesicular disease virus pathogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Toru; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Leyuan

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenic and attenuated strains of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), an enterovirus, have been characterized previously and, by using chimeric infectious cDNA clones, the key determinants of pathogenicity in pigs have been mapped to the coding region for 1D–2A. Within this region, residue 20...

  8. Impacts of Pig Management and Husbandry Farmers Towards Classical Swine Fever Transmission in West Timor Indonesia (DAMPAK MANAJEMEN DAN CARA BETERNAK BABI TERHADAP PENULARAN PENYAKIT CHOLERA BABI DI TIMOR BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Malo Bulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a serious and highly infectious viral disease of domestic pigs and wildboar, which is caused by a single stranded RNA pestivirus. A cross sectional study was carried out onsmall-holder pig farmers in West Timor, in the province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The objectiveof this study was to describe the management, husbandry and trading practices adopted by pig farmers inWest Timor. A questionnaire survey was administered to the owners of these pigs (n = 240 to gatherinformation from farmers in order to understand management and husbandry practices in the region. Theresults of the questionnaire highlighted the lack of implementation of biosecurity measures by smallholderfarms in West Timor, which has the potential to increase the risk of their pigs to CSF, as well as toother diseases.

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors for the presence of ruminant pestviruses in the Dutch swine population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Quak, J.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Swine can be infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV), as well as ruminant pestiviruses: bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Border disease virus (BDV). Cross-reactions between pestiviruses occur, both regarding protective immunity and in diagnostic tests. The presence of BVDV and BDV

  10. Parameter values for epidemiological models of foot-and-mouth disease in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Kinsley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection, probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread, and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 day; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Lastly, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions.

  11. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... Polanyi's classic paper, co-authored by Henry Eyring, reproduced in this ... spatial conf guration of the atoms in terms of the energy function of the diatomic .... The present communication deals with the construction of such .... These three contributions are complemented by a fourth term if one takes into.

  12. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases - A Danish case study of foot and mouth disease and swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid...... in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated...... by the pig and cattle industries, respectively. Data were retrieved from multiple sources such as databases, legal documents, official statistics, yearly reports and expert opinions. As no previous studies have assessed such costs, data collection and estimation procedures were discussed and decided upon...

  13. Respiratory diseases and allergic sensitization in swine breeders: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Luigina; Facchetti, Susanna; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; D'Anna, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    The daily occupation as a swine breeder involves exposure to several bacterial components and organic dusts and inhalation of a large amount of allergens. To investigate the risk of respiratory diseases and atopy in swine breeders compared with the general population living in the same area. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an agricultural area of northern Italy that enrolled a random sample of resident male breeders and non-breeders. Demographic features, comorbidities, and presence of allergic respiratory disease were retrieved through interview. Prick tests for common allergens were performed. An evaluation of pollen and mold in air samples taken inside and outside some swine confinement buildings also was performed. One hundred one male breeders (78 native-born, mean age ± SD 43.0 ± 11.1 years) and 82 non-breeders (43.0 ± 11.1 years) were enrolled. When restricting the analysis to native-born subjects, breeders vs non-breeders showed a lower prevalence of respiratory allergy (12.8% vs 31.1%, respectively, P = .002), asthma (6.4% vs 15.8%, P = .059), rhinitis (16.7% vs 51.2%, P increase, and might decrease, the risk of pollen sensitization and allergic disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease poses economic ... III and IV infect both swine and humans; and are re- ... associated with transmission in swine abattoir workers in ..... tal evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis ... A novel virus in swine is closely.

  15. Editorial: Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Andres M.; Willeberg, Preben W

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most devastating diseases of livestock. The disease is caused by infection with a picornavirus, generically referred as FMD virus (FMDV), which is considered one of the most infectious agents affecting animals. FMD status affects national and international...

  16. [Classical medications in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvnjak, Marko; Bilić, Ante; Barsić, Neven; Tomasić, Vedran; Stojsavljević, Sanja

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases is complex and requires individual approach to every single patient. Traditionally, the approach is based on introduction of so called "classical" medication into the treatment regimen, from ones less potent and with fewer side effects to the ones more toxic but also therapeutically more effective. Aminosalicylates were the first choice of treatment for a long time. However, the role of aminosalicylates is becoming more and more diminished, although they are still the drug of choice in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Corticosteroids are the therapy of choice in treatment of active IBD for achieving remission in moderate to severe disease. Azathioprine and 6- mercaptopurine belong to a group of thiopurines with an immunomodulatory effect which, in Crohn's disease as well as in ulcerative colitis, primarily have a role in a steroid dependant or steroid refractory type of disease and in maintenance of remission. Lately, early introduction of these medications is proposed to enhance the number of patients that remain in remission. Methotrexate is used for the therapy of active and relapsing Crohn's disease and represents an alternative in patients who do not tolerate or do not respond to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine therapy. Cyclosporine is used in treating steroid refractory ulcerative colitis and in some patients can postpone the need for colectomy. Antibiotics do not have a proven effect on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases and their primary role is to treat septic complications. Classic medications today represent a standard in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, and the combination of the previously mentioned drugs often has a more potent effect on the course of the disease than any medication on its own and their combination is still an object of investigations and clinical studies.

  17. Characterization of integron mediated antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from diseased swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David G.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Ayers, Sherry; Friedman, Sharon; Sherwood, Julie; Breider-Foley, Missy; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two Salmonella isolates obtained from diseased swine were genetically characterized for the presence of specific antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Twenty of these isolates were characterized as S. Typhimurium DT104 strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relatedness and revealed 20 distinct genetic patterns among the 42 isolates. However, all DT104 isolates fell within 2 closely related genetic clusters. Other Salmonella isolates were genetically grouped together according to serotype. All DT104 isolates displayed the penta-resistance phenotype to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin was most common among the non-DT104 Salmonella isolates. All DT104 strains contained 2 chromosomal integrons of 1000 and 1200 base pairs. The DNA sequencing revealed that the 2 integrons contained genes encoding a resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin, respectively. None of the non-DT104 strains showed the same pattern, although several strains possessed integrons of 1000 base pairs or larger. However, the majority of non-DT104 Salmonella strains did not possess any integrons. Two Salmonella isolates displayed tolerance to the organic solvent cyclohexane, indicating the possibility that they are overexpressing chromosomal regulatory genes marA or soxS or the associated multidrug efflux pump, acrAB. This research suggests that integrons contribute to antimicrobial resistance among specific swine Salmonella serotypes; however, they are not as widely disseminated among non-Typhimurium swine Salmonella serotypes as previously thought. PMID:12528827

  18. Early Renal Involvement in a Girl with Classic Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perretta, Fernando; Antongiovanni, Norberto; Jaurretche, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the deficiency or absence of the enzyme alpha galactosidase A; this defect leads to the systemic accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and its metabolites. Organic involvement in men is well known, but in women it is controversial, mainly due to the random X-chromosome inactivation in each of their cells (Lyon hypothesis). This would explain why women (heterozygotes) present a wide variability in the severity of their phenotype. The manifestations are multisystemic and begin in early childhood, reaching a severe compromise in adulthood. Typical acroparesthesia in hands and feet, gastrointestinal symptoms, angiokeratomas, dyshidrosis, hearing loss, arrhythmias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular accidents, and renal failure can be observed. Nephropathy is one of the major complications of Fabry disease. Glomerular and vascular changes are present before progression to overt proteinuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate, even in pediatric patients. A case of incipient renal involvement in a girl with classic Fabry disease is reported.

  19. Obtaining classical swine fever virus E2 recombinant protein and DNA-vaccine on the basis of one subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryabin, O.; Deryabina, O.; Verbitskiy, P.; Kordyum, V.

    2005-01-01

    Three forms of E2 recombinant protein were expressed in E. coli. Swine sera obtained against different forms of the recombinant protein were cross-studied with indirect ELISA. Using individual proteins as an antigen, only 15% of sera against other forms of protein reacted positively, while 100% of heterologous sera showed positive reaction with fused protein. Challenge experiments showed the existence of protective action only from the individual protein. Specificity and activity of sera obtained from the animals after control challenge was confirmed in a blocking variant of ELISA. Genetic construction used a eukaryotic vector that contained the E2 protein gene. Immunization of mice with the resulting DNA induced synthesis of specific antibodies, the titre of which increased considerably after additional single immunization with the E2 recombinant protein, expressed in E. coli. This demonstrated the effectiveness of animal priming by DNA vaccine, and the possibility of using the E2 recombinant protein in E. coli for booster vaccination. (author)

  20. Novel poly-uridine insertion in the 3'UTR and E2 amino acid substitutions in a low virulent classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Liani; Liniger, Matthias; Muñoz-González, Sara; Postel, Alexander; Pérez, Lester Josue; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Perera, Carmen Laura; Frías-Lepoureau, Maria Teresa; Rosell, Rosa; Grundhoff, Adam; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Becher, Paul; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we compared the virulence in weaner pigs of the Pinar del Rio isolate and the virulent Margarita strain. The latter caused the Cuban classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak of 1993. Our results showed that the Pinar del Rio virus isolated during an endemic phase is clearly of low virulence. We analysed the complete nucleotide sequence of the Pinar del Rio virus isolated after persistence in newborn piglets, as well as the genome sequence of the inoculum. The consensus genome sequence of the Pinar del Rio virus remained completely unchanged after 28days of persistent infection in swine. More importantly, a unique poly-uridine tract was discovered in the 3'UTR of the Pinar del Rio virus, which was not found in the Margarita virus or any other known CSFV sequences. Based on RNA secondary structure prediction, the poly-uridine tract results in a long single-stranded intervening sequence (SS) between the stem-loops I and II of the 3'UTR, without major changes in the stem- loop structures when compared to the Margarita virus. The possible implications of this novel insertion on persistence and attenuation remain to be investigated. In addition, comparison of the amino acid sequence of the viral proteins E rns , E1, E2 and p7 of the Margarita and Pinar del Rio viruses showed that all non-conservative amino acid substitutions acquired by the Pinar del Rio isolate clustered in E2, with two of them being located within the B/C domain. Immunisation and cross-neutralisation experiments in pigs and rabbits suggest differences between these two viruses, which may be attributable to the amino acid differences observed in E2. Altogether, these data provide fresh insights into viral molecular features which might be associated with the attenuation and adaptation of CSFV for persistence in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles ( n  = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine ( n  = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis ( n  = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO ( n  = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ( n  = 2) and optic neuritis ( n  = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  2. Classic and New Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blesa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders can be modeled in animals so as to recreate specific pathogenic events and behavioral outcomes. Parkinson’s Disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease of an aging population, and although there have been several significant findings about the PD disease process, much of this process still remains a mystery. Breakthroughs in the last two decades using animal models have offered insights into the understanding of the PD disease process, its etiology, pathology, and molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, while cellular models have helped to identify specific events, animal models, both toxic and genetic, have replicated almost all of the hallmarks of PD and are useful for testing new neuroprotective or neurorestorative strategies. Moreover, significant advances in the modeling of additional PD features have come to light in both classic and newer models. In this review, we try to provide an updated summary of the main characteristics of these models as well as the strengths and weaknesses of what we believe to be the most popular PD animal models. These models include those produced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropiridine (MPTP, rotenone, and paraquat, as well as several genetic models like those related to alpha-synuclein, PINK1, Parkin and LRRK2 alterations.

  3. Effect of specific amino acid substitutions in the putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 on Classical Swine Fever Virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Sainz, I.J.; Largo, E.; Gladue, D.P.; Fletcher, P.; O’Donnell, V.; Holinka, L.G.; Carey, L.B.; Lu, X.; Nieva, J.L.; Borca, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    E2, along with E rns and E1, is an envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E2 is involved in several virus functions: cell attachment, host range susceptibility and virulence in natural hosts. Here we evaluate the role of a specific E2 region, 818 CPIGWTGVIEC 828 , containing a putative fusion peptide (FP) sequence. Reverse genetics utilizing a full-length infectious clone of the highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) was used to evaluate how individual amino acid substitutions within this region of E2 may affect replication of BICv. A synthetic peptide representing the complete E2 FP amino acid sequence adopted a β-type extended conformation in membrane mimetics, penetrated into model membranes, and perturbed lipid bilayer integrity in vitro. Similar peptides harboring amino acid substitutions adopted comparable conformations but exhibited different membrane activities. Therefore, a preliminary characterization of the putative FP 818 CPIGWTGVIEC 828 indicates a membrane fusion activity and a critical role in virus replication. - Highlights: • A putative fusion peptide (FP) region in CSFV E2 protein was shown to be critical for virus growth. • Synthetic FPs were shown to efficiently penetrate into lipid membranes using an in vitro model. • Individual residues in the FP affecting virus replication were identified by reverse genetics. • The same FP residues are also responsible for mediating membrane fusion

  4. Cellular Hsp27 interacts with classical swine fever virus NS5A protein and negatively regulates viral replication by the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shifeng; Luo, Mingyang; Jiang, Shengnan; Liu, Jiayu; Ding, Chunying; Zhang, Qinghuan; Guo, Huancheng; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Changchun; Sun, Jinfu

    2018-05-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein NS5A is a multifunctional protein functioning in regulation of viral genome replication, protein translation and assembly by interaction with viral or host proteins. Here, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has been identified as a novel binding partner of NS5A by using His tag "pull down" coupled with shotgun LC-MS/MS, with interaction of both proteins further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and laser confocal assays. In PK-15 cells, silencing of Hsp27 expression by siRNA enhanced CSFV replication, and upregulation of Hsp27 inhibited viral proliferation. Additionally, we have shown that overexpression of Hsp27 increased NF-κB signaling induced by TNFα. Blocking NF-κB signaling in PK-15 cells overexpressing Hsp27 by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) eliminated the inhibition of CSFV replication by Hsp27. These findings clearly demonstrate that the inhibition of CSFV replication by Hsp27 is mediated via the NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E binds to classical swine fever virus NS5A and facilitates viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Qian; Luo, Mingyang; Guo, Huancheng; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Changchun; Sun, Jinfu

    2018-02-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS5A protein is a multifunctional protein, playing critical roles in viral RNA replication, translation and assembly. To further explore its functions in viral replication, interaction of NS5A with host factors was assayed using a his-tag "pull down" assay coupled with shotgun LC-MS/MS. Host protein translation initiation factor 3 subunit E was identified as a binding partner of NS5A, and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization analysis. Overexpression of eIF3E markedly enhanced CSFV genomic replication, viral protein expression and production of progeny virus, and downregulation of eIF3E by siRNA significantly decreased viral proliferation in PK-15 cells. Luciferase reporter assay showed an enhancement of translational activity of the internal ribosome entry site of CSFV by eIF3E and a decrease in cellular translation by NS5A. These data indicate that eIF3E plays an important role in CSFV replication, thereby identifying it as a potential target for inhibition of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of specific amino acid substitutions in the putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 on Classical Swine Fever Virus replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Sainz, I.J. [Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA (United States); Largo, E. [Biophysics Unit (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gladue, D.P.; Fletcher, P. [Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA (United States); O’Donnell, V. [Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA (United States); Plum Island Animal Disease Center, DHS, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Holinka, L.G. [Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA (United States); Carey, L.B. [Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), E-08003 Barcelona (Spain); Lu, X. [Plum Island Animal Disease Center, DHS, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Nieva, J.L. [Biophysics Unit (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Borca, M.V., E-mail: manuel.borca@ars.usda.gov [Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    E2, along with E{sup rns} and E1, is an envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E2 is involved in several virus functions: cell attachment, host range susceptibility and virulence in natural hosts. Here we evaluate the role of a specific E2 region, {sup 818}CPIGWTGVIEC{sup 828}, containing a putative fusion peptide (FP) sequence. Reverse genetics utilizing a full-length infectious clone of the highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) was used to evaluate how individual amino acid substitutions within this region of E2 may affect replication of BICv. A synthetic peptide representing the complete E2 FP amino acid sequence adopted a β-type extended conformation in membrane mimetics, penetrated into model membranes, and perturbed lipid bilayer integrity in vitro. Similar peptides harboring amino acid substitutions adopted comparable conformations but exhibited different membrane activities. Therefore, a preliminary characterization of the putative FP {sup 818}CPIGWTGVIEC{sup 828} indicates a membrane fusion activity and a critical role in virus replication. - Highlights: • A putative fusion peptide (FP) region in CSFV E2 protein was shown to be critical for virus growth. • Synthetic FPs were shown to efficiently penetrate into lipid membranes using an in vitro model. • Individual residues in the FP affecting virus replication were identified by reverse genetics. • The same FP residues are also responsible for mediating membrane fusion.

  7. Characterisation of vaccine-induced, broadly cross-reactive IFN-γ secreting T cell responses that correlate with rapid protection against classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon P; Haines, Felicity J; Johns, Helen L; Sosan, Olubukola; La Rocca, S Anna; Lamp, Benjamin; Rümenapf, Till; Everett, Helen E; Crooke, Helen R

    2012-04-05

    Live attenuated C-strain classical swine fever viruses (CSFV) provide a rapid onset of protection, but the lack of a serological test that can differentiate vaccinated from infected animals limits their application in CSF outbreaks. Since immunity may precede antibody responses, we examined the kinetics and specificity of peripheral blood T cell responses from pigs vaccinated with a C-strain vaccine and challenged after five days with a genotypically divergent CSFV isolate. Vaccinated animals displayed virus-specific IFN-γ responses from day 3 post-challenge, whereas, unvaccinated challenge control animals failed to mount a detectable response. Both CD4(+) and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells were identified as the cellular source of IFN-γ. IFN-γ responses showed extensive cross-reactivity when T cells were stimulated with CSFV isolates spanning the major genotypes. To determine the specificity of these responses, T cells were stimulated with recombinant CSFV proteins and a proteome-wide peptide library from a related virus, BVDV. Major cross-reactive peptides were mapped on the E2 and NS3 proteins. Finally, IFN-γ was shown to exert potent antiviral effects on CSFV in vitro. These data support the involvement of broadly cross-reactive T cell IFN-γ responses in the rapid protection conferred by the C-strain vaccine and this information should aid the development of the next generation of CSFV vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Viral meningitis epidemics and a single, recent, recombinant and anthroponotic origin of swine vesicular disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions...... and non-coding regions supports that SVDV has a recombinant origin between coxsackievirus B5 and another Enterovirus B serotype, most likely coxsackievirus A9. Extensive Bayesian sequence-based analysis of the time of the most recent common ancestor of all analysed sequences places this within a few years...... around 1961. Epidemiological evidence points to China as an origin, but there are no available samples to test this conclusively. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Historical investigation and the clinical aspects of the involved Enterovirus B serotypes, makes the current results consistent with a hypothesis...

  9. Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Kim; Davis, Amy J.; Beasley, James; Boughton, Raoul; Campbell, Tyler; Cooper, Susan; Gaston, Wes; Hartley, Stephen B.; Kilgo, John C.; Wisely, Samantha; Wyckoff, Christy; VerCauteren, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Contact rates vary widely among individuals in socially structured wildlife populations. Understanding the interplay of factors responsible for this variation is essential for planning effective disease management. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a socially structured species which pose an increasing threat to livestock and human health, and little is known about contact structure. We analyzed 11 GPS data sets from across the United States to understand the interplay of ecological and demographic factors on variation in co-location rates, a proxy for contact rates. Between-sounder contact rates strongly depended on the distance among home ranges (less contact among sounders separated by >2 km; negligible between sounders separated by >6 km), but other factors causing high clustering between groups of sounders also seemed apparent. Our results provide spatial parameters for targeted management actions, identify data gaps that could lead to improved management and provide insight on experimental design for quantitating contact rates and structure.

  10. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-25

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed.

  11. Rab5 Enhances Classical Swine Fever Virus Proliferation and Interacts with Viral NS4B Protein to Facilitate Formation of NS4B Related Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever virus (CSFV is a fatal pig pestivirus and causes serious financial losses to the pig industry. CSFV NS4B protein is one of the most important viral replicase proteins. Rab5, a member of the small Rab GTPase family, is involved in infection and replication of numerous viruses including hepatitis C virus and dengue virus. Until now, the effects of Rab5 on the proliferation of CSFV are poorly defined. In the present study, we showed that Rab5 could enhance CSFV proliferation by utilizing lentivirus-mediated constitutive overexpression and eukaryotic plasmid transient overexpression approaches. On the other hand, lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of Rab5 dramatically inhibited virus production. Co-immunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase pulldown and laser confocal microscopy assays further confirmed the interaction between Rab5 and CSFV NS4B protein. In addition, intracellular distribution of NS4B-Red presented many granular fluorescent signals (GFS in CSFV infected PK-15 cells. Inhibition of basal Rab5 function with Rab5 dominant negative mutant Rab5S34N resulted in disruption of the GFS. These results indicate that Rab5 plays a critical role in facilitating the formation of the NS4B related complexes. Furthermore, it was observed that NS4B co-localized with viral NS3 and NS5A proteins in the cytoplasm, suggesting that NS3 and NS5A might be components of the NS4B related complex. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Rab5 positively modulates CSFV propagation and interacts with NS4B protein to facilitate the NS4B related complexes formation.

  12. [Establishment of chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detecting antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chen; Huang, Ligang; Li, Jing; Zou, Xingqi; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Xie, Lei; Zhao, Qizu; Yang, Limin; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-11-25

    Recombinant structural protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O was expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified using Nickel affinity chromatography. A chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method was established using the purified recombinant protein as coating antigen to detect antibody of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in swine. The specificity of VP1-CLEIA method is 100%. The coefficients of variation in the plate and between plates are 1.10%-6.70% and 0.66%-4.80%, respectively. Comparing with the commercial indirect ELISA kit or liquid phase block ELISA kit, the calculated coincidence rate is 93.50% or 94.00%. The high specificity and stability suggested this detection method can be used to monitor the antibody level of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in swine.

  13. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from..., Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India...

  14. Near-complete genome sequencing of swine vesicular disease virus using the Roche GS FLX sequencing platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is an enterovirus that is both genetically and antigenically closely related to human coxsackievirus B5 within the Picornaviridae family. SVDV is the causative agent of a highly contagious (though rarely fatal) vesicular disease in pigs. We report a rapid method...... with significant genetic distances within the same species of viruses. All reference mappings used an iterative method to avoid bias. Further verification was achieved through phylogenetic analysis against published SVDV genomes and additional Enterovirus B sequences. This approach allows high confidence...

  15. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  16. COMPARISON OF AN INNOVATIVE NONLINEAR ALGORITHM TO CLASSICAL LEAST SQUARES FOR ANALYZING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTRA COLLECTED AT A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gases at an integrated swine production facility. The concentration-pathlength products of the target gases at this site often exceeded th...

  17. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2017-04-01

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  18. The contribution of classical risk factors to cardiovascular disease in familial hypercholesterolaemia: data in 2400 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A. C. M.; van Aalst-Cohen, E. S.; Tanck, M. W.; Trip, M. D.; Lansberg, P. J.; Liem, A. H.; van Lennep, H. W. O. Roeters; Sijbrands, E. J. G.; Kastelein, J. J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To determine the contribution of classical risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Design. A retrospective, multi-centre, cohort study. Extensive data were collected by scrutinizing medical records

  19. Effect of metabolic syndrome and aging on Ca2+ dysfunction in coronary smooth muscle and coronary artery disease severity in Ossabaw miniature swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Jill K; Bruning, Rebecca S; Sturek, Michael

    2018-05-03

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and aging are prevalent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and contribute to the etiology of CAD, including dysregulation of Ca 2+ handling mechanisms in coronary smooth muscle (CSM). The current study tested the hypothesis that CAD severity and CSM Ca 2+ dysregulation were different in MetS-induced CAD compared to aging-induced CAD. Young (2.5 ± 0.2 years) and old (8.8 ± 1.2 years) Ossabaw miniature swine were fed an atherogenic diet for 11 months to induce MetS and were compared to lean age-matched controls. The metabolic profile was confirmed by body weight, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, and intravenous glucose tolerance test. CAD was measured with intravascular ultrasound and histology. Intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) was assessed with fura-2 imaging. CAD severity was similar between MetS young and lean old swine, with MetS old swine exhibiting the most severe CAD. Compared to CSM [Ca 2+ ] i handling in lean young, the MetS young and lean old swine exhibited increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ store release, increased Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels, and attenuated sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase activity. MetS old and MetS young swine had similar Ca 2+ dysregulation. Ca 2+ dysregulation, mainly the SR Ca 2+ store, in CSM is more pronounced in lean old swine, which is indicative of mild, proliferative CAD. MetS old and MetS young swine exhibit Ca 2+ dysfunction that is typical of late, severe disease. The more advanced, complex plaques in MetS old swine suggest that the "aging milieu" potentiates effects of Ca 2+ handling dysfunction in CAD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in "Nonendemic" Regions of Zambia (1989-2015): Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Lubaba, Caesar H; van Heerden, Juanita; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mataa, Liywalii; Chambaro, Herman Moses; Sinkala, Yona; Munjita, Samuel Munalula; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Samui, Kenny; Pandey, Girja Shanker; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2017-08-23

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic disease of swine. In Zambia, ASF was first reported in 1912 in Eastern Province and is currently believed to be endemic in that province only. Strict quarantine measures implemented at the Luangwa River Bridge, the only surface outlet from Eastern Province, appeared to be successful in restricting the disease. However, in 1989, an outbreak occurred for the first time outside the endemic province. Sporadic outbreaks have since occurred almost throughout the country. These events have brought into acute focus our limited understanding of the epidemiology of ASF in Zambia. Here, we review the epidemiology of the disease in areas considered nonendemic from 1989 to 2015. Comprehensive sequence analysis conducted on genetic data of ASF viruses (ASFVs) detected in domestic pigs revealed that p72 genotypes I, II, VIII and XIV have been involved in causing ASF outbreaks in swine during the study period. With the exception of the 1989 outbreak, we found no concrete evidence of dissemination of ASFVs from Eastern Province to other parts of the country. Our analyses revealed a complex epidemiology of the disease with a possibility of sylvatic cycle involvement. Trade and/or movement of pigs and their products, both within and across international borders, appear to have been the major factor in ASFV dissemination. Since ASFVs with the potential to cause countrywide and possibly regional outbreaks, could emerge from "nonendemic regions", the current ASF control policy in Zambia requires a dramatic shift to ensure a more sustainable pig industry.

  1. Swine enteric coronavirus disease: A review of 4 years with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwerder, M C; Hesse, R A

    2018-06-01

    Swine enteric coronaviruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), have emerged and spread throughout the North American swine industry over the last four years. These diseases cause significant losses within the pork industry and within the first year after PEDV introduction, approximately 10% of the US herd died due to the disease. Similar to other enteric coronaviruses, such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), these emerging swine enteric coronavirus diseases (SECD) are age-dependent, with high morbidity and mortality in neonatal pigs. Since the introduction of SECD, research has focused on investigating viral pathogenesis through experimental inoculation, increasing maternal antibody for neonatal protection, understanding transmission risks through feed and transportation, and outlining the importance of biosecurity in preventing SECD introduction and spread. A survey of swine professionals conducted for this review revealed that the majority of respondents (75%) believe SECD can be eradicated and that most herds have been successful at long-term elimination of SECD after exposure (80%). However, unique properties of SECD, such as ineffective immunity through parenteral vaccination and a low oral infectious dose, play a major role in management of SECD. This review serves to describe the current knowledge of SECD and the characteristics of these viruses which provide both opportunities and challenges for long-term disease control and potential eradication from the US swine population. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  3. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal... any live swine, and uses only pork or pork products which originate in regions listed in paragraph (a... paying all costs for such inspections (it is anticipated that such inspections will occur up to four...

  4. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  5. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  6. Effects of mutations in the VP2/VP4 cleavage site of Swine vesicular disease virus on RNA encapsidation and viral infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Leendertse, C.H.; Dekker, A.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We studied VP0 cleavage of Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a member of the Picornaviridae using a full-length cDNA copy of the Dutch SVDV isolate. The influences of mutations, introduced at the cleavage site of SVDV, on VP0 cleavage, RNA encapsidation and viral infection were studied. Double

  7. The association between submission counts to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory and the economic and disease challenges of the Ontario swine industry from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, T; Friendship, R; Pearl, D L; McEwen, B; Ker, A; Dewey, C

    2012-10-01

    An intuitive assumption is to believe that the number of submissions made to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory is dictated by the financial state of the industries using the laboratory. However, no research is available to document how the economics of a food animal industry affects laboratory submissions and therefore disease monitoring and surveillance efforts. The objective of this study was to determine if economic indices associated with the Ontario swine industry can account for the variability seen in these submissions. Retrospective swine submissions made to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario from January 1998 to July 2009 were compiled. The following economic, demographic, and health variables impacting Ontario swine production were selected for analysis: auction price, lean-hog futures, currency exchange rate, price of corn, an outbreak of porcine circovirus type-2 associated diseases (PCVAD), government incentive program, number of farms in province, and average farm size. All independent variables identified by unconditional associations to have a significance of P≤0.2 with the outcome of monthly submission count were included in a multivariable negative binomial model. A final model was identified by a backwards elimination procedure. A total of 30,432 swine submissions were recorded. The mean frequency of monthly submissions over 139 months was 212.9 (SD=56.0). After controlling for farm size, the number of pigs in Ontario, higher submission counts were associated with a weaker CAD$ versus US$, higher auction prices, and a PCVAD outbreak (Pvolatility and disease outbreaks in the Ontario swine industry drive submissions to the laboratory. In conclusion, lab submissions are a useful source of animal health data for disease surveillance; however, surveillance activities should also monitor the economics of the industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Two genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza viruses appeared among pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuantian; Zhu, Qiyun; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Xiumei; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Yan; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2009-10-01

    H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight gene segments was analyzed. A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 has low identity with A/Swine/Guangdong/2006; in the phylogenetic tree of PA gene, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2006 and A/Swine/Guangxi/1/2006 along with the H1N2 swine isolates of North America formed a cluster; and A/Swine/Tianjin/2004 and A/Swine/Zhejiang/2004, along with the classical H1N1 swine isolates formed another cluster; except that NA gene of A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 fell into the cluster of the H3N2 human influenza virus, indicating the reassortment between H3N2 human and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Two different genotypes of H1N2 appeared among pigs in China. A/swine/Guangdong/1/06 was probably from H1N2 swine influenza viruses of North America; while A/swine/Tianjin/1/04 maybe come from reassortments of classical H1N1 swine and H3N2 human viruses prevalent in North America.

  9. Computer-aided assessment of pulmonary disease in novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza on CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The 2009 pandemic is a global outbreak of novel H1N1 influenza. Radiologic images can be used to assess the presence and severity of pulmonary infection. We develop a computer-aided assessment system to analyze the CT images from Swine-Origin Influenza A virus (S-OIV) novel H1N1 cases. The technique is based on the analysis of lung texture patterns and classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Pixel-wise tissue classification is computed from the SVM value. The method was validated on four H1N1 cases and ten normal cases. We demonstrated that the technique can detect regions of pulmonary abnormality in novel H1N1 patients and differentiate these regions from visually normal lung (area under the ROC curve is 0.993). This technique can also be applied to differentiate regions infected by different pulmonary diseases.

  10. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  11. Comprehensive Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease by Using First-Pass Analysis Dynamic CT Perfusion: Validation in a Swine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Logan; Lipinski, Jerry; Ziemer, Benjamin; Malkasian, Shant; Sadeghi, Bahman; Javan, Hanna; Groves, Elliott M; Dertli, Brian; Molloi, Sabee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively validate a first-pass analysis (FPA) technique that combines computed tomographic (CT) angiography and dynamic CT perfusion measurement into one low-dose examination. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the animal care committee. The FPA technique was retrospectively validated in six swine (mean weight, 37.3 kg ± 7.5 [standard deviation]) between April 2015 and October 2016. Four to five intermediate-severity stenoses were generated in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), and 20 contrast material-enhanced volume scans were acquired per stenosis. All volume scans were used for maximum slope model (MSM) perfusion measurement, but only two volume scans were used for FPA perfusion measurement. Perfusion measurements in the LAD, left circumflex artery (LCx), right coronary artery, and all three coronary arteries combined were compared with microsphere perfusion measurements by using regression, root-mean-square error, root-mean-square deviation, Lin concordance correlation, and diagnostic outcomes analysis. The CT dose index and size-specific dose estimate per two-volume FPA perfusion measurement were also determined. Results FPA and MSM perfusion measurements (P FPA and P MSM ) in all three coronary arteries combined were related to reference standard microsphere perfusion measurements (P MICRO ), as follows: P FPA_COMBINED = 1.02 P MICRO_COMBINED + 0.11 (r = 0.96) and P MSM_COMBINED = 0.28 P MICRO_COMBINED + 0.23 (r = 0.89). The CT dose index and size-specific dose estimate per two-volume FPA perfusion measurement were 10.8 and 17.8 mGy, respectively. Conclusion The FPA technique was retrospectively validated in a swine model and has the potential to be used for accurate, low-dose vessel-specific morphologic and physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease. © RSNA, 2017.

  12. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    , it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU...... and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  13. Complementary approaches to diagnosing marine diseases: a union of the modern and the classic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Getchell, Rodman G.; House, Marcia; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Mydlarz, Laura D.; Prager, Katherine C.; Sutherland, Kathryn P.; Renault, Tristan; Kiryu, Ikunari; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Linking marine epizootics to a specific aetiology is notoriously difficult. Recent diagnostic successes show that marine disease diagnosis requires both modern, cutting-edge technology (e.g. metagenomics, quantitative real-time PCR) and more classic methods (e.g. transect surveys, histopathology and cell culture). Here, we discuss how this combination of traditional and modern approaches is necessary for rapid and accurate identification of marine diseases, and emphasize how sole reliance on any one technology or technique may lead disease investigations astray. We present diagnostic approaches at different scales, from the macro (environment, community, population and organismal scales) to the micro (tissue, organ, cell and genomic scales). We use disease case studies from a broad range of taxa to illustrate diagnostic successes from combining traditional and modern diagnostic methods. Finally, we recognize the need for increased capacity of centralized databases, networks, data repositories and contingency plans for diagnosis and management of marine disease.

  14. The economic implications of the enteric disease complex and its control by the utilization of pleuromutillins in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veturia Ileana Nueleanu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The enteric disease complex may have a great economic impact by decreasing the growth of the animals, the conversion-rate of the fodder and, implicitly, the quality of carcass. That results in low production values, in correlation with low costs of production and decreased profitability. A therapeutic protocol was established, being administered tiamullin in the period of maximum incidence ofthe disease –5 days before and after weaning in pig youth, and the same period of time for the fatten pigs. The average meat production increased with 37.04% in youth pigs and 29.23% in fat pigs, in comparison with the period before the therapy. The profit that was achieved in youth pigs was 95 %, in comparison with the investment (the medication that was 5 %. The value of the investment was 27% in fat pigs, in comparison with the materialized profit of 73 %. The ratio between the total investment values (tiamullin medication and the benefit obtained in posttherapeutic period was 1:3.76, for the enteric disease complex in swine.

  15. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  16. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part I. Exploratory spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The systemic form of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD, also known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS was initially detected in the early 1990s. Starting in 2004, the Canadian swine industry experienced considerable losses due to PCVAD, concurrent with a shift in genotype of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. Objectives of the current study were to explore spatial characteristics of self-reported PCVAD distribution in Ontario between 2004 and 2008, and to investigate the existence and nature of local spread. Results The study included 278 swine herds from a large disease-monitoring project that included porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus-positive herds identified by the diagnostic laboratory, and PRRS virus-negative herds directly from the target population. Herds were included if they had growing pigs present on-site and available geographical coordinates for the sampling site. Furthermore, herds were defined as PCVAD-positive if a producer reported an outbreak of circovirus associated disease, or as PCVAD-negative if no outbreak was noted. Spatial trend was investigated using generalized additive models and time to PCVAD outbreak in a herd using Cox's proportional hazard model; spatial and spatio-temporal clustering was explored using K-functions; and location of most likely spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using scan statistics. Over the study period, the risk of reporting a PCVAD-positive herd tended to be higher in the eastern part of the province after adjustment for herd PRRS status (P = 0.05. This was partly confirmed for spread (Partial P P = 0.06 existence of spatio-temporal clustering of PCVAD and detection of a spatio-temporal cluster (P = 0.04. Conclusions In Ontario, PCVAD has shown a general trend, spreading from east-to-west. We interpret the existence of spatio-temporal clustering as evidence of spatio-temporal aggregation of PCVAD

  17. Using Machine Learning to Predict Swine Movements within a Regional Program to Improve Control of Infectious Diseases in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Donoso, Pablo; VanderWaal, Kimberly; Jarvis, Lovell S; Wayne, Spencer R; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Between-farm animal movement is one of the most important factors influencing the spread of infectious diseases in food animals, including in the US swine industry. Understanding the structural network of contacts in a food animal industry is prerequisite to planning for efficient production strategies and for effective disease control measures. Unfortunately, data regarding between-farm animal movements in the US are not systematically collected and thus, such information is often unavailable. In this paper, we develop a procedure to replicate the structure of a network, making use of partial data available, and subsequently use the model developed to predict animal movements among sites in 34 Minnesota counties. First, we summarized two networks of swine producing facilities in Minnesota, then we used a machine learning technique referred to as random forest, an ensemble of independent classification trees, to estimate the probability of pig movements between farms and/or markets sites located in two counties in Minnesota. The model was calibrated and tested by comparing predicted data and observed data in those two counties for which data were available. Finally, the model was used to predict animal movements in sites located across 34 Minnesota counties. Variables that were important in predicting pig movements included between-site distance, ownership, and production type of the sending and receiving farms and/or markets. Using a weighted-kernel approach to describe spatial variation in the centrality measures of the predicted network, we showed that the south-central region of the study area exhibited high aggregation of predicted pig movements. Our results show an overlap with the distribution of outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, which is believed to be transmitted, at least in part, though animal movements. While the correspondence of movements and disease is not a causal test, it suggests that the predicted network may approximate

  18. Swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sinha

    Full Text Available Summary: The recent outbreak of human infection with a novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus is spreading rapidly through sustained human-to-human transmission in multiple countries. Human-to-human transmission occurs by inhalation of infectious droplets and droplet nuclei, and by direct contact, which is facilitated by air and land travel and social gatherings. The most frequently reported symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, and sore throat. Detailed contact and travel histories and knowledge of viral activity in community are essential for prompt case detection by the health personnel. Real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of throat swabs or lower respiratory samples is a sensitive means of diagnosis. Use of oral oseltamivir may be warranted for the treatment of severe illness. Keywords: Swine influenza, H1N1, Swine flu, Oseltamivir

  19. [Serological detection of Brucella suis, influenza virus and Aujeszky's disease virus in backyard and small swine holders in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibarbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier A; Aznar, María N; Bessone, Fernando A; Piscitelli, Hernán; Pereda, Ariel J; Pérez, Daniel R

    Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD was associated with high mortality in swine populations worldwide. Studies performed in different regions identified spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal trends as factors contributing to patterns of the disease spread. Patterns consistent with spatial trend and spatio-temporal clustering were already identified in this dataset. On the basis of these results, we have further investigated the nature of local spread in this report. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for incidence cases of reported PCVAD. Results A time-matched case-control study was used as a study design approach, and conditional logistic regression as the analytical method. The main exposure of interest was local spread, which was defined as an unidentified mechanism of PCVAD spread between premises located within 3 kilometers of the Euclidean distance. Various modifications of variables indicative of local spread were also evaluated. The dataset contained 278 swine herds from Ontario originally sampled either from diagnostic laboratory submissions or directly from the target population. A PCVAD case was defined on the basis of the producer's recall. Existence of apparent local spread over the entire study period was confirmed (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83, and was further identified to be time-varying in nature - herds experiencing outbreaks in the later part of the epidemic were more likely than control herds to be exposed to neighboring herds experiencing recent PCVAD outbreaks. More importantly, the pattern of local spread was driven by concurrent occurrence of PCVAD on premises under the same ownership (OREXACTwithin ownership = 25.6, 95% CI: 3.4, +inf; OREXACToutside ownership = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.3. Other significant factors included PRRSv status of a herd (OREXACT = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9, after adjusting for geographical location by including the binary

  1. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  2. Next Generation Sequencing of Classical Swine Fever Virus and Border Disease virus cloned in Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Beer, martin

    2012-01-01

    artificial chromosomes (BACs). From these BACs, RNA copies of the viral genomes can be transcribed in vitro and upon transfection of these RNAs into mammalian cells, autonomous replication of the viral genome occurs and infectious progeny can be rescued. However, we have observed that virus progeny can...

  3. Nature Conservation and Veterinary Problems : Issues and Options. With case studies of foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, Maureen E.; Prent, K.

    2005-01-01

    Large herbivores in nature suffer from veterinary law In the Habitat Directive, Natura 2000, the EU aims at preservation, restoration and interconnection of large-scale nature reserves throughout the union. Such a network of interconnected wilderness will provide dearly needed space to large wild

  4. Two novel mutations in the Norrie disease gene associated with the classical ocular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, M; Veske, A; Rodriguez, J J; Lugo, N; Schroeder, B; Hesse, L; Gal, A

    1996-12-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness due to a degenerative and proliferative dysplasia of the neuroretina and, occasionally, by deafness and mental handicap. Here, we report two novel mutations detected in patients with the classical eye features of ND. Both the one-base pair insertion in exon II (544/545 insA) and the two-base pair deletion in the start codon (418delTG) of the ND gene predict a functional 'null allele', i.e. the complete absence of the corresponding gene product.

  5. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2017-10-01

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  6. Monitoring diseases based on register data: Methods and application in the Danish swine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina

    The spread of diseases is one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. Disease spread causes considerable economic losses for the agricultural sector and constitutes trade-limiting factors, as transmission to countries free from disease should beavoided. Monitoring...

  7. Different renal phenotypes in related adult males with Fabry disease with the same classic genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Renzo; Moschella, Mariarita; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Donati, Ilaria; Flachi, Marta; Grimaldi, Daniela; Cerretani, Davide; Giovanni, Paola De; Montevecchi, Marcello; Rigotti, Angelo; Ravasio, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Fabry disease related patients with classical mutation usually exhibit similar severe phenotype especially concerning renal manifestation. A dry blood spot screening (DBS) and the DNA analysis has been performed in a 48-year-old man (Patient 1) because of paresthesia. The DBS revealed absent leukocyte α -Gal A enzyme activity while DNA analysis identified the I354K mutation. Serum creatinine and e-GFR were in normal range and also albuminuria and proteinuria were absent. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions and a diffuse focus of gliosis in the white matter, while the echocardiogram showed a left ventricular hypertrophy. The renal biopsy performed in the case index showed a massive deposition of zebra bodies. By a familiar investigation, it was recognized that his brother (Patient 2) died 2 years before from sudden death syndrome at the age of 49. He had suffered sporadic and undiagnosed pain at the extremities, a prior cataract, bilateral neurosensorial hearing loss and left ventricular hypertrophy on Echocardiogram. His previous laboratory examinations revealed a normal serum creatinine and the absence of proteinuria. Pedigree analysis of the brothers revealed a high disease burden among family members, with an affected cousin (Patient 3) who progressed early to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that required renal transplantation. Here we describe the clinical history of three adult male members of the same family with the same genotype who manifested different presentation and progression of the disease, particularly concerning the renal involvement.

  8. Early Components of the Complement Classical Activation Pathway in Human Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintner, Katherine E.; Wu, Yee Ling; Yang, Yan; Spencer, Charles H.; Hauptmann, Georges; Hebert, Lee A.; Atkinson, John P.; Yu, C. Yung

    2016-01-01

    The complement system consists of effector proteins, regulators, and receptors that participate in host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system, via the classical pathway (CP), has long been recognized in immune complex-mediated tissue injury, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Paradoxically, a complete deficiency of an early component of the CP, as evidenced by homozygous genetic deficiencies reported in human, are strongly associated with the risk of developing SLE or a lupus-like disease. Similarly, isotype deficiency attributable to a gene copy-number (GCN) variation and/or the presence of autoantibodies directed against a CP component or a regulatory protein that result in an acquired deficiency are relatively common in SLE patients. Applying accurate assay methodologies with rigorous data validations, low GCNs of total C4, and heterozygous and homozygous deficiencies of C4A have been shown as medium to large effect size risk factors, while high copy numbers of total C4 or C4A as prevalent protective factors, of European and East-Asian SLE. Here, we summarize the current knowledge related to genetic deficiency and insufficiency, and acquired protein deficiencies for C1q, C1r, C1s, C4A/C4B, and C2 in disease pathogenesis and prognosis of SLE, and, briefly, for other systemic autoimmune diseases. As the complement system is increasingly found to be associated with autoimmune diseases and immune-mediated diseases, it has become an attractive therapeutic target. We highlight the recent developments and offer a balanced perspective concerning future investigations and therapeutic applications with a focus on early components of the CP in human systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:26913032

  9. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Chin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation.

  10. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or β-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjin; Chen Weizao; Yan Weiyao; Zhao Kai; Liu Mingqiu; Zhang Jun; Fei Liang; Xu Quanxing; Sheng Zutian; Lu Yonggan; Zheng Zhaoxin

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine

  11. Guidelines to start enzyme replacement therapy in classic Fabry Disease patients in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Politei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fabry disease is a rare inherited X-linked disorder resulting from the absence or deficient activity of the α-galactosidase A enzyme. Objetive: To provide the first guideline on the best time to start enzyme replacement therapy to treat classic Fabry disease, based on the knowledge and experience of experts from ten Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Methods: The project coordinator designed a survey based on the criteria for starting the treatment which are established in different international guidelines published to date. This document was later sent to all the participants for its evaluation. Results: Fifty experts responded to the survey, whose criteria was divided into 5 sections according to specialty, and they arrived at a consensus. Discussion: The criteria for an early treatment were defined given the growing evidence of a better response and prognosis associated with it. Conclusion: We believe that the importance of this guideline relies on the participation of experts from ten Latin American countries. However, as it deals with a systemic disease whose physiopathological mechanisms and complications are still being described, some manifestations have not been included in the criteria, making it necessary to revise this guideline in order to report any changes that may arise in the future.

  12. Subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: A comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Magaldi, Monica; Rosas, Maria F.; Borrego, Belen; Brocchi, Emiliana; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in IBRS-2 cells were analyzed. Fluorescence to new SVDV capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsRNA. As in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of SVDV capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2C, 2BC and 3A. These results suggest that assembly of capsid proteins is associated to the replication complex. Confocal microscopy showed a decreased fluorescence to ER markers (calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), and disorganization of cis-Golgi gp74 and trans-Golgi caveolin-1 markers in SVDV- and FMDV-, but not in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells. Electron microscopy of SVDV-infected cells at an early stage of infection revealed fragmented ER cisternae with expanded lumen and accumulation of large Golgi vesicles, suggesting alterations of vesicle traffic through Golgi compartments. At this early stage, FMDV induced different patterns of ER fragmentation and Golgi alterations. At later stages of SVDV cytopathology, cells showed a completely vacuolated cytoplasm containing vesicles of different sizes. Cell treatment with brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi complex, reduced SVDV (∼ 5 log) and VSV (∼ 4 log) titers, but did not affect FMDV growth. Thus, three viruses, which share target tissues and clinical signs in natural hosts, induce different intracellular effects in cultured cells

  13. Detection of Foot-and-mouth Disease Serotype O by ELISA Using a Monoclonal Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao-tai; Peng, Yun-hua; Zhang, Yong-guang; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2012-01-01

    An ELISA assay with monoclonal antibody (MELISA) was used to type serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). All FMDV serotype O reference strains were positive by MELISA, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes Asia 1, C, and A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. Furthermore, FMDV serotype O positive samples were able to be detected by MELISA. This assay may be particularly suita...

  14. Immune Evasion During Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Infection of Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induc...

  15. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  16. [The eradication of African swine fever in Brazil, 1978-1984].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, T M P

    2006-04-01

    The African swine fever episode in Brazil was due to trade and tourism between Spain, Portugal and Brazil, at a time when outbreaks were on the rise in Europe. The eradication of the disease, the slaughter of pigs, the elimination of the carcasses and the isolation of affected farms were given wide media coverage, and had a major socio-economic impact. It was forbidden to raise pigs in garbage dumps or to give them feed considered hazardous. Analyses performed in Brazil as well as national and international investigations by researchers from reference laboratories concluded that the disease had spread from Rio de Janeiro to other states, as is stated in official reports. Following emergency measures, a control programme was implemented, leading to enhanced quality in the pig farming sector. The authors describe epidemiological surveillance of African swine fever, classical swine fever and related diseases, biosafety in swine farming, and the emergency action plan comprising animal health training for veterinarians and social workers. The results of the eradication programme were excellent, despite the controversy over compulsory sacrifice in a country with serious social problems. In 2004, Brazil was the fourth largest pork producer and exporter, with an output of 2.679 million tons and exports of 508,000 tons to international markets with very high standards.

  17. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  18. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  19. A Classic Case of Maple Syrup Urine Disease and a Novel Mutation in the BCKDHA Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Mirzaee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an inherited branched-chain amino acid metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD complex. In MSUD, elevation of the branched-chain amino acids, such as alpha-keto acid and alpha-hydroxy acid, occurs due to the BCKDC gene deficiency, appearing in the blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, which leads to neurological damage and mental retardation. MSUD phenotypically penetrates due to the mutations in the coding genes of four subunits of the BCKD complex, including the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT, and DLD genes.Case report: We aimed to report the cases of three families whose children were affected by MSUD and presented with symptomatic features during the first week of birth, which were identified by mass spectrometry. DNA study was performed as a diagnosis panel containing four encoded BCKDC subunit genes.Conclusion: In the current study, DNA analysis and phenotypic manifestations indicated a novel mutation of c.143delT, p.L48Rfs*15 in the BCKDHA gene in a homozygous state, which is a causative mutation for the classic MSUD phenotype. Early diagnosis and neonatal screening are recommended for the accurate and effective treatment of this disease

  20. Classical and recent advances in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sales-Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are intestinal disorders that comprise the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. These disorders have a significant effect on the quality of life of affected patients and the increasing number of IBD cases worldwide is a growing concern. Because of the overall burden of IBD and its multifactorial etiology, efforts have been made to improve the medical management of these inflammatory conditions. The classical therapeutic strategies aim to control the exacerbated host immune response with aminosalicylates, antibiotics, corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF biological agents. Although successful in the treatment of several CD or UC conditions, these drugs have limited effectiveness, and variable responses may culminate in unpredictable outcomes. The ideal therapy should reduce inflammation without inducing immunosuppression, and remains a challenge to health care personnel. Recently, a number of additional approaches to IBD therapy, such as new target molecules for biological agents and cellular therapy, have shown promising results. A deeper understanding of IBD pathogenesis and the availability of novel therapies are needed to improve therapeutic success. This review describes the overall key features of therapies currently employed in clinical practice as well as novel and future alternative IBD treatment methods.

  1. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  2. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  3. Gastrointestinal Diagnosis of Classical Whipple Disease: Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histopathologic Features in 191 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Ute; Moos, Verena; Offenmüller, Gabriel; Oelkers, Gerrit; Heise, Walther; Moter, Annette; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Classic Whipple disease (CWD) is a systemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei. Different diagnostic tools have been developed over the last decades: periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, T whipplei-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and T whipplei-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC). Despite all these advances, CWD is still difficult to diagnose because of a variety of clinical symptoms and possibly a long time span between first unspecific symptoms and the full-blown clinical picture of the disease. Herein, we report an observational cohort study summarizing epidemiologic data, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic parameters of 191 patients with CWD collected at our institution. Gastrointestinal manifestations are the most characteristic symptoms of CWD affecting 76% of the cohort. Although the small bowel was macroscopically conspicuous in only 27% of cases, 173 (91%) patients presented with characteristic histological changes in small bowel biopsies (in 2 patients, these changes were only seen within the ileum). However, 18 patients displayed normal small bowel histology without typical PAS staining. In 9 of these patients, alternative test were positive from their duodenal specimens (ie, T whipplei-specific PCR and/or IHC). Thus, in 182 patients (95%) a diagnostic hint toward CWD was obtained from small bowel biopsies. Only 9 patients (5%) were diagnosed solely based on positive T whipplei-specific PCR and/or IHC of extraintestinal fluids (eg, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid) or extraintestinal tissue (eg, lymph node, synovial tissue), respectively. Thus, despite efforts to diagnose CWD from alternative specimens, gastroscopy with duodenal biopsy and subsequent histological and molecular–biological examination is the most reliable diagnostic tool for CWD. PMID:25881849

  4. Overelaborated synaptic architecture and reduced synaptomatrix glycosylation in a Drosophila classic galactosemia disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Jumbo-Lucioni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic galactosemia (CG is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from loss of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT, which catalyzes conversion of galactose-1-phosphate and uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucose to glucose-1-phosphate and UDP-galactose, immediately upstream of UDP–N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP–N-acetylglucosamine synthesis. These four UDP-sugars are essential donors for driving the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids, which heavily decorate cell surfaces and extracellular spaces. In addition to acute, potentially lethal neonatal symptoms, maturing individuals with CG develop striking neurodevelopmental, motor and cognitive impairments. Previous studies suggest that neurological symptoms are associated with glycosylation defects, with CG recently being described as a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG, showing defects in both N- and O-linked glycans. Here, we characterize behavioral traits, synaptic development and glycosylated synaptomatrix formation in a GALT-deficient Drosophila disease model. Loss of Drosophila GALT (dGALT greatly impairs coordinated movement and results in structural overelaboration and architectural abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Dietary galactose and mutation of galactokinase (dGALK or UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (sugarless genes are identified, respectively, as critical environmental and genetic modifiers of behavioral and cellular defects. Assaying the NMJ extracellular synaptomatrix with a broad panel of lectin probes reveals profound alterations in dGALT mutants, including depletion of galactosyl, N-acetylgalactosamine and fucosylated horseradish peroxidase (HRP moieties, which are differentially corrected by dGALK co-removal and sugarless overexpression. Synaptogenesis relies on trans-synaptic signals modulated by this synaptomatrix carbohydrate environment, and dGALT-null NMJs display striking changes in heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG co-receptor and Wnt

  5. Transanal endorectal pull-through for classic segment Hirschsprung's disease: With or without laparoscopic mobilization of the rectosigmoid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. van de Ven (Teun); C.E.J. Sloots (Pim); M.H.W.A. Wijnen (Marc); R. Rassouli (Roxana); I.A.L.M. Rooij (Iris); R.M.H. Wijnen (René); I. de Blaauw (Ivo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground It has been suggested that the outcome of transanal endorectal pull-through for classic Hirschprung's disease can be improved by laparoscopically mobilizing the colon before the pullthrough. Methods Charts of 43 patients (2005-2009) with proven recto-sigmoid aganglionosis were

  6. Characterization of a newly emerged genetic cluster of H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Amy L; Ma, Wenjun; Lager, Kelly M; Gramer, Marie R; Richt, Juergen A; Janke, Bruce H

    2009-10-01

    H1 influenza A viruses that were distinct from the classical swine H1 lineage were identified in pigs in Canada in 2003–2004; antigenic and genetic characterization identified the hemagglutinin (HA) as human H1 lineage. The viruses identified in Canadian pigs were human lineage in entirety or double (human–swine) reassortants. Here, we report the whole genome sequence analysis of four human-like H1 viruses isolated from U.S. swine in 2005 and 2007. All four isolates were characterized as triple reassortants with an internal gene constellation similar to contemporary U.S. swine influenza virus (SIV), with HA and neuraminidase (NA) most similar to human influenza virus lineages. A 2007 human-like H1N1 was evaluated in a pathogenesis and transmission model and compared to a 2004 reassortant H1N1 SIV isolate with swine lineage HA and NA. The 2007 isolate induced disease typical of influenza virus and was transmitted to contact pigs; however, the kinetics and magnitude differed from the 2004 H1N1 SIV. This study indicates that the human-like H1 SIV can efficiently replicate and transmit in the swine host and now co-circulates with contemporary SIVs as a distinct genetic cluster of H1 SIV.

  7. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: principles of management and formula design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L; Puffenberger, Erik G; Shellmer, Diana; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B; Morton, D Holmes

    2010-04-01

    Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14-33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20-68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28 hospitalizations

  8. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction

    Within the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds,

  9. Development of a multiplex Luminex assay for detecting swine antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsu-Han; Lee, Fan; Lin, Yeou-Liang; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Shih, Chia-Ni; Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and swine vesicular disease (SVD) are serious vesicular diseases that have devastated swine populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to develop a multianalyte profiling (xMAP) Luminex assay for the differential detection of antibodies to the FMD virus of structural proteins (SP) and nonstructural proteins (NSP). After the xMAP was optimized, it detected antibodies to SP-VP1 and NSP-3ABC of the FMD virus in a single serum sample. These tests were also compared with 3ABC polypeptide blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT) methods for the differential diagnosis and assessment of immune status, respectively. To detect SP antibodies in 661 sera from infected naïve pigs and vaccinated pigs, the diagnostic sensitivity (DSn) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the xMAP were 90.0-98.7% and 93.0-96.5%, respectively. To detect NSP antibodies, the DSn was 90% and the DSp ranged from 93.3% to 99.1%. The xMAP can detect the immune response to SP and NSP as early as 4 days postinfection and 8 days postinfection, respectively. Furthermore, the SP and NSP antibodies in all 15 vaccinated but unprotected pigs were detected by xMAP. A comparison of SP and NSP antibodies detected in the sera of the infected samples indicated that the results from the xMAP had a high positive correlation with results from the VNT and a 3ABC polypeptide blocking ELISA assay. However, simultaneous quantitation detected that xMAP had no relationship with the VNT. Furthermore, the specificity was 93.3-94.9% with 3ABC polypeptide blocking ELISA for the FMDV-NSP antibody. The results indicated that xMAP has the potential to detect antibodies to FMDV-SP-VP1 and NSP-3ABC and to distinguish FMDV-infected pigs from pigs infected with the swine vesicular disease virus. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  11. Classic beta-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    Various hypotheses could explain the relationship between beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition and the vasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid deposition may reduce capillary density, affect endothelial cells of blood vessels, result in diffusion from blood vessels, or interfere with the perivascular clearance mechanism. Hence, the spatial pattern of the classic ('cored') type of Abeta deposit was studied in the upper laminae (I,II/III) of the superior frontal gyrus in nine cases of sporadic AD (SAD). Sections were immunostained with antibodies against Abeta and with collagen IV to study the relationships between the spatial distribution of the classic deposits and the blood vessel profiles. Both the classic deposits and blood vessel profiles were distributed in clusters. In all cases, there was a positive spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the larger diameter (>10 microm) blood vessel profiles and especially the vertically penetrating arterioles. In only 1 case, was there a significant spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the smaller diameter (upper laminae of the frontal cortex. This aggregation could result from diffusion of proteins from blood vessels or from overloading the system of perivascular clearance from the brain.

  12. Atypical Distribution of Late Gadolinium Enhancement of the Left Ventricle on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Classical Anderson-Fabry Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kasuya, Shusuke; Suzuki, Masayo; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Odashima, Masayuki; Nakatsuka, Tomoya; Ishikawa, Rumiko; Tokuyama, Wataru; Terada, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. Approximately 50% of patients with AFD may have cardiac involvement. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement of AFD by recognizing typical late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) patterns. We report a 48-year-old man with cardiac involvement in classical AFD, showing atypical distribution of the LGE at the mid-lateral...

  13. Genome-wide association study of classical Hodgkin lymphoma identifies key regulators of disease susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sud, Amit; Thomsen, Hauke; Law, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Several susceptibility loci for classical Hodgkin lymphoma have been reported. However, much of the heritable risk is unknown. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of two existing genome-wide association studies, a new genome-wide association study, and replication totalling 5,314 cases and 16,749 co...

  14. Genome-wide association study of classical Hodgkin lymphoma identifies key regulators of disease susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sud, A. (Amit); Thomsen, H. (Hauke); Law, P.J. (Philip J.); A. Försti (Asta); Filho, M.I.D.S. (Miguel Inacio Da Silva); Holroyd, A. (Amy); P. Broderick (Peter); Orlando, G. (Giulia); Lenive, O. (Oleg); Wright, L. (Lauren); R. Cooke (Rosie); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); J. Peto (Julian); F. Canzian (Federico); Eeles, R. (Rosalind); Z. Kote-Jarai; K.R. Muir (K.); Pashayan, N. (Nora); B.E. Henderson (Brian); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); S. Benlloch (Sara); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick R); Olama, A.A.A. (Ali Amin Al); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); G. Conti (Giario); F. Wiklund (Fredrik); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); Stevens, V.L. (Victoria L.); C.M. Tangen (Catherine M.); Batra, J. (Jyotsna); Clements, J. (Judith); H. Grönberg (Henrik); Schleutker, J. (Johanna); D. Albanes (Demetrius); Weinstein, S. (Stephanie); K. Wolk (Kerstin); West, C. (Catharine); Mucci, L. (Lorelei); Cancel-Tassin, G. (Géraldine); Koutros, S. (Stella); Sorensen, K.D. (Karina Dalsgaard); L. Maehle; D. Neal (David); S.P.L. Travis (Simon); Hamilton, R.J. (Robert J.); S.A. Ingles (Sue); B.S. Rosenstein (Barry S.); Lu, Y.-J. (Yong-Jie); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); A. Kibel (Adam); Vega, A. (Ana); M. Kogevinas (Manolis); Penney, K.L. (Kathryn L.); Park, J.Y. (Jong Y.); Stanford, J.L. (Janet L.); C. Cybulski (Cezary); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); Brenner, H. (Hermann); Maier, C. (Christiane); Kim, J. (Jeri); E.M. John (Esther); P.J. Teixeira; Neuhausen, S.L. (Susan L.); De Ruyck, K. (Kim); Razack, A. (Azad); Newcomb, L.F. (Lisa F.); Lessel, D. (Davor); Kaneva, R. (Radka); N. Usmani (Nawaid); F. Claessens; Townsend, P.A. (Paul A.); Dominguez, M.G. (Manuela Gago); Roobol, M.J. (Monique J.); F. Menegaux (Florence); P. Hoffmann (Per); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); Strandmann, E.P.V. (Elke Pogge Von); Lightfoot, T. (Tracy); Kane, E. (Eleanor); Roman, E. (Eve); Lake, A. (Annette); Montgomery, D. (Dorothy); Jarrett, R.F. (Ruth F.); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Engert (Andreas); N. Orr (Nick); K. Hemminki (Kari); Houlston, R.S. (Richard S.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSeveral susceptibility loci for classical Hodgkin lymphoma have been reported. However, much of the heritable risk is unknown. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of two existing genome-wide association studies, a new genome-wide association study, and replication totalling 5,314 cases and

  15. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  16. AB073. Classic infantile-onset Pompe disease: phenotypes and outcomes of 5 Vietnamese patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Do, Mai Thi Thanh; Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Vu, Dung Chi

    2017-01-01

    Background Pompe disease (PD) or glycogen storage disease type II is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by mutations of GAA gene which results in deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme that involves in metabolism of glycogen in the lysosomes. Its incidence is 1/14,000–1/100,000. PD is divided into three types: classic infantile onset, non-classic infantile onset, and late onset. Early enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) before developing respiratory distress may lead to good outcome. Since 2013, we have identified 16 cases with classic infantile-onset and 5 cases were treated with ERT. Herein, we describe phenotypes and outcomes of five infantile-onset PD patients who received ERT. Methods GAA enzyme assay was done at National Taiwan University Hospital. Results Ages of diagnosis were 12, 38 and 70 days, 5 and 9 months of age. Clinical presentations included macroglossia (5/5), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (5/5), failure to thrive (5/5), facial weakness and hypotonia (3 patients diagnosed after 70 days of age), respiratory failure (1 patient diagnosed at 9 months of age). All patients had mildly elevated plasma CK (270–380 UI/L) and transaminase (60–260 UI/l). Ages at starting ERT were 28 and 58 days, 3, 6 and 10 months. The time intervals from diagnosis to starting ERT were between 14 days and 1 month. The durations of ERT were 4–22 months. The outcomes were good. All patients had improvement of cardiac functions shown on echocardiography, respiratory status, and motor development. The patient who first received ERT at 10 months of age was reportedly dead at home due to food obstruction at 18 months of age. Current ages of the survivors were 5–24 months. Conclusions Patients with classic infantile-onset PD will have good outcomes if ERT is started early. Newborn screening for this disease is necessary to yield an early diagnosis.

  17. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential...

  18. Swine influenza viruses isolated in 1983, 2002 and 2009 in Sweden exemplify different lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metreveli Giorgi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Swine influenza virus isolates originating from outbreaks in Sweden from 1983, 2002 and 2009 were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The aim of the studies was to obtain an overview on their potential relatedness as well as to provide data for broader scale studies on swine influenza epidemiology. Nonetheless, analyzing archive isolates is justified by the efforts directed to the comprehension of the appearance of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Interestingly, this study illustrates the evolution of swine influenza viruses in Europe, because the earliest isolate belonged to 'classical' swine H1N1, the subsequent ones to Eurasian 'avian-like' swine H1N1 and reassortant 'avian-like' swine H1N2 lineages, respectively. The latter two showed close genetic relatedness regarding their PB2, HA, NP, and NS genes, suggesting common ancestry. The study substantiates the importance of molecular surveillance for swine influenza viruses.

  19. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  20. Known symptoms and diseases of a number of classical European composers during 17th and 20th century in relation with their artistic musical expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Janev-Holcer, Natasa; Rudan, Pavao; Milosević, Milan

    2011-12-01

    Medical history and relationship to the medical conditions as well as to the music creativity and productivity of some of the classical European composers have been described. In this review article we analyzed their illnesses as well as association between physical or mental diseases and their creativity and adaptability to disease. Some classical composers suffered from organic diseases, while others complained of mental disturbances. However, in spite of their disorders, the intensity of their creativity mostly remained unchanged.

  1. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...

  2. Fabry Disease in Families With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Clinical Manifestations in the Classic and Later-Onset Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalsteinsdottir, Berglind; Palsson, Runolfur; Desnick, Robert J; Gardarsdottir, Marianna; Teekakirikul, Polakit; Maron, Martin; Appelbaum, Evan; Neisius, Ulf; Maron, Barry J; Burke, Michael A; Chen, Brenden; Pagant, Silvere; Madsen, Christoffer V; Danielsen, Ragnar; Arngrimsson, Reynir; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seidman, Christine E; Gunnarsson, Gunnar Th

    2017-08-01

    The screening of Icelandic patients clinically diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulted in identification of 8 individuals from 2 families with X-linked Fabry disease (FD) caused by GLA (α-galactosidase A gene) mutations encoding p.D322E (family A) or p.I232T (family B). Familial screening of at-risk relatives identified mutations in 16 family A members (8 men and 8 heterozygotes) and 25 family B members (10 men and 15 heterozygotes). Clinical assessments, α-galactosidase A (α-GalA) activities, glycosphingolipid substrate levels, and in vitro mutation expression were used to categorize p.D322E as a classic FD mutation and p.I232T as a later-onset FD mutation. In vitro expression revealed that p.D322E and p.I232T had α-GalA activities of 1.4% and 14.9% of the mean wild-type activity, respectively. Family A men had markedly decreased α-GalA activity and childhood-onset classic manifestations, except for angiokeratoma and cornea verticillata. Family B men had residual α-GalA activity and developed FD manifestations in adulthood. Despite these differences, all family A and family B men >30 years of age had left ventricular hypertrophy, which was mainly asymmetrical, and had similar late gadolinium enhancement patterns. Ischemic stroke and severe white matter lesions were more frequent among family A men, but neither family A nor family B men had overt renal disease. Family A and family B heterozygotes had less severe or no clinical manifestations. Men with classic or later-onset FD caused by GLA missense mutations developed prominent and similar cardiovascular disease at similar ages, despite markedly different α-GalA activities. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. The Bordetella Bps polysaccharide is required for biofilm formation and persistence in the lower respiratory tract of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Additionally, B. bronchiseptica is capable of establishing long-term or chronic infections in swine. Bacterial biofilms are increasingly recognized as important contributors to chronic bacter...

  4. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian 'avian-like' H1N1 swine viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Influence of antibiotic therapy prior to admission on the efficacy of classical methods for the diagnosis of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemescu, Roxana Elena; Iancu, Luminiţa Smaranda; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    To assess the influence of preadmission antibiotic therapy on the results of the classical methods for bacteriological confirmation of meningococcal disease (MD). Retrospective study of the MD cases diagnosed in the "St. Parascheva" Universitary Clinical Infectious Diseases Iaşi between 1994 and 2011. The etiological diagnosis was made by identifying the meningococcus in the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in 71.9% of the 323 patients and by blood culture in 8%. Preadmission antibiotic therapy received 39% of the patients, thus the sensitivity of test was significantly reduced: direct examination from 64.6% to 43.2% (p antibiotic therapy significantly increased the ratio of cases in which meningococcus was not detected in CSF by any of the classical methods (44% compared to 17.9% in the cases without prior treatment). The proportion of cases in which meningococcal isolation was done by two methods decreased from 38.5% to 19.2%, and of those by all three methods from 16.9% to 5.6% (p antibiotic therapy also decreased the rate of positive blood cultures from 14.7% to 3.5% (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.009). Antibiotic treatment prior to admission significantly decreases the percentage of patients with MD in which meningococcal isolation can be done; this requires the use of a more sensitive diagnosis method (ex. qPCR).

  6. Swine interferon-induced transmembrane protein, sIFITM3, inhibits foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinfang; Qian, Ping; Wu, Qunfeng; Liu, Shasha; Fan, Wenchun; Zhang, Keshan; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2014-09-01

    The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a widely expressed potent antiviral effector of the host innate immune system. It restricts a diverse group of pathogenic, enveloped viruses, by interfering with endosomal fusion. In this report, the swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) gene was cloned. It shares the functionally conserved CD225 domain and multiple critical amino acid residues (Y19, F74, F77, R86 and Y98) with its human ortholog, which are essential for antiviral activity. Ectopic expression of sIFITM3 significantly inhibited non-enveloped foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in BHK-21 cells. Furthermore, sIFITM3 blocked FMDV infection at early steps in the virus life cycle by disrupting viral attachment to the host cell surface. Importantly, inoculation of 2-day-old suckling mice with a plasmid expressing sIFITM3 conferred protection against lethal challenge with FMDV. These results suggest that sIFITM3 is a promising antiviral agent and that can safeguard the host from infection with FMDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  8. Diagnosis and molecular characterization of non-classic forms of Tay-Sachs disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, R; Kok, F; Burin, M G; Sá Miranda, M C; Vasques, C; Henriques-Souza, A M M; Giugliani, R; Vainzof, Mariz; Pereira, L V

    2006-06-01

    Molecular analysis of five Brazilian families, including eight patients presenting with nonclassic Tay-Sachs disease, was performed to identify frequent causative mutations and their correlation with clinical course. Three patients were affected by the B1 subacute variant and were shown to carry the R178H mutation (the DN allele), which is also common among Portuguese patients. Two of them were compound heterozygotes, whereas the third presented with the mutation in both alleles. Since Brazil was a Portuguese colony for over two centuries, common ancestry might be the probable explanation. The fourth patient presented with a juvenile phenotype and carries the R499H mutation, which has been reported only once worldwide and is associated with residual enzyme activity, responsible for a slower clinical course. The fifth family, of an Ashkenazi Jewish background, showed an extensive intrafamilial clinical variability among three affected sibs presenting with muscle atrophy, ataxia, and psychiatric symptoms. They were first diagnosed as having atypical spinal muscular atrophy and, subsequently, spinocerebellar ataxia, but, recently, the diagnosis of late-onset Tay-Sachs disease was confirmed based on reduced plasma hexosaminidase A activity and the G269S/InsTATC1278 genotype. It is therefore highly recommended to test patients with a similar clinical history for Tay-Sachs disease. In the same family, one first cousin committed suicide at the age of 24 years, presenting with a clinical phenotype that suggested an undiagnosed case and highlighting the effect of the intrafamilial clinical variability in delaying a prompt diagnosis. It is now recognized that his parents are, in fact, a carrier couple. Additionally, another relative had been previously identified as a heterozygote in a Tay-Sachs disease screening program, but the information was not shared among the family. Since this information might anticipate diagnosis and genetic counseling, it is advisable that

  9. Correlation of systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity with classical complement (CH50 function and related protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salesi M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The components of the classical complement pathway play an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and are reportedly useful biomarkers of disease activity. In this study, we evaluate disease activity, complement function (total hemolytic complement, CH50 and complement protein levels (C3, C4, C3d, C4d, SC5b-9, comparing the results of patients with active disease versus those with inactive disease."n"nMethods: This cross-sectional study included 78 hospitalized women with SLE, 24 of whom were in the active group, with SLE disease activity indexes (SLEDAI.2K of >6, and 54 in the inactive group, with SLEDAI.2K of ≤6. Serum CH50 was measured using a red blood cell hemolytic assay. C3 and C4 levels were determined by nephlometry and plasma levels of C3d, C4d, SC5b-9 by ELISA. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS."n"nResults: The mean (±standard error C4d levels of the inactive group were significantly higher than those of the active group (23.39±1.1µg/ml and 16.9±1.6µg/ml, respectively; p=0.003. There was also a significant correlation between C3 and C4 levels (p=0.807. The mean values of the other proteins (C3, C4, CH50, SC5b-9, and C3d circulating immune complex concentrations were not significantly different between the inactive group vs. the active group: 89.35±6.8 vs. 85.54±7.6mg/dl, 18.33±2.3 vs. 20.45±2.4mg/dl, 149.03±4.3 vs. 157±4.3U, 1414.4±114.94 vs. 1471.1±216.9ng/ml, 9.43±0.96 vs. 13.31±3.16µgEq/ml, respectively (p>0.05."n"nConclusions: According to our results, C4d levels may be used as a biomarker of disease activity. The significant correlation between C3 and C4 may confirm the activity of the classical pathway in SLE patients."n"nKeywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus, CH50, C3, C4, C3d, C4d, SC5b-9, inactive, flare.

  10. Towards a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of pestivirus antibodies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Fimme J; Jelsma, Tinka; Fijten, Helmi; Achterberg, René P; Loeffen, Willie L A

    2016-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and lethal disease in swine. Serological tests for the diagnosis of CSF need not only to detect antibodies against CSFV, but also need to differentiate these from antibodies against other pestiviruses. To investigate the possibilities of specific peptide-based serology, various synthetic peptides that represent a well-described linear epitope of the CSFV E2 protein (TAVSPTTLR) were used to test the viability of a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in swine. The results show that N-terminally biotinylated peptides can bind to avidin conjugated beads, and function in detection of the corresponding monoclonal antibody WH303. There are indications that the length of the spacer between epitope and biotin affect the efficiency of the peptide-antibody interaction. A protocol was established that enables probing for antibodies in porcine sera, where neutravidin-blocking of serum and the use of empty control beads for normalization was crucial. With a set of porcine sera with antibodies against various pestiviruses, the proof of concept of a peptide-based suspension array for specific detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in porcine sera was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

  12. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Rech, Raquel Rubia; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Silveira, Simone; Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci

    2015-01-01

    Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1δ cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-δ cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs.

  13. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact on the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ...

  14. Classical antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors)

  15. Classical patterns of interstitial lung diseases; Klassische Muster der interstitiellen Lungenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Mang, C. [Institut fuer CT und MRT, Gaenserndorf (Austria); Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the most important non-invasive tool in the diagnostics and follow-up of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). A systematic review of the HRCT patterns of ILD was carried out and the most relevant differential diagnoses are discussed in order to provide a road map for the general radiologist to successfully navigate the complex field of ILD. Using HRCT four basic patterns of ILD can be identified: linear and reticular patterns, the nodular pattern, the high attenuation and low attenuation patterns. These patterns can be further differentiated according to their localization within the secondary pulmonary lobule (SPL), e.g. centrilobular or perilymphatic and their distribution within the lungs (e.g. upper or lower lobe predominance). Relevant clinical data, such as smoking history and course of the disease provide useful additional information in the diagnosis of ILD. On the basis of the pattern and anatomical distribution on HRCT, an accurate diagnosis can be achieved in some cases of ILD; however, due to morphological and clinical overlap the final diagnosis of many ILDs requires close cooperation between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. (orig.) [German] Die hochaufloesende CT (High-resolution[HR]-CT) ist das wichtigste nichtinvasive Verfahren zur Identifikation und Verlaufsbeurteilung von Patienten mit interstitiellen Lungenerkrankungen (''interstitial lung diseases'', ILD). Systematische Darstellung der HRCT-Muster interstitieller Lungenerkrankungen und Diskussion der relevanten Differenzialdiagnosen, um dem Radiologen eine erfolgreiche Analyse der komplexen CT-Morphologie der ILD zu ermoeglichen. Mit der HRCT koennen 4 Grundmuster interstitieller Grunderkrankungen identifiziert werden: das retikulaere und lineare Muster, das nodulaere Muster, das Muster mit erhoehter Lungendichte und das Muster mit verminderter Lungendichte. Diese Muster koennen anhand ihrer Lage im sekundaeren

  16. Role of Antioxidants in Horse Serum-mediated Vasculitis in Swine: Potential Relevance to Early Treatment in Mitigation of Coronary Arteritis in Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Saji; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi

    2017-08-01

    Horse serum-induced immune complex coronary vasculitis in swine is the first experimental model to mimic most of the pictures of Kawasaki disease. Immune complex mechanism has been implicated as one of the possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Antioxidants have a significant role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases in both human and animal studies. We tried giving vitamins A, E, and C to treat immune complex vasculitis, in the hope of mitigating coronary vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Our study group consisted of 30 pure bred male piglets of 2-3 months of age, and they were divided into test and control groups. The test (AEC) group (n = 20) received two doses of horse serum, 10 mL (0.65 g protein)/kg body weight at 5-day intervals, and oral vitamins A, E, and C once daily for 14 days. The control group (n = 10) was further divided into the saline group (n = 3) receiving two doses of normal saline and the horse serum group (n = 7) receiving two doses of horse serum at 5-day intervals. Piglets were observed for the rashes and coronary artery dimensions. Both the AEC and the control horse serum group developed rashes after horse serum infusions, but the AEC group developed significantly fewer rashes, and no rashes were seen in the saline group. The control horse serum group (mean ± standard deviation = 2.13 ± 0.72) showed significant coronary artery dilatation, whereas there was no significant dilatation in the AEC group (mean ± standard deviation = 0.81 ± 0.58) or the control saline group (p = 0.002). Serum sickness is a prototype of immune complex vasculitis, and the severity can be ameliorated with antioxidants. A trial of therapeutic dosages of vitamins A, E, and C in acute phase of Kawasaki disease, may be effective in mitigation of coronary artery lesion in addition to intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Full protection of swine against foot-and-mouth disease by a bivalent B-cell epitope dendrimer peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Esther; Guerra, Beatriz; Torre, de la Beatriz; Defaus, Sira; Dekker, A.; Andreu, D.; Sobrino, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have reported (Cubillos et al., 2008) that a synthetic dendrimeric peptide consisting of four copies of a B-cell epitope [VP1(136–154)] linked through thioether bonds to a T-cell epitope [3A(21–35)

  18. Fatal disease associated with Swine Hepatitis E virus and Porcine circovirus 2 co-infection in four weaned pigs in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Mao, Jingjing; Zhao, Yue; Du, Fang; Liu, Can; Liu, Jianchai; Cheng, Minheng; Zhu, Rining; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Soomro, Majid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent decades, Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection has been recognized as the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and has become a threat to the swine industry. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is another high prevalent pathogen in swine in many regions of the world. PCV2 and HEV are both highly prevalent in pig farms in China. Case presentation In this study, we characterized the HEV and PCV2 co-infection in 2?3 month-old piglets, based on pathogen identifi...

  19. 76 FR 7721 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... for the 6 BIPs in Slovenia. BVIS veterinary inspectors are present at the BIPs during working hours, but do not conduct inspections outside normal working hours without prior notice. Slovenian road... Slovenia to the region of the European Union that we recognize as a low-risk region for classical swine...

  20. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd – either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern...... European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted...

  1. Social-ethical issues concerning the control strategy of animal diseases in the European Union: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, N.E.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Stassen, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 a survey was conducted in the member states of the European Union designed to gain greater insight into the views on control strategies for foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever, and avian influenza with respect to the epidemiological, economic and social-ethical consequences of each

  2. Interaction of CSFV E2 protein with swine host factors as detected by yeast two-hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. Howev...

  3. Classical metaphyseal lesions thought to be pathognomonic of child abuse are often artifacts or indicative of metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marvin; Mirkin, L David

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to review the histopathology in the original articles by authors Kleinman and Marks that described the specificity of the classical metaphyseal lesion for child abuse and to determine if there were any oversights in the authors' analysis. We reviewed the histopathology of the original studies that equated the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse. We compared this with the histopathology of metaphyseal fractures caused by known accidental, severe trauma in children and reviewed the histopathology of artifacts that can sometimes be produced in bone histology preparations. Acute classical metaphyseal lesions showed no hemorrhage, and the chronic classical metaphyseal showed islands of cartilage proliferation at the metaphyses and growth plate, findings consistent with rickets and other metabolic bone disorders. Some of the acute metaphyseal lesions were consistent with artifacts. We believe the original studies that equate the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse are flawed. The most compelling observation that challenges the histopathology of the classical metaphyseal lesion as being a fracture is the absence of hemorrhage in the acute classical metaphyseal lesion. We hypothesize that some of the classical metaphyseal lesions were artifacts or represent metabolic bone disorders that were not considered and that these two non-traumatic explanations may have been the basis of the abnormal bone findings. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  5. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  6. Attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis-mediated RNAi targeted to conserved regions against foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs and swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Jin, Hong; Jiang, Chengda; Yan, Weiyao; Liu, Mingqiu; Chen, Jiulian; Zuo, Xiaoping; Zheng, Zhaoxin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, specific sequences within three genes (3D, VP4 and 2B) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome were determined to be effective RNAi targets. These sequences are highly conserved among different serotype viruses based on sequence analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing plasmids (p3D-NT19, p3D-NT56, pVP4-NT19, pVP4-NT65 and p2B-NT25) were constructed to express siRNA targeting 3D, VP4 and 2B, respectively. The antiviral potential of these siRNA for various FMDV isolates was investigated in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and suckling mice. The results show that these siRNA inhibited virus yield 10- to 300-fold for different FMDV isolates of serotype O and serotype Asia I at 48 h post infection in BHK-21 cells compared to control cells. In suckling mice, p3D-NT56 and p2B-NT25 delayed the death of mice. Twenty percent to 40% of the animals that received a single siRNA dose survived 5 days post infection with serotype O or serotype Asia I. We used an attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis (C500) vaccine strain, to carry the plasmid that expresses siRNA directed against the polymerase gene 3D (p3D-NT56) of FMDV. We used guinea pigs to evaluate the inhibitory effects of recombinant S. cho (p3D-NT56/S. cho) on FMDV infection. The results show that 80% of guinea pigs inoculated with 109 CFU of p3D-NT56/S. cho and challenged 36 h later with 50 ID50 of homologous FMDV were protected. We also measured the antiviral activity of p3D-NT56/S. cho in swine. The results indicate that 100% of the animals treated with 5 × 109 CFU of p3D-NT56/S. cho were protected in 9 days. PMID:20167192

  7. Pig traders' networks on the Kenya-Uganda border highlight potential for mitigation of African swine fever virus transmission and improved ASF disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Davies, Jocelyn; Maru, Yiheyis; Kitala, Philip M; Githigia, Samuel M; Okoth, Edward; Bukachi, Salome A; Okuthe, Sam; Bishop, Richard P

    2017-05-01

    We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV. Most said they avoided buying pigs from ASF outbreak villages or sick pigs but their experiences also indicated that inadvertent purchase was relatively common. Traders had early knowledge of outbreaks since they were contacted by farmers who had heard rumours and wanted to sell their pigs to avoid the risk of them dying. Individual traders bought pigs in up to nine villages, and up to six traders operated in a village. Although each trade typically spanned less than 5km, networks of the various traders, comprising movements of pigs from source villages to slaughter slabs/sites and retail outlets, and movement of pork to villages where it was consumed, linked up indirectly across the 100km×50km study area and revealed several trade pathways across the Kenya-Uganda border. ASF could potentially spread across this area and beyond through sequential pig and pork transactions. Regulation of the pig and pork trade was minimal in practice. The risk of ASFV being spread by traders was compounded by their use of poorly constructed slaughter slabs/sites with open drainage, ineffective or non-existent meat inspection services, lack of provision for biosecurity in the value chain, and sales of pork to customers who were unaware of the risks to their own pigs from contact with ASF infected pork. More effective regulation is warranted. However, limitations on government capacity, together with

  8. Immunogenicity and T cell recognition in swine of foot-and-mouth disease virus polymerase 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Briones, Maria M.; Blanco, Esther; Chiva, Cristina; Andreu, David; Ley, Victoria; Sobrino, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Immunization of domestic pigs with a vaccinia virus (VV) recombinant expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3D protein conferred partial protection against challenge with infectious virus. The severity reduction of the clinical symptoms developed by the challenged animals occurred in the absence of significant levels of anti-3D circulating antibodies. This observation suggested that the partial protection observed was mediated by the induction of a 3D-specific cellular immune response. To gain information on the T cell recognition of FMDV 3D protein, we conducted in vitro proliferative assays using lymphocytes from outbred pigs experimentally infected with FMDV and 90 overlapping peptides spanning the complete 3D sequence. The use of pools of two to three peptides allowed the identification of T cell epitopes that were efficiently recognized by lymphocytes from at least four of the five animals analyzed. This recognition was heterotypic because anti-peptide responses increased upon reinfection of animals with a FMDV isolate from a different serotype. The results obtained with individual peptides confirmed the antigenicity observed with peptide pools. Detection of cytokine mRNAs by RT-PCR in lymphocytes stimulated in vitro by individual 3D peptides revealed that IFN-γ mRNA was the most consistently induced, suggesting that the activated T cells belong to the Th 1 subset. These results indicate that 3D protein contains epitopes that can be efficiently recognized by porcine T lymphocytes from different infected animals, both upon primary and secondary (heterotypic) FMDV infection. These epitopes can extend the repertoire of viral T cell epitopes to be included in subunit and synthetic FMD vaccines

  9. Classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Benacquista, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to classical mechanics at a level intermediate between the typical undergraduate and advanced graduate level. This text describes the background and tools for use in the fields of modern physics, such as quantum mechanics, astrophysics, particle physics, and relativity. Students who have had basic undergraduate classical mechanics or who have a good understanding of the mathematical methods of physics will benefit from this book.

  10. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  11. Comparison of two H1N2 swine influenza A viruses from disease outbreaks in pigs in Sweden during 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, Giorgi; Emmoth, Eva; Zohari, Siamak; Bálint, Adám; Widén, Frederik; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Wallgren, Per; Belák, Sándor; Leblanc, Neil; Berg, Mikael; Kiss, István

    2011-04-01

    The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent in pig populations worldwide. In the present study, two relatively uncommon swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N2 subtypes, isolated in Sweden in 2009 and 2010, were compared regarding their molecular composition and biological characteristics. The differences regarding markers purportedly related to pathogenicity, host adaptation or replication efficiency. They included a truncated PB1-F2 protein in the earlier isolate but a full length version in the more recent one; differences in the number of haemagglutinin glycosylation sites, including a characteristic human one; and a nuclear export protein with altered export signal. Of particular interest, the NS1 amino acid sequence of swine H1N2-2009 and 2010 has a 'unique or very unusual' PDZ binding domain (RPKV) at the C-terminal of the protein, a motif that has been implicated as a virulence marker. Concerning biological properties, these viruses reached lower titre and showed reduced cytopathogenicity in MDCK cells compared with an avian-like H1N1 isolate A/swine/Lidkoping/1193/2002 belonging to the same lineage as the 2009 and 2010 isolates. The findings should contribute to better understanding of factors related to the survival/extinction of this uncommon reassortant variant.

  12. Isolation of a Reassortant H1N2 Swine Flu Strain of Type “Swine-Human-Avian” and Its Genetic Variability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Bai Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated an influenza strain named A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2 from a pig suspected to be infected with swine flu. The results of electron microscopy, hemagglutination (HA assay, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and whole genome sequencing analysis suggest that it was a reassortant virus of swine (H1N1 subtype, human (H3N2 subtype, and avian influenza viruses. To further study the genetic evolution of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2, we cloned its whole genome fragments using RT-PCR and performed phylogenetic analysis on the eight genes. As a result, the nucleotide sequences of HA, NA, PB1, PA, PB2, NP, M, and NS gene are similar to those of A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2007(H1N2 with identity of 98.9%, 98.9%, 99.0%, 98.6%, 99.0%, 98.9%, 99.3%, and 99.3%, respectively. Similar to A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2007(H1N2, we inferred that the HA, NP, M, and NS gene fragments of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2 strain were derived from classical swine influenza H3N2 subtype, NA and PB1 were derived from human swine influenza H3N2 subtype, and PB2 and PA genes were derived from avian influenza virus. This further validates the role of swine as a “mixer” for influenza viruses.

  13. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  14. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV. PMID:23826638

  16. A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A; Fisher, M; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ambagala, A; Hodko, D; Pasick, J; King, D P; Nfon, C; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2018-04-01

    Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). The novel electronic microarray assay utilizes a single, user-friendly instrument that integrates and automates capture probe printing, hybridization, washing and reporting on a disposable electronic microarray cartridge with 400 features. This assay accurately detected and identified a total of 68 isolates of the seven targeted virus species including 23 samples of FMDV, representing all seven serotypes, and 10 CSFV strains, representing all three genotypes. The assay successfully detected viruses in clinical samples from the field, experimentally infected animals (as early as 1 day post-infection (dpi) for FMDV and SVDV, 4 dpi for ASFV, 5 dpi for CSFV), as well as in biological material that were spiked with target viruses. The limit of detection was 10 copies/μl for ASFV, PCV2 and PRRSV, 100 copies/μl for SVDV, CSFV, VESV and 1,000 copies/μl for FMDV. The electronic microarray component had reduced analytical sensitivity for several of the target viruses when compared with the multiplex RT-PCR. The integration of capture probe printing allows custom onsite array printing as needed, while electrophoretically driven hybridization generates results faster than conventional

  17. Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against

  18. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  19. Clinical Strategy for Optimal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Dose Selection in Disease Therapeutics: Expert Consensus on Classic TCM Herbal Formula Dose Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.

  20. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  1. [The present epidemiological status of African swine fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, G

    1986-01-01

    At present, African swine fever (ASF) persists as an enzootic infection both on the African continent and in Europe (Portugal, Spain, and Sardinia). The recent outbreaks of ASF in Belgium and in the Netherlands have again demonstrated the threat of this disease to the swine population in Germany. The main reasons for this threat are the great tenacity of this virus and its stability in meat and meat products together with an immense tourism into these enzootic areas. Epizootiological peculiarities, such as virus replication in ticks and inapparent infections in wild boars are the reason why eradication of the disease has failed so far, especially when pigs are allowed to roam the countryside.

  2. Spatial distribution of diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels in the upper laminae of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Cairns, N J; Lantos, P L

    1998-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits was studied in the upper laminae of the superior frontal gyrus in cases of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid-beta-stained tissue was counterstained with collagen IV to determine whether the spatial distribution of the amyloid-beta deposits along the cortex was related to blood vessels. In all patients, amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels were aggregated into distinct clusters and in many patients, the clusters were distributed with a regular periodicity along the cortex. The clusters of diffuse and primitive deposits did not coincide with the clusters of blood vessels in most patients. However, the clusters of classic amyloid-beta deposits coincided with those of the large diameter (>10 microm) blood vessels in all patients and with clusters of small-diameter (upper cortical laminae.

  3. Reconstructing the highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus strain Koslov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Jens

    -prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase resulting in the majority of circulating forms being non-functional. However, since any infectious virus particle should necessarily be the offspring of a functional virus, we hypothesized that it should be possible to synthesize a highly virulent form...

  4. Facial-muscle weakness, speech disorders and dysphagia are common in patients with classic infantile Pompe disease treated with enzyme therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, C M; van Capelle, C I; Ebbink, B J; Moor-van Nugteren, I; van den Hout, J M P; Hakkesteegt, M M; van Doorn, P A; de Coo, I F M; Reuser, A J J; de Gier, H H W; van der Ploeg, A T

    2012-05-01

    Classic infantile Pompe disease is an inherited generalized glycogen storage disorder caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid α-glucosidase. If left untreated, patients die before one year of age. Although enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) has significantly prolonged lifespan, it has also revealed new aspects of the disease. For up to 11 years, we investigated the frequency and consequences of facial-muscle weakness, speech disorders and dysphagia in long-term survivors. Sequential photographs were used to determine the timing and severity of facial-muscle weakness. Using standardized articulation tests and fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, we investigated speech and swallowing function in a subset of patients. This study included 11 patients with classic infantile Pompe disease. Median age at the start of ERT was 2.4 months (range 0.1-8.3 months), and median age at the end of the study was 4.3 years (range 7.7 months -12.2 years). All patients developed facial-muscle weakness before the age of 15 months. Speech was studied in four patients. Articulation was disordered, with hypernasal resonance and reduced speech intelligibility in all four. Swallowing function was studied in six patients, the most important findings being ineffective swallowing with residues of food (5/6), penetration or aspiration (3/6), and reduced pharyngeal and/or laryngeal sensibility (2/6). We conclude that facial-muscle weakness, speech disorders and dysphagia are common in long-term survivors receiving ERT for classic infantile Pompe disease. To improve speech and reduce the risk for aspiration, early treatment by a speech therapist and regular swallowing assessments are recommended.

  5. Evaluation of the prevalence of periodontal disease as a non-classical risk factor in the group of patients undergoing hip and/or knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Płatek, Anna E; Łęgosz, Paweł; Czerniuk, Maciej R; Małdyk, Paweł; Szymański, Filip M

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic disease causing an inflammatory process that affects various organs and is as-sociated with an increased risk of many diseases, including bone and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of periodontal disease in continuous patients scheduled for hip or knee replacement surgery. The study was a prospective, epidemiological analysis performed in consecutive patients scheduled for total joint (hip or knee) replacement surgery. Patients enrolled into the study were screened for classical risk factors and had a dental evaluation performed for the diagnosis of periodontal disease. The study population consisted of 228 patients. A total of 137 (60.1%) patients were scheduled for a hip replace-ment surgery, while 91 (39.9%) had a knee replacement. The mean age of the study population was 66.8 ± 12.2 years, and 83 (36.4%) patients were male. A clinically significant disease was present in 65 (28.5%) cases, while all (100%) of the patients had at least minimal signs of periodontal disease. In patients with periodontal disease the percentage of tartar involvement of the teeth was 33.1 ± 26.8%, mean dental plaque coverage was 48.1 ± 29.8%, and bleeding occurred at a rate of 35.4 ± 29%. As for the hygiene level, it was generally poor in the majority of patients with periodontal disease. No differences in terms of baseline risk factors were present between patients with and without periodontal disease. In conclusion, periodontal diseases are highly prevalent in patients undergoing hip and/or knee replacement surgery. The presence of the periodontal disease is possibly associated with a worse prognosis and should be treated.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa in classic-infantile patients with Pompe disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Kanters (Tim A.); I Hoogenboom-Plug (Iris); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); W.K. Redekop (Ken); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Infantile Pompe disease is a rare metabolic disease. Patients generally do not survive the first year of life. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has proven to have substantial effects on survival in infantile Pompe disease. However, the costs of therapy are very high. In this

  7. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  8. Proteomic analysis identifies galectin-1 as a predictive biomarker for relapsed/refractory disease in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Peter; Ludvigsen, Maja; Bendix, Knud

    2011-01-01

    Considerable effort has been spent identifying prognostic biomarkers in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The aim of our study was to search for possible prognostic parameters in advanced-stage cHL using a proteomics-based strategy. A total of 14 cHL pretreatment tissue samples from younger, advanced......-stage patients were included. Patients were grouped according to treatment response. Proteins that were differentially expressed between the groups were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Selected proteins were validated using Western blot analysis. One...

  9. Modeling livestock population structure: a geospatial database for Ontario swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; O'Sullivan, Terri L; Poljak, Zvonimir; Alsop, Janet; Greer, Amy L

    2018-01-30

    Infectious diseases in farmed animals have economic, social, and health consequences. Foreign animal diseases (FAD) of swine are of significant concern. Mathematical and simulation models are often used to simulate FAD outbreaks and best practices for control. However, simulation outcomes are sensitive to the population structure used. Within Canada, access to individual swine farm population data with which to parameterize models is a challenge because of privacy concerns. Our objective was to develop a methodology to model the farmed swine population in Ontario, Canada that could represent the existing population structure and improve the efficacy of simulation models. We developed a swine population model based on the factors such as facilities supporting farm infrastructure, land availability, zoning and local regulations, and natural geographic barriers that could affect swine farming in Ontario. Assigned farm locations were equal to the swine farm density described in the 2011 Canadian Census of Agriculture. Farms were then randomly assigned to farm types proportional to the existing swine herd types. We compared the swine population models with a known database of swine farm locations in Ontario and found that the modeled population was representative of farm locations with a high accuracy (AUC: 0.91, Standard deviation: 0.02) suggesting that our algorithm generated a reasonable approximation of farm locations in Ontario. In the absence of a readily accessible dataset providing details of the relative locations of swine farms in Ontario, development of a model livestock population that captures key characteristics of the true population structure while protecting privacy concerns is an important methodological advancement. This methodology will be useful for individuals interested in modeling the spread of pathogens between farms across a landscape and using these models to evaluate disease control strategies.

  10. Prospective surveillance for influenza. virus in Chinese swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Borkenhagen, Laura K; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-05-16

    Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment. From March 2015 to February 2016, we collected 396 each of environmental swab, water, bioaerosol, and fecal/slurry samples, as well as 3300 pig oral secretion samples from six farms in China. The specimens were tested with molecular assays for IAV. Of these, 46 (11.6%) environmental swab, 235 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 (5.8%) water, 20 (5.1%) bioaerosol, and 19 (4.8%) fecal/slurry specimens were positive for influenza. by qRT-PCR. Risk factors for IAV detection among collected samples were identified using bivariate logistic regression. Overall, these first year data suggest that IAV is quite ubiquitous in the swine production environment and demonstrate an association between the different types of environmental sampling used. Given the mounting evidence that some of these viruses freely move between pigs and swine workers, and that mixing of these viruses can yield progeny viruses with pandemic potential, it seems imperative that routine surveillance for novel IAVs be conducted in commercial swine farms.

  11. Alloxan-induced diabetes exacerbates coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in Ossabaw miniature swine with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Jill K; Kole, Ayeeshik; Stivers, Benjamin; Progar, Victor; Pareddy, Anisha; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael

    2018-03-09

    There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months. Alloxan-induced pancreatic beta cell damage was examined by immunohistochemical staining of insulin. The metabolic profile was confirmed by body weight, complete blood panel, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and meal tolerance test. CAD severity was assessed with intravascular ultrasound and histology. [Ca 2+ ] i handling in coronary smooth muscle (CSM) cells was assessed with fura-2 ratiometric imaging. Fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, total cholesterol, and serum triglycerides were elevated in MetS-diabetic swine. This group also exhibited hypoinsulinemia during IVGTT and less pancreatic beta cell mass when compared to lean and MetS-nondiabetic swine. IVUS analysis revealed that MetS-diabetic swine had greater percent wall coverage, percent plaque burden, and calcium index when compared to lean and MetS-nondiabetic swine. Fura-2 imaging of CSM [Ca 2+ ] i revealed that MetS-nondiabetic swine exhibited increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ store release and Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels compared to lean swine. MetS-diabetic swine exhibited impaired Ca 2+ efflux. Diabetes exacerbates coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in Ossabaw miniature swine with MetS, accompanied by progression of [Ca 2+ ] i dysregulation in advanced CAD/CAC. These results recapitulate increased CAD in humans with diabetes and establish Ossabaw miniature swine as an animal model for future Met

  12. [Experience of treatment and understanding of impediment disease in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shen-ntonz's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongchang; Wang, Zhenrui

    2015-01-01

    As a book with significant historical materials for the research of impediment disease not to be ignored, Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) contains, among its 365 kinds of materia medica, 75 kinds of medicines related to impediment disease. Among the latter ones, 51 are related to "damp impediment", "cold-damp impediment", "wind-cold-damp impediment", "wind impediment", "wind-damp impediment", and "cold impediment"; 16 are related to "laryngeal impediment", "general impediment", and "blood impediment"; 8 are related to "muscular impediment", "stomach impediment", "hernia-conglomeration impediment", "internal consumptive-thirst impediment", "wilting impediment", and "hemiplegic impediment". To systematically analyze the properties, tastes, and effects of these medicines and its related knowledge, and then further explore the overall recognition and their treating experience of the physicians at that period would not only enrich the historical research on impediment disease, but also offer much help and reference to the understanding and treatment of impediment for contemporary clinicians.

  13. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1984-01-01

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author) [pt

  14. Effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; McMurtry , Dan; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, W. David; Beringer, Jeff; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Abundance and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the USA have increased dramatically during the last 30 years. Effective measures are needed to control and eradicate feral swine populations without displacing animals over wider areas. Our objective was to investigate effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use. We analyzed location data from 21 feral swine that we fitted with Global Positioning System harnesses in southern MO, USA. Various removal activities were applied over time to eight feral swine before lethal removal, including trapped-and-released, chased with dogs, chased with hunter, and chased with helicopter. We found that core space-use areas were reduced following the first removal activity, whereas overall space-use areas and diurnal movement distances increased following the second removal activity. Mean geographic centroid shifts did not differ between pre- and post-periods for either the first or second removal activities. Our information on feral swine movements and space use precipitated by human removal activities, such as hunting, trapping, and chasing with dogs, helps fill a knowledge void and will aid wildlife managers. Strategies to optimize management are needed to reduce feral swine populations while preventing enlarged home ranges and displacing individuals, which could lead to increased disease transmission risk and human-feral swine conflict in adjacent areas.

  15. First reports of pseudorabies and winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) associated with an emerging feral swine (Sus scrofa) population in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Anthony R; Pedersen, Kerri; Hall, Parker

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of feral swine (Sus scrofa) populations into new geographic regions is of concern not only due to increased range but also because they carry diseases and parasites that pose a threat to humans, livestock, and wildlife into new areas. Recently, emerging feral swine populations have been reported in the northeastern US and due to their adaptive nature will likely continue to spread. During 2009-2012, 49 feral swine were removed from three counties in New Hampshire. Of these, serum samples were submitted from 34 for disease surveillance testing. One of the feral swine was antibody-positive for pseudorabies virus (PRV) making it the first documented infection in feral swine in New Hampshire. Infestations of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) were also documented on two of the feral swine which had only been reported previously on feral swine in Texas. Feral swine may not only serve as an important host for an economically important commercial swine pathogen like PRV, but they could also increase host diversity for parasites such as the winter tick, a species that can regionally impact moose (Alces alces) survival. These findings warrant further investigation of expanding and established feral swine populations in New Hampshire as pathogen hosts and support continued effort to reduce numbers or regionally eradicate feral swine.

  16. Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)-two H1N2 and one H3N2-were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human-like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. The H3N2 virus, A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013, comprised genes from two sources: (i) hemagglutinin (HA) and NA genes derived from human and human-like H3N2 swine viruses and (ii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that each of the reassortants may have arisen independently in Japanese pigs. A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 were found to have strong antigenic reactivities with antisera generated for some seasonal human-lineage viruses isolated during or before 2003, whereas A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 reactivities with antisera against viruses isolated after 2004 were clearly weaker. In addition, antisera against some strains of seasonal human-lineage H1 viruses did not react with either A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 or A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013. These findings indicate that emergence and spread of these reassortant SIVs is a potential public health risk. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Photo: IDRC / Bartay The challenge African swine fever (ASF) is a highly infectious hemorrhagic viral disease that wipes out entire herds of infected pigs. ASF is widespread in at least half of sub-Saharan Africa, and threatens food security due to devastating economic losses.

  18. Simultaneous deletion of the 9GL and UK genes from the African swine fever virus Georgia 2007 isolate results in virus attenuation and may be a potential virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The control of African Swine Fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Successful experi...

  19. Adaptive evolution during the establishment of European avian-like H1N1 influenza A virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Udayan; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D; Su, Yvonne C F

    2018-04-01

    An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission. Here, we used a relaxed molecular clock model to test whether the EA-swine virus originated through the introduction of a single avian ancestor as an entire genome, followed by an analysis of host-specific selection pressures among different gene segments. Our data indicated independent introduction of gene segments via transmission of avian viruses into swine followed by reassortment events that occurred at least 1-4 years prior to the EA-swine outbreak. All EA-swine gene segments exhibit greater selection pressure than avian viruses, reflecting both adaptive pressures and relaxed selective constraints that are associated with host switching. Notably, we identified key amino acid mutations in the viral surface proteins (H1 and N1) that play a role in adaptation to new hosts. Following the establishment of EA-swine lineage, we observed an increased frequency of intrasubtype reassortment of segments compared to the earlier strains that has been associated with adaptive amino acid replacements, disease severity and vaccine escape. Taken together, our study provides key insights into the adaptive changes in viral genomes following the transmission of avian influenza viruses to swine and the early establishment of the EA-swine lineage.

  20. Clinical performance improvement series. Classic CQI integrated with comprehensive disease management as a model for performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M S; Bernard, D B

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, health and disease management has emerged as an effective means of delivering, integrating, and improving care through a population-based approach. Since 1997 the University of Pennsylvania Health System (UPHS) has utilized the key principles and components of continuous quality improvement (CQI) and disease management to form a model for health care improvement that focuses on designing best practices, using best practices to influence clinical decision making, changing processes and systems to deploy and deliver best practices, and measuring outcomes to improve the process. Experience with 28 programs and more than 14,000 patients indicates significant improvement in outcomes, including high physician satisfaction, increased patient satisfaction, reduced costs, and improved clinical process and outcome measures across multiple diseases. DIABETES DISEASE MANAGEMENT: In three months a UPHS multidisciplinary diabetes disease management team developed a best practice approach for the treatment of all patients with diabetes in the UPHS. After the program was pilot tested in three primary care physician sites, it was then introduced progressively to additional practice sites throughout the health system. The establishment of the role of the diabetes nurse care managers (certified diabetes educators) was central to successful program deployment. Office-based coordinators ensure incorporation of the best practice protocols into routine flow processes. A disease management intranet disseminates programs electronically. Outcomes of the UPHS health and disease management programs so far demonstrate success across multiple dimensions of performance-service, clinical quality, access, and value. The task of health care leadership today is to remove barriers and enable effective implementation of key strategies, such as health and disease management. Substantial effort and resources must be dedicated to gain physician buy-in and achieve compliance. The

  1. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Manuel V; Holinka, Lauren G; Berggren, Keith A; Gladue, Douglas P

    2018-02-16

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious disease called African swine fever. This disease is often lethal for domestic pigs, causing extensive losses for the swine industry. ASFV is a large and complex double stranded DNA virus. Currently there is no commercially available treatment or vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. Development of recombinant ASFV for producing live-attenuated vaccines or studying the involvement of specific genes in virus virulence has relied on the relatively rare event of homologous recombination in primary swine macrophages, causing difficulty to purify the recombinant virus from the wild-type parental ASFV. Here we present the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system as a more robust and efficient system to produce recombinant ASFVs. Using CRISPR-Cas9 a recombinant virus was efficiently developed by deleting the non-essential gene 8-DR from the genome of the highly virulent field strain Georgia07 using swine macrophages as cell substrate.

  2. Deletion of the thymidine kinase gene induces complete attenuation of the Georgia isolate of African swine fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs. There are no vaccines to control Africa swine fever (ASF). Experimental vaccines have been developed using genetically modified live attenuated ASFVs obtained by specifically de...

  3. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease.

  4. Zoonotic pathogens from feral swine that pose a significant threat to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V R; Bowen, R A; Bosco-Lauth, A M

    2018-06-01

    The natural fecundity of suids, great ability to adapt to new habitats and desire for local hunting opportunities leading to translocation of feral pigs to regions where they are not yet established have all been instrumental in the home range expansion of feral swine. Feral swine populations in the United States continue to expand, wreaking havoc on agricultural lands, further compromising threatened and endangered species, and posing a microbiological threat to humans, domestic livestock and companion animals. This manuscript thoroughly reviews zoonotic diseases of concern including brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, leptospirosis, enteric pathogens, both Salmonella spp. and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and hepatitis E. These pathogens are not a comprehensive list of microbes that are capable of infecting both humans and feral swine, but rather have been selected as they are known to infect US feral swine, direct transmission between wild suids and humans has previously been documented, or they have been shown to be readily transmitted during processing or consumption of feral swine pork. Humans that interact directly or indirectly with feral swine are at much higher risk for the development of a number of zoonotic pathogens. Numerous case reports document transmission events from feral swine and wild boar to humans, and the resulting diseases may be mild and self-limiting, chronic or fatal. Individuals that interact with feral swine should take preventative measures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and all meat should be thoroughly cooked. Additionally, public health campaigns to increase knowledge of the risks associated with feral swine are imperative. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI): a multi organ disease by far more complex than a classic urea cycle disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Schiff, Manuel; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2012-05-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inherited defect of cationic amino acid (lysine, arginine and ornithine) transport at the basolateral membrane of intestinal and renal tubular cells caused by mutations in SLC7A7 encoding the y(+)LAT1 protein. LPI has long been considered a relatively benign urea cycle disease, when appropriately treated with low-protein diet and l-citrulline supplementation. However, the severe clinical course of this disorder suggests that LPI should be regarded as a severe multisystem disease with uncertain outcome. Specifically, immune dysfunction potentially attributable to nitric oxide (NO) overproduction secondary to arginine intracellular trapping (due to defective efflux from the cell) might be a crucial pathophysiological route explaining many of LPI complications. The latter comprise severe lung disease with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, renal disease, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with subsequent activation of macrophages, various auto-immune disorders and an incompletely characterized immune deficiency. These results have several therapeutic implications, among which lowering the l-citrulline dosage may be crucial, as excessive citrulline may worsen intracellular arginine accumulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  7. Co-existence of classic familial lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase deficiency and fish eye disease in the same family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a family with a rare genetic disorder arising out of mutation in the gene that encodes for the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT. The proband presented with nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic anemia, cloudy cornea, and dyslipidemia. Kidney biopsy showed certain characteristic features to suggest LCAT deficiency, and the enzyme activity in the serum was undetectable. Mother and younger sister showed corneal opacity and dyslipidemia but no renal or hematological involvement. These two members had a milder manifestation of the disease called fish eye disease. This case is presented to emphasize the importance of taking family history and doing a good clinical examination in patients with nephrotic syndrome and carefully analyze the lipid fractions in these subset of patients.

  8. African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Yolanda; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Richt, Juergen A

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries. The causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that enters the cell by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-dependent mechanism. African Swine Fever Virus is able to interfere with various cellular signaling pathways resulting in immunomodulation, thus making the development of an efficacious vaccine very challenging. Inactivated preparations of African Swine Fever Virus do not confer protection, and the role of antibodies in protection remains unclear. The use of live-attenuated vaccines, although rendering suitable levels of protection, presents difficulties due to safety and side effects in the vaccinated animals. Several African Swine Fever Virus proteins have been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized pigs, and vaccination strategies based on DNA vaccines and recombinant proteins have also been explored, however, without being very successful. The complexity of the virus particle and the ability of the virus to modulate host immune responses are most likely the reason for this failure. Furthermore, no permanent cell lines able to sustain productive virus infection by both virulent and naturally attenuated African Swine Fever Virus strains exist so far, thus impairing basic research and the commercial production of attenuated vaccine candidates. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of the difficult duodenal stump in penetrating duodenal ulcer disease: a comparative analysis of duodenojejunostomy with "classical" stump closure (Nissen-Bsteh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Yogesh K; Yekebas, Emre F; Gebauer, Florian; Tachezy, Michael; Bachmann, Kai; König, Alexandra; Kutup, Asad; Izbicki, Jakob R

    2012-12-01

    Duodenal stump insufficiency after surgery for penetrating gastroduodenal ulcer is associated with substantial mortality. "Classical" technique of closing a difficult duodenal stump (Nissen-Bsteh) has, up to now, not been compared with duodenojejunostomy (DJ) in larger patient sets. This also refers to the potential benefit of a gastric and biliary diversion under such conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare classical duodenal closure (CC) with DJ and to evaluate the impact of gastric and biliary diversion on postoperative outcome after surgery for penetrating, high-risk duodenal ulcer in a matched control study. Out of 321 patients, treated for penetrating duodenal ulcer disease, the perioperative outcome of 62 DJ patients was compared with 62 patients undergoing CC matched for age, gender, biliary diversion, and the operating surgeon collective. A total of 70 patients, equally distributed between DJ and CC subsets, received temporary biliary diversion. Overall perioperative mortality was 10.5%. However, DJ significantly reduced the mortality rate (4.8%) associated with penetrating duodenal ulcer compared to CC (16.1%, P management of penetrating duodenal ulcer.

  10. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  11. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The natural history of autoimmune Addison's disease with a non-classical presentation: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Jacopo; Pezzani, Raffaele; Scarpa, Riccardo; Gallo, Nicoletta; Betterle, Corrado

    2018-05-24

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is the most frequent cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. The natural history of AAD usually comprises five consecutive stages with the first stage characterized by the increase of plasma renin consistent with the impairment of pars glomerulosa, which is usually the first affected layer of the adrenal cortex. We describe a 19-year-old female with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who underwent an autoantibody screening due to having the personal and family history of other autoimmune diseases in the absence of relevant clinical manifestations. She was positive for adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACA) and steroid 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (21-OH Ab) at high titers. She had increased basal levels of ACTH with normal basal cortisol not responding to ACTH stimulation, reduced levels of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but normal levels of orthostatic renin and aldosterone. This scenario was consistent with a subclinical AAD presenting with first impairments in pars fasciculata and reticularis and conserved pars glomerulosa function. Only subsequently, progressive deficiency in pars glomerulosa function has become evident. Review of the literature showed that there was only one case, reported to date, with a similar atypical natural history of AAD. The strategies for screening for ACA/21-OH Ab in patients with HT are discussed.

  13. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  14. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a fatal complication of swine flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Maheshwari, P.K.; Haque, A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of multifocal symmetrical brain lesions involving mainly thalami, brainstem, cerebellum and white matter. ANEC is a serious and life threatening complication of simple viral infections. We present a case of a young child who developed this condition with classical clinical and radiological findings consistent with ANEC, secondary to swine flu (H1N1). He needed ventilatory support and had profound motor and intellectual deficit on discharge. We report this case with aim of raising awareness about this fatal complication of swine flu which has become a global health care issue these days. (author)

  15. Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294

  16. Study of the distribution patterns of the constituent herbs in classical Chinese medicine prescriptions treating respiratory disease by data mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-Jun; Song, Xu-Xia; Wei, Lin-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2013-08-01

    To provide the distribution pattern and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in prescriptions, for doctor's convenience to make decision in choosing correct herbs and prescriptions for treating respiratory disease. Classical prescriptions treating respiratory disease were selected from authoritative prescription books. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets and association rules) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. A total of 562 prescriptions were selected to be studied. The result exhibited that, Radix glycyrrhizae was the most frequently used in 47.2% prescriptions, other frequently used were Semen armeniacae amarum, Fructus schisandrae Chinese, Herba ephedrae, and Radix ginseng. Herbal ephedrae was always coupled with Semen armeniacae amarum with the confidence of 73.3%, and many herbs were always accompanied by Radix glycyrrhizae with high confidence. More over, Fructus schisandrae Chinese, Herba ephedrae and Rhizoma pinelliae was most commonly used to treat cough, dyspnoea and associated sputum respectively besides Radix glycyrrhizae and Semen armeniacae amarum. The prescriptions treating dyspnoea often used double herb group of Herba ephedrae & Radix glycyrrhizae, while prescriptions treating sputum often used double herb group of Rhizoma pinelliae & Radix glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma pinelliae & Semen armeniacae amarum, triple herb groups of Rhizoma pinelliae & Semen armeniacae amarum & Radix glycyrrhizae and Pericarpium citri reticulatae & Rhizoma pinelliae & Radix glycyrrhizae. The prescriptions treating respiratory disease showed common compatibility laws in using herbs and special compatibility laws for treating different respiratory symptoms. These principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful for doctors to choose correct herbs and prescriptions in treating respiratory disease.

  17. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Hau

    Full Text Available Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates

  18. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Samantha J.; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R.; Frana, Timothy S.; Nicholson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage’s absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a

  19. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  20. Pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (Thai isolates in weanling pigs: an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitikoon Pravina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (SIV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 (Thai isolates in 22-day-old SPF pigs. Results The study found that all pigs in the infected groups developed typical signs of flu-like symptoms on 1–4 days post- infection (dpi. The H1N1-infected pigs had greater lung lesion scores than those of the H3N2-infected pigs. Histopathological lesions related to swine influenza-induced lesions consisting of epithelial cells damage, airway plugging and peribronchial and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were present in both infected groups. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using nucleoprotein specific monoclonal antibodies revealed positive staining cells in lung sections of both infected groups at 2 and 4 dpi. Virus shedding was detected at 2 dpi from both infected groups as demonstrated by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Conclusion The results demonstrated that both SIV subtypes were able to induce flu-like symptoms and lung lesions in weanling pigs. However the severity of the diseases with regards to lung lesions both gross and microscopic lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s.

  1. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; Di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co γ-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P 10 TCID 50 , both in cell culture medium and in liquid manure and this value corresponded to the international effectiveness demand for a disinfectant. The results showed that the safe disinfection virus in liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  2. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    -Antimicrobial consumption by Danish swine farms from 1992 to 2008 was determined and evaluated in light of policies to regulate antimicrobial consumption, changes in disease patterns, and productivity data. Trend analyses of productivity data were conducted before and after a ban on use of antimicrobial growth promoters......Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures...... of antimicrobials in 1994 and termination of AGP use by January 2000. Pig production increased from 18.4 to 271 million pigs, and the mean number of pigs per sow per year raised for slaughter increased from 21 in 1992 to 25 in 2007 Average daily gain for weaning ( 35 kg) pigs was higher...

  3. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture and on swine with poor body condition compared to zero grazing, and on swine with ... Many countries practice different kinds of production approaches. ... farms with an average herd size of 29 swine were sampled by random sam-.

  4. A novel monoclonal antibody effective against lethal challenge with swine-lineage and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HA protein of the 2009 pandemic H1N1viruses (14 H1N1pdm) is antigenically closely related to the HA of classical North American swine H1N1 influenza viruses (cH1N1). Since 1998, through reassortment and incorporation of HA genes from human H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses, swine influenza strains...

  5. Peripheral T-Cell Reactivity to Heat Shock Protein 70 and Its Cofactor GrpE from Tropheryma whipplei Is Reduced in Patients with Classical Whipple's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Lucia; Weigt, Kathleen; Schinnerling, Katina; Geelhaar-Karsch, Anika; Oelkers, Gerrit; Biagi, Federico; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Allers, Kristina; Schneider, Thomas; Erben, Ulrike; Moos, Verena

    2017-08-01

    Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) is characterized by the lack of specific Th1 response toward Tropheryma whipplei in genetically predisposed individuals. The cofactor GrpE of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) from T. whipplei was previously identified as a B-cell antigen. We tested the capacity of Hsp70 and GrpE to elicit specific proinflammatory T-cell responses. Peripheral mononuclear cells from CWD patients and healthy donors were stimulated with T. whipplei lysate or recombinant GrpE or Hsp70 before levels of CD40L, CD69, perforin, granzyme B, CD107a, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were determined in T cells by flow cytometry. Upon stimulation with total bacterial lysate or recombinant GrpE or Hsp70 of T. whipplei , the proportions of activated effector CD4 + T cells, determined as CD40L + IFN-γ + , were significantly lower in patients with CWD than in healthy controls; CD8 + T cells of untreated CWD patients revealed an enhanced activation toward unspecific stimulation and T. whipplei -specific degranulation, although CD69 + IFN-γ + CD8 + T cells were reduced upon stimulation with T. whipplei lysate and recombinant T. whipplei -derived proteins. Hsp70 and its cofactor GrpE are immunogenic in healthy individuals, eliciting effective responses against T. whipplei to control bacterial spreading. The lack of specific T-cell responses against these T. whipplei -derived proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of CWD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  7. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  8. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  9. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looft, Torey; Johnson, Timothy A.; Allen, Heather K.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Alt, David P.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Sul, Woo Jun; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Chai, Benli; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Tiedje, James M.; Stanton, Thad B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 y. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. We raised pigs in a highly controlled environment, with one portion of the littermates receiving a diet containing performance-enhancing antibiotics [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin (known as ASP250)] and the other portion receiving the same diet but without the antibiotics. We used phylogenetic, metagenomic, and quantitative PCR-based approaches to address the impact of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota. Bacterial phylotypes shifted after 14 d of antibiotic treatment, with the medicated pigs showing an increase in Proteobacteria (1–11%) compared with nonmedicated pigs at the same time point. This shift was driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations. Analysis of the metagenomes showed that microbial functional genes relating to energy production and conversion were increased in the antibiotic-fed pigs. The results also indicate that antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance and diversity in the medicated swine microbiome despite a high background of resistance genes in nonmedicated swine. Some enriched genes, such as aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases, confer resistance to antibiotics that were not administered in this study, demonstrating the potential for indirect selection of resistance to classes of antibiotics not fed. The collateral effects of feeding subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to agricultural animals are apparent and must be considered in cost-benefit analyses. PMID:22307632

  10. Financial benefit from the eradication of swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E N; Lysons, R J

    1988-03-19

    Swine dysentery was eradicated from a 270 sow herd by using medication in conjunction with cleaning and disinfection, without reducing the herd size. The feed conversion efficiency, cost per kg liveweight gain and veterinary costs in the herd were compared with similar Meat and Livestock Commission recorded herds before swine dysentery entered the farm, while it was present and after its eradication. During the four years when the disease was endemic in the herd the feed conversion efficiency deteriorated by 0.58, equivalent to 7.31 pounds per pig, the cost per kg liveweight gain was 15 per cent higher and the costs of veterinary care and medicines were 1.38 pounds per pig greater. Although there were pigs with clinical swine dysentery in the herd during the four year period, the poor production figures were attributed mainly to subclinical disease. The cost of eradicating the disease was more than 20,000 pounds but this sum was recouped within 12 months by the improved production and reduced drug usage. The chances of success of such a programme have been estimated to be between 54 and 90 per cent.

  11. Role of Antioxidants in Horse Serum-mediated Vasculitis in Swine: Potential Relevance to Early Treatment in Mitigation of Coronary Arteritis in Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Philip

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Serum sickness is a prototype of immune complex vasculitis, and the severity can be ameliorated with antioxidants. A trial of therapeutic dosages of vitamins A, E, and C in acute phase of Kawasaki disease, may be effective in mitigation of coronary artery lesion in addition to intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin.

  12. Combined administration of synthetic RNA and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Belén; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Mateos, Francisco; Lorenzo, Gema; Cardillo, Sabrina; Smitsaart, Eliana; Sobrino, Francisco; Sáiz, Margarita

    2017-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. We have previously reported the use of RNA transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the FMDV RNA as potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an FMD vaccine in mice. Here, we describe the enhancing effect of RNA delivery on the immunogenicity and protection induced by a suboptimal dose of a conventional FMD vaccine in pigs. Animals receiving the RNA developed earlier and higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against homologous and heterologous isolates, compared to those immunized with the vaccine alone, and had higher anti-FMDV titers at late times post-vaccination. RNA delivery also induced higher specific T-cell response and protection levels against FMDV challenge. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs inoculated with RNA and the vaccine had a higher IFN-γ specific response than those from pigs receiving the vaccine alone. When challenged with FMDV, all three animals immunized with the conventional vaccine developed antibodies to the non-structural viral proteins 3ABC and two of them developed severe signs of disease. In the group receiving the vaccine together with the RNA, two pigs were fully protected while one showed delayed and mild signs of disease. Our results support the immunomodulatory effect of these RNA molecules in natural hosts and suggest their potential use for improvement of FMD vaccines strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  14. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  15. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  16. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J; Mocsari, E; di Gleria, M; Felkai, V [Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest [Hungary

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  17. A capsule/lipopolysaccharide/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 of Pasteurella multocida is likely to be strongly associated with swine respiratory disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Wang, Haonan; Liang, Wan; Chen, Yibao; Tang, Xibiao; Chen, Huanchun; Wu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of respiratory disease in pigs worldwide. In this study, we determined the genetic characteristics of 115 P. multocida isolates from the lungs of pigs with respiratory disease in China in 2015 using capsular typing, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping, and virulence genotyping based on the detection of virulence-associated genes. The results showed that the isolates belonged to three capsular types: A (49.6%), D (46.1%), and nontypable (4.3%); and two LPS genotypes: L3 (22.6%) and L6 (77.4%). When combining the capsular types with the LPS genotypes, a genotype group D: L6 (46.1%) was the most prevalent among the strains. Among the 23 virulence-associated genes detected in this study, a small number of them displayed a certain level of "genotype-preference". We found that pfhA, hgbA, and hgbB had a close association with P. multocida LPS genotypes, while tadD was more associated with P. multocida capsular types. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 40 P. multocida isolates identified four sequence types: ST3, ST10, ST11, and ST16, and the distribution of ST11 was significantly higher than the other MLST genotypes. Interestingly, all of the ST11 isolates detected in this study were genotype D: L6 strains and they were 100% positive for hgbB. Our data suggest that a capsule/LPS/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 is likely to be strongly associated with respiratory clinical manifestation of the disease in pigs.

  18. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  19. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  20. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis and Swine influenza vaccine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, Gurjot; Jajoria, Praveen; Gonzalez, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1) and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR β chains, known as the "shared epitope", which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the "shared epitope" may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  2. Adolescents with Classical Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Alterations in the Surrogate Markers of Cardiovascular Disease but Not in the Endothelial Function. The Possible Benefits of Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruzzetti, Franca; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Virdis, Agostino; De Negri, Ferdinando; Perini, Daria; Bucci, Fiorella; Giannarelli, Chiara; Gadducci, Angiolo; Taddei, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    To study whether adolescents with the classical form of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have alterations in metabolic and vascular structure and function. The effect of metformin was evaluated. Controlled study. University outpatient clinic. Eighteen nonobese adolescents with PCOS were enrolled. Seventeen healthy age-matched adolescents were recruited as control subjects. The metabolic profile and the endothelial structure and function were evaluated. Hormonal and lipid profile, blood pressure (BP) measurement, fasting glucose and insulin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were measured. Flow mediated dilation (FMD), central pulse wave velocity (PWV), radial artery pulse wave, and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were also assessed. Girls with PCOS were also studied 6 months after treatment with metformin (850 mg twice per day). Adolescents with PCOS were insulin resistant and/or hyperinsulinemic and they had higher BP values and levels of CRP and PAI-1 than the control subjects. The levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator and PAP were similar in both groups. FMD, PWV, and IMT were also similar. Metformin significantly (P insulin, BP, CRP, and PAI-1 levels. The PAP levels significantly (P PCOS have alterations in some surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk and they are ameliorated by metformin. No deterioration of vascular structure and function has been detected, probably because of the short duration of exposure to the disease. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) in Brazilian swine herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...

  4. LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.

  5. Antibody levels to hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine workers, non-swine workers, swine, and murids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W

    2002-04-01

    In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.

  6. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  7. Cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixue; Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Jin, Ye; Zhu, Zixiang; Guo, Jianhong; Cao, Weijun; Liu, Huanan; He, Jijun; Zhang, Keshan; Li, Dan; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Recently, a series of outbreaks of type A FMDV occurred in Southeast Asian countries, China, the Russia Federation, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and South Korea. The FMD virus (A/GDMM/CHA/2013) from China's Guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in VP1 protein with the epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 from Wuhan, China in 2009. Both of isolates belong to the Sea-97 genotype of ASIA topotype. Therefore, the application of a new vaccine strain with cross-protective efficacy is of fundamental importance to control the spread of the two described pandemic strains. A chimeric strain rA/P1-FMDV constructed by our lab previously through replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09, has been demonstrated to exhibit good growth characteristics in culture, and the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine can provide protection against epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 in cattle. However, it is still unclear whether the vaccine produces efficient protection against the new pandemic strain (A/GDMM/CHA/2013). Here, vaccine matching and pig 50% protective dose (PD50) tests were performed to assess the vaccine potency. The vaccine matching test showed cross-reactivity of sera from full dose vaccine vaccinated pigs with A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 isolates, with average r1 values of 0.94±0.12 and 0.68±0.06 (r1≥0.3), which indicates that the rA/P1-FMDV vaccine is likely to confer good cross-protection against the two isolates. When challenged with two pandemic isolates A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 strain, the vaccine achieved 12.51 PD50 and 10.05 PD50 per dose (2.8μg), respectively. The results indicated that the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine could protect pigs against both A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 pandemic isolates

  8. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  9. A replication analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine lymphoid tissue might indicate a putative carrier stage in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Calvo Teresa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMVD, one of the most contagious viruses of cloven-hoofed animals, may cause a prolonged, asymptomatic but persistent infection in ruminants, named the "carrier state". However, it remains an open question whether this carrier state occurs in pigs. Here we present quantitative analyses of the duration of FMDV RNA and infectivity in lymphoid and epithelial tissues in experimentally infected pigs with FMDV C-S8c1. The data indicated that although FMDV RNA remained in blood until day 14 post-infection (pi, viremia was cleared by day 7 pi. However, all tissues tested were positive for FMDV until day 14-17 pi. Interestingly, the specific infectivity of FMDV in these tissues was in some cases even higher than the FMDV C-S8c1. We therefore propose that a "pseudopersistent state" may occur in pigs in which virus replicates in lymphoid tissues for a prolonged period of time, thereby representing a potential source of virus.

  10. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  11. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hao-tai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay was developed for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV RNA. The amplification was able to finish in 45 min under isothermal condition at 64°C by employing a set of four primers targeting FMDV 2B. The assay showed higher sensitivity than RT-PCR. No cross reactivity was observed from other RNA viruses including classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Japanese encephalitis virus. Furthermore, the assay correctly detected 84 FMDV positive samples but not 65 FMDV negative specimens. The result indicated the potential usefulness of the technique as a simple and rapid procedure for the detection of FMDV infection.

  12. Rapid typing of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hao-tai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay was rapidly used to detect serotype Asia 1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV within 45 min at 61°C. All FMDV serotype Asia 1 reference strains were positive by RT-LAMP, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes O, C, A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Japanese encephalitis virus remained negative. Furthermore, FMDV sreotype Asia 1 positive samples were able to detect by RT-LAMP assay. This RT-LAMP assay may be suitable particularly for diagnosis of FMDV serotype Asia 1 infection in field stations.

  13. Genetic characterization of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in China and its pathogenesis and inflammatory responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Nan; Cao, Jiyue; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin; Zhou, Hongbo

    2013-09-01

    In 2009, two H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from trachea swabs of pigs in Hubei in China. We compared these sequences with the other 18 complete genome sequences of swine H1N2 isolates from China during 2004 to 2010 and undertook extensive analysis of their evolutionary patterns. Six different genotypes - two reassortants between triple reassortant (TR) H3N2 and classical swine (CS) H1N1 virus, three reassortants between TR H1N2, Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine virus and H9N2 swine virus, and one reassortant between H1N1, H3N2 human virus and CS H1N1 virus - were observed in these 20 swine H1N2 isolates. The TR H1N2 swine virus is the predominant genotype, and the two Hubei H1N2 isolates were located in this cluster. We also used a mouse model to examine the pathogenesis and inflammatory responses of the two isolates. The isolates replicated efficiently in the lung, and exhibited a strong inflammatory response, serious pathological changes and mortality in infected mice. Given the role that swine can play as putative "genetic mixing vessels" and the observed transmission of TR H1N2 in ferrets, H1N2 influenza surveillance in pigs should be increased to minimize the potential threat to public health.

  14. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jolene; O'Donnell, Vivian; Alfano, Marialexia; Velazquez Salinas, Lauro; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Higgs, Stephen; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-10-22

    African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi) showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi). This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN)-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles) and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  15. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Carlson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV. There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4 virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi. This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  16. Induction of Robust Immune Responses in Swine by Using a Cocktail of Adenovirus-Vectored African Swine Fever Virus Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Waghela, Suryakant D; Bray, Jocelyn; Martin, Cameron L; Sangewar, Neha; Charendoff, Chloe; Shetti, Rashmi; Ashley, Clay; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Berghman, Luc R; Mwangi, Duncan; Dominowski, Paul J; Foss, Dennis L; Rai, Sharath; Vora, Shaunak; Gabbert, Lindsay; Burrage, Thomas G; Brake, David; Neilan, John; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2016-11-01

    The African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine, and at present no treatment or vaccine is available. Natural and gene-deleted, live attenuated strains protect against closely related virulent strains; however, they are yet to be deployed and evaluated in the field to rule out chronic persistence and a potential for reversion to virulence. Previous studies suggest that antibodies play a role in protection, but induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) could be the key to complete protection. Hence, generation of an efficacious subunit vaccine depends on identification of CTL targets along with a suitable delivery method that will elicit effector CTLs capable of eliminating ASFV-infected host cells and confer long-term protection. To this end, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an adenovirus-vectored ASFV (Ad-ASFV) multiantigen cocktail formulated in two different adjuvants and at two immunizing doses in swine. Immunization with the cocktail rapidly induced unprecedented ASFV antigen-specific antibody and cellular immune responses against all of the antigens. The robust antibody responses underwent rapid isotype switching within 1 week postpriming, steadily increased over a 2-month period, and underwent rapid recall upon boost. Importantly, the primed antibodies strongly recognized the parental ASFV (Georgia 2007/1) by indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) assay and Western blotting. Significant antigen-specific gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ + ) responses were detected postpriming and postboosting. Furthermore, this study is the first to demonstrate induction of ASFV antigen-specific CTL responses in commercial swine using Ad-ASFV multiantigens. The relevance of the induced immune responses in regard to protection needs to be evaluated in a challenge study. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222 orally inoculated with classical scrapie at birth show no disease at ages well beyond six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication programs in many parts of the world rely on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie in sheep. However, the utility of putative resistance alleles in goats has been a focus of research because goat...

  18. Why is African swine fever still present in Sardinia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, C; Fernández-Carrión, E; Mur, L; Rolesu, S; Laddomada, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease of swine that has been present in Sardinia since 1978. Soon after introduction of the disease, several control and eradication programmes were established with limited success. Some researchers attributed the persistence of the disease in central and eastern areas to certain socio-economic factors, the existence of some local and traditional farming practices (i.e., unregistered free-ranging pigs known as brado animals) and the high density of wild boar in the region. In the past, scarcity of swine data in Sardinia complicated the evaluation and study of ASF on the island. More complete, accurate and reliable information on pig farms has become available as a result of the most recent eradication programmes. Here, we perform statistical modelling based on these data and the known distribution of domestic pig and wild boar to identify the main risk factors that have caused ASF persistence in Sardinia. Our results categorized, identified and quantified nine significant risk factors, six of which have not been previously described. The most significant factors were the number of medium-sized farms, the presence of brado animals and the combination of estimated wild boar density and mean altitude above sea level. Based on these factors, we identified regions in eastern and central Sardinia to be at greatest risk of ASF persistence; these regions are also where the disease has traditionally been endemic. Based on these risk factors, we propose specific control measures aimed at mitigating such risks and eradicating ASF from the island. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity

  20. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Olaf [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity.

  1. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  2. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  3. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  4. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    avH1N1 and H3N2 which is different from the dominating European H1N2 subtype (1). The prevalence of the H1N1pdm09 virus in swine has increased since 2009 in some countries including Denmark. Here we present the results of the national passive surveillance program on influenza in swine performed from...... by the combination of the gene segments hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In most European countries, the avian-like (av)H1N1, the 2009 pandemic variant (H1N1pdm09), H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes have constituted the dominating SIV subtypes during recent years. In Denmark, the H1N2 subtype is a reassortant between......Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined...

  5. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production system representative. In the event of oral notification, written confirmation shall be given as... within a swine production system. Swine moving within a swine production system to other than slaughter... identified in a valid swine production health plan for that swine production system. (2) The swine production...

  6. Specificity Characterization of SLA Class I Molecules Binding to Swine-Origin Viral Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope Peptides in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA class I molecules play a crucial role in generating specific cellular immune responses against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. They mainly bind and present antigens of intracellular origin to circulating MHC I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs. Binding of an appropriate epitope to an SLA class I molecule is the single most selective event in antigen presentation and the first step in the killing of infected cells by CD8+ CTLs. Moreover, the antigen epitopes are strictly restricted to specific SLA molecules. In this study, we constructed SLA class I complexes in vitro comprising viral epitope peptides, the extracellular region of the SLA-1 molecules, and β2-microglobulin (β2m using splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (SOE-PCR. The protein complexes were induced and expressed in an Escherichia coli prokaryotic expression system and subsequently purified and refolded. Specific binding of seven SLA-1 proteins to one classical swine fever virus (CSFV and four porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV epitope peptides was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based method. The SLA-1∗13:01, SLA-1∗11:10, and SLA-1∗11:01:02 proteins were able to bind specifically to different CTL epitopes of CSFV and PRRSV and the MHC restrictions of the five epitopes were identified. The fixed combination of Asn151Val152 residues was identified as the potentially key amino acid residues influencing the binding of viral several CTL epitope peptides to SLA-1∗13:01 and SLA-1∗04:01:01 proteins. The more flexible pocket E in the SLA-1∗13:01 protein might have fewer steric limitations and therefore be able to accommodate more residues of viral CTL epitope peptides, and may thus play a critical biochemical role in determining the peptide-binding motif of SLA-1∗13:01. Characterization of the binding specificity of peptides to SLA class I molecules provides an

  7. Socio-economic impact of African swine fever outbreak of 2011 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With our findings we can conclude that ASF is still an important transboundary animal disease (TAD) with enormous socio-economic impact that requires concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the enforcement of control and preventive measures. Key words: African swine fever, socio-economic impact, seroprevalence, Isoka ...

  8. Causes of death in swine in Jos Area of Plateau State | Osiyemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascariasis and cysticercosis were the main purnsitic diseases. Early treatment of sick swine and improved husbandry and management would have certainly reduced the losses which the pig producers had sustained in consequence of these conditions. Keywords: Pneumonia, Cysticercosis. Colibacillosis, Salmonellosis ...

  9. A Case of Simultaneous, Biopsy-Proven, Classic, ANCA-Positive Wegener's Granulomatosis and Anti-GBM Disease, but without Detectible Circulating Anti-GBM Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Gmurczyk, Aleksandra; Ahya, Shubhada N.; Goldschmidt, Robert; Kim, George; Ho, L. Tammy; Nash, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic, necrotizing, granulomatous vasculitis of unknown etiology. Approximately 75% of cases present as classic WG with both pulmonary and renal involvement, while the remaining 25% of patients present with a limited form with either predominantly upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms. Ninety percent of WG patients have circulating anti–neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), and approximately 10% have both circulating ANCA antibodies and concomitan...

  10. PB1-F2 Protein Does Not Impact the Virulence of Triple-Reassortant H3N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs but Alters Pathogenicity and Transmission in Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Raghunath, Shobana; Leroith, Tanya; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2016-01-01

    PB1-F2 protein, the 11th influenza A virus (IAV) protein, is considered to play an important role in primary influenza virus infection and postinfluenza secondary bacterial pneumonia in mice. The functional role of PB1-F2 has been reported to be a strain-specific and host-specific phenomenon. Its precise contribution to the pathogenicity and transmission of influenza virus in mammalian host, such as swine, and avian hosts, such as turkeys, remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the role of PB1-F2 protein of triple-reassortant (TR) H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) in pigs and turkeys. Using the eight-plasmid reverse genetics system, we rescued wild-type SIV A/swine/Minnesota/1145/2007 (H3N2) (SIV 1145-WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (SIV 1145-KO), and its N66S variant (SIV 1145-N66S). The ablation of PB1-F2 in SIV 1145 modulated early-stage apoptosis but did not affect the viral replication in swine alveolar macrophage cells. In pigs, PB1-F2 expression did not affect nasal shedding, lung viral load, immunophenotypes, and lung pathology. On the other hand, in turkeys, SIV 1145-KO infected poults, and its in-contacts developed clinical signs earlier than SIV 1145-WT groups and also displayed more extensive histopathological changes in intestine. Further, turkeys infected with SIV 1145-N66S displayed poor infectivity and transmissibility. The more extensive histopathologic changes in intestine and relative transmission advantage observed in turkeys infected with SIV 1145-KO need to be further explored. Taken together, these results emphasize the host-specific roles of PB1-F2 in the pathogenicity and transmission of IAV. Novel triple-reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus emerged in 1998 and spread rapidly among the North American swine population. Subsequently, it showed an increased propensity to reassort, generating a range of reassortants. Unlike classical swine influenza virus, TR SIV produces a full-length PB1-F2 protein, which is considered an important

  11. Development and validation of the coronary heart disease scale under the system of quality of life instruments for chronic diseases QLICD-CHD: combinations of classical test theory and Generalizability Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chonghua; Li, Hezhan; Fan, Xuejin; Yang, Ruixue; Pan, Jiahua; Chen, Wenru; Zhao, Rong

    2014-06-04

    Quality of life (QOL) for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is now concerned worldwide with the specific instruments being seldom and no one developed by the modular approach. This paper is aimed to develop the CHD scale of the system of Quality of Life Instruments for Chronic Diseases (QLICD-CHD) by the modular approach and validate it by both classical test theory and Generalizability Theory. The QLICD-CHD was developed based on programmed decision procedures with multiple nominal and focus group discussions, in-depth interview, pre-testing and quantitative statistical procedures. 146 inpatients with CHD were used to provide the data measuring QOL three times before and after treatments. The psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated with respect to validity, reliability and responsiveness employing correlation analysis, factor analyses, multi-trait scaling analysis, t-tests and also G studies and D studies of Genralizability Theory analysis. Multi-trait scaling analysis, correlation and factor analyses confirmed good construct validity and criterion-related validity when using SF-36 as a criterion. The internal consistency α and test-retest reliability coefficients (Pearson r and Intra-class correlations ICC) for the overall instrument and all domains were higher than 0.70 and 0.80 respectively; The overall and all domains except for social domain had statistically significant changes after treatments with moderate effect size SRM (standardized response mea) ranging from 0.32 to 0.67. G-coefficients and index of dependability (Ф coefficients) confirmed the reliability of the scale further with more exact variance components. The QLICD-CHD has good validity, reliability, and moderate responsiveness and some highlights, and can be used as the quality of life instrument for patients with CHD. However, in order to obtain better reliability, the numbers of items for social domain should be increased or the items' quality, not quantity, should be

  12. Classical spins in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K

    1968-08-01

    It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.

  13. Classic-Ada(TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Lois

    1989-01-01

    The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.

  14. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences.

  15. Effects of chronic 90Sr ingestion in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Hackett, P.L.; Lund, J.E.; McClanahan, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Daily 90 Sr feeding of greater than 125 μCi/day resulted in pancytopenia with death usually due to hemorrhage. At 125 μCi, pancytopenia and myelolymphoproliferative disorders appeared. At less than 125 μCi/day a dose-related neutropenia was evident. There is an apparent increased incidence of both benign and malignant tumors of soft tissue in animals fed 25 μCi/day for their lifetime. Benign uterine tumors, dental defects and marked arthritis continued to be the major diseases necessitating euthanasia in aged animals from all groups, including control swine. (U.S.)

  16. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, Robert J; Romberger, Debra J; Roughead, William A; Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Poole, Jill A; LeVan, Tricia D

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance). The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70%) at the phylum level, Clostridia (44%) at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%). In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the bioinformatic analyses

  17. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Boissy

    Full Text Available Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance. The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70% at the phylum level, Clostridia (44% at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%. In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the

  18. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  19. Epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z.Q.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine trichinellosis has been reported in 26 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities (P/A/M of China. The prevalence rate in swine varied from 0.12 % to 34.2 % in five P/A/M, from 0.01 % to 0.0001 % in other P/A/M. The seroepidemiological survey of swine trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA in seven P/A/M, the seroprevalence varied from 0.09 % to 29.63 %. The prevalence of Thchinella infection in pork sold at the market was from 0.29 % to 5.6 % in four provinces. The transmission of trichinellosis by garbage is the main features of epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China. Rat is an important reservoir in the domestic cycle of trichinellosis. The prevalence rates of T. spiralis infection in rats were from 1.98 % to 15.06 % in six provinces or autonomous regions. The treatment-prophylaxis with forage contained albendazole has been applied to the control of swine trichinellosis in Nanyang area of Henan province, the prevalence of swine trichinellosis had decreased from 32.2 % before prophylaxis to 0.12 % after prophylaxis.

  20. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  1. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE... imported into the United States in accordance with § 94.16(b)(3). (Approved by the Office of Management and...

  2. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  3. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  4. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucas; Luo, Kaijian; Olivier, Alicia K; Cunningham, Fred L; Blackmon, Sherry; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Sun, Hailiang; Baroch, John; Lutman, Mark W; Quade, Bianca; Epperson, William; Webby, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3-5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

  6. Supersymmetric classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.N.; Soni, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to construct a supersymmetric Lagrangian within the framework of classical mechanics which would be regarded as a candidate for passage to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. 5 refs. (author)

  7. Mathematical physics classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Knauf, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a limit theory of quantum mechanics, classical dynamics comprises a large variety of phenomena, from computable (integrable) to chaotic (mixing) behavior. This book presents the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and asymptotic completeness in classical scattering. Including a wealth of fascinating examples in physics, it offers not only an excellent selection of basic topics, but also an introduction to a number of current areas of research in the field of classical mechanics. Thanks to the didactic structure and concise appendices, the presentation is self-contained and requires only knowledge of the basic courses in mathematics. The book addresses the needs of graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and physics, and of researchers interested in approaching classical mechanics from a modern point of view.

  8. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  9. Molecular evolution of H1N1 swine influenza in Guangdong, China, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengkai; Huang, Junming; Bu, Dexin; Yu, Zhiqing; Fu, Xinliang; Ji, Chihai; Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Guihong

    2018-06-01

    Swine are the main host of the H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV), however, H1N1 can also infect humans and occasionally cause serious respiratory disease. To trace the evolution of the SIV in Guangdong, China, we performed an epidemic investigation during the period of 2016-2017. Nine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from swine nasal swabs. Antigenic analysis revealed that these viruses belonged to two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/Swine/Guangdong/101/2016 and A/Swine/Guangdong/52/2017. Additionally, three genotypes, known as GD52/17-like, GD493/17-like and GD101/16-like, were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Importantly, the genotypes including a minimum of 4 pdm/09-origin internal genes have become prevalent in China in recent years. A total of 2966 swine serum samples were used to perform hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests, and the results showed that the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/101/16 (32.2% in 2016, 32.1% in 2017) were significantly higher than the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/52/17 (18.0% in 2016, 16.7% in 2017). Our study showed that the three reassortant genotypes of H1N1 SIV currently circulating in China are stable, but H1N1pdm09 poses challenges to human health by the introduction of internal genes into these reassortant genotypes. Strengthening SIV surveillance is therefore critical for SIV control and minimizing its potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  11. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  12. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  13. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  14. Evaluation of strategies for the eradication of Pseudorabies virus (Aujeszky's disease) in commercial swine farms in Chiang-Mai and Lampoon Provinces, Thailand, using a simulation disease spread model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketusing, N; Reeves, A; Portacci, K; Yano, T; Olea-Popelka, F; Keefe, T; Salman, M

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies for eradicating Pseudorabies virus (Aujeszky's disease) in Chiang-Mai and Lampoon Provinces, Thailand, were compared using a computer simulation model, the North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM). The duration of the outbreak, the number of affected herds and the number of destroyed herds were compared during these simulated outbreaks. Depopulation, zoning for restricted movement and improved detection and vaccination strategies were assessed. The most effective strategies to eradicate Pseudorabies as per the findings from this study are applying depopulation strategies with MOVEMENT RESTRICTIONS in 3-, 8- and 16-km ZONES surrounding infected herds and enhancing the eradication with vaccination campaign on 16-km radius surrounding infected herds. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. [Swine influenza virus: evolution mechanism and epidemic characterization--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian; Lu, Chengping

    2009-09-01

    Pigs may play an important role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A virus. The tracheal epithelium of pigs contain both SA alpha 2,6 Gal and SA alpha 2,3 Gal receptors and can be infected with swine, human and avian viruses, therefore, pigs have been considered as an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of genetically reassortant viruses. Evolution patterns among swine influenza viruses including evolution of host adaptation, antigenic drift and genetic reassortment, and the latter is the main one. Unlike human influenza viruses, swine viruses have different epizootiological patterns in different areas of world, which is enzootic and geographic dependence. Currently, three predominant subtypes of influenza virus are prevalent in pig populations worldwide: H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2, and these include classical swine H1N1, avian-like H1N1, human-like H3N2, reassortant H3N2 and various genotype H1N2 viruses. In Europe, North America and China, influenza A viruses circulating in pigs are distinct in the genetic characteristics and genetic sources. Since 1979, three subtypes, avian-like H1N1, reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, have been co-circulating in European swine. Before 1998, classical H1N1 viruses were the exclusive cause of swine influenza in North America. However, after that, three triple-reassortant H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses with genes of human, swine and avian virus began to emerge in pigs. Genetically, the pandemic viruses emerging in human, so called influenza A (H1N1) viruses, contain genes from both Europe and North American SIV lineages. SIV is not the same as Europe and the United States in the prevalence and genetic background in China, mainly classical swine H1N1 and human-like H3N2 type virus. However, in recent years, SIV from Europe and North America have been introduced into Chinese pig herds, so more attention should be given on the evolutionary of SIV in China

  16. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  17. Use of Temperature, Humidity, and Slaughter Condemnation Data to Predict Increases in Transport Losses in Three Classes of Swine and Resulting Foregone Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erik; Remmenga, Marta; Hagerman, Amy D; Akkina, Judy E

    2017-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) conducts weekly surveillance of slaughter condemnation rates to provide early warning for emerging diseases and to monitor health trends in swine. Swine deaths in-transit are an animal welfare concern and represent lost revenue for the swine industry. This retrospective observational study used ambient temperature and humidity data from weather stations near United States slaughter plants collected from 2010 to 2015 to predict the incidence and risk of death among swine in-transit and just prior to slaughter. The risk of death for market swine at a heat index (HI), which combines the effects of temperature and humidity, indicating moderately hot weather conditions between 85 and 92°F was 1.37 times greater than that of the baseline temperature range of 54-79°F. The risk of death for cull sows at an HI between 85 and 92°F was 1.93 times greater than that of average temperatures ranging from 54 to 79°F. Roaster swine (weigh temperature of 54-79°F. The risk of death for roaster swine at a minimum temperature between 40 and 50°F was 1.21 times greater than that of average temperatures ranging from 54 to 79°F. The risk of death for market swine at a minimum temperature range of 40-50°F was 0.97 times that of average temperatures ranging from 54 to 79°F. And for cull sows, the risk of death at a minimum temperature range of 40-50°F was 0.81 times the risk at the average temperature ranging from 54 to 79°F. Across the study period, cumulative foregone revenue, or revenue not realized due to swine condemnations, for all swine was $18.6 million and $4.3 million for cold temperatures and high HI ranges above the baseline, respectively. Marginal foregone revenue per hog in hotter months is higher due to seasonal peaks in swine prices. As a result of this study, the USDA-APHIS swine condemnation surveillance can incorporate weekly estimated HI values and ambient

  18. The progressive adaptation of a georgian isolate of African swine fever virus to vero cells leads to a gradual attenuation of virulence in swine corresponding to major modifications of the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Peter W; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Reese, Bo; Sanford, Brenton; Fernandez-Sainz, Ignacio; Gladue, Douglas P; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis; Risatti, Guillermo R; Borca, Manuel V

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and often lethal disease of feral and domestic swine. Experimental vaccines derived from naturally occurring, genetically modified, or cell culture-adapted ASFV have been evaluated, but no commercial vaccine is available to control African swine fever (ASF). We report here the genotypic and phenotypic analysis of viruses obtained at different passages during the process of adaptation of a virulent ASFV field isolate from the Republic of Georgia (ASFV-G) to grow in cultured cell lines. ASFV-G was successively passaged 110 times in Vero cells. Viruses obtained at passages 30, 60, 80, and 110 were evaluated in vitro for the ability to replicate in Vero cells and primary swine macrophages cultures and in vivo for assessing virulence in swine. Replication of ASFV-G in Vero cells increased with successive passages, corresponding to a decreased replication in primary swine macrophages cultures. In vivo, progressive loss of virus virulence was observed with increased passages in Vero cells, and complete attenuation of ASFV-G was observed at passage 110. Infection of swine with the fully attenuated virus did not confer protection against challenge with virulent parental ASFV-G. Full-length sequence analysis of each of these viruses revealed significant deletions that gradually accumulated in specific areas at the right and left variable ends of the genome. Mutations that result in amino acid substitutions and frameshift mutations were also observed, though in a rather limited number of genes. The potential importance of these genetic changes in virus adaptation/attenuation is discussed. The main problem in controlling ASF is the lack of vaccines. Attempts to produce vaccines by adaptation of ASFV to cultured cell lines have been made. These attempts led to the production of attenuated viruses that conferred only homologous protection. Specifics regarding adaptation of these isolates to cell cultures have been

  19. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-01-01

    Background The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. Findings The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decrease...

  20. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  1. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  2. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  3. The CLASSIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Iselin, F Christoph

    1996-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Clas Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty.

  4. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  5. The classical nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab

  6. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  7. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  8. Evidence for Cross-species Influenza A Virus Transmission Within Swine Farms, China: A One Health, Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Anderson, Benjamin D; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Lednicky, John A; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-02-01

    Our understanding of influenza A virus transmission between humans and pigs is limited. Beginning in 2015, we used a One Health approach and serial sampling to prospectively study 299 swine workers and 100 controls, their 9000 pigs, and 6 pig farm environments in China for influenza A viruses (IAVs) using molecular, culture, and immunological techniques. Study participants were closely monitored for influenza-like illness (ILI) events. Upon enrollment, swine workers had higher serum neutralizing antibody titers against swine H1N1 and higher nasal wash total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and specific IgA titers against swine H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Over a period of 12 months, IAVs were detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in 46 of 396 (11.6%) environmental swabs, 235 of 3300 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 of 396 (5.8%) water, 20 of 396 (5.1%) aerosol, and 19 of 396 (4.8%) fecal-slurry specimens. Five of 32 (15.6%) participants with ILI events had nasopharyngeal swab specimens that were positive for IAV, and 17 (53.1%) demonstrated 4-fold rises in neutralization titers against a swine virus. Reassorted Eurasian avian-lineage H1N1, A(H1N1)pdm09-like, and swine-lineage H3N2 viruses were identified in pig farms. The A(H1N1)pdm09-like H1N1 viruses identified in swine were nearly genetically identical to the human H1N1 viruses isolated from the participants with ILI. There was considerable evidence of A(H1N1)pdm09-like, swine-lineage H1N1, and swine-lineage H3N2 viruses circulating, likely reassorting, and likely crossing species within the pig farms. These data suggest that stronger surveillance for novel influenza virus emergence within swine farms is imperative. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir People with Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are ...

  10. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds.

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Swine Influenza Vaccine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1 and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR chains, known as the “shared epitope”, which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the “shared epitope” may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  12. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Sandbulte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

  13. Genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian and swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5-10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19. The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND. Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson′s disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  15. Classical Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Judith W.

    2009-01-01

    The article identifies some key findings in pedagogical research over recent decades, placing them within a framework of logical curriculum development and current practice in quality assurance and enhancement. Throughout, the ideas and comments are related to the practice of teaching classics in university. (Contains 1 figure and 3 notes.)

  16. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  17. Classical solutions in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaklini, N.S.; Ferrara, S.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.

    1977-06-01

    Classical solutions of supergravity are obtained by making finite global supersymmetry rotation on known solutions of the field equations of the bosonic sector. The Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstoem solutions of general relativity are extended to various supergravity systems and the modification to the perihelion precession of planets is discussed

  18. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  19. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  20. Teaching Tomorrow's Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)

  1. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  2. Complicated diverticular disease of the colon, do we need to change the classical approach, a retrospective study of 110 patients in southeast England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas Gokulakkrishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complicated diverticular disease of the colon imposes a serious risk to patient's life, challenge to surgeons and has cost implications for health authority. The aim of this study is to evaluate the management outcome of complicated colonic diverticular disease in a district hospital and to explore the current strategies of treatment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all patients who were admitted to the surgical ward between May 2002 and November 2006 with a diagnosis of complicated diverticular disease. A proforma of patients' details, admission date, ITU admission, management outcomes and the follow up were recorded from the patients case notes and analyzed. The mean follow-up was 34 months (range 6–60 months Results The mean age of patients was 72.7 years (range 39–87 years. Thirty-one men (28.18 % and Seventy-nine women (71.81% were included in this study. Male: female ratio was 1:2.5. Sixty-eight percent of patients had one or more co-morbidities. Forty-one patients (37.27% had two or more episodes of diverticulitis while 41.8% of them had no history of diverticular disease. Eighty-six percent of patients presented with acute abdominal pain while bleeding per rectum was the main presentation in 14%. Constipation and erratic bowel habit were the commonest chronic symptoms in patients with history of diverticular disease. Generalized tenderness was reported in 64.28% while 35.71% have left iliac fossa tenderness. Leukocytosis was reported in 58 patients (52.72%. The mean time from the admission until the start of operative intervention was 20.57 hours (range 4–96 hours. Perforation was confirmed in 59.52%. Mortality was 10.90%. Another 4 (3.63% died during follow up for other reasons. Conclusion Complicated diverticular disease carries significant morbidity and mortality. These influenced by patient-related factors. Because of high mortality and morbidities, we suggest the need to target a specific group of

  3. Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Essa, M.; Ozand, P.T.; Rashed, M.

    1998-01-01

    Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

  4. Antigenically Diverse Swine Origin H1N1 Variant Influenza Viruses Exhibit Differential Ferret Pathogenesis and Transmission Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Jones, Joyce; Sun, Xiangjie; Jang, Yunho; Thor, Sharmi; Belser, Jessica A; Zanders, Natosha; Creager, Hannah M; Ridenour, Callie; Wang, Li; Stark, Thomas J; Garten, Rebecca; Chen, Li-Mei; Barnes, John; Tumpey, Terrence M; Wentworth, David E; Maines, Taronna R; Davis, C Todd

    2018-06-01

    Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat, as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed. Antigenic analysis of the virus isolated from the fatal case, A/Ohio/09/2015, demonstrated significant antigenic drift away from the classical swine H1N1 variant viruses and H1N1 pandemic 2009 viruses. A substitution in the H1 hemagglutinin (G155E) was identified that likely impacted antigenicity, and reverse genetics was employed to understand the molecular mechanism of antibody escape. Reversion of the substitution to 155G, in a reverse genetics A/Ohio/09/2015 virus, showed that this residue was central to the loss of hemagglutination inhibition by ferret antisera raised against a prototypical H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (A/California/07/2009), as well as gamma lineage classical swine H1N1 viruses, demonstrating the importance of this residue for antibody recognition of this H1 lineage. When analyzed in the ferret model, A/Ohio/09/2015 and another H1N1v virus, A/Iowa/39/2015, as well as A/California/07/2009, replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract of ferrets. The two H1N1v viruses transmitted efficiently among cohoused ferrets, but respiratory droplet transmission studies showed that A/California/07/2009 transmitted through the air more efficiently. Preexisting immunity to A/California/07/2009 did not fully protect ferrets from challenge with A/Ohio/09/2015. IMPORTANCE Human infections with classical swine influenza A(H1N1) viruses that circulate in pigs continue to occur in the United States following exposure to swine. To

  5. Characterization of influenza a outbreaks in Minnesota swine herds and measures taken to reduce the risk of zoonotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A; Johnson, S; Davies, P; Bender, J; Gramer, M

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus infections commonly cause respiratory disease in swine and can be transmitted between people and pigs, with potentially novel strains introduced into herds and spilling back into the human population. The goals of this study were to characterize influenza infections in Minnesota pigs and assess biosecurity measures used by swine workers. Veterinarians submitting influenza-positive swine samples to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between October 2007 and April 2009 were surveyed regarding disease-related information and biosecurity procedures at each farm. Influenza-positive samples were submitted year-round, peaking in spring and fall. H1N1 was the most commonly detected subtype (56%), followed by H3N2 (14%) and H1N2 (12%). Most positive submissions were associated with illness in growing pigs (median age 8.8 weeks, IQR 5-15). Median morbidity and mortality were 25% (IQR 10-48) and 2% (IQR 0.5-3.5), respectively. Vaccination of sows and growing pigs was conducted at 71% and 7.9% of the swine farms, respectively. Specialized footwear was reported as the most common form of protective equipment used by workers. Employee vaccination for seasonal influenza was 19%. The sow vaccination rate in this study is consistent with national data, although growing pig vaccination is lower than the national average. Seasonal and age trends identified here may provide diagnostic guidance when growing pigs experience respiratory disease. Inconsistent use of protective equipment and employee vaccination at swine farms indicates the need for further discussion and research of approaches to minimize interspecies influenza transmission on swine farms. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus. Since 2000, Genotype 4 HEV has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China. Recent reports showed that genotype 4 HEV is freely transmitted between humans and swine in eastern and southern China. However, the infection status of HEV in human and swine populations in central China is still unclear. This study was conducted in a rural area of central China, where there are many commercial swine farms. A total of 1476 serum and 554 fecal specimens were collected from the general human and swine populations in this area, respectively. The seroepidemiological study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conserved genomic sequences of open reading frame 2 were detected using reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the overall viral burden of the general human subjects was 0.95% (14/1476, while 7.0% (39/554 of the swine excreted HEV in stool. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum samples was 7.9% (117/1476 and 1.6% (24/1476, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 150 nt partial sequence of the capsid protein gene showed that the 53 swine and human HEV isolates in the current study all belonged to genotype 4, clustering into three major groups. However, the HEV isolates prevalent in the human and swine populations were classified into known distinct subgenotypes, which suggested that no cross-species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this area. This result was confirmed by cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid protein gene sequence of three representative HEV strains in the three major groups. The cross reactivity between anti-HEV IgG from human sera and the two representative strains from swine in

  7. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  8. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA... Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the library lapsed on September 30, 2005. On October 5, 2006... maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for the purchase of...

  9. Alternative risk financing instruments for swine epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Swine epidemics can have very large devastating financial consequences. Governments generally bear the direct losses, such as the value of destroyed animals. Consequential losses, such as the losses resulting from empty buildings and movement standstills, are completely borne by the farmers (and

  10. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  11. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  12. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  13. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  14. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of swine with spontaneous influenza A infection in Brazil, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane T.N. Watanabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study

  15. An Investigation into the Etiological Agents of Swine Dysentery in Australian Pig Herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status. This study investigated whether cases of SD in Australia may be caused by the newly described species; how isolates of B. hyodysenteriae recovered from healthy herds compared to isolates from herds with disease; and how contemporary isolates compare to those recovered in previous decades, including in their plasmid gene content and antimicrobial resistance profiles. In total 1103 fecal and colon samples from pigs in 97 Australian herds were collected and tested. Of the agents of SD only B. hyodysenteriae was found, being present in 34 (35.1% of the herds, including in 14 of 24 (58% herds that had been considered to be free of SD. Multilocus sequence typing applied to 96 isolates from 30 herds and to 53 Australian isolates dating from the 1980s through the early 2000s showed that they were diverse, distinct from those reported in other countries, and that the 2014/16 isolates generally were different from those from earlier decades. These findings provided evidence for ongoing evolution of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Australia. In seven of the 20 herds where multiple isolates were available, two to four different sequence types (STs were identified. Isolates with the same STs also were found in some herds with epidemiological links. Analysis of a block of six plasmid virulence-associated genes showed a lack of consistency between their presence or absence and their origin from herds currently with or without disease; however

  16. Classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Classical field theory, which concerns the generation and interaction of fields, is a logical precursor to quantum field theory, and can be used to describe phenomena such as gravity and electromagnetism. Written for advanced undergraduates, and appropriate for graduate level classes, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to field theories, with a focus on their relativistic structural elements. Such structural notions enable a deeper understanding of Maxwell's equations, which lie at the heart of electromagnetism, and can also be applied to modern variants such as Chern–Simons and Born–Infeld. The structure of field theories and their physical predictions are illustrated with compelling examples, making this book perfect as a text in a dedicated field theory course, for self-study, or as a reference for those interested in classical field theory, advanced electromagnetism, or general relativity. Demonstrating a modern approach to model building, this text is also ideal for students of theoretic...

  17. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  18. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, F. Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  19. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  20. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  1. Invitation to classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differ

  2. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    1958-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  3. Generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometrical study of Classical Mechanics shows that the Hamiltonian (respectively, Lagrangian) formalism may be characterized by intrinsical structures canonically defined on the cotangent (respectively, tangent) bundle of a differentiable manifold. A generalized formalism for higher order Lagrangians is developed. Then the Hamiltonian form of the theory is developed. Finally, the Poisson brackets are defined and the conditions under which a mapping is a canonical transformation are studied. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this type of mechanics is established. (Auth.)

  4. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  5. Satellite tracking and geospatial analysis of feral swine and their habitat use in Louisiana and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stephen B.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Goatcher, Buddy L.

    2012-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) is an invasive species that was first introduced to the continental United States in the 1500s by European explorers. Also known as feral hogs or feral pigs, the animals typically weigh about 200 pounds (up to 400 pounds), have characteristic tusks up to 3 inches long, are territorial, and live in groups, except for the boars, who are solitary and typically interact with sows only to breed. They have an average litter size of 5-6 piglets and occasionally two litters per year, and because they have few natural predators, survival of their young can be nearly 100 percent. Because of the detrimental impacts of this invasive species---including rooting, damaging agricultural lands, competing for food with and destroying the habitats of native animals, and spreading diseases and parasites---many public lands implement feral swine control programs on an annual basis. This activity is not enough to control or prevent an increase in swine populations, however, because of their distribution beyond the boundaries of public lands. Currently, little is known about feral swine populations, their habitat use and movement patterns, and the resulting habitat destruction in Louisiana and Mississippi. To abate this lack of knowledge, researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC)---in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, and several large landholding companies---are using collars equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to track feral swine in Louisiana and Mississippi to examine population movement patterns, document destruction of habitat and wildlife, and help increase and facilitate removal. The NWRC researchers are using the "Judas pig" system of attaching GPS-satellite telemetry collars to select feral swine to (1) track movement patterns on the landscape, (2) document habitat destruction and effects on native wildlife, and (3) improve

  6. Characterization of the fecal microbiome in different swine groups by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Jinu; Lee, Jong-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Hongik

    2014-08-01

    Swine have a complex microbial community within their gastrointestinal tract that plays a critical role in both health and disease. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used to identify the possible core microorganisms in the gut of swine groups that differ in meat quality and weight grades (level 1 as higher meat quality and level 2 as lower meat quality). Samples were taken from the rectum and/or stool from ten animals, DNA was extracted, and the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified. Two bacterial populations (Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) dominated and were shared between the two groups. Significant differences between the groups were found at the genus level. The genera Lactobacillus and Oscillibacter were found in slightly higher proportions in the level 2 group (12.6 and 12.4% of the classified reads, respectively) than those of level 1 (9.6 and 7.7%, respectively). By contrast, the proportion of reads assigned to the genus Roseburia in the level 1 group (13.0%) was higher than that of level 2 (4.8%). The largest differences were related to the genera Clostridium, Oscillibacter, and Roseburia as core microorganisms. Moreover, two genera, Roseburia and Clostridium, related to level 1 produced linoleic acid or short chain fatty acids that might contribute to swine health and development. In conclusion, the presence of core bacteria in the swine gut is associated with meat quality with reduced body fat in swine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  8. Role of Coronary Myogenic Response in Pressure-Flow Autoregulation in Swine: A Meta-Analysis With Coronary Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Gregory M.; Namani, Ravi; Patel, Bhavesh; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2018-01-01

    Myogenic responses (pressure-dependent contractions) of coronary arterioles play a role in autoregulation (relatively constant flow vs. pressure). Publications on myogenic reactivity in swine coronaries vary in caliber, analysis, and degree of responsiveness. Further, data on myogenic responses and autoregulation in swine have not been completely compiled, compared, and modeled. Thus, it has been difficult to understand these physiological phenomena. Our purpose was to: (a) analyze myogenic data with standard criteria; (b) assign results to diameter categories defined by morphometry; and (c) use our novel multiscale flow model to determine the extent to which ex vivo myogenic reactivity can explain autoregulation in vivo. When myogenic responses from the literature are an input for our model, the predicted coronary autoregulation approaches in vivo observations. More complete and appropriate data are now available to investigate the regulation of coronary blood flow in swine, a highly relevant model for human physiology and disease. PMID:29875686

  9. Role of Coronary Myogenic Response in Pressure-Flow Autoregulation in Swine: A Meta-Analysis With Coronary Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Dick

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Myogenic responses (pressure-dependent contractions of coronary arterioles play a role in autoregulation (relatively constant flow vs. pressure. Publications on myogenic reactivity in swine coronaries vary in caliber, analysis, and degree of responsiveness. Further, data on myogenic responses and autoregulation in swine have not been completely compiled, compared, and modeled. Thus, it has been difficult to understand these physiological phenomena. Our purpose was to: (a analyze myogenic data with standard criteria; (b assign results to diameter categories defined by morphometry; and (c use our novel multiscale flow model to determine the extent to which ex vivo myogenic reactivity can explain autoregulation in vivo. When myogenic responses from the literature are an input for our model, the predicted coronary autoregulation approaches in vivo observations. More complete and appropriate data are now available to investigate the regulation of coronary blood flow in swine, a highly relevant model for human physiology and disease.

  10. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J.M.; Muñoz, P.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data

  11. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J. M.; Muñoz, P. M.; De Jong, M. C M

    2016-01-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data

  12. CDC Recommendations to Reduce the Risk of H3N2v Flu Virus Infection for Fairgoers and Swine Exhibitors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-10

    In this podcast, Dr. Lyn Finelli discusses CDC’s recommendations for reducing the risk of infection with H3N2v flu viruses for fairgoers and swine exhibitors.  Created: 9/10/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/10/2012.

  13. Classical algebraic chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    I develop an extension of the usual equations of SU(n) chromodynamics which permits the consistent introduction of classical, noncommuting quark source charges. The extension involves adding a singlet gluon, giving a U(n) -based theory with outer product P/sup a/(u,v) = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc)(u/sup b/v/sup c/ - v/sup b/u/sup c/) which obeys the Jacobi identity, inner product S (u,v) = (1/2)(u/sup a/v/sup a/ + v/sup a/u/sup a/), and with the n 2 gluon fields elevated to algebraic fields over the quark color charge C* algebra. I show that provided the color charge algebra satisfies the condition S (P (u,v),w) = S (u,P (v,w)) for all elements u,v,w of the algebra, all the standard derivations of Lagrangian chromodynamics continue to hold in the algebraic chromodynamics case. I analyze in detail the color charge algebra in the two-particle (qq, qq-bar, q-barq-bar) case and show that the above consistency condition is satisfied for the following unique (and, interestingly, asymmetric) choice of quark and antiquark charges: Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi/sup a/, Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi-bar/sup a/ + delta/sup a/0(n/2)/sup 3/2/1, with xi/sup a/xi/sup b/ = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc) xi/sup c/, xi-bar/sup a/xi-bar/sup b/ = -(1/2)(d/sup a/bc - if/sup a/bc) xi-bar/sup c/. The algebraic structure of the two-particle U(n) force problem, when expressed on an appropriately diagonalized basis, leads for all n to a classical dynamics problem involving an ordinary SU(2) Yang-Mills field with uniquely specified classical source charges which are nonparallel in the color-singlet state. An explicit calculation shows that local algebraic U(n) gauge transformations lead only to a rigid global rotation of axes in the overlying classical SU(2) problem, which implies that the relative orientations of the classical source charges have physical significance

  14. H1N1 influenza ('swine 'flu') in the paediatric ICU in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schoub B. Swine flu – implications for South Africa. Communicable Diseases Surveillance. Bulletin 2009;7(3):5-7. 5. Ahrens JO, Morrow BM, Argent AC. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in critically ill children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit, South Africa. S Afr J Crit Care 2015;31(1):4-7. 6. Cox CM, Blanton L, Dhara R, ...

  15. Why aortic elasticity differs among classical and non-classical mitral valve prolapsed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Murat; Demirkol, Sait; Aparci, Mustafa; Arslan, Zekeriya; Balta, Sevket; Dogan, Umuttan; Kilicarslan, Baris; Ozeke, Ozcan; Celik, Turgay; Iyisoy, Atila

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular heart disease and characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. There are two types of MVP, broadly classified as classic (thickness ≥5 mm) and non-classic (thickness elastic properties of the aorta in young male patients with classical and non-classical MVP. In the present study, 63 young adult males (mean age: 22.7 ± 4.2) were included. Patients were divided into classic MVP (n = 27) and non-classic MVP (n = 36) groups. Aortic strain, aortic distensibility and aortic stiffness index were calculated by using aortic diameters obtained by echocardiography and blood pressures measured by sphygmomanometer. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, body mass index, left ventricular mass and ejection fraction. When comparing the MVP group it was found that aortic strain and aortic distensibility were increased (p = 0.0027, p = 0.016, respectively) whereas the aortic stiffness index was decreased (p = 0.06) in the classical MVP group. We concluded that the elastic properties of the aorta is increased in patients with classic MVP. Further large scale studies should be performed to understand of morphological and physiological properties of the aorta in patients with MVP.

  16. Genetic analysis and antigenic characterization of swine origin influenza viruses isolated from humans in the United States, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Garten, Rebecca; Emery, Shannon; Balish, Amanda; Cooper, Lynn; Sessions, Wendy; Deyde, Varough; Smith, Catherine; Berman, LaShondra; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen; Xu, Xiyan

    2012-01-05

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been recognized as important pathogens for pigs and occasional human infections with swine origin influenza viruses (SOIV) have been reported. Between 1990 and 2010, a total of twenty seven human cases of SOIV infections have been identified in the United States. Six viruses isolated from 1990 to 1995 were recognized as classical SOIV (cSOIV) A(H1N1). After 1998, twenty-one SOIV recovered from human cases were characterized as triple reassortant (tr_SOIV) inheriting genes from classical swine, avian and human influenza viruses. Of those twenty-one tr_SOIV, thirteen were of A(H1N1), one of A(H1N2), and seven of A(H3N2) subtype. SOIV characterized were antigenically and genetically closely related to the subtypes of influenza viruses circulating in pigs but distinct from contemporary influenza viruses circulating in humans. The diversity of subtypes and genetic lineages in SOIV cases highlights the importance of continued surveillance at the animal-human interface. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. How commercial and non-commercial swine producers move pigs in Scotland: a detailed descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-06-25

    The impact of non-commercial producers on disease spread via livestock movement is related to their level of interaction with other commercial actors within the industry. Although understanding these relationships is crucial in order to identify likely routes of disease incursion and transmission prior to disease detection, there has been little research in this area due to the difficulties of capturing movements of small producers with sufficient resolution. Here, we used the Scottish Livestock Electronic Identification and Traceability (ScotEID) database to describe the movement patterns of different pig production systems which may affect the risk of disease spread within the swine industry. In particular, we focused on the role of small pig producers. Between January 2012 and May 2013, 23,169 batches of pigs were recorded moving animals between 2382 known unique premises. Although the majority of movements (61%) were to a slaughterhouse, the non-commercial and the commercial sectors of the Scottish swine industry coexist, with on- and off-movement of animals occurring relatively frequently. For instance, 13% and 4% of non-slaughter movements from professional producers were sent to a non-assured commercial producer or to a small producer, respectively; whereas 43% and 22% of movements from non-assured commercial farms were sent to a professional or a small producer, respectively. We further identified differences between producer types in several animal movement characteristics which are known to increase the risk of disease spread. Particularly, the distance travelled and the use of haulage were found to be significantly different between producers. These results showed that commercial producers are not isolated from the non-commercial sector of the Scottish swine industry and may frequently interact, either directly or indirectly. The observed patterns in the frequency of movements, the type of producers involved, the distance travelled and the use of haulage

  18. Algorithm for the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with cross reactive immunologic material-negative classic infantile pompe disease: a step towards improving the efficacy of ERT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhrad G Banugaria

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT is a highly effective therapy, CRIM-negative (CN infantile Pompe disease (IPD patients typically mount a strong immune response which abrogates the efficacy of ERT, resulting in clinical decline and death. This study was designed to demonstrate that immune tolerance induction (ITI prevents or diminishes the development of antibody titers, resulting in a better clinical outcome compared to CN IPD patients treated with ERT monotherapy. METHODS: We evaluated the safety, efficacy and feasibility of a clinical algorithm designed to accurately identify CN IPD patients and minimize delays between CRIM status determination and initiation of an ITI regimen (combination of rituximab, methotrexate and IVIG concurrent with ERT. Clinical and laboratory data including measures of efficacy analysis for response to ERT were analyzed and compared to CN IPD patients treated with ERT monotherapy. RESULTS: Seven CN IPD patients were identified and started on the ITI regimen concurrent with ERT. Median time from diagnosis of CN status to commencement of ERT and ITI was 0.5 months (range: 0.1-1.6 months. At baseline, all patients had significant cardiomyopathy and all but one required respiratory support. The ITI regimen was safely tolerated in all seven cases. Four patients never seroconverted and remained antibody-free. One patient died from respiratory failure. Two patients required another course of the ITI regimen. In addition to their clinical improvement, the antibody titers observed in these patients were much lower than those seen in ERT monotherapy treated CN patients. CONCLUSIONS: The ITI regimen appears safe and efficacious and holds promise in altering the natural history of CN IPD by increasing ERT efficacy. An algorithm such as this substantiates the benefits of accelerated diagnosis and management of CN IPD patients, thus, further supporting the importance of early identification and treatment

  19. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  20. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  1. First survey on canine leishmaniasis in a non classical area of the disease in Spain (Lleida, Catalonia) based on a veterinary questionnaire and a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, Cristina; Alcover, M Magdalena; Picado, Albert; Nieto, Javier; Castillejo, Soledad; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish distribution of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is heterogeneous and very few data are available for the north of the country, including the province of Lleida (Catalonia, Spain). This work describes the results obtained from a questionnaire sent to veterinarians throughout the province of Lleida. The majority of veterinarians (25/32, 78.1%) believed CanL cases were increasing and that the dogs had been infected locally (30/32, 93.8%). Also, a cross-sectional study was performed on the seroprevalence of CanL in kennel dogs, with and without compatible clinical signs, in the county of Pallars Sobirà (Pyrenees of Lleida), where an autochthonous case of CanL had been previously detected. Four serological tests were used (IFAT, ELISA, Western blot, ICF) and dogs that tested positive with at least two immunological methods were considered seropositive and probably infected. 33.1% (48/145) of the dogs were seropositive. The results of a mixed logistic regression model showed that the risk of seropositivity increased with age (OR=1.35, p-value=0.002), among dogs living in the southern part of Pallars Sobirà (OR=6.20, p-value=0.025) and among dogs whose owners considered their animals to be at risk of leishmaniasis infection (OR=1.26, p-value=0.024) and who were unaware of anti-sand fly preventive methods (OR=11.6, p-value=0.009). The risk decreased when dogs lived in an urban-periurban habitat (OR=0.17, p-value=0.002). The information gathered in the veterinary questionnaires helped us to define the knowledge, perception and awareness of the disease in a naïve region, supporting the hypothesis of an existing CanL focus in Pallars Sobirà, which was confirmed by the seroepidemiological survey. The seroprevalence study carried out on kennel dogs of local origin proved useful for detecting an autochthonous focus of leishmaniasis through the analysis of a small number of animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  3. Two different genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in northern China and their pathogenicity in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Chuantian; Yan, Minghua; Xin, Xiaoguang; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2015-02-25

    During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal proteins were compared with the existing data to determine their origins and establish the likely mechanisms of genetic reassortment. Sw/Hebei/10/06 is an Sw/Indiana/9K035/99-like virus, whereas Sw/Tianjin/1/07 represents a new H1N2 genotype with surface genes of classic swine and human origin and internal genes originating from the Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 virus. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice infected with the Sw/HeB/10/06 and Sw/TJ/1/07 viruses showed an average weight loss of 12.8% and 8.1%, respectively. Healthy six-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with either the Sw/HeB/10/06 or Sw/TJ/1/07 virus. No considerable changes in the clinical presentation were observed post-inoculation in any of the virus-inoculated groups, and the viruses effectively replicated in the nasal cavity and lung tissue. Based on the results, it is possible that the new genotype of the swine H1N2 virus that emerged in China may become widespread in the swine population and pose a potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  5. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  6. Classical dynamics on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, F.; Gaspard, P.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the classical evolution of a particle on a graph by using a time-continuous Frobenius-Perron operator that generalizes previous propositions. In this way, the relaxation rates as well as the chaotic properties can be defined for the time-continuous classical dynamics on graphs. These properties are given as the zeros of some periodic-orbit zeta functions. We consider in detail the case of infinite periodic graphs where the particle undergoes a diffusion process. The infinite spatial extension is taken into account by Fourier transforms that decompose the observables and probability densities into sectors corresponding to different values of the wave number. The hydrodynamic modes of diffusion are studied by an eigenvalue problem of a Frobenius-Perron operator corresponding to a given sector. The diffusion coefficient is obtained from the hydrodynamic modes of diffusion and has the Green-Kubo form. Moreover, we study finite but large open graphs that converge to the infinite periodic graph when their size goes to infinity. The lifetime of the particle on the open graph is shown to correspond to the lifetime of a system that undergoes a diffusion process before it escapes

  7. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  8. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  9. Therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water on experimentally transmitted swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A H

    1978-07-01

    Three experimental studies were conducted in 232 growing pigs (8 to 12 weeks old) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water, against swine dysentery experimentally transmitted, by oral inoculation or by contact-commingling exposure. Four or 5 concentrations of lincomycin were used in each experiment (132, 66, 33, 16.5 or 0.0 mg/L of drinking water). Medication was initiated 7 to days after exposure and was continued for 6 to 10 days. Both methods of exposure were capable of transmitting the disease successfully. A more marked dose response was noticed in pigs inoculated orally than in pigs that were exposed by contact. All concentrations of lincomycin were effective for the treatment of swine dysentery by oral or by contact exposure. At the smaller concentration of 16.5 mg/L of drinking water, lincomycin was less effective for treating the disease than it was at greater concentrations. The suggested optimal concentration was 33 mg of lincomycin/L of drinking water for the treatment of swine dysentery.

  10. Factors Associated with Salmonella Prevalence in U.S. Swine Grower-Finisher Operations, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Kathe E; Fields, Victoria; Garber, Lindsey P; Kopral, Christine A

    2018-05-15

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U.S. grower-finisher swine operations and investigate associations between Salmonella detection and numerous factors via multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and regression analysis. MCA plots, complementary to univariate analyses, display relationships between covariates and Salmonella detection at the farm level. In the univariate analysis, Salmonella detection varied with feed characteristics and farm management practices, reports of diseases on farms and vaccinations administered, and administration of certain antimicrobials. Results from the univariate analysis reinforce the importance of biosecurity in managing diseases and pathogens such as Salmonella on farms. All multivariable regression models for the likelihood of Salmonella detection were strongly affected by multicollinearity among variables, and only one variable, pelleted feed preparation, remained in the final model. The study was limited by its cross-sectional nature, timelines of data collection, and reliance on operator-reported data via a convenience sample.

  11. Colistin resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains isolated from swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Adriano Savoia; Fragoso de Araújo, Juliana; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Túlio; Reis Costa, Adrienny Trindade; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; de Lima Filsner, Pedro Henrique Nogueira; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; Micke Moreno, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Reports about acquired resistance to colistin in different bacteria species are increasing, including E. coli of animal origin, but reports of resistance in wild S. enterica of different serotypes from swine are not found in the literature. Results obtained with one hundred and twenty-six E. coli strains from diseased swine and one hundred and twenty-four S. enterica strains from diseased and carrier swine showed a frequency of 6.3% and 21% of colistin-resistant strains, respectively. When comparing the disk diffusion test with the agar dilution test to evaluate the strains, it was confirmed that the disk diffusion test is not recommended to evaluate colistin resistance as described previously. The colistin MIC 90 and MIC 50 values obtained to E. coli were 0.25 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, the MIC 90 and MIC 50 to S. enterica were 1 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL. Considering the importance of colistin in control of nosocomial human infections with Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, and the large use of this drug in animal production, the colistin resistance prevalence in enterobacteriaceae of animal origin must be monitored more closely.

  12. Identification of a new genotype of African swine fever Virus in domestic pigs from Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, J.E.; Gallardo, C.; Nieto-Pelegrín, E.; Rivera-Arroyo, B.; Degefa-Negi, T.; Arias, M.; Jenberie, S.; Mulisa, D.D.; Gizaw, D.; Gelaye, E.; Chibssa, T.R.; Belaye, A.; Loitsch, A.; Forsa, M.; Yami, M.; Diallo, A.; Soler, A.; Lamien, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: African swine fever (ASF) is an important emerging transboundary animal disease (TAD), which currently has an impact on many countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. The current situation in Europe shows the ability of the virus to rapidly spread, which stands to threaten the global swine industry. At present, there is no viable vaccine to minimize spread of the disease and stamping out is the main source of control. In February 2011, Ethiopia had reported its first suspected outbreaks of ASF. Genomic analyses of the collected ASF virus (ASFV) strains were undertaken using 23 tissue samples collected from domestic swine in Ethiopia from 2011 to 2014. The analysis of Ethiopian ASFVs partial p72 gene sequence showed the identification of a new genotype, genotype XXIII that shares a common ancestor with genotypes IX and X, which comprise isolates circulating in Eastern African countries and the Republic of Congo. Analysis of the p54 gene also followed the p72 pattern and the deduced amino acid sequence of the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene showed novel tetramer repeats not previously characterized. (author)

  13. Diagnosis of swine dysentery: spirochaetes which may be confused with Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M J; Alexander, T J; Lysons, R J

    Spirochaetes, designated PWS, microscopically resembling Treponema hyodysenteriae, were isolated from the colon contents of pigs with post-weaning scours from three herds, which on clinical and epidemiological grounds were thought to be free from swine dysentery. One of the isolates was fed to pigs experimentally but no evidence of disease was noted. Their cultural characteristics differed from those of T hyodysenteriae but they were similar to those of a non-pathogenic spirachaete (4/71) which had been isolated previously from the laboratory's dysentery-free herd. Smears prepared from cultures of the PWS spirochaete, 4/71 and two virulent and one avirulent strain of T hyodysenteriae were all positive to a fluorescent antibody test which was in use as an aid to the diagnosis of swine dysentery in the United Kingdom.

  14. Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) in humans in the United States, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vivek; Bridges, Carolyn B; Uyeki, Timothy M; Shu, Bo; Balish, Amanda; Xu, Xiyan; Lindstrom, Stephen; Gubareva, Larisa V; Deyde, Varough; Garten, Rebecca J; Harris, Meghan; Gerber, Susan; Vagasky, Susan; Smith, Forrest; Pascoe, Neal; Martin, Karen; Dufficy, Deborah; Ritger, Kathy; Conover, Craig; Quinlisk, Patricia; Klimov, Alexander; Bresee, Joseph S; Finelli, Lyn

    2009-06-18

    Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses--containing genes from avian, human, and swine influenza viruses--emerged and became enzootic among pig herds in North America during the late 1990s. We report the clinical features of the first 11 sporadic cases of infection of humans with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, occurring from December 2005 through February 2009, until just before the current epidemic of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) among humans. These data were obtained from routine national influenza surveillance reports and from joint case investigations by public and animal health agencies. The median age of the 11 patients was 10 years (range, 16 months to 48 years), and 4 had underlying health conditions. Nine of the patients had had exposure to pigs, five through direct contact and four through visits to a location where pigs were present but without contact. In another patient, human-to-human transmission was suspected. The range of the incubation period, from the last known exposure to the onset of symptoms, was 3 to 9 days. Among the 10 patients with known clinical symptoms, symptoms included fever (in 90%), cough (in 100%), headache (in 60%), and diarrhea (in 30%). Complete blood counts were available for four patients, revealing leukopenia in two, lymphopenia in one, and thrombocytopenia in another. Four patients were hospitalized, two of whom underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Four patients received oseltamivir, and all 11 recovered from their illness. From December 2005 until just before the current human epidemic of swine-origin influenza viruses, there was sporadic infection with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses in persons with exposure to pigs in the United States. Although all the patients recovered, severe illness of the lower respiratory tract and unusual influenza signs such as diarrhea were observed in some patients, including

  15. Rab1A is required for assembly of classical swine fever virus particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jihui; Wang, Chengbao; Liang, Wulong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Longxiang; Lv, Huifang; Dong, Wang; Zhang, Yanming

    2018-01-15

    Rab1A belongs to the small Rab GTPase family and is involved in the lifecycle of numerous viruses. Here, knockdown of Rab1A inhibited CSFV growth. Further study revealed that Rab1A depletion decreased intracellular and extracellular CSFV titers, but did not affect intracellular virus genome copies and E2 protein expression within a virus lifecycle, which suggested that Rab1A is required for CSFV particle assembly rather than for genome replication or virion release. This was proofed by blocking the spread of virus using neutralizing antibodies, through which the negative effects of Rab1A knockdown on multi-cycle replication of CSFV were eliminated. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy assays showed that Rab1A bound to CSFV NS5A protein, indicating that Rab1A and viral NS5A proteins may work cooperatively during CSFV particle assembly. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that Rab1A is required for CSFV particle assembly and binds to viral particle assembly-related NS5A protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    between strains, however, lymphoid atrophy and growth retardation represented a consistent finding for all 4 strains. Virus distribution, viral load and in particular virus persistence differed, but supported present practice that recommends lymphoid tissue, most optimal tonsil and lymph nodes, as target...... material to be applied for early laboratory diagnosis. The present study demonstrated constraints associated with early detection of infections with CSFV strains of low virulence. Since neither clinical symptoms nor pathological lesions observed with these strains constituted characteristic signs of CSF...

  17. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifer, I; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D

    2010-01-01

    to study virus spread and evolutionary history in German wild boar. For the first time, the results of our study clearly argue for the possibility of a long-term persistence of genotype 2.3 CSFV strains in affected regions at an almost undetectable level, even after long-term oral vaccination campaigns...

  18. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  19. Classical and quantum ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously. (paper)

  20. Classical mechanics with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This textbook takes a broad yet thorough approach to mechanics, aimed at bridging the gap between classical analytic and modern differential geometric approaches to the subject. Developed by the authors from over 30 years of teaching experience, the presentation is designed to give students an overview of the many different models used through the history of the field—from Newton to Hamilton—while also painting a clear picture of the most modern developments. The text is organized into two parts. The first focuses on developing the mathematical framework of linear algebra and differential geometry necessary for the remainder of the book. Topics covered include tensor algebra, Euclidean and symplectic vector spaces, differential manifolds, and absolute differential calculus. The second part of the book applies these topics to kinematics, rigid body dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, Hamilton–Jacobi theory, completely integrable systems, statistical mechanics of equilibrium, and impulsive dyna...

  1. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  2. Quantum models of classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájíček, P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (paper)

  3. Biotherapeutics as alternatives to antibiotics: effects of adenoviral delivered IFN-alpha and G-CSF on innate and adaptive immunity in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acceptable alternatives to the use of antibiotics in swine practice need to be explored. The use of immunomodulators is a promising area for therapeutic, prophylactic, and metaphylactic use to prevent and combat infectious disease during periods of peak disease incidence. We developed a method to ci...

  4. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  5. Investigations of significance of vaccination against swine parvovirosis in persistently infected sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupulović Diana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvoviral infection of swine is a disease which is manifested in reproductive disorders in sows and gilts in the form of anestria, premature births, miscarriages, mummified fetuses, the birth of poorly vital piglets and/or a reduced number of piglets in the litter. The infection is present in farms with intensive breeding conditions in the form of an endemic infection, all over the world, and also in our country. Timely diagnostics and adequate prophylaxis prevent the occurrence and spread of this disease. Experimental investigations covered 21 sows, divided into two experimental and a third, the control, group. Animals of the first experimental group were vaccinated once before exposure to the boar using an inactivated vaccine, Porcilis Parvo, and animals of the second experimental group were vaccinated twice at an interval of 3 weeks, also using an inactivated vaccine, Parvovax. Sows of the control group were not vaccinated. Blood samples were taken from all animals four times during the course of the experiment, and specific antibodies against the swine parvovirus were determined using the method of hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. The results of the investigations indicate that there was an increase in the titre of specific antibodies following the vaccination of persistently infected sows with the swine parvivirus, and that the present antibodies did not prevent the creating of an immune response. It was established following a comparison of the geometric mean values of antibody titres of vaccinated sows that there was a significant increase in the antibody level following the two vaccinations using the Parvovax vaccine, against the titre values in sows vaccinated once with the Porcilis Parvo vaccine. In control animals, the average value of the antibody level was many times lower in comparison with the established values in the experimental groups. This provides justification for the implementation of immunoprophylaxis against swine

  6. Expression Dynamics of Innate Immunity in Influenza Virus-Infected Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Amadori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current circulating swine influenza virus (IV subtypes in Europe (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are associated with clinical outbreaks of disease. However, we showed that pigs could be susceptible to other IV strains that are able to cross the species barrier. In this work, we extended our investigations into whether different IV strains able to cross the species barrier might give rise to different innate immune responses that could be associated with pathological lesions. For this purpose, we used the same samples collected in a previous study of ours, in which healthy pigs had been infected with a H3N2 Swine IV and four different H3N8 IV strains circulating in different animal species. Pigs had been clinically inspected and four subjects/group were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 21 days post infection. In the present study, all groups but mock exhibited antibody responses to IV nucleoprotein protein. Pulmonary lesions and high-titered viral replication were observed in pigs infected with the swine-adapted virus. Interestingly, pigs infected with avian and seal H3N8 strains also showed moderate lesions and viral replication, whereas equine and canine IVs did not cause overt pathological signs, and replication was barely detectable. Swine IV infection induced interferon (IFN-alpha and interleukin-6 responses in bronchoalveolar fluids (BALF at day 3 post infection, as opposed to the other non-swine-adapted virus strains. However, IFN-alpha responses to the swine-adapted virus were not associated with an increase of the local, constitutive expression of IFN-alpha genes. Remarkably, the Equine strain gave rise to a Serum Amyloid A response in BALF despite little if any replication. Each virus strain could be associated with expression of cytokine genes and/or proteins after infection. These responses were observed well beyond the period of virus replication, suggesting a prolonged homeostatic imbalance of the innate immune system.

  7. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  8. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  9. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result indicates that the sulfur-packed biofilter would be used as an efficient option for denitrification by autotrophic denitrifiers during swine wastewater treatment. Key words: Biological nitrogen removal, nitrification, denitrification, chemical oxygen demand (COD), intermittent aeration, sulfur-packed bed reactor, swine ...

  10. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to quarantine... of any import permit. The facilities occupied by swine should be kept clean and sanitary to the... described in paragraph (b) of this section. The importer, or his or her agent, shall request in writing such...

  11. Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity

  12. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  13. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  14. Classical tokamak transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Aldo

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative treatment of the classical transport theory of a magnetically confined, toroidal, axisymmetric, two-species plasma is presented. The 'weakly collisional' ('banana' and 'plateau') and 'collision dominated' ('Pfirsch-Schlueter' and 'highly collisional') regimes, as well as the Ware effect are discussed. The method used to evaluate the diffusion coffieicnts of particles and heat in the weakly collisional regime is based on stochastic argument, that requires an analysis of the characteristic collision frequencies and lengths for particles moving in a tokamak-like magnetic field. The same method is used to evaluate the Ware effect. In the collision dominated regime on the other hand, the particle and heat fluxes across the magnetic field lines are dominated by macroscopic effects so that, although it is possible to present them as diffusion (in fact, the fluxes turn out to be proportional to the density and temperature gradients), a macroscopic treatment is more appropriate. Hence, fluid equations are used to inveatigate the collision dominated regime, to which particular attention is devoted, having been shown relatively recently that it is more complicated than the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The whole analysis presented here is qualitative, aiming to point out the relevant physical mechanisms involved in the various regimes more than to develop a rigorous mathematical derivation of the diffusion coefficients, for which appropriate references are given. (author)

  15. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  16. Quantum symmetries of classical spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Jyotishman; Goswami, Debashish; Roy, Subrata Shyam

    2009-01-01

    We give a general scheme for constructing faithful actions of genuine (noncommutative as $C^*$ algebra) compact quantum groups on classical topological spaces. Using this, we show that: (i) a compact connected classical space can have a faithful action by a genuine compact quantum group, and (ii) there exists a spectral triple on a classical connected compact space for which the quantum group of orientation and volume preserving isometries (in the sense of \\cite{qorient}) is a genuine quantum...

  17. Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.

  18. Classical Antipyretic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a contemporary view on the mechanisms of fever development in infectious diseases in children, characterized adverse effects of antipyretic agents, which should be taken into consideration in differentiated selection of the preparation. The choice of ibuprofen in the treatment of hyperthermic syndrome in children is substantiated.

  19. Coronavirus in Pigs: Significance and Presentation of Swine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Piñeros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to study general aspects of the main coronaviruses affecting pigs, their presentation in Colombia, and particular aspects of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, emerging in different countries and generating a great impact on the health and economy of the swine industry. The main coronaviruses affecting swine are porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV, PEDV, and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV. Long ago in Colombia there had been reports of TGEV and PRCV associated with the importation of animals from the United States, which was controlled in the infected farms and in quarantine units. PEDV was first detected in Colombia in mid-March 2014; the Colombian Agricultural Institute issued a health alert in Neiva (Huila, Fusagasugá and Silvania (Cundinamarca, and Puerto López (Meta due to the unusual presentation of epidemic vomiting and diarrhea in young and adult animals, abortion in pregnant sows, with high mortality rates (up to 100% in animals during the first week of age. At present the disease has been reported in other municipalities of the country as well as in different countries with similar clinical conditions and mortality rates in pigs with high economic losses for the swine sector.

  20. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylodynamics and evolutionary epidemiology of African swine fever p72-CVR genes in Eurasia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Moh A; Gallardo, Carmina; Jurado, Cristina; Soler, Alejandro; Arias, Marisa; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a complex infectious disease of swine that constitutes devastating impacts on animal health and the world economy. Here, we investigated the evolutionary epidemiology of ASF virus (ASFV) in Eurasia and Africa using the concatenated gene sequences of the viral protein 72 and the central variable region of isolates collected between 1960 and 2015. We used Bayesian phylodynamic models to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the virus, to identify virus population demographics and to quantify dispersal patterns between host species. Results suggest that ASFV exhibited a significantly high evolutionary rate and population growth through time since its divergence in the 18th century from East Africa, with no signs of decline till recent years. This increase corresponds to the growing pig trade activities between continents during the 19th century, and may be attributed to an evolutionary drift that resulted from either continuous circulation or maintenance of the virus within Africa and Eurasia. Furthermore, results implicate wild suids as the ancestral host species (root state posterior probability = 0.87) for ASFV in the early 1700s in Africa. Moreover, results indicate the transmission cycle between wild suids and pigs is an important cycle for ASFV spread and maintenance in pig populations, while ticks are an important natural reservoir that can facilitate ASFV spread and maintenance in wild swine populations. We illustrated the prospects of phylodynamic methods in improving risk-based surveillance, support of effective animal health policies, and epidemic preparedness in countries at high risk of ASFV incursion.

  2. Normal Values for Heart Electrophysiology Parameters of Healthy Swine Determined on Electrophysiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Cepiel, Alicja; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Gajek, Jacek; Pasławska, Urszula; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are a well-recognized animal model for human cardiovascular diseases. Despite the widespread use of porcine model in experimental electrophysiology, still no reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) have been developed in this species thus far. The aim of the study was to develop a set of normal values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive EPS of swine. The study included 36 healthy domestic swine (24-40 kg body weight). EPS was performed under a general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol and isoflurane. The reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters were calculated as arithmetic means ± 2 standard deviations. The reference values were determined for AH, HV and PA intervals, interatrial conduction time at its own and imposed rhythm, sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), anterograde and retrograde Wenckebach points, atrial, atrioventricular node and ventricular refractory periods. No significant correlations were found between body weight and heart rate of the examined pigs and their electrophysiological parameters. The hereby presented reference values can be helpful in comparing the results of various studies, as well as in more accurately estimating the values of electrophysiological parameters that can be expected in a given experiment.

  3. Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  5. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding

  6. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  7. Serologic Survey for Selected Viral and Bacterial Swine Pathogens in Colombian Collared Peccaries ( Pecari tajacu) and Feral Pigs ( Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Olga L; Roncancio, Nestor; Soler-Tovar, Diego; Cortés-Duque, Jimena; Contreras-Herrera, Jorge; Sabogal, Sandra; Acevedo, Luz Dary; Navas-Suárez, Pedro Enrique

    2018-06-14

    In South America, wild populations of peccaries coexist with domestic and feral pigs, with poorly understood consequences. We captured 58 collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu) and 15 feral pigs ( Sus scrofa) in locations of Colombia where coexistence of these species is known. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against four viral agents, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus (PCV-2), and vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey and Indiana subtypes) and two bacterial agents, Brucella spp. and six serovars of Leptospira interrogans. The prevalence of CSFV was 5% (3/58) in collared peccaries and 7% (1/15) in feral pigs. The prevalence of PCV-2 was 7% (1/15) in collared peccaries and 67% (2/3) in feral pigs. Vesicular stomatitis prevalence was 33% (8/24) in collared peccaries and 67% (4/6) in feral pigs. Leptospira prevalence was 78% (39/50) in collared peccary and 100% (8/8) in feral pigs; bratislava, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona were the most frequent serovars. Also, the only white-lipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari) sampled was positive for L. interrogans serovar bratislava and for vesicular stomatitis virus, New Jersey strain. No samples were positive for ADV or Brucella. The seroprevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans was similar to that observed in other studies. Icterohaemorrhagiae appears to be a common serovar among in situ and ex situ peccary populations. Positive antibodies against PVC-2 represent a novel report of exposure to this pathogen in Colombian peccaries. Our results indicate the possible transmission of various pathogens, important for pig farms, in the studied pig and peccaries.

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Davies, Peter R; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered "Brachyspira hampsonii," have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Roles of African swine fever virus structural proteins in viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a large, double-stranded DNA virus and the sole member of the Asfarviridae family. ASFV infects domestic pigs, wild boars, warthogs, and bush pigs, as well as soft ticks (Ornithodoros erraticus, which likely act as a vector. The major target is swine monocyte-macrophage cells. The virus can cause high fever, haemorrhagic lesions, cyanosis, anorexia, and even fatalities in domestic pigs. Currently, there is no vaccine and effective disease control strategies against its spread are culling infected pigs and maintaining high biosecurity standards. African swine fever (ASF spread to Europe from Africa in the middle of the 20th century, and later also to South America and the Caribbean. Since then, ASF has spread more widely and thus is still a great challenge for swine breeding. The genome of ASFV ranges in length from about 170 to 193 kbp depending on the isolate and contains between 150 and 167 open reading frames (ORFs. The ASFV genome encodes 150 to 200 proteins, around 50 of them structural. The roles of virus structural proteins in viral infection have been described. These proteins, such as pp220, pp62, p72, p54, p30, and CD2v, serve as the major component of virus particles and have roles in attachment, entry, and replication. All studies on ASFV proteins lay a good foundation upon which to clarify the infection mechanism and develop vaccines and diagnosis methods. In this paper, the roles of ASFV structural proteins in viral infection are reviewed.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:27252458

  11. Constitutive modeling of the passive inflation-extension behavior of the swine colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh; Chen, Huan; Ahuja, Aashish; Krieger, Joshua F; Noblet, Jillian; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we propose the first structural constitutive model of the passive mechanical behavior of the swine colon that is validated against physiological inflation-extension tests, and accounts for residual strains. Sections from the spiral colon and the descending colon were considered to investigate potential regional variability. We found that the proposed constitutive model accurately captures the passive inflation-extension behavior of both regions of the swine colon (coefficient of determination R 2 =0.94±0.02). The model revealed that the circumferential muscle layer does not provide significant mechanical support under passive conditions and the circumferential load is actually carried by the submucosa layer. The stress analysis permitted by the model showed that the colon tissue can distend up to 30% radially without significant increase in the wall stresses suggesting a highly compliant behavior of the tissue. This is in-line with the requirement for the tissue to easily accommodate variable quantities of fecal matter. The analysis also showed that the descending colon is significantly more compliant than the spiral colon, which is relevant to the storage function of the descending colon. Histological analysis showed that the swine colon possesses a four-layer structure similar to the human colon, where the longitudinal muscle layer is organized into bands called taeniae, a typical feature of the human colon. The model and the estimated parameters can be used in a Finite Element framework to conduct simulations with realistic geometry of the swine colon. The resulting computational model will provide a foundation for virtual assessment of safe and effective devices for the treatment of colonic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of novel swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV from Gwalior, India, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Jyoti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1pandemic virus is a newly emergent human influenza A virus that is closely related to a number of currently circulating pig viruses in the 'classic North American' and 'Eurasian' swine influenza virus lineages and thus referred as S-OIV. Since the first reports of the virus in humans in April 2009, H1N1 virus has spread to 168 countries and overseas territories. India also witnessed severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity and mortality in different parts starting from May 2009. Findings The suspected swine flu outbreak from Gwalior India during October- December 2009 was confirmed through S-OIV HA gene specific RT-LAMP and real time RT-PCR. Positive samples through CDC real time and Lamp assay were further processed for isolation of the virus. Full HA gene sequencing of the H1N1 isolates of Gwalior, India revealed 99% homology with California and other circulating novel swine flu viruses. Three major changes were observed at nucleotide level, while two major amino acid shifts were observed at the position C9W and I30M corresponding to the ORF with prototype strain. The HA gene sequence phylogeny revealed the circulation of two genetically distinct lineages belonging to Clade VII and Clade I of S-OIV. Conclusions Our findings also supported the earlier report about circulation of mixed genogroups of S-OIV in India. Therefore continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of this newly emergent virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country.

  13. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  14. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3–4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1–2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  15. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the ‘gold standard’ for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3 ± 0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0 ± 0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3 ± 1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature. PMID:27657715

  16. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  17. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  18. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  19. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired by ...

  20. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  1. Classical models for Regge trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Van Dam, H.; Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.; Samuel, J.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two classical models for particles with internal structure and which describe Regge trajectories are developed. The remarkable geometric and other properties of the two internal spaces are highlighted. It is shown that the conditions of positive time-like four-velocity and energy momentum for the classical system imply strong and physically reasonable conditions on the Regge mass-spin relationship

  2. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  3. 'Leonard pairs' in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhedanov, Alexei; Korovnichenko, Alyona

    2002-01-01

    Leonard pairs (LP) are matrices with the property of mutual tri-diagonality. We introduce and study a classical analogue of LP. We show that corresponding classical 'Leonard' dynamical variables satisfy non-linear relations of the AW-type with respect to Poisson brackets. (author)

  4. Quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.

  5. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are "mixing vessels," and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses.

  6. Classicalization of Gravitons and Goldstones

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We establish a close parallel between classicalization of gravitons and derivatively-coupled Nambu-Goldstone-type scalars. We show, that black hole formation in high energy scattering process represents classicalization with the classicalization radius given by Schwarzschild radius of center of mass energy, and with the precursor of black hole entropy being given by number of soft quanta composing this classical configuration. Such an entropy-equivalent is defined for scalar classicalons also and is responsible for exponential suppression of their decay into small number of final particles. This parallel works in both ways. For optimists that are willing to hypothesize that gravity may indeed self-unitarize at high energies via black hole formation, it illustrates that the Goldstones may not be much different in this respect, and they classicalize essentially by similar dynamics as gravitons. In the other direction, it may serve as an useful de-mystifier of via-black-hole-unitarization process and of the role...

  7. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  8. Development and validation of the irritable bowel syndrome scale under the system of quality of life instruments for chronic diseases QLICD-IBS: combinations of classical test theory and generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pingguang; Lei, Guanghe; Tian, Jianjun; Zhou, Zengfen; Zhao, Miao; Wan, Chonghua

    2014-10-01

    This paper is aimed to develop the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) scale of the system of Quality of Life Instruments for Chronic Diseases (QLICD-IBS) by the modular approach and validate it by both classical test theory and generalizability theory. The QLICD-IBS was developed based on programmed decision procedures with multiple nominal and focus group discussions, in-depth interview, and quantitative statistical procedures. One hundred twelve inpatients with IBS were used to provide the data measuring QOL three times before and after treatments. The psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated with respect to validity, reliability, and responsiveness employing correlation analysis, factor analyses, multi-trait scaling analysis, t tests and also G studies and D studies of generalizability theory analysis. Multi-trait scaling analysis, correlation, and factor analyses confirmed good construct validity and criterion-related validity when using SF-36 as a criterion. Test-retest reliability coefficients (Pearson r and intra-class correlation (ICC)) for the overall score and all domains were higher than 0.80; the internal consistency α for all domains at two measurements were higher than 0.70 except for the social domain (0.55 and 0.67, respectively). The overall score and scores for all domains/facets had statistically significant changes after treatments with moderate or higher effect size standardized response mean (SRM) ranging from 0.72 to 1.02 at domain levels. G coefficients and index of dependability (Ф coefficients) confirmed the reliability of the scale further with more exact variance components. The QLICD-IBS has good validity, reliability, responsiveness, and some highlights and can be used as the quality of life instrument for patients with IBS.

  9. Characterization of dendritic cells subpopulations in skin and afferent lymph in the swine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marquet

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous delivery of vaccines to specific skin dendritic cells (DC subsets is foreseen as a promising strategy to induce strong and specific types of immune responses such as tolerance, cytotoxicity or humoral immunity. Because of striking histological similarities between human and pig skin, pig is recognized as the most suitable model to study the cutaneous delivery of medicine. Therefore improving the knowledge on swine skin DC subsets would be highly valuable to the skin vaccine field. In this study, we showed that pig skin DC comprise the classical epidermal langerhans cells (LC and dermal DC (DDC that could be divided in 3 subsets according to their phenotypes: (1 the CD163(neg/CD172a(neg, (2 the CD163(highCD172a(pos and (3 the CD163(lowCD172a(pos DDC. These subtypes have the capacity to migrate from skin to lymph node since we detected them in pseudo-afferent lymph. Extensive phenotyping with a set of markers suggested that the CD163(high DDC resemble the antibody response-inducing human skin DC/macrophages whereas the CD163(negCD172(low DDC share properties with the CD8(+ T cell response-inducing murine skin CD103(pos DC. This work, by showing similarities between human, mouse and swine skin DC, establishes pig as a model of choice for the development of transcutaneous immunisation strategies targeting DC.

  10. [Phylogenetic analysis of human/swine/avian gene reassortant H1N2 influenza A virus isolated from a pig in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixiang; Meng, Xueqiong; Liu, Qi; Huang, Xia; Huang, Shengbin; Liu, Cuiquan; Shi, Kaichuang; Guo, Jiangang; Chen, Fangfang; Hu, Liping

    2008-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the genetic characterization and probable origin of the H1N2 swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangxi/13/2006) (Sw/GX/13/06) from lung tissue of a pig in Guangxi province, China. Eight genes of Sw/GX/13/06 were cloned and genetically analyzed. The hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M) and non-structural (NS) genes of Sw/GX/13/06 were most closely related to genes from the classical swine H1N1 influenza virus lineage. The neuraminidase (NA) and PB1 genes were most closely related to the corresponding genes from the human influenza H3N2 virus lineage. The remaining two genes PA and PB2 polymerase genes were most closely related to the genes from avian influenza virus lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Sw/GX/13/06 was a human/swine/avian H1N2 virus, and closely related to H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in United States (1999-2001) and Korea (2002). To our knowledge, Sw/GX/13/06 was the first triple-reassortant H1N2 influenza A virus isolated from a pig in China. Whether the Sw/GX/13/06 has a potential threat to breeding farm and human health remains to be further investigated.

  11. Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortment

  12. Macroenvironment effects on oocytes and embryos in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, G R; Vinsky, M D; Paradis, F; Tse, W-Y; Town, S C; Putman, C T; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T

    2007-09-01

    As in other domestic mammals, the interaction between genotype and environment in swine has profound effects on the ultimate phenotype of the individual born. Interactions within the litter in utero add an additional level of complexity in a litter-bearing species like the pig. Nutritional manipulations during the preovulatory period affect the maturity of the follicle and enclosed oocyte, and the metabolic and endocrine mechanisms potentially mediating these effects have been described. Extensive research on lactational catabolism in the first parity sow has established an association between the development of immature follicles and oocytes, and the reduced fertility of these sows when bred at the first postweaning estrus. This negative impact of lactational catabolism appears to be exaggerated in contemporary dam-lines by a minimal delay between weaning and first estrus, further limiting the maturity of the follicle and oocyte at the time of ovulation. Metabolic programming may induce gender-specific loss of embryos by Day 30 and affects embryonic development directly, without significant effects on placental size. In contrast, inadvertent crowding of embryos in utero, particularly evident in a sub-population of mature sows with high ovulation rates and moderate to high embryonic survival to Day 30, significantly limits placental development of crowded litters. However, even at Day 30, moderate crowding in utero also appears to affect myogenesis in the embryo in a gender-specific manner. In the absence of compensatory placental growth after Day 30, classic measures of IUGR are evident in surviving fetuses at Day 90 and at term.

  13. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  14. Regional patterns of genetic diversity in swine influenza A viruses in the United States from 2010 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Rasna R; Anderson, Tavis K; Vincent, Amy L

    2018-04-06

    Regular spatial and temporal analyses of the genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine informs control efforts and improves animal health. Initiated in 2009, the USDA passively surveils IAV in U.S. swine, with a focus on subtyping clinical respiratory submissions, sequencing at minimum the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes, and sharing these data publicly. In this study, our goal was to quantify and describe regional and national patterns in the genetic diversity and evolution of IAV in U.S. swine from 2010 to 2016. A comprehensive phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of publicly available HA and NA genes generated by the USDA surveillance system collected from January 2010 to December 2016 was conducted. The dominant subtypes and genetic clades detected during the study period were H1N1 (H1-γ/1A.3.3.3, N1-classical, 29%), H1N2 (H1-δ1/1B.2.2, N2-2002, 27%), and H3N2 (H3-IV-A, N2-2002, 15%), but many other minor clades were also maintained. Year-round circulation was observed, with a primary epidemic peak in October-November and a secondary epidemic peak in March-April. Partitioning these data into 5 spatial zones revealed that genetic diversity varied regionally and was not correlated with aggregated national patterns of HA/NA diversity. These data suggest that vaccine composition and control efforts should consider IAV diversity within swine production regions in addition to aggregated national patterns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment rates for injectable tiamulin and lincomycin as an estimate of morbidity in a swine herd with endemic swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Krysia; Friendship, Robert; Brockoff, Egan; Greer, Amy; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2017-05-01

    Treatment can be used as an indirect measure of morbidity, and treatment records can be used to describe disease patterns in a population. The aim of this study was to describe the rates of treatments with tiamulin and lincomycin by the intramuscular route in cohorts of pigs affected by swine dysentery. Data from treatment records from 19 cohorts of a 1500-head grower-finisher barn were analyzed using Poisson regression to determine factors associated with rates of treatment. Serial interval and reproductive numbers were extracted. Treatment rates displayed marked seasonality. The mean serial interval was estimated at 17 d with variability among batches. In the early period of most cohorts, the effective reproductive number did not exceed 1, and the highest estimate was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.46, 3.20). The average days-to-first treatment was 4.8 which suggests that pigs could have been infected at time of entry. The information about possible sources of infection and likely seasonality should be considered when developing disease and infection control measures in affected barns.

  16. Loire Classics: Reviving Classicism in some Loire Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Verbaal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'Loire poets' has come to refer to a rather undefinable group of poets that in the second half of the eleventh century distinguishes itself through its refined poetics. They are often characterized as medieval humanists thanks to their renewed interest in the classics. Sometimes their movement is labelled a 'classicist' one. But what does this 'classicism' mean? Is it even permitted to speak of medieval 'classicisms'? This contribution approaches the question of whether we can apply this modern label to pre-modern phenomena. Moreover, it explores the changes in attitude towards the classics that sets the Loire poets off from their predecessors and contemporaries. The article focuses on poems by Hildebert of Lavardin, Baudri of Bourgueil, Marbod of Rennes, and Geoffrey of Reims. They are compared with some contemporary poets, such as Reginald of Canterbury and Sigebert of Gembloux.

  17. Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meter, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classica...

  18. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  19. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Duerrwald

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain in two independent trials. In each trial (i 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection, (ii another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  20. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® Treatment – Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601