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Sample records for disease ckd patients

  1. Disease management programs for CKD patients: the potential and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Michael V

    2009-03-01

    Disease management describes the use of a number of approaches to identify and treat patients with chronic health conditions, especially those that are expensive to treat. Disease management programs have grown rapidly in the United States in the past several years. These programs have been established for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some have been discontinued because of the high cost of the program. Disease management programs for CKD face unique challenges. Identification of patients with CKD is hampered by incomplete use of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for CKD by physicians and the less than universal use of estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine measurements to identify patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). CKD affects multiple organ systems. Thus, a comprehensive disease management program will need to manage each of these aspects of CKD. These multiple interventions likely will make a CKD disease management program more costly than similar disease management programs designed for patients with diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, or other chronic diseases. The lack of data that can be used to develop effective disease management programs in CKD makes it difficult to determine goals for the management of each organ system affected by CKD. Finally, long periods of observation will be needed to determine whether a particular disease management program is effective in not only improving patient outcomes, but also decreasing both resource use and health care dollars. This long-term observation period is contrary to how most disease management contracts are written, which usually are based on meeting goals during a 1- to 3-year period. Until these challenges are resolved, it likely will be difficult to maintain effective disease management programs for CKD.

  2. Refusal of dialysis amongst patients of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, M.; Khan, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the refusal of dialysis amongst patients of chronic kidney disease presenting for the first time for dialysis in uremic condition. Study Design: Cross sectional Study. Place and Duration of the Study: Outpatient department of Nephrology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore from 1 st Jan 2012 to 31 st December 2012. Patients and Methods: Patients of CKD due to any cause presenting with uremia for the first time for dialysis were included in the study. History and physical examination was done and demographic data was collected in pre designed form. Patients were offered for dialysis while explaining to them the advantages of getting and disadvantages of not getting dialysis. Patient's response on the offer was recorded and the reason for the refusal were noted. Results: According to the criteria 150 patients were included in the study. Most of the patients were male 92 (61.3%) and illiterate 78 (52.0%). Major cause of CKD was diabetes mellitus 58 (38.7%) followed by hypertension 38 (25.3%). Mean age of the patients was 42.59 ± 13.72 year and income of themost of the patients 126 (84%) was less than US$100/-month. Most of the patients 126 (77.0%) were asked about the need of dialysis in less than three months, 61 (41.3%) offered for the first time and amongst them 85 (54.0%) were offered dialysis already. Majority of the patients 101 (67.3%) refused dialysis when it was offered to them for the first time. Major reason of the refusal was fear of dialysis procedure in 76 (76%) patients followed by treatment by spiritual 14 (14%) and alternative ways and others 11 (11 %). Middle age persons refused dialysis significantly. (author)

  3. Risk factors for CKD progression in Japanese patients: findings from the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) study.

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    Inaguma, Daijo; Imai, Enyu; Takeuchi, Ayano; Ohashi, Yasuo; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Akizawa, Tadao; Matsuo, Seiichi; Makino, Hirofumi; Hishida, Akira

    2017-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) eventually progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, risk factors associated with CKD progression have not been well characterized in Japanese patients with CKD who are less affected with coronary disease than Westerners. A large-scale, multicenter, prospective, cohort study was conducted in patients with CKD and under nephrology care, who met the eligibility criteria [Japanese; age 20-75 years; and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 10-59 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ]. The primary endpoint was a composite of time to a 50 % decline in eGFR from baseline or time to the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). The secondary endpoints were the rate of decline in eGFR from baseline, time to a 50 % decline in eGFR from baseline, time to the initiation of RRT, and time to doubling of serum creatinine (Cre) concentration. 2966 patients (female, 38.9 %; age, 60. 3 ± 11.6 years) were enrolled. The incidence of the primary endpoint increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in concert with CKD stage at baseline. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards models revealed that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.203, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.099-1.318)] and increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR ≥ 1000 mg/g Cre; HR: 4.523; 95 % CI 3.098-6.604) at baseline were significantly associated (P < 0.0001, respectively) with the primary endpoint. Elevated SBP and increased UACR were risk factors that were significantly associated with CKD progression to ESRD in Japanese patients under nephrology care. UMIN clinical trial registry number: UMIN000020038.

  4. Serum albumin levels predict clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Tomohiro; Shimano, Masayuki; Inden, Yasuya; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2014-01-01

    A low level of serum albumin is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with heart failure (HF). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), a novel therapeutic option, improves cardiac performance in patients with severe HF. In addition, CKD has recently been found to be associated with outcomes after CRT; however, the associations of the serum albumin levels with adverse events and the long-term prognosis in CKD patients who have undergone CRT are unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the albumin levels can be used to the predict mortality rate and incidence of cardiovascular events in CKD patients treated with CRT. A retrospective chart review was conducted in 102 consecutive CKD patients receiving a CRT device for the treatment of advanced HF. The long-term outcomes following device implantation were assessed according to the albumin levels. During a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 34 patients (33.3%) died and 66 patients (64.7%) experienced cardiovascular events. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the CKD patients with decreased albumin levels exhibited significantly higher rates of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events, including hospitalization for progressive HF, than the CKD patients without hypoalbuminemia. Importantly, a multivariate Cox regression analysis of confounding factors showed a low serum albumin level to independently predict all-cause death and cardiovascular events. Hypoalbuminemia independently predicts cardiac morbidity and mortality in CKD patients receiving CRT. Assessing the albumin levels provides valuable information regarding the long-term prognosis in CKD patients who undergo CRT.

  5. Erythropoietic response to oral iron in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease in the FIND-CKD trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdougall, Iain C.; Bock, Andreas H.; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Perrin, Amandine; Roger, Simon D.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate erythropoietic response rates to oral iron over time in iron-deficient anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD).  Materials and methods: FIND-CKD was a 1-year, randomized, multicenter trial of iron therapy in patients with ND-CKD, anemia, and iron

  6. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment burden among low-income primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Linda S; Vest, Bonnie M; Madurai, Nethra; Singh, Ranjit; York, Trevor R M; Cipparone, Charlotte W; Reilly, Sarah; Malik, Khalid S; Fox, Chester H

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the self-management strategies and treatment burden experienced by low-income US primary care patients with chronic kidney disease. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 patients from two primary care practices on Buffalo's East Side, a low-income community. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using an inductive thematic content analysis approach. We applied normalization process theory (NPT) to the concept of treatment burden to interpret and categorize our findings. The sample was predominantly African-American (79%) and female (59%). Most patients (79%) had a diagnosis of stage 3 CKD. Four major themes were identified corresponding to NPT and treatment burden: (1) coherence--making sense of CKD; (2) cognitive participation--enlisting support and organizing personal resources; (3) collective action--self-management work; and (4) reflexive monitoring--further refining chronic illness self-care in the context of CKD. For each component, we identified barriers hindering patients' ability to accomplish the necessary tasks. Our findings highlight the substantial treatment burden faced by inner-city primary care patients self-managing CKD in combination with other chronic illnesses. Health care providers' awareness of treatment burden can inform the development of person-centered care plans that can help patients to better manage their chronic illnesses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The modified CKD-EPI equation may be not more accurate than CKD-EPI equation in determining glomerular filtration rate in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Huang, Jian-Min; Li, Ying; Liu, Huai-Jun; Qu, Yan

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the application of the new modified Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (mCKD-EPI) equation developed by Liu for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to evaluate whether this modified form is more accurate than the original one in clinical practice. GFR was determined simultaneously by 3 methods: (a) 99m Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) dual plasma sample clearance method (mGFR), which was used as the reference standard; (b) CKD-EPI equation (eGFRckdepi); (c) modified CKD-EPI equation (eGFRmodified). Concordance correlation and Passing-Bablok regression were used to compare the validity of eGFRckdepi and eGFRmodified. Bias, precision and accuracy were compared to identify which equation showed the better performance in determining GFR. A total of 170 patients were enrolled. Both eGFRckdepi and eGFRmodified correlated well with mGFR (concordance correlation coefficient 0.90 and 0.74, respectively) and the Passing-Bablok regression equation of eGFRckdepi and eGFRmodified against mGFR was mGFR = 0.37 + 1.04 eGFRckdepi and -49.25 + 1.74 eGFRmodified, respectively. In terms of bias, precision and 30 % accuracy, eGFRmodified showed a worse performance compared to eGFRckdepi, in the whole cohort. The new modified CKD-EPI equation cannot replace the original CKD-EPI equation in determining GFR in Chinese patients with CKD.

  8. Nutrition and Physical Activity in CKD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamasco Cupisti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients are at risk for protein-energy wasting, abnormal body composition and impaired physical capacity. These complications lead to increased risk of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality.In CKD patient as well as in healthy people, there is a close association between nutrition and physical activity. Namely, inadequate nutrient (energy intake impairs physical performance thus favoring a sedentary lifestyle: this further contributes to loss of muscle strength and mass, which limit the quality of life and rehabilitation of CKD patients. In CKD as well as in end-stage-renal-disease patients, regular physical activity coupled with adequate energy and protein intake counteracts protein-energy wasting and related comorbidity and mortality. In summary, exercise training can positively influence nutritional status and the perception of well-being of CKD patients and may facilitate the anabolic effects of nutritional interventions.

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Disease in CKD and ESRD Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengyao; Batty, Jonathan A; Lin, Chiayu; Fan, Xiaohong; Chan, Kevin E; Kalim, Sahir

    2018-02-08

    Pulmonary hypertension is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and may be associated with poor outcomes. The magnitude of the association between pulmonary hypertension and mortality is uncertain due to the small size and variable findings of observational studies. Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies using subgroup analyses and metaregression. Patients with ESRD or earlier stages of CKD. Observational studies reporting clinical outcomes in patients with co-existing pulmonary hypertension and CKD or ESRD identified using a systematic search of PubMed and Embase. Pulmonary hypertension diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events. 16 studies, with 7,112 patients with an overall pulmonary hypertension prevalence of 23%, were included. Pulmonary hypertension was associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality among patients with CKD (relative risk [RR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.17-1.76), with ESRD receiving maintenance dialysis (RR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.91-2.83), and with a functioning kidney transplant (RR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.35-3.20). Pulmonary hypertension was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events in patients with CKD (RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07-2.60) and ESRD receiving dialysis (RR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.76-3.08). There was an association between pulmonary hypertension and increased risk for cardiovascular mortality in patients with CKD or ESRD (RR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.53-3.15). Heterogeneity of included studies, possibility of residual confounding, unavailability of individual patient-level data, and possibility of outcome reporting bias. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with a substantially increased risk for death and cardiovascular events in patients with CKD and ESRD. Risk is higher in patients with ESRD receiving dialysis compared with patients with CKD stages 1 to 5. Understanding the effect of interventions to lower

  10. Abdominal aortic calcification in patients with CKD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Mieke J; van den Brand, Jan Ajg; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Koster, Yelka; Bots, Michiel L; Vervloet, Marc G; Blankestijn, Peter J; Wetzels, Jack Fm

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is independently associated with cardiovascular events in dialysis patients and in the general population. However, data in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are limited. We analyzed determinants and prognostic value of AAC in

  11. Abdominal aortic calcification in patients with CKD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.J.; Brand, J. van den; Zuilen, A.D. van; Koster, Y.; Bots, M.L.; Vervloet, M.G.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is independently associated with cardiovascular events in dialysis patients and in the general population. However, data in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are limited. We analyzed determinants and prognostic value of AAC in

  12. [Teriparatide:benefit and safety for bone disease in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Ei, Isei; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-09-01

    Teriparatide, 1-34 parathyroid hormone, is one of effective treatments for osteoporosis. Teriparatide shows an anabolic effect for bone formation, as a result, increases bone mineral density as well as prevention of fractures in the general population. On the other hand, there are a few report about the effect of teriparatide on increase of bone mineral density in maintenance hemodialysis patients. In addition to CKD-MBD, osteoporosis is also an important pathological change in ESRD patients, therefore its safety and efficacy should be discussed in more detail.

  13. Validation of Indonesian Version of FACIT Fatigue Scale Questionnaire in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD Patients with Routine Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonson P. Sihombing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is common in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD. One of anemia consequences is fatigue which can lead to decrease in quality of life. Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT Fatigue Scale is an instrument to measure patient’s score of fatigue. This questionnaire is not validated yet in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to validate Indonesian version of Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT Fatigue Scale as an instrument for patient’s quality of life. FACIT Fatigue Scale was translated into Indonesian and administrated to CKD patients with routine homodialysis in an academic hospital in Yogyakarta on May until October 2015. The validity was evaluated by Pearson correlation test and the reliability was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha test. Validity test showed that all of the questions were valid because r count was bigger than r table=0,279 and reliable because r11=0,646>0,6. In conclusion, Indonesian version of FACIT Fatigue Scale was a brief and valid to monitor important symptom and its effect on CKD patients with routine hemodialysis.

  14. Retarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression : a practical nutritional approach for non-dialysis CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Bellizzi, V.; Carrero, J..J.; Chauveau, P.; Cozzolino, M.; Cupisti, A.; D'Alessandro, C.; De Nicola, L.; Fiaccadori, E.; Johansson, L.; Minutolo, R.; Molina, P.; Sezer, S.; Ter Wee, P.; Teta, D.; Wanner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report on a patient with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) in whom several nutritional issues are briefly discussed from a practical point of view. The article is accompanied by an editorial published in this Journal in relation to the 2nd International Conference of the European Renal Nutrition working group at ERA-EDTA—“Retarding CKD progression: readily available through comprehensive nutritional management?”—and focuses on several practical topics associated with th...

  15. CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C glomerular filtration rate estimation equation seems more suitable for Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease than other equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiao-Hua; Li, Gui-Ping; Wang, Quan-Shi; Qi, Yong-Shuai; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Qian; Xue, Yao-Ming

    2017-07-10

    The aim of this study was to identify the optimal equation that accurately estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage in the Chinese population. A total of 1296 Chinese patients aged 18-65 years old were enrolled in this study. The estimated GFRs (eGFRs) calculated separately by three Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations and three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations were compared with the reference GFR (rGFR) measured by the 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging method. By Bland-Altman analysis, eGFR cys and eGFR scr_cys performed similarly, showing the tightest limits of agreement among the six equations. They also achieved the first and second highest 30% and 50% accuracies. Using a combination of the serum creatinine and cystatin C levels (eGFR scr_cys ) could improve the bias (-0.3 for eGFR scr_cys ) of the equation and achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy for renal insufficiency (AUC 60 , 0.953; P equations predicted stage 3 CKD with moderate accuracy (49.7-51.4%) and stage 5 CKD with good accuracy (90.2-96.4%). For stage 1 CKD, eGFR cys showed a higher percentage of misclassification than the other equations. All equations seemed to perform poorly at predicting stage 2 and 4 CKD, as compared to the other CKD stages. eGFR scr_cys was the best-performing equation in terms of accurate classification of the CKD stage based on the overall performance (kappa value, 0.423). For a Chinese population, the CKD-EPI scr_cys equation seems more suitable for estimating the GFR than the other equations. Each equation had its own advantages in predicting different CKD stages.

  16. Arterial and Cellular Inflammation in Patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Verweij, Simone L; van der Valk, Fleur M; van Capelleveen, Julian C; Kroon, Jeffrey; Versloot, Miranda; Verberne, Hein J; Marquering, Henk A; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Vogt, Liffert; Stroes, Erik S G

    2017-04-01

    CKD associates with a 1.5- to 3.5-fold increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Both diseases are characterized by increased inflammation, and in patients with CKD, elevated C-reactive protein level predicts cardiovascular risk. In addition to systemic inflammation, local arterial inflammation, driven by monocyte-derived macrophages, predicts future cardiovascular events in the general population. We hypothesized that subjects with CKD have increased arterial and cellular inflammation, reflected by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) of the arterial wall and a migratory phenotype of monocytes. We assessed 18 F-FDG uptake in the arterial wall in 14 patients with CKD (mean±SD age: 59±5 years, mean±SD eGFR: 37±12 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ) but without cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or inflammatory conditions and in 14 control subjects (mean age: 60±11 years, mean eGFR: 86±16 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ). Compared with controls, patients with CKD showed increased arterial inflammation, quantified as target-to-background ratio (TBR) in the aorta (TBR max : CKD, 3.14±0.70 versus control, 2.12±0.27; P =0.001) and the carotid arteries (TBR max : CKD, 2.45±0.65 versus control, 1.66±0.27; P inflammation, observed in patients with CKD but without overt atherosclerotic disease and with few traditional risk factors, may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with CKD. The concomitant elevation of monocyte activity may provide novel therapeutic targets for attenuating this inflammation and thereby preventing CKD-associated cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Retarding chronic kidney disease (CKD progression: a practical nutritional approach for non-dialysis CKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bellizzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report on a patient with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD in whom several nutritional issues are briefly discussed from a practical point of view. The article is accompanied by an editorial published in this Journal in relation to the 2nd International Conference of the European Renal Nutrition working group at ERA-EDTA—“Retarding CKD progression: readily available through comprehensive nutritional management?”—and focuses on several practical topics associated with the nutritional approach for the conservative treatment of non-dialysis CKD. The article is divided into 3 sections—basic nutritional assessment, nutritional targets, and nutritional follow-up in non-dialysis CKD—linked to 3 consecutive steps of the clinical follow-up of the patient and the related nutritional concerns and intervention. First visit: Baseline nutritional assessment and basic nutritional considerations in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD • What nutritional assessment/monitoring for protein-energy wasting (PEW should be employed? • Is a body mass index (BMI of 21 kg/m2 adequate? • What phosphate target should be pursued? • What are the nutritional habits in patients with incident CKD? • What protein needs and amount of dietary protein should be pursued? • Does the quality of protein matter? • What amount of dietary salt should be employed? How should this be obtained? • How should normal serum phosphate be achieved? • What diet should be recommended? Is a vegetarian diet an option? Second visit: Major nutritional targets in non-dialysis CKD • Consequences of unintentional weight loss • What is the role of the renal dietitian in helping the patient adhere to a renal diet? Intermediate visits: Nutritional follow-up in non-dialysis CKD • What treatment for calcium/parathyroid hormone (PTH will affect CKD progression? Final visits: • Would a dietary recall/intensive dietary education improve adherence with

  18. Prognosis of CKD Patients Receiving Outpatient Nephrology Care in Italy

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    Chiodini, Paolo; Zoccali, Carmine; Borrelli, Silvio; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Di Iorio, Biagio; Santoro, Domenico; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Gallo, Ciro; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Prognosis in nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients under regular nephrology care is rarely investigated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively followed from 2003 to death or June 2010 a cohort of 1248 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 and previous nephrology care ≥1 year in 25 Italian outpatient nephrology clinics. Cumulative incidence of ESRD or death before ESRD were estimated using the competing-risk approach. Results Estimated rates (per 100 patient-years) of ESRD and death 8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4 to 9.2) and 5.9 (95% CI 5.2 to 6.6), respectively. Risk of ESRD and death increased progressively from stages 3 to 5. ESRD was more frequent than death in stage 4 and 5 CKD, whereas the opposite was true in stage 3 CKD. Younger age, lower body mass index, proteinuria, and high phosphate predicted ESRD, whereas older age, diabetes, previous cardiovascular disease, ESRD, proteinuria, high uric acid, and anemia predicted death (P nephrology clinics, ESRD was a more frequent outcome than death in stage 4 and 5 CKD, but the opposite was true in stage 3. Outcomes were predicted by modifiable risk factors specific to CKD. Proteinuria used in conjunction with estimated GFR refined risk stratification. These findings provide information, specific to CKD patients under regular outpatient nephrology care, for risk stratification that complement recent observations in the general population. PMID:21817127

  19. Readability of Written Materials for CKD Patients: A Systematic Review.

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    Morony, Suzanne; Flynn, Michaela; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Jansen, Jesse; Webster, Angela C

    2015-06-01

    The "average" patient has a literacy level of US grade 8 (age 13-14 years), but this may be lower for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current guidelines suggest that patient education materials should be pitched at a literacy level of around 5th grade (age 10-11 years). This study aims to evaluate the readability of written materials targeted at patients with CKD. Systematic review. Patient information materials aimed at adults with CKD and written in English. Patient education materials designed to be printed and read, sourced from practices in Australia and online at all known websites run by relevant international CKD organizations during March 2014. Quantitative analysis of readability using Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid tools. We analyzed 80 materials. Both Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid analyses suggested that most materials required a minimum of grade 9 (age 14-15 years) schooling to read them. Only 5% of materials were pitched at the recommended level (grade 5). Readability formulas have inherent limitations and do not account for visual information. We did not consider other media through which patients with CKD may access information. Although the study covered materials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, all non-Internet materials were sourced locally, and it is possible that some international paper-based materials were missed. Generalizability may be limited due to exclusion of non-English materials. These findings suggest that patient information materials aimed at patients with CKD are pitched above the average patient's literacy level. This issue is compounded by cognitive decline in patients with CKD, who may have lower literacy than the average patient. It suggests that information providers need to consider their audience more carefully when preparing patient information materials, including user testing with a low-literacy patient population. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  20. Epidemiology of CKD Regression in Patients under Nephrology Care.

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    Borrelli, Silvio; Leonardis, Daniela; Minutolo, Roberto; Chiodini, Paolo; De Nicola, Luca; Esposito, Ciro; Mallamaci, Francesca; Zoccali, Carmine; Conte, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) regression is considered as an infrequent renal outcome, limited to early stages, and associated with higher mortality. However, prevalence, prognosis and the clinical correlates of CKD regression remain undefined in the setting of nephrology care. This is a multicenter prospective study in 1418 patients with established CKD (eGFR: 60-15 ml/min/1.73m²) under nephrology care in 47 outpatient clinics in Italy from a least one year. We defined CKD regressors as a ΔGFR ≥0 ml/min/1.73 m2/year. ΔGFR was estimated as the absolute difference between eGFR measured at baseline and at follow up visit after 18-24 months, respectively. Outcomes were End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and overall-causes Mortality.391 patients (27.6%) were identified as regressors as they showed an eGFR increase between the baseline visit in the renal clinic and the follow up visit. In multivariate regression analyses the regressor status was not associated with CKD stage. Low proteinuria was the main factor associated with CKD regression, accounting per se for 48% of the likelihood of this outcome. Lower systolic blood pressure, higher BMI and absence of autosomal polycystic disease (PKD) were additional predictors of CKD regression. In regressors, ESRD risk was 72% lower (HR: 0.28; 95% CI 0.14-0.57; pnephrology units and correlates with low proteinuria, BP and the absence of PKD. This condition portends better renal prognosis, mostly in earlier CKD stages, with no excess risk for mortality.

  1. Albuminuria as a Risk Factor for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: Result from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD).

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    Han, Ji Suk; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Kyoung Sook; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Park, Sue Kyung; Lee, Joongyub; Hyun, Young Youl; Chung, Wookyung; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Ahn, Curie; Choi, Kyu Hun

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with CKD independent of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We assessed the association of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR with anemia in CKD patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association of albuminuria with anemia. Furthermore, odds ratios for anemia were calculated by cross-categorization of ACR and eGFR. Among 1,456 patients, the mean age was 53.5 ± 12.4 years, and the mean eGFR and ACR were 51.9 ± 30.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and 853.2 ± 1,330.3 mg/g, respectively. Anemia was present in 644 patients (40.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that the odds ratio of anemia increased according to ACR levels, after adjusting for age, sex, eGFR, body mass index, pulse pressure, cause of CKD, use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, serum calcium and ferritin (ACR anemia in CKD patients independent of the eGFR.

  2. Relating illness complexity to reimbursement in CKD patients.

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    Bessette, Russell W; Carter, Randy L

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant investments of federal and state dollars to transition patient medical records to an all-electronic system, a chasm still exists between health care quality and payment for it. A major reason for this gap is the difficulty in evaluating health care outcomes based on claims data. Since both payers and patients may not appreciate how illness complexity impacts treatment outcomes, it is difficult to determine fair provider compensation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) typifies these problems and is often associated with comorbidities that impact cost, health, and work productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate an illness complexity score (ICS) based on a linear regression of select blood values that might assist in predicting average monthly reimbursements in CKD patients. A second objective was to compare the results of this ICS prediction to results obtained by prediction of average monthly reimbursement using CKD stage. A third objective was to analyze the relationship between the change in ICS, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and CKD stage over time to average monthly reimbursement. We calculated parsimonious values for select variables associated with CKD patients and compared the ICS to ordinal staging of renal disease. Data from 177 de-identified patients over 13 months was collected, which included 15 blood chemistry observations along with complete claims data for all medical expenses. To test for the relationship between average blood chemistry values, stages of CKD, age, and average monthly reimbursement, we modeled an association through a linear regression function of age, eGFR, and the Z-scores calculated from average monthly values of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, glucose, hemoglobin, bicarbonate, albumin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, potassium, calcium, sodium, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and white blood cells. The results of our study demonstrated that the association

  3. Modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD study and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI equations for Taiwanese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-I Chen

    Full Text Available Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD study or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equations may not be accurate for Asians; thus, we developed modified eGFR equations for Taiwanese adults.This cross-sectional study compared the Taiwanese eGFR equations, the MDRD study, and the CKD-EPI equations with inulin clearance (Cin. A total of 695 adults including 259 healthy volunteers and 436 CKD patients were recruited. Participants from the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were used as the development set (N = 556 to develop the Taiwanese eGFR equations, whereas participants from the National Taiwan University Hospital were used as the validation set (N = 139 for external validation.The Taiwanese eGFR equations were developed by using the extended Bland-Altman plot in the development set. The Taiwanese MDRD equation was 1.309 × MDRD0.912, Taiwanese CKD-EPI was 1.262×CKD-EPI0.914 and Taiwanese four-level CKD-EPI was 1.205 × four-level CKD-EPI0.914. In the validation set, the Taiwanese equations had the lowest bias, the Taiwanese equations and the Japanese CKD-EPI equation had the lowest RMSE, whereas the Taiwanese and the Japanese equations had the best precision and the highest P30 among all equations. However, the Taiwanese MDRD equation had higher concordance correlation than did the Taiwanese CKD-EPI, the Taiwanese four-level CKD-EPI and the Japanese equations. Moreover, only the Taiwanese equations had no proportional bias among all of the equations. Finally, the Taiwanese MDRD equation had the best diagnostic performance in terms of ordinal logistic regression among all of the equations.The Taiwanese MDRD equation is better than the MDRD, CKD-EPI, Japanese, Asian, Thai, Taiwanese CKD-EPI, and Taiwanese four-level CKD-EPI equations for Taiwanese adults.

  4. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) Equations for Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kwan-Dun; Chen, Yung-Ming; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations may not be accurate for Asians; thus, we developed modified eGFR equations for Taiwanese adults. Methods This cross-sectional study compared the Taiwanese eGFR equations, the MDRD study, and the CKD-EPI equations with inulin clearance (Cin). A total of 695 adults including 259 healthy volunteers and 436 CKD patients were recruited. Participants from the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were used as the development set (N = 556) to develop the Taiwanese eGFR equations, whereas participants from the National Taiwan University Hospital were used as the validation set (N = 139) for external validation. Results The Taiwanese eGFR equations were developed by using the extended Bland-Altman plot in the development set. The Taiwanese MDRD equation was 1.309×MDRD0.912, Taiwanese CKD-EPI was 1.262×CKD-EPI0.914 and Taiwanese four-level CKD-EPI was 1.205×four-level CKD-EPI0.914. In the validation set, the Taiwanese equations had the lowest bias, the Taiwanese equations and the Japanese CKD-EPI equation had the lowest RMSE, whereas the Taiwanese and the Japanese equations had the best precision and the highest P30 among all equations. However, the Taiwanese MDRD equation had higher concordance correlation than did the Taiwanese CKD-EPI, the Taiwanese four-level CKD-EPI and the Japanese equations. Moreover, only the Taiwanese equations had no proportional bias among all of the equations. Finally, the Taiwanese MDRD equation had the best diagnostic performance in terms of ordinal logistic regression among all of the equations. Conclusion The Taiwanese MDRD equation is better than the MDRD, CKD-EPI, Japanese, Asian, Thai, Taiwanese CKD-EPI, and Taiwanese four-level CKD-EPI equations for Taiwanese adults. PMID:24927124

  5. Smoking and Adverse Outcomes in Patients With CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staplin, Natalie; Haynes, Richard; Herrington, William G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The absolute and relative importance of smoking to vascular and nonvascular outcomes in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well its relevance to kidney disease progression, is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 9,270 participants with CKD...... enrolled in SHARP. PREDICTOR: Baseline smoking status (current, former, and never). OUTCOMES: Vascular events, site-specific cancer, ESRD, rate of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: At baseline, 1,243 (13%) participants were current smokers (median......, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.51-3.35) mortality. LIMITATIONS: Smoking status not assessed during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients with CKD, smoking significantly increased the risks for vascular and nonvascular morbidity and mortality, but was not associated with kidney disease progression...

  6. Persistent high serum bicarbonate and the risk of heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): A report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J; Ham, L L; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Rosas, Sylvia E; Scialla, Julia J; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-04-20

    Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time-updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long-term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end-stage renal disease), and mortality. Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time-dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow-up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person-years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person-years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Prognosis of chronic kidney disease with normal-range proteinuria: The CKD-ROUTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Noda, Yumi; Sato, Hidehiko; Nomura, Naohiro; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2018-01-01

    Although lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher proteinuria are high risks for mortality and kidney outcomes, the prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with normal-range proteinuria remains unclear. In this prospective cohort study, 1138 newly visiting stage G2-G5 CKD patients were stratified into normal-range and abnormal-range proteinuria groups. Study endpoints were CKD progression (>50% eGFR loss or initiation of dialysis), cardiovascular events, and all-cause death. In total, 927 patients who were followed for >6 months were included in the analysis. The mean age was 67 years, and 70.2% were male. During a median follow-up of 35 months, CKD progression, cardiovascular events, and mortality were observed in 223, 110, and 55 patients, respectively. Patients with normal-range proteinuria had a significantly lower risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.38) than those with abnormal-proteinuria by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. We also analyzed patients with normal-range proteinuria (n = 351). Nephrosclerosis was the most frequent cause of CKD among all patients with normal-range proteinuria (59.7%). During a median follow-up of 36 months, CKD progression, cardiovascular events, and mortality were observed in 10, 28, and 18 patients, respectively. The Kaplan-Meyer analysis demonstrated that the risks of CKD progression and cardiovascular events were not significantly different among CKD stages, whereas the risk of death was significantly higher in patients with advanced-stage CKD. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the risk of three endpoints did not significantly differ among CKD stages. Newly visiting CKD patients with normal-range proteinuria, who tend to be overlooked during health checkups did not exhibit a decrease in kidney function even in advanced CKD stages under specialized nephrology care.

  8. Prognosis of chronic kidney disease with normal-range proteinuria: The CKD-ROUTE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Iimori

    Full Text Available Although lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and higher proteinuria are high risks for mortality and kidney outcomes, the prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD in patients with normal-range proteinuria remains unclear.In this prospective cohort study, 1138 newly visiting stage G2-G5 CKD patients were stratified into normal-range and abnormal-range proteinuria groups. Study endpoints were CKD progression (>50% eGFR loss or initiation of dialysis, cardiovascular events, and all-cause death.In total, 927 patients who were followed for >6 months were included in the analysis. The mean age was 67 years, and 70.2% were male. During a median follow-up of 35 months, CKD progression, cardiovascular events, and mortality were observed in 223, 110, and 55 patients, respectively. Patients with normal-range proteinuria had a significantly lower risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.38 than those with abnormal-proteinuria by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. We also analyzed patients with normal-range proteinuria (n = 351. Nephrosclerosis was the most frequent cause of CKD among all patients with normal-range proteinuria (59.7%. During a median follow-up of 36 months, CKD progression, cardiovascular events, and mortality were observed in 10, 28, and 18 patients, respectively. The Kaplan-Meyer analysis demonstrated that the risks of CKD progression and cardiovascular events were not significantly different among CKD stages, whereas the risk of death was significantly higher in patients with advanced-stage CKD. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the risk of three endpoints did not significantly differ among CKD stages.Newly visiting CKD patients with normal-range proteinuria, who tend to be overlooked during health checkups did not exhibit a decrease in kidney function even in advanced CKD stages under specialized nephrology care.

  9. Multiple Pregnancies in CKD Patients: An Explosive Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Silvana; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Biolcati, Marlisa; Pagano, Arianna; Bossotti, Carlotta; Vasario, Elena; Borgarello, Valentina; Daidola, Germana; Ferraresi, Martina; Gaglioti, Pietro; Todros, Tullia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives CKD and multiple pregnancies bear important risks for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to define the risk for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes in multiple pregnancies in CKD patients in comparison with a control group of “low-risk” multiple pregnancies. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The study was performed in the Maternal Hospital of the University of Turin, Italy. Of 314 pregnancies referred in CKD (2000–2011), 20 were multiple (15 twin deliveries). Control groups consisted of 379 low-risk multiple pregnancies (314 twin deliveries) and 19 (15 twin deliveries) cases with hypertension-collagen diseases. Baseline data and outcomes were compared by univariate and logistic regression analyses. Results The prevalence of multiple pregnancies was relatively high in the CKD population (6.4%); all referred cases were in early CKD stages (I-II); both creatinine (0.68 to 0.79 mg/dl; P=0.010) and proteinuria (0.81 to 3.42 g/d; P=0.041) significantly increased from referral to delivery. No significant difference in demographic data at baseline was found between cases and low-risk controls. CKD was associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes versus low-risk twin pregnancies. Statistical significance was reached for preterm delivery (<34 weeks: 60% vs 26.4%; P=0.005; <32 weeks: 53.3% vs 12.7%; P<0.001), small for gestational age babies (28.6% vs 8.1%; P<0.001), need for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (60% vs 12.7%; P<0.001), weight discordance between twins (40% vs 17.8%; P=0.032), and neonatal and perinatal mortality (6.6% vs 0.8%; P=0.032). Conclusion This study suggests that maternal-fetal risks are increased in multiple pregnancies in the early CKD stages. PMID:23124785

  10. Multiple pregnancies in CKD patients: an explosive mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Arduino, Silvana; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Biolcati, Marlisa; Pagano, Arianna; Bossotti, Carlotta; Vasario, Elena; Borgarello, Valentina; Daidola, Germana; Ferraresi, Martina; Gaglioti, Pietro; Todros, Tullia

    2013-01-01

    CKD and multiple pregnancies bear important risks for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to define the risk for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes in multiple pregnancies in CKD patients in comparison with a control group of "low-risk" multiple pregnancies. The study was performed in the Maternal Hospital of the University of Turin, Italy. Of 314 pregnancies referred in CKD (2000-2011), 20 were multiple (15 twin deliveries). Control groups consisted of 379 low-risk multiple pregnancies (314 twin deliveries) and 19 (15 twin deliveries) cases with hypertension-collagen diseases. Baseline data and outcomes were compared by univariate and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of multiple pregnancies was relatively high in the CKD population (6.4%); all referred cases were in early CKD stages (I-II); both creatinine (0.68 to 0.79 mg/dl; P=0.010) and proteinuria (0.81 to 3.42 g/d; P=0.041) significantly increased from referral to delivery. No significant difference in demographic data at baseline was found between cases and low-risk controls. CKD was associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes versus low-risk twin pregnancies. Statistical significance was reached for preterm delivery (<34 weeks: 60% vs 26.4%; P=0.005; <32 weeks: 53.3% vs 12.7%; P<0.001), small for gestational age babies (28.6% vs 8.1%; P<0.001), need for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (60% vs 12.7%; P<0.001), weight discordance between twins (40% vs 17.8%; P=0.032), and neonatal and perinatal mortality (6.6% vs 0.8%; P=0.032). This study suggests that maternal-fetal risks are increased in multiple pregnancies in the early CKD stages.

  11. Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography as an option for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Chiara; Sardanelli, Francesco; Perego, Matteo; Alì, Marco; Casilli, Francesco; Inglese, Luigi; Mauri, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    To assess feasibility, efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to guide endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). After Ethical Committee approval, the records of 13 patients (all male, mean age 74.6 ± 8.0 years) with CKD, who underwent EVAR to exclude an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) under CO 2 angiography guidance, were reviewed. The AAA to be excluded had a mean diameter of 52.0 ± 8.0 mm. CO 2 angiography was performed by automatic (n = 7) or hand (n = 6) injection. The endograft was correctly placed and the AAA was excluded in all cases, without any surgical conversions. Two patients (15.4%) had an endoleak: one type-Ia, detected by CO 2 -DSA and effectively treated with prosthesis dilatation; one type-III, detected by CO 2 -DSA, confirmed using 10 ml of ICM, and conservatively managed. In one patient, CO 2 angiograms were considered of too low quality for guiding the procedure and 200 ml of ICM were administered. Overall, 11 patients (84.6%) underwent a successful EVAR under the guidance of the sole CO 2 angiography. No patients suffered from major complications, including those typically CO 2 -related. Two patients suffered from abdominal pain during the procedure secondary to a transient splanchnic perfusion's reduction due to CO 2 , and one patient had a worsening of renal function probably caused by a cholesterol embolization during the procedure. In patients with CKD, EVAR under CO 2 angiography guidance is feasible, effective, and safe.

  12. Innate immunity in CKD-associated vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewinger, Stephen; Schumann, Timo; Fliser, Danilo; Speer, Thimoteus

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Therefore, the activation of the innate immune system plays an important role. In contrast to the adaptive immunity, unspecific recognition of conserved endogenous and exogenous structures by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents a key feature of the innate immunity. Of these PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as the inflammasome complex have been documented to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). They are not only expressed in leukocytes but also in a variety of cell types such as endothelial cells or fibroblasts. While activation of TLRs on the cell surface leads to nuclear factor κB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, the inflammasome is a cytosolic multimeric protein complex, which cleaves cytokines such as interleukin-1β into their biologically active forms. Several endogenous ligands for these PRRs have been identified as contributing to the development of a CKD-specific pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Notably, activation of TLRs as well as the inflammasome is associated with arterial hypertension, formation of atherosclerotic vascular lesions and vascular calcification. However, detailed molecular mechanisms on how the innate immune system contributes to CKD-associated CVDs are as yet poorly understood. Currently, several agents modulating the activation of the innate immune system are the focus of cardiovascular research. Large clinical studies will provide further information on the therapeutic applicability of these substances to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Further trials including patients with CKD will be necessary to assess their effects on CKD-associated CVD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. The Prevalence and Management of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Result from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sang Ryol; Park, Sue K; Jung, Ji Yong; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Oh, Yun Kyu; Yoo, Tae Hyun; Sung, Suah

    2017-02-01

    Anemia is a common and significant complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its prevalence and current management status has not been studied thoroughly in Korea. We examined the prevalence of anemia, its association with clinical and laboratory factors, and utilization of iron agents and erythropoiesis stimulating agents using the baseline data from the large-scale CKD cohort in Korea. We defined anemia when hemoglobin level was lower than 13.0 g/dL in males and 12.0 g/dL in females, or received by erythropoiesis stimulating agents. Overall prevalence of anemia was 45.0% among 2,198 non-dialysis CKD patients from stage 1 to 5. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) as a cause, CKD stages, body mass index (BMI), smoking, leukocyte count, serum albumin, iron markers, calcium, and phosphorus concentration were identified as independent risk factors for anemia. Considering the current coverage of Korean National Health Insurance System, only 7.9% among applicable patients were managed by intravenous iron agents, and 42.7% were managed by erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

  14. OUTCOME OF ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRITIONAL INTAKE OF CKD PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sahni, N.; Gupta, K.L.; Rana, S.V.; Prasad, R.; Bhalla, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Zn, which might help in improving appetite/dietary intake by reducing taste abnormalities, is mostly available in protein rich foods. Pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients are advised low protein diet. This study was aimed to assess Zn status & influence of Zn supplementation on nutritional intake/appetite of 100 predialysis CKD patients not formally counseled for diet. 40 apparently healthy controls were included in the study. In group I (n=50), Zn sulphate (20mg elemental Zn) alone w...

  15. Relating illness complexity to reimbursement in CKD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessette RW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Russell W Bessette1, Randy L Carter2,3 1Department of Health Sciences, Institute for Healthcare Informatics, 2Department of Biostatistics, 3Population Health Observatory, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA Background: Despite significant investments of federal and state dollars to transition patient medical records to an all-electronic system, a chasm still exists between health care quality and payment for it. A major reason for this gap is the difficulty in evaluating health care outcomes based on claims data. Since both payers and patients may not appreciate how illness complexity impacts treatment outcomes, it is difficult to determine fair provider compensation. Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD typifies these problems and is often associated with comorbidities that impact cost, health, and work productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate an illness complexity score (ICS based on a linear regression of select blood values that might assist in predicting average monthly reimbursements in CKD patients. A second objective was to compare the results of this ICS prediction to results obtained by prediction of average monthly reimbursement using CKD stage. A third objective was to analyze the relationship between the change in ICS, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and CKD stage over time to average monthly reimbursement. Methods: We calculated parsimonious values for select variables associated with CKD patients and compared the ICS to ordinal staging of renal disease. Data from 177 de-identified patients over 13 months was collected, which included 15 blood chemistry observations along with complete claims data for all medical expenses. To test for the relationship between average blood chemistry values, stages of CKD, age, and average monthly reimbursement, we modeled an association through a linear regression function of age, eGFR, and the Z-scores calculated from average

  16. Serum Hepcidin and Iron Indices Affect Anemia Status Differently According to the Kidney Function of Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Korean Cohort Study For Outcome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: No studies have examined the association among serum hepcidin, iron indices, or anemia status based on the kidney function of non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Methods: We reviewed data of 2238 patients from a large-scale multicenter prospective Korean study (2011–2016 and excluded 198 patients with missing data regarding serum hepcidin, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation (TSAT, ferritin, and usage of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA or supplemental iron and 363 patients using ESA or supplemental iron. Finally, 1677 patients were included. Results: The mean patient age was 53.5 years, and 65.4% were men. TSAT and serum hepcidin were significantly associated with anemia status, whereas serum ferritin was not, regardless of anemia severity. For patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR ≥45 mL/min/1.73 m2, a 10% increase of TSAT was associated with hemoglobin <13 g/dL (odds ratio [OR], 0.628; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.515-0.765; P<0.001 and hemoglobin <11.5 g/dL (OR, 0.672; 95% CI, 0.476-0.950; P=0.024, whereas a 10-ng/mL increase of serum hepcidin was associated with hemoglobin <11.5 g/dL (OR, 1.379; 95% CI, 1.173-1.620; P<0.001 and hemoglobin <10.0 g/dL (OR, 1.360; 95% CI, 1.115-1.659; P=0.002 for patients with eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 according to multivariate logistic analysis. Conclusions: TSAT was associated with less severe anemia in early CKD patients. Serum hepcidin was associated with more severe anemia in advanced CKD patients.

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease Guideline Implementation in Primary Care: A Qualitative Report from the TRANSLATE CKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Bonnie M; York, Trevor R M; Sand, Jessica; Fox, Chester H; Kahn, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) are optimally situated to identify and manage early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nonetheless, studies have documented suboptimal PCP understanding, awareness, and management of early CKD. The TRANSLATE CKD study is an ongoing national, mixed-methods, cluster randomized control trial that examines the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for CKD into primary care practice. As part of the mixed-methods process evaluation, semistructured interviews were conducted by phone with 27 providers participating in the study. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes. Themes were categorized according to the 4 domains of Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Identified themes illuminated the complex work undertaken to manage CKD in primary care practices. Barriers to guideline implementation were identified in each of the 4 NPT domains, including (1) lack of knowledge and understanding around CKD (coherence), (2) difficulties engaging providers and patients in CKD management (cognitive participation), (3) limited time and competing demands (collective action), and (4) challenges obtaining and using data to monitor progress (reflexive monitoring). Addressing the barriers to implementation with concrete interventions at the levels at which they occur, informed by NPT, will ultimately improve the quality of CKD patient care. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  18. Albuminuria as a Risk Factor for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: Result from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Suk Han

    Full Text Available Anemia is a common complication among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and it is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with CKD independent of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We assessed the association of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR and eGFR with anemia in CKD patients.We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association of albuminuria with anemia. Furthermore, odds ratios for anemia were calculated by cross-categorization of ACR and eGFR.Among 1,456 patients, the mean age was 53.5 ± 12.4 years, and the mean eGFR and ACR were 51.9 ± 30.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and 853.2 ± 1,330.3 mg/g, respectively. Anemia was present in 644 patients (40.5%. Multivariate analysis showed that the odds ratio of anemia increased according to ACR levels, after adjusting for age, sex, eGFR, body mass index, pulse pressure, cause of CKD, use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, serum calcium and ferritin (ACR < 30 mg/g as a reference group; 30-299 mg/g, adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.88-2.33; ≥300 mg/g, adjusted OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.12-3.10. In addition, graded associations were observed in cross-categorized groups of a higher ACR and eGFR compared to the reference group with an ACR <30 mg/g and eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2.The present study demonstrated that albuminuria was a significant risk factor for anemia in CKD patients independent of the eGFR.

  19. Clinical correlates of ambulatory BP monitoring among patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Satoshi; Imai, Enyu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Akizawa, Tadao; Matsuo, Seiichi; Makino, Hirofumi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Hishida, Akira

    2013-05-01

    Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) allows a better risk stratification than office BP in hypertensive patients. However, the clinical relevance of ABPM has not been extensively investigated in the CKD population. Within the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort study, 2977 patients enrolled (62% men, aged 60.8±11.6 years) and ABPM was conducted in a subgroup of patients from September 2007 to April 2010. Data from 1075 patients (682 men) were analyzed to determine BP control and factors associated with the ABPM parameters. The prevalence of masked hypertension was 30.9%, whereas that of white-coat hypertension was 5.6%. With advancing CKD stage, the percentage of persistent hypertension increased from 21.7% to 36.1%. Diabetes, antihypertensive medicine use, and low estimated GFR (eGFR) were significantly associated with the difference between office BP and ambulatory BP (1.7 mmHg, 2.6 mmHg, and 0.6 mmHg per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), respectively). There tended to be fewer nondippers and risers in stage 3 than in stages 4 and 5. In the nocturia-negative group, low eGFR, diabetes, and summer season were identified as factors associated with lower nocturnal BP change (-0.5 mmHg, -2.0 mmHg, and -2.8 mmHg, respectively). Morning BP change was greater with older age (0.2 mmHg per 10 years) and higher body mass index (0.6 mmHg per 1 kg/m(2)), and in winter (4.5 mmHg) versus summer. Various factors including eGFR, diabetes, antihypertensive medication use, and season are associated with higher BP and abnormal BP patterns in CKD patients.

  20. A Patient with CKD and Poor Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Ikizler, T. Alp

    2013-01-01

    Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique...

  1. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Sato, Makito; Sano, Hirokazu; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Toyoshi; Nakahara, Takehiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m 2 ] undergoing stress 99m Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  2. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan); Sato, Makito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Tatebayashi Kosei Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Sano, Hirokazu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Isesaki Municipal Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Isesaki (Japan); Ueda, Tetsuya [Fujioka General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Fujioka (Japan); Sasaki, Toyoshi [Takasaki General Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Takasaki (Japan); Nakahara, Takehiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m{sup 2}] undergoing stress {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  3. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Sato, Makito; Sano, Hirokazu; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Toyoshi; Nakahara, Takehiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD.

  4. eMAP:CKD: electronic diagnosis and management assistance to primary care in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pefanis, Aspasia; Botlero, Roslin; Langham, Robyn G; Nelson, Craig L

    2018-01-01

    The increasing burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) underpins the importance for improved early detection and management programs in primary care to delay disease progression and reduce mortality rates. eMAP:CKD is a pilot program for primary care aimed at addressing the gap between current and best practice care for CKD. Customized software programs were developed to integrate with primary care electronic health records (EHRs), allowing real-time prompting for CKD risk factor identification, testing, diagnosis and management according to Kidney Health Australia's (KHA) best practice recommendations. Primary care practices also received support from a visiting CKD nurse and education modules. Patient data were analyzed at baseline (150 910 patients) and at 15 months (175 917 patients) following the implementation of the program across 21 primary care practices. There was improvement in CKD risk factor recognition (29.40 versus 33.84%; P primary care. The success of the pilot program has encouraging implications for use across the primary care community as a whole. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  5. Low-Protein Diets in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients: Are They Feasible and Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina B; Ventrella, Federica; Capizzi, Irene; Vigotti, Federica N; Mongilardi, Elena; Grassi, Giorgio; Loi, Valentina; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Avagnina, Paolo; Versino, Elisabetta

    2016-10-21

    Low-protein diets (LPDs) are often considered as contraindicated in diabetic patients, and are seldom studied. The aim of this observational study was to provide new data on this issue. It involved 149 diabetic and 300 non-diabetic patients who followed a LPD, with a personalized approach aimed at moderate protein restriction (0.6 g/day). Survival analysis was performed according to Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analysis with Cox model. Diabetic versus non-diabetic patients were of similar age (median 70 years) and creatinine levels at the start of the diet (2.78 mg/dL vs. 2.80 mg/dL). There was higher prevalence of nephrotic proteinuria in diabetic patients (27.52% vs. 13.67%, p = 0.002) as well as comorbidity (median Charlson index 8 vs. 6 p = 0.002). Patient survival was lower in diabetic patients, but differences levelled off considering only cases with Charlson index > 7, the only relevant covariate in Cox analysis. Dialysis-free survival was superimposable in the setting of good compliance (Mitch formula: 0.47 g/kg/day in both groups): about 50% of the cases remained dialysis-free 2 years after the first finding of e-GFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) patients with type 2 diabetes, higher proteinuria was associated with mortality and initiation of dialysis. In conclusion, moderately restricted LPDs allow similar results in diabetic and non non-diabetic patients with similar comorbidity.

  6. Educating Patients about CKD: The Path to Self-Management and Patient-Centered Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jenna M.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2016-01-01

    Patient education is associated with better patient outcomes and supported by international guidelines and organizations, but a range of barriers prevent widespread implementation of comprehensive education for people with progressive kidney disease, especially in the United States. Among United States patients, obstacles to education include the complex nature of kidney disease information, low baseline awareness, limited health literacy and numeracy, limited availability of CKD information, and lack of readiness to learn. For providers, lack of time and clinical confidence combine with competing education priorities and confusion about diagnosing CKD to limit educational efforts. At the system level, lack of provider incentives, limited availability of practical decision support tools, and lack of established interdisciplinary care models inhibit patient education. Despite these barriers, innovative education approaches for people with CKD exist, including self-management support, shared decision making, use of digital media, and engaging families and communities. Education efficiency may be increased by focusing on people with progressive disease, establishing interdisciplinary care management including community health workers, and providing education in group settings. New educational approaches are being developed through research and quality improvement efforts, but challenges to evaluating public awareness and patient education programs inhibit identification of successful strategies for broader implementation. However, growing interest in improving patient-centered outcomes may provide new approaches to effective education of people with CKD. PMID:26536899

  7. Symptom Management in Patients with Stage 5 CKD Opting for Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Johnston

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD stages 3–5 now affects 8.5% of adults in the United Kingdom; with 4% of patients expected to reach stage 5 CKD. Increasing numbers of older patients are contributing to the growth of demand of kidney services. With the exception of transplantation, dialysis has been the main form of renal replacement therapy (RRT for advanced CKD. This elderly population is usually too frail and has many other co-existing medical complaints or co morbidities to undergo transplantation. Dialysis is an invasive treatment, and some frail elderly patients can experience many dialysis related symptoms. An alternative option for these patients is to choose conservative management (CM of their stage 5 CKD. These patients often have complex supportive and palliative care needs. The frequency, severity and distress caused by symptoms related to stage 5 CKD are often under recognized and under treated. There is a need for early identification and management of symptoms as they present in patients with stage 5 CKD being managed conservatively. Symptom assessment should be focused on anticipating, identifying and alleviating any symptoms. This needs to be incorporated into the regular practice of those managing CM patients.

  8. Hyperbaric area index calculated from ABPM elucidates the condition of CKD patients: the CKD-JAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Satoshi; Imai, Enyu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Akizawa, Tadao; Matsuo, Seiichi; Makino, Hirofumi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Hishida, Akira

    2015-02-01

    High prevalence of masked hypertension as well as persistent hypertension was observed in the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) study. We proposed a novel indicator of blood pressure (BP) load, hyperbaric area index (HBI), calculated from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) data. The characteristic of this index and its relationship with kidney function were also evaluated. The CKD-JAC study, enrolled 2,977 patients, is a prospective observational study started in September 2007. ABPM was conducted in a sub-group from September 2007 to April 2010 and baseline ABPM data of 1,075 subjects (63.4 % male, 60.7 years old) were analyzed. Mean systolic HBI of male and female patients were 242.3 and 176.5 mmHg×h, respectively. HBI sensitively reflected sex (54.7 mmHg×h higher in males than in females), seasonal effects (51.6 mmHg×h higher in winter than in summer), and advancing CKD stage [(16.5 mmHg×h higher) per -10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in eGFR]. The HBI was a significant factor to associate with reduced kidney function, after adjusting with nocturnal BP change (NBPC), sex, and other variables (p value <0.001). Our findings suggested that HBI might be a novel sensitive indicator for the reduction of kidney function, independent of patterns of NBPC.

  9. The Changing Role of Dietary Protein Restriction in Management of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bharat V

    2015-01-01

    In the last 5 to 6 decades there has been a marked variation in use of dietary protein restriction (DPR) in treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Before availability of renal replacement therapy (RRT), DPR restriction was widely practised in uraemic patients to reduce generation of nitrogenous waste products and ameliorate uraemic symptoms. With availability of RRT, the interest in DPR was lost. There was a resurgence of interest in DPR when animal experimental studies suggested that DPR can retard the progression of CKD. Then there was concern about worsening nutritional status with DPR. This article reviews how the role of DPR in treatment of CKD as perceived by physicians has varied over the years and suggests a strategy that should be followed in India considering that RRT is available to a very small percentage of cases developing end stage kidney disease (ESKD).

  10. Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Attini, Rossella; Leone, Filomena; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Capizzi, Irene; Loi, Valentina; Colla, Loredana; Rossetti, Maura; Gerbino, Martina; Maxia, Stefania; Alemanno, Maria Grazia; Minelli, Fosca; Piccoli, Ettore; Versino, Elisabetta; Biolcati, Marilisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15?years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or?>?=1?g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for c...

  11. Association between Urine Creatinine Excretion and Arterial Stiffness in Chronic Kidney Disease: Data from the KNOW-CKD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Youl Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown that low muscle mass is associated with arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, in a population without chronic kidney disease (CKD. This link between low muscle mass and arterial stiffness may explain why patients with CKD have poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, the association between muscle mass and arterial stiffness in CKD patients is not well known. Methods: Between 2011 and 2013, 1,529 CKD patients were enrolled in the prospective Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD. We analyzed 888 participants from this cohort who underwent measurements of 24-hr urinary creatinine excretion (UCr and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV at baseline examination. The mean of the right and left baPWV (mPWV was used as a marker of arterial stiffness. Results: The baPWV values varied according to the UCr quartile (1,630±412, 1,544±387, 1,527±282 and 1,406±246 for the 1st to 4th quartiles of UCr, respectively, PConclusion: Low muscle mass estimated by low UCr was associated high baPWV in pre-dialysis CKD patients in Korea. Further studies are needed to confirm the causal relationship between UCR and baPWV, and the role of muscle mass in the development of cardiovascular disease in CKD.

  12. Telehealth Applications to Enhance CKD Knowledge and Awareness Among Patients and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Delphine S; Boulware, L Ebony

    2017-01-01

    CKD affects 13% of the US adult population, causes excess mortality, and is associated with significant sociodemographic disparities. Optimal CKD management slows progression of disease and reduces cardiovascular-related outcomes. Resources for patients and primary care providers, major stakeholders in preventive CKD care, are critically needed to enhance understanding of the disease and to optimize CKD health, particularly because of the asymptomatic nature of kidney disease. Telehealth is defined as the use of electronic communication and telecommunications technology to support long-distance clinical health care, patient and professional health-related education, and public health and health administration. It provides new opportunities to enhance awareness and understanding among these important stakeholders. This review will examine the role of telehealth within existing educational theories, identify telehealth applications that can enhance CKD knowledge and behavior change among patients and primary care providers, and examine the advantages and disadvantages of telehealth vs usual modalities for education. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD as a Systemic Disease: Whole Body Autoregulation and Inter-Organ Cross-Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Zoccali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The inter-organ cross-talk and the functional integration of organ systems is an exceedingly complex process which until now has been investigated with a reductionist approach. CKD perturbs the inter-organ cross-talk and demands central resetting of autonomic (nervous control of organ systems. Due to limitations inherent to the reductionist approach, we currently identify CKD-related pseudo-syndromes and largely fail at describing the complex systemic inter-relationships set into motion by renal damage and renal dysfunction. A mature technology for a system-analysis approach to physiology and pathophysiology of CKD now exists. System biology will allow in depth understanding of complex diseases like CKD and will set the stage for predictive, preventive and personalized medicine, a long-standing dream of doctors and patients alike.

  14. Dietary fiber intake is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular risk, but not protein nutritional status, in adults with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ming-Qing; Chen, De-Xiu; Wan, Heng; Wei, Lian-Bo; Xiao, Wei

    Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters. The aforementioned parameters were compared over an 18-month follow- up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the association between fiber intake and Cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In total, 157 patients were included in this study. Dietary fiber and inflammatory indices were associated (interleukin [IL]-6: β=-0.024, p=0.035). The differential estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) as well as levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol in the higher fiber intake (>=25 g/day) group were lower than those in the lower fiber intake (patients in the higher protein intake group (pintake may be a protective factor associated with CVD (hazard ratio=0.537 and 0.305- 0.947). The protein nutritional status was not different between the two groups (p>0.05). Our results suggest that increasing fiber intake can retard the decrease in the eGFR; can reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol; and is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk, but does not disrupt the nutritional status of patients with CKD.

  15. Beliefs and Attitudes to Bowel Cancer Screening in Patients with CKD: A Semistructured Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Laura J; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Ju, Angela; Williams, Narelle; Lim, Wai H; Cross, Nicholas; Tong, Allison

    2017-04-03

    Bowel cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in people with CKD. Shared decision making regarding cancer screening is particularly complex in CKD and requires an understanding of patients' values and priorities, which remain largely unknown. Our study aimed to describe the beliefs and attitudes to bowel cancer screening in patients with CKD. Face to face, semistructured interviews were conducted from April of 2014 to December of 2015 with 38 participants ages 39-78 years old with CKD stages 3-5, on dialysis, or transplant recipients from four renal units in Australia and New Zealand. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Five themes were identified: invisibility of cancer (unspoken stigma, ambiguity of risk, and absence of symptomatic prompting); prioritizing kidney disease (preserving the chance of transplantation, over-riding attention to kidney disease, protecting graft survival, and showing loyalty to the donor); preventing the crisis of cancer (evading severe consequences and cognizant of susceptibility); cognitive resistance (reluctance to perform a repulsive procedure, intensifying disease burden threshold, anxiety of a positive test, and accepting the inevitable); and pragmatic accessibility (negligible financial effect, convenience, and protecting anonymity). Patients with CKD understand the potential health benefits of bowel cancer screening, but they are primarily committed to their kidney health. Their decisions regarding screening revolve around their present health needs, priorities, and concerns. Explicit consideration of the potential practical and psychosocial burdens that bowel cancer screening may impose on patients in addition to kidney disease and current treatment is suggested to minimize decisional conflict and improve patient satisfaction and health care outcomes in CKD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Canadians Seeking Solutions and Innovations to Overcome Chronic Kidney Disease (Can-SOLVE CKD): Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Adeera; Adams, Evan; Barrett, Brendan J.; Beanlands, Heather; Burns, Kevin D.; Chiu, Helen Hoi-Lun; Chong, Kate; Dart, Allison; Ferera, Jack; Fernandez, Nicolas; Fowler, Elisabeth; Garg, Amit X.; Gilbert, Richard; Harris, Heather; Harvey, Rebecca; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; James, Matthew; Johnson, Jeffrey; Kappel, Joanne; Komenda, Paul; McCormick, Michael; McIntyre, Christopher; Mahmud, Farid; Pei, York; Pollock, Graham; Reich, Heather; Rosenblum, Norman D.; Scholey, James; Sochett, Etienne; Tang, Mila; Tangri, Navdeep; Tonelli, Marcello; Turner, Catherine; Walsh, Michael; Woods, Cathy; Manns, Braden

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review This article serves to describe the Can-SOLVE CKD network, a program of research projects and infrastructure that has excited patients and given them hope that we can truly transform the care they receive. Issue Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disorder that affects more than 4 million Canadians and costs the Canadian health care system more than $40 billion per year. The evidence base for guiding care in CKD is small, and even in areas where evidence exists, uptake of evidence into clinical practice has been slow. Compounding these complexities are the variations in outcomes for patients with CKD and difficulties predicting who is most likely to develop complications over time. Clearly these gaps in our knowledge and understanding of CKD need to be filled, but the current state of CKD research is not where it needs to be. A culture of clinical trials and inquiry into the disease is lacking, and much of the existing evidence base addresses the concerns of the researchers but not necessarily those of the patients. Program overview The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has launched the national Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research (SPOR), a coalition of federal, provincial, and territorial partners dedicated to integrating research into care. Canadians Seeking Solutions and Innovations to Overcome Chronic Kidney Disease (Can-SOLVE CKD) is one of five pan-Canadian chronic kidney disease networks supported through the SPOR. The vision of Can-SOLVE CKD is that by 2020 every Canadian with or at high risk for CKD will receive the best recommended care, experience optimal outcomes, and have the opportunity to participate in studies with novel therapies, regardless of age, sex, gender, location, or ethnicity. Program objective The overarching objective of Can-SOLVE CKD is to accelerate the translation of knowledge about CKD into clinical research and practice. By focusing on the patient’s voice and implementing relevant findings in

  17. Menopause in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellanki, Kavitha; Hou, Susan

    2018-03-09

    Most women with dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 (CKD stage 5D) are in the postmenopausal age group. Early menopause is reported for all CKD stages (stages 3-5D). The traditional definition of menopause is not applicable in CKD stage 5(D) because menses can resume with hormone replacement therapy or kidney transplantation. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms continues to be the primary indication for hormone replacement therapy, with no dosing studies done specifically for CKD or kidney transplantation populations. Similarly, the risk for cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in menopause is well described in healthy women, but the role that menopause plays in accelerating the risk further in CKD/kidney transplantation is yet to be explored. Lack of data and specific guidance on management make the long-term effects of menopause one of the most under-recognized and neglected patient problems in clinical nephrology. The efficacy and side effects of widely available therapeutic options in healthy women for menopause-related clinical manifestations, be it hormone replacement therapy for vasomotor symptoms or antiresorptive agents for osteoporosis, are to be tested in kidney transplantation and CKD populations. Longitudinal clinical trials are in need to define menopause in CKD and determine the role that CKD plays in menopause transition and menopause on CKD manifestations. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Uremic retention solute indoxyl sulfate level is associated with prolonged QTc interval in early CKD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hua Tang

    Full Text Available Total mortality and sudden cardiac death is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In CKD patients, the protein-bound uremic retention solute indoxyl sulfate (IS is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of this association have yet to be elucidated. The relationship between IS and cardiac electrocardiographic parameters was investigated in a prospective observational study among early CKD patients. IS arrhythmogenic effect was evaluated by in vitro cardiomyocyte electrophysiological study and mathematical computer simulation. In a cohort of 100 early CKD patients, patients with corrected QT (QTc prolongation had higher IS levels. Furthermore, serum IS level was independently associated with prolonged QTc interval. In vitro, the delay rectifier potassium current (IK was found to be significantly decreased after the treatment of IS in a dose-dependent manner. The modulation of IS to the IK was through the regulation of the major potassium ion channel protein Kv 2.1 phosphorylation. In a computer simulation, the decrease of IK by IS could prolong the action potential duration (APD and induce early afterdepolarization, which is known to be a trigger mechanism of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. In conclusion, serum IS level is independently associated with the prolonged QTc interval in early CKD patients. IS down-regulated IK channel protein phosphorylation and the IK current activity that in turn increased the cardiomyocyte APD and QTc interval in vitro and in the computer ORd model. These findings suggest that IS may play a role in the development of arrhythmogenesis in CKD patients.

  19. Clinical and Pathological Significance of Autoantibodies to Erythropoietin Receptor in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With CKD

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    Akinori Hara

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Anti-EPOR antibodies might be involved in the progression of renal lesions and in the impaired erythropoiesis in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD. Furthermore, the presence of anti-EPOR antibodies may be an additional predictor for end-stage renal disease in type 2 diabetes.

  20. International Network of Chronic Kidney Disease cohort studies (iNET-CKD): a global network of chronic kidney disease cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienemann, Thomas; Fujii, Naohiko; Orlandi, Paula; Nessel, Lisa; Furth, Susan L; Hoy, Wendy E; Matsuo, Seiichi; Mayer, Gert; Methven, Shona; Schaefer, Franz; Schaeffner, Elke S; Solá, Laura; Stengel, Bénédicte; Wanner, Christoph; Zhang, Luxia; Levin, Adeera; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Feldman, Harold I

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden, yet it is still underrepresented within public health agendas in many countries. Studies focusing on the natural history of CKD are challenging to design and conduct, because of the long time-course of disease progression, a wide variation in etiologies, and a large amount of clinical variability among individuals with CKD. With the difference in health-related behaviors, healthcare delivery, genetics, and environmental exposures, this variability is greater across countries than within one locale and may not be captured effectively in a single study. Studies were invited to join the network. Prerequisites for membership included: 1) observational designs with a priori hypotheses and defined study objectives, patient-level information, prospective data acquisition and collection of bio-samples, all focused on predialysis CKD patients; 2) target sample sizes of 1,000 patients for adult cohorts and 300 for pediatric cohorts; and 3) minimum follow-up of three years. Participating studies were surveyed regarding design, data, and biosample resources. Twelve prospective cohort studies and two registries covering 21 countries were included. Participants age ranges from >2 to >70 years at inclusion, CKD severity ranges from stage 2 to stage 5. Patient data and biosamples (not available in the registry studies) are measured yearly or biennially. Many studies included multiple ethnicities; cohort size ranges from 400 to more than 13,000 participants. Studies' areas of emphasis all include but are not limited to renal outcomes, such as progression to ESRD and death. iNET-CKD (International Network of CKD cohort studies) was established, to promote collaborative research, foster exchange of expertise, and create opportunities for research training. Participating studies have many commonalities that will facilitate comparative research; however, we also observed substantial differences. The diversity we observed across

  1. Australian general practitioners’ current practice for chronic kidney disease (CKD detection and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ludlow

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Guidelines for early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD emphasise regular testing of kidney health in high-risk individuals. However, evidence suggests that CKD is not being adequately detected or appropriately managed in primary care. Aims Assess Australian general practitioners’ (GP current practice in relation to CKD detection and management. Methods This was a cross-sectional study utilising a random sample of GPs identified by interrogation of the national online telephone directory, and stratified by geographical location. Data collection occurred between October 2014 and January 2015. Of 2,815 eligible contacts, the final response rate was 23 per cent. Results Of the 656 respondents, over 90 per cent assessed kidney health at least annually in people with diabetes or high blood pressure, and 71 per cent correctly assessed kidney health every 3–6 months in a patient with Stage 3b CKD. The tests most commonly used to assess kidney health were serum creatinine (with eGFR, blood pressure and urine albumin creatinine ratio. The most commonly reported CKD management strategies were ‘blood pressure reduction using pharmacological agents’ (81 per cent and ‘glycaemic control if diabetes present’ (64 per cent. Knowledge testing highlighted that 32 per cent of respondents were not able to correctly identify how to properly assess absolute cardiovascular risk, and this was significantly more common in more experienced GPs (p=0.003. Conclusion The results indicate that Australian GPs are mainly practising in accordance with current guidelines for detection and management of patients with CKD, but with room for improvement in some areas

  2. A patient with CKD and poor nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizler, T Alp

    2013-12-01

    Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents.

  3. A Patient with CKD and Poor Nutritional Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Summary Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents. PMID:23970134

  4. Association of serum bicarbonate levels with mortality in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Anderson, John E.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2009-01-01

    Background. Metabolic acidosis, usually manifested by low serum bicarbonate level, is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and appears to be associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients. It is not known whether a similar association is present in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD). Methods. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox models to examine the association between baseline and time-variable serum bicarbonate (measured as total CO2) with the outcomes of all-cause mortality and the composite of pre-dialysis mortality or end-stage renal disease in 1240 male patients with moderate and advanced NDD-CKD. Results. Serum bicarbonate showed a significant U-shaped association with all-cause mortality, with the highest mortality rate observed in patients with baseline serum bicarbonate levels <22 mmol/L [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for patients with serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L versus ≥22 mmol/L: 1.33 (1.05–1.69), P = 0.02] and the lowest mortality observed in patients with baseline serum bicarbonate of 26–29 mmol/L. The associations between lower serum bicarbonate level and mortality were more accentuated in subgroups of patients with better nutritional status and lower inflammation. Conclusions. Both lower and higher serum bicarbonates are associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with moderate and advanced NDD-CKD. Clinical trials are needed to determine if therapeutic interventions aimed at optimizing serum bicarbonate can result in improved outcomes in this population. PMID:19015169

  5. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in CKD Stage 4 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höke, Ulas; Khidir, Mand J H; van der Velde, Enno T; Schalij, Martin J; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria; Marsan, Nina Ajmone

    2015-10-07

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a well established heart failure treatment that has shown to improve renal function. However, landmark CRT trials excluded patients with severe renal dysfunction. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of CRT on renal function and long-term prognosis in patients with stage 4 CKD. This study evaluated 73 consecutive CRT patients (71±10 years) with stage 4 CKD who underwent echocardiographic and renal function evaluation at baseline and 6-month follow-up between 2000 and 2012. As a control group, 18 patients with stage 4 CKD who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) were selected. CRT recipients with ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6-month follow-up were classified as CRT responders. During long-term follow-up (median, 33 months), appropriate defibrillator therapy, heart failure hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality (combined end point) were recorded. At 6-month follow-up, a significant reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume was observed in CRT patients compared with patients with ICD (from 159±78 to 145±78 ml in CRT patients and from 126±54 to 119±49 ml in ICD patients; P=0.05), and CRT response was observed in 22 patients (30%). Compared with ICD patients, eGFR improved among CRT patients (from 25±4 to 30±9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); interaction time and group, P=0.04) and was more pronounced among CRT responders (25±3 to 34±9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); P<0.001). The combined end point was observed in 17 ICD and 62 CRT patients. CRT patients showed superior survival compared with ICD patients (log-rank P=0.03). More importantly, CRT response was independently associated with improved survival free from the combined end point (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.98; P=0.04) after adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic parameters. Response to CRT occurs in approximately 30% of patients with stage 4 CKD, which is less than in the

  6. A practical approach to dietary interventions for nondialysis-dependent CKD patients: the experience of a reference nephrology center in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cuppari, Lilian; Nerbass, Fabiana Baggio; Avesani, Carla Maria; Kamimura, Maria Ayako

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the 30-year experience on nutritional management of non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in a public outpatient clinic located in the city of S?o Paulo, Brazil. A team of specialized dietitians in renal nutrition is responsible to provide individual dietary counseling for patients on stages 3 to 5 of CKD. Two different types of nutrition care protocols are employed depending on the level of renal function. For patients with CKD stage 3 a simplified...

  7. Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 by CKD273, a Urinary Proteomic Biomarker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontillo, Claudia; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Schanstra, Joost P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: CKD273 is a urinary biomarker, which in advanced chronic kidney disease predicts further deterioration. We investigated whether CKD273 can also predict a decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to ... threshold (P = 0.086). Discussion: In conclusion, while accounting for baseline eGFR, albuminuria, and covariables, CKD273 adds to the prediction of stage 3 chronic kidney disease, at which point intervention remains an achievable therapeutic target....

  8. Concordance between Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Equivalent and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in CKD Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadi Wirawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the correlation and the concordance between reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr as well as to obtain the cut-off value of RET-He as the target of iron supplementation in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: a cross-sectional study was performed using K3EDTA-anticoagulated peripheral blood samples collected from 106 CKD patients undergoing routine hemodialysis. The samples were then analyzed using both Sysmex XN-2000 and Siemens ADVIA 2120i for RET-He and CHr analysis. Results: a very strong correlation (r=0.91; p<0.0001 and a good concordance were found between RET-He and CHr with mean bias of 0.5 pg. The diagnostic concordance was 96.23%. The cut-off value of RET-He 29.2 pg was obtained from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve with CHr as the gold standard. At this cut-off point, the sensitivity and specificity to assess the target of iron supplementation in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis were 95.5% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: the study shows a good correlation and concordance between RET-He and CHr in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  9. Nonapnea Sleep Disorders in Patients Younger than 65 Years Are Significantly Associated with CKD: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo You-Hsien Lin

    Full Text Available Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASD and sleep-related problems are associated with poor health outcomes. However, the association between NASD and the development and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD has not been investigated thoroughly. We explored the association between CKD and NASD in Taiwan.We conducted a population-based study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database with1,000,000 representative data for the period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009. We investigated the incidence and risk of CKD in 7,006 newly diagnosed NASD cases compared with 21,018 people without NASD matched according to age, sex, index year, urbanization, region, and monthly income at a 1:3 ratio.The subsequent risk of CKD was 1.48-foldhigher in the NASD cohort than in the control cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-1.73, p< 0.001. Men, older age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and gout were significant factors associated with the increased risk of CKD (p< 0.001. Among different types of NASDs, patients with insomnia had a 52% increased risk of developing CKD (95%CI = 1.23-1.84; P<0.01, whereas patients with sleep disturbance had a 49%increased risk of subsequent CKD (95% CI = 1.19-1.87; P<0.001. Younger women (aged < 65 years were at a high risk of CKD with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio, [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.35-2.40, p< 0.001.In this nationwide population-based cohort study, patients with NASD, particularly men of all ages and women aged younger than 65 years, were at high risk of CKD.

  10. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mark A; Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV-positive...... people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5%) predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included all participants with complete risk factor (covariate) data, baseline eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and a confirmed (>3...... months apart) eGFR groups (≤1%, >1%-5%, >5%) and fitted Poisson models to assess whether CVD and CKD risk group effects were multiplicative. A total of 27...

  11. The link between bone and coronary calcifications in CKD-5 patients on haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Gulay; Ok, Ercan; Savas, Recep; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Duman, Soner; Toz, Huseyin; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Branscum, Adam J; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Herberth, Johann; Malluche, Hartmut H

    2011-03-01

    Vascular calcifications are frequent in Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5) patients receiving haemodialysis. The current study was designed to evaluate the associations between bone turnover/volume and coronary artery calcifications (CAC). In 207 CKD-5 patients, bone biopsies, multislice computed tomography of the coronary arteries and blood drawings for relevant biochemical parameters were done. The large number of CKD-5 patients enrolled allowed separate evaluation of patients with CAC versus patients without CAC and adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CAC. When all patients were analysed, associations were found between CAC and bone turnover, bone volume, age, gender and dialysis vintage. When only patients with CAC were included, there was a U-shaped relationship between CAC and bone turnover, whilst the association with bone volume was lost. In these patients, the relationship of CAC with age, gender and dialysis vintage remained. Beyond the non-modifiable risk factors of age, gender and dialysis vintage, these data show that bone abnormalities of renal osteodystrophy amenable to treatment should be considered in the management of patients with CAC.

  12. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  13. Effect of an Educational Program on Adherence to Therapeutic Regimen among Chronic Kidney Disease Stage5 (CKD5) Patients under Maintenance Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deif, Hala I. Abo; Elsawi, Khiria; Selim, Mohga; NasrAllah, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease on health care services worldwide is growing and the increased development of educational interventions which help patients to better manage their conditions is evident internationally. It has been recognized that poor adherence can be a serious risk to the health and wellbeing of patients. Adherence to fluid…

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Anti-HBc (Total Positivity in CKD Patients before Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareha Jesmin Rabbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: CKD patients are associated with HBV infection both as a cause and complication of treatment. CKD patients before starting dialysis therapy are considered as a high risk group because of impaired immune response compared with healthy individuals and also other risk factors related with treatment and management. Only HBsAg marker does not always follow the presence or absence of HBV infection. Anti-HBc (total alone positivity indicates previous exposure to HBV infection, window period and even after reactivation of resolved HBV infection. In some cases only anti-HBc positivity is interpreted as possible chronic low dose HBV infection (chronic carriage. Predialytic CKD patients were tested with three serological markers [HBsAg, anti-HBc (total and anti-HBs] for screening HBV infection. Proper diagnosis before dialysis and knowing the infection status would help both the patient and doctor to choose proper treatment approach. Objective: This cross-sectional study was done in the CKD patients before starting dialysis therapy to find out the HBV infection and to evaluate the infection by minimal serological markers as for screening. Materials and Methods: A total of 211 patients with chronic kidney disease stage five (CKD-V before starting dialysis therapy were included as subjects of this cross-sectional study. Among the CKD patients HBsAg was tested to see the prevalence. Other serological markers, i.e., anti-HBc (total and anti-HBs were tested in combination with HBsAg in 89 randomly selected patients among the subjects. The patients were also tested for anti-HCV to assess co-infection. After collecting all the data of different test results analyses were done by SPSS version 15.0. Results: Among total study population 10 (4.7% patients were found HBsAg positive. No patient was found positive for both HBsAg and anti-HCV. Among the 89 CKD patients only 2 (2.2% patients were HBsAg positive, and only one patient (0.9% was found positive

  15. Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 by CKD273, a Urinary Proteomic Biomarker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontillo, Claudia; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Schanstra, Joost P; Jacobs, Lotte; Zürbig, Petra; Thijs, Lutgarde; Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Lindhardt, Morten; Klein, Ronald; Orchard, Trevor; Porta, Massimo; Bilous, Rudolf W; Charturvedi, Nishi; Rossing, Peter; Vlahou, Antonia; Schepers, Eva; Glorieux, Griet; Mullen, William; Delles, Christian; Verhamme, Peter; Vanholder, Raymond; Staessen, Jan A; Mischak, Harald; Jankowski, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: CKD273 is a urinary biomarker, which in advanced chronic kidney disease predicts further deterioration. We investigated whether CKD273 can also predict a decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Methods: In analyses of 2087 individuals from 6

  16. Neck Circumference as a Predictive Indicator of CKD for High Cardiovascular Risk Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neck circumference (NC is an anthropometric measure of obesity for upper subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution which is associated with cardiometabolic risk. This study investigated whether NC is associated with indicators of chronic kidney disease (CKD for high cardiometabolic risk patients. Methods. A total of 177 consecutive patients who underwent the outpatient departments of cardiology were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were aged >20 years with normal renal function or with stages 1–4 CKD. A linear regression was performed using the Enter method to present an unadjusted R2, standardized coefficients, and standard error, and the Durbin-Watson test was used to assess residual independence. Results. Most anthropometric measurements from patients aged ≧65 were lower than those from patients aged <65, except for women’s waist circumference (WC and waist hip ratio. Female NC obtained the highest R2 values for 24 hr CCR, uric acid, microalbuminuria, hsCRP, triglycerides, and HDL compared to BMI, WC, and hip circumference. The significances of female NC with 24 hr CCR and uric acid were improved after adjusted age and serum creatinine. Conclusions. NC is associated with indicators of CKD for high cardiometabolic risk patients and can be routinely measured as easy as WC in the future.

  17. The effect of some medications given to CKD patients on vitamin D levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, Claudia; Quiroga, Borja; de Vinuesa, Soledad García; Goicoechea, Maria Angeles; Barraca, Daniel; Verdalles, Ursula; Luño, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and polypharmacy is a common problem over chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. To assess the clinical and analytical characteristics of CKD patients with 25-OH-D3 deficiency (<15 ng/mL), including the possible role of associated drugs. A single center observational review of 137 incident patients referred to our outpatient clinic with different stages of CKD and 25-OH-D3<15ng/mL (male gender 53.3%, mean age 70.8 [±16.1] years, mean GFR (MDRD-4) 43.6 [±25.5] ml/min/1.73 m²). 25-OH-D3 levels were collected in spring. Clinical and biochemical data and associated medications were recorded. Mean 25-OH-D3 levels were 8.23 [±4.03] ng/ml. Eighty-eight patients (64.7%) had 3 or more concomitant drugs. Only 7 patients (5.1%) were not receiving any medication. Patients were divided in three groups according the therapies into none (n=26), RAS inhibitors or allopurinol (n=81), and RAS inhibitors plus allopurinol (n=30); with the aim to study the influence of statin therapy. Patients under renin angiotensin (RAS) inhibitors or Allopurinol treatment presented significantly higher 25-OH-D3 levels (p=0.001 and p=0.01 respectively), however patients with Statins treatment had lower 25-OH-D3 level (p=0.039). Personal history of diabetes, cardiovascular events or other therapies did not modify 25-OH-D3 levels, adjusted by age and eGFR. CKD patients with vitamin D deficiency who received RAS inhibitors or Allopurinol treatment had higher 25-OH-D3 levels, however those with statins treatment had lower vitamin D levels. Randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Changes in fat mass correlate with changes in soluble sCD163, a marker of mature macrophages, in patients with CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Jonas; Møller, Holger Jon; Witasp, Anna

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, adipose tissue was shown to contain macrophages capable of contributing to systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we investigate this putative relationship in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) by using the novel macrophage marker soluble (s...

  19. Estimating glomerular filtration rate using the new CKD-EPI equation and other equations in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, Bjarne; Borresen, Malene L; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies have compared the performance of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), where the declining GFR typically is followed for many years or even decades. This was the purpose of the present...

  20. The "phosphorus pyramid": a visual tool for dietary phosphate management in dialysis and CKD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina B; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2015-01-20

    Phosphorus retention plays a pivotal role in the onset of mineral and bone disorders (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Phosphorus retention commonly occurs as a result of net intestinal absorption exceeding renal excretion or dialysis removal. The dietary phosphorus load is crucial since the early stages of CKD, throughout the whole course of the disease, up to dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.Agreement exits regarding the need for dietary phosphate control, but it is quite challenging in the real-life setting. Effective strategies to control dietary phosphorus intake include restricting phosphorus-rich foods, preferring phosphorus sourced from plant origin, boiling as the preferred cooking procedure and avoiding foods with phosphorus-containing additives. Nutritional education is crucial in this regard.Based on the existing literature, we developed the "phosphorus pyramid", namely a novel, visual, user-friendly tool for the nutritional education of patients and health-care professionals. The pyramid consists of six levels in which foods are arranged on the basis of their phosphorus content, phosphorus to protein ratio and phosphorus bioavailability. Each has a colored edge (from green to red) that corresponds to recommended intake frequency, ranging from "unrestricted" to "avoid as much as possible".The aim of the phosphorus pyramid is to support dietary counseling in order to reduce the phosphorus load, a crucial aspect of integrated CKD-MBD management.

  1. Use of Clinical Decision Support to Improve Primary Care Identification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Cara B; Hyer, J Madison; Ornstein, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can lead to interventions to prevent renal failure and reduce risk for cardiovascular disease, yet adherence to treatment goals is suboptimal in the primary care setting. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical decision support (CDS) can be used to improve the identification and management of CKD. This 2 year demonstration study was conducted in 11 primary care PPRNet practices. CDS included a risk assessment tool, health maintenance protocols, flow chart and a patient registry. Practices received performance reports and hosted annual half day on-site visits. There were statistically significant increases in screening for albuminuria (median 24 month change 30%, p primary care practices shows promise. However, other barriers must be addressed to effectively achieve improvements in CKD outcomes. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  2. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mark A; Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV...

  3. Association of serum adiponectin concentration with aortic arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease: from the KNOW-CKD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Park, Sue K; Lee, Ju Yeon; Chung, Wookyung; Lee, Kyubeck; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Soo Wan

    2017-08-01

    High serum adiponectin levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and arterial stiffness in CKD is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess this relationship by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) in CKD patients. Serum adiponectin concentration was measured in 716 CKD patients in the prospective KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. The study group consisted of 415 men and 301 women; mean age was 53.1 years, and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 51 ± 29 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 . Heart to femoral PWV (hfPWV) and mean brachial to ankle PWV (baPWV) served as indicators of aortic artery stiffness and arterial stiffness, respectively. Increasing quartiles of serum adiponectin levels were associated with women, lower eGFRs and body mass indices, and higher urinary albumin-creatinine ratios. Serum adiponectin concentration also correlated with hfPWV and mean baPWV, even after adjusting for age and sex. It independently associated with hfPWV (B 0.028; 95 % confidence interval, 0.004-0.051; P = 0.020) but not mean baPWV in a multivariable linear regression analysis. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, it correlated significantly with the highest quartile of hfPWVs but not mean baPWVs. The independent and significant correlation of serum adiponectin concentration with hfPWV in CKD patients implicates adiponectin in CKD-associated aortic stiffness.

  4. Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 by CKD273, a Urinary Proteomic Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pontillo

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: In conclusion, while accounting for baseline eGFR, albuminuria, and covariables, CKD273 adds to the prediction of stage 3 chronic kidney disease, at which point intervention remains an achievable therapeutic target.

  5. Arterial aging and arterial disease : interplay between central hemodynamics, cardiac work, and organ flow-implications for CKD and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, Gerard; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Wiecek, Andrzej; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ortiz, Alberto; Massy, Ziad; Lindholm, Bengt; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Fliser, Danilo; Agarwal, Rajiv; Jager, Kitty J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Zoccali, Carmine

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All epidemiological studies have clearly shown that accelerated arterial and cardiac aging is characteristic of these populations. Arterial

  6. Association between cardiac biomarkers and the development of ESRD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, anemia, and CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, Akshay S; Toto, Robert; Jarolim, Petr

    2011-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as in other populations, elevations in cardiac biomarker levels predict increased risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the value of troponin T (TnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) in assessing the risk of developing e...

  7. Primary Care of the Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Meghan M; Ryan, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, increased proteinuria, or both. CKD affects more than 10% of US adults, or 20 million people, and the numbers are rising as the population ages. However, CKD remains underdiagnosed. Diabetes and hypertension are the most common causes of CKD. Although end-stage renal disease is a feared complication of CKD, patients with CKD have a much greater risk of dying of cardiovascular (CV) disease than progressing to kidney failure. Special effort should be made to address modifiable CV risk factors in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Albuminuria, Proteinuria, and Renal Disease Progression in Children with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Dana Y; Schneider, Michael F; Dell, Katherine M; Blydt-Hansen, Tom D; Mak, Robert; Saland, Jeffrey M; Furth, Susan L; Warady, Bradley A; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Schwartz, George J

    2017-06-07

    The role of albuminuria as an indicator of progression has not been investigated in children with CKD in the absence of diabetes. Children were enrolled from 49 centers of the CKD in Children study between January of 2005 and March of 2014. Cross-sectional multivariable linear regression ( n =647) was used to examine the relationship between urine protein-to-creatinine (UP/C [milligrams per milligram]) and albumin-to-creatinine (ACR [milligrams per gram]) with eGFR (milliliters per minute per 1.73 m 2 ). Parametric time-to-event analysis ( n =751) was used to assess the association of UP/C, ACR, and urine nonalbumin-to-creatinine (Unon-alb/cr [milligrams per gram]) on the time to the composite endpoint of initiation of RRT or 50% decline in eGFR. The median follow-up time was 3.4 years and 202 individuals experienced the event. Participants with a UP/C≥0.2 mg/mg and ACR≥30 mg/g had a mean eGFR that was 16 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 lower than those with a UP/C2.0 mg/mg], RT=0.09 for ACR [>1333 mg/g], RT=0.07 for Unon-alb/cr [>715 mg/g]) levels to the lowest levels. A similar trend was seen when categories were created on the basis of clinically meaningful cutoff values of ACR (300 mg/g). In children with CKD without diabetes, the utility of an initial UP/C, ACR, and Unon-alb/cr for characterizing progression is similar. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Curcumin and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD: Major Mode of Action through Stimulating Endogenous Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha S. Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa, has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD, an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP. Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD.

  10. Iron-based phosphate binders: a paradigm shift in the treatment of hyperphosphatemic anemic CKD patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    The partial correction of anemia and the normalization of phosphate and blood pressure are the mainstay of treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Available anti-hypertensive drugs, erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) and iron supplements have resolved quite satisfactorily the goal of controlling hypertension and partially correcting anemia. Unfortunately, the treatment of hyperphosphatemia is still far from resolved. Phosphate binders have poor tolerability and/or limited efficacy, leading to the prescription of many tablets that achieve only a mild-to-moderate effect. Moreover, increased consumption of tablets is associated with increased low tolerability, thus jeopardizing patient compliance and, in turn, the efficacy of phosphate binding. Compared to calcium-free binders, the cheaper calcium salts increase the risk of hypercalcemia, calciphylaxis and vascular calcification and possibly all-cause mortality. Calcium-free phosphate binders decrease serum phosphate levels without increasing the serum calcium concentration. The higher phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate compared to sevelamer should be balanced against its lack of pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism and inflammation and the accumulation in bones. New iron-based phosphate binders are available. In addition to their phosphate binding capacity, they could also be useful to treat anemia. Iron citrate is seeking for such an indication because its iron absorption is significant. This could be of clinical importance, particularly in CKD patients not on dialysis, obviating the need for extra oral iron administration and possibly favoring compliance. In conclusion, the use of iron-based phosphate binders with significant iron absorption properties could represent a novel paradigm for correcting anemia and hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients.

  11. EPIC Trial: education programme impact on serum phosphorous control in CKD 5D patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Tzanno Branco Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In stage 5D chronic kidney disease (CKD 5D patients, the encouragement of treatment adherence by health professionals is a significant clinical challenge. Objectives: This study evaluates the impact of a nutritional education programme on hyperphosphatemia, utilizing the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TMBC. Subjects and Methods: A prospective interventional study comprising 179 CKD 5D patients with hypophosphatemia. The 4-month educational programme took place during dialysis sessions. Demographic and laboratory data were evaluated, whilst the TMBC was utilized both pre- and post-intervention. Results: 132 patients showed a positive change and significant reduction in phosphate levels, whilst 47 patients showed a negative change and little reduction in phosphate levels. Positive changes were identified at different levels of literacy. 117/179 participants had ongoing treatment with sevelamer throughout the trial period. 61 patients with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH 300 pg/ml also showed a decrease in phosphate levels. Conclusions: Nutritional education programmes can achieve excellent results when appropriately applied. An education programme may be effective across different literacy levels.

  12. Associations of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Geometry with Adverse Outcomes in Patients with CKD and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Ernesto; De Nicola, Luca; Gabbai, Francis B; Chiodini, Paolo; Ravera, Maura; Pieracci, Laura; Marre, Sonia; Cassottana, Paolo; Lucà, Sergio; Vettoretti, Simone; Borrelli, Silvio; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

    2016-02-05

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry predict adverse outcomes in the general and hypertensive populations, but findings in CKD are still inconclusive. We enrolled 445 patients with hypertension and CKD stages 2-5 in two academic nephrology clinics in 1999-2003 who underwent both echocardiography and ambulatory BP monitoring. LVH (LV mass >100 g/m(2) [women] and >131 g/m(2) [men]) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were used to define LV geometry: no LVH and RWT≤0.45 (normal), no LVH and RWT>0.45 (remodeling), LVH and RWT≤0.45 (eccentric), and LVH and RWT>0.45 (concentric). We evaluated the prognostic role of LVH and LV geometry on cardiovascular (CV; composite of fatal and nonfatal events) and renal outcomes (composite of ESRD and all-cause death). Age was 64.1±13.8 years old; 19% had diabetes, and 22% had CV disease. eGFR was 39.9±20.2 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). LVH was detected in 249 patients (56.0%); of these, 125 had concentric LVH, and 124 had eccentric pattern, whereas 71 patients had concentric remodeling. Age, women, anemia, and nocturnal hypertension were independently associated with both concentric and eccentric LVH, whereas diabetes and history of CV disease associated with eccentric LVH only, and CKD stages 4 and 5 associated with concentric LVH only. During follow-up (median, 5.9 years; range, 0.04-15.3), 188 renal deaths (112 ESRD) and 103 CV events (61 fatal) occurred. Using multivariable Cox analysis, concentric and eccentric LVH was associated with higher risk of CV outcomes (hazard ratio [HR], 2.59; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39 to 4.84 and HR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.47 to 5.26, respectively). Similarly, greater risk of renal end point was detected in concentric (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.44 to 3.80) and eccentric (HR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.42 to 3.74) LVH. Sensitivity analysis using LVH and RWT separately showed that LVH but not RWT was associated with higher cardiorenal risk. In patients with CKD, LVH is a

  13. Prediction Model and Risk Stratification Tool for Survival in Patients With CKD

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    Alexander S. Goldfarb-Rumyantzev

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: The risk stratification tool and prediction model of 2-year mortality demonstrated good performance and may be used in clinical practice to quantify the risk of death for individual patients with CKD.

  14. Muscle atrophy in patients wirh ckd results from fgf23/klotho-mediated supression of insulin/igf-i signaling

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    Shinsuke Kido

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy is a significant consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD that increases a patient’s risk of mortality and decrease their quality of life. In CKD patients, the circulation levels of FGF23 are significantly increased, but the exact pathological significance of the increase and relationship between FGF23 and muscle atrophy are not clear. Because of Klohto, acts as a co-receptor of FGF23 is detectable in limited tissues including in kidney and brain, but not in skeletal muscles. In contrast, recently reports indicated that the extracellular domain of klohto is cleavage for some reason on the cell surface and detected in the blood in animals. In this study, we attempted to identify the causative factors responsible for the shedding of Klotho, and whether both FGF23 and Klohto induced muscle atrophy via reduction of insulin/IGF-I signaling. We first investigated by treating kidney cells with various factors related in pathological factors in CKD. As a result, we found that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs, an accumulated in patients with CKD and diabetes mellitus, increases shedding of Klohto in kidney cells. It is common knowledge that insulin/IGF-I signaling is necessary for normal skeletal growth. As a result, we showed that both FGF23 and Klohto inhibited differentiation of cultured skeletal muscle cells through down-regulation of insulin/IGF-I signaling. These observations suggested a divergent role of FGF23 and soluble klohto in the regulation of skeletal muscle differentiation and thereby muscle atrophy under pathological conditioned in CKD patients. Our results further imply that FGF23/Klohto may serve a new therapeutic target for CKD-induced muscle atrophy.

  15. Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attini, Rossella; Leone, Filomena; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Capizzi, Irene; Loi, Valentina; Colla, Loredana; Rossetti, Maura; Gerbino, Martina; Maxia, Stefania; Alemanno, Maria Grazia; Minelli, Fosca; Piccoli, Ettore; Versino, Elisabetta; Biolcati, Marilisa; Avagnina, Paolo; Pani, Antonello; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Todros, Tullia; Piccoli, Giorgina B

    2016-09-20

    Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15 years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or > =1 g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for comparison. January, 2000 to September, 2015: 36 on-diet pregnancies (31 singleton deliveries, 3 twin deliveries, 1 pregnancy termination, 1 miscarriage); 47 controls (42 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet is basically vegan; since occasional milk and yoghurt are allowed, we defined it vegan-vegetarian; protein intake (0.6-0.8 g/Kg/day), keto-acid supplementation, protein-unrestricted meals (1-3/week) are prescribed according to CKD stage and nutritional status. Statistical analysis was performed as implemented on SPSS. Patients and controls were similar (p: ns) at baseline with regard to age (33 vs 33.5), referral week (7 vs 9), kidney function (CKD 3-5: 48.4 % vs 64.3 %); prevalence of hypertension (51.6 % vs 40.5 %) and proteinuria >3 g/24 h (16.1 % vs 12.2 %). There were more diabetic nephropathies in on-diet patients (on diet: 31.0 % vs controls 5.3 %; p 0.007 (Fisher)) while lupus nephropathies were non-significantly higher in controls (on diet: 10.3 % vs controls 23.7 %; p 0.28 (Fisher)). The incidence of preterm delivery was similar (vegan-vegetarian supplemented diet is confirmed as a safe option in the management of pregnant CKD patients.

  16. Influence of the Method of Definition on the Prevalence of Left-Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Data from the Know-Ped CKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyeon; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hee Gyung; Ha, Il-Soo; Cheong, Hae Il; Han, Kyung Hee; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Min Hyun; Shin, Jae Il; Lee, Joo Hoon; Park, Young Seo

    2017-01-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) is an early marker of cardiovascular disease in pediatric CKD, and the prevalence of LVH in pediatric CKD is approximately 20-30% in pre-dialysis CKD patients. However, there is no consensus on the ideal method of defining LVH in pediatric CKD patients. Previous studies have typically used the LV mass index (LVMI), which is calculated as LV mass in grams divided by height in meters to the 2.7th power ≥ 38 g/m2.7, to diagnose LVH in children with CKD. Recently, age-specific reference values for LVMI ≥ 95th percentile and LV wall-thickness z-score > 1.64 in children were addressed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and contributing factors of LVH in pediatric CKD patients according to each measurement and evaluate the concordance between each measurement. We used the baseline data of the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD), which is a nationwide, 10-year, prospective, observational cohort study of pediatric CKD. A total of 469 patients were enrolled, and 458 patients were included in the final analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the association of the variables with LVH. Kappa statistics were used to analyze the concordance. According to an LVH diagnosis of LVMI ≥ 38 g/m2.7, 188 patients (41.0%) were diagnosed with LVH, and the prevalence of LVH was high in younger patients ( 1.64. There is poor concordance between the diagnosis of LVH using the LV wall-thickness z-score and the LVMI method. The results of this study show that there is poor concordance between the diagnosis of LVH using the wall-thickness z-score and the LVMI2.7 criteria. Further investigation is needed to estimate the correlation between LVH and cardiac dysfunction and to find a better method for defining LVH in the pediatric CKD cohort

  17. Effects of Higher Quality of Care on Initiation of Long-term Dialysis in Patients With CKD and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hon-Yen; Fukuma, Shingo; Shimizu, Sayaka; Norton, Edward C; Tu, Yu-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Mei-Ru; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-11-01

    The burden of diabetes-related chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individuals and society is increasing, shifting attention toward improving the quality of care for patients with CKD and diabetes. We assessed the quality of CKD care and its association with long-term dialysis, acute kidney injury (AKI), and death. Retrospective cohort study (2004-2011). Adults in Taiwan with incident CKD enrolled in the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients. 3 CKD-care quality indicators based on medical and pharmacy claims data were studied: prescription of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, testing for proteinuria, and nutritional guidance. Each was examined individually, and all were summed into an overall quality score. The primary outcome was initiation of long-term dialysis therapy. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization due to AKI and death from any cause. Using instrumental variables related to the quality indicators to minimize both unmeasured and measured confounding, we fit a 2-stage residual inclusion model to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for each outcome. Among the 63,260 patients enrolled, 43.9% were prescribed renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, 60.6% were tested for proteinuria, and 13.4% received nutritional guidance. During a median follow-up of 37.9 months, 1,471 patients started long-term dialysis therapy, 2,739 patients were hospitalized due to AKI, and 4,407 patients died. Higher overall quality scores were associated with lower hazards for long-term dialysis in instrumental variable analyses (HR of 0.62 [95% CI, 0.40-0.98] per 1-point greater score) and hospitalization due to AKI (HR of 0.69 [95% CI, 0.50-0.96] per 1-point greater score). The hazard for all-cause death was nonsignificantly lower (HR of 0.80 [95% CI, 0.62-1.03] per 1-point greater score). Potential misclassification and uncontrolled confounding by indication. Our findings suggest potential opportunities to improve long-term outcomes among patients with diabetes and CKD by improving the quality

  18. Dialysis modality preference of patients with CKD and family caregivers: a discrete-choice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Rachael L; Snelling, Paul; Webster, Angela C; Rose, John; Masterson, Rosemary; Johnson, David W; Howard, Kirsten

    2012-07-01

    Dialysis modality preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and family caregivers are important, yet rarely quantified. Prospective, unlabeled, discrete-choice experiment with random-parameter logit analysis. Adults with stages 3-5 CKD and caregivers educated about dialysis treatment options from 8 Australian renal clinics. Preferences for and trade-offs between the dialysis treatment attributes of life expectancy, number of hospital visits per week, ability to travel, hours per treatment, treatment time of day, subsidized transport service, and flexibility of treatment schedule. Results presented as ORs for preferring home-based or in-center dialysis to conservative care. 105 predialysis patients and 73 family caregivers completed the study. Median patient age was 63 years, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 18.1 (range, 6-34) mL/min/1.73 m(2). Median caregiver age was 61 years. Home-based dialysis (either peritoneal or home hemodialysis) was chosen by patients in 65% of choice sets; in-center dialysis, in 35%; and conservative care, in 10%. For caregivers, this was 72%, 25%, and 3%, respectively. Both patients and caregivers preferred longer rather than shorter hours of dialysis (ORs of 2.02 [95% CI, 1.51-2.70] and 2.67 [95% CI, 1.85-3.85] for patients and caregivers, respectively), but were less likely to choose nocturnal than daytime dialysis (ORs of 0.07 [95% CI, 0.01-0.75] and 0.03 [95% CI, 0.01-0.20]). Patients were willing to forgo 23 (95% CI, 19-27) months of life expectancy with home-based dialysis to decrease their travel restrictions. For caregivers, this was 17 (95% CI, 16-18) patient-months. Data were limited to stated preferences rather than actual choice of dialysis modality. Our study suggests that it is rare for caregivers to prefer conservative nondialytic care for family members with CKD. Home-based dialysis modalities that enable patients and their family members to travel with minimal restriction would be

  19. Cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study.

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    Mark A Boyd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5% predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events.We included all participants with complete risk factor (covariate data, baseline eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and a confirmed (>3 months apart eGFR 1%-5%, >5% and fitted Poisson models to assess whether CVD and CKD risk group effects were multiplicative. A total of 27,215 participants contributed 202,034 person-years of follow-up: 74% male, median (IQR age 42 (36, 49 years, median (IQR baseline year of follow-up 2005 (2004, 2008. D:A:D risk equations predicted 3,560 (13.1% participants at high CVD risk, 4,996 (18.4% participants at high CKD risk, and 1,585 (5.8% participants at both high CKD and high CVD risk. CVD and CKD event rates by predicted risk group were multiplicative. Participants at high CVD risk had a 5.63-fold (95% CI 4.47, 7.09, p < 0.001 increase in CKD events compared to those at low risk; participants at high CKD risk had a 1.31-fold (95% CI 1.09, 1.56, p = 0.005 increase in CVD events compared to those at low risk. Participants' CVD and CKD risk groups had multiplicative predictive effects, with no evidence of an interaction (p = 0.329 and p = 0.291 for CKD and CVD, respectively. The main study limitation is the difference in the ascertainment of the clinically defined CVD endpoints and the laboratory-defined CKD endpoints.We found that people at high predicted risk for both CVD and CKD have substantially greater risks for both CVD and CKD events compared with those at low predicted risk for both outcomes, and compared to those at high predicted risk for only CVD or CKD events. This suggests that CVD and

  20. Oral Anticoagulants to Prevent Stroke in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With CKD Stage 5D: An NKF-KDOQI Controversies Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vinod K; Herzog, Charles A; Sarnak, Mark J; Choi, Michael J; Mehta, Ravindra; Jaar, Bernard G; Rocco, Michael V; Kramer, Holly

    2017-12-01

    Stroke risk may be more than 3-fold higher among patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5D (CKD-5D) compared to the general population, with the highest stroke rates noted among those 85 years and older. Atrial fibrillation (AF), a strong risk factor for stroke, is the most common arrhythmia and affects >7% of the population with CKD-5D. Warfarin use is widely acknowledged as an important intervention for stroke prevention with nonvalvular AF in the general population. However, use of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with CKD-5D and nonvalvular AF continues to be debated by the nephrology community. In this National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) controversies report, we discuss the existing observational studies that examine warfarin use and associated stroke and bleeding risks in adults with CKD-5D and AF. Non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants and their potential use for stroke prevention in patients with CKD-5D and nonvalvular AF are also discussed. Data from randomized clinical trials are urgently needed to determine the benefits and risks of oral anticoagulant use for stroke prevention in the setting of AF among patients with CKD-5D. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Telehealth by an Interprofessional Team in Patients With CKD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishani, Areef; Christopher, Juleen; Palmer, Deirdre; Otterness, Sara; Clothier, Barbara; Nugent, Sean; Nelson, David; Rosenberg, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Telehealth and interprofessional case management are newer strategies of care within chronic disease management. We investigated whether an interprofessional team using telehealth was a feasible care delivery strategy and whether this strategy could affect health outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Randomized clinical trial. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VAHCS), St. Cloud VAHCS, and affiliated clinics March 2012 to November 2013 in patients with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate randomly assigned to receive an intervention (n=451) consisting of care by an interprofessional team (nephrologist, nurse practitioner, nurses, clinical pharmacy specialist, psychologist, social worker, and dietician) using a telehealth device (touch screen computer with peripherals) or to usual care (n=150). The primary end point was a composite of death, hospitalization, emergency department visits, or admission to skilled nursing facilities, compared to usual care. Baseline characteristics of the overall study group: mean age, 75.1±8.1 (SD) years; men, 98.5%; white, 97.3%; and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate, 37±9mL/min/1.73m(2). Telehealth and interprofessional care were successfully implemented with meaningful engagement with the care system. One year after randomization, 208 (46.2%) patients in the intervention group versus 70 (46.7%) in the usual-care group had the primary composite outcome (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.75-1.29; P=0.9). There was no difference between groups for any component of the primary outcome: all-cause mortality (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 0.42-5.11), hospitalization (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.80-1.63), emergency department visits (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.68-1.24), or nursing home admission (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 0.71-13.24). Older population, mostly men, potentially underpowered/wide CIs. Telehealth by an interprofessional team is a feasible care delivery strategy in patients with CKD. There was no statistically significant

  2. Chronic kidney disease in HIV patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S.; Rasyid, H.; Kasim, H.; Katu, S.

    2018-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a health problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population. Prediction of CKD in HIV patients needsto have done. This study aimis to identify the prevalence of CKD in HIV patients.Thisis a cross-sectional studyofmale and female, age 18-60 years old, diagnosedHIVat Wahidin Sudirohusodo & Hasanuddin University Hospital Makassar. Diagnosed as CKD if estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) HIV patients included in the analyses. Distribution of CKD, showed 3 (3.5%) subjects with eGFRHIV populations in Makassar is still quite low.

  3. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase-Mimetic Drug, Ameliorates Progression of Renal Disease in CKD Mice

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    Wei Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD and antioxidants may ameliorate disease progression. We investigate the beneficial effect of Tempol, a superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, on progression of disease in a mouse model of CKD. Methods: CKD was surgically induced in c57BL/6 mice by 5/6 nephrectomy. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group, 5/6 nephrectomized group (Nx and Nx+Tempol (2 mmol/l in drinking water. Mice were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks. Renal function, structure as well as expression of key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, fibrosis and progression in mice were measured. Results: Reduced body weight and impaired renal function (elevation on serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine albumin, segmental sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage was demonstrated in Nx mice but was significantly improved by Tempol administration. Nx animals exhibited significantly elevated proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, activation of NF-κB, increased expression of NADPH oxidase related subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox, and elevated activation of TGF-ß/Smad3, EGFR, MAPK signaling pathway. Tempol inhibited NF-κB mediated inflammation, TGF-ß/Smad3-induced renal fibrosis as well as EGFR and MAPK signaling pathway activation. Conclusions: Tempol administration attenuated renal injury in CKD mice through NF-κB, TGF-ß/Smad3, redox-senstive EGFR activation and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways.

  4. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase-Mimetic Drug, Ameliorates Progression of Renal Disease in CKD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Minmin; Gu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and antioxidants may ameliorate disease progression. We investigate the beneficial effect of Tempol, a superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, on progression of disease in a mouse model of CKD. CKD was surgically induced in c57BL/6 mice by 5/6 nephrectomy. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group, 5/6 nephrectomized group (Nx) and Nx+Tempol (2 mmol/l in drinking water). Mice were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks. Renal function, structure as well as expression of key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, fibrosis and progression in mice were measured. Reduced body weight and impaired renal function (elevation on serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine albumin, segmental sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage) was demonstrated in Nx mice but was significantly improved by Tempol administration. Nx animals exhibited significantly elevated proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, activation of NF-κB, increased expression of NADPH oxidase related subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox), and elevated activation of TGF-β/Smad3, EGFR, MAPK signaling pathway. Tempol inhibited NF-κB mediated inflammation, TGF-β/Smad3-induced renal fibrosis as well as EGFR and MAPK signaling pathway activation. Tempol administration attenuated renal injury in CKD mice through NF-κB, TGF-β/Smad3, redox-senstive EGFR activation and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Preoperative Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Patients with CKD Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Sharbel; Silberman, Shuli; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer; Lifschitz, Meyer; Slotki, Itzchak; Bitran, Daniel; Fink, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Preoperative anemia adversely affects outcomes of cardiothoracic surgery. However, in patients with CKD, treating anemia to a target of normal hemoglobin has been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. We investigated the association between preoperative hemoglobin and outcomes of cardiac surgery in patients with CKD and assessed whether there was a level of preoperative hemoglobin below which the incidence of adverse surgical outcomes increases. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This prospective observational study included adult patients with CKD stages 3–5 (eGFRpreoperative hemoglobin level: preoperative hemoglobin within the normal range (men: 14–18 g/dl; women: 12–16 g/dl). Univariate analysis revealed an inverse relationship between the incidence of all adverse postoperative outcomes and hemoglobin level. Using hemoglobin as a continuous variable, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a proportionally greater frequency of all adverse postoperative outcomes per 1-g/dl decrement of preoperative hemoglobin (mortality: odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.57; Ppreoperative hemoglobinpreoperative anemia is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes in patients with CKD. Whether outcomes could be improved by therapeutically targeting higher preoperative hemoglobin levels before cardiac surgery in patients with underlying CKD remains to be determined. PMID:24993450

  6. High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced CKD exhibit profound changes in the composition and function of the gut microbiome. This is, in part, mediated by: I- heavy influx of urea in the intestinal tract leading to the dominance of urease-possessing bacteria and II- dietary restriction of potassium-rich fruits and ve...

  7. Thematic synthesis of qualitative studies on patient and caregiver perspectives on end-of-life care in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Cheung, Katharine L; Nair, Sumi Sukumaran; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Craig, Jonathan C; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2014-06-01

    Although dialysis prolongs life for patients with end-stage kidney disease, 20% of deaths in this population are preceded by dialysis therapy withdrawal. Recently, there has been more focus on conservative (nondialytic) care as a legitimate option, particularly for elderly patients. This study aims to describe patients' and caregivers' perspectives on conservative treatment and end-of-life care in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Patients with CKD and caregivers. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and reference lists were searched to May 2013. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. 26 studies involving more than 711 patients (non-dialysis dependent [n=41], hemodialysis [n=544], peritoneal dialysis [n=9]; unspecified dialysis modality [n=31], conservative management [n=86]) and 178 caregivers were included. We identified 5 themes: invasive suffering (bodily deterioration, loss of freedom and independence, unyielding fatigue and pain, resignation, treatment burden and harm, financial strain), personal vulnerability (imminence of death, misunderstanding and judgment, autonomy and dignity, medical abandonment, trust and safety), relational responsibility (being a burden, demonstrating loyalty, protecting others from grief), negotiating existential tensions (accepting natural course of life, disrupted aging, worthlessness, living on borrowed time, respecting sanctity of life, life satisfaction, preserving self-identity), and preparedness (decisional clarity, informational power, spirituality and hope). Non-English articles were excluded; therefore, the transferability of findings to other populations is unclear. Some patients with CKD experience physical and psychosocial frailty and feel ambivalent about prolonging life. Some caregivers believe in providing relief from suffering, but are uncertain about making decisions regarding dialysis therapy initiation and discontinuation. We suggest that

  8. Albuminuria Is an Appropriate Therapeutic Target in Patients with CKD: The Pro View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2015-06-05

    The presence of elevated levels of albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of progressive renal function loss over time. This association is found in various pathophysiological conditions, including diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and various primary renal diseases, but also, the general, otherwise healthy population. Emerging data report that elevated albuminuria causes tubulointerstitial damage through activation of proinflammatory mediators, which ultimately leads to a progressive decline in renal function. Nowadays, various drugs are available that decrease the rate of GFR loss in patients with kidney disease. Well known are renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, but there are also other drugs and interventions, like intensive glucose control, anti-inflammatory agents (pentoxifylline), or a low-protein diet. These interventions have an additional effect beyond their original target, namely lowering albuminuria. Analyses from clinical trials show that the reduction in albuminuria observed during the first months of treatment with these drugs correlates with the degree of long-term renal protection: the larger the initial reduction in albuminuria, the lower the risk of ESRD during treatment. In addition, in treated patients, residual albuminuria is again the strongest risk marker for renal disease progression. These observations combined provide a strong argument that albuminuria is an appropriate therapeutic target in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Impaired vascular reactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetzner, Fabian; Scholze, Alexandra; Wittstock, Antje

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show increased cardiovascular morbidity. We hypothesized that vascular properties which can be routinely evaluated noninvasively are related to different stages of CKD and their clinical and biochemical characteristics.......Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show increased cardiovascular morbidity. We hypothesized that vascular properties which can be routinely evaluated noninvasively are related to different stages of CKD and their clinical and biochemical characteristics....

  10. Intravenous Iron Repletion Does Not Significantly Decrease Platelet Counts in CKD Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville R. Dossabhoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to investigate the effect of IV iron repletion on platelet (PLT counts in CKD patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review, including all patients with CKD and IDA who were treated with iron dextran total dose infusion (TDI between 2002 and 2007. Patient demographics were noted, and laboratory values for creatinine, hemoglobin (Hgb, iron stores and PLT were recorded pre- and post-dose. Results. 153 patients received a total of 251 doses of TDI (mean ± SD = 971 ± 175 mg; age years and Creatinine  mg/dL. All CKD stages were represented (stage 4 commonest. Hgb and Fe stores improved post-TDI (. There was a very mild decrease in PLT (pre-TDI 255 versus post-TDI 244, . The mild reduction in PLT after TDI remained non-significant ( when data was stratified by molecular weight (MW of iron dextran used (low versus high, as well as by dose administered (<1000 versus ≥1000 mg. Linear regression analysis between pre-dose PLT and Tsat and Fe showed R2 of 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. Conclusion. Correction of iron deficiency did not significantly lower PLT in CKD patients, regardless of MW or dose used. Correlation of PLT to severity of iron deficiency was very weak.

  11. The QICKD study protocol: a cluster randomised trial to compare quality improvement interventions to lower systolic BP in chronic kidney disease (CKD in primary care

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    du Bois Elizabeth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a relatively newly recognised but common long-term condition affecting 5 to 10% of the population. Effective management of CKD, with emphasis on strict blood pressure (BP control, reduces cardiovascular risk and slows the progression of CKD. There is currently an unprecedented rise in referral to specialist renal services, which are often located in tertiary centres, inconvenient for patients, and wasteful of resources. National and international CKD guidelines include quality targets for primary care. However, there have been no rigorous evaluations of strategies to implement these guidelines. This study aims to test whether quality improvement interventions improve primary care management of elevated BP in CKD, reduce cardiovascular risk, and slow renal disease progression Design Cluster randomised controlled trial (CRT Methods This three-armed CRT compares two well-established quality improvement interventions with usual practice. The two interventions comprise: provision of clinical practice guidelines with prompts and audit-based education. The study population will be all individuals with CKD from general practices in eight localities across England. Randomisation will take place at the level of the general practices. The intended sample (three arms of 25 practices powers the study to detect a 3 mmHg difference in systolic BP between the different quality improvement interventions. An additional 10 practices per arm will receive a questionnaire to measure any change in confidence in managing CKD. Follow up will take place over two years. Outcomes will be measured using anonymised routinely collected data extracted from practice computer systems. Our primary outcome measure will be reduction of systolic BP in people with CKD and hypertension at two years. Secondary outcomes will include biomedical outcomes and markers of quality, including practitioner confidence in managing CKD. A small

  12. Serum uric acid level as an indicator for CKD regression and progression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus-a 4.6-year cohort study.

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    Chang, Yu-Hung; Lei, Chen-Chou; Lin, Kun-Chen; Chang, Dao-Ming; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Lee, Yau-Jiunn

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the association of serum uric acid level with renal function change in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM patients who had been followed-up for at least 3 years were included. Participants were categorized into stable, progression, or regression groups according to their change in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage. During the follow-up period, all numeric values of metabolic factors, including the uric acid level and the medication possession rate, were calculated in order to investigate their associations with CKD development. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent factors associated with change in CKD. A total of 2367 T2DM patients were enrolled in this study and followed-up for a mean of 4.6 years. The numbers of patients in the stable, progression and regression groups were 1133 (47.9%), 487 (20.6%), and 747 (31.5%), respectively. The progression group had the highest serum uric acid level (6.9 ± 1.8 mg/dL), and the regression group had the lowest uric acid level (5.4 ± 1.5 mg/dL). In addition, we found that the serum uric acid level was an independent factor associated with CKD progression when the value exceeded 6.3 mg/dL. A lower uric acid level could be beneficial for CKD improvement in T2DM patients with stage 3-5 CKD. Our data indicated that the serum uric acid level is associated with CKD regression and progression and suggested that a high normal serum uric acid level should be closely monitored in patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The effect of some medications given to CKD patients on vitamin D levels

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    Claudia Yuste

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: CKD patients with vitamin D deficiency who received RAS inhibitors or Allopurinol treatment had higher 25-OH-D3 levels, however those with statins treatment had lower vitamin D levels. Randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings.

  14. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

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    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  15. The significant impact of acute kidney injury on CKD in patients who survived over 10 years after myeloablative allogeneic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoi, T; Ando, M; Munakata, W; Kobayashi, T; Kakihana, K; Ohashi, K; Akiyama, H; Sakamaki, H

    2013-01-01

    There are no well-defined studies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among long-term survivors after hematopoietic SCT. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to characterize CKD in 77 subjects that had undergone myeloablative allogeneic SCT, all of whom had their serum creatinine (Cr) levels followed-up during the 10-year period after SCT. Their mean (range) survival time was 14.4 (10.5-20.2) years. CKD was defined as a persistent decrease in the Cr-based estimated glomerular filtration rate to below 60 mL/min/1.73 m². Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined as an increase in Cr within the first 100 days after SCT, and its severity was classified into three stages according to the AKIN criteria. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses evaluated the association between AKI and the incidence of CKD. The cumulative incidence of CKD increased over time and reached 34% at 10 years. After adjusting for known risks for post-SCT CKD, each AKIN stage was strongly associated with the incidence of CKD. The incidence of CKD probably increases over time among subjects who are alive at >10 years after SCT. This study places a new emphasis on AKI as an important risk factor for CKD in post-SCT subjects.

  16. Usability of a CKD Educational Website Targeted to Patients and Their Family Members

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    Zuckerman, Marni; Fink, Wanda; Hu, Peter; Yang, Shiming; Fink, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Web-based technology is critical to the future of healthcare. As part of the Safe Kidney Care cohort study evaluating patient safety in CKD, this study determined how effectively a representative sample of patients with CKD or family members could interpret and use the Safe Kidney Care website (www.safekidneycare.org), an informational website on safety in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2011 and January of 2012, persons with CKD or their family members underwent formal usability testing administered by a single interviewer with a second recording observer. Each participant was independently provided a list of 21 tasks to complete, with each task rated as either easily completed/noncritical error or critical error (user cannot complete the task without significant interviewer intervention). Results Twelve participants completed formal usability testing. Median completion time for all tasks was 17.5 minutes (range=10–44 minutes). In total, 10 participants had greater than or equal to one critical error. There were 55 critical errors in 252 tasks (22%), with the highest proportion of critical errors occurring when participants were asked to find information on treatments that may damage kidneys, find the website on the internet, increase font size, and scroll to the bottom of the webpage. Participants were generally satisfied with the content and usability of the website. Conclusions Web-based educational materials for patients with CKD should target a wide range of computer literacy levels and anticipate variability in competency in use of the computer and internet. PMID:22798537

  17. Effects of the Use of Non-Calcium Phosphate Binders in the Control and Outcome of Vascular Calcifications: A Review of Clinical Trials on CKD Patients

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    Piergiorgio Bolasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcifications produce a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates in patients affected by chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD. Effects are manifested from the more advanced stages of CKD (stages 3-4, particularly in patients undergoing dialysis (CKD5D. In recent years, a large number of therapeutic options have been successfully used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT, despite eliciting less marked effects on nonbone calcifications associated with CKD-MBD. In addition to the use of Vitamin D and analogues, more recently treatment with calcimimetic drugs has also been undertaken. The present paper aims to analyze comparative and efficacy studies undertaken to assess particularly the impact on morbidity and mortality rates of non-calcium phosphate binders. Moreover, the mechanism of action underlying the depositing of calcium and phosphate along blood vessel walls, irrespective of the specific contribution provided in reducing the typical phosphate levels observed in CKD largely at more advanced stages of the disease, will be investigated. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate which phosphate binders are characterised by the above action and the mechanisms through which these are manifested.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of white wine in CKD patients and healthy volunteers.

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    Migliori, Massimiliano; Panichi, Vincenzo; de la Torre, Rafael; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, Maribel; Bertelli, Alberto; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Scatena, Alessia; Paoletti, Sabrina; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean-style diet has been considered for its important beneficial effects on the progression of CV disease. Wine is an important component of the Mediterranean diet, and moderate wine drinkers have lower mortality rates than nondrinkers and heavy drinkers in epidemiologic studies. The beneficial effects of red wine are thought to be dependent on the polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol that exhibit potent antioxidant activity. However, white wine, although lacking polyphenols, contains simple phenols, such as tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr), characteristic also of extra-virgin olive oil, which may share similar antioxidant and inflammatory properties. The effect of white wine and extra-virgin olive oil on inflammatory markers was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers and in 10 patients with CKD (chronic kidney disease) K-DOQI stage III-IV in a prospective, single blind, randomized, cross-over trial. After two weeks of wash-out from alcoholic beverages, subjects were randomized to a cross-over design A-B or B-A of a 2-week treatment with white wine (4 ml/kg body weight, 0.48 g/kg of alcohol 12%, corresponding to 2-3 glasses/daily) and extra-virgin olive oil (treatment A) or extra-virgin olive oil alone (treatment B). The two study periods were separated by a two-week wash-out period. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, plasma levels of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration were determined. Urinary levels of Tyr, OH-Tyr, and their metabolites were measured at the same time. During combined consumption of white wine and extra-virgin olive oil (treatment A), plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 decreased from 4.1 ± 1.8 to 2.4 ± 1.9 mg/l (p white wine and extra-virgin olive oil). Plasma markers of chronic inflammation were significantly reduced in CKD patients during the combined consumption of white wine and olive oil, suggesting a

  19. Enzymatic creatinine assays allow estimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Froissart, Marc; Piéroni, Laurence; Delanaye, Pierre

    2014-01-20

    The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m² should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m², both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m². Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m² with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m² with CKD-EPI equation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Applying the Growth Failure in CKD Consensus Conference: evaluation and treatment algorithm in children with chronic kidney disease.

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    Mahan, John D

    2006-07-01

    Growth failure is a common and significant clinical problem for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Children with CRI (typically defined by a glomerular filtration rate [GFR] growth impairment exhibit a variety of medical and psychological problems in addition to increased mortality. Growth failure in children with CKD is usually multifactorial in etiology, including abnormalities in the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis and a variety of nutritional and metabolic concerns characteristic of CKD. Proper management of these factors contributes to better growth in affected children. Although the safety and efficacy of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy in promoting growth in children with CKD are well established, recent data indicate that the use of rhGH administration in children with CKD and growth failure remains low. Recently, guidelines were developed by the Consensus Conference for Evaluation and Treatment of Growth Failure in Children with CKD. This paper focuses on the application of these guidelines to children with CKD.

  1. Low white blood cell count is independently associated with chronic kidney disease progression in the elderly: the CKD-ROUTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yohei; Kanda, Eiichiro; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Noda, Yumi; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a well-known predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. However, elderly patients commonly fail to develop a high WBC count in response to several diseased states and may instead present a low WBC count. Therefore, we hypothesized that low WBC count, in addition to high WBC count, is associated with CKD progression in the elderly. We conducted a prospective cohort study using 3-year follow-up data from the CKD Research of Outcomes in Treatment and Epidemiology study. In the present study, participants aged over 60 years with pre-dialysis CKD stages G2-G5 were eligible. Patients were stratified into three groups according to WBC count using tertiles (T). The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage renal disease and a 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustments for covariates. We enrolled 697 patients (males, 69%). The median WBC count was 6100 cells/µl (T1, <5400, n =  222; T2, 5400-6900, n =  235; T3, ≥6900, n = 240). During a median follow-up of 868 days, the primary outcome was observed in 170 patients, whereas 54 patients died. T1 and T3 had significantly higher hazard ratios (HR) than T2 (T1, HR 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.14-2.51; T3, HR 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.41). Moreover, T1 had a significantly higher adjusted HR (1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.37). Low WBC count is independently associated with CKD progression in the elderly.

  2. Association between periodontal disease and mortality in people with CKD: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

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    Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Hong; Sun, Min; Chen, Jianghua

    2017-08-16

    Periodontal disease occurs relatively prevalently in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it remains indeterminate whether periodontal disease is an independent risk factor for premature death in this population. Interventions to reduce mortality in CKD population consistently yield to unsatisfactory results and new targets are necessitated. So this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and mortality in the CKD population. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and abstracts from recent relevant meeting were searched by two authors independently. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for overall and subgroup meta-analyses. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by chi-square test and quantified by the I 2 statistic. Eight cohort studies comprising 5477 individuals with CKD were incorporated. The overall pooled data demonstrated that periodontal disease was associated with all-cause death in CKD population (RR, 1.254; 95% CI 1.046-1.503; P = 0.005), with a moderate heterogeneity, I 2  = 52.2%. However, no evident association was observed between periodontal disease and cardiovascular mortality (RR, 1.30, 95% CI, 0.82-2.06; P = 0.259). Besides, statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I 2  = 72.5%; P = 0.012). Associations for mortality were similar between subgroups, such as the different stages of CKD, adjustment for confounding factors. Specific to all-cause death, sensitivity and cumulative analyses both suggested that our results were robust. As for cardiovascular mortality, the association with periodontal disease needs to be further strengthened. We demonstrated that periodontal disease was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death in CKD people. Yet no adequate evidence suggested periodontal disease was also at elevated risk for cardiovascular death.

  3. "Dietaly": practical issues for the nutritional management of CKD patients in Italy.

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    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Calella, Patrizia; Brunori, Giuliano; Pasticci, Franca; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Capizzi, Irene; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2016-07-29

    Evidence exists that nutritional therapy induces favorable metabolic changes, prevents signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency, and is able to delay the need of dialysis. Currently, the main concern of the renal diets has turned from the efficacy to the feasibility in the daily clinical practice.Herewith we describe some different dietary approaches, developed in Italy in the last decades and applied in the actual clinical practice for the nutritional management of CKD patients.A step-wise approach or simplified dietary regimens are usually prescribed while taking into account not only the residual renal function and progression rate but also socio-economic, psychological and functional aspects.The application of the principles of the Mediterranean diet that covers the recommended daily allowances for nutrients and protein (0.8 g/Kg/day) exert a favorable effect at least in the early stages of CKD. Low protein (0.6 g/kg/day) regimens that include vegan diet and very low-protein (0.3-0.4 g/Kg/day) diet supplemented with essential amino acids and ketoacids, represent more opportunities that should be tailored on the single patient's needs.Rather than a structured dietary plan, a list of basic recommendations to improve compliance with a low-sodium diet in CKD may allow patients to reach the desired salt target in the daily eating.Another approach consists of low protein diets as part of an integrated menu, in which patients can choose the "diet" that best suits their preferences and clinical needs.Lastly, in order to allow efficacy and safety, the importance of monitoring and follow up of a proper nutritional treatment in CKD patients is emphasized.

  4. OUTCOME OF ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRITIONAL INTAKE OF CKD PATIENTS

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    N. Sahni

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Zn supplementation alone failed to improve dietary intake as it seemed patients were scared to eat more/wrong/kidney unfriendly food in absence of clear dietary guidelines, but favorable results were observed when Zn supplementation was coupled with parametric, individualized dietary counseling which shows that role of diet counseling in removing food misconceptions & lack of knowledge is important to make any therapy effective. So there is a critical need for implementation of effective nutritional management strategies.

  5. "Dietaly": Practical issues for the nutritional management of CKD patients in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Calella, Patrizia; Brunori, Giuliano; Pasticci, Franca; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Capizzi, Irene; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists that nutritional therapy induces favorable metabolic changes, prevents signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency, and is able to delay the need of dialysis. Currently, the main concern of the renal diets has turned from the efficacy to the feasibility in the daily clinical practice. Herewith we describe some different dietary approaches, developed in Italy in the last decades and applied in the actual clinical practice for the nutritional management of CKD patients. A step-wis...

  6. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Development of a Model of Chronic Kidney Disease in the C57BL/6 Mouse with Properties of Progressive Human CKD

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    Zahraa Mohammed-Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major healthcare problem with increasing prevalence in the population. CKD leads to end stage renal disease and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. As such, it is important to study the mechanisms underlying CKD progression. To this end, an animal model was developed to allow the testing of new treatment strategies or molecular targets for CKD prevention. Many underlying risk factors result in CKD but the disease itself has common features, including renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular epithelial cell loss through apoptosis, glomerular damage, and renal inflammation. Further, CKD shows differences in prevalence between the genders with premenopausal women being relatively resistant to CKD. We sought to develop and characterize an animal model with these common features of human CKD in the C57BL/6 mouse. Mice of this genetic background have been used to produce transgenic strains that are commercially available. Thus, a CKD model in this strain would allow the testing of the effects of numerous genes on the severity or progression of CKD with minimal cost. This paper describes such a mouse model of CKD utilizing angiotensin II and deoxycorticosterone acetate as inducers.

  8. Impact Of Balancing Grams Of Quality Protein Intake On Nutritional Status And Quality Of Life In Ckd Patients

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    K.L. Gupta

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Judicious planning of quality protein intake within restricted quantity along with calorie optimization is critical to reduce protein waste products. Therefore, proper &timely diet counseling to combat ignorance & impart awareness to CKD patients is of utmost importance.

  9. Impact Of Balancing Grams Of Quality Protein Intake On Nutritional Status And Quality Of Life In Ckd Patients

    OpenAIRE

    K.L. Gupta; N. Sahni; S.V. Rana; R. Prasad; A.K. Bhalla

    2012-01-01

    Type& amount of protein to be ingested by CKD patients in order to keep the kidneys not to deteriorate further especially in Indian population who consume mostly vegetarian diet makes planning of diet based on protein quality ratio a tough job. To analyze effect of optimizing the protein quality intake [high biological value (HBV), net protein utilization (NPU) or protein efficiency ratio (PER) of food article] on uremic toxins, nutritional status and quality of life in CKD patients consum...

  10. Failed Tubule Recovery, AKI-CKD Transition, and Kidney Disease Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Joel M.; Kriz, Wilhelm; Bidani, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of AKI to CKD has major clinical significance. As reviewed here, recent studies show that a subpopulation of dedifferentiated, proliferating tubules recovering from AKI undergo pathologic growth arrest, fail to redifferentiate, and become atrophic. These abnormal tubules exhibit persistent, unregulated, and progressively increasing profibrotic signaling along multiple pathways. Paracrine products derived therefrom perturb normal interactions between peritubular capillary endothelium and pericyte-like fibroblasts, leading to myofibroblast transformation, proliferation, and fibrosis as well as capillary disintegration and rarefaction. Although signals from injured endothelium and inflammatory/immune cells also contribute, tubule injury alone is sufficient to produce the interstitial pathology required for fibrosis. Localized hypoxia produced by microvascular pathology may also prevent tubule recovery. However, fibrosis is not intrinsically progressive, and microvascular pathology develops strictly around damaged tubules; thus, additional deterioration of kidney structure after the transition of AKI to CKD requires new acute injury or other mechanisms of progression. Indeed, experiments using an acute-on-chronic injury model suggest that additional loss of parenchyma caused by failed repair of AKI in kidneys with prior renal mass reduction triggers hemodynamically mediated processes that damage glomeruli to cause progression. Continued investigation of these pathologic mechanisms should reveal options for preventing renal disease progression after AKI. PMID:25810494

  11. Hyperuricemia and Progression of CKD in Children and Adolescents: The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbach, Kyle E; Schneider, Michael F; Furth, Susan L; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Mitsnefes, Mark M; Weaver, Donald J; Warady, Bradley A; Schwartz, George J

    2015-12-01

    Hyperuricemia is associated with essential hypertension in children. No previous studies have evaluated the effect of hyperuricemia on progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Prospective observational cohort study. Children and adolescents (n=678 cross-sectional; n=627 longitudinal) with a median age of 12.3 (IQR, 8.6-15.6) years enrolled at 52 North American sites of the CKiD (CKD in Children) Study. Serum uric acid level (7.5mg/dL). Composite end point of either >30% decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or initiation of renal replacement therapy. Age, sex, race, blood pressure status, GFR, CKD cause, urine protein-creatinine ratio ( 95th percentile, use of diuretics, and serum uric acid level. Older age, male sex, lower GFR, and body mass index > 95th percentile were associated with higher uric acid levels. 162, 294, and 171 participants had initial uric acid levels 7.5 mg/dL, respectively. We observed 225 instances of the composite end point over 5 years. In a multivariable parametric time-to-event analysis, compared with participants with initial uric acid levels 7.5mg/dL had 17% shorter (relative time, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62-1.11) or 38% shorter (relative time, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.85) times to event, respectively. Hypertension, lower GFR, glomerular CKD cause, and elevated urine protein-creatinine ratio were also associated with faster times to the composite end point. The study lacked sufficient data to examine how use of specific medications might influence serum uric acid levels and CKD progression. Hyperuricemia is a previously undescribed independent risk factor for faster progression of CKD in children and adolescents. It is possible that treatment of children and adolescents with CKD with urate-lowering therapy could slow disease progression. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of vitamin D analogs is independently associated with the favorable renal prognosis in chronic kidney disease stages 4-5: the CKD-ROUTE study.

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    Arai, Yohei; Kanda, Eiichiro; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Noda, Yumi; Kawasaki, Tomoki; Sato, Hidehiko; Ando, Ryoichi; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-06-01

    Vitamin D analogs have generally been recommended for treatment of mineral bone disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the association between this treatment and CKD progression has not yet been established. We designed a post hoc propensity score-matched cohort analysis derived from 3-year follow-up data of a prospective cohort. Adult participants with pre-dialysis CKD stages 4-5 who had newly been prescribed active vitamin D analogs during the observation period were eligible as matched cases. Then, matched controls were extracted from participants who had never been prescribed active vitamin D analogs. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage renal disease or a 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A Cox proportional hazards model evaluated the association between the use of vitamin D analogs and the primary outcome. We enrolled 240 patients (males, 65 %). The number of matched cases and controls was 30 and 210, respectively. The primary outcome was observed in 94 patients, whereas 25 patients died. The mean ± standard deviation age and eGFR were 69 ± 12 years and 17 ± 5.7 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. In a Cox proportional hazard model, the use of vitamin D analogs was independently associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome (crude hazard ratio 0.41; 95 % confidence interval 0.19, 0.89; adjusted hazard ratio 0.38; 95 % confidence interval 0.17, 0.88). The use of vitamin D analogs is independently associated with the preservation of renal function in patients with pre-dialysis CKD stages 4-5.

  13. Serum T3 level can predict cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality rates in CKD patients with proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Won; Han, Seung Tae; Song, Shin Han; Kim, Min Keun; Kim, Jae Seok; Choi, Seung Ok; Han, Byoung-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Patients with proteinuria frequently show changes in thyroid hormone levels. Serum T3 depression predicts a negative outcome in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and may be associated with cardiovascular complications or chronic inflammation. Few studies have explored the relationship between thyroid hormone dysregulation and clinical outcome in patients with proteinuria. We reviewed thyroid function test results obtained from 211 patients with 24 h urinary protein excretion greater than 150 mg/day and found a correlation of thyroid hormone level with cardiovascular events and mortality. T3 decreased with age (p = 0.001) and 24 h urine albumin (p = 0.028). Free T4 decreased in accordance with 24 h urine protein and serum creatinine (p = 0.034 and p = 0.033, respectively). In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, lower cumulative survival, higher cardiovascular events, and mortality were found in the low T3 group compared with the normal T3 group (p = 0.000, p = 0.013, and p = 0.001, respectively). In Cox regression analysis, we observed that, with low T3, decreased sodium, and old age, the incidence of cardiovascular complications (p = 0.000, p = 0.016, and p = 0.000, respectively), cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.000, p = 0.048, and p = 0.001, respectively), and all-cause mortality (p = 0.000, p = 0.017, and p = 0.000, respectively) increased. In CKD patients with proteinuria, low T3 concentration predicted all-cause mortality and cardiovascular event independently of the severity of proteinuria.

  14. Depressed cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Brito Junior, Helio Lima de; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Oliveira, Felipe Gomes de; Casali, Thais Gomes; Bignoto, Tiago Costa; Fernandes, Natalia Maria da Silva; Beraldo, Antonio Fernando de Castro Alves; Paula, Rogério Baumgratz de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A dysfunctional autonomic nervous system (ANS) has also been recognized as an important mechanism contributing to the poor outcome in CKD patients, with several studies reporting a reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Objective: Evaluate the sympathovagal balance in patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, patients with CKD stages 3, 4 and 5 not yet on dialysis (CKD group) and age-matched healthy subjects (CON...

  15. Protein Nutrition and Malnutrition in CKD and ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yan; Qian, Qi

    2017-02-27

    Elevated protein catabolism and protein malnutrition are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The underlying etiology includes, but is not limited to, metabolic acidosis intestinal dysbiosis; systemic inflammation with activation of complements, endothelin-1 and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) axis; anabolic hormone resistance; energy expenditure elevation; and uremic toxin accumulation. All of these derangements can further worsen kidney function, leading to poor patient outcomes. Many of these CKD-related derangements can be prevented and substantially reversed, representing an area of great potential to improve CKD and ESRD care. This review integrates known information and recent advances in the area of protein nutrition and malnutrition in CKD and ESRD. Management recommendations are summarized. Thorough understanding the pathogenesis and etiology of protein malnutrition in CKD and ESRD patients will undoubtedly facilitate the design and development of more effective strategies to optimize protein nutrition and improve outcomes.

  16. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of AST-120 (Kremezin) in patients with moderate to severe CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Gerald; Agarwal, Rajiv; Acharya, Muralidhar; Berl, Tomas; Blumenthal, Samuel; Kopyt, Nelson

    2006-04-01

    AST-120 (Kremezin; Kureha Chemical Industry Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) is an orally administered adsorbent showing adsorption ability superior to activated charcoal for certain organic compounds known to be precursors of substances that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and that are believed to accelerate the decline in kidney function. AST-120 is approved in Japan for prolonging time to hemodialysis therapy and improving uremic symptoms in patients with CKD. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study was designed to examine the nephroprotective effects of 3 doses of AST-120 versus placebo in adult patients with moderate to severe CKD and elevated serum indoxyl sulfate levels while following an adequate protein-intake diet. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 doses of AST-120 (0.9, 2.1, or 3.0 g) or placebo 3 times daily for 12 weeks. AST-120 decreased serum indoxyl sulfate levels in a dose-dependent fashion. During the 12-week treatment period, AST-120 did not affect serum creatinine levels or 24-hour urine creatinine appearance. Significant improvements in malaise were observed in a dose-dependent fashion. All doses of AST-120 were well tolerated and did not adversely affect the general health status of patients. Results suggest that the dose of 3 g 3 times daily is an optimal dose for the US population, and it may be useful in the treatment of patients with CKD. Because AST-120 did not directly affect serum creatinine levels or 24-hour urine creatinine appearance, the composite end point of doubling of serum creatinine level, transplantation, and dialysis therapy would be appropriate for a confirmatory phase III therapeutic outcome study.

  17. The Prevalence of Fabry Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Turkey: The TURKFAB Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Kultigin; Guclu, Aydın; Sahin, Garip; Kocyigit, Ismail; Demirtas, Levent; Erdur, Fatih Mehmet; Sengül, Erkan; Ozkan, Oktay; Emre, Habib; Turgut, Faruk; Unal, Hilmi; Karaman, Murat; Acıkel, Cengiz; Esen, Hasan; Balli, Ebru; Bıtırgen, Gulfidan; Tonbul, Halil Zeki; Yılmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease is a treatable cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) characterized by a genetic deficiency of α-galactosidase A. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) recommends screening for Fabry disease in CKD patients. However, this is based on expert opinion and there are no reports of the prevalence of Fabry disease in stage 1-5 CKD. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of Fabry disease in CKD patients not receiving renal replacement therapy. This prospective study assessed α-galactosidase activity in dried blood spots in 313 stage 1-5 CKD patients, 167 males, between ages of 18-70 years whose etiology of CKD was unknown and were not receiving renal replacement therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by GLA gene mutation analysis. Three (all males) of 313 CKD patients (0.95%) were diagnosed of Fabry disease, for a prevalence in males of 1.80%. Family screening identified 8 aditional Fabry patients with CKD. Of a total of 11 Fabry patients, 7 were male and started enzyme replacement therapy and 4 were female. The most frequent manifestations in male patients were fatigue (100%), tinnitus, vertigo, acroparesthesia, hypohidrosis, cornea verticillata and angiokeratoma (all 85%), heat intolerance (71%), and abdominal pain (57%). The most frequent manifestations in female patients were fatigue and cornea verticillata (50%), and tinnitus, vertigo and angiokeratoma (25%). Three patients had severe episodic abdominal pain attacks and proteinuria, and were misdiagnosed as familial Mediterranean fever. The prevalence of Fabry disease in selected CKD patients is in the range found among renal replacement therapy patients, but the disease is diagnosed at an earlier, treatable stage. These data support the ERBP recommendation to screen for Fabry disease in patients with CKD of unknown origin. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Adherence of adult Chronic Kidney Disease patients with regard to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has become a major health problem as a result of complicated interrelationships with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other associated diseases. Effective management of CKD depends on patient's adherence to their dialysis plan, medications, dietary and fluid restrictions.

  19. Left ventricular hypertrophy among chronic kidney disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with worsening cardiovascular outcomes. There is a dearth of data on LVH in Ghanaian CKD patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital ...

  20. A resistant starch fiber diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammation is a constant feature and a major mediator of CKD progression. It is, in part, driven by altered gut microbiome and disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier, events which are primarily caused by: 1- urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; 2-...

  1. Association of Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels with Bone Loss in Chronic Kidney Disease: Insights from the KNOW-CKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Han, Seung Hyeok; Choi, Kyu Hun; Lee, Joongyub; Chae, Dong Wan; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin, a potent osteoclast activation inhibitor, decreases bone resorption and positively affects bone mineral density. This study examined the association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, a condition associated with increased risk of mineral and bone disorders. The bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum osteoprotegerin levels were measured at baseline for 1,423 patients enrolled in the prospective KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Patients aged ≥50 years and with a T-score ≤ -2.5 were diagnosed as having osteoporosis. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated independent association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine (B: -0.489, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.883 to -0.095, P = 0.015), and total hip (B: -0.349, 95% CI: -0.672 to -0.027, P = 0.027). However, bone mineral density of the femur neck was not associated with serum osteoprotegerin levels in women. After adjustments, no independent association was found between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone mineral density in men. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, serum osteoprotegerin levels were associated with increased risk of osteoporosis in women (odds ratio [OR]: 4.72, 95% CI: 1.35 to 16.52, P = 0.015), but not in men (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.31, P = 0.095). To summarize, in female patients with chronic kidney disease, increased serum osteoprotegerin levels were independently associated with decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and total hip, and with increased risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, the measurement of serum osteoprotegerin concentration might be useful as a surrogate marker for determining bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially for women, although not so much for men.

  2. Should patients with CKD stage 5D and biochemical evidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism be prescribed calcimimetic therapy? An ERA-EDTA position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldsmith, David; Covic, Adrian; Vervloet, Marc; Cozzolino, Mario; Nistor, Ionut; Vervloet, Mark; Brandenburg, Vincent; Bover, Jordi; Evenepoel, Pieter; Massy, Ziad; Mazzaferro, Sandro; Urena-Torres, Pablo; Abramowicz, D.; Bolignano, D.; Cannata Andia, G.; Cochat, P.; Covic, A.; Delvecchio, L.; Drechsler, C.; Eckardt, K. U.; Fouque, D.; Fox, J.; Haller, M.; Heimburger, O.; Jager, K. J.; Lindley, E.; Marti Monros, A. M.; Nagler, E.; Oberbauer, R.; Spasovski, G.; Tattersall, J.; van Biesen, W.; Vander Veer, S.; Vanholder, R.; Wanner, C.; Wheeler, D.; Whithers, W.; Wiecek, A.; Zoccali, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects the position of the CKD-MBD workgroup, an official working group of ERA-EDTA and of the ERBP advisory board, the official guideline-producing body of ERA-EDTA, on the topic of the use of calcimimetics in patients with CKD stage 5D, as based on two recent meta-analysis

  3. Comparison of the usefulness of selected formulas for GFR estimation in patients with diagnosed chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wróbel

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: CKD-EPI and abbreviated MDRD formulas have a similar usefulness in GFR value estimation in patients with diagnosed chronic kidney disease. Lower eGFR values achieved using abbreviated MDRD formula and CKD-EPI equation in comparison with Bjornsson’s formula may result in an increased number of patients diagnosed with CKD.

  4. Evaluating the Contribution of the Cause of Kidney Disease to Prognosis in CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Richard; Staplin, Natalie; Emberson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relevance of the cause of kidney disease to prognosis among patients with chronic kidney disease is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 6,245 nondialysis participants in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP). PREDICTOR: Baseline cause...... of kidney disease was categorized into 4 groups: cystic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, and other recorded diagnoses. OUTCOMES: End-stage renal disease (ESRD; dialysis or transplantation) and death. RESULTS: During an average 4.7 years' follow-up, 2,080 participants progressed...... to ESRD, including 454 with cystic kidney disease (23% per year), 378 with glomerulonephritis (10% per year), 309 with diabetic nephropathy (12% per year), and 939 with other recorded diagnoses (8% per year). By comparison with patients with cystic kidney disease, other disease groups had substantially...

  5. Comparison of the antialbuminuric effects of benidipine and hydrochlorothiazide in Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) inhibitor-treated hypertensive patients with albuminuria: the COSMO-CKD (COmbination Strategy on Renal Function of Benidipine or Diuretics TreatMent with RAS inhibitOrs in a Chronic Kidney Disease Hypertensive Population) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Nitta, Kosaku; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Kashihara, Naoki; Tomita, Kimio; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Isshiki, Masashi; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Fujita, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the non-inferiority of renoprotection afforded by benidipine versus hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this prospective, multicenter, open-labeled, randomized trial, the antialbuminuric effects of benidipine and hydrochlorothiazide were examined in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor-treated patients with blood pressure (BP) readings of ≥ 130/80 mmHg and ≤ 180/110 mmHg, a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) of ≥ 300 mg/g, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73m(2). Patients received benidipine (n = 176, final dose: 4.8 mg/day) or hydrochlorothiazide (n = 170, 8.2 mg/day) for 12 months. Benidipine and hydrochlorothiazide exerted similar BP- and eGFR-decreasing actions. The UACR values for benidipine and hydrochlorothiazide were 930.8 (95% confidence interval: 826.1, 1048.7) and 883.1 (781.7, 997.7) mg/g at baseline, respectively. These values were reduced to 790.0 (668.1, 934.2) and 448.5 (372.9, 539.4) mg/g at last observation carried forward (LOCF) visits. The non-inferiority of benidipine versus hydrochlorothiazide was not demonstrated (benidipine/hydrochlorothiazide ratio of LOCF value adjusted for baseline: 1.67 (1.40, 1.99)). The present study failed to demonstrate the non-inferiority of the antialbuminuric effect of benidipine relative to that of hydrochlorothiazide in RAS inhibitor-treated hypertensive patients with macroalbuminuria.

  6. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jenna M.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Eggers, Paul W.; Narva, Andrew S.; Star, Robert A.; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2016-01-01

    Significant disparities in CKD rates and outcomes exist between black and white Americans. Health disparities are defined as health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations, on the basis of one or more health outcomes. CKD is the complex result of genetic and environmental factors, reflecting the balance of nature and nurture. Social determinants of health have an important role as environmental components, especially for black populations, who are disproportionately disadvantaged. Understanding the social determinants of health and appreciating the underlying differences associated with meaningful clinical outcomes may help nephrologists treat all their patients with CKD in an optimal manner. Altering the social determinants of health, although difficult, may embody important policy and research efforts, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for patients with kidney diseases, and minimizing the disparities between groups. PMID:27178804

  7. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Culprits of Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although great advances have recently been made in the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, CKD remains a major global health problem. Moreover, the occurrence rates of cardiovascular events among CKD patients increase even in cases in which patients undergo hemodialysis, and the mechanisms underlying the so-called “cardiorenal syndrome” are not clearly understood. Recently, ...

  8. Current status of bicarbonate in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Rahman, Mahboob; Hostetter, Thomas H

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic acidosis was one of the earliest complications to be recognized and explained pathologically in patients with CKD. Despite the accumulated evidence of deleterious effects of acidosis, treatment of acidosis has been tested very little, especially with respect to standard clinical outcomes. On the basis of fundamental research and small alkali supplementation trials, correcting metabolic acidosis has a strikingly broad array of potential benefits. This review summarizes the published evidence on the association between serum bicarbonate and clinical outcomes. We discuss the role of alkali supplementation in CKD as it relates to retarding kidney disease progression, improving metabolic and musculoskeletal complications. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Evaluation of arterial stiffness in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodanapu Mastanvalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing problem worldwide. Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that structural and functional changes that occur in major arteries are a major contributing factor to the high mortality in uremic patients. Recent studies have shown a stepwise increase of the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV from CKD Stage 1 to Stage 5. We evaluated the cfPWV and augmentation index (AIx, as indirect markers of arterial stiffness in patients with nondiabetic CKD and compared the values with normal population; we also evaluated the relationship between various stages of CKD and arterial stiffness markers. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Nephrology for a duration of two years from January 15, 2012, to January 14, 2014. Fifty patients with nondiabetic CKD were studied along with 50 healthy volunteers who did not have CKD, who served as controls. Assessment of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, PWV, heart rate, aortic augmentation pressure, and AIx was performed using the PeriScope device. PWV positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean aortic arterial pressure, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Arterial stiffness increased as CKD stage increased and was higher in nondiabetic CKD group than in the general population. Arterial stiffness progressed gradually from CKD Stage 2 to 5, and then abruptly, in dialysis patients. Measures to decrease the arterial stiffness and its influence on decreasing cardiovascular events need further evaluation.

  10. ECG abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, S.; Saleem, M.; Anjum, R.; Abdullah, W.; Shafi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are common in CKD patients. However, there is variation in literature regarding frequency of ECG abnormalities in CKD patients and limited information in local population. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional in nature. All patients between ages of 20-80 years with CKD not previously on renal replacement therapy who were admitted to nephrology ward at a tertiary care facility over a 6-month period were included. All patients underwent 12 lead electrocardiograms (ECG). ECG abnormalities were defined based on accepted standard criteria. Results: Total number of patients included in the study was 124. Mean age of all patients was 49.9+-13.8 years, 106 (84.8%) had hypertension, 84 (70%) had diabetes mellitus, and 35 (29.9%) had known cardiovascular disease. Mean serum creatinine was 7.2+-3.4 mg/dl, mean eGFR was 10.6+-9.2 ml/min/1.73 m/sup 2/. Overall 78.4% of all CKD patients have one or more ECG abnormality. Left ventricular hypertrophy (40%), Q waves (27.2%), ST segment elevation or depression (23.4%), prolonged QRS duration (19.2%), tachycardia (17.6%) and left and right atrial enlargement (17.6%) were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: ECG abnormalities are common in hospitalized CKD patients in local population. All hospitalized CKD patients should undergo ECG to screen for cardiovascular disease. (author)

  11. Sodium Restriction in Patients With CKD : A Randomized Controlled Trial of Self-management Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Yvette; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; Navis, Gerjan; Vogt, Liffert; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; van Dijk, Sandra

    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of self-managed sodium restriction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Study Design: Open randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants: Patients with moderately decreased kidney function from 4 hospitals in the Netherlands.

  12. DIFFERENCES IN ILLNESS REPRESENTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderquist, Birgitta Klang; Heiwe, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    To explore the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individual illness representations, including symptoms and causal attributions. Fifty-four patients responded to the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a further seven patients undertook cognitive interviews regarding the IPQ-R. All respondents had CKD stage 2-5, not undergoing renal replacement therapy. Those in earlier CKD stages and those with fewer symptoms perceived a significantly different understanding of their condition than those in more advanced disease stages or with more symptoms. Behavioural and psychological attributions were commonly referred to as contributing causes to CKD. These attributions were associated to negative illness representations. An uncertainty assessing symptoms attributed to CKD was indicated, especially in earlier disease stages. Illness representations differ with CKD stages and symptom burden. The patients in earlier disease stages or with fewer symptoms did not hold as strong beliefs about their illness as being a threat as those in advanced stages or with more symptoms. Self-blame emerged as a common causal attribution. Patients did not always relate symptoms to CKD, therefore this study identifies a gap in patients' disease knowledge, especially in earlier stages of the condition. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  13. Impact of surgical parathyroidectomy on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugurel Apetrii

    Full Text Available For more than 6 decades, many patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD have undergone surgical parathyroidectomy (sPTX for severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT mainly based historical clinical practice patterns, but not on evidence of outcome.We aimed in this meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits and harms of sPTX in patients with SHPT. We searched MEDLINE (inception to October 2016, EMBASE and Cochrane Library (through Issue 10 of 12, October 2016 and website clinicaltrials.gov (October 2016 without language restriction. Eligible studies evaluated patients reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR, below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD 3-5 stages with hyperparathyroidism who underwent sPTX. Reviewers working independently and in duplicate extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The final analysis included 15 cohort studies, comprising 24,048 participants. Compared with standard treatment, sPTX significantly decreased all-cause mortality (RR 0.74 [95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83] in End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD patients with biochemical and / or clinical evidence of SHPT. sPTX was also associated with decreased cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.59 [95% CI, 0.46 to 0.76] in 6 observational studies that included almost 10,000 patients. The available evidence, mostly observational, is at moderate risk of bias, and limited by indirect comparisons and inconsistency in reporting for some outcomes (eg. short term adverse events, including documented voice change or episodes of severe hypocalcaemia needing admission or long-term adverse events, including undetectable PTH levels, risk of fractures etc.. Taken together, the results of this meta-analysis would suggest a clinically significant beneficial effect of sPTX on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients with SHPT. However, given the observational nature of the included studies, the case for a properly conducted, independent randomised controlled trial comparing surgery with medical

  14. Integration of Care in Management of CKD in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpechi, Ikechi G; Bello, Aminu K; Ameh, Oluwatoyin I; Swanepoel, Charles R

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), continues to increase worldwide, and mortality from noncommunicable diseases is projected to surpass communicable disease-related mortality in developing countries. Although the treatment of CKD is expensive, unaffordable, and unavailable in many developing countries, the current structure of the health care system in such countries is not set up to deliver comprehensive care for patients with chronic conditions, including CKD. The World Health Organization Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions framework could be leveraged to improve the care of CKD patients worldwide, especially in resource-limited countries where high cost, low infrastructure, limited workforce, and a dearth of effective health policies exist. Some developing countries already are using established health systems for communicable disease control to tackle noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, therefore existing systems could be leveraged to integrate CKD care. Decision makers in developing countries must realize that to improve outcomes for patients with CKD, important factors should be considered, including enhancing CKD prevention programs in their communities, managing the political environment through involvement of the political class, involving patients and their families in CKD care delivery, and effective use of health care personnel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CKD and ESRD in US Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nisa; Lora, Claudia M; Lash, James P; Ricardo, Ana C

    2018-04-13

    Hispanics are the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, and they experience a substantial burden of kidney disease. Although the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is similar or slightly lower in Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites, the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rate of end-stage renal disease is almost 50% higher in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites. This has been attributed in part to faster CKD progression among Hispanics. Furthermore, Hispanic ethnicity has been associated with a greater prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including obesity and diabetes, as well as CKD-related complications. Despite their less favorable socioeconomic status, which often leads to limited access to quality health care, and their high comorbid condition burden, the risk for mortality among Hispanics appears to be lower than for non-Hispanic whites. This survival paradox has been attributed to a complex interplay between sociocultural and psychosocial factors, as well as other factors. Future research should focus on evaluating the long-term impact of these factors on patient-centered and clinical outcomes. National policies are needed to improve access to and quality of health care among Hispanics with CKD. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plant Protein Intake Is Associated with Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Serum Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Julia J.; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J.; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Porter, Anna C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD), due to lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Study Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 2938 participants with chronic kidney disease and information on dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Predictors Percentage of total protein from plant sources (% plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Outcomes Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin. Measurements We modeled the association between % plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes, body mass index, eGFR, income, smoking, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24 hour urinary sodium, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and use of diuretics. Results Higher % plant protein was associated with lower FGF23 (p=0.05) and higher HCO3 (p=0.01), but not with serum phosphate or PTH (p=0.9 and 0.5, respectively). Higher % plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (p=0.2), lower serum albumin (p=0.2) or lower hemoglobin (p=0.3). The associations of % plant protein with FGF23 and HCO3 did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5) or total protein intake (≤ 0.8 g/kg/d vs. >0.8 g/kg/d) (p-interaction > 0.10 for each). Limitations Cross-sectional study; Determination of % plant protein using the DHQ has not been validated. Conclusions Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF23 and raise HCO3 in patients with CKD. PMID:22480598

  17. The effect of magnesium supplementation on vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease-a randomised clinical trial (MAGiCAL-CKD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Iain; Hansen, Ditte; Schou, Morten

    2017-01-01

    is inversely associated with cardiovascular mortality in predialysis CKD and in end-stage renal disease. This paper will describe the design and rationale of a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial, which will investigate whether oral Mg supplementation can prevent......INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, which is thought to be caused by increased propensity towards vascular calcification (VC). Magnesium (Mg) inhibits phosphate-induced VC in vitro and in animal models and serum Mg...

  18. Hemoglobin stability in patients with anemia, CKD, and type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the TREAT (Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy) placebo arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skali, Hicham; Lin, Julie; Pfeffer, Marc A; Chen, Chao-Yin; Cooper, Mark E; McMurray, John J V; Nissenson, Allen R; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rossert, Jerome; Parfrey, Patrick S; Scott-Douglas, Nairne W; Singh, Ajay K; Toto, Robert; Uno, Hajime; Ivanovich, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Sparse data are available about the natural history of hemoglobin (Hb) level trends in contemporary patients with anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We intended to describe Hb level trends over time with no or minimal administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Prospective clinical trial cohort. 2,019 individuals with type 2 diabetes, moderate anemia, and CKD from the placebo arm of the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) followed up for 2.3 years with an average of 32 monthly Hb level determinations per patient. Darbepoetin alfa was administered only if Hb level decreased to protocol-directed doses of darbepoetin alfa received due to an Hb level decrease to protocol-directed darbepoetin alfa. The other patients received 1 (16%), 2-4 (16%), or 5 or more (13%) doses of darbepoetin alfa. Those who received no darbepoetin alfa doses had higher baseline Hb levels, higher estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs), less proteinuria, and lower ferritin and transferrin saturation values. On average, Hb levels were stable or increased in all groups. Compared with individuals who received no darbepoetin alfa, those who received 5 or more doses were more likely to receive intravenous iron therapy and blood transfusions and progress to renal replacement therapy, but were not at higher risk of death. The strongest predictors of requiring 5 or more doses of darbepoetin alfa were lower baseline Hb level, lower eGFR, and higher proteinuria level. Post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of a specific population with diabetes, anemia, and non-dialysis-dependent CKD. In the TREAT placebo arm, Hb levels were stable with no or minimal protocol-directed darbepoetin alfa during 2.3 years of follow-up. Most patients with moderate anemia, non-dialysis-dependent CKD, and type 2 diabetes are able to maintain a stable Hb level without implementing long-term erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy. Copyright © 2013

  19. [[GUIDELINES FOR THE PREVENTION, MONITORING AND THERAPY OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE-METABOLIC BONE DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Pavlović, Draško; Šmalcelj, Ružica; Tomić-Brzac, Hrvojka; Orlic, Lidija; Radić, Josipa; Vujičić, Božidar; Lovčić, Vesna; Pavić, Eva; Klarić, Dragan; Gulin, Marijana; Spasovski, Goce; Ljutić, Dragan; Danic, Davorin; Prgomet, Drago; Resić, Halima; Ratković, Marina; Kes, Petar; Raćki, Sanjin

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a systemic disease with numerous complications associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic kidney disease-metabolic bone disease (CKD-MBD) starts at early stages of CKD with phosphorus accumulation and consequent initiation of numerous events that result with the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism with changes on bones and extraskeletal tissues. The most important and clinically most relevant consequences of CKD-MBD are vascular calcifications which contribute to cardiovascular mortality. Patients with the increased risk for the development of CKD-MBD should be recognized and treated. Prevention is the most important therapeutic option. The first step should be nutritional counseling with vitamin supplementation if necessary and correction of mineral status. Progression of CKD requires more intensive medicamentous treatment with the additional correction of metabolic acidosis and anemia. Renal replacement therapy should be timely initiated, with the adequate dose of dislaysis. Ideally, preemptive renal transplantion should be offered in individuals without contraindication for immunosuppressive therapy.

  20. Personalizing Longitudinal Care Coordination for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Theresa A; Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Norton, Jenna M; Narva, Andrew S

    2017-01-01

    Chronic care coordination efforts often focus on the needs of the healthcare team and not on the individual needs of each patient. However, developing a personalized care plan for patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) requires individual patient engagement with the health care team. We describe the development of a CKD e-care plan that focuses on patient specific needs and life goals, and can be personalized according to provider needs.

  1. Heart failure in patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuegel, Courtney; Bansal, Nisha

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the population of CKD patients with concurrent HF continues to grow. The accurate diagnosis of HF is challenging in patients with CKD in part due to a lack of validated imaging and biomarkers specifically in this population. The pathophysiology between the heart and the kidneys is complex and bidirectional. Patients with CKD have greater prevalence of traditional HF risk factors as well as unique kidney-specific risk factors including malnutrition, acid-base alterations, uraemic toxins, bone mineral changes, anemia and myocardial stunning. These risk factors also contribute to the decline of kidney function seen in patients with subclinical and clinical HF. More targeted HF therapies may improve outcomes in patients with kidney disease as current HF therapies are underutilised in this population. Further work is also needed to develop novel HF therapies for the CKD population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Motivational Interviewing to Engage Patients in Chronic Kidney Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must manage numerous medical treatments and lifestyle changes that strain their treatment adherence. An important strategy to improve adherence is to activate the patients’ motivation to manage their CKD. This article describes an approach for enhancing patients’ motivation for change, called motivational interviewing (MI), a treatment that is increasingly being used in health care settings to counsel patients with chronic diseases. Its basic princip...

  3. Primary care detection of chronic kidney disease in adults with type-2 diabetes: the ADD-CKD Study (awareness, detection and drug therapy in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczech, Lynda A; Stewart, Rebecca C; Su, Hsu-Lin; DeLoskey, Richard J; Astor, Brad C; Fox, Chester H; McCullough, Peter A; Vassalotti, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    This US, multicenter, observational study assessed the CKD prevalence in adult patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and characterized the proportion of detected and undiagnosed CKD in the primary care setting using the following: a clinician survey; a patient physical exam and medical history; a single blood draw for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c); urine dipstick for protein; urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR); two patient quality of life questionnaires; and a 15-month medical record review. The study consisted of 9339 adults with T2DM and 466 investigator sites. Of the 9339 enrolled, 9307 had complete data collection for analysis. The 15-month retrospective review showed urine protein, urine ACR, and eGFR testing were not performed in 51.4%, 52.9% and 15.2% of individuals, respectively. Of the 9307 patients, 5036 (54.1%) had Stage 1-5 CKD based on eGFR and albuminuria; however, only 607 (12.1%) of those patients were identified as having CKD by their clinicians. Clinicians were more successful in diagnosing patients with Stage 3-5 CKD than Stages 1 and 2. There were no differences in clinicians' likelihood of identification of CKD based on practice setting, number of years in practice, or self-reported patients seen per week. Awareness or patient self-reported CKD was 81.1% with practitioner detection versus 2.6% in the absence of diagnosis. Primary care of T2DM demonstrates recommended urine CKD testing is underutilized, and CKD is significantly under-diagnosed. This is the first study to show CKD detection is associated with awareness.

  4. Contemporary Management of Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have emerged as a worldwide public health problem. Due to the remarkably higher incidence and prevalence of this chronic disease in Taiwan than in other countries, CKD/ESRD has contributed to a significant health burden in Taiwan. Patients with CKD/ESRD have an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to the normal population. Patients with ACS alone can present differently than patients with ACS and CKD/ESRD. Also, due to the lower prevalence of chest pain and ST-segment elevation, CKD/ESRD patients were more difficult to diagnose than other patients. Furthermore, whether advances in ACS management with medical therapy and an early invasive approach could improve patient outcomes with CKD/ESRD is not known. The use of antiplatelets such as aspirin and other antithrombotic agents might reduce the incidence of ACS or stroke in CKD patients. However, such use could also increase bleeding risk and even increase the likelihood of mortality, especially in dialysis patients. While recent clinical data suggest the potential benefit of aggressive management with coronary intervention for CAD and ACS in this category of patients, further clinical studies are still indicated for the proper medical strategy and revascularization therapy to improve the outcomes of CAD and ACS in CKD/ESRD patients, both in Taiwan and worldwide. PMID:27122697

  5. Type 2 translational research for CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Katherine R; Tuot, Delphine S; Corbett, Cynthia L; Setter, Stephen M; Powe, Neil R

    2013-10-01

    Strategies to effectively treat people with CKD have been identified by conventional clinical research. Despite this evidence, awareness, screening, detection, diagnosis, risk factor control, treatment, and outcomes remain substandard. Translating clinical evidence into actionable measures that reduce the burden of CKD is a pressing need. Expansion from a "bench-to-bedside" paradigm (conventional type 1 translation) to research that encompasses "clinic and community" is the core concept of type 2 translation. Specifically, this is the discipline of identifying factors and using strategies that lead to adoption, maintenance, and sustainability of science-based interventions in practice. This review identifies key elements of type 2 translational research and highlights the current scope of this type of research for CKD. For type 2 translation to achieve the goals of providing high-quality care and better health outcomes, key facilitators (e.g., theory-based frameworks, adaptable interventions, and inclusion of sustainability and evaluation metrics) and essential elements (e.g., multidisciplinary team care, health information technology, and stakeholder engagement) must be integrated. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases recently funded five proposals that aim to improve outcomes for people with CKD, focusing on diverse components of the healthcare continuum: patient safety and transitions; delivery of high-quality, evidence-based CKD care; and elimination of disparities. The need for type 2 translational research in CKD is urgent because of preventable human suffering and unsustainable costs of providing care. Focus on the theory, framework, and approaches we have suggested may help us meet that challenge.

  6. The Role of Physical Activity in the CKD Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Aucella

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A sedentary lifestyle contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and probably cancer in the general population; this cluster of disease may be defined the diseasome of physical inactivity. Also in CKD/ESRD patients physical activity is strikingly low. As a result of growing evidence suggestive of cardiovascular benefit among the CKD population with exercise, the National Kidney Foundation recommended counseling by nephrologists to increase patients' levels of physical activity in their guideline about management of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, to maintain the well-being and functional capacity of renal patients attention should be directed toward maintaining strength and aerobic fitness as well as focusing on renal function and anemia or other comorbidities. All CKD/ESRD patients should be counseled and regularly encouraged by nephrology and dialysis staff to increase their level of physical activity.

  7. Spectrum of bone marrow changes in patients of chronic kidney disease (stage iii, iv and v)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, R.K.; Khan, S.A.; Ahmad, S.Q.; Arshad, U.

    2017-01-01

    To see the various hematological changes in the bone marrow of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III, IV and V. Study Design: Cross sectional observational study.Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in the department of haematology (Pathology), Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and duration was one year, from Mar 2015 to Feb 2016. Material and Methods: Patients of both sexes and all age groups with CKD stage III, IV and V were included in this study. Patients' histories were recorded. Complete blood counts, bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy were done and evaluated microscopically. Mean blood counts of the patients in three groups of CKD were compared. Frequencies of various bone marrow (BM) findings in patients of CKD were calculated. Results: Out of 57 patients, 41 (71.9%) were males while 16 (28%) were females. Mean age was 60 years. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean hemoglobin, mean white cell count and mean platelets count of the patients in three groups of CKD. Reactive changes due to underlying CKD and inflammation were the most frequent findings in the BM of the patients. Conclusion: Anaemia of mild to moderate severity and reactive changes in the BM are the most frequent haematological findings encountered in patients suffering from advanced stage CKD. Since CKD is predominantly a disease of the elderly so it is not rare to find the co-morbidities including plasmacytosis, malignancies and their effects on the BM in patients of CKD. (author)

  8. Antiproteinuric effect of add-on paricalcitol in CKD patients under maximal tolerated inhibition of renin-angiotensin system: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nicola Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether paricalcitol (PCT reduces proteinuria in the presence of intensified inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS is poorly studied. We evaluated the antiproteinuric effect of PCT in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD patients with proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/24 h persisting despite anti-RAS therapy titrated to minimize proteinuria in the absence of adverse effects. Methods Forty-eight CKD patients were studied in the first six months of add-on oral PCT (1 mcg/day and three months after drug withdrawal. Results Males were 87.5%, age 63 ± 14 yrs, systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP 143 ± 22/78 ± 11 mmHg, eGFR 29.7 ± 14.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, diabetes 40%, and cardiovascular disease 38%. At referral in the center (28 months prior to study baseline, proteinuria was 2.44 (95% CI 1.80-3.04 g/24 h with 6 patients not receiving any anti-RAS and 42 treated with a single agent, at low dosage in most cases. At study baseline, twenty patients were under 2–3 anti-RAS drugs while twenty-eight received 1 agent at full dose and proteinuria resulted to be reduced versus referral to 1.23 g/24 h (95%CI 1.00-1.51. Six months of add-on PCT significantly decreased proteinuria to 0.61 g/24 h (95%CI 0.40-0.93, with levels less than 0.5 g/24 h achieved in 37.5% patients, in the absence of changes of BP and GFR. Proteinuria recovered to basal value after drug withdrawal. The extent of antiproteinuric response to PCT was positively associated with diabetes, eGFR and daily Na excretion (R2 = 0.459, P  Conclusions In CKD patients, add-on PCT induces a significant reduction of proteinuria that is evident despite intensified anti-RAS therapy and larger in the presence of diabetes, higher GFR and unrestricted salt intake.

  9. Hidden prevalence of chronic kidney disease in hypertensive patients: the strategic role of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L S; Cotta, R M M; Moreira, T R; da Silva, R G; Rosa, C de O B; Machado, J C; da Silva, L S; Bastos, M A P

    2016-11-01

    To identify the hidden prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive patients. Cross-sectional study of individuals with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) who were registered for primary health care (PHC). In total, 293 individuals participated. Data were collected through interviews, as well as biochemical and anthropometric assessments. The CKD-EPI formula was used to identify the occurrence of CKD. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were used to compare proportions. Prevalence ratios were estimated with a confidence interval of 95% for associations between the explanatory variables and CKD. Most of the individuals assessed were female (74%), elderly (69%), with a low income (90%), low education levels (84%) and overweight (66.9%). A CKD prevalence of 38.6% (95% CI: 33.0-44.2) was found and approximately 14% were at an advanced stage of the disease. Upon comparison of the variables in the different stages of CKD, statistically significant association could be suggested between CKD and age, education, alcohol intake, overweight individuals, cardiovascular risk, abnormal creatinine and abnormal microalbuminuria. When the prevalence ratio was assessed, association could be suggested between CKD and age, and CKD and creatinine. The high hidden prevalence of CKD confirms the need to train health professionals involved in the treatment of SAH through PHC, enabling the prevention and diagnosis of CKD in its early stages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [DIET CHARACTERISTICS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić-Marković, N; Šutić, I; Popović, B; Marković, R; Vučak, J

    2016-12-01

    Because of the increasing number of patients, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a significant public health problem. As kidney function decreases, it is necessary to introduce certain dietary modifications. The aim was to investigate what is the appropriate approach to diet of CKD patients, which could contribute to slowing down progression of the disease. Dietary recommendations are individual for each patient, but also vary in the same patient depending on the stage of disease progression because special attention must be paid to appropriate intake of macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates and fats), micronutrients (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium, various vitamins), and water. In newly diagnosed patients, it is necessary to assess their nutritional status and energy requirements. It has been shown that protein-energy malnutrition, muscle loss and cachexia are strong predictors of mortality in CKD. Comparing different dietary approaches in everyday life of patients suffering from CKD, it was found that the most effective diet is Mediterranean food style. Studies confirm that Mediterranean diet has a preventive effect on renal function and reduces progression of the disease. Preventive measures, correct identification and early intervention can increase survival of patients and improve their quality of life. Mediterranean diet tailored to individual stages of CKD has been confirmed as the best choice in CKD patients.

  11. [USE OF STATINS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE TO PREVENT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavidić, T; Lodeta, B; Lovrinić, Đ

    2016-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the leading public health issues due to frequent and serious complications. Once the function of kidneys is disrupted, regardless of etiology, there are numerous factors that can speed up decrease of glomerular filtration rate, including hypertension, proteinuria and dyslipidemia. Statins are widely used in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in general population. Clinical advantages of statins in CKD patients are not as clear. The aim of this paper is to present lipid status in CKD patients and indications for statin therapy with the aim to reduce cardiovascular risk in this group of patients. CKD is a well-known independent risk factor in cardiovascular events, but professional associations issuing guidelines differ in the approach to treatment of dyslipidemia. The results of some studies indicate that treatment with statins may slow down the rate of kidney function reduction in patients with mild to moderate kidney damage, whereas other studies deny this effect. Furthermore, CKD patients have a higher risk of side effects, in part due to the reduced kidney excretion, polypharmacy, and numerous other comorbidities. Family physician has the role of providing preventive measures, with focus on appropriate treatment of patients with hypertension or diabetes, as the most common cause of CKD, and timely detection of CKD in initial stage.

  12. Discrepancies in Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Korean Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control is considered the most important treatment for preventing chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and associated cardiovascular complications. However, clinic BP is insufficient to diagnose hypertension (HT) and to monitor overall BP control because it does not correlate well with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We enrolled 387 hypertensive CKD patients (stages G1–G4, 58.4% male with median age 61 years) from 3 hospitals in Korea. HT of clinic BP and ABPM was classified as ≥ 140/90 and ≥ 130/80 mmHg, respectively. Clinic BP control rate was 60.2%. The median 24-hour systolic blood pressures (SBPs) of CKD G3b and CKD G4 were significantly higher than those of CKD G1–2 and CKD G3a. However, the median 24-hour SBPs were not different between CKD G1–2 and CKD G3a or between CKD G3b and CKD G4. Of all patients, 5.7%, 38.0%. 42.3%, and 14.0% were extreme-dippers, dippers, non-dippers, and reverse-dippers, respectively. Non-/reverse-dippers independently correlated with higher Ca × P product, higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and lower albumin. Normal BP was 33.3%, and sustained, masked, and white-coat HT were 29.7%, 26.9%, and 10.1%, respectively. White-coat HT independently correlated with age ≥ 61 years and masked HT independently correlated with CKD G3b/G4. In conclusion, ABPM revealed a high prevalence of non-/reverse-dippers and sustained/masked HT in Korean CKD patients. Clinicians should try to obtain a CKD patient's ABPM, especially among those who are older or who have advanced CKD as well as those with abnormal Ca × P product, iPTH, and albumin. PMID:28378550

  13. The impact of chronic kidney disease as a predictor of major cardiac events in patients with no evidence of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Moroi, Masao; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion images (MPI) generally show good prognosis for cardiovascular events. However, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and the interpretation of normal stress MPI has not been well established in CKD patients with no evidence of CAD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of stress MPI in CKD patients with no evidence of myocardial ischemia or infarction. Patients who had no history but were suspected of CAD and had normal stress MPI (n=307, male=208, age=67 years, CKD/non-CKD=46/261) were followed-up for 4.5 years. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration ratio of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina requiring hospitalization were defined as major cardiac events. Major cardiac events were observed in 3 of 261 (1.1%) non-CKD patients and 6 of 46 (13%) CKD patients (p<0.001, with log-rank test). CKD was an independent risk factor for major cardiac events (hazard ratio=13.1, p<0.001, multivariate Cox regression analysis). Normal stress MPI does not always promise a good prognosis for major cardiac events. Even in patients with no evidence of CAD from stress MPI, CKD can be an independent and significant risk factor for major cardiac events. (author)

  14. Reproductive Endocrinology in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: New Approaches to Old Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Songul; Akbar, Sana; Schmidt, Rebecca J

    2016-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common yet underreported problem among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This article will review sexual dysfunction in both genders, pregnancy outcomes, and best practices for successful full-term pregnancy in patients with CKD, including those with dialysis dependence and kidney transplants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Report of the Asian Forum of Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative (AFCKDI) 2007. "Current status and perspective of CKD in Asia": diversity and specificity among Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Wang, HaiYan; Becker, Gavin; Chen, Hung-Chun; Han, Dae-Suk; Harris, David; Imai, Enyu; Jha, Vivekanand; Li, Philip K T; Lee, Evan J C; Matsuo, Seiichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Tungsanga, Kriang; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Hishida, Akira

    2009-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nephrology (JSN) sponsored the Asian Forum of CKD Initiative (AFCKDI) 2007 with the support of the International Society of Nephrology-Commission for Global Advancement in Nephrology (ISN-COMGAN), Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology (APSN), the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) and other national societies of nephrology in the Asian Pacific region on 27-28 May 2007 in Hamamatsu City, Japan. An international organising committee was established by leading experts of the CKD initiative. The main objective of this forum was to clarify the current status and perspectives of CKD and to promote coordination, collaboration and integration of initiatives in the Asian Pacific region. The forum received 56 papers from 16 countries; it began with the symposium "A Challenge to CKD in the world" and was followed by the ISN-COMGAN affiliated workshop "Current status and perspective of CKD in Asia". The second day was dedicated to discussion on the evaluation, surveillance and intervention in CKD in this area. At the end of the forum, we decided on the future plan as follows: (1) The AFCKDI will provide opportunities annually or biannually for every person who promotes CKD initiatives in the Asian Pacific region to join together and build consensus for action; (2) the second forum will be held in Kuala Lumpur on 4 May 2008 at the time of the 11th Asian Pacific Congress of Nephrology (APCN). Zaki Morad, President of the 11th APCN, will host the second forum; (3) the International Organising Committee (IOC) of the 1st AFCKDI will continue its function by adding other experts, including the organisers of the APCN; (4) the AFCKDI is not an organisation by itself, nor does it belong to any society, but is organised by each host national society of nephrology. The IOC will assist the domestic committee for the success of the forum and will assure the continuation of the mission; (5) in order to organise the forum and promote CKD initiatives in the

  16. Epidemiology and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yu-Shi; Song, Li-Ting; Zhong, Di; Song, A-Xia; Jia, Xi-Bei; Liu, Rui-Chan; Xie, Ru-Juan; Na, Shi-Ping

    2013-08-01

    There is growing evidence for an association between chronic renal disease (CKD) and adverse cerebrovascular events because of the overlap of several risk factors. The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of CKD and the characteristics of risk factors for CKD in the population with ischaemic stroke. This retrospective study included 571 patients with ischaemic stroke. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. Renal function was assessed according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI)-CKD classification. Study demonstrated that the major factors associated with CKD in the ischaemic stroke patients were age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and serum uric acid. Diabetes mellitus (OR 4·146, 95% CI 1·047-16·418, P = 0·043), hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR 3·574, 95% CI 1·248-10·234, P = 0·018), serum uric acid (OR 1·010, 95% CI 1·006-1·013, P ischaemic stroke. The patients with ischaemic stroke may be considered as a high-risk population for CKD and be aggressively managed for CKD prevention. The high prevalence of CKD in population with ischaemic stroke prompts the need for greater public awareness about risks of CKD. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection have a higher incidence of gastroduodenal diseases and therefore are recommended to receive eradication therapies. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a 7-day standard triple therapy in patients with CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and to investigate the clinical factors influencing the success of eradication. Methods. A total of 758 patients with H. pylori infection receiving a 7-day standard first-line triple therapy between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups: CKD group (N=130 and non-CKD group (N=628. Results. The eradication rates attained by the CKD and non-CKD groups were 85.4% and 85.7%, respectively, in the per-protocol analysis (p=0.933. The eradication rate in CKD stage 3 was 84.5% (82/97, in stage 4 was 88.2% (15/17, and in those who received hemodialysis was 87.5% (14/16. There were no significant differences in the various stages of CKD (p=0.982. The adverse events were similar between the two groups (3.1% versus 4.6%, p=0.433. Compliance between the two groups was good (100.0% versus 99.8%, p=0.649. There was no significant clinical factor influencing the H. pylori eradication rate in the non-CKD and CKD groups. Conclusions. This study suggests that the H. pylori eradication rate and adverse rate in patients with CKD are comparable to those of non-CKD patients.

  18. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  19. Successful laparoscopic bariatric surgery in peritoneal dialysis patients without interruption of their CKD6 treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Gabriel A; Kissane, Barbara E; de la Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    During the past several decades, the conventional management of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery required a transition to hemodialysis on a temporary basis. In recent years, that protocol has been challenged by various authors who successfully repaired hernias in such subjects without interruption of their PD modality. However, that new approach was reserved for abdominal wall procedures and was not used for intra-abdominal surgery. The rapid evolution of laparoscopic surgery and the development and refinement of minimally invasive surgical techniques have revolutionized the field of surgery by providing superior outcomes for an ever-increasing list of indications including morbid obesity. The present study, the first of its kind involving elective intra-abdominal surgery, sought to determine the safety of uninterrupted PD therapy in morbidly obese patients with stage 6 chronic kidney disease undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery as a precursor to transplantation.

  20. Predictors of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, John J V; Uno, Hajime; Jarolim, Petr

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine predictors of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with the triad of diabetes, CKD, and anemia represent a significant proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease and are at particularly high risk for a...

  1. Drug eluting stents are superior to bare metal stents to reduce clinical outcome and stent-related complications in CKD patients, a systematic review, meta-analysis and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Gabriele; Gritti, Valeria; Galiffa, Vincenzo Alessandro; Scotti, Valeria; Leonardi, Sergio; Ferrario, Maurizio; Ferlini, Marco; De Ferrari, Gaetano Maria; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; Klersy, Catherine

    2017-12-28

    To compare clinical outcome in Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients receiving coronary stents according to stent type BMS versus DES and 1st generation versus 2nd generation DES. PubMed, Cinhal, Cochrane, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies including CKD patients. CKD was defined as eGFR DES n = 37,650, or 2nd generation DES n = 3100. Patient receiving DES, compared to BMS, had a 18% lower all-cause mortality (RR 0.82, 95%CI 0.71-0.94). The composite of death or myocardial infarction (MI) was lower in DES patients (RR 0.78, 95%CI 0.67-0.91), as was stent thrombosis (ST) (RR 0.57, 95%CI 0.34-0.95), target vessel/lesion revascularization (TVR/TLR) (RR 0.69, 95%CI 0.57-0.84) and death for cardiovascular cause (RR 0.43, 95%CI 0.25-0.74). We also found a gradient between 1st and 2nd generation DES, through BMS. Second, compared to 1st generation DES, were associated with further relative risk (RR) reduction of -18% in of all-cause death, and lower incidence of stent-related clinical events: -39% RR of ST risk; -27 RR of TVR/TLR risk. DES in CKD patients undergoing PCI were superior to BMS in reducing major adverse clinical events. This was possibly explained, by a lower risk of stent-related events as ST and TVR or TLR. Second, compared to 1st generation DES may furtherly reduce clinical events. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Real-World Impact of Cardiovascular Disease and Anemia on Quality of Life and Productivity in Patients with Non-Dialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covic, Adrian; Jackson, James; Hadfield, Anna; Pike, James; Siriopol, Dimitrie

    2017-07-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of comorbid conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Anemia is prevalent in the CKD population and worsens as kidney function declines, resulting in a diminished quality of life and increased morbidity/mortality. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the real-world prevalence of CVD among patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD), with and without comorbid anemia, and to assess the impact of these conditions on quality of life (QoL) and work productivity. Data were drawn from the Adelphi CKD Disease-Specific Programme, conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK (2012). Anonymized data were collected via patient record forms and patient-completed questionnaires. Patient data were stratified by anemic status and the presence of CVD comorbidity. Data were collected by physicians for 1993 patients, of whom 867 completed a patient-completed questionnaire. A total of 61.4% of patients had anemia, and the prevalence of anemia increased with CKD stage. Patients with anemia had a higher mean number of cardiovascular comorbidities than non-anemic patients (1.27 vs 0.95, respectively; P anemia in this cohort of NDD-CKD patients was high. The presence of concomitant cardiovascular conditions was more common in NDD-CKD patients with comorbid anemia, and was associated with reduced QoL and work productivity outcomes.

  3. Urinary endotrophin predicts disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Daniel Guldager Kring; Fenton, Anthony; Jesky, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is the central pathogenic process in progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Collagen type VI (COL VI) is upregulated in renal fibrosis. Endotrophin is released from COL VI and promotes pleiotropic pro-fibrotic effects. Kidney disease severity varies considerably and accurate...... information regarding CKD progression may improve clinical decisions. We tested the hypothesis that urinary endotrophin derived during COL VI deposition in fibrotic human kidneys is a marker for progression of CKD in the Renal Impairment in Secondary Care (RIISC) cohort, a prospective observational study...... of 499 CKD patients. Endotrophin localised to areas of increased COL VI deposition in fibrotic kidneys but was not present in histologically normal kidneys. The third and fourth quartiles of urinary endotrophin:creatinine ratio (ECR) were independently associated with one-year disease progression after...

  4. Fanconi syndrome and CKD in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and hemosiderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wen, Mei-Chin; Diang, Liang-Kuang; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Fanconi syndrome and chronic kidney disease associated with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is rarely reported. We describe a 51-year-old woman with glomerular filtration rate decrease and hypokalemia, glucosuria, and proteinuria during a 4-year period. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria was diagnosed 17 years earlier, and she has received multiple blood transfusions because of hemolytic episodes during the last 5 years. Deteriorating kidney function and persistent Fanconi syndrome were accompanied by a progressive increase in serum ferritin levels. Laboratory studies showed proximal renal tubular acidosis, hypophosphotemic hyperphosphaturia, normoglycemic glucosuria, and aminoaciduria. Serologic testing, tumor markers, Bence-Jones protein, and heavy-metal screening results were negative. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed characteristic features of iron deposition in the bilateral renal cortices. Kidney biopsy showed chronic interstitial nephritis with prominent hemosiderin deposition in the proximal tubules. With potassium citrate, calcitriol, and deferoxamine therapy, Fanconi syndrome persisted, but kidney function was stable. Renal hemosiderosis secondary to both chronic repetitive hemolytic episodes and transfusion-related iron overload in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria can lead to Fanconi syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Copyright 2009 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Møller, Grith

    2017-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24...

  6. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Transplant—Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a complex medical condition that is associated with several comorbidities and requires comprehensive medical management. Given the chronic nature of the condition, its frequent association with psychosocial distress, and its very significant symptom burden, the subjective patient experience is key toward understanding the true impact of CKD on the patients’ life. Patient-reported outcome measures are important tools that can be used to support patient-centered care and patient engagement during the complex management of patients with CKD. The routine collection and use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs in clinical practice may improve quality of care and outcomes, and may provide useful data to understand the disease from both an individual and a population perspective. Many tools used to measure PROs focus on assessing health-related quality of life, which is significantly impaired among patients with CKD. Health-related quality of life, in addition to being an important outcome itself, is associated with clinical outcomes such as health care use and mortality. In Part 1 of this review, we provide an overview of PROs and implications of their use in the context of CKD. In Part 2, we will review the selection of appropriate measures and the relevant domains of interest for patients with CKD.

  7. Nutrition education in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Nguyen, Hoang Anh

    2018-03-01

    Diet counseling and nutrition education are recommended in the prevention and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The importance of effectively addressing nutrition with patients has grown given the increasing prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes; conditions which influence CKD/ESRD. Dietary advice for individuals with CKD/ESRD can be seen as complex; and successful dietary management requires careful planning, periodic assessment of nutritional status, as well as monitoring of dietary compliance. In spite of recommendations and pressing need, formal training in nutrition and adequate preparation for providers is limited; and for physicians the lack of nutrition education has been acknowledged, repeatedly, as an area for improvement in medical training curricula. It has also been suggested that dietitians have an essential role in management of CKD in the primary care setting; however, dietitians who do not practice renal education daily may need training on the specific challenges in CKD/ESRD. The objectives of this chapter were to: characterize select nutrition education resources for providers who care for patients with CKD/ESRD; summarize key dietary components emphasized in the care of patients with CKD/ESRD; and address practical considerations in educational efforts focused on nutrition and CKD/ESRD. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. What is the role of nephrologists and nurses of the dialysis department in providing fertility care to CKD patients? : A questionnaire study among care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ek, Gaby F.; Krouwel, Esmée M.; Nicolai, Melianthe P. J.; den Oudsten, B.L.; Den Ouden, Marjolein E. M.; Dieben, Sandra W. M.; Putter, Hein; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Elzevier, Henk W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated current fertility care for CKD patients by assessing the perspectives of nephrologists and nurses in the dialysis department. Methods Two different surveys were distributed for this cross-sectional study among Dutch nephrologists (N = 312) and dialysis nurses (N = 1211).

  9. Utilizing a disease management approach to improve ESRD patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Shaan; Nissenson, Allen R

    2002-01-01

    In this era of processes and systems to improve quality, disease management is one methodology to improve care delivery and outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In most disease management systems a senior renal nurse coordinates all aspects of the patient's care and ensures that the prescribed and necessary care is delivered for both CKD-related and comorbid conditions. The nurse also continually monitors outcomes on quality indicators and key performance measures. These outcome data are then aggregated and analyzed, are compared with local and national benchmarks, and drive the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process. Such a system attempts to centralize the currently fragmented care delivery system, continually improve patient outcomes, and conserve scarce economic resources. Early data suggest a disease management approach may improve both the morbidity and mortality of CKD patients.

  10. Antiproteinuric effect of add-on paricalcitol in CKD patients under maximal tolerated inhibition of renin-angiotensin system: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Luca; Conte, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Gorini, Antonio; Minutolo, Roberto

    2012-11-20

    Whether paricalcitol (PCT) reduces proteinuria in the presence of intensified inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) is poorly studied. We evaluated the antiproteinuric effect of PCT in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/24 h persisting despite anti-RAS therapy titrated to minimize proteinuria in the absence of adverse effects. Forty-eight CKD patients were studied in the first six months of add-on oral PCT (1 mcg/day) and three months after drug withdrawal. Males were 87.5%, age 63 ± 14 yrs, systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) 143 ± 22/78 ± 11 mmHg, eGFR 29.7 ± 14.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2), diabetes 40%, and cardiovascular disease 38%. At referral in the center (28 months prior to study baseline), proteinuria was 2.44 (95% CI 1.80-3.04) g/24 h with 6 patients not receiving any anti-RAS and 42 treated with a single agent, at low dosage in most cases. At study baseline, twenty patients were under 2-3 anti-RAS drugs while twenty-eight received 1 agent at full dose and proteinuria resulted to be reduced versus referral to 1.23 g/24 h (95%CI 1.00-1.51). Six months of add-on PCT significantly decreased proteinuria to 0.61 g/24 h (95%CI 0.40-0.93), with levels less than 0.5 g/24 h achieved in 37.5% patients, in the absence of changes of BP and GFR. Proteinuria recovered to basal value after drug withdrawal. The extent of antiproteinuric response to PCT was positively associated with diabetes, eGFR and daily Na excretion (R(2) = 0.459, P proteinuria that is evident despite intensified anti-RAS therapy and larger in the presence of diabetes, higher GFR and unrestricted salt intake.

  11. Chronic kidney disease stages among diabetes patients in the Cape Coast Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K D; Arthur, Eric; Owiredu, W K B A; Adoba, Prince; Agbodzakey, Hope; Eghan, Ben A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes patients worldwide are at a high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which affects their quality of life and increases the risk of early death. This study used the new kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines to establish the prevalence and also identify the factors associated with CKD among diabetes patients in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Two hundred (200) diabetes patients were randomly recruited from the diabetic clinic of the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital from January to April 2014. Blood and urine samples were collected for the estimation of serum creatinine and urine protein, respectively. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation; the 2012 KDIGO guidelines was used to assess CKD. Based on these guidelines, 37% of our participants had CKD. Sixteen percent (16%) of the participants had Stage 1 CKD and 17% had an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Albuminuria was higher among female diabetic patients compared to males (69.2% vs. 30.8%, P = 0.017). CKD was present in participants on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) alone or both OHA and insulin. Duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, older age, and use of OHA were associated with CKD (P <0.05).

  12. Stirring the Pot: Can Dietary Modification Alleviate the Burden of CKD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Snelson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the largest modifiable risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD-related death and disability. CKD is largely a progressive disease; however, it is increasingly appreciated that hallmarks of chronic kidney disease such as albuminuria can regress over time. The factors driving albuminuria resolution remain elusive. Since albuminuria is a strong risk factor for GFR loss, modifiable lifestyle factors that lead to an improvement in albuminuria would likely reduce the burden of CKD in high-risk individuals, such as patients with diabetes. Dietary therapy such as protein and sodium restriction has historically been used in the management of CKD. Evidence is emerging to indicate that other nutrients may influence kidney health, either through metabolic or haemodynamic pathways or via the modification of gut homeostasis. This review focuses on the role of diet in the pathogenesis and progression of CKD and discusses the latest findings related to the mechanisms of diet-induced kidney disease. It is possible that optimizing diet quality or restricting dietary intake could be harnessed as an adjunct therapy for CKD prevention or progression in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing the burden of CKD.

  13. Can glycated hemoglobin act as a reliable glycemic indicator in patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease? evidence from the Northeast of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sojib Bin Zaman; Naznin Hossain; Ahmed E. Rahman; Sheikh M.S. Islam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) is a common microvascular complication in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) which requires adequate glycemic control. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a conventional biomarker to estimate glycemic status, but its role in diabetic CKD patients is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether patients with high HbA1c are associated to develop diabetic CKD.Methods: Data were obtained from a clinical registry of diabetic patients who were tre...

  14. The joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2017-11-06

    This retrospective study evaluated the influence of the joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during a 6-year follow-up period in middle-aged and older males. The study population included 303 males without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal dysfunction, or dialysis treatment. Their lifestyle behaviors regarding exercise and physical activity were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The participants were divided into four categories according to the performance or non-performance of habitual exercise and the presence or absence of hyperglycemia. After 6 years, 32 subjects (10.6%) developed CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate exercise and hyperglycemic subjects (log-rank test: p exercise (HR = 2.82, 95% confidence of interval (CI) = 1.07-7.36, p = 0.034) and that in hyperglycemic subjects who did not perform habitual exercise (HR = 5.89, 95% CI = 1.87-16.63, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in comparison to the subjects with a NGT who performed habitual exercise. These results suggest that the habitual exercise and good glycemic control and their combination were associated with the incidence of CKD.

  15. Nutritional approach of the patient with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Torres, Beatriz; Izaola Jáuregu, Olatz; De Luis Román, Daniel A

    2017-05-08

    The prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetes through diet and lifestyle have been a topic of much interest over the years. Consideration of the type and amount of carbohydrate, protein and fat is required for optimal blood glucose control, for clinical outcomes related to renal function and for consideration of risk reduction for cardiovascular disease. Depending on the CKD stage different dietary changes should be considered protein-calorie malnutrition is common in chronic kidney disease patients and is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality. We review the nutritional management of a diabetic patient throughout the progression of their CKD.

  16. [Croatian guidelines for screening, prevention and treatment of protein-energy wasting in chronic kidney disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Radić, Josipa; Klarić, Dragan; Jakić, Marko; Vujičić, Božidar; Gulin, Marijana; Krznarić, Zeljko; Pavić, Eva; Kes, Petar; Jelaković, Bojan; Rački, Sanjin

    2015-01-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and malnutrition is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population of patients. A multitude of factors related to CKD and renal replacement therapy can affect the nutritional status of CKD patients and lead to the development of malnutrition. In patients with CKD, protein energy wasting (PEW) is a condition that is distinct from undernutrition and is associated with inflammation, increased resting energy expenditure, low serum levels of albumin and prealbumin, sarcopenia, weight loss and poor clinical outcomes. Nutritional and metabolic derangements are implicated for the development of PEW in CKD and leading to the development of chronic catabolic state with muscle and fat loss. Prevention is the best way in treating PEW. Appropriate management of CKD patients at risk for PEW requires a comprehensive combination of strategies to diminish protein and energy depletion, and to institute therapies that will avoid further losses. The mainstay of nutritional treatment in MHD patients is nutritional counselling and provision of an adequate amount of protein and energy, using oral supplementation as needed. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition and total enteral nutrition should be attempted in CKD patients who cannot use the gastrointestinal tract efficiently. Other strategies such as anemia correction, treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism and acidosis, delivering adequate dialysis dose can be considered as complementary therapies in CKD patients. Multidisciplinary work of nephrologists, gastroenterologist and dietician is needed to achieve best therapeutic goals in treating CKD patients with PEW.

  17. A Comparison of Treating Metabolic Acidosis in CKD Stage 4 Hypertensive Kidney Disease with Fruits and Vegetables or Sodium Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Current guidelines recommend Na+-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m2) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Results Plasma cystatin C–calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; Pfruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; Pfruits and vegetable group (Pfruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia. PMID:23393104

  18. The association between changes in lifestyle behaviors and the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether changes in lifestyle behaviors are correlated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The subjects consisted of 316 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or renal dysfunction or dialysis treatment. The following lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire: habitual moderate exercise, daily physical activity, walking speed, eating speed, late-night dinner, bedtime snacking, skipping breakfast, and drinking and smoking habits. The subjects were divided into four categories according to the change in each lifestyle behavior from baseline to the end of follow-up (healthy-healthy, unhealthy-healthy, healthy-unhealthy and unhealthy-unhealthy). A multivariate analysis showed that, with respect to habitual moderate exercise and late-night dinner, maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle resulted in a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for the incidence of CKD than maintaining a lifestyle (OR 8.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-15.40 for habitual moderate exercise and OR 4.00; 95% CI, 1.38-11.57 for late-night dinner). In addition, with respect to bedtime snacking, the change from a healthy to an unhealthy lifestyle and maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle resulted in significantly higher OR for incidence of CKD than maintaining a healthy lifestyle (OR 4.44; 95% CI, 1.05-13.93 for healthy-unhealthy group and OR 11.02; 95% CI, 2.83-26.69 for unhealthy-unhealthy group). The results of the present study suggest that the lack of habitual moderate exercise, late-night dinner, and bedtime snacking may increase the risk of CKD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CMV seropositivity determines epoetin dose and hemoglobin levels in patients with CKD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); W. Weimar (Willem); N.H.R. Litjens (Nicolle)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive patients with ESRD may have more CD4+T cells lacking the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 (CD4+CD28null) than CMV-seronegative patients. Increased numbers of CD28null T cells associates with epoetin nonresponsiveness in patients with ESRD, but whether

  20. Pharmacist Web-Based Training Program on Medication Use in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Impact on Knowledge, Skills, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legris, Marie-eve; Seguin, Noemie Charbonneau; Desforges, Katherine; Sauve, Patricia; Lord, Anne; Bell, Robert; Berbiche, Djamal; Desrochers, Jean-Francois; Lemieux, Jean-Philippe; Morin-Belanger, Claudia; Paradis, Francois Ste-Marie; Lalonde, Lyne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are multimorbid elderly at high risk of drug-related problems. A Web-based training program was developed based on a list of significant drug-related problems in CKD patients requiring a pharmaceutical intervention. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of the program on community…

  1. The Effects of Exercise Education Intervention on the Exercise Behaviour, Depression, and Fatigue Status of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an exercise education intervention on exercise behavior, depression and fatigue status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Design/methodology/approach: This was a pilot study using an exercise education program as an intervention for CKD patients. The authors used the…

  2. Sleep disorders in pediatric chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabouli, Stella; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Printza, Nikoleta; Dotis, John; Papachristou, Fotios

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders during childhood has been estimated to range from 25 to 43 %. The aim of this review is to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders and possible associations with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with CKD. An electronic systematic literature search for sleep disorders in children with CKD in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library Databases identified seven relevant articles for review, all of which reported an increased prevalence of sleep disorders in children with CKD. Five studies included children with CKD undergoing dialysis, and two studies included only non-dialysis patients. In all studies the presence of sleep disturbances was assessed by questionnaires; only one study compared the results of a validated questionnaire with laboratory-based polysomnography. The prevalence of any sleep disorder ranged from 77 to 85 % in dialysis patients, to 32-50 % in transplanted patients and 40-50 % in non-dialysis patients. The most commonly studied disorder was restless legs syndrome, which presented at a prevalence of 10-35 %. Three studies showed significant associations between presence of sleep disorders and HRQOL. We found consistent evidence of an increased prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with CKD, and these seemed to play a critical role in HRQOL.

  3. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunosuppressant medicines Anxiety, depression and mental health Kidney rejection Lifestyle changes Donate a kidney Being a living ... Healthy kidneys take the waste out of your blood. One type of waste is called creatinine. If you have ...

  4. Circadian blood pressure patterns and blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Fegatelli, Danilo Alunni; Rovella, Valentina; Castagnola, Veronica; Gabriele, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CKD progression is associated with suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control. Here we evaluate the impact of CKD on the attainment of BP control and the circadian BP profile in older subjects. In this observational study, we studied 547 patients referred to the hypertension clinic, of whom 224 (40.9%) had CKD. Blood pressure (BP) control and circadian BP patterns were evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Circadian BP variability was measured as the within-subject SD of BP, the percentage of measurements exceeding normal values, hypotension, and dipping status. The attainment of adequate BP control was similar in subjects with or without CKD (around 31%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that CKD was not a determinant of adequate BP control (OR 1.004; 95% CI 0.989-1.019; p = 0.58). Patients with CKD presented as twice as higher prevalence of reverse dipper (night-time peak) for systolic BP and episodes of hypotension during daytime, independently of BP control. Knowledge of the circadian pattern of BP in hypertensive subjects with CKD could inform better than attainment of BP target about risky condition for CKD progression and cognitive decline and allow a more personalized antihypertensive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional Status of In-patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    AMNT Adikari

    2016-01-01

    Under-nutrition is a serious and common complication of patients with Chronis Kidney Disease (CKD). This study was designed to assess the nutritional status of hospitalized patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) at the pre-dialysis stage. Twenty-nine inward CKD patients (10 males and 19 females) with a mean age of 59 (SD=±4.2) years were recruited. An interviewer administered pre-tested questionnaire, patients’ bed-head tickets and semi-quantitative food frequency questionn...

  6. Circulating levels of sclerostin but not DKK1 associate with laboratory parameters of CKD-MBD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert J Behets

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence indicates that a disturbed Wnt-β-catenin signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD. Data on the impact of CKD on circulating levels of the Wnt antagonists sclerostin and Dickkopf related protein 1 (DKK1 and the relationship with laboratory parameters of CKD-MBD are incomplete.We analyzed serum sclerostin and DKK1 in 308 patients across the stages of chronic kidney disease (kDOQI stage 1-2 n = 41; CKD stage 3 n = 54; CKD stage 4-5 n = 54; hemodialysis n = 100; peritoneal dialysis n = 59 as well as in 49 healthy controls. We investigated associations with demographics, renal function, parameters of mineral metabolism including 25(OH vitamin D, 1,25(OH2 vitamin D, biointact fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, and parathyroid hormone (PTH, and bone turnover markers.Serum sclerostin, but not DKK1, increases in more advanced stages of CKD and associates with PTH, phosphate, and 1,25(OH2 vitamin D concentrations. Bone turnover markers are highest in hemodialysis patients presenting the combination of high PTH with low sclerostin level. Serum DKK1 levels are lower in CKD patients than in controls and are not associated with laboratory parameters of mineral metabolism. Interestingly, a direct association between DKK1 and platelet count was observed.In CKD, serum levels of the Wnt inhibitors DKK1 and sclerostin are unrelated, indicating different sites of origin and/ or different regulatory mechanisms. Sclerostin, as opposed to DKK1, may qualify as a biomarker of CKD-MBD, particularly in dialysis patients. DKK1 serum levels, remarkably, correlate almost uniquely with blood platelet counts.

  7. Albuminuria Is an Appropriate Therapeutic Target in Patients with CKD : The Pro View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    The presence of elevated levels of albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of progressive renal function loss over time. This association is found in various pathophysiological conditions, including diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and various primary renal diseases, but

  8. Predictors of Cognitive Dysfunction among Patients with Moderate to Severe Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak Effiong Williams

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction including dementia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD that has just been recently appreciated. It has negative outcomes in the management of patients with CKD. This study explored the possible biochemical and clinical features of patients with CKD that can predict the occurrence of cognitive impairment in patients with moderate to severe CKD. We evaluate patients with stages 3-5 CKD for the occurrence and predictors of cognitive impairment. Multiple areas of cognitive function were tested in this single-center study using Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID and Trial-Making Test A (TMTA/Trial-Making Test B (TMTB. Cognitive impairment was correlated with patients’ routine biochemical, hematological, and selected clinical parameters. We observed a negative correlation between cognitive impairment and patient’s serum calcium (r = 0.240; p = 0.033 and estimated Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR (r = 0.379; p = 0.0006. Therefore, eGFR is an accurate predictor of cognitive dysfunction in patients with moderate to severe CKD. Early evaluation of cognitive function in CKD is indeed advised for optimal outcome in the management of patients with CKD.

  9. Increased risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with rosacea: A nationwide population-based matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yi Chiu

    Full Text Available Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder. Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the etiopathogenesis of rosacea and chronic kidney disease (CKD. This study aimed to investigate the association between rosacea and CKD.This population-based cohort study identified 277 patients with rosacea in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2001-2005. These patients were matched for age, sex, and comorbidities with 2216 patients without rosacea. All subjects were individually followed-up for 8-12 years to identify those who subsequently developed CKD.The incidence rates of CKD per 1000 person-years were 16.02 in patients with rosacea and 10.63 in the non-rosacea reference population. After adjusting for other covariates and considering the competing risk of mortality, patients with rosacea remained at increased risk of CKD (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio (aSD-HR 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05-3.82. The aSD-HRs (95% CI for CKD were 1.82 (0.83-4.00 and 2.53 (1.11-5.75 for patients with mild and moderate-to-severe rosacea, respectively.Rosacea is an independent risk factor for CKD. High rosacea severity and old age further increased CKD risk in patients with rosacea. Careful monitoring for CKD development should be included as part of integrated care for patients with rosacea.

  10. Chronic kidney disease in congenital heart disease patients: a narrative review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catherine; Al-Aklabi, Mohammed; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease have a number of risk factors for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is well known that CKD has a large negative impact on health outcomes. It is important therefore to consider that patients with congenital heart disease represent a population in whom long-term primary and secondary prevention strategies to reduce CKD occurrence and progression could be instituted and significantly change outcomes. There are currently no clear guidelines for clinicians in terms of renal assessment in the long-term follow up of patients with congenital heart disease. Consolidation of knowledge is critical for generating such guidelines, and hence is the purpose of this view. This review will summarize current knowledge related to CKD in patients with congenital heart disease, to highlight important work that has been done to date and set the stage for further investigation, development of prevention strategies, and re-evaluation of appropriate renal follow-up in patients with congenital heart disease. The literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. Current epidemiological evidence suggests that CKD occurs in patients with congenital heart disease at a higher frequency than the general population and is detectable early in follow-up (i.e. during childhood). Best evidence suggests that approximately 30 to 50 % of adult patients with congenital heart disease have significantly impaired renal function. The risk of CKD is higher with cyanotic congenital heart disease but it is also present with non-cyanotic congenital heart disease. Although significant knowledge gaps exist, the sum of the data suggests that patients with congenital heart disease should be followed from an early age for the development of CKD. There is an opportunity to mitigate CKD progression and negative renal outcomes by instituting interventions such as stringent blood pressure control and reduction of proteinuria. There is a need to

  11. Total Calcium and Albumin Are Decreased in the Deeper Epidermis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Akishi; Shiraiwa, Yasuo; Narita, Satoshi; Kusumi, Tomomi; Goto, Shoko; Sera, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    In our earlier studies, we reported high concentrations of intra- and extracellular calcium ions (Ca2+) in the deeper epidermis of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated pruritus. To determine the cause of this phenomenon, we measured total calcium (TCa) concentrations in the deeper epidermis and performed immunostaining of epidermal albumin, which binds to Ca2+. This study included 45 patients with CKD-stage 5, which was defined as severely reduced kidney function (i.e., estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 15 mL/min or on dialysis). Subjects were divided into the pruritus group, consisting of patients with mild, moderate, or severe uremic pruritus, and the non-pruritus group, consisting of patients with no or slight pruritus. The particle-induced X-ray emission method was used to measure elements including TCa. Furthermore, we have immunostained epidermal albumin using anti-albumin antibodies and compared the results in the pruritus and non-pruritus groups. The TCa concentration in the spinous layer of patients with CKD with CKD-associated pruritus was lower than in patients with CKD without pruritus (median [range], 395 [235-1,063] vs. 476 [342-1,243] μg/g). The intensity of epidermal albumin expression in the spinous layer was weaker in patients with CKD with CKD-associated pruritus than in those without. Patients with CKD with CKD-associated pruritus demonstrated higher Ca2+ concentrations but lower TCa concentrations than patients without CKD-associated pruritus. This could be in part due to low concentrations of epidermal albumin, which binds to Ca2+, in those with CKD-associated pruritus. These results clarify the pathophysiology of CKD-associated pruritus, providing a valuable foundation for the future development of treatments for this condition. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Clinical and hematological data to group different chronic kidney disease patients: A practical approach to establish different groups of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péterle, Vinícius B; Souza, Jéssica de O; Busato, Fernanda de O; Eutrópio, Frederico J; da Costa, Gisele de A P; Olivieri, David N; Tadokoro, Carlos E

    2018-01-04

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the convergent point of several pathological processes, and its evolution is insidious and characterized by a progressive and irreversible loss of kidney function. This impaired function induces the accumulation of uremic toxins and individuals with terminal CKD often have altered physiological responses, including a persistent state of immuno-suppression and development of diseases. A better characterization and stratification of these patients with CKD in different immuno-compromised groups would contribute to more effective and personalized treatments. The focus of this study was to use two parameters to stratify patients with CKD into four separate groups that are representative of different immunological status. Patients with CKD were chosen randomly and stratified into four separate groups according to the period of time receiving dialysis treatment and leukocyte blood counts. The amount of apoptotic CD4 T cells were measured in each group of patients, and clinical/hematological parameters were correlated by multivariate analysis with each group. Observations reveal that one of the four groups of patients with CKD (group 3) had more apoptotic CD4 T cells than the other group; this group also had an increased malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), an elevated Kt/V, and a higher incidence of smoking. A simple two-parameter-based stratification strategy could be used to design effective immunological therapies that differentiate the degrees of immuno-suppression across groups of patients with CKD. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roger, Simon D; Gaillard, Carlo A; Bock, Andreas H

    2017-01-01

    . The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to study drug was 15.9, 17.8 and 36.7 per 100 patient-years in the three groups; for serious adverse events, the incidence was 28.2, 27.9 and 24.3 per 100 patient-years. The incidence of cardiac disorders and infections was similar between groups....... At least one ferritin level ≥800 µg/L occurred in 26.6% of high ferritin FCM patients, with no associated increase in adverse events. No patient with ferritin ≥800 µg/L discontinued the study drug due to adverse events. Estimated glomerular filtration rate remained the stable in all groups. Conclusions...

  14. Prevalence of CKD-MBD in pre-dialysis patients using biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dialysis patients were sim- ilarly studied, it was found that blacks had significantly lower levels of 25(OH) D but higher levels of calcium, phosphorus and PTH. This high secondary hyperpar- athyroidism (SHPT) and 25(OH) D deficiency occurs.

  15. Contribution of inflammation to vascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, Mohamed E.; Stenvinkel, P.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an exceptionally high mortality rate, much of which results from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic low-grade inflammation, as evidenced by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP), is a common feature of CKD and may cause atherosclerotic CVD through various pathogenetic mechanisms. Evidence suggests that persistent inflammation may also be a risk factor for progression of CKD, which may result in a vicious inflammation-driven circle. The causes of inflammation in CKD are multifactorial. The influence of various comorbidities may contribute to inflammation in the setting of progressive loss of renal function. Available data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines also play a central role in the genesis of the metabolic syndrome. There is a lack of epidemiological data on the prevalence and consequences of inflammation in relation to protein-energy wasting (PEW) and CVD in CKD patients from developing countries. The westernization of nutritional intakes and changes of life style besides the high prevalence of chronic infections in developing countries are possible additive contributors to a high prevalence of inflammation, PEW and CVD among CKD patients. Also, genetic differences may affect inflammatory responses and nutritional status and thus the susceptibility to CVD in different regions. (author)

  16. Insulin Resistance in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Tser Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD development. Insulin resistance (IR plays a central role in the metabolic syndrome and is associated with increased risk for CKD in nondiabetic patients. IR is common in patients with mild-to-moderate stage CKD, even when the glomerular filtration rate is within the normal range. IR, along with oxidative stress and inflammation, also promotes kidney disease. In patients with end stage renal disease, IR is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and is linked to protein energy wasting and malnutrition. Systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, elevated serum adipokines and fetuin-A, metabolic acidosis, vitamin D deficiency, depressed serum erythropoietin, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and suppressors of cytokine signaling all cause IR by suppressing insulin receptor-PI3K-Akt pathways in CKD. In addition to adequate renal replacement therapy and correction of uremia-associated factors, thiazolidinedione, ghrelin, protein restriction, and keto-acid supplementation are therapeutic options. Weight control, reduced daily prednisolone dosage, and the use of cyclosporin decrease the risk of developing new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation. Improved understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying IR in CKD may lead to more effective therapeutic strategies to reduce uremia-associated morbidity and mortality.

  17. Appetite-regulating hormones in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner-Iyidogan, Yildiz; Gurdol, Figen; Kocak, Hikmet; Oner, Pernur; Cetinalp-Demircan, Pinar; Caliskan, Yasar; Kocak, Taner; Turkmen, Aydin

    2011-07-01

    Inflammation and loss of appetite is the most common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This comparative cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the changes in circulating levels of ghrelin, obestatin, leptin, all of which have an effect on food intake, and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in patients with CKD who were undergoing different treatments. Study participants included 36 patients who had undergone hemodialysis (body mass index [BMI]: 22.3 ± 4.17 kg/m(2)); 41 who had undergone peritoneal dialysis (BMI: 23.5 ± 3.10 kg/m(2)), 30 with early stage CKD (BMI: 24.4 ± 3.32 kg/m(2)), and 31 healthy subjects (24.3 ± 2.14 kg/m(2)). The patients with CKD were kept under a standard diet with restricted salt, potassium, and protein intake. Levels of leptin, acylated ghrelin, obestatin, TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Total nitrite/nitrate was analyzed using colorimetric assay kit. Significantly high leptin levels, accompanied by low acylated ghrelin levels, were observed in patients with CKD. Maintenance dialysis did not affect these levels. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy subjects, the highest being in dialysis patients. Obestatin levels were relatively low in patients who had undergone hemodialysis. Low acyl-ghrelin levels, accompanied with high levels of TNF-α and IL-6 may be involved in the loss of appetite and poor nutritional status in CKD patients. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydro-epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease(CKD) in Sri Lanka and Its Similarities to the CKD Epidemic in Meso-America.Sarath Gunatilake M.D, Dr. P.H, Professor, California State University, Long Beach California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekera, T.; Gunatilake, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over 2000 years ago Sri Lanka was known as the granary of the east. This distinction was achieved with a massive rice production aided by an efficient irrigation system. The basic structural unit of this irrigation system -with thousands of man-made lakes- was a large reservoir collecting rain water from tributaries and redistributing it to a cascade of rice paddy farms. The rice cultivation used organic fertilizer and natural pesticides made from ancient Ayurvedic recipes. The sociopolitical changes initiated in the county in 1977 resulted in a modernized agricultural economy with the renovation of the old irrigation system. Heavy use of pesticides, mostly Glyphosate (brand name "Round Up") with government subsidized cheap synthetic fertilizer (mostly triple phosphate) contaminated with heavy metals, including Arsenic and Cadmium, became a common practice. As a result, the shallow aquifers in the lowest lying areas, recharged by the irrigation water, was contaminated with Calcium, Magnesium phosphates, and the heavy metals, rendering the drinking water from shallow wells in these areas, extremely hard and unpalatable. The practice of drinking water from the shallow wells in low lying areas, most of which are abandoned now, and the use and spraying of pesticides particularly Glyphosate (often without proper personal protective equipment) have been identified in a case control study, as the main risk factors responsible for a massive epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) affecting 450,000 young farmers, resulting in 23,000 deaths. It is hypothesized that the Glyphosate chelates heavy metals delivering it to the kidney, with contaminated drinking water and food, causing progressive kidney damage. The same irrigation system that contributed to past prosperity has now become a scourge within the realm of a modernized agriculture. Climatic variations, global warming and severe dehydration also have been identified as contributory factors. Similar CKD epidemic killing

  19. Nutritional Status of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Iran: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shima Abdollahi; Elham Razmpoosh; Omid Toupchian; Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition that affects many aspects of patient’s life with adverse outcomes of kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature death. Malnutrition is a relatively common problem in these patients that may be the result of inadequate intake, increased catabolism, or loss of nutrients in the dialysis. The aim of this study was to review the nutritional status and requirements of CKD patients in Iran using previous studi...

  20. One-Year Mortality of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease After Spinal Cord Injury: A 14-Year Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-Chun; Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yu, Zong-Xing; Ho, Chung-Han; Wu, Chia-Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chu, Chin-Chen; Lim, Sher-Wei

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health burden because of its increasing incidence, high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and poor prognosis. We aimed to investigate the 1-year mortality of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) with CKD and ESRD, and compare it with that of patients with SCI without CKD by reviewing a large Taiwanese population data set. In this 14-year retrospective cohort study, the study group (SCI with CKD group, n = 3315) and comparison group (SCI without CKD group, n = 6630) were matched at a 1:2 ratio with propensity score matching by age, sex, comorbidities, length of intensive care unit stay, and length of stay. The 1-year mortality and the relative risks of mortality were calculated. Mortality stratified by age, sex, and comorbidities was also analyzed. The SCI with CKD group had a significantly shorter survival period (10.13 vs. 10.97 months), higher 1-year mortality (17.65% vs. 8.54%), and higher risk of mortality than did the comparison group (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.25). Furthermore, patients with CKD with ESRD had a 7.71-fold higher risk of mortality than did patients with SCI without CKD for ages <50 years. The presence of comorbidities was a risk factor for mortality among patients with SCI CKD or ESRD in contrast to patients with SCI without CKD. Patients with SCI with CKD, especially those with ESRD, have a higher risk of mortality than do patients who do not have CKD. Therefore, patients with CKD should have carefully monitoring for the development of 1-year mortality after SCI, especially for ESRD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural History of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often continue to progress spontaneously towards end stage renal disease (ESRD). In this report we studied the natural history of progression of CKD in a cohort of patients with stage 4 and 5 CKD. Methods: We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients in stage 4 ...

  2. Albuminuria is Not an Appropriate Therapeutic Target in Patients with CKD: The Con View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Linda F; Lewis, Julia

    2015-06-05

    Albuminuria is a risk factor for progression of kidney disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers slow the progression to ESRD, an effect that is correlated with reduction in albuminuria. This has led to the hypothesis that albuminuria should be a target for therapy. This work argues that there are issues with this hypothesis. The previously reported studies were not designed to test the hypothesis that achieving a specific albuminuria target would be beneficial in and of itself irrespective the mechanism used to achieve that goal. One cannot assume that the beneficial effect observed was causally related to the effect on albuminuria or that it would extend to other interventions. Most importantly, it is not known if the approach of maximizing therapy to reduce proteinuria is safe. Recent studies have shown that combining renin-angiotensin system therapies decreases albuminuria without significant clinical benefit but with increased risk of adverse events. More studies are needed, but at this time, albuminuria has not jumped the hurdle needed to be accepted as a surrogate end point or target for treatment. Primum non nocere, first do no harm. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Hospital-based prevalence of chronic kidney disease among the newly registered patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Khanam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is proved to be a major public health issue worldwide and an important contributor to the overall non-communicable disease burden. It increases risk of mortality, end-stage renal disease and accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD. Diabetes is the biggest contributor to CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. In Bangladesh, very few data on CKD is available. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of CKD among the newly registered diabetic patients at BIRDEM (Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, a referral center for diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods: The study included all diabetic patients aged 18 - 80 years and were registered in the year 2012. Socio-demographic (age, sex, residence, income, literacy, clinical (obesity, blood pressure and biochemical (blood glucose, lipids, eGFR information were collected from the BIRDEM registry. CKD was defined according to the K/ DOQI guidelines. Results: A total of 1317 type 2 diabetic patients of age 18 to 80 years were studied. Of them, men and women were 54.7% and 45.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of CKD (eGFR ≤60 (ml/min/m2 was 13.9%. The prevalence was significantly higher in women than men (21.3 v. 7.8%, p50y, higher sBP (≥140mmHg and taking oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA were significant. Conclusions: Thus, the study concludes that the prevalence of CKD among the newly registered diabetic patients is quite high in Bangladesh. The female diabetic patients with older age and with higher SBP bear the brunt of CKD. Considering high prevalence of CKD with severe lifelong complications it is of utmost importance for early detection and intervention at the primary health care (PHC level.

  4. Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in Chinese patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Shi, Hao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Peng, Ai; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Ni, Zhao-Hui; He, Li-Qun; Niu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Nian-Song; Mei, Chang-Lin; Xu, Xu-Dong; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Yan, Hai-Dong; Deng, Yue-Yi; Yu, Chen; Cen, Jun; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This was the first multicenter, cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of anemia, patient awareness, and treatment status in China. Data of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; age, 18–75 years; both out- and inpatients) from 25 hospitals in Shanghai, seeking medical treatment at the nephrology department, were collected between July 1, 2012 and August 31, 2012. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in patients with nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) were assessed. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. A total of 2420 patients with ND-CKD were included. Anemia was established in 1246 (51.5%) patients: 639 (51.3%) men and 607 (48.7%) women. The prevalence of anemia increased with advancing CKD stage (χ2trend = 675.14, P Anemia was more prevalent in patients with diabetic nephropathy (68.0%) than in patients with hypertensive renal damage (56.6%) or chronic glomerulonephritis (46.1%, both P anemia patients, only 7.5% received more effective and recommended intravenous supplementation. Anemia is highly prevalent in patients with ND-CKD in China, with a low target-achieving rate and poor treatment patterns. The study highlights the need to improve multiple aspects of CKD management to delay the progression of renal failure. PMID:27310973

  5. Prognostic value of proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate on Taiwanese patients with diabetes mellitus and advanced chronic kidney disease: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Min; Wada, Takashi; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2017-04-01

    Several risk factors were associated with poor outcomes in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies addressed the prognostic implications of these factors in advanced CKD. Our study aimed to provide more evidence for risk factor stratification of diabetic patients with advanced CKD. A total of 447 diabetic patients with advanced CKD, age of 18-80, who visited the nephrology out-patient clinic were enrolled. All patients were in stage 3B-5 CKD. The primary outcomes included long-term renal replacement therapy and mortality. The occurrence of cardiovascular events was also analyzed as secondary outcome. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to address each risk factor in this cohort. We also used this cohort to evaluate the validity of the modified diabetic nephropathy score. Patients with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were associated with higher degree of proteinuria. In the multivariate Cox regression model, eGFR and the degree of proteinuria were both strong outcome predictors. The effects of glycosylated hemoglobin and blood pressure in this advanced CKD cohort were minimal. Elder patients with advanced CKD had a higher mortality rate, but commenced less renal replacement therapy. Applying these indicator analyses, we proposed a modified diabetic nephropathy score for outcome prediction. Our analysis demonstrated the impact of eGFR and proteinuria in the advanced CKD group. Indicators in early CKD possessed a different prognostic profile in this advanced CKD cohort, therefore, necessitating a modified scoring system.

  6. Prevalence, incidence, indication, and choice of antidepressants in patients with and without chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; McDonald, Helen I; Smeeth, Liam; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2017-07-01

    People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and neuropathic pain. We examined prevalence, incidence, indication for, and choice of antidepressants among patients with and without CKD. Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified patients with CKD (two measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate antidepressant prescribing in the six months prior to index date (prevalence), the first prescription after index date among non-prevalent users (incidence), and recorded diagnoses (indication). We compared antidepressant choice between patients with and without CKD among patients with a diagnosis of depression. There were 242 349 matched patients (median age 76 [interquartile range 70-82], male 39.3%) with and without CKD. Prevalence of antidepressant prescribing was 16.3 and 11.9%, and incidence was 57.2 and 42.4/1000 person-years, in patients with and without CKD, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, CKD remained associated with higher prevalence and incidence of antidepressant prescription. Regardless of CKD status, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were predominantly prescribed for depression or anxiety, while tricyclic antidepressants were prescribed for neuropathic pain or other reasons. Antidepressant choice was similar in depressed patients with and without CKD. The rate of antidepressant prescribing was nearly one and a half times higher among people with CKD than in the general population. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessment of printed patient-educational materials for chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Delphine S; Davis, Elizabeth; Velasquez, Alexandra; Banerjee, Tanushree; Powe, Neil R

    2013-01-01

    Awareness of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is suboptimal among patients with CKD, perhaps due to poor readability of patient education materials (PEMs). We reviewed the suitability and readability of common PEMs that focused on 5 content areas: basics of CKD, risk factors for CKD development, risk factors for CKD progression, complications of CKD and self-management strategies to improve kidney health. Three reviewers (nephrologist, primary care physician, patient) used the Suitability Assessment of Materials to rate PEMs on message content/stimulation of learning, typography, visuals and layout and determined literacy level. Mean ratings were calculated for each PEM by content area and overall (superior = 70-100; adequate = 40-69; inadequate = 6th grade) was associated with an 11.7 point higher mean rating. Most PEMs for kidney disease were adequate. Outstanding PEMs shared characteristics of patient centeredness, a low literacy level, and patient interaction. Providers should be aware of strengths and limitations of PEMs when educating their patients about CKD. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Characteristics of the Lipid Profile in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albai Oana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD. Patients with DM and CKD have a 10 or even 20 times higher cardiovascular risk (CVR than the general population. Lipid metabolism disorders are more frequent in these patients, dyslipidemia being aggravated by the presence of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The main purpose of our study was to identify possible correlations between lipid profile parameters and altered renal function in patients with DM. We have also analyzed the correlations between lipid parameters, CKD, quality of glycemic control and CVR.

  9. The probability of resistant hypertension during dental treatment of chronic kidney disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    2017-01-01

    Oral rehabilitation in medically compromised patients like chronic kidney disease (CKD) needs special dental care. Many papers have been published on dental considerations for such individuals. However, literature citing oral care for patients with risk factors of CKD are scarce. Resistant hypertension, one such risk factor, is closely related to CKD. Furthermore, the associated increased prevalence and adverse renal/cardiac outcomes motivated the author to report its unexplored association/impact during dental care. The importance of assessing glomerular filtration rate is highlighted to better understand patients' medical conditions. (author)

  10. EFFECT OF LOW-DOSE NIACIN ON DYSLIPIDEMIA, SERUM PHOSPHORUS LEVELS AND ADVERSE EFFECTS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk An

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Niacin supplementation improves dyslipidemia and lowers serum phosphorus levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. However, its adverse effects, including hot flusing, hinder the administration of niacin. We evaluated whether low-dose niacin supplementation can improve dyslipidemia, lower serum phosphorus levels, and be administered with a low frequency of adverse effects in patients with CKD. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of CKD patients who had taken niacin from January, 2009 to June, 2011. We excluded patients with CKD1 and CKD 5. We then enrolled 31 CKD patients who had taken niacin at a fixed-dose of 500mg/day for 6 months. We also randomly selected 30 CKD patients who had been taking statin for 9 months as a control group. Among 34 CKD patients prescribed niacin, 5 patients (14% complained of adverse effects, and 3 CKD patients (8% discontinued niacin. There were no significant differences in baseline data between the niacin group and the control group. The proportion of patients in the niacin group who had been taking a statin, or omega-3 fatty acids was 67.7% and 48.8%, respectively. In the niacin group, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL levels was significantly increased (p<0.05, and triglyceride (p<0.05 at 12 weeks and 24 weeks compared to baseline levels. In the niacin group, phosphorous levels (p<0.05 were significantly decreased, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR was significantly increased (p=0.016 at 24 weeks compared to baseline values; however, serum creatinine levels did not significantly change. Low dose niacin (500mg/day had a low freqeuncy of adverse effects and also improved dyslipidemia, lowered serum phosphorus levels, and increased GFR in CKD patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long term effects of low-dose niacin for renal progression of CKD.

  11. Renal Response in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Predicts Outcome Following Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Gaurav; Upadhyay, Gaurav A; Borgquist, Rasmus; Friedman, Daniel J; Chatterjee, Neal A; Kandala, Jagdesh; Park, Mi Young; Orencole, Mary; Dec, George W; Picard, Michael H; Singh, Jagmeet P; Mela, Theofanie

    2015-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure. There is a paucity of data regarding renal improvement after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and its potential impact on clinical outcomes, especially in patients with severe CKD. This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of 260 patients with CKD undergoing CRT at a single center. Renal function was compared before and after CRT. The primary end point was a composite of death, heart transplant, and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), assessed at 5 years. Patients with more severe CKD demonstrated increased risk of death, transplant, or LVAD following CRT (P = 0.015). Renal response (estimated glomerular filtration rate improvement ≥10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ) was observed in 14% of all patients and 28% of patients with stage IV CKD. Independent predictors of renal response included left ventricular ejection fraction improvement (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.10), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use (OR 4.31, CI 1.08-17.23), and advanced CKD stage (OR 2.19, CI 1.14-4.23). Renal response independently decreased hazard of the primary outcome (HR 0.24, CI 0.08-0.73, P = 0.01). Renal responders with stage IV CKD had 80% 5-year event-free survival, compared to 0% for nonrenal responders in stage IV (P = 0.03). Although severity of CKD is associated with poorer outcome after CRT, improvement in renal function can occur in patients across all CKD stages. Renal responders, including those with stage IV CKD, demonstrate favorable 5-year outcomes. Assessment of renal response may help better prognostic outcomes following CRT. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Correlation of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and peripheral artery disease with cardiovascular events in patients using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies generally suggest an excellent prognosis for cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been established as the risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, whether these risk factors significantly predict cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of these risk factors in patients with normal stress MPI. Patients with normal stress MPI (n=372, male=215 and female=157, age=69 years, CKD without hemodialysis=95, diabetes=99, PAD=19, previous coronary artery disease=116) were followed up for 14 months. Normal stress MPI was defined as a summed stress score of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 20 of 372 patients (5.4%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, insulin use, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CKD, left ventricular ejection fraction and pharmacological stress tests were significant predictors of cardiovascular events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes and CKD were independent and significant predictors for cardiovascular events, and their number was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio=21.7, P<0.001). PAD, diabetes and CKD are coexisting, independent and significant risk factors for cardiovascular events, CKD being the strongest predictor. The number of coexisting risk factors is important in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI. (author)

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA is associated with the kidney survival time in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsheng; Guo, Zhanjun; Bai, Yaling; Zhang, Junxia; Cui, Liwen; Zhang, Huiran; Zhang, Shenglei; Ai, Xiaolu

    2015-02-01

    The mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) is known to accumulate mutations and SNPs at a higher frequency than other regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We had identified chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk-associated SNPs in the D-loop of CKD patients previously. In this study, we investigated the association of SNPs in the D-loop of mtDNA with the kidney survival of CKD. The D-loop region of mtDNA was sequenced for 119 CKD patients from the inpatient of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to identify disease outcome-associated SNPs in the D-loop of CKD patients. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify risk factors for the kidney survival of CKD. In the present study, we identified 20 SNPs with a frequency higher than 5% and assessed the relationship of these SNPs with kidney survival time in CKD patients, a SNP of 146 was identified by log-rank test for statistically significant prediction of the kidney survival time. In an overall multivariate analysis, allele 146 was identified as an independent predictor of kidney survival time in CKD patients. The survival time of kidney in the CKD patients with 146C was significantly shorter than that of kidney in CKD patients with 146T (relative risk, 2.336; 95% CI, 1.319-3.923; p = 0.001). SNPs in the D-loop can predict the kidney survival of CKD patients. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop can help to identify CKD patient subgroup at high risk of a poor disease outcome.

  14. Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Complete and Incomplete Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Jin Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete Kawasaki disease (iKD is considered to be a less complete form of Kawasaki disease (cKD, and several differences in the laboratory presentations of iKD and cKD have been noted. We investigated serum procalcitonin levels in patients with iKD, cKD, and other febrile diseases (a control group. Seventy-seven patients with cKD, 24 with iKD, and 41 controls admitted to our hospital from November 2009 to November 2011 were enrolled in the present study. We obtained four measurements of serum procalcitonin levels and those of other inflammatory markers from each patient. Samples were taken for analysis on the day of diagnosis (thus before treatment commenced; D0 and 2 (D2, 14 (D14, and 56 days (D56 after intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. We obtained control group data at D0. The mean D0 serum procalcitonin levels of cKD patients (0.71±1.36 ng/mL and controls (0.67±1.06 ng/mL were significantly higher than those of iKD patients (0.26±0.26 ng/mL (P=0.014 and P=0.041, resp.. No significant difference in mean procalcitonin level was evident among groups at any subsequent time. In conclusion, the serum procalcitonin level of patients with acute-stage cKD was significantly higher than that of iKD patients.

  15. A comparison of treating metabolic acidosis in CKD stage 4 hypertensive kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2013-03-01

    Current guidelines recommend Na(+)-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) < 22 mM. Because diets in industrialized societies are typically acid-producing, we compared base-producing fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level < 22 mM, and were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition were randomly assigned to 1 year of daily oral NaHCO3 at 1.0 mEq/kg per day (n=35) or fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Plasma cystatin C-calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; P<0.01) and the fruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; P<0.01), consistent with improved metabolic acidosis, and was higher in the HCO3 than the fruits and vegetable group (P<0.001). One-year urine indices of kidney injury were lower than baseline in both groups. Plasma [K(+)] did not increase in either group. One year of fruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia.

  16. Randomized controlled trial of cholecalciferol supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients with hypovitaminosis D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Agerskov, Hanne; Thineshkumar, Sasikala

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundHypovitaminosis D is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D replenishment in CKD are not well described.MethodsAn 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel intervention study was conducted in haemodialysis (HD) and non-HD CKD patients...... biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (plasma D-dimer, plasma fibrinogen, plasma von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, plasma interleukin 6, plasma C-reactive protein, blood pressure, aortic augmentation index, aortic pulse wave velocity and 24-h urinary protein loss). Objective and subjective...

  17. CKD and poverty: a growing global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammed P; Goyder, Elizabeth C; Rigby, Jan E; El Nahas, Meguid

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 1.2 billion individuals worldwide live in extreme poverty (poverty (Poverty is most prevalent in developing countries, but does not spare richer economies, where huge income discrepancies have been reported. Poverty is a major health care marker affecting a number of chronic, communicable, and noncommunicable diseases. Poverty and social deprivation are known to affect the predisposition, diagnosis, and management of chronic diseases; they directly impact on the prevalence of such conditions as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Also, growing evidence links poverty to chronic kidney disease (CKD). This may be caused by a direct impact of poverty on CKD or indirectly through the increased health care burden linked to poverty-associated diabetes and hypertension. Furthermore, data have shown that the poor and socially deprived have a greater prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Access to renal care, dialysis, and transplantation may also be affected by social deprivation. Overall, poverty and social deprivation are emerging as major risk markers for CKD in both developing and developed countries. Their impact on CKD warrants careful analysis because it may confound the interpretation of CKD risk factors within communities. This review therefore aims to look at the evidence linking poverty to CKD and its major risk factors, namely, diabetes and hypertension.

  18. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Soldin, Offie P.; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  19. The Age-Specific Association of Waist Circumference and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Shandong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association of three most common obesity measures including body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with chronic kidney disease (CKD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Design. Cross-sectional evaluation of the effect of anthropometric measures on CKD risk. Setting. Outpatient Department. Subjects. T2D patients who were treated between October 2012 and May 2013. Intervention. None. Main Outcome Measure. CKD risk. Results. On average, the patients had a mean age of 60.2 years, and 40% were males. CKD was present in 46% of all the patients. In multivariate logistic regression using the imputed data, higher WC was associated with greater odds of CKD (OR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.002–1.006, P=0.030, but not BMI and WHR. Interestingly, we found that patients with very small WC seemed to have greater odds of CKD. We observed age-specific effect of WC such that the effect of WC on CKD risk is significant only in middle-aged T2D patients. Conclusion. Our study provides evidence for the association of WC with CKD in Chinese patients with T2D. T2D patients, especially middle-aged T2D patients, should reduce their WC to decrease CKD risk.

  20. LDL cholesterol in CKD-to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massy, Ziad A.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    In the majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) the total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are usually normal, with the exception of patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and in peritoneal dialysis patients. Moreover, epidemiological evidence shows that the link

  1. The impact of kidney foundations in alleviating the burden of CKD in India - an example, Tamilnad Kidney Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Ravi, Rajalakshmi; Kumaraswami, Latha; Venkatesan, Malathy

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in India. The CKD registry of India has been formed to understand the epidemiology of CKD in India. Due to health economics in India, the majority of CKD-affected patients cannot afford renal replacement therapy (RRT) services. There is an unmet need to improve the awareness of kidney disease in India, and the focus should be on prevention and early detection of CKD by screening high risk populations. The Tamilnad Kidney Research (TANKER) Foundation is a charitable trust established in 1993 with the aim to improve awareness and provide quality affordable treatment to underprivileged patients. TANKER is supported by contributions from well-wishers. It has three arms: i) treatment arm, ii) research arm, and iii) awareness and screening arm. TANKER Foundation offers free and subsidized dialysis twice weekly to 227 underprivileged patients. TANKER dialysis has been supported by state government funding schemes. TANKER actively supports and conducts research in nephrology. More than 100,000 people have benefitted from TANKER's kidney awareness programs. The screening programs have provided for early detection of CKD in both urban and rural areas. TANKER award functions are held annually to recognize research and exemplary service to society. The TANKER Foundation can be used as a model for developing countries to address the unmet needs in CKD management.

  2. Comparison of Three Diet Quality Indices for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mortazavi Najafabadi, Mojgan; Moeinzadeh, Firouzeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have specific dietary needs due to recommended dietary restrictions. However, there is no specific index for evaluating the quality of diet in patients with CKD.   OBJECTIVE: To define and compare three specific diet quality indices in patients with CKD. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with CKD were selected for this cross-sectional study. The patients' Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Total protein intake per body weight (TP/BW), animal protein intake per body weight (AP/BW) and animal protein to vegetable protein ratio (AP/VP) were defined as diet quality indices. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr). Patients in the highest tertile of TP/BW and tertile of AP/BW consumed more amounts of nutrients which should be limited in CKD (i.e., sodium, potassium and phosphorus). Subjects in the last tertile of AP/BW had higher BUN and Cr. A marginally significant increased risk of higher stage of CKD across the tertiles of AP/BW was observed after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.56; P = 0.08). The results showed that AP/BW is a good diet quality index and is marginally associated with being in higher stages of CKD.

  3. Diagnostic approach to chronic kidney disease | Naiker | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be considered to be present if a patient has a glomerular filtration rate 3 months. These include proteinuria, haematuria and radiological abnormalities. Regardless of the stage of CKD, the approach is mainly similar.

  4. [GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE – HOW TO CHOOSE HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baretić, M; Lang, V Bralić

    2016-12-01

    The management of hyperglycemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex, and the goals and methods regarding glycemic control are not clearly defined. Although aggressive glycemic control seems to be advantageous in early diabetic nephropathy, outcome data supporting tight glycemic control in patients with advanced CKD are lacking. Challenges in the management of such patients include monitoring difficulties and the complexity of available treatments. In this article, we review the current treatment options for patients with diabetes and CKD discussing all hypoglycemic agents that currently are available, as well as insulin, along with their indications and contraindications. The aim is to provide useful information to family physicians when deciding on individualized glycemic goals and appropriate therapy for patients with early or end stages of CKD.

  5. Longitudinal relationship between chronic kidney disease and distribution of cerebral microbleeds in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Sun, Wei; Liu, Wenhong; Liu, Ran; Huang, Yining

    2016-03-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported to be independently associated with cerebral microbleeds (CMB). Since both glomerular afferent arterioles and cerebral perforating arteries are strain vessels, CKD and CMB may share similar dynamic changes. To clarify whether CKD and CKD progression are related to the distribution and evolution of CMB in patients with ischemic stroke. We retrospectively examined the data from the CASISP study. 500 patients with ischemic stroke were analyzed. The number and distribution of CMB were assessed using Microbleed Anatomical Rating Scale. Renal function was evaluated by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria. 51 (10.2%) and 158 (31.6%) had decreased eGFR (<60ml/min/1.73m(2)) and CMB at baseline, respectively; 31 (6.6%) and 84 (16.8%) had CKD and CMB progression. Decreased eGFR at baseline (OR=1.533, 95% CI: 1.111-2.114; p=0.009), proteinuria (OR=1.778, 95% CI: 1.026-3.083; p=0.040), CKD progression (OR=2.004, 95% CI: 1.191-3.370; p=0.009) and history of hypertension (OR=2.084, 95% CI: 1.241-3.49; p=0.005) were independently associated with the presence of deep or infratentorial CMB at follow-up. CMB progression in deep or infratentorial area was more frequent in patients with CKD progression than those without (29.0% versus 13.1%, p=0.028). Logistic regression analyses showed that CKD progression (OR=2.577, 95% CI: 1.393-4.769; p=0.003) was independently associated with the progression of deep or infratentorial CMB. CKD and CKD progression are independently associated with presence and evolution of deep or infratentorial CMB, but not lobar CMB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined Association of Serum Uric Acid and Metabolic Syndrome with Chronic Kidney Disease in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haijiang; Lu, Shijuan; Tang, Xiaohong; Lu, Minggen; Chen, Ruifang; Chen, Zhiheng; Yang, Pingting; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Honghao; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major complications of hypertension. It is not only associated with the future burden of end-stage renal disease but also affects mortality and cardiovascular outcomes caused by hypertension. To help understand the pathogenesis and early prevention of progressive CKD, this large-scale study is designed to determine the complex association between serum uric acid (SUA), metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of CKD in hypertensive patients. A total of 19,848 hypertensive subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Patients with proteinuria and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of metabolic syndrome, as well as higher levels of SUA, BMI, waist circumference (WC), SBP, DBP, TG, fasting blood glucose and lower levels of HDL-C. Compared to patients without CKD, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios [ORs, 95% confidence interval (CI)] for CKD patients were 2.30 (2.02-2.63) for hyperuricemia, 1.21 (1.04-1.41) for abdominal obesity, 1.21 (1.06-1.38) for elevated TG, 1.29 (1.06-1.56) for low HDL-C, 1.54 (1.36-1.75) for elevated fasting glucose, and 1.49 (1.30-1.71) for metabolic syndrome. Increasing SUA levels and number of individual metabolic syndrome components were associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Compared with patients classified in the lowest SUA categories and with ≤1 metabolic syndrome components, subjects with HUA and 4 metabolic syndrome components had a 5.77-fold increased OR for CKD based on the multivariate-adjusted analysis. Both elevated SUA and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased prevalence of CKD in hypertensive subjects. Subjects with higher SUA and sum of individual metabolic syndrome components simultaneously have a higher prevalence of CKD. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 and Risk of CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Viji; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Smith, Michelle R; Bellovich, Keith A; Bhat, Zeenat Yousuf; Bobadilla, Maria; Brosius, Frank; de Boer, Ian H; Essioux, Laurent; Formentini, Ivan; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Gipson, Debbie; Hawkins, Jennifer; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Kretzler, Matthias; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Perumal, Kalyani; Steigerwalt, Susan; Ju, Wenjun; Bansal, Nisha

    2017-07-01

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a member of the TGF- β cytokine superfamily that is widely expressed and may be induced in response to tissue injury. Elevations in GDF-15 may identify a novel pathway involved in loss of kidney function among patients with CKD. Among participants in the Clinical Phenotyping and Resource Biobank (C-PROBE) study and the Seattle Kidney Study (SKS), we tested whether kidney tissue expression of GDF15 mRNA correlates with circulating levels of GDF-15 and whether elevations in circulating GDF-15 are associated with decline in kidney function. In matching samples of 24 patients with CKD from the C-PROBE study, circulating GDF-15 levels significantly correlated with intrarenal GDF15 transcript levels ( r =0.54, P =0.01). Among the 224 C-PROBE and 297 SKS participants, 72 (32.1%) and 94 (32.0%) patients, respectively, reached a composite end point of 30% decline in eGFR or progression to ESRD over a median of 1.8 and 2.0 years of follow up, respectively. In multivariable models, after adjusting for potential confounders, every doubling of GDF-15 level associated with a 72% higher (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 4.45; P =0.003) and 65% higher (95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 2.50; P =0.02) risk of progression of kidney disease in C-PROBE and SKS participants, respectively. These results show that circulating GDF-15 levels strongly correlated with intrarenal expression of GDF15 and significantly associated with increased risk of CKD progression in two independent cohorts. Circulating GDF-15 may be a marker for intrarenal GDF15 -related signaling pathways associated with CKD and CKD progression. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Elevated potassium levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Nicolaisen, Sia K; Hasvold, Pål

    2018-01-01

    Background: Data on the true burden of hyperkalemia (HK) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a real-world setting are scarce. Methods: The incidence rate of HK [first blood test with an elevated blood potassium level level >5.0 mmol/L] in primary or hospital care was assessed...

  9. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease among patients at Olabisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for chronic kidney disease among patients at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Nigeria: A retrospective cohort study. ... Sixty-four percent of the cases had history of chronic use of analgesic compared with 10.3% of the controls (p < 0.001). Conclusions: CKD is mostly found among men ...

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Noha A; Hassanein, Safaa M; Leil, Marwa M; NasrAllah, Mohamed M

    2015-11-01

    To explore and compare complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice among subsets of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal allograft recipients. Cross-sectional survey questionnaire. Three outpatient nephrology clinics and dialysis centers in Egypt. A total of 1005 subjects were included in the study (560 predialyis patients with CKD 3-4, 245 patients on hemodialysis, and 200 transplant recipients). Face to face interview with CKD patients. The survey inquired about epidemiological data, types, sources, and patterns of CAM used as well as the effect of CAM use on the patients' interaction with modern medicine and clinical caregivers. (1) Prevalence and types of CAM used by CKD patients; (2) Associations and correlates of CAM use including epidemiological features, impact of CAM use on adherence to conventional treatment and interaction of the users with modern medical systems; (3) Differences in CAM practice between subsets of CKD patients viz. hemodialysis patients, CKD 3-4, and transplant recipients. Overall, 522 patients (52%) were using CAM (64% of predialyis patients, 33% of dialysis patients, and 40.5% of transplant recipients, P transplant recipients were more likely to report P Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Diet on the Survival of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysz, Jacek; Franczyk, Beata; Ciałkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra; Gluba-Brzózka, Anna

    2017-05-13

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and it is gradually increasing. Individuals with CKD should introduce appropriate measures to hamper the progression of kidney function deterioration as well as prevent the development or progression of CKD-related diseases. A kidney-friendly diet may help to protect kidneys from further damage. Patients with kidney damage should limit the intake of certain foods to reduce the accumulation of unexcreted metabolic products and also to protect against hypertension, proteinuria and other heart and bone health problems. Despite the fact that the influence of certain types of nutrients has been widely studied in relation to kidney function and overall health in CKD patients, there are few studies on the impact of a specific diet on their survival. Animal studies demonstrated prolonged survival of rats with CKD fed with protein-restricted diets. In humans, the results of studies are conflicting. Some of them indicate slowing down of the progression of kidney disease and reduction in proteinuria, but other underline significant worsening of patients' nutritional state, which can be dangerous. A recent systemic study revealed that a healthy diet comprising many fruits and vegetables, fish, legumes, whole grains, and fibers and also the cutting down on red meat, sodium, and refined sugar intake was associated with lower mortality in people with kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to review the results of studies concerning the impact of diet on the survival of CKD patients.

  12. Epidemiology and referral patterns of patients with chronic kidney disease in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Richards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to estimates, the dialysis prevalence in Abu Dhabi is around 370 per million population. The annual growth is 12-15% and the dialysis population is likely to double in the next five years. Most patients present to dialysis as an emergency and only 2.7% have an arteriovenous fistula at the first dialysis. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the Emirate is undefined. A study of the epidemiology of CKD and referral patterns was undertaken. SEHA, the Abu Dhabi Health Service delivery company, has a unified computer system containing all measurements made in its laboratories. This study considered all serum creatinine measurements performed between 1 September 2011 and 31 October 2012 from outpatient departments or emergency rooms. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (the Schwartz formula was used for children. We identified 331,360 samples from 212,314 individuals. The mean serum creatinine was 61 ± 48 μmol/L in females (59 ± 43 μmol/L in Emiratis, 63 ± 54 μmol/L in expatriates and 87 ± 69 μmol/L in males (80 ± 59 μmol/L in Emiratis, 92 ± 74 μmol/L in expatriates. Among Emiratis, 4.6% of males and 2.8% of females had an eGFR between CKD 3 and 5. Among expatriates, 4.2% of males and 3.2% of females had an eGFR between CKD 3 and 5. On average, eight months elapsed before a patient with CKD 3, and three months for a patient in CKD 5, to attend the nephrology clinic. This study has defined the prevalence of CKD within Abu Dhabi and demonstrated the need to improve identification and referral of CKD patients. Possible solutions include campaigns to increase public and physician awareness of CKD.

  13. Epidemiology and referral patterns of patients with chronic kidney disease in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Nick; Hassan, Mohamed; Saleh, Abdul Karim; Dastoor, Hormazdiar; Bernieh, Bassam; Abouchacra, Samra; Al Jabri, Omar; Fleischmann, Alan; Richards, Marie; Marcelli, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    According to estimates, the dialysis prevalence in Abu Dhabi is around 370 per million population. The annual growth is 12-15% and the dialysis population is likely to double in the next five years. Most patients present to dialysis as an emergency and only 2.7% have an arteriovenous fistula at the first dialysis. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Emirate is undefined. A study of the epidemiology of CKD and referral patterns was undertaken. SEHA, the Abu Dhabi Health Service delivery company, has a unified computer system containing all measurements made in its laboratories. This study considered all serum creatinine measurements performed between 1 September 2011 and 31 October 2012 from outpatient departments or emergency rooms. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (the Schwartz formula was used for children). We identified 331,360 samples from 212,314 individuals. The mean serum creatinine was 61 ± 48 μmol/L in females (59 ± 43 μmol/L in Emiratis, 63 ± 54 μmol/L in expatriates) and 87 ± 69 μmol/L in males (80 ± 59 μmol/L in Emiratis, 92 ± 74 μmol/L in expatriates). Among Emiratis, 4.6% of males and 2.8% of females had an eGFR between CKD 3 and 5. Among expatriates, 4.2% of males and 3.2% of females had an eGFR between CKD 3 and 5. On average, eight months elapsed before a patient with CKD 3, and three months for a patient in CKD 5, to attend the nephrology clinic. This study has defined the prevalence of CKD within Abu Dhabi and demonstrated the need to improve identification and referral of CKD patients. Possible solutions include campaigns to increase public and physician awareness of CKD.

  14. Risk of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and its Relationship to Uraemic Pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and explored associated risk factors. A population-based cohort of 1,515,858 Taiwanese CKD patients was included. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR for incident NMSC was determined. Compared with the general population, a 1.14-fold risk of NMSC was found in the CKD cohort. NMSC risk was significant in patients with pre-dialysis stage 5 CKD and anaemia (1.48-fold, and in those with uraemic pruritus after long-term antihistamine treatment (1.38-fold. A higher SIR for NMSC was found in younger patients with CKD (age < 70 years, 1.34-fold; age 20–39 years, 1.63-fold, stage 5 CKD with anaemia (age < 70 years, 2.09-fold, and uraemic pruritus (age <70 years, 2.22-fold. Pre-dialysis patients with CKD are at higher risk of NMSC, especially those with advanced-stage CKD, and those with uraemic pruritus.

  15. Predictors of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia : An analysis of the Trial to Reduce cardiovascular Events with Aranesp (darbepoetin-alfa) Therapy (TREAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMurray, John J. V.; Uno, Hajime; Jarolim, Petr; Desai, Akshay S.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Ivanovich, Peter; Levey, Andrew S.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; McGill, Janet B.; Parfrey, Patrick; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Toto, Robert M.; Solomon, Scott D.; Pfeffer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study aims to examine predictors of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with the triad of diabetes, CKD, and anemia represent a significant proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease and are at particularly high risk for

  16. The Effect of Diet on the Survival of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysz, Jacek; Franczyk, Beata; Ciałkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra; Gluba-Brzózka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and it is gradually increasing. Individuals with CKD should introduce appropriate measures to hamper the progression of kidney function deterioration as well as prevent the development or progression of CKD-related diseases. A kidney-friendly diet may help to protect kidneys from further damage. Patients with kidney damage should limit the intake of certain foods to reduce the accumulation of unexcreted metabolic products and also to protect against hypertension, proteinuria and other heart and bone health problems. Despite the fact that the influence of certain types of nutrients has been widely studied in relation to kidney function and overall health in CKD patients, there are few studies on the impact of a specific diet on their survival. Animal studies demonstrated prolonged survival of rats with CKD fed with protein-restricted diets. In humans, the results of studies are conflicting. Some of them indicate slowing down of the progression of kidney disease and reduction in proteinuria, but other underline significant worsening of patients’ nutritional state, which can be dangerous. A recent systemic study revealed that a healthy diet comprising many fruits and vegetables, fish, legumes, whole grains, and fibers and also the cutting down on red meat, sodium, and refined sugar intake was associated with lower mortality in people with kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to review the results of studies concerning the impact of diet on the survival of CKD patients. PMID:28505087

  17. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in patients with chronic kidney disease: initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xueqin; Fang, Wenqiang; Ling, Huawei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin

    2010-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-two healthy volunteers and 43 patients underwent coronal echo-planar DW MR imaging of the kidneys with a single breath-hold time of 16 s. The patients were grouped according to five stages as indicated by the K/DOQI CKD (kidney disease outcome quality initiative). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the kidneys was calculated with high b values (b = 500 s/mm 2 ). The ADC values were compared between patients and healthy volunteers, and among different stages. For statistical analysis, Student's t tests, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation tests, and Spearman's correlation tests were used. No difference between the cortex and medulla could be observed on DW images of all volunteers. Patients with CKD had significantly lower renal ADC (t = -4.383, P = 0.000) than volunteers. The ADC values of kidneys were significantly lower than normal at most stages of CKD, except CKD1. There was a negative correlation between the ADCs and serum creatinine (sCr) level (P = 0.000) amongst the patients. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is feasible in the assessment of renal function, especially in the detection of early stage renal failure of CKD. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in patients with chronic kidney disease: initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xueqin; Fang, Wenqiang; Ling, Huawei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin [Ruijin Hospital Shanghai, Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-two healthy volunteers and 43 patients underwent coronal echo-planar DW MR imaging of the kidneys with a single breath-hold time of 16 s. The patients were grouped according to five stages as indicated by the K/DOQI CKD (kidney disease outcome quality initiative). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the kidneys was calculated with high b values (b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}). The ADC values were compared between patients and healthy volunteers, and among different stages. For statistical analysis, Student's t tests, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation tests, and Spearman's correlation tests were used. No difference between the cortex and medulla could be observed on DW images of all volunteers. Patients with CKD had significantly lower renal ADC (t = -4.383, P = 0.000) than volunteers. The ADC values of kidneys were significantly lower than normal at most stages of CKD, except CKD1. There was a negative correlation between the ADCs and serum creatinine (sCr) level (P = 0.000) amongst the patients. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is feasible in the assessment of renal function, especially in the detection of early stage renal failure of CKD. (orig.)

  19. Heart failure in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease: the GCKD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Beck

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a risk factor for development and progression of heart failure (HF. CKD and HF share common risk factors, but few data exist on the prevalence, signs and symptoms as well as correlates of HF in populations with CKD of moderate severity. We therefore aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of HF in the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD study, a large observational prospective study.We analyzed data from 5,015 GCKD patients aged 18-74 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 500 mg/d. We evaluated a definition of HF based on the Gothenburg score, a clinical HF score used in epidemiological studies (Gothenburg HF, and self-reported HF. Factors associated with HF were identified using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. The prevalence of Gothenburg HF was 43% (ranging from 24% in those with eGFR >90 to 59% in those with eGFR<30 ml/min/1.73m2. The corresponding estimate for self-reported HF was 18% (range 5%-24%. Lower eGFR was significantly and independently associated with the Gothenburg definition of HF (p-trend <0.001. Additional significantly associated correlates included older age, female gender, higher BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease, anemia, sleep apnea, and lower educational status.The burden of self-reported and Gothenburg HF among patients with CKD is high. The proportion of patients who meet the criteria for Gothenburg HF in a European cohort of patients with moderate CKD is more than twice as high as the prevalence of self-reported HF. However, because of the shared signs, symptoms and medications of HF and CKD, the Gothenburg score cannot be used to reliably define HF in CKD patients. Our results emphasize the need for early screening for HF in patients with CKD.

  20. Current and emerging treatment options for the elderly patient with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the current and emerging treatments of CKD prior to dialysis in the elderly. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of people who are aged over 65 years. In parallel, there are increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in the more advanced stages. The elderly have quite different health care needs related to their associated comorbidity, frailty, social isolation, poor functional status, and cognitive decline. Clinical trials assessing treatments for CKD have usually excluded patients older than 70–75 years; therefore, it is difficult to translate current therapies recommended for younger patients with CKD across to the elderly. Many elderly people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease and face the dilemma of whether to undertake dialysis or accept a conservative approach supported by palliative care. This places pressure on the patient, their family, and on health care resources. The clinical trajectory of elderly CKD patients has in the past been unclear, but recent evidence suggests that many patients over 75 years of age with multiple comorbidities have greatly reduced life expectancies and quality of life, even if they choose dialysis treatment. Offering a conservative pathway supported by palliative care is a reasonable option for some patients under these circumstances. The elderly person who chooses to have dialysis will frequently have different requirements than younger patients. Kidney transplantation can still result in improved life expectancy and quality of life in the elderly, in carefully selected people. There is a genuine need for the inclusion of the elderly in CKD clinical trials in the future so we can produce evidence-based therapies for this group. In addition, new therapies to treat and slow CKD progression are needed for all age groups. PMID:24477220

  1. Current and emerging treatment options for the elderly patient with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fassett RG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robert G Fassett The University of Queensland School of Human Movement Studies, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abstract: The objective of this article is to review the current and emerging treatments of CKD prior to dialysis in the elderly. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of people who are aged over 65 years. In parallel, there are increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with chronic kidney disease (CKD, particularly in the more advanced stages. The elderly have quite different health care needs related to their associated comorbidity, frailty, social isolation, poor functional status, and cognitive decline. Clinical trials assessing treatments for CKD have usually excluded patients older than 70–75 years; therefore, it is difficult to translate current therapies recommended for younger patients with CKD across to the elderly. Many elderly people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease and face the dilemma of whether to undertake dialysis or accept a conservative approach supported by palliative care. This places pressure on the patient, their family, and on health care resources. The clinical trajectory of elderly CKD patients has in the past been unclear, but recent evidence suggests that many patients over 75 years of age with multiple comorbidities have greatly reduced life expectancies and quality of life, even if they choose dialysis treatment. Offering a conservative pathway supported by palliative care is a reasonable option for some patients under these circumstances. The elderly person who chooses to have dialysis will frequently have different requirements than younger patients. Kidney transplantation can still result in improved life expectancy and quality of life in the elderly, in carefully selected people. There is a genuine need for the inclusion of the elderly in CKD clinical trials in the future so we can produce evidence-based therapies for this group. In addition, new therapies to treat and slow CKD

  2. The relationship between health-promoting behaviors and resilience in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Ching; Chang, Hong-Jer; Liu, Yueh-Min; Hsieh, Hsiang-Li; Lo, Lan; Lin, Mei-Yu; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional research study explored differences in health-promoting behavior and resilience among three groups of chronic kidney disease patients (high-risk, early chronic kidney disease; early CKD and pre-end stage renal disease; pre-ESRD) treated at the Nephrology outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. A total of 150 CKD outpatients were interviewed using structured questionnaires including a CKD Health to Promote Lifestyle Scale, and resilience scale. We found that the pre-ESRD group had lower resilience than either high-risk or early CKD groups. Factors affecting pre-ESRD resilience were gender, occupational status, diabetes and health-promoting behaviors. Factors affecting resilience of the high-risk group included level of education and health-promoting behaviors while factors affecting resilience in the early CKD group involved whether they are employed and health promoting behaviors. A significant positive correlation was found between health promoting behavior and resilience in all study subjects. Multiple regression analysis found that factors which could effectively predict resilience in patients at high-risk for CKD were gender, whether the patient had a job, nutrition, self-actualization, and stress level, accounting for 69.7% of the variance. Therefore, nursing education should focus on health promotion advocacy throughout the life of not only patients but also their families.

  3. The Relationship between Health-Promoting Behaviors and Resilience in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Ching; Chang, Hong-Jer; Liu, Yueh-Min; Hsieh, Hsiang-Li; Lo, Lan; Lin, Mei-Yu; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional research study explored differences in health-promoting behavior and resilience among three groups of chronic kidney disease patients (high-risk, early chronic kidney disease; early CKD and pre-end stage renal disease; pre-ESRD) treated at the Nephrology outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. A total of 150 CKD outpatients were interviewed using structured questionnaires including a CKD Health to Promote Lifestyle Scale, and resilience scale. We found that the pre-ESRD group had lower resilience than either high-risk or early CKD groups. Factors affecting pre-ESRD resilience were gender, occupational status, diabetes and health-promoting behaviors. Factors affecting resilience of the high-risk group included level of education and health-promoting behaviors while factors affecting resilience in the early CKD group involved whether they are employed and health promoting behaviors. A significant positive correlation was found between health promoting behavior and resilience in all study subjects. Multiple regression analysis found that factors which could effectively predict resilience in patients at high-risk for CKD were gender, whether the patient had a job, nutrition, self-actualization, and stress level, accounting for 69.7% of the variance. Therefore, nursing education should focus on health promotion advocacy throughout the life of not only patients but also their families. PMID:23589703

  4. The Relationship between Health-Promoting Behaviors and Resilience in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional research study explored differences in health-promoting behavior and resilience among three groups of chronic kidney disease patients (high-risk, early chronic kidney disease; early CKD and pre-end stage renal disease; pre-ESRD treated at the Nephrology outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. A total of 150 CKD outpatients were interviewed using structured questionnaires including a CKD Health to Promote Lifestyle Scale, and resilience scale. We found that the pre-ESRD group had lower resilience than either high-risk or early CKD groups. Factors affecting pre-ESRD resilience were gender, occupational status, diabetes and health-promoting behaviors. Factors affecting resilience of the high-risk group included level of education and health-promoting behaviors while factors affecting resilience in the early CKD group involved whether they are employed and health promoting behaviors. A significant positive correlation was found between health promoting behavior and resilience in all study subjects. Multiple regression analysis found that factors which could effectively predict resilience in patients at high-risk for CKD were gender, whether the patient had a job, nutrition, self-actualization, and stress level, accounting for 69.7% of the variance. Therefore, nursing education should focus on health promotion advocacy throughout the life of not only patients but also their families.

  5. Prevalence of Baseline Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients Presenting with Solid Renal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Daniel; Kutikov, Alexander; Sirohi, Mohit; Street, Ryan; Viterbo, Rosalia; Chen, David YT; Greenberg, Richard E.; Uzzo, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Serum creatinine (sCr) inadequately reflects renal function. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD stage are more clinically relevant parameters to reflect the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients following nephron loss. Comparing sCr and eGFR, we evaluated the prevalence of baseline CKD in a large cohort of patients presenting with renal masses to a tertiary care center. Methods Using the prospectively maintained Fox Chase Kidney Cancer Database, we identified patients undergoing kidney surgery between 1/2000– 5/2010. eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the CKDEpidemiology formulas. CKD stages I–V were defined using the National Kidney Foundation definitions. Results 1114 patients had adequate data available to calculate a preoperative eGFR (ml/min). Although 88% of all patients presenting for surgery at our institution had a “normal” baseline sCr (≤1.4 mg/dl), 22% of patients had CKD Stage III or greater. Moreover, of the 282 patients 70 years and older, 40% (113/282) had CKD stage III. 23% (51/220) of patients older than 70 years had a CKD stage III with a seemingly normal sCr. Conclusions Many patients with a normal sCr have CKD III or higher, particularly patients older 70 years old. Given the high prevalence of baseline CKD in patients with a solid renal tumor, a concerted effort must be made to preserve renal function when surgically treating solid renal masses. PMID:21316090

  6. New Insights into Dialysis Vascular Access: What Is the Optimal Vascular Access Type and Timing of Access Creation in CKD and Dialysis Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Karen; Lok, Charmaine E

    2016-08-08

    Optimal vascular access planning begins when the patient is in the predialysis stages of CKD. The choice of optimal vascular access for an individual patient and determining timing of access creation are dependent on a multitude of factors that can vary widely with each patient, including demographics, comorbidities, anatomy, and personal preferences. It is important to consider every patient's ESRD life plan (hence, their overall dialysis access life plan for every vascular access creation or placement). Optimal access type and timing of access creation are also influenced by factors external to the patient, such as surgeon experience and processes of care. In this review, we will discuss the key determinants in optimal access type and timing of access creation for upper extremity arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Analysis of elements in human blood of patients with chronic kidney disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Kovacs, L.; Genezini, F.A.; Santos, N.F.; Vilela, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as in whole blood of normal individuals (control group). The dependence of the elements concentration in function of sex, age, time and type of treatment were investigated. The similarities and differences between healthy individuals and CKD are discussed. (author)

  8. Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2015-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR patients with GFR protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.

  9. Fasting Ramadan in chronic kidney disease patients: Clinical and biochemical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernieh Bassam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting of the month of Ramadan is a pillar of Islam. Muslim patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD usually fast this month. To determine the effects of fasting on renal function in CKD patients, we prospectively studied 31 (19 males and mean age 54 ±14.2 years CKD patients during the month of Ramadan 1426 Hijra (4 th October - 4 th November 2005; 14 patients were in stage III CKD, 12 had stage IV and 5 had stage V. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR was 29 ± 16.3 mL/min. Diabetes was the main cause of CKD (19 (61% patients, and hypertension was present in 22 (71% patients. Clinical assessment and renal function tests were performed one month prior to fasting then during and a month later. Medications were taken in two divided doses at sunset (time of breaking the fast and pre dawn (before starting the fast. All patients fasted the whole month of Ramadan with a good tolerance, tendency to weight reduction, and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. eGFR showed a significant improvement during the fast and the month after. The blood sugar was high during fasting with an increment in the Hb A1c. There was better lipid profile, reduction of the pro-teinuria and urinary sodium. We conclude that this study demonstrates a good tolerance and safety of fasting Ramadan in CKD patients.

  10. Glomerular filtration rate measured by (99m) Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging is significantly lower than that estimated by the CKD-EPI equation in horseshoe kidney patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan; Hu, Panpan; Xie, Yuansheng; Wei, Kai; Jin, Meiling; Ma, Guangyu; Li, Qinggang; Xu, Baixuan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-06-01

    Gate's glomerular filtration rate (gGFR) measured by (99m) Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging and estimated GFR (eGFR) estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation are two indexes used to evaluate renal function. However, little is known about whether gGFR can be used to accurately assess renal function in horseshoe kidney (HSK) patients with renal fusion anomalies. Nineteen HSK patients (HSK group) diagnosed by renal imaging and 38 CKD patients with "normal kidney shape" (non-HSK group) matched to the HSK patients in terms of gender, age and biochemical indicators at Chinese PLA General Hospital were enrolled in this study. Gender, age, serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), gGFR and eGFR were recorded and analyzed using χ(2) test, t-test, and Wilcoxon test which was presented as median(IQR). (1) There were no significant differences in gender, age, TP, ALB, BUN, Scr, or eGFR between these two groups. (2) In HSK patients, the renogram showed abnormal renal axis with the lower poles orientated medially. The timed uptake curve showed that the isotope excretion in the HSK group was slower than that in the non-HSK group. (3) For all HSK patients, gGFR was significantly lower than eGFR (range -12.52 mL/min per 1.73m(2) to -93.18 mL/min per 1.73m(2) ). There was no significant difference in eGFR between the HSK [96.42 (36.02) mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ] and non-HSK groups [94.46 (33.00) mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ]. The gGFR of the HSK group [41.18 (16.60) mL/min per 1.73m(2) ] was much lower than that of the non-HSK group [86.42(26.40) mL/min per 1.73m(2) , P renal dynamic imaging is significantly lower than eGFR estimated by the CKD-EPI equation, which indicates that isotope renogram cannot accurately evaluate the GFR of HSK patients. © 2015 The Authors Nephrology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  11. The relationship between weight, height and body mass index with hemodynamic parameters is not same in patients with and without chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Soypacaci, Zeki; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Although anthropometric measurements are related with clinical outcomes; these relationships are not universal and differ in some disease states such as in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current study was aimed to analyze the relationship between height, weight and BMI with hemodynamic and arterial stiffness parameters both in normal and CKD patients separately. This cross-sectional study included 381 patients with (N 226) and without CKD (N 155) with hypertension. Routine laboratory and 24-h urine collection were performed. Augmentation index (Aix) which is the ratio of augmentation pressure to pulse pressure was calculated from the blood pressure waveform after adjusted heart rate at 75 [Aix@75 (%)]. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple measure of the time taken by the pressure wave to travel over a specific distance. Both [Aix@75 (%)] and PWV which are measures of arterial stiffness were measured by validated oscillometric methods using mobil-O-Graph device. In patients without CKD, height is inversely correlated with [Aix@75 (%)]. Additionally, weight and BMI were positively associated with PWV in multivariate analysis. However, in patients with CKD, weight and BMI were inversely and independently related with PWV. In CKD patients, as weight and BMI increased stiffness parameters such as Aix@75 (%) and PWV decreased. While BMI and weight are positively associated with arterial stiffness in normal patients, this association is negative in patients with CKD. In conclusion, height, weight and BMI relationship with hemodynamic and arterial stiffness parameters differs in patients with and without CKD.

  12. Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in Chinese patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease: First multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Shi, Hao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Peng, Ai; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Ni, Zhao-Hui; He, Li-Qun; Niu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Nian-Song; Mei, Chang-Lin; Xu, Xu-Dong; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Yan, Hai-Dong; Deng, Yue-Yi; Yu, Chen; Cen, Jun; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Nan

    2016-06-01

    This was the first multicenter, cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of anemia, patient awareness, and treatment status in China. Data of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; age, 18-75 years; both out- and inpatients) from 25 hospitals in Shanghai, seeking medical treatment at the nephrology department, were collected between July 1, 2012 and August 31, 2012. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in patients with nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) were assessed. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. A total of 2420 patients with ND-CKD were included. Anemia was established in 1246 (51.5%) patients: 639 (51.3%) men and 607 (48.7%) women. The prevalence of anemia increased with advancing CKD stage (χtrend = 675.14, P Anemia was more prevalent in patients with diabetic nephropathy (68.0%) than in patients with hypertensive renal damage (56.6%) or chronic glomerulonephritis (46.1%, both P anemia patients, only 7.5% received more effective and recommended intravenous supplementation. Anemia is highly prevalent in patients with ND-CKD in China, with a low target-achieving rate and poor treatment patterns. The study highlights the need to improve multiple aspects of CKD management to delay the progression of renal failure.

  13. [DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučak, J; VučK, E; Balint, I

    2016-12-01

    According to consensus definition, chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes urinary excretion of albumin >30 mg/day and/ or reduction in kidney function defined as a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for a period longer than three months, in the presence of kidney tissue damage verified by imaging or histologic methods. In developed world, the first cause of CKD is diabetes, followed by arterial hypertension, and the less frequent causes are inflammatory disease (glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis) and congenital condition (polycystic kidney disease). Currently, there is valid classification under the acronym CGA, where C stands for the cause, G for glomerular filtration rate (GFR category) and A for the level of albuminuria category. In early stages, patients usually have no symptoms but there are changes in creatinine values, estimated GFR (eGFR) reduction and presence of albuminuria, especially in patients at risk. Determining the grade of renal impairment is important because of different approaches to treatment, monitoring, expected complications, and patient education. Due to improved diagnostic methods and population aging, CKD is diagnosed ever more increasingly. Family physicians should be familiar with the basic principles of screening and diagnosis of CKD to provide them with appropriate care in collaboration with secondary and tertiary health care.

  14. Hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease: complexities within the commonplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Michael M; McMahon, Lawrence P; Smith, Edward R; Williams, David S; Holt, Stephen G

    2012-08-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and usually caused by associated metabolic abnormalities, in particular, hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia. Nevertheless, other causes of hyperparathyroidism can exist concurrently with CKD, challenging diagnostic interpretation and therapeutic intervention. We present four cases of hyperparathyroidism in patients with CKD that highlight some of these dilemmas.

  15. Number of ablated spots in the course of renal sympathetic denervation in CKD patients with uncontrolled hypertension: EnligHTN vs. Standard irrigated cardiac ablation catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, M G; Chen, S; Rodrigues Paz, L M; Pürerfellner, H

    Hypertension was both a mutual cause and the main concern of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Blood pressure control is more problematic in the company of CKD. This study compares the effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) and renal function in individuals with CKD and uncontrolled hypertension by unlike a number of ablated spots using the EnligHTN catheter and the standard irrigated cardiac ablation catheter (SICAC), Flexability. The 112 subjects were randomly divided into two groups according to the catheter that would be used in the procedure EnligHTN (n=56) or Flexability (n=56). Into each group, we created 5 subgroups according to the number of ablated spots: 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20. All of them were followed for exactly 6 months to assess all the parameters measured in this investigation. Comparing the Δ 24-h systolic ABPM according to the number of ablated spots 4 and 20 for EnligHTN vs. Flexability, respectively, the differences were: -3.6±0.9 vs. -6.3±1.4mmHg (P<0.0001), and -13.9±4.8 vs. -36.3±4.3mmHg (P<0.0001). The comparisons between Δ estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to the number of ablated spots 4 and 20 for EnligHTN vs. Flexability, respectively, were: +2.7±4.0 vs. +6.0±8.4mL/min/1.73m 2 (P=0.2287), and +11.9±6.0 vs. +21.4±8.7mL/min/1.73m 2 (P=0.0222). The RSD reduced the mean 24-h ABPM in subjects with CKD and uncontrolled hypertension and improved the renal function in both groups. These effects were more marked and important in subgroups underwent a great number of ablated spots using the SICAC. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Inappropriateness of medication prescriptions about chronic kidney disease patients without dialysis therapy in a Chinese tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ping Yang, Na Chen, Rong-Rong Wang, Lu Li, Sai-Ping Jiang Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: With the increasing incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD, inappropriate use of medicine in CKD patients is an important issue, as it may cause adverse effects in patients and progression to chronic renal failure.Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of inappropriate medicine use among CKD patients.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1 to December 1, 2014 in a Chinese teaching tertiary hospital. All medication prescriptions for CKD patients with serum creatinine level above normal value were enrolled. The prescriptions, including unreasonable dosage, contraindicated, and cautiously used medicines in CKD patients, were evaluated and the related medications were also analyzed and classified.Results: Two hundred and two patients were included, and a total of 1,733 lines of medication prescriptions were evaluated. The prevalence of inappropriate medication prescriptions in CKD patients was 15.18%, of which, unreasonable dosage (n=56, contraindicated (n=46, and cautiously used medicines (n=161 accounted for 3.23%, 2.65%, and 9.29%, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient implied that there was a significant correlation between the severity of renal insufficiency and frequency of inappropriate medication prescriptions (P=0.02, r=0.056. Among the inappropriate medication prescriptions, nutraceutical and electrolytes (n=65, 24.71%, cardiovascular drugs (n=61, 23.19%, and antimicrobial drugs (n=55, 20.91% represented the top three medicine categories in CKD patients.Conclusion: The study confirmed that inappropriate medication prescriptions were prevalent in CKD patients. Improving the quality of medication prescriptions in CKD patients is necessary. Keywords: inappropriateness of

  17. MASTERPLAN: study of the role of nurse practitioners in a multifactorial intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilen, A.D. van; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Bots, M.L.; Blankestijn, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Usually nephrologists are primarily responsible for the care of CKD patients. However, in many cases treatment goals, as formulated in guidelines, are not met. The addition of a nurse practitioner might

  18. Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease by Using Different Equations of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Sojib Bin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global threat due to its high mortality. It is essential to know the actual magnitude of diabetic CKD to design a specific management program. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the most suitable equation to measure CKD in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This paper aimed to analyze estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on different equations to detect the CKD among T2DM.? Methods A hospital-based cross-sectio...

  19. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexual dysfunction in CKD: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Johnson, David W; Saglimbene, Valeria; Graziano, Giusi; Pellegrini, Fabio; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Craig, Jonathan C; Ruospo, Marinella; Gentile, Giorgio; Manfreda, Valeria Maria; Querques, Marialuisa; Stroumza, Paul; Torok, Marietta; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Ferrari, Juan Nin; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Bonifati, Carmen; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2010-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction is an under-recognized problem in men and women with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence, correlates, and predictors of this condition in patients with CKD have not been evaluated comprehensively. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Patients treated using dialysis (dialysis patients), patients treated using transplant (transplant recipients), and patients with CKD not treated using dialysis or transplant (nondialysis nontransplant patients with CKD). Observational studies conducted in patients with CKD only or including a control group without CKD. Type of study population. Sexual dysfunction in men and women with CKD using validated tools, such as the International Index of Erectile Function, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), or other measures as reported by study investigators. 50 studies (8,343 patients) of variable size (range, 16-1,023 patients) were included in this review. Almost all studies explored sexual dysfunction in men and specifically erectile dysfunction. The summary estimate of erectile dysfunction in men with CKD was 70% (95% CI, 62%-77%; 21 studies, 4,389 patients). Differences in reported prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction between different studies were attributable primarily to age, study populations, and type of study tool used to assess the presence of erectile dysfunction. In women, the reported prevalence of sexual dysfunction was assessed in only 306 patients from 2 studies and ranged from 30%-80%. Compared with the general population, women with CKD had a significantly lower overall FSFI score (8 studies or subgroups, 407 patients; mean difference, -9.28; 95% CI, -12.92 to -5.64). Increasing age, diabetes mellitus, and depression consistently were found to correlate with sexual dysfunction in 20 individual studies of patients with CKD using different methods. Suboptimal and lack of uniform assessment of outcome measures. Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in both men and women with CKD

  20. The last mile: translational research to improve CKD outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Delphine S; Diamantidis, Clarissa Jonas; Corbett, Cynthia F; Boulware, L Ebony; Fox, Chester H; Harwood, Donna H; Star, Robert A; Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E; Narva, Andrew

    2014-10-07

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would enhance understanding of kidney function and disease and improve clinical outcomes. An engaged and growing group of investigators working in type 2 translation (from clinical evidence to implementation in the community) identified barriers to improving patient care in CKD and suggested research priorities to test translational strategies that have been effective for other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Accuracy and precision of the CKD-EPI and MDRD predictive equations compared with glomerular filtration rate measured by inulin clearance in a Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wakeel, Jamal Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Predictive equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in different clinical conditions should be validated by comparing with the measurement of GFR using inulin clearance, a highly accurate measure of GFR. Our aim was to validate the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations by comparing it to the GFR measured using inulin clearance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Cross-sectional study performed in adult Saudi patients with CKD. King Saud University Affiliated Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2014. We compared GFR measured by inulin clearance with the estimated GFR calculated using CKD-EPI and MDRD predictive formulas. Correlation, bias, precision and accuracy between the estimated GFR and inulin clearance. Comparisons were made in 31 participants (23 CKD and 8 transplanted), including 19 males (mean age 42.2 [15] years and weight 68.7 [18] kg). GFR using inulin was 51.54 (33.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 in comparison to inulin clearance, the GFR by the predictive equations was: CKD-EPI creatinine 52.6 (34.4) mL/ min/1.73 m2 (P=.490), CKD-EPI cystatin C 41.39 (30.30) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.002), CKD creatinine-cystatin C 45.03 (30.9) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.004) and MDRD GFR 48.35 (31.5) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.028) (statistical comparisons vs inulin). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that GFR estimated by the CKD-EPI creatinine was the most accurate compared with inulin clearance, having a mean difference (estimated bias) and limits of agreement of -1.1 (15.6,-17.7). By comparison the mean differences for predictive equations were: CKD-EPI cystatin C 10.2 (43.7,-23.4), CKD creatinine-cystatin C 6.5 (29.3,-16.3) and MDRD 3.2 (18.3,-11.9). except for CKD-EPI creatinine, all of the equations underestimated GFR in comparison with inulin clearance. When compared with inulin clearance, the CKD-EPI creatinine equation is the most accurate, precise and least biased equation for estimation of GFR

  2. Association of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) gene polymorphisms in Malaysian patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Foo Nian; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Wong, Chew Ming; Lim, Soo Kun; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition associated with progressive loss of kidney function and kidney damage. The two common causes of CKD are diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Other causes of CKD also include polycystic kidney disease, obstructive uropathy and primary glomerulonephritis. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily and it has been associated with kidney disease in both non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Presently, data on the association between RAGE polymorphisms and CKD in the Malaysian population is limited, while numerous studies have reported associations of RAGE polymorphisms with diabetic complications in other populations. The present study aims to explore the possibility of using RAGE polymorphisms as candidate markers of CKD in Malaysian population by using association analysis. A total of 102 non-diabetic CKD patients, 204 diabetic CKD patients and 345 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. DNA isolated from blood samples were subjected to genotyping of RAGE G82S, -374T/A, -429T/C, 1704G/T and 2184A/G polymorphisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 63-bp deletion, a polymorphism in the RAGE gene promoter, was genotyped using conventional PCR method and visualized using agarose gel electrophoresis. The collective frequencies of genotypes with at least one copy of the minor alleles of the four polymorphisms were compared between the non-diabetic CKD patients, diabetic CKD patients and healthy controls. After adjustment of age, gender and ethnic groups in binary logistic regression analysis, the G82S CT + TT genotypes were associated with non-diabetic CKD patients when compared with diabetic CKD patients (p = 0.015, OR = 1.896, 95% CI = 1.132-3.176). After further adjustment of CKD comorbidities, the G82S CT + TT genotypes were still associated with non-diabetic CKD patients when compared with diabetic CKD patients (p = 0

  3. Association of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE gene polymorphisms in Malaysian patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Nian Wong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a condition associated with progressive loss of kidney function and kidney damage. The two common causes of CKD are diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Other causes of CKD also include polycystic kidney disease, obstructive uropathy and primary glomerulonephritis. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily and it has been associated with kidney disease in both non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Presently, data on the association between RAGE polymorphisms and CKD in the Malaysian population is limited, while numerous studies have reported associations of RAGE polymorphisms with diabetic complications in other populations. The present study aims to explore the possibility of using RAGE polymorphisms as candidate markers of CKD in Malaysian population by using association analysis. Methods: A total of 102 non-diabetic CKD patients, 204 diabetic CKD patients and 345 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. DNA isolated from blood samples were subjected to genotyping of RAGE G82S, −374T/A, −429T/C, 1704G/T and 2184A/G polymorphisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The 63-bp deletion, a polymorphism in the RAGE gene promoter, was genotyped using conventional PCR method and visualized using agarose gel electrophoresis. The collective frequencies of genotypes with at least one copy of the minor alleles of the four polymorphisms were compared between the non-diabetic CKD patients, diabetic CKD patients and healthy controls. Results: After adjustment of age, gender and ethnic groups in binary logistic regression analysis, the G82S CT + TT genotypes were associated with non-diabetic CKD patients when compared with diabetic CKD patients (p = 0.015, OR = 1.896, 95% CI = 1.132–3.176. After further adjustment of CKD comorbidities, the G82S CT + TT genotypes were still associated with non-diabetic CKD

  4. Management of patients with chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (GFR <30 - 60 mL/min) or with rapidly rising serum creatinine. • resistant hypertension, typically requiring ≥3 ... put people at risk of CKD, i.e. hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and HIV. Prevention of progression of ... least 6-monthly. • Monitoring of serum potassium is also important in CKD patients, especially those on ...

  5. Oxidative Stress and Nucleic Acid Oxidation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Sung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and a high risk for developing malignancy. Excessive oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in elevating these risks by increasing oxidative nucleic acid damage. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS production and antioxidant defense mechanisms and can cause vascular and tissue injuries as well as nucleic acid damage in CKD patients. The increased production of RONS, impaired nonenzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms, and other risk factors including gene polymorphisms, uremic toxins (indoxyl sulfate, deficiency of arylesterase/paraoxonase, hyperhomocysteinemia, dialysis-associated membrane bioincompatibility, and endotoxin in patients with CKD can inhibit normal cell function by damaging cell lipids, arachidonic acid derivatives, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids. Several clinical biomarkers and techniques have been used to detect the antioxidant status and oxidative stress/oxidative nucleic acid damage associated with long-term complications such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, amyloidosis, and malignancy in CKD patients. Antioxidant therapies have been studied to reduce the oxidative stress and nucleic acid oxidation in patients with CKD, including alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, glutathione, folic acid, bardoxolone methyl, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and providing better dialysis strategies. This paper provides an overview of radical production, antioxidant defence, pathogenesis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with CKD, and possible antioxidant therapies.

  6. Systemic consequences of poor oral health in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Harun; Akar, Gulcan Coskun; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the oral cavity, such as periodontitis and other manifestations of poor oral health, are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality because of systemic consequences such as inflammation, infections, protein-energy wasting, and atherosclerotic complications. Poor oral health in CKD patients may thus represent an important, but often overlooked, problem. Several studies show that uremic patients have higher rates of decayed, missing, and filled teeth, loss of attachment, and periapical and mucosal lesions than the general population. The consequences of poor oral health may be more severe in CKD patients because of advanced age, common comorbidities such as diabetes, concurrent medications, and a state of immune dysfunction that may increase the risk for systemic consequences of periodontitis and other oral and dental pathologic conditions. Poor dentition and other signs of poor oral health should be an alarm clock also at early stages of CKD. However, it remains to be determined whether more successful management of poor oral health and periodontitis will reduce the risk of inflammation, infection, protein-energy wasting, and atherosclerotic complications in CKD patients. This review explores etiological factors and potential systemic consequences of poor oral health in CKD patients as well as possible preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  7. Association of income level with kidney disease severity and progression among children and adolescents with CKD: a report from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Guillermo; Ng, Derek K; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Minnick, Maria Lourdes; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    Among adults, lower socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), progression to end-stage renal disease, and poor health outcomes; but its impact on young people with CKD is not established. Prospective cohort study. 572 children and adolescents aged 1-16 years with mild to moderate CKD residing in the United States and Canada who were enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study. Self-reported annual household income category as a proxy measure for SES: ≥$75,000 (high income), $30,000 to disease severity and management) and longitudinally (GFR decline and changes in blood pressure z scores and height z scores per year). At baseline, low and middle household incomes, compared to high income, were associated with minority race (39% and 20% vs. 7%), lower maternal education (28% and 5% vs. 1%), abnormal birth history (34% and 32% vs. 21%), and having at least one clinical comorbid condition (66% and 64% vs. 55%). Baseline median GFRs were similar across income categories (43-45 mL/min/1.73 m2). After adjusting for baseline differences, average GFR declines per year for the low-, middle-, and high-income categories were -2.3%, -2.7%, and -1.9%, respectively, and were not statistically significantly different among groups. Blood pressure control tended to improve in all groups (z score, -0.10 to -0.04) but higher income was associated with a faster improvement. Each group showed similar deficits in height at baseline. Height deficits diminished over time for participants from high-income families, but not among those from low-income families (z scores for height per year, 0.05 and -0.004, respectively; P = 0.03 for comparison of high and low income). Income is an imperfect measure for SES; CKiD participants are not representative of children and adolescents with CKD who are uninsured or not receiving care; statistical power to detect associations by income level is limited. GFR decline was similar across

  8. Can glycated hemoglobin act as a reliable glycemic indicator in patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease? evidence from the Northeast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojib Bin Zaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney diseases (CKD is a common microvascular complication in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM which requires adequate glycemic control. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is a conventional biomarker to estimate glycemic status, but its role in diabetic CKD patients is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether patients with high HbA1c are associated to develop diabetic CKD.Methods: Data were obtained from a clinical registry of diabetic patients who were treated in a district hospital in the Northeast of Thailand. CKD was defined according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the patient were taken by review of medical records. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the likelihood of the association between HbA1c and CKD.Results: Among 4,050 participants, 1,027 (25.3% developed diabetic CKD. Older age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 4.88, 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.71–6.42, p<0.05, female (AOR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05–1.73, p<0.05, and hypertension (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.21–1.91, p<0.05 were found as the risk factors of diabetic CKD. However, patients with high HbA1c (>6.5% were negatively associated with diabetic CKD (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.51–0.86, p<0.05.Conclusion: This study found patients with higher HbA1c level were not associated with diabetic CKD. Therefore, using the conventional cut-off values of HbA1c in diabetic CKD patients may be problematic in the clinical settings. Enhanced detection of glycemic status in patients with diabetic CKD is warranted to improve the outcome.

  9. The ability of NT-proBNP to detect chronic heart failure and predict all-cause mortality is higher in elderly Chinese coronary artery disease patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shihui Fu, Leiming Luo, Ping Ye, Shuangyan Yi, Yuan Liu, Bing Zhu, Liang Wang, Tiehui Xiao, Yongyi Bai Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Objective: To analyze the relationship between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP and renal function, and compare the ability and cut-off thresholds of NT-proBNP to detect chronic heart failure (CHF and predict mortality in elderly Chinese coronary artery disease (CAD patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD. Methods: The study included 999 CAD patients older than 60 years. The endpoint was all-cause mortality over a mean follow-up period of 417 days. Results: The median age was 86 years (range: 60–104 years, and the median NT-proBNP level was 409.8 pg/mL. CKD was present in 358 patients. Three hundred and six patients were positive for CHF. One hundred and ten CKD patients and 105 non-CKD patients died. Not only CKD, but also estimated glomerular filtration rate independently affected NT-proBNP. NT-proBNP detected CHF with a cut-off value of 298.4 pg/mL in non-CKD patients and a cut-off value of 435.7 pg/mL in CKD patients. NT-proBNP predicted death with a cut-off value of 369.5 pg/mL in non-CKD patients and a cut-off value of 2584.1 pg/mL in CKD patients. The NT-proBNP level was significantly related to the prevalence of CHF and all-cause mortality in CAD patients with and without CKD; this effect persisted after adjustment. The crude and multiple adjusted hazard ratios of NT-proBNP to detect CHF and predict mortality were significantly higher in patients with CKD compared with the remainder of the population. The addition of NT-proBNP to the three-variable and six-variable models generated a significant increase in the C-statistic. Conclusion: Amongst elderly Chinese CAD patients, there was an independently inverse association between NT-proBNP and renal function. With the higher cutoff points, NT

  10. WHO antiretroviral therapy guidelines 2010 and impact of tenofovir on chronic kidney disease in Vietnamese HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Mizushima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The 2010 WHO antiretroviral therapy (ART guidelines have resulted in increased tenofovir use. Little is known about tenofovir-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD in HIV-infected Vietnamese with mean body weight of 55 kg. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in this country. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study was performed. METHODS: Clinical data on HIV-infected Vietnamese cohort were collected twice a year. To evaluate the prevalence of CKD, serum creatinine was measured in 771 patients in October 2011 and April 2012. CKD was defined as creatinine clearance less than 60 ml/min at both time points. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with CKD. RESULTS: Tenofovir use increased in Vietnam from 11.9% in April 2011 to 40.3% in April 2012. CKD was diagnosed in 7.3%, of which 7% was considered moderate and 0.3% was severe. Multivariate analysis of October-2011 data identified age per year-increase (OR: 1.229, 95%CI, 1.170-1.291, body weight per 1 kg-decrement (1.286, 1.193-1.386, and tenofovir use (2.715, 1.028-7.168 as risk factors for CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, low body weight and tenofovir use were independent risk factors for CKD in Vietnam. Further longitudinal study is required to evaluate the impact of TDF on renal function in Vietnam and other countries with small-body weight patients.

  11. Prognostic implications of preoperative chronic kidney disease and anemia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, Takuya; Matsue, Yuya; Kawasumi, Ryo; Tanabe, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and anemia are independent preoperative risk factors for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We evaluated the implications of the coexistence of these two factors and their associated prognosis for CABG surgery. We analyzed, retrospectively, consecutive patients who underwent elective CABG surgery between 2004 and 2014. The patients were classified into four groups depending on the presence or absence of preoperative CKD and anemia. We assessed the major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as composite outcomes of cardio- and cerebrovascular death, revascularization through surgery or percutaneous intervention, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, and cerebral infarction. The study population consisted of 510 patients (73 % male; median age 71 years old), followed up for a median period of 2.8 years. Multivariate analysis indicated that neither the CKD/no-anemia group [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-2.51, P = 0.973] nor the no-CKD/anemia group (HR 1.20, 95 % CI 0.69-2.09, P = 0.512) had significantly poorer prognoses than the no-CKD/no-anemia group. However, the CKD/anemia group had a significantly higher risk of a MACCE (HR 2.01, 95 % CI 1.01-3.98, P = 0.046). The presence of both CKD and anemia in patients undergoing CABG for coronary artery disease is synergistically associated with a worse outcome.

  12. Analysis of survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily related to renal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Dong, Wen; Antonio, Elvis Caraballo; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Lane, Brian R; Demirjian, Sevag; Li, Jianbo; Campbell, Steven C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of long-term survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily due to surgery (CKD-S). Patients with CKD-S have generally good survival that approximates patients who do not have CKD even after renal cancer surgery (RCS), yet there may be heterogeneity within this cohort. From 1997 to 2008, 4 246 patients underwent RCS at our centre. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 9.4 (7.3-11.0) years. New baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as highest GFR between nadir and 6 weeks after RCS. We retrospectively evaluated three cohorts: no-CKD (new baseline GFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ); CKD-S (new baseline GFR of cancer-related survival (NRCRS) for the CKD-S cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed the longitudinal impact of new baseline GFR (45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and Cox regression evaluated relative impact of preoperative GFR, new baseline GFR, and relevant demographics/comorbidities. Of the 4 246 patients who underwent RCS, 931 had CKD-S and 1 113 had CKD-M/S, whilst 2 202 had no-CKD even after RCS. Partial/radical nephrectomy (PN/RN) was performed in 54%/46% of the patients, respectively. For CKD-S, 641 patients had a new baseline GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 290 had a new baseline GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced NRCRS for patients with CKD-S with a GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 compared to those with no-CKD or CKD-S with a GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (both P ≤ 0.004), and competing risk analysis confirmed this (P < 0.001). Age, gender, heart disease, and new baseline GFR were all associated independently with NRCRS for patients with CKD-S (all P ≤ 0.02). Our data suggest that CKD-S is heterogeneous, and patients with a reduced new baseline GFR have compromised survival, particularly if <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Our findings may have implications regarding choice of PN/RN in patients at risk of developing

  13. Eplerenone attenuates pulse wave reflection in chronic kidney disease stage 3-4--a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Lene; Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Strandgaard, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with increased arterial stiffness. Plasma aldosterone levels are increased in CKD, and aldosterone has been found to increase vascular inflammation and fibrosis. It was hypothesized...

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in the Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. ♦ RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient...

  15. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on renal function of patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Houda; Tazi, Nada; Najdi, Adil; Tachfouti, Nabil; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik

    2015-03-01

    Fasting during Ramadan is prohibited when an individual's health is endangered. Little work has been published in this direction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to evaluate the impact of fasting during Ramadan on the renal function of patients with CKD, adjusting for the initial degree of renal impairment. We prospectively studied 60 patients with CKD (35 females; mean age 45.6 ± 15.8 years). All study patients were older than 15 years, being followed-up at the nephrology clinic for more than six months, having a stable CKD during the preceding six months and who had fasted during Ramadan the previous year. Patients who had a medical contra-indication for fasting were excluded from the study [severe or resistant arterial hypertension, insulin-requiring diabetes, acute renal failure (ARF), active renal disease, repetitive urolithiasis or terminal chronic renal failure]. Statistical analysis was performed in collaboration with the epidemiology lab at the Fez Medical School using the SPSS software version 17. Three of the study patients developed ARF in the first week and four of them at the end of the month of the study period. The risk of developing ARF was significantly higher for patients with baseline creatinine clearance of fasting during Ramadan in stable CKD patients. Studies on larger numbers of patients are recommended.

  16. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on renal function of patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Mbarki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting during Ramadan is prohibited when an individual′s health is endangered. Little work has been published in this direction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We aimed to evaluate the impact of fasting during Ramadan on the renal function of patients with CKD, adjusting for the initial degree of renal impairment. We prospectively studied 60 patients with CKD (35 females; mean age 45.6 ± 15.8 years. All study patients were older than 15 years, being followed-up at the nephrology clinic for more than six months, having a stable CKD during the preceding six months and who had fasted during Ramadan the previous year. Patients who had a medical contra-indication for fasting were excluded from the study [severe or resistant arterial hypertension, insulin-requiring diabetes, acute renal failure (ARF, active renal disease, repetitive urolithiasis or terminal chronic renal failure]. Statistical analysis was performed in collaboration with the epidemiology lab at the Fez Medical School using the SPSS software version 17. Three of the study patients developed ARF in the first week and four of them at the end of the month of the study period. The risk of developing ARF was significantly higher for patients with baseline creatinine clearance of <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . However, the small sample size does not allow us to draw any firm conclusions on fasting during Ramadan in stable CKD patients. Studies on larger numbers of patients are recommended.

  17. Anemia management in cancer patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Andras T; Troppan, Katharina; Rosenkranz, Alexander R

    2016-12-01

    Anemia is a common complication of cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with decreased physical performance as well as poor prognosis for life expectancy. Renal and cancer-induced anemia share common features regarding pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. It is typically treated with iron substitution, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) and in refractory cases with red blood cell transfusions. However, studies of the past few years unveiled numerous setbacks in the use of ESAs. These included a higher risk of cerebrovascular events and increased mortality without the improvement of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD. Moreover, particularly negative results were observed in patients with previous cancer history under ESA therapy. These unfavorable findings have forced the clinicians to reevaluate the management of renal anemia. This led to decrease of ESA usage, while iron substitution and alternative therapeutic options gained more significance. Iron supplementation is also accompanied with certain risks ranging from gastrointestinal complications to severe allergic reactions and increased rate of infections. Furthermore, the evaluation of the long-term safety of excessive iron therapy is still lacking, especially in CKD patients with cancer. In the absence of these clinical studies, this review aims to summarize the currently available therapeutic strategies in anemia management of CKD patients with concomitant cancer. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High phosphate-induced downregulation of PPARγ contributes to CKD-associated vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Xianjin; Nie, Ling; Liu, Chi; Xiong, Jiachuan; He, Ting; Xu, Xinlin; Yu, Yanlin; Yang, Ke; Gu, Jun; Huang, Yunjian; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Zhiren; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Jinghong

    2018-01-01

    Medial arterial calcification associated with hyperphosphatemia is a main cause of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanisms underlying high phosphate-induced vascular calcification remain largely unknown. Here, we observed a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) in calcified arteries both in CKD patients and in a mouse model of CKD with hyperphosphatemia. In vitro, high phosphate treatment led to a decreased expression of PPARγ in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VMSCs), accompanied by apparent osteogenic differentiation and calcification. Pretreatment with PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone significantly reversed high phosphate-induced VSMCs calcification. Further investigation showed that methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2)-mediated epigenetic repression was involved in high phosphate-induced PPARγ downregulation. Moreover, the expression of Klotho that has the ability to inhibit vascular calcification by regulating phosphate uptake decreased with the PPARγ reduction in VSMCs after high phosphate treatment, and rosiglitazone failed to inhibit high phosphate-induced calcification in VSMCs with knockdown of Klotho or in aortic rings from Klotho-deficient (kl/kl) mice. Finally, an in vivo study demonstrated that oral administration of rosiglitazone could increase Klotho expression and protect against high phosphate-induced vascular calcification in CKD mice. These findings suggest that the inhibition of PPARγ expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of high phosphate-induced vascular calcification, which may provide a new therapeutic target for vascular calcification in CKD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence, awareness, and management of CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Troyanov, S.; Mongeau, F.; Fradette, L.; Bouchard, J.; Awadalla, P.; Madore, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is uncertain how many patients with CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded universal health care systems are aware of their disease and how to achieve their treatment targets. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The CARTaGENE study evaluated

  20. The Analysis of Asymetric Dimethylarginine and Homocysteine in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetty Hendrawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. ADMA reduces NO synthesis when its concentration elevates. ADMA is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Plasma ADMA accumulates in patients with endstage renal disease, due to reduced renal clearance. Hyperhomocysteinemia is often found in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Homocysteine may cause ADMA to accumulate; however, the mechanism by which ADMA level elevates in hyperhomocysteinemia is still unclear. Objective of this study was to analyze the concentrations of homocysteine and ADMA and to assess the correlation between homocysteine and ADMA concentrations with the severity of chronic kidney disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 75 patients with CKD, comprising men and women aged 40-70 years. Assessments were done on the concentrations of creatinine, homocysteine, ADMA, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol HDL and triglyceride. RESULTS: In later stage of CKD there was significantly higher tHcy concentration as compared with the earlier stage of CKD (p=0.0000. In CKD stage 2 to 4 there was a tendency for ADMA concentration to increase to a significant average (p=0.210, but ADMA concentration was lower at stage 5. There was increased ADMA along with increased tHcy concentration of around 20μ mol/L, and this then decreased. The inverse correlation between tHcy and ADMA concentrations started to appear in CKD stage 4, but this correlation was statistically insignificant (r2=0.19; p=0.499. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed there was a correlation between homocysteine and ADMA concentrations in patients with CKD stage 2 to 5, although statistically not significant. KEYWORDS: asymmetric dimethylarginine, homocysteine, chronic kidney disease.

  1. Pulse pressure is not an independent predictor of outcome in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, S; Claggett, B; Hansen, T W

    2015-01-01

    Pulse pressure (PP) remains an elusive cardiovascular risk factor with inconsistent findings. We clarified the prognostic value in patients with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and anemia in the Trial to Reduce cardiovascular Events with Aranesp (darbepoetin alfa) Therapy. In 4038......, CKD and anemia, PP did not independently predict cardiovascular events or ESRD. This may reflect confounding by aggressive antihypertensive treatment, or PP may be too rough a risk marker in these high-risk patients....

  2. The impact of different GFR estimating equations on the prevalence of CKD and risk groups in a Southeast Asian cohort using the new KDIGO guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitiyakara Chagriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO group recommended that patients with CKD should be assigned to stages and composite relative risk groups according to GFR (G and proteinuria (A criteria. Asians have among the highest rates of ESRD in the world, but establishing the prevalence and prognosis CKD is a problem for Asian populations since there is no consensus on the best GFR estimating (eGFR equation. We studied the effects of the choice of new Asian and Caucasian eGFR equations on CKD prevalence, stage distribution, and risk categorization using the new KDIGO classification. Methods The prevalence of CKD and composite relative risk groups defined by eGFR from with Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI; standard (S or Chinese(C MDRD; Japanese CKD-EPI (J-EPI, Thai GFR (T-GFR equations were compared in a Thai cohort (n = 5526 Results There was a 7 fold difference in CKD3-5 prevalence between J-EPI and the other Asian eGFR formulae. CKD3-5 prevalence with S-MDRD and CKD-EPI were 2 - 3 folds higher than T-GFR or C-MDRD. The concordance with CKD-EPI to diagnose CKD3-5 was over 90% for T-GFR or C-MDRD, but they only assigned the same CKD stage in 50% of the time. The choice of equation also caused large variations in each composite risk groups especially those with mildly increased risks. Different equations can lead to a reversal of male: female ratios. The variability of different equations is most apparent in older subjects. Stage G3aA1 increased with age and accounted for a large proportion of the differences in CKD3-5 between CKD-EPI, S-MDRD and C-MDRD. Conclusions CKD prevalence, sex ratios, and KDIGO composite risk groupings varied widely depending on the equation used. More studies are needed to define the best equation for Asian populations.

  3. Evidence in favor of a severely impaired net intestinal calcium absorption in patients with (early-stage) chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, L; Meijers, B K I; Vanrenterghem, Y; Evenepoel, P

    2012-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential to many vital physiological processes. Little is known about the net and fractional intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their clinical and hormonal determinants. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 20 healthy volunteers (HV) and 72 stable CKD stage 1-4 patients and analyzed for parameters of mineral metabolism including calcidiol, calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary intake was assessed by dietary history. The 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, as opposed to the phosphorus excretion, showed a stepwise decrease across CKD stages (median of 219, 84, 40, and 22 mg/day in HV and patients with CKD stages 1-2, 3 and 4, respectively). Younger age, high serum calcitriol, and high estimated GFR were associated with a high 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. High serum calcitriol levels and dietary phosphorus intake were associated with a high 24-hour urinary phosphorus excretion. The fractional intestinal calcium absorption, as estimated by the urinary-to-ingested calcium ratio, decreased across CKD stages. The 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium, as opposed to phosphorus, is markedly decreased in CKD, even in early-stage disease. This is partly explained by low calcitriol levels and older age. Assuming a neutral calcium balance at the time of urine collection, we infer that net intestinal calcium absorption may be severely impaired in CKD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. Methods One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients’ characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Results Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD, 70.4 (6.6 years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6 ml/min/1.73 m2; serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2 mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8 mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3 mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186. A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.684-0.914]. Conclusions In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression.

  5. Assessment of abdominal aortic calcification in predialysis chronic kidney disease and maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeswaran Dhakshinamoorthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. The aim of the study was to assess the abdominal aortic calcification (AAC in predialysis CKD patients and patients on hemodialysis (HD and to study the risk factors associated with it. In this prospective study, 205 patients were including 104 patients with predialysis CKD and 101 patients were on maintenance hemodialysis. AAC was assessed using lateral lumbar radiography. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and total cholesterol were analyzed. AAC was observed in 26 % of predialysis CKD patients and 34% in HD patients. Using multivariate analysis, the age (P = 0.001 was identified as independent predictor for the presence of AAC in predialysis patients, and for HD, the predictors were age (P = 0.025, time on dialysis (P = 0.001, hsCRP (P = 0.002, and corrected calcium (P = 0.030. In conclusion, the prevalence of AAC varies mainly with age and glomerular filtration rate levels in predialysis CKD patients. Advanced age, time on dialysis, and inflammation may be associated with presence and extent of AAC in HD patients. Further research into the risk factors and outcome for AAC is warranted.

  6. Profile of chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorders in newly diagnosed advanced predialysis diabetic kidney disease patients: A hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S; Beatrice, A M; Ghosh, A; Pramanik, S; Bhattacharjee, R; Ghosh, S; Raychaudhury, A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Chowdhury, S

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has been poorly studied in pre-dialysis Indian CKD population. There are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in diabetic CKD patients. Therefore, a study was conducted to find out the profile of mineral bone disorders in T2DM patients with pre-dialysis CKD. In this cross-sectional design, diabetic patients with newly-diagnosed stage 4 and 5 CKD were evaluated. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25 hydroxy vitamin D and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 72 eligible patients participated (44 males, 28 females; age 54.2±11.7). Patients with CKD Stage 5 had a lower level of corrected serum calcium and significantly higher level of inorganic phosphorus, total ALP and iPTH as compared to stage 4 patients. Overall, 38.5% were hypocalcemic, 31.43% were hyperphosphatemic. 24.2% of CKD subjects were vitamin D deficient (110pg/ml) was detected in nearly 43% of patients. In stage 5, only 32% patients was found to have hyperparathyroidism (iPTH>300pg/ml). There was a good correlation between iPTH and total ALP (r=0.5, p=0.0001) in this cohort. 25 (OH) vitamin D was inversely correlated with ALP (r=-0.39, P=0.001) and showed negative correlation with urine ACR (r=-0.37, P=0.002). As a group, the osteoporotic CKD subjects exhibited higher iPTH (220.1±153.8 vs. 119±108pg/ml, p<0.05) as compared to those who were osteopenic or had normal bone density. There was significant correlation between BMD and iPTH (adjusted r=-0.436; P=0.001). In the multivariate regression model, we found intact PTH to predict BMD even after adjustment of all the confounders. The current study showed that adynamic bone disease is prevalent even in pre-dialysis CKD population. High bone turnover disease may not be the most prevalent type in diabetic CKD. However, it

  7. Glycosylation gap in patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease and healthy participants: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Km Neelofar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study it to determine the level of glycosylation gap in patients with type 2 diabetes and its relation with kidney dysfunction. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 individuals were enrolled (aged 20–75 year and divided into three groups. Group 1 included 50 nondiabetic individuals who served as control. Group 2 included 50 patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD, and in Group 3, there were 50 patients with type 2 diabetes with CKD. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and fructosamine (FA were measured in all groups to determine the glycosylation gap (GG, predicted HbA1c, and mean blood glucose (MBG. GG is defined as the difference between measured HbA1c and HbA1c predicted from FA based on the population regression of HbA1c on FA. The variables were compared by correlation analysis. Results: Serum creatinine level was significantly high in patients with CKD (1.93 ± 0.99 as compared to patients with diabetes and control (0.891 ± 0.16; 0.912 ± 0.1, respectively. The study demonstrated a significant elevation in serum FA, measured HbA1c and predicted HbA1c, MBG in patients with diabetes with CKD as compared with those of without CKD, and controls. GG was found in healthy control (0.51 ± 0.78, patients with type 2 diabetes without CKD (0.62 ± 0.45, and patients with diabetes with CKD (1.0 ± 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that GG may be a useful clinical research tool for evaluating pathological source of variation in diabetes complications such as kidney disease.

  8. Association between medication adherence and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Boardman, Helen

    2017-06-01

    There is limited evidence of medication adherence related to progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine associations between medication adherence and the progression of CKD in outpatients with CKD. This cohort study recruited 339 Thai patients with stages 3-5 CKD. Patients with a glomerular disease or receiving renal replacement therapy before recruitment were excluded. 295 were followed up regarding their serum creatinine, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol over 12 months. Medication adherence was measured at baseline using the Thai version of the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale ® . The primary outcome was the progression of CKD. The progression of CKD was defined as either a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 3 ml/min/1.73 m 2 /year or initiation of renal replacement therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regressions. Twenty-one percent had poor adherence. Younger patients were more likely to have poor adherence (adjusted OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.45-5.43). Anti-hypertensive agents were the most frequently reported as not being taken (52 %). Patients with poor adherence were associated with the progression of CKD (adjusted OR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.02-3.76). Those with poor adherence were less likely to control their blood pressure, than moderate-to-high adherence group (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that CKD patients with poor medication adherence are more likely to have progression of CKD. Health care providers should acknowledge these findings and provide effective strategies to deal with this issue.

  9. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetic adult out-patients in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, Mubarakali N; Kalluvya, Samuel E; Mueller, Andreas; Kabangila, Rodrick; Smart, Luke R; Downs, Jennifer A; Peck, Robert N

    2013-08-31

    The number of adults with diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide, particularly in Asia and Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, renal complications of diabetes may go unrecognized due to limited diagnostic resources. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among adult diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa has not been well described. This study was conducted at the diabetes mellitus clinic of Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total 369 consecutive adult diabetic patients were enrolled and interviewed. Each patient provided a urine sample for microalbuminuria and proteinuria and a blood sample for serum creatinine level. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation. CKD was staged according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes system. A total of 309 (83.7%) study participants had CKD; 295 (80.0%) had significant albuminuria and 91 (24.7%) had eGFR patients were aware of their renal disease, and only 5 (1.3%) had a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy recorded in their file. Older age was significantly associated with CKD in this population [OR 1.03, p = 0.03, 95%CI (1.00-1.05)]. Chronic kidney disease is highly prevalent among adult diabetic outpatients attending our clinic in Tanzania, but is usually undiagnosed. Nearly ¼ of patients had an eGFR low enough to require dose adjustment of diabetic medications. More diagnostic resources are needed for CKD screening among adults in Tanzania in order to slow progression and prevent complications.

  10. Metabolic syndrome among Ghanaian patients presenting with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a general risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Western populations. This study assessed the relationship between MetS and its compo-nents in Ghanaian patients presenting with CKD. The study population comprised of 146 non-dialysed individuals with CKD with ...

  11. Characteristics of the Small Bowel Lesions Detected by Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Kawamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB is one of the common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, especially those who are on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. However, little is known about the characteristics of the small-bowel lesions in these patients, or of the factors that could predict the presence of such lesions. Therefore we enrolled a total of 42 CKD patients (including 19 HD patients and 23 non-HD patients, and compared the incidence of the small-bowel lesions among two groups. Furthermore, to identify predictive factors for the presence of small-bowel lesions, we performed multivariate logistic-regression-analyses. The incidence of small-bowel vascular lesions was significantly higher in CKD patients than in age-and-sex matched non-CKD patients (P<0.001. On the other hand, there was any significant difference of the incidence of small-bowel lesions between HD and non-HD patients. In CKD patients, past history of blood transfusion (OR 5.66; 95% CI 1.10–29.1, P=0.04 was identified as an independent predictor of the presence of vascular lesions, and history of low-dose aspirin use (OR 6.00; 95% CI 1.13–31.9, P=0.04 was identified as that of erosive/ulcerated lesions. This indicated that proactive CE examination would be clinically meaningful for these patients.

  12. Validity and reproducibility of a short food frequency questionnaire among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affret, Aurélie; Wagner, Sandra; El Fatouhi, Douae; Dow, Courtney; Correia, Emmanuelle; Niravong, Maryvonne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; De Chefdebien, Julie; Fouque, Denis; Stengel, Bénédicte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2017-09-15

    A balanced diet is essential to slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and managing the symptoms. Currently, no tool is available to easily and quickly assess energy and macronutrient intake in patients with non end-stage CKD. We aimed to develop and evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a new short 49-item food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) adapted to patients with CKD. The CKD-REIN study is a prospective cohort that enrolled 3033 patients with moderate or advanced CKD from a national sample of nephrology clinics. A sub-sample of 201 patients completed the SFFQ twice, at a one-year interval and were included in the reproducibility study. During this interval, 127 patients also completed six 24-h recalls and were included in the validity study. Main nutrient and dietary intakes were computed. Validity was evaluated by calculating crude, energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlation coefficients (CC) between FFQ and the mean of the 24-h recall results. Bland-Altman plots were performed and cross-classification into quintiles of consumption of each nutrient and food group was computed. Reproducibility between the two SFFQs was evaluated by intraclass CC (ICC). Regarding validity, CC ranged from 0.05 to 0.79 (unadjusted CC, median: 0.40) and 0.10 to 0.59 (de-attenuated CC, median: 0.35) for food group and nutrient intakes, respectively. Five of the most important nutrients of interest in CKD, i.e. protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium had de-attenuated CC of 0.46, 0.43, 0.39, 0.32, and 0.12, respectively. The median of classification into the same or adjacent quintiles was 68% and 65% for food and nutrient intakes, respectively, and ranged from 63% to 69% for the five nutrients mentioned before. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement across the range of intakes. ICC ranged from 0.18 to 0.66 (median: 0.46). The CKD-REIN SFFQ showed acceptable validity and reproducibility in a sample of patients with CKD, notably for CKD

  13. Dietary protein intake in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukkipati, Ramanath; Noori, Nazanin; Feroze, Usama; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those with stage 5 CKD, have protein wasting. The degree to which increased morbidity and mortality seen in these patients is due to protein depletion rather than to the often accompanying comorbidity is not clear. High protein diets lead to the accumulation of metabolites of protein that are potentially toxic. The MDRD Study, which investigated the effects of three levels of dietary protein and phosphorus intakes and two blood pressure goals on the progression of CKD, has several limitations. Several meta-analyses have examined the effects of low protein diets (LPD) on the progression of CKD. It is possible that the lower SUN levels or lesser degree of uremic symptoms may have contributed to the positive findings of LPD in the meta-analyses of Fouque and Pedrini et al., when compared with the study of Kasiske et al. A number of published reports indicate that LPD provide adequate protein for almost all clinically stable CKD patients and do not adversely affect body composition. In general, there are no large differences in the protein intake recommended by different expert groups for a given stage of CKD.

  14. Aldosterone synthase gene is not a major susceptibility gene for progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanasambandan Ramanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most common heritable kidney disease and is characterized by bilateral renal cysts. Hypertension is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD and mortality in patients with ADPKD. The aldosterone synthase gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been extensively studied as hypertension candidate genes. The present study is aimed to investigate the potential modifier effect of CYP11B2 gene on the progression of CKD in ADPKD. One hundred and two ADPKD patients and 106 healthy controls were recruited based on Ravine inclusion and exclusion criteria. The three tag-SNPs within CYP11B2 gene (rs3802230, rs4543, and rs4544 were genotyped using FRET-based KASPar method. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to assess the potential associations between these polymorphisms and CKD stages. Mantel- Haenszel stratified analysis was used to explore confounding and interaction effects of these polymorphisms. Of the three tag-SNPs genotyped, rs4544 polymorphism was monomorphic and rs3802230 deviated Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The CYP11B2 tag-SNPs did not show significant association with ADPKD or CKD. Further, these polymorphisms did not exhibit confounding effect on the relationship between CKD progression and hypertension. Our results suggest that aldosterone synthase gene is not a major susceptibility gene for progression of CKD in South Indian ADPKD patients.

  15. Psychometric evaluation of a new instrument to measure disease self-management of the early stage chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Li-Min; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to develop a valid and reliable chronic kidney disease self-management instrument (CKD-SM) for assessing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours. Enhancing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management plays a key role in delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease. Healthcare provider understanding of early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours can help develop effective interventions. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours is needed. A cross-sectional descriptive study collected data for principal components analysis with oblique rotation. Mandarin- or Taiwanese-speaking adults with chronic kidney disease (n=252) from two medical centres and one regional hospital in Southern Taiwan completed the CKD-SM. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated by Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients. Four factors were extracted and labelled self-integration, problem-solving, seeking social support and adherence to recommended regimen. The four factors accounted for 60.51% of the total variance. Each factor showed acceptable internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha from 0.77-0.92. The test-retest correlations for the CKD-SM was 0.72. The psychometric quality of the CKD-SM instrument was satisfactory. Research to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to further validate this new instrument's construct validity is recommended. The CKD-SM instrument is useful for clinicians who wish to identify the problems with self-management among chronic kidney disease patients early. Self-management assessment will be helpful to develop intervention tailored to the needs of the chronic kidney disease population. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Oral health in patients with chronic kidney disease - emphasis on periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Karita

    2017-01-01

    ORAL HEALTH IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE - EMPHASIS ON PERIODONTITIS Background: Periodontitis is a common bacteria-induced chronic inflammatory disease with mild symptoms. It leads to destruction of the periodontium and finally to tooth loss in a susceptible patient. Periodontitis is associated with many systemic diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) through low-grade systemic inflammation. However, no causality c...

  17. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Kiuchi; Yasushi Ohashi; Reibin Tai; Toshiyuki Aoki; Sonoo Mizuiri; Toyoko Ogura; Atsushi Aikawa; Ken Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were ...

  18. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although there have been many advancements in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the last 50 years, in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk, mortality remains unacceptably high, particularly for those patients who progress to stage 5 CKD and initiate dialysis (CKD5d). As mortality risk increases exponentially with progressive CKD stage, the question arises as to whether preservation of residual renal function once dialysis has been initiated can reduce mortality...

  19. Impact of chronic kidney disease on left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefer, Joelle; Tzikas, Apostolos; Freixa, Xavier; Shakir, Samera; Gafoor, Sameer; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Berti, Sergio; Santoro, Gennaro; Aminian, Adel; Landmesser, Ulf; Nietlispach, Fabian; Ibrahim, Reda; Danna, Paolo Luciano; Benit, Edouard; Budts, Werner; Stammen, Francis; De Potter, Tom; Tichelbäcker, Tobias; Gloekler, Steffen; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Costa, Marco; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Sievert, Horst; Schillinger, Wolfgang; Park, Jai-Wun; Meier, Bernhard; Omran, Heyder

    2016-03-15

    Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) using the Amplatzer cardiac plug (ACP) is a preventive treatment of atrial fibrillation related thromboembolism. To assess the safety and efficacy of LAAO in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Among the ACP multicentre registry, 1014 patients (75±8yrs) with available renal function were included. Patients with CKD (N=375, CHA2DS2-VASc: 4.9±1.5, HASBLED: 3.4±1.3) were at higher risk than patients without CKD (N=639, CHA2DS2-VASc: 4.2±1.6, HASBLED: 2.9±1.2; p<0.001 for both). Procedural (97%) and occlusion (99%) success were similarly high in all stages of CKD. Peri-procedural major adverse events (MAE) were observed in 5.1% of patients, 0.8% of death, with no difference between patients with and those without CKD (6.1 vs 4.5%, p=0.47). In patients with complete follow-up (1319 patients years), the annual stroke+transient ischaemic attack (TIA) rate was 2.3% and the observed bleeding rate was 2.1% (62 and 60% less than expected, similarly among patients with and those without CKD). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a lower overall survival (84 vs 96% and 84 vs 93% at 1 and 2yrs. respectively; p<0.001) among patients with an eGFR <30ml/min/1.73m(2). LAAO using the ACP has a similar procedural safety among CKD patients compared to patients with normal renal function. LAAO with ACP offers a dramatic reduction of stroke+TIA rate and of bleeding rate persistent in all stages of CKD, as compared to the expected annual risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistant starch alters gut microbiota and reduces uremic retention solutes in rats with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the reduced ability to void urine, leading to accumulation of waste products in the body. Recently, it has been observed that patients with CKD have an altered gut microbiome. This may in part be due to reduced fiber intake. Patients with CKD are ofte...

  1. Primary care physicians' own exercise habits influence exercise counseling for patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Numata, Akihiko; Miki, Atushi; Okada, Mari; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Takemoto, Fumi; Ando, Yasuhiro; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke; Kusano, Eiji

    2014-03-19

    The appropriate exercise counseling for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is crucial to improve their prognosis. There have been few studies about exercise counseling by primary care physicians for CKD patients. We investigated primary care physicians' exercise counseling practices for CKD patients, and the association of these physicians' own exercise habits with exercise counseling. The population of this cross-sectional study was 3310 medical doctors who graduated from Jichi Medical University from 1978 to 2012. The study instrument was a self-administered questionnaire that was mailed in August 2012 to investigate their age class, specialty, workplace, exercise habits, and practices of exercise counseling for CKD. 581 (64.8%) medical doctors practiced the management of CKD among a total of 933 responses. These 581 medical doctors were defined as CKD primary care physicians and their answers were analyzed. CKD primary care physicians' own exercise habits (frequencies and intensities) were as follows: frequencies: daily, 71 (12.1%); ≥ 2-3 times/week, 154 (26.5%); ≥ 1 time/week, 146 (25.1%); and ≤ 1 time/month, 176 (30.2%); intensities: high (≥ 6 Mets), 175 (30.1%); moderate (4-6 Mets), 132 (22.7%); mild (3-4 Mets), 188 (32.3%); very mild (habits influenced the exercise counseling for CKD patients. The establishment of guidelines for exercise by CKD patients and their dissemination among primary care physicians are needed.(University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry. number, UMIN000011803. Registration date, Sep/19/2013).

  2. Primary care physicians’ own exercise habits influence exercise counseling for patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The appropriate exercise counseling for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is crucial to improve their prognosis. There have been few studies about exercise counseling by primary care physicians for CKD patients. We investigated primary care physicians’ exercise counseling practices for CKD patients, and the association of these physicians’ own exercise habits with exercise counseling. Methods The population of this cross-sectional study was 3310 medical doctors who graduated from Jichi Medical University from 1978 to 2012. The study instrument was a self-administered questionnaire that was mailed in August 2012 to investigate their age class, specialty, workplace, exercise habits, and practices of exercise counseling for CKD. Results 581 (64.8%) medical doctors practiced the management of CKD among a total of 933 responses. These 581 medical doctors were defined as CKD primary care physicians and their answers were analyzed. CKD primary care physicians’ own exercise habits (frequencies and intensities) were as follows: frequencies: daily, 71 (12.1%); ≥2–3 times/week, 154 (26.5%); ≥1 time/week, 146 (25.1%); and ≤1 time/month, 176 (30.2%); intensities: high (≥6 Mets), 175 (30.1%); moderate (4–6 Mets), 132 (22.7%); mild (3–4 Mets), 188 (32.3%); very mild (habits influenced the exercise counseling for CKD patients. The establishment of guidelines for exercise by CKD patients and their dissemination among primary care physicians are needed. (University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry. number, UMIN000011803. Registration date, Sep/19/2013) PMID:24641626

  3. ESRD After Heart Failure, Myocardial Infarction, or Stroke in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charytan, David M; Solomon, Scott D; Ivanovich, Peter; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Cooper, Mark E; McGill, Janet B; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Parfrey, Patrick; Singh, Ajay K; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Levey, Andrew S; de Zeeuw, Dick; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; McMurray, John J V; Claggett, Brian; Lewis, Eldrin F; Pfeffer, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    How cardiovascular (CV) events affect progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), particularly in the setting of type 2 diabetes, remains uncertain. Observational study. 4,022 patients with type 2 diabetes, anemia, and chronic kidney disease from the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). Postrandomization CV events. ESRD (defined as initiation of dialysis for >30 days, kidney transplantation, or refusal or nonavailability of renal replacement therapy) and post-ESRD mortality within 30 days and during overall follow-up after an intercurrent CV event. Population limited to clinical trial participants with diabetes and anemia. 155 of 652 (23.8%) ESRD cases occurred after an intercurrent CV event; 110 (16.9%) cases followed heart failure, 28 (4.3%) followed myocardial infarction, 12 (1.84%) followed stroke, and 5 (0.77%) followed multiple CV events. ESRD rate was higher within 30 days in individuals with an intercurrent CV event compared with those without an intercurrent event (HR, 22.2; 95% CI, 17.0-29.0). Compared to no intercurrent CV events, relative risks for ESRD were higher after the occurrence of heart failure overall (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.7-4.2) and at 30 days (HR, 20.1; 95% CI, 14.5-27.9) than after myocardial infarction or stroke (Pfailure, are strongly associated with risk for ESRD. These findings underscore the need for kidney-specific therapies in addition to treatment of CV risk factors to lower ESRD incidence in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health care transition for adolescents with CKD-the journey from pediatric to adult care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lorraine E; Ferris, Maria E; Fenton, Nicole; Hooper, Stephen R

    2011-09-01

    The design of Health Care Transition (HCT) services for adolescents and emerging adults with CKD or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) needs to take into account patient cognition/developmental stage, family factors, and health resources within the hospital setting and community. Patient and family education is fundamental and teaching and learning tools must be literacy-accessible. Adolescents and emerging adults with CKD/ESDK have complex medical and dietary regimes, and therapeutic adherence is important for optimizing their health, quality of life, and longevity. Health providers need to identify ways of engaging them to become successful disease self-mangers. Interdisciplinary collaboration between the pediatric- and adult-focused health care teams and the services of a dedicated transition coordinator are paramount to ensure clear communication between the patient and the health professionals involved. Valid measurement tools to monitor and assess the HCT process and health outcomes need to be developed. The aims of planned HCT for adolescents and/or emerging adults with CKD/ESKD are anchored by the goals of optimizing health outcomes, health-related quality of life, and continuous quality improvement. The care of young people with CKD/ESKD can be both challenging and rewarding; we offer strategies for planned HCT services geared to these vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge regarding the prevention of chronic kidney disease in hypertensive and diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Elaine Cristina Santa Cruz de; Barbosa, Jefferson Belarmino Nunes; Marinho, Patrícia Érika de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) lead to functional and structural changes in target organs such as the kidneys, characterizing the need for preventive actions to avoid Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Objective: To verify cardiologists’ and endocrinologists’ knowledge, indications and practices regarding prevention of CKD in patients with HT and DM. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 14 cardiologists and 5 endocrinologists applying a questionnaire about ...

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Education on Infection Management Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in an Indonesian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Azizah; Sulaiman, SA. Syed; Shafie, A.A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the clinical and economic impacts of clinical pharmacy education (CPE) on infection management among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4 and 5 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Indonesia. Methods A quasi-experimental economic evaluation comparing CPE impact on 6-month CKD mortality was conducted on the basis of payer perspective. The experimental group (n = 63) received care by health care providers who were given CPE on drug-related probl...

  7. Chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnani, Paola; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Glassock, Richard; Levin, Adeera; Jager, Kitty J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Massy, Ziad; Wanner, Christoph; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress

  8. Superoxide dismutase type 1 in monocytes of chronic kidney disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Krueger, Katharina; Diedrich, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed proteomic profiles in monocytes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and healthy control subjects. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and silver staining indicated differences in protein pattern. Among the analyzed proteins, superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD1), which...... was identified both by MS/MS mass-spectrometry and immunoblotting, was reduced in kidney disease. We characterized SOD1 protein amount, using quantitative in-cell Western assay and immunostaining of 2-DE gel blots, and SOD1 gene expression, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in 98...... chronic hemodialysis (HD) and 211 CKD patients, and 34 control subjects. Furthermore, we showed that different SOD1 protein species exist in human monocytes. SOD1 protein amount was significantly lower in HD (normalized SOD1 protein, 27.2 ± 2.8) compared to CKD patients (34.3 ± 2.8), or control subjects...

  9. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in newly diagnosed patients with Human immunodeficiency virus in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayokunle, Dada Samuel; Olusegun, Olanrewaju Timothy; Ademola, Aderibigbe; Adindu, Chijioke; Olaitan, Rafiu Mojeed; Oladimeji, Ajayi Akande

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the causative agent of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an important cause of renal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. There is paucity of studies on the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with HIV/AIDS in the North-Central zone of Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional study of 227 newly-diagnosed, antiretroviral naïve patients with HIV/AIDS seen at the HIV clinic of the Medical Out-patient Department (MOPD) of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH). They were matched with 108 control group. Laboratory investigations were performed for the participants. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30 mg/g. There were 100 (44%) males among the patients and 47 (43.5%) among the control group. The mean ages of the patients and controls were 40.3 ± 10.3 years and 41.8 ± 9.5 years respectively. CKD was observed in 108 (47.6%) among the patients and 18 (16.7%) of the controls (p = 0.01). The median CD4 T-cell count was significantly lower in patients with CKD. Ninety-three (41.0%) of the patients had dipstick proteinuria of > 2 +. The median albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) was significantly higher among the HIV-positive patients (272.3 mg/g) compared with the HIV-negative controls (27.22 mg/g) p = 0.01. The CD4 T-cell count correlates positively with eGFR (r = 0.463, p = 0.001) and negatively with ACR (r = -0.806, p = 0.001). CKD is very common among patients with HIV/AIDS in Ilorin. Screening and early intervention for CKD should be part of the protocols in the management of these patients.

  10. Rapid cortical bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Stein, Emily M; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Komandah-Kosseh, Mafo; Zhang, Chiyuan A; McMahon, Donald J; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cremers, Serge; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may have high rates of bone loss and fractures, but microarchitectural and biochemical mechanisms of bone loss in CKD patients have not been fully described. In this longitudinal study of 53 patients with CKD Stages 2 to 5D, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), and biochemical markers of bone metabolism to elucidate effects of CKD on the skeleton. Median follow-up was 1.5 years (range 0.9 to 4.3 years); bone changes were annualized and compared with baseline. By DXA, there were significant declines in areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip and ultradistal radius: -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.1 to -0.6) and -2.4% (95% CI -4.0 to -0.9), respectively. By HRpQCT at the distal radius, there were significant declines in cortical area, density, and thickness and increases in porosity: -2.9% (95% CI -3.7 to -2.2), -1.3% (95% CI -1.6 to -0.6), -2.8% (95% CI -3.6 to -1.9), and +4.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 6.4), respectively. Radius trabecular area increased significantly: +0.4% (95% CI 0.2 to 0.6), without significant changes in trabecular density or microarchitecture. Elevated time-averaged levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone turnover markers predicted cortical deterioration. Higher levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted decreases in trabecular network heterogeneity. These data suggest that significant cortical loss occurs with CKD, which is mediated by hyperparathyroidism and elevated turnover. Future investigations are required to determine whether these cortical losses can be attenuated by treatments that reduce PTH levels and remodeling rates. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of chronic kidney disease in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus patients in Owerri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E N Anyabolu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and predictors of CKD in newly diagnosed HIV patients in Owerri, South East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 393 newly diagnosed HIV-seropositive subjects and 136 age- and sex-matched seronegative subjects as controls. CKD was defined as 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP ≥0.3 g and/or glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 60 ml/min. Subjects were recruited from the HIV clinic and the Medical Outpatient Department of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Relevant investigations were performed, including HIV screening and relevant urine and blood investigations. The mean age of the HIV subjects was 38.84 ± 10.65 years. CKD was present in 86 (22.9% HIV subjects and 11 (8.l % controls. Low waist circumference (WC, high serum creatinine, high spot urine protein/creatinine ratio (SUPCR, high 24-HUP/creatinine Ratio (24-HUPCR, high 24-HUP/osmolality Ratio (24-HUPOR predicted CKD in HIV subjects. CKD prevalence is high (22.9% among newly diagnosed HIV patients in South East Nigeria. The predictors of CKD included WC, serum creatinine, SUPCR, 24-HUPCR, and 24-HUPOR.

  12. Early detection of subclinical edema in chronic kidney disease patients by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakitcharu, Prasert; Jirajan, Boonthum

    2014-11-01

    Abnormalities in body water distribution are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Volume expansion, even in the absence of overt edema, contributes to high blood pressure, and progressive volume expansion eventually leads to clinical edema and fluid overload. Total body water (TBW) can be accurately estimated by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) which has been proposed for earlier detection of subclinical edema in CKD patients. To study body fluid distribution and edematous states in CKD patients measured by MF-BIA, compared with clinical edema assessed by physical examination. In addition, to evaluate the correlation of MF-BIA estimated TBW and anthropometry-derived TBW calculated by Watson formula. CKD patients at Rajavithi Hospital together with healthy adults were prospectively enrolled during a 12-month period. The body fluid compositions assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer (InBody® S20, Republic of Korea) were taken immediately after physical examination for edema detection. The patients were categorized into stages 1 to 5 according to CKD staging in the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines, and reclassified into 3 groups of stages l-2, stages 3-4, and stage 5. Sixty-nine CKD patients were compared with 48 healthy volunteers. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in CKD patients and normal controls were 53.5±41.1 and 113.9±0.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 respectively. The extracellular water (ECW) to TBW ratio, which represents edematous state if higher than 0.4, was significantly higher in patients with CKD stages 3-4 (0.400±0.008) and stage 5 (0.404±0.011), than in those in CKD stages 1-2 (0.393±0.009) and controls (0.385±0.007) (p<0.001). The prevalence of edematous state detected by BIA (edema-BIA) in CKD patients was significantly greater than in normal controls (78.3% vs. 25.0%, p<0.001). The number of CKD patients with edema-BIA was also significantly higher than the number of patients with clinical edema (36.2%), which

  13. Heart Failure in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Segall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heart failure (HF is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is strongly associated with mortality in these patients. However, the treatment of HF in this population is largely unclear. Study Design. We conducted a systematic integrative review of the literature to assess the current evidence of HF treatment in CKD patients, searching electronic databases in April 2014. Synthesis used narrative methods. Setting and Population. We focused on adults with a primary diagnosis of CKD and HF. Selection Criteria for Studies. We included studies of any design, quantitative or qualitative. Interventions. HF treatment was defined as any formal means taken to improve the symptoms of HF and/or the heart structure and function abnormalities. Outcomes. Measures of all kinds were considered of interest. Results. Of 1,439 results returned by database searches, 79 articles met inclusion criteria. A further 23 relevant articles were identified by hand searching. Conclusions. Control of fluid overload, the use of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and optimization of dialysis appear to be the most important methods to treat HF in CKD and ESRD patients. Aldosterone antagonists and digitalis glycosides may additionally be considered; however, their use is associated with significant risks. The role of anemia correction, control of CKD-mineral and bone disorder, and cardiac resynchronization therapy are also discussed.

  14. Spot Urine-guided Salt Reduction in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kiyotaka; Yanai, Akane; Ishibashi, Yoshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Dietary salt restriction is important in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to reduce hypertension, cardiovascular events, progression of CKD, and mortality. However, recommending salt reduction for patients is difficult without knowing their actual sodium intake. This study evaluated the effectiveness of spot urine-guided salt reduction in CKD outpatients. A prospective cohort study was used. This study included a total of 127 adult outpatients (aged 60 ± 18 years, 80 males) with CKD. Their baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 51.4 ± 25.1 (mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ), and 64 (50%) of them were with CKD stage 3a or 3b (both 32 [25%]). We informed the patients of their individual spot urine-estimated salt intake every time they visited the outpatient clinic. Based on the data, the nephrologist encouraged the patients to achieve their salt restriction goal. The primary outcome was the estimated salt excretion, and the secondary outcome was the urinary protein-to-Cr ratio (UPCR). Multiple regression analyses were performed to clarify the contributing factors of changes in both outcomes. Over a follow-up of 12 months, the median number of patients' visits was 7 (5-8). The estimated salt intake was significantly reduced from 7.98 ± 2.49 g/day to 6.77 ± 1.77 g/day (P intake, with borderline significance (P = .08). Providing spot urine-estimated salt intake feedback effectively motivated CKD patients to reduce their salt intake. Spot urine-guided salt reduction may slow CKD progression through decreased urinary protein excretion. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlations of dietary energy and protein intakes with renal function impairment in chronic kidney disease patients with or without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-En; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hung, Chi-Chih; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Liu, Shao-Chun; Wu, Tsai-Jiin; Huang, Meng-Chuan

    2017-05-01

    Dietary energy and protein intake can affect progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD complicated with diabetes is often associated with a decline in renal function. We investigated the relative importance of dietary energy intake (DEI) and dietary protein intake (DPI) to renal function indicators in nondiabetic and diabetic CKD patients. A total of 539 Stage 3-5 CKD patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)Disease equation] with or without diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics of Nephrology and Nutrition in a medical center in Taiwan. Appropriateness of DEI and DPI was used to subcategorize CKD patients into four groups:(1) kidney diet (KD) A (KD-A), the most appropriate diet, was characterized by low DPI and adequate DEI; (2) KD-B, low DPI and inadequate DEI; (3) KD-C, excess DPI and adequate DEI; and (4) KD-D, the least appropriate diet, excess DPI and inadequate DEI. Inadequate DEI was defined as a ratio of actual intake/recommended intake less than 90% and adequate DEI as over 90%. Low DPI was defined as less than 110% of recommended intake and excessive when over 110%. Outcome measured was eGFR. In both groups of CKD patients, DEI was significantly lower (ppatients were KD-C and KD-D significantly correlated with reduced eGFR compared with KD-A at increments of -5.63 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p = 0.029) and -7.72 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p=0.015). In conclusion, inadequate energy and excessive protein intakes appear to correlate with poorer renal function in nondiabetic CKD patients. Patients with advanced CKD are in need of counseling by dietitians to improve adherence to diets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Agomelatine versus paroxetine in treating depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JW

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jian-wei Chen, Shu-qin Xie Department of Nephrology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Objective: Depressive and anxiety symptoms could affect the quality of life and prognostic outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, but only a few studies focus on the interventions to manage or prevent these symptoms in CKD patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the efficacy and acceptability of agomelatine versus paroxetine in treating depressive and anxiety symptoms in CKD patients. Methods: CKD stage 2–4 patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms were included. The first patient was randomized in April 2013 and the last clinic visit occurred in March 2017. The included patients were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine 20–40 mg/day or agomelatine 25–50 mg/day. The treatment was continued for 12 weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS (17-item and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS were the primary outcome measures, and the response rate, remission rate, and Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale were the secondary outcome measures. Meanwhile, the adverse events were recorded during the whole treatment period. Results: At baseline and week 4, both groups had similar average HDRS and HARS scores. But at week 8 and 12, compared to the patients receiving paroxetine, the patients receiving agomelatine had significantly lower average HDRS scores (p=0.002, p=0.001, respectively and HARS scores (p<0.00001, p<0.00001, respectively. At week 12, the patients receiving agomelatine had a non-significantly lower average ADL score, and non-significantly higher response and remission rates. The adverse events in both groups were mild and transient. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that the agomelatine had some advantages over paroxetine in treating CKD stage 2–4 patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms, and future studies are needed to further explore its efficacy

  17. Vitamin d in the patients with chronic kidney disease: when, to whom and in which form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Drasko; Katicic, Dajana; Gulin, Tonko; Josipovic, Josipa

    2015-04-01

    Alteration in vitamin D metabolism has a central role in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and is also associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). For more than sixty years, vitamin D, nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol or calcifediol) and nonselective vitamin D receptor (VDR) activators (calcitriol, alfacalcidol) have been used in the prevention and treatment of SHPT. In the last twenty years, selective VDR activators (paricalcitol, maxacalcitol) have been used to target SHPT. However, there are many open questions regarding use of nutritional vitamin D or VDR activators. The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines recommended testing for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in patients with CKD, but there is no consensus on the definition of vitamin D insufficiency in CKD. There are a many open questions, for example, regarding the optimal nutritional vitamin D type and the dose and co-administration of nutritional vitamin and VDR activators. Therapy with VDRAs is required in the majority of patients with CKD, particularly in dialysis patients. However, when to start with VDRAs is not so apparent. Is PTH level the only indication of when to start therapy? Although VDRAs are very effective in lowering PTH levels and bone metabolism the effect of patients mortality is not so straightforward. Despite many unanswered questions, there is a large body of experimental and clinical data to support vitamin D use in patients with CKD. To obtain answers to the open questions, we need more randomized controlled trials.

  18. Impact of metabolic syndrome on resting energy expenditure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina Q D; Santos, Jacqueline A P; Quinto, Beata M R; Marrocos, Mauro S M; Teixeira, Andrei A; Rodrigues, Cássio J O; Batista, Marcelo C

    2016-10-01

    Resting energy expenditure (REE) changes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may contribute to mortality increase. The obesity and inflammation is associated with high REE and when not compensated by adequate intake, may determine an unfavorable clinical outcome in this population. We aimed to evaluate the influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on REE in CKD patients. One hundred eighty-three patients were stratified according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and divided in groups: without CKD (GFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) and CKD (GFR Patients without MetS, REE correlated with estimated GFR and the protein equivalent (r = 0.33, P patients, these correlations were not observed. The presence of CKD is independently associated with reduced REE. The observed decrease in REE is reversed in patients with MetS independent of renal function. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310

  20. Determinants of renal shape in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Takashi; Ikehira, Hiroo; Imasawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The determinants of renal shape are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the renal shape, as measured by ultrasound, and the clinical characteristics in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The study included 121 CKD patients who had undergone kidney biopsy. The renal shape was defined by: (1) the renal shape index: renal length/(renal width + renal thickness) and (2) the renal width/length. IgA nephritis patients (excluding patients with diabetes), comprised the largest subgroup (n = 49) and were analyzed separately. The correlation analyses and two-sample Student's t test results showed that age, eGFR, BMI, cortex volume fraction measured by MRI (cortex volume/renal volume), percentage of global sclerosis, weight, sex, hypertension and diabetes were significantly correlated with the renal shape in both kidneys. In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, old age and high BMI were independently associated with plump kidney. As for the left renal shape index, low cortex volume fraction was also independently associated with plump kidney. In the IgA nephritis patient subgroup, the cortex volume fraction was the most significant factor contributing to the left renal shape index (r = 0.50, p renal shape than renal function in CKD patients. The left renal cortex volume fraction was also an independent determinant and a more important factor in IgA nephritis patients.

  1. Associations Between Chronic Kidney Disease and Outcomes With Use of Prasugrel Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Report From the PROMETHEUS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Usman; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Sartori, Samantha; Aquino, Melissa; Kini, Annapoorna S; Kapadia, Samir; Weintraub, William; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Vogel, Birgit; Faggioni, Michela; Farhan, Serdar; Weiss, Sandra; Strauss, Craig; Toma, Catalin; DeFranco, Anthony; Baker, Brian A; Keller, Stuart; Effron, Mark B; Henry, Timothy D; Rao, Sunil; Pocock, Stuart; Dangas, George; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-10-23

    This study sought to compare clinical outcomes in a contemporary acute coronary syndrome (ACS) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cohort stratified by chronic kidney disease (CKD) status. Patients with CKD exhibit high risks for both thrombotic and bleeding events, thus complicating decision making regarding antiplatelet therapy in the setting of ACS. The PROMETHEUS study was a multicenter observational study comparing outcomes with prasugrel versus clopidogrel in ACS PCI patients. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 90 days and at 1 year were defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or unplanned revascularization. Clinically significant bleeding was defined as bleeding requiring transfusion or hospitalization. Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed for adjusted associations between CKD status and clinical outcomes. Hazard ratios for prasugrel versus clopidogrel treatment were generated using propensity score stratification. The total cohort included 19,832 patients, 28.3% with and 71.7% without CKD. CKD patients were older with greater comorbidities including diabetes and multivessel disease. Prasugrel was less often prescribed to CKD versus non-CKD patients (11.0% vs. 24.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). At 1 year, CKD was associated with higher adjusted risk of MACE (1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 1.37) and bleeding (1.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 1.73). Although unadjusted rates of 1-year MACE were lower with prasugrel versus clopidogrel in both CKD (18.3% vs. 26.5%; p < 0.001) and non-CKD (10.9% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.001) patients, associations were attenuated after propensity stratification. Similarly, unadjusted differences in 1-year bleeding with prasugrel versus clopidogrel (6.0% vs. 7.4%; p = 0.18 in CKD patients; 2.6% vs. 3.5%; p = 0.008 in non-CKD patients) were not significant after propensity score adjustment. Although risks for 1-year MACE were significantly higher in ACS PCI patients with

  2. Evaluating the Illness Perception Questionnaire on patients with chronic kidney disease in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta; Söderquist, Birgitta Klang; Heiwe, Susanne

    2012-09-01

    The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) measures illness perception according to the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation. Illness perception relates to coping, health management, treatment outcomes and health-related quality of life. IPQ-R has been used in many contexts. However, there is yet no Swedish version evaluated for validity, reliability and usability in the context of a Swedish, adult population with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). To evaluate usability and psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of IPQ-R on a group of adults in different stages of CKD. Usability evaluation was carried out through cognitive interviews and psychometrics was assessed by internal consistency, test-retest, inter-correlations, correlations to health-related quality of life and coping and testing for concurrent validity. Content validity was strongly supported, but an uncertainty assessing symptoms attributed to CKD was indicated. All dimensions showed internal consistency, except the treatment control dimension. The IPQ-R showed good stability over time except the personal control dimension. Most IPQ-R dimensions distinguished illness representations between groups of different disease stages and symptom burden. The most supported IPQ-R dimensions for inter-correlations and convergent validity were identity, timeline cyclical, consequences and emotional representations. The evaluation of the Swedish version of IPQ-R on patients with CKD showed support for construct validity, except for the dimensions controllability, illness coherence and timeline, which were less supported. These dimensions should therefore be interpreted with care in CKD patients. There is a need to capture uncertainty regarding illness identity. IPQ-R should be interpreted with care in earlier stages of CKD or if few symptoms are reported. IPQ-R may be applicable and useful as a tool in nursing practice to support healthy behaviour as well as assessing clinical interventions in

  3. Peptic ulcer disease risk in chronic kidney disease: ten-year incidence, ulcer location, and ulcerogenic effect of medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Wang, I-Kuan; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chou, Che-Yi; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at determining peptic ulcer disease (PUD) incidence among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients during 1998-2008, compared to patients without CKD, and at examining associations between CKD and PUD. Data for 1998-2008 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The annual PUD incidence (cases per thousand persons per year) was calculated separately for patients with and without CKD. Characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed PUD (n = 16322) were compared to those of a control group without PUD (n = 32644). The 2 groups were matched for age, sex, and index year. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Over the 10-year period, the PUD incidence was ∼10-12 times higher in CKD patients than in those without CKD. Its incidence in elderly CKD patients increased rapidly over time. For CKD patients, most PUD events (>95%) were managed during hospitalization. Peptic ulcer risk, adjusted for all potential confounders, was much higher in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis (adjusted OR, 9.74; 95% CI, 7.11-13.31). Maintenance hemodialysis patients were 2 times more likely to have gastric ulcers than duodenal ulcers, while CKD patients not on dialysis had similar risks for both. There were no significant interactions between medications and CKD status on the peptic ulcer risk. Unlike CKD patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and clopidogrel, those on aspirin did not have a higher peptic ulcer risk (adjusted OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44-1.77). CKD patients have a substantially increased PUD risk, and the majority of CKD patients with PUD require hospital management. Further, peptic ulcer risk is affected by hemodialysis therapy, patient status (inpatient vs. outpatient), and ulcerogenic medications.

  4. Dietary phosphorus restriction by a standard low-protein diet decreased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in patients with early and advanced stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shunsuke; Nakai, Kentaro; Kono, Keiji; Yonekura, Yuriko; Ito, Jun; Fujii, Hideki; Nishi, Shinichi

    2014-12-01

    Elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although recent studies demonstrated that FGF23 levels decreased in response to dietary restriction of phosphorus and/or use of phosphate binders, research on the effects of a standard low-protein diet is lacking. The effects of a standard low-protein diet on serum FGF23, intact parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were investigated in patients with early (n = 15) and advanced (n = 20) CKD. Serum FGF23 levels decreased in both groups. Changes in FGF23 levels correlated with changes in 24 h urinary phosphorus excretion in the advanced CKD group. Decreased serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were observed only in the advanced CKD group and increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels only in the early CKD group. These findings suggest that consuming standard low-protein diet decreased serum FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. Serum FGF23 levels may therefore be a useful marker to monitor the effects of a low-protein diet in early and advanced stage CKD.

  5. Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Pappas, Maria K; Sinha, Arjun D

    2016-03-01

    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ≥120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ≥130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (κ coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a κ coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Advance care planning for adults with CKD: a systematic integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Sellars, Marcus; Tieman, Jennifer; Pollock, Carol A; Silvester, William; Butow, Phyllis N; Detering, Karen M; Brennan, Frank; Clayton, Josephine M

    2014-05-01

    Recent clinical practice guidelines have highlighted the importance of advance care planning (ACP) for improving end-of-life care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a systematic integrative review of the literature to inform future ACP practice and research in CKD, searching electronic databases in April 2013. Synthesis used narrative methods. We focused on adults with a primary diagnosis of CKD in any setting. We included studies of any design, quantitative or qualitative. ACP was defined as any formal means taken to ensure that health professionals and family members are aware of patients' wishes for care in the event they become too unwell to speak for themselves. Measures of all kinds were considered of interest. 55 articles met criteria reporting on 51 discrete samples. All patient samples included people with CKD stage 5; 2 also included patients with stage 4. Seven interventions were tested; all were narrowly focused and none was evaluated by comparing wishes for end-of-life care with care received. One intervention demonstrated effects on patient and family outcomes in the form of improved well-being and anxiety following sessions with a peer mentor. Insights from qualitative studies that have not been used to inform interventions include the importance of instilling patient confidence that their advance directives will be enacted and discussing decisions about (dis)continuing dialysis therapy separately from "aggressive" life-sustaining treatments (eg, ventilation). Although quantitative and qualitative findings were integrated according to best practice, methods for this are in their infancy. Research on ACP in patients with CKD is limited, especially intervention studies. Interventions in CKD should attend to barriers and facilitators at the levels of patient, caregiver, health professional, and system. Intervention studies should measure impact on compliance with patient wishes for end-of-life care. Copyright © 2014 National

  7. Oxidative stress is associated with decreased heart rate variability in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaee, Shannon B; Beetham, Kassia S; Howden, Erin J; Stanton, Tony; Isbel, Nicole M; Coombes, Jeff S

    2017-09-01

    Elevated oxidative stress and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have identified a positive association between elevated oxidative stress and autonomic dysfunction, however this relationship has not yet been investigated in the CKD population. Plasma was collected from 78 patients with stage 3-4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 25-60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) for the assessment of oxidative stress, including plasma total F2-isoprostanes, glutathione peroxidase activity and total antioxidant capacity. Time and frequency HRV parameters were measured from a three lead electrocardiogram. Participants with elevated F2-isoprostanes had reduced HRV compared to patients with normal levels of F2-isoprostanes. A number of HRV parameters were found to be inversely correlated with F2-isoprostanes in all CKD patients, including SDNN (r = -0.337; P stress is significantly and independently associated with HRV in patients with CKD. Identifying oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction may help target therapeutic strategies.

  8. Adherence to chronic kidney disease guidelines in primary care patients is associated with comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dipten, Carola; van Berkel, Saskia; van Gelder, Vincent A; Wetzels, Jack F M; Akkermans, Reinier P; de Grauw, Wim J C; Biermans, Marion C J; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke D; Assendelft, Willem J J

    2017-08-01

    GPs insufficiently follow guidelines regarding consultation and referral for chronic kidney disease (CKD). To identify patient characteristics and quality of care (QoC) in CKD patients with whom consultation and referral recommendations were not followed. A 14 month prospective observational cohort study of primary care patients with CKD stage 3-5. 47 practices participated, serving 207469 people. 2547 CKD patients fulfilled consultation criteria, 225 fulfilled referral criteria. We compared characteristics of patients managed by GPs with patients receiving nephrologist co-management. We assessed QoC as adherence to monitoring criteria, CKD recognition and achievement of blood pressure (BP) targets. Patients treated in primary care despite a consultation recommendation (94%) had higher eGFR values (OR 1.07; 95% CI: 1.05-1.09), were less often monitored for renal function (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.24-0.74) and potassium (OR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35-0.92) and CKD was less frequently recognised (OR 0.46; 95% CI: 0.31-0.68) than in patients with nephrologist co-management. Patients treated in primary care despite referral recommendation (70%) were older (OR 1.03; 95% CI:1.01-1.06) and had less cardiovascular disease (OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.19-0.73). Overall, in patients solely managed by GPs, CKD recognition was 50%, monitoring disease progression in 36% and metabolic parameters in 3%, BP targets were achieved in 51%. Monitoring of renal function and BP was positively associated with diabetes (OR 3.10; 95% CI: 2.47-3.88 and OR 7.78; 95% CI: 3.21-18.87) and hypertension (OR 3.19; 95% CI: 2.67-3.82 and OR 3.35; 95% CI: 1.45-7.77). Patients remaining in primary care despite nephrologists' co-management recommendations were inadequately monitored, and BP targets were insufficiently met. CKD patients without cardiovascular comorbidity or diabetes require extra attention to guarantee adequate monitoring of renal function and BP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  9. Improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaravong, Leenhapong; Barakat, Michel; Burgon, Nathan; Mahnkopf, Christian; Koopmann, Matthias; Ranjan, Ravi; Kholmovski, Eugene; Marrouche, Nassir; Akoum, Nazem

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexist. We studied the association of CKD with atrial fibrosis and the effect of AF ablation on kidney function. AF patients who had a pre- and postablation serum creatinine and who completed a late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; LGE-MRI) prior to ablation were included. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated and CKD was staged using the National Kidney Foundation guidelines. Patients with eGFR disease. Atrial fibrosis was not significant different between included CKD stages: 15.8 ± 8.8%, 16.6 ± 12.1%, 17.1 ± 10.4%, and 16.5 ± 8.4% for CKD stage 1, 2, 3A, and 3B, respectively (P = 0.476). At a median of 115 days following ablation, eGFR increased significantly in CKD stage 2 (74 ± 9 to 80 ± 23; P = 0.04), 3A (53 ± 5 to 69 ± 24; P chronic kidney disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Age- and sex-tailored serum phosphate thresholds do not improve cardiovascular risk estimation in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Bonello, Monica; Gambaro, Alessia; Sturniolo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Disordered metabolism of phosphorus is one of the hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Age and sex may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and subsequently its serum level. We evaluated if age- and sex-specific cutoffs for hyperphosphatemia may define cardiovascular risk better than the current guideline cutoffs. We used data from 16,834 subjects participating in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); the prevalence of self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality rates were analyzed in CKD patients for both the classic definitions (CH; i.e., NKF-KDOQI and K-DIGO) and a tailored definition (TH) of hyperphosphatemia by means of regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. The cutoffs for TH were represented by the 95th percentile of an age- and sex-matched non-CKD population. Serum phosphorus levels showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.12; pdefinition and CVD was marginally better compared with the CH definition (odds ratio [OR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04-2.13; p=0.030 vs. OR=1.55, 95% CI, 0.98-2.44; p = 0.059), the TH model was not superior in predicting CVD or mortality. Our data suggest that a tailored, age- and sex-specific definition of hyperphosphatemia is not superior to conventional definitions in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with CKD.

  11. Race, gender, and socioeconomic disparities in CKD in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Keith; Nissenson, Allen R

    2008-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a national public health problem beset by inequities in incidence, prevalence, and complications across gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. As health care providers, we can directly address some factors crucial for closing the disparities gap. Other factors are seemingly beyond our reach, entrenched within the fabric of our society, such as social injustice and human indifference. Paradoxically, the existence of health inequities provides unique, unrecognized opportunities for understanding biologic, environmental, sociocultural, and health care system factors that can lead to improved clinical outcomes. Several recent reports documented that structured medical care systems can reduce many CKD-related disparities and improve patient outcomes. Can the moral imperative to eliminate CKD inequities inspire the nephrology community not only to advocate for but also to demand high-quality, structured health care delivery systems for all Americans in the context of social reform that improves the ecology, health, and well-being of our communities? If so, then perhaps we can eliminate the unacceptable premature morbidity and mortality associated with CKD and the tragedy of health inequities. By so doing, we could become global leaders not only in medical technology, as we currently are, but also in health promotion and disease prevention, truly leaving no patient behind.

  12. Association between plasma soluble RAGE and renal function is unaffected by medication usage and enzymatic antioxidants in chronic kidney disease with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Foo Nian; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Keng, Tee Chau; Ng, Kok Peng; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2016-01-30

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between soluble RAGE and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) after controlling for the potential confounding factors such as medication usage and enzymatic antioxidants. A total of 222 CKD patients whose eGFR is less than 60ml/min/1.73m(2) and 111 non-CKD individuals were recruited. The study subjects were classified based on their diabetes status. The plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as plasma soluble RAGE level were measured. The plasma GPx and SOD activities were significantly lower and the plasma soluble RAGE level was significantly higher in the CKD patients than in the non-CKD individuals, regardless of the diabetes status. Soluble RAGE was significantly correlated with eGFR in both diabetic CKD (D-CKD) and non-diabetic CKD (ND-CKD) patients. The association between soluble RAGE and eGFR remained largely unaffected by the confounding factors in D-CKD patients. However, the confounding effect of enzymatic antioxidants in the relationship between eGFR and soluble RAGE was observed in ND-CKD patients. The increased plasma level of soluble RAGE is a better indicator of renal function decline in diabetic CKD patients instead of non-diabetic CKD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Agreement between renal prescribing references and determination of prescribing appropriateness in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, M; Allen, N; O'Regan, J; Payne-Danson, E; Mentre, L; Davin, D; Lavin, P; Grimes, T

    2017-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for adverse drug events. The clinical significance of discordance between renal prescribing references is unknown. We determined the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in CKD, measured agreement between two prescribing references, and assessed potential for harm consequent to PIP. Single-centre observational study. A random sample of hospitalized patients with CKD were grouped according to baseline CKD stage (3, 4, or 5). Prescriptions requiring caution in CKD were referenced against the Renal Drug Handbook (RDH) and British National Formulary (BNF) to identify PIP (non-compliance with recommendations). Inter-reference agreement was measured using percentage agreement and Kappa coefficient. Potential for harm consequent to PIP was assessed by physicians and pharmacists using a validated scale. One-year mortality was compared between patients with or without PIP during admission. Among 119 patients (median age 73 years, 50% male), 136 cases of PIP were identified in 78 (65.5%) patients. PIP prevalence, per patient, was 64.7% using the BNF and 28.6% using the RDH (fair agreement, Kappa 0.33, P references was apparent. The development of universally-adopted, evidence-based, prescribing guidelines for CKD might optimize medications safety in this vulnerable group. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Serum uric acid, the metabolic syndrome, and the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2014-03-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) has been suggested as a potentially modifiable mediator associated with the metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome were both associated with adverse renal outcome. However, epidemiologic data are limited regarding this relationship in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aims to determine whether elevated SUA is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic risk factors, albuminuria, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a large sample of patients with T2DM. It also examines the combined effect of SUA and metabolic syndrome components on the odds of CKD. A total of 1463 patients with T2DM were recruited. Blood samples were obtained to measure metabolic parameters. Patients with macroalbuminuria or an estimated glomerular filtration rate of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, hypertension, high triglycerides (TGs), CKD, and macroalbuminuria was significantly higher in patients with hyperuricemia than those in the lowest tertile of SUA (T1). One standard deviation (SD) increment of SUA was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high TGs after adjustment for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albuminuria. The odds of CKD went up to 1.37-fold with every 1 SD increment of SUA, independent of age, sex, and components of metabolic syndrome. There was a significant, graded increase in odds of CKD by increasing SUA levels and the number of metabolic syndrome risk factors (Pmetabolic syndrome components on the odds of CKD.

  15. Prevalence and severity of disordered mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease: A study from a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Vikrant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered mineral metabolism is common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, there are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in Indian CKD population. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD over a period of 3 years. The biochemical markers of CKD-MBD, namely, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and 25-hydoxyvitamin Vitamin D3 (25OHD, were measured in newly diagnosed CKD Stage 3–5 and prevalent CKD Stage 5D adult patients. Results: A total of 462 patients of CKD Stage 3–5D were studied. The frequency of various biochemical abnormalities was hypocalcemia (23.8%, hypercalcemia (5.4%, hypophosphatemia (2.8%, hyperphosphatemia (55.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase (56.9%, secondary hyperparathyroidism (82.7%, and hypoparathyroidism (1.5%. 25OHD was done in 335 (72.5% patients and 90.4% were found to have Vitamin D deficiency. About 70.6% of the patients had iPTH levels were above kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (KDOQI target range. Nondiabetic CKD as compared to diabetic CKD had a higher alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.016, a higher iPTH (P = 0.001 a higher proportion of patients with iPTH above KDOQI target range (P = 0.09, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.004. The 25OHD levels were suggestive of severe Vitamin D deficiency in 33.7%, Vitamin D deficiency in 45.4%, and Vitamin D insufficiency in 11.3% patients. There was a significant positive correlation between iPTH with alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.572, P = 0.001, creatinine (r = 0.424, P = 0.001, and phosphorus (r = 0.241, P = 0.001 and a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin (r = −0.325, 0.001, age (r = −0.169, P = 0.002, and 25OHD (r = −0.126, P = 0.021. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an elevated alkaline phosphatase was a significant predictor of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 9.7, 95

  16. The impact of renal insufficiency and anaemia on survival in patients with cardiovascular disease: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderson, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The simultaneous occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), kidney disease, and anaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In the community setting, little data exists about the risk associated with milder levels of anaemia when it is present concurrently with CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of CKD and anaemia in patients with CVD in the community and to examine whether the presence of anaemia was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study and involved a random sample of 35 general practices in the West of Ireland. A practice-based sample of 1,609 patients with established cardiovascular disease was generated in 2000\\/2001 and followed for five years. The primary endpoint was death from any cause. Statistical analysis involved using one-way ANOVA and Chi-squared tests for baseline data and Cox proportional-hazards models for mortality data. RESULTS: Of the study sample of 617 patients with blood results, 33% (n = 203) had CKD while 6% (n = 37) had CKD and anaemia. The estimated risk of death from any cause, when compared to patients with cardiovascular disease only, was almost double (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.98) for patients with both CVD and CKD and was over 4 times greater (HR = 4.33, 95% CI 1.76 to 10.68) for patients with CVD, CKD and anaemia. CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiovascular disease in the community, chronic kidney disease and anaemia occur commonly. The presence of chronic kidney disease carries an increased mortality risk which increases in an additive way with the addition of anaemia. These results suggest that early primary care diagnosis and management of this high risk group may be worthwhile.

  17. Perspectives on optimizing care of patients in multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, David; Russell, Randall; Verdon, Josee; Beaulieu, Monica; Levin, Adeera

    2016-01-01

    To summarize a jointly held symposium by the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN), the Canadian Association of Nephrology Administrators (CANA), and the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) entitled "Perspectives on Optimizing Care of Patients in Multidisciplinary Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Clinics" that was held on April 24, 2015, in Montreal, Quebec. The panel consisted of a variety of members from across Canada including a multidisciplinary CKD clinic patient (Randall Russell), nephrology fellow (Dr. David Collister), geriatrician (Dr. Josee Verdon), and nephrologists (Dr. Monica Beaulieu, Dr. Adeera Levin). The objectives of the symposium were (1) to gain an understanding of the goals of care for CKD patients, (2) to gain an appreciation of different perspectives regarding optimal care for patients with CKD, (3) to examine the components required for optimal care including education strategies, structures, and tools, and (4) to describe a framework and metrics for CKD care which respect patient and system needs. This article summarizes the key concepts discussed at the symposium from a patient and physician perspectives. Key messages include (1) understanding patient values and preferences is important as it provides a framework as to what to prioritize in multidisciplinary CKD clinic and provincial renal program models, (2) barriers to effective communication and education are common in the elderly, and adaptive strategies to limit their influence are critical to improve adherence and facilitate shared decision-making, (3) the use of standardized operating procedures (SOPs) improves efficiency and minimizes practice variability among health care practitioners, and (4) CKD scorecards with standardized system processes are useful in approaching variability as well as measuring and improving patient outcomes. The perspectives provided may not be applicable across centers given the differences in patient populations including

  18. Thyroid function and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Saglam, Mutlu; Karaman, Murat; Gezer, Mustafa; Sonmez, Alper; Eyileten, Tayfun; Aydin, Ibrahim; Hamcan, Salih; Oguz, Yusuf; Covic, Adrian; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    Abnormalities of thyroid function are commonly seen in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. They are associated with adverse clinical conditions such as atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and abnormal blood pressure variability. We investigated the association between thyroid disorders and endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and cardiovascular events (CVE) in CKD patients. This observational cohort study included 305 CKD (stages 1-5) patients. Routine biochemistry, including free T3, free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and FMD, CIMT were measured. We divided patients into four groups according to thyroid hormone status: euthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and euthyroid sick syndrome. Fatal and composite CVE were recorded for a median 29 months. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes and also were more likely to have higher values of systolic CIMT, phosphorus, intact parathormone (iPTH), FGF-23, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and lower levels of FMD than euthyroid patients. In the unadjusted survival analysis, subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid sick syndrome were associated with an increased risk for the outcome as compared with euthyroidism [hazard ratio 30.63 (95 % confidence interval 12.27-76.48) and 12.17 (3.70-39.98), respectively]. The effects of subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid sick syndrome were maintained even in fully adjusted models. We demonstrated that subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid sick syndrome are associated with increased CVE in CKD patients. Further studies are needed to explore these issues.

  19. Poor sleep quality is responsible for the nondipper pattern in hypertensive but not in normotensive chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Cheng; Gong, Wenyu; Ye, Zengchun; Tang, Ying; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Hui; Lou, Tanqi

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality and hypertension and to determine if there was an association between nondipper blood pressure (BP) and sleep quality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. A total of 775 pre-dialysis CKD patients (314 normal BP patients, 461 hypertension patients) defined as dippers or nondippers by ambulatory BP monitoring were recruited for this study. Demographics and clinical correlates were collected, including body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and other measures. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A total of 185 (58.9%) patients with normal BP and 341 (74.0%) hypertensive patients had a nondipper BP pattern. The hypertension group had a higher prevalence of the nondipper BP pattern, smoking, alcohol intake and diabetes mellitus (DM) and lower eGFR levels and poorer sleep quality than the normal BP group. Patients with the nondipper BP pattern had lower haemoglobin, worse renal function and poorer sleep quality when compared with hypertensive CKD patients with the dipping BP pattern. PSQI scores were significantly associated with the rate of nocturnal BP decline (P sleep quality was an independent factor affecting BP pattern in hypertensive CKD patients using multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses. There was no association between sleep quality and hypertension in CKD patients after multivariate logistic regression analyses. Poor sleep quality, which is commonly observed in pre-dialysis CKD patients, is an independent associated factor of the nondipper BP pattern in hypertensive CKD patients. No association was found between poor sleep and nondipper BP in normotensive patients. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Comparison of associations of urine protein-creatinine ratio versus albumin-creatinine ratio with complications of CKD: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Herrick; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lin, Feng; Bansal, Nisha

    2013-12-01

    Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) are important markers of kidney damage and are used for prognosis in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite how commonly these measurements are done in clinical practice, relatively few studies have directly compared the performance of these 2 measures with regard to associations with clinical outcomes, which may inform clinicians about which measure of urinary protein excretion is best. We studied the association of ACR and PCR with common complications of CKD. Cross-sectional study. 3,481 participants with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. ACR and PCR. We examined the association between ACR and PCR with measures of common CKD complications: serum hemoglobin, bicarbonate, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, potassium, and albumin. Restricted cubic spline analyses adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; calculated by the MDRD [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease] Study equation) were performed to study the continuous association with our predictors with each outcome. Mean eGFR was 43±13 (SD)mL/min/1.73 m2 and median values for PCR and ACR were 140 and 46 mg/g, respectively. In continuous analyses adjusted for eGFR, higher ACRs and PCRs were similar and both were associated with lower serum hemoglobin, bicarbonate, and albumin levels and higher parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, and potassium levels. Across all outcomes, the associations of ACR and PCR were similar, with only small absolute differences in the outcome measure. Similar associations were seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. Participants largely had moderate CKD with low values for ACR and PCR, so results may not be generalizable to all CKD populations. In persons with CKD, ACR and PCR are relatively similar in their associations with common complications of CKD. Thus, routine measurement of PCR may provide similar information as ACR in managing immediate complications of CKD

  1. Optimal medication dosing in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Lori

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Canada. As rates of diabetes rise, so does the prevalence of CKD. Diabetes and CKD are chronic diseases that require multiple medications for their management. Many of the anticipated effects of these medications are altered by the physiologic changes that occur in CKD. Failure to individualize drug dosing in this population may lead to toxicity or decreased therapeutic response, leading to treatment failure. At times this can be challenging for a multitude of reasons, including the limitations of available calculations for estimating renal function, inconsistent dosing recommendations and the lack of dosing recommendations for some medications. Clinicians caring for these patients need to consider an approach of individualized drug therapy that will ensure optimal outcomes. The better understanding that clinicians have of these challenges, the more effective they will be at using the available information as a guide together with their own professional judgement to make appropriate dosing changes. This article discusses the following: 1) physiologic changes that occur in CKD and its impact on drug dosing; 2) advantages and disadvantages of various calculations used for estimating renal function; 3) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes of some commonly used medications in diabetes, and finally, 4) an approach to individualized drug dosing for this patient population. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral conditions, periodontal status and periodontal treatment need of chronic kidney disease patients

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    Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Majority of the CKD patients reviewed had poor periodontal status with code 2 TN. We, therefore, recommend nonsurgical periodontal treatment for all CKD patients to improve their oral health and forestall the systemic effects of periodontal pathology.

  3. Strategies to promote adherence to nutritional advice in patients with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beto JA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Judith A Beto, Katherine A Schury, Vinod K Bansal Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Loyola University Healthcare System, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD requires extensive changes to food and lifestyle. Poor adherence to diet, medications, and treatments has been estimated to vary between 20% and 70%, which in turn can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity. Delivering effective nutritional advice in patients with CKD coordinates multiple diet components including calories, protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and fluid. Dietary intake studies have shown difficulty in adhering to the scope and complexity of the CKD diet parameters. No single educational or clinical strategy has been shown to be consistently effective across CKD populations. Highest adherence has been observed when both diet and education efforts are individualized to each patient and adapted over time to changing lifestyle and CKD variables. This narrative review and commentary summarizes nutrition education literature and published strategies for providing nutritional advice in CKD. A cohort of practical and effective strategies for increasing dietary adherence to nutritional advice are provided that include communicating with "talking control" principles, integrating patient-owned technology, acknowledging the typical food pattern may be snacking rather than formal meals, focusing on a single goal rather than multiple goals, creating active learning and coping strategies (frozen sandwiches, visual hands-on activities, planting herb gardens, and involving the total patient food environment. Keywords: talking control, technology-enhanced learning, hemodialysis, nutrition education, education strategies

  4. The Analysis of Asymetric Dimethylarginine and Homocysteine in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tetty Hendrawati; Syakib Bakri; Mansyur Arif

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). ADMA reduces NO synthesis when its concentration elevates. ADMA is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Plasma ADMA accumulates in patients with endstage renal disease, due to reduced renal clearance. Hyperhomocysteinemia is often found in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Homocysteine may cause ADMA to accumulate; however, the mechanism by which ADMA level elevates i...

  5. The spectrum of bone disease in Jordanian hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, Nidal A.; Al-Mansour, M.; Sroujieh, Ahmad S.; Wahbeh, A.; Ailabouni, W.; Hamzah, Y.; Mahafzah, W.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the spectrum of mineral abnormalities and bone disease (BD) in hemodialysis patients at Jordan University Hospital (JUH), Amman, Jordan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 63 patients (38 males and 25 females), mean age 44.19 years (range 17-76 years), with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on regular hemodialysis at JUH between November 2004 and April 2005. All patients have undergone complete blood count, chemistry profile, alkaline phosphatase, serum albumin, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and plain x-rays. Bone disorders were identified in 45 patients on x-rays (70%). Osteopenia was found in 43 patients (68.3%), subperiosteal resorption in 24 patients (38.3%) and metastatic calcification in 22 patients (35%). Hypocalcemia was found in 28.6% and hypercalcemia in 7.9%. All patients were taking calcium carbonate, and 55.5% of patients were on vitamin D supplements. The calcium levels in 63.5% and the phosphorus levels in 50.8% of patients were within the recommended guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). Serum i-PTH level was above 300 pg/ml high turnover bone disease in 24.6% of patients, 21.3% had iPTH of 150-300 pg/ml target, and 44.3% had i-PTH levels below 100 pg/mL suggesting a dynamic bone disease. Patients with severe bone disease had a statistically significant higher iPTH levels (p<0.005). Bone disease and mineral abnormalities are common in hemodialysis patients at JUH. Earlier detection of bone disease and better overall management strategy may reduce the frequency and severity of bone disease in CKD patients in Jordan. (author)

  6. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilana Paula Carillo Artese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the composition of subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Sixteen CKD pre-dialysis individuals (CKD and 14 individuals without clinical evidence of kidney disease (C presenting chronic periodontitis were treated by scaling and root planing. Subgingival samples were collected from each patient and analyzed for their composition by checkerboard at baseline and 3 months post-therapy. Significant differences between groups at baseline were sought by the Mann-Whitney and χ² tests. Changes over time were examined by the Wilcoxon test. At baseline, the CKD group had significantly lower counts of E. faecalis compared to the C group (p < 0.05. After treatment, the levels of a greater number of species were reduced in the C group. Higher levels of A. israelii, C. rectus, F. periodonticum, P. micra, P. nigrescens, T. forsythia, N. mucosa, and S. anginosus (p < 0.05 were found in the CKD group compared to the C group. Also, non-responsive sites in CKD individuals harbored significantly higher levels of pathogenic species (T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, T. denticola, Fusobacterium spp., D. pneumosintes, E. faecalis and S. aureus; p < 0.05 than sites that responded to therapy, as well as non-responsive sites in the C group. The periodontitis-associated subgingival microbiota of CKD and systemically healthy individuals was similar in composition. However, high levels of pathogenic species persisted in the subgingival microbiota of patients with CKD after treatment.

  7. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a biomarker of disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    M L Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with early mortality, decreased quality of life and increased health care expenditures. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not urinary NGAL (uNGAL level is associated with renal damage and kidney disease progression in patients with CKD and to evaluate the predictive value of uNGAL in progression of CKD. Totally, 91 cases of CKD stage II, III, IV, and 50 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The follow-up end-point was 18 months; end-point of the study was progression to an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of <15 ml/min and/or CKD stage V. Forty-five cases (49.4% were progressors and 46 were nonprogressors. uNGAL levels were significantly higher in CKD subjects as compared to healthy controls (log 1.09 ± 0.22 μg/ml in controls versus log 1.22 ± 2.08 μg/ml in stage II, log 3.34 ± 2.74 μg/ml in stage III and log 3.70 ± 0.18 μg/ml in stage IV. Univariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that only eGFR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-0.96; P < 0.001 and uNGAL (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.20; P < 0.001 were significantly associated with end-point of CKD stage V, but multiple Cox proportional regression model showed significant association of uNGAL (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.20; P < 0.001 and eGFR (HR: 0.962, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98; P < 0.001 with end-point of CKD stage V. This suggests that uNGAL would not be a simple surrogate index of baseline eGFR, but a marker of CKD progression beyond the information provided by eGFR estimation.

  8. Management of Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-Fang; Hoshide, Satoshi; Cheng, Hao-Min; Park, Sungha; Park, Chang-Gyu; Chen, Chen-Huan; Kario, Kazuomi; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is both a cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). According to the Chinese national survey in 2007-2010, the prevalence of CKD was much higher in hypertensive patients (18.9%, n=16,691) than in the overall population sample (10.8%, n=47,204). CKD in hypertension confers risks to the kidneys as well as other organs. Probably because of high dietary salt intake, Asian hypertensive patients with CKD show high prevalence of non-dipping and reversed dipping blood pressure pattern, and may have even higher risks of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, out-of-office blood pressure evaluation and comprehensive cardiovascular evaluations are required. Most of current hypertension guidelines recommend intensive antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive patients with CKD. This is probably of particular relevance for cardiovascular prevention in Asia, because stroke, as a major complication of hypertension in Asia, is more closely related to blood pressure than coronary events. Intensive blood pressure control to 130/80 mmHg is often required to prevent CKD progression and cardiovascular complications. The inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are recommended as the first line antihypertensive medications in patients with a glomerular filtration rate higher than 30 ml/min/1.73 m², which may more efficaciously prevent end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. Nonetheless, combination therapy of RAS inhibitors with other classes of antihypertensive drugs, such as calcium-channel blockers, diuretics, etc, is required to control blood pressure to the target. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of gout in a large cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease: the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jiaojiao; Kielstein, Jan T; Schultheiss, Ulla T; Sitter, Thomas; Titze, Stephanie I; Schaeffner, Elke S; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Kronenberg, Florian; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Köttgen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Reduced kidney function is a risk factor for hyperuricaemia and gout, but limited information on the burden of gout is available from studies of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We therefore examined the prevalence and correlates of gout in the large prospective observational German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. Data from 5085 CKD patients aged 18-74 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-patients on urate lowering therapy, 47.2% still showed hyperuricaemia. Factors associated with gout were serum urate, lower eGFR, advanced age, male sex, higher body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, higher triglyceride and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, alcohol intake and diuretics use. While lower eGFR categories showed significant associations with gout in multivariable-adjusted models (prevalence ratio 1.46 for eGFR patients with CKD and lower GFR is strongly associated with gout. Pharmacological management of gout in patients with CKD is suboptimal. Prospective follow-up will show whether gout and hyperuricaemia increase the risk of CKD progression and cardiovascular events in the GCKD study. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. How are patients with type 2 diabetes and renal disease monitored and managed? Insights from the observational OREDIA study

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    Penfornis A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Penfornis,1 Jean Frédéric Blicklé,2 Béatrice Fiquet,3 Stéphane Quéré,4 Sylvie Dejager3 1Department of Endocrinology-Metabolism and Diabetology-Nutrition, Jean Minjoz Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France; 3Clinical Affairs, Novartis Pharma SAS, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 4BioStatistics, Novartis Pharma SAS, Rueil-Malmaison, France Background and aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and therapeutic management of diabetes is more challenging in patients with renal impairment (RI. The place of metformin is of particular interest since most scientific societies now recommend using half the dosage in moderate RI and abstaining from use in severe RI, while the classic contraindication with RI has not been removed from the label. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic management, in particular the use of metformin, of T2DM patients with CKD in real life. Methods: This was a French cross-sectional observational study: 3,704 patients with T2DM diagnosed for over 1 year and pharmacologically treated were recruited in two cohorts (two-thirds were considered to have renal disease [CKD patients] and one-third were not [non-CKD patients] by 968 physicians (81% general practitioners in 2012. Results: CKD versus non-CKD patients were significantly older with longer diabetes history, more diabetic complications, and less strict glycemic control (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.5% versus 7.1%; 25% of CKD patients had HbA1c ≥8% versus 15% of non-CKD patients. Fifteen percent of CKD patients had severe RI, and 66% moderate RI. Therapeutic management of T2DM was clearly distinct in CKD, with less use of metformin (62% versus 86% but at similar mean daily doses (~2 g/d. Of patients with severe RI, 33% were still treated with metformin, at similar doses. For other oral anti

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdalles, Úrsula; Goicoechea, Marian; Garcia de Vinuesa, Soledad; Quiroga, Borja; Galan, Isabel; Verde, Eduardo; Perez de Jose, Ana; Luño, José

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased albuminuria are associated with RH; however, there are few published studies about the prevalence of this entity in patients with CKD. To estimate the prevalence of RH in patients with different degrees of kidney disease and analyse the characteristics of this group of patients. A total of 618 patients with hypertension and CKD stages i-iv were enrolled, of which 82 (13.3%) met the criteria for RH. RH prevalence increased significantly with age, the degree of CKD and albuminuria. The prevalence of RH was 3.2% in patients under 50 years, 13.8% between 50-79 years and peaked at 17.8% in patients older than 80 years. Renal function prevalence was 4, 15.8 and 18.1% in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of > 60, 30-59 and  300mg/g respectively. In a logistic regression model, the characteristics associated with resistant hypertension were age, history of cardiovascular disease, GFR, albuminuria and diabetes mellitus. A total of 47.5% of patients with resistant hypertension had controlled BP (<140/90mmHg) with 4 or more antihypertensive drugs. These patients were younger, with better renal function, less albuminuria and received more aldosterone antagonists. RH prevalence increases with age, the degree of CKD and albuminuria. Strategies such as treatment with aldosterone receptor antagonists are associated with better blood pressure control in this group of patients, leading to reduced prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative study of renal dysfunction in patients with inflammatory arthropathies: strong association with cardiovascular diseases and not with anti-rheumatic therapies, inflammatory markers or duration of arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among comparable patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and seronegative inflammatory arthritis, and to explore any predictive factors for renal impairment. METHODS: Consecutive patients with peripheral joint disease (oligo and polyarthritis) were recruited from our inflammatory arthritis clinics. We divided patients in two groups: RA group and seronegative inflammatory arthritis group. The cohort consisted of 183 patients (RA = 107, seronegative arthritis = 76 [psoriatic arthritis = 69, undifferentiated oligoarthritis = 7]). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the established Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Demographic details, disease-specific characteristics, anti-rheumatic drugs and the presence of cardiovascular diseases were recorded. RESULTS: In total, 17.48% (n = 32) of the cohort had CKD. There was no statistically significant variation between the two groups as regards baseline demographics, disease characteristics, use of anti-rheumatic drugs and the presence of individual cardiovascular diseases. We found that eGFR and the presence of CKD were similar among these groups. Among patients with CKD, 72% had undiagnosed CKD. No association of statistical significance was noted between CKD and the use of corticosteroids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. The association of cardiovascular diseases with CKD remained significant after adjusting for confounders (age, gender, duration of arthritis, high C-reactive protein, use of anti-rheumatic drugs). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with inflammatory arthritis are more prone to have CKD. This could have serious implications, as the majority of rheumatology patients use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and different immunosuppressives, such as methotrexate. No association of kidney dysfunction was noted with inflammatory disease

  13. Improving the efficacy of RAAS blockade in patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; de Borst, Martin H.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan J.

    I Reduction of blood pressure and proteinuria by blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been the cornerstone of renoprotective intervention for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many years. Despite the proven efficacy of RAAS blockade, however, the reduction in

  14. Sudden cardiac death in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Caravaca

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: SCD is relatively common in non-dialysis advanced CKD patients. SCD was closely related to age and comorbidity, and some indirect data from this study suggest that unrecognized or undertreated cardiovascular disease may predispose to a higher risk of SCD.

  15. Risk of stroke and bleeding in patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Line; Overvad, Thure Filskov; Skjøth, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relation to ischaemic stroke, intracranial haemorrhage, major bleeding, and all-cause death in heart failure patients without atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this observational cohort...

  16. Glucose-lowering drugs in patients with chronic kidney disease : a narrative review on pharmacokinetic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnouts, Paul; Bolignano, Davide; Nistor, Ionut; Bilo, Henk; Gnudi, Luigi; Heaf, James; van Biesen, Wim

    The achievement of a good glycaemic control is one of the cornerstones for preventing and delaying progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). As for other drugs, the presence of an impaired renal function may

  17. Timely Referral to Outpatient Nephrology Care Slows Progression and Reduces Treatment Costs of Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Lonnemann

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Timely referral to outpatient nephrology care is associated with slowed disease progression, less hospital admissions, reduced total treatment costs, and improved survival in patients with CKD.

  18. Long-Term Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Outcomes of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in the Era of Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wańha, Wojciech; Kawecki, Damian; Roleder, Tomasz; Pluta, Aleksandra; Marcinkiewicz, Kamil; Morawiec, Beata; Dola, Janusz; Gładysz, Sylwia; Pawłowski, Tomasz; Smolka, Grzegorz; Ochała, Andrzej; Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa; Wojakowski, Wojciech

    2017-02-01

    The following registry (Katowice-Zabrze retrospective registry) aimed to assess the influence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD) on long-term clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using either first-generation (DES-I) or second-generation (DES-II) drug-eluting stents. The study group consisted of 1,908 consecutive patients, of whom 331 (17.3%) had CKD. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/m 2 . We evaluated the major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE), i.e., the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and target vessel revascularization at the 12-month follow-up. CKD patients had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction and more often a history of MI and PCI. Coronary angiography revealed that multivessel coronary artery disease, intracoronary thrombus, and extensive calcifications were more frequent in patients with CKD. However, the SYNTAX score did not vary between patients with or without CKD. There was a higher rate of in-hospital bleedings requiring blood transfusion in patients with CKD. At the 1-year follow-up, MACCE (17.8 vs. 12.6%, HR = 1.46 [95% CI 1.05-2.03], p = 0.009) and death (8.4 vs. 2.3%, HR = 3.9 [95% CI 2.0-7.5], p < 0.001) were more often observed in CKD patients. Multivariable Cox analysis revealed that CKD was an independent risk predictor of death after PCI at the 1-year follow-up (HR = 2.1 [95% CI 1.2-3.6], p = 0.004). In comparison to DES-I, the use of DES-II did not decrease the adverse effect of CKD on MACCE. CKD patients had an increased risk of in-hospital bleeding requiring blood transfusion and a higher risk of MACCE and death at the 12-month follow-up. The use of second-generation DES did not improve clinical outcomes in patients with CKD at the 12-month follow-up.

  19. The effect of a multidisciplinary care clinic on the outcomes in pediatric chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajarmeh, Salma; Er, Lee; Brin, Genevieve; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Dionne, Janis M

    2012-10-01

    Current best evidence-based practice for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) attempts to achieve good clinical outcomes through careful management of comorbidities and is likely best achieved with a multidisciplinary care (MDC) CKD clinic. In this retrospective study of children with CKD in British Columbia, Canada, we analyzed clinical outcomes in a cohort of 73 CKD patients from 2003 under a standard care model and a second cohort of 125 CKD patients from 2009 under a MDC clinic model. Patient demographics were similar, but there was a decrease in the percentage of patients with CKD stage 3-5 in 2009 (59 vs. 75 %; p = 0.002), although the absolute number increased. After adjustment for severity of CKD, hemoglobin was significantly higher (13.0 g/dl vs. 12.2 g/dl, p management, bone mineral metabolism, nutrition, and renal disease progression.

  20. The Effect of High-Flux Hemodialysis on Hemoglobin Concentrations in Patients with CKD: Results of the MINOXIS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; Krane, Vera; Krieter, Detlef H.; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schneider, Markus P.; Wanner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hemodialysis treatment induces markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, which could affect hemoglobin levels and the response to erythropoietin use. This study sought to determine whether high-flux dialysis would help improve markers of renal anemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress compared with low-flux dialysis. Design, settings, participants, & measurements In a prospective, controlled study, 221 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and receiving darbepoetin-alfa treatment (mean age, 66 years; 55% male) from 19 centers were screened in a 20-week run-in period of low-flux hemodialysis with a synthetic dialysis membrane. Thereafter, 166 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive a synthetic high-flux membrane or to continue on low-flux dialysis for 52 weeks. Data on myeloperoxidase, oxidized LDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the Malnutrition Inflammation Score were collected at baseline and after 52 weeks; routine laboratory data, such as hemoglobin, ferritin, and albumin, and the use of darbepoetin-alfa, were also measured in the run-in period. Results After 52 weeks, the low-flux and the high-flux groups did not differ with respect to hemoglobin (mean ± SD, 11.7±0.9 g/dl versus 11.7±1.1 g/dl; P=0.62) or use of darbepoetin-alfa (mean dosage ± SD, 29.8±24.8 μg/wk versus 26.0±31.1 μg/wk; P=0.85). Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, or nutritional status also did not differ between groups. Conclusion Over 1 year, high-flux dialysis had no superior effects on hemoglobin levels or markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and nutritional status. These data do not support the hypothesis that enhanced convective toxin removal would improve patient outcome. PMID:22096040

  1. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilana Paula Carillo Artese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a debilitating systemic condition. Our working hypothesis is that CKD predialysis patients with periodontitis would respond poorly to periodontal treatment owing to immunologic compromise. Twenty-one predialysis patients (group 1 and 19 individuals without clinical evidence of kidney disease (group 2 with chronic periodontitis were subjected to non-surgical periodontal treatment with no antibiotics. Clinical periodontal and systemic parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after treatment. Both groups showed significant and similar post-treatment improvements in all periodontal parameters examined. Most interestingly, periodontal treatment had a statistically significant positive effect on the glomerular filtration rate of each individual (group 1, p = 0.04; group 2, p = 0.002. Our results indicate that chronic periodontitis in predialysis kidney disease patients improved similarly in patients with chronic periodontitis and no history of CKD after receiving non-surgical periodontal therapy. This study demonstrates that CKD predialysis patients show a good response to non-surgical periodontal treatment.

  2. Association of Chronic Kidney Disease and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease with Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Toshitaka Umemura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent years, the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD and cognitive impairment has been attracting attention. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is also associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. However, it is still unknown whether CKD markers are associated with cognitive impairment independently of SVD in elderly diabetic patients. Methods: Seventy-nine type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 76.0 years were enrolled in the present study. CKD was defined as the presence of albuminuria and/or a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 2. SVD was evaluated by the presence and severity of silent brain infarcts (SBIs and white matter lesions (WMLs on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychological tests were assessed using four validated cognitive instruments. Results: In multiple linear regression analyses, albuminuria was associated with worse modified Stroop Color Word scores (β = 0.284, p = 0.017 and low eGFR was associated with reduced Digit Symbol Substitution scores (β = -0.224, p = 0.026 after adjustment for age, sex, education years, diabetes duration, hypertension, multiple SBIs, and advanced WMLs. In contrast, there were no significant associations between CKD markers and Mini-Mental State Examination or Word Recall scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that albuminuria and low eGFR are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction independently of SVD in elderly type 2 diabetic patients.

  3. Relation of Aortic Valve and Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease to the Stage and Etiology of the Renal Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Lieuwe H.; Touw, Hugo R. W.; Gansevoort, Ron; Franssen, Casper F. M.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix; Tio, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure have increased cardiac calcium loads. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and quantitative extent of aortic valve calcium (AVC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the impact of

  4. Dyslipidemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: etiology and management

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    Mikolasevic I

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ivana Mikolasevic,1,2 Marta Žutelija,3 Vojko Mavrinac,1 Lidija Orlic 2 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation, UHC Rijeka, 3School of Medicine, Rijeka, Croatia Abstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, including those with end-stage renal disease, treated with dialysis, or renal transplant recipients have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD morbidity and mortality. Dyslipidemia, often present in this patient population, is an important risk factor for CVD development. Specific quantitative and qualitative changes are seen at different stages of renal impairment and are associated with the degree of glomerular filtration rate declining. Patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD have low high-density lipoproteins (HDL, normal or low total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, increased triglycerides as well as increased apolipoprotein B (apoB, lipoprotein(a (Lp (a, intermediate- and very-low-density lipoprotein (IDL, VLDL; “remnant particles”, and small dense LDL particles. In patients with nephrotic syndrome lipid profile is more atherogenic with increased TC, LDL, and triglycerides. Lipid profile in hemodialysis (HD patients is usually similar to that in non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients. Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD have more altered dyslipidemia compared to HD patients, which is more atherogenic in nature. These differences may be attributed to PD per se but may also be associated with the selection of dialytic modality. In renal transplant recipients, TC, LDL, VLDL, and triglycerides are elevated, whereas HDL is significantly reduced. Many factors can influence post-transplant dyslipidemia including immunosuppressive agents. This patient population is obviously at high risk; hence, prompt diagnosis and management are required to improve their clinical outcomes. Various studies have shown statins to be effective in the

  5. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  6. Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease among primary care patients – a cross-sectional survey

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    Chow Wai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in Singapore. While preventive effects have focused on early detection and education, little is known about the knowledge level of chronic kidney disease (CKD locally. We seek to evaluate the knowledge of CKD among primary care patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1520 patients from 3 primary care centers. Those with existing CKD or on dialysis were excluded. Knowledge was assessed based on 7 questions on CKD in the self-administered questionnaire. One point was given for each correct answer with a maximum of 7 points. Results 1435 completed all 7 questions on CKD. Mean age was 48.9 ±15.0 (SD years. 50.9% were male. 62.3% had a secondary and below education and 52.4% had a monthly household income of ≤ $2000. 43.7% had chronic diseases. Mean score was 3.44 ± 1.53 (out of a maximum of 7. Median score was 4. In multivariate logistic regression, being older {>60 years [Odds Ratio (OR 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.32-0.79]; 40–60 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43,0.89}, less educated [up to primary education (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49], having a lower monthly household income [ Conclusion This suggests that CKD education should be targeted at older patients with lower education and lower socioeconomic status.

  7. Type of dyslipidemia and achievement of the LDL-cholesterol goal in chronic kidney disease patients at the University Hospital

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    Sangsawang T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tamon Sangsawang, Apiradee SriwijitkamolDivision of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Chronic kidney disease (CKD has been defined as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Therefore, the current guideline has been recommended for CKD patients to reach and maintain a low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C goal of less than 100 mg/dL. However, the data regarding the achievement of LDL-C goal in these patients is lacking.Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the types of dyslipidemia affecting patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 and to determine whether these patients achieved LDL-C goal.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia who were followed-up at Siriraj Hospital between October 2011 and September 2012.Results: In total, 150 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia were recruited. The mean age was 72±10 years, and the body mass index was 25.6±4 kg/m2; 60% had CKD stage 3 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 34±12 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 54% had type 2 diabetes. The percentage of patients with hypercholesterolemia was 78%, hypertriglyceridemia 54%, and low high-density lipoprotein-C 36%. Of these, 52% had mixed hyperlipidemia. Statin treatment was prescribed to 87% of the patients, of which only 31.3% achieved the LDL-C goal according to the National Cholesterol Education Program and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society recommendations. Patients who did not achieve the LDL-C goal had a higher cholesterol level at diagnosis and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and stroke than those who achieved it.Conclusion: Two-thirds of CKD patients with hyperlipidemia had mixed hyperlipidemia. Despite the high frequency of statin treatment, only one-third of patients with CKD achieved the LDL-C goal. Thus, a developmental plan

  8. Risk factors for acute decompensation of chronic kidney disease in hospitalized patients in the nephrology department: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Lobna Ben; Pariente, Antoine; Kammoun, Khawla; Hakim, Ahmed; Ghozzi, Hanene; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Fourrier, Annie; Hachicha, Jamil; Zeghal, Khaled

    2014-02-01

    To investigate risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) a case-control study was conducted in the Nephrology Department of Hedi Chaker University Hospital in Sfax, Tunisia, for a 1-year period. All patients with baseline renal insufficiency hospitalized for AKI were considered as cases. They were compared with control patients with CKD. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify independent risk factors for AKI in patients with CKD. A total of 58 cases were compared with 114 control subjects. In multivariable models, baseline diabetes, cardiopathy disease, and exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent risk factors for AKI in patients with CKD. However, exposure to calcium channel blockers (CCBs) was associated with decreased risk for AKI on CKD (OR = 0.4; CI 95%: 0.2 - 0.8, p = 0.007). Patients with CKD may benefit from more aggressive cardiovascular screening to prevent episodes of acute kidney injury. More efforts should be made to prevent prescription drug abuse and to demonstrate the role of CCBs in renal protection in these patients.

  9. How do primary care doctors in England and Wales code and manage people with chronic kidney disease? Results from the National Chronic Kidney Disease Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lois G; Cleary, Faye; Wheeler, David C; Caplin, Ben; Nitsch, Dorothea; Hull, Sally A

    2017-10-16

    In the UK, primary care records are electronic and require doctors to ascribe disease codes to direct care plans and facilitate safe prescribing. We investigated factors associated with coding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with reduced kidney function and the impact this has on patient management. We identified patients meeting biochemical criteria for CKD (two estimated glomerular filtration rates 90 days apart) from 1039 general practitioner (GP) practices in a UK audit. Clustered logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with coding for CKD and improvement in coding as a result of the audit process. We investigated the relationship between coding and five interventions recommended for CKD: achieving blood pressure targets, proteinuria testing, statin prescription and flu and pneumococcal vaccination. Of 256 000 patients with biochemical CKD, 30% did not have a GP CKD code. Males, older patients, those with more severe CKD, diabetes or hypertension or those prescribed statins were more likely to have a CKD code. Among those with continued biochemical CKD following audit, these same characteristics increased the odds of improved coding. Patients without any kidney diagnosis were less likely to receive optimal care than those coded for CKD [e.g. odds ratio for meeting blood pressure target 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.79)]. Older age, male sex, diabetes and hypertension are associated with coding for those with biochemical CKD. CKD coding is associated with receiving key primary care interventions recommended for CKD. Increased efforts to incentivize CKD coding may improve outcomes for CKD patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  10. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in patients on hemodialysis in southwest Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Timothy S; Barnoya, Joaquin; Cipriano, Ever; Herrera, Erick; Lopez, Noemi; Polo, Vicente Sanchez; Rothstein, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Objective To document the prevalence of patients on hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) of non-traditional causes (CKDnt). Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study interviewed patients on hemodialysis at the Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social on their health and occupational history. Laboratory serum, urine and vital sign data at the initiation of hemodialysis were obtained from chart reviews. Patients were classified according to whether they had hypertension or obesity or neither. The proportion of patients with and without these traditional CKD risk factors was recorded and the association between demographic and occupational factors and a lack of traditional CKD risk factors analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 242 total patients (including 171 non-diabetics) enrolled in hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala, 45 (18.6% of total patients and 26.3% of non-diabetics) lacked traditional CKD risk factors. While agricultural work history was common, only travel time greater than 30 minutes and age less than 50 years old were significantly associated with CKD in the absence of traditional risk factors. Individuals without such risk factors lived throughout southwestern Guatemala's five departments. Conclusions The prevalence of CKDnT appears to be much lower in this sample of patients receiving hemodialysis in Southwestern Guatemala than in hospitalized patients in El Salvador. It has yet to be determined whether the prevalence is higher in the general population and in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  11. Renal function trajectory is more important than chronic kidney disease stage for managing patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosansky, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) emphasizes a current level of function as calculated from the modification of diet in renal disease glomerulofiltration rate equations (eGFR) and proteinuria for staging of CKD. Change in a patient's eGFR over time (renal function trajectory) is an additional and potentially more important consideration in deciding which patients will progress to the point where they will require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Many patients with CKD 3-5 have stable renal function for years. Proteinuria/albuminuria is a primary determinant of renal trajectory which may be slowed by medications that decrease proteinuria and/or aggressively lower blood pressure. A renal trajectory of >3 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year may relate to a need for closer renal follow-up and increased morbidity and mortality. Additional CKD population-based studies need to examine the relationship of renal trajectory to: baseline renal function; acute kidney injury episodes; age, race, sex and primary etiologies of renal disease; blood pressure control and therapies; dietary protein intake; blood glucose control in diabetics and the competitive risk of death versus the requirement for renal replacement therapy. In the elderly CKD 4 population with significant comorbidities and slow decline in renal function, the likelihood of death prior to the need for RRT should be considered before placing AV access for dialysis. Prediction models of renal progression must account for the competitive risk of death as well as stable or improved renal function to be clinically useful. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

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    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  13. Impact of drug use and comorbidities on in-hospital falls in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angalakuditi, Mallik V; Gomes, Joseph; Coley, Kim C

    2007-10-01

    In-hospital falls are a major problem in healthcare institutions and contribute to morbidity and mortality in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were previously found to be at higher risk for experiencing an in-hospital fall. To evaluate the association between comorbidities and drug use with the risk of in-hospital falls in adults with CKD. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in patients with CKD hospitalized between January 1, 1998, and June 30, 2003. Cases included patients who experienced an in-hospital fall, were 18 years of age or older, and had been hospitalized for more than 24 hours. For every case, 2 controls were identified and matched for CKD, age, and sex. Information about comorbidities and drug use was collected from an electronic medical data repository. Statistical tests performed were t-tests, chi2 analysis, and multivariate logistic regression, using occurrence of a fall as the dependent variable and race, comorbidities, and drug groups as covariates. There were 635 fall cases that met study criteria. The mean age of patients was 68 +/- 15 years, 54% were female, and 82% were white. There were 1270 matched controls with CKD who were included in the regression analysis. Comorbidities that increased the likelihood of experiencing an in-hospital fall were dementia (OR 2.63), pneumonia (OR 1.72), gastrointestinal disease (OR 1.41), and diabetes (OR 1.31). Drugs associated with an in-hospital fall were antidepressants (OR 1.65) and anticonvulsants (OR 1.52). Several comorbidities, especially dementia, significantly increase the risk of experiencing an in-hospital fall in patients with CKD. Drugs that place CKD patients at risk include antidepressants and anticonvulsants.

  14. Randomized multicentre pilot study of sacubitril/valsartan versus irbesartan in patients with chronic kidney disease: United Kingdom Heart and Renal Protection (HARP)- III-rationale, trial design and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Data from other populations and animal experiments suggest that neprilysin inhibition (which augments the natriuretic peptide system) may reduce these risks, but clinical trials among patients with CKD are required to test this hypothesis. UK Heart and Renal Protection III (HARP-III) is a multicentre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg two times daily (an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor) with irbesartan 300 mg one time daily among 414 patients with CKD. Patients ≥18 years of age with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥45 but 20 mg/mmol or eGFR ≥20 but III will provide important information on the short-term effects of sacubitril/valsartan on renal function, tolerability and safety among patients with CKD.

  15. [Vitamin D deficiency in a Spanish cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, Claudia; García De Vinuesa, Soledad; Goicoechea, Marian; Barraca, Daniel; Panizo, Nayara; Quiroga, Borja; Luño, Jose

    2013-10-19

    Vitamin D (25-OH-D3) deficiency is an emerging global health problem. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a higher risk of this deficiency. We aimed to determine the prevalence of 25-OH-D3 deficiency in a cohort of CKD patients in an urban area of Spain and its relationship with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the prevalence of 25-OH-D3 deficiency in 751 incident patients referred to our outpatient clinic (male gender 59.3%, mean age 67.2 [± 15] years, mean GFR (MDRD-4) 47.9 ± 25.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) with different stages of CKD. We excluded end stage renal disease patients and with kidney transplant. Clinical data and biochemical parameters related to bone and mineral metabolism were recorded. Levels of 25-OH-D3D3 levels were 17.06 [± 12.93] ng/ml. Only 10% of our patients had adequate 25-OH-D3 levels (>30 ng/ml) and 51% showed deficient levels. 25-OH-D3 deficiency worsened with the progression of CKD (PD3 deficiency. 25-OH-D3 deficiency was inversely associated with serum PTH (P=.02), and directly associated with serum calcium (PD3 levels (P=.038). 25-OH-D3 deficiency has a high prevalence in CKD patients, and the severity increases with the progression of kidney disease. Elderly, women and diabetic patients have a higher risk of 25-OH-D3 deficiency. 25-OH-D3 deficiency was related to higher levels of PTH and lower serum calcium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: Mixing Acute and Chronic Illness.

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    De Rosa, Silvia; Samoni, Sara; Villa, Gianluca; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for developing critical illness and for admission to intensive care units (ICU). 'Critically ill CKD patients' frequently develop an acute worsening of renal function (i.e. acute-on-chronic, AoC) that contributes to long-term kidney dysfunction, potentially leading to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). An integrated multidisciplinary effort is thus necessary to adequately manage the multi-organ damage of those kidney patients and contemporaneously reduce the progression of kidney dysfunction when they are critically ill. The aim of this review is to describe (1) the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of AoC kidney dysfunction and its role in the progression toward ESKD; (2) the most common clinical presentations of critical illness among CKD/ESKD patients; and (3) the continuum of care for CKD/ESKD patients from maintenance hemodialysis/peritoneal dialysis to acute renal replacement therapy performed in ICU and, vice-versa, for AoC patients who develop ESKD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factors for the Treatment of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Fishbane, Steven; Block, Geoffrey A; Macdougall, Iain C

    2017-01-01

    Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), has previously been attributed primarily to decreased production of erythropoietin. More recently, it has become apparent that the etiology of anemia involves several other factors, most notably dysfunctional iron metabolism, mediated via increased hepcidin activity and reduced clearance. Current management of anemia in patients with advanced CKD is based on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and iron supplementation, along with red blood cell transfusions when necessary; however, safety considerations associated with these therapies highlight the need to pursue alternative treatment options targeting other mechanisms such as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that act as central regulators of erythropoiesis by coordinating a series of graded hypoxic responses. This review discusses the discovery of the HIF pathway and its regulation via HIF prolyl hydroxylase enzymes in the context of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The rationale for targeting this pathway and the clinical development of HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors are reviewed, with a commentary on the potential implications of this class of agents in CKD anemia management. Key Messages: Pharmacologic activation of the HIF pathway results in a transient pseudo-hypoxic state that stimulates erythropoiesis in CKD patients with anemia. Results from clinical studies of a number of HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors are increasingly available and provide support for the continued evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio of this novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of anemia in CKD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effect of Pioglitazone on Cardiovascular Outcome in Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christian A.; Ferrannini, Ele; DeFronzo, Ralph; Schernthaner, Guntram; Yates, John; Erdmann, Erland

    2008-01-01

    Patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at particularly high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This post hoc analysis from the PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events (PROactive) investigated the relationship between CKD and incident CVD in a population of patients with diabetes and documented macrovascular disease, as well as the effects of pioglitazone treatment on recurrent CVD. CKD, defined as an estimated GFR

  19. Tryptophan Metabolism in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Secondary to Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship to Inflammatory Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Debnath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Type 2 diabetes (T2D is the primary case of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Inflammation is associated with metabolic dysregulation in patients with T2D and CKD. Tryptophan (TRP metabolism may have relevance to the CKD outcomes and associated symptoms. We investigated the relationships of TRP metabolism with inflammatory markers in patients with T2D and CKD. Methods: Data were collected from a well-characterized cohort of type 2 diabetic individuals with all stages of CKD, including patients on hemodialysis. Key TRP metabolites (kynurenine [KYN], kynurenic acid [KYNA], and quinolinic acid [QA], proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6], and C-reactive protein were measured in plasma. The KYN/TRP ratio was utilized as a surrogate marker for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1 enzyme activity. Results: There was a significant inverse association between circulating TRP level and stages of CKD ( P  < 0.0001. Downstream bioactive TRP metabolites KYN, KYNA, and QA were positively and robustly correlated with the severity of kidney disease ( P  < 0.0001. In multiple linear regression, neither TNF-α nor IL-6 was independently related to KYN/TRP ratio after adjusting for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Only TNF-α was independently related to KYN after taking into account the effect of eGFR. Conclusions: Chronic kidney disease secondary to T2D may be associated with accumulation of toxic TRP metabolites due to both inflammation and impaired kidney function. Future longitudinal studies to determine whether the accumulation of KYN directly contributes to CKD progression and associated symptoms in patients with T2D are warranted.

  20. Chronic kidney disease and cardiac remodelling in patients with mild heart failure: results from the REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic Left vEntricular Dysfunction (REVERSE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jehu; Katz, Ronit; St John Sutton, Martin; Dixit, Sanjay; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Ghio, Stefano; Gold, Michael R; Linde, Cecilia; Shlipak, Michael G; Deo, Rajat

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and heart failure. We evaluated the effect of CKD on left ventricular (LV) remodelling among patients with mild heart failure. REVERSE was a randomized, controlled trial evaluating cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I/II heart failure. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) cardiac remodelling among patients randomized to CRT on or off. CKD was associated with worsening LV function and dilation compared with the non-CKD group {adjusted, 12-month β coefficients for the CKD group compared with the non-CKD referent group: LV ejection fraction (%) [-1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.36 to -0.24], LV end-systolic volume (mL) (14.16, 95% CI 3.96-24.36), LV end-diastolic volume (mL) (14.88, 95% CI 2.88-26.76), LV end-systolic diameter (cm) (0.36, 95% CI 0.12-0.48), LV end-diastolic diameter (cm) (0.24, 95% CI 0.012-0.36), mitral regurgitation (%) (3.12, 95% CI 0.48-5.76), and LV shape (0.036, 95% CI 0.012-0.060)}. In participants assigned to CRT, those without CKD had significantly greater improvements in LV structural parameters compared with the CKD group. In comparison with participants with normal kidney function, CKD is an independent risk factor for ventricular dysfunction and dilation. CRT improves LV function and structure to a lesser extent in patients with CKD than in those with normal kidney function.

  1. Novel Equations for Estimating Lean Body Mass in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue; Chen, Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Qu, Zhen; Dong, Jie

    2017-11-15

    Simplified methods to estimate lean body mass (LBM), an important nutritional measure representing muscle mass and somatic protein, are lacking in nondialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We developed and tested 2 reliable equations for estimation of LBM in daily clinical practice. The development and validation groups both included 150 nondialyzed patients with CKD Stages 3 to 5. Two equations for estimating LBM based on mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) or handgrip strength (HGS) were developed and validated in CKD patients with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as referenced gold method. We developed and validated 2 equations for estimating LBM based on HGS and MAMC. These equations, which also incorporated sex, height, and weight, were developed and validated in CKD patients. The new equations were found to exhibit only small biases when compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, with median differences of 0.94 and 0.46 kg observed in the HGS and MAMC equations, respectively. Good precision and accuracy were achieved for both equations, as reflected by small interquartile ranges in the differences and in the percentages of estimates that were 20% of measured LBM. The bias, precision, and accuracy of each equation were found to be similar when it was applied to groups of patients divided by the median measured LBM, the median ratio of extracellular to total body water, and the stages of CKD. LBM estimated from MAMC or HGS were found to provide accurate estimates of LBM in nondialyzed patients with CKD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [KIDNEY DISEASE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS – THE ROLE OF FAMILY MEDICINE PHYSICIAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, V Bralić; Baretić, Maja; Pavić, E

    2016-12-01

    The alarming rates of diabetes mellitus incidence and progression continue despite deployment of all current treatments. Kidney disease can be a particularly devastating complication, as it is associated with significant reductions in both length and quality of life. A variety of forms of kidney disease can be seen in people with diabetes, including diabetic nephropathy, ischemic damage related to vascular disease and hypertension, as well as other renal diseases that are unrelated to diabetes. Following an extensive PubMed search, this review provides a brief view on the screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diabetes, how to treat them to slow down the progression of CKD and when to refer them to specialist care. This review also emphasizes the basic challenge in treating diabetic patients, which is to shift the main criterion from the disease-oriented to person-centered approach in the context of treating the patient as a whole.

  3. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE- A HOSPITALBASED STUDY

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    Shobha Ponmudy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease affects every organ system including the eye. The aim of the study is to conduct a thorough ocular examination and to study the occurrence of various ocular manifestations exhibited by patients with chronic kidney disease and to analyse the findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 patients from Department of Nephrology, Stanley Medical College diagnosed with chronic kidney disease were examined for ocular manifestations at the Department of Ophthalmology, Stanley Medical College. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, non-interventional, hospital-based study. The period of study was from August 2010 to October 2011. RESULTS The commonest cause of CKD was hypertension in 47 pts. (52.2% followed by both diabetes and hypertension in 30 patients. Patients with only diabetes were 6 patients (6.7% and with other causes were 7 patients (7.8%.10% of patients were legally blind with visual acuity <6/60. In this study, 65 patients belonged to less than 50 years. 49.3% of the presenile patients had cataract. A reduced Schirmer’s value was noted in 54 eyes of the 200 eyes. The incidence of ocular surface disease in the study was 27%. 92 eyes out of 200 eyes studied showed hypertensive retinopathy. Higher grades of hypertensive retinopathy was more in advanced stages of CKD, i.e. 24 eyes in stage IV and 23 eyes in stage V. 51 eyes out of 40 diabetics showed diabetic retinopathy changes of which a majority of 25 eyes belonged to stage V disease. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in CKD patients is significantly more when compared to diabetic patients without CKD. CONCLUSION Study demonstrates that routine ocular evaluation is necessary in all patients with chronic kidney disease irrespective of the presence of ocular symptoms. It also highlights the occurrence of a variety of treatable ocular manifestations, which can become vision threatening if not taken care of at the earliest.

  4. The effect of ONCE Renal on minerals and electrolytes in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Prapakorn, Janjira; Punpanich, Dollapas; Pongsuparbchon, Chantima; Supasyndh, Ouppatham

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is one common adverse consequence in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and most patients have a lower-than-normal dietary energy intake. The present study was undertaken to examine whether orally administered ONCE Renal formula (ORF) supplement would improve energy intake without minerals and electrolytes disturbances in predialysis patients with CKD. All eligible nondiabetic patients with CKD received ORF supplement for 1 week. Nutrition markers, renal function, and minerals and electrolytes were evaluated before and after supplementing. All patients kept a 3-day food record and were interviewed by a registered dietitian. A total of 29 patients with mean age 64.9±13.3 years were included. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 37.7±12.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2). A significant increase was observed in amount of energy, fat, fiber, calcium, and magnesium intake after 1 week of ORF supplement. Moreover, in comparison with baseline values, the patients displayed decreased dietary protein intake and blood urea nitrogen and increased serum magnesium. However, no significant change was found in renal function, nutritional markers (body weight, prealbumin, albumin, and protein equivalence of total nitrogen appearance), serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate. In patients with CKD, ingestion of ORF was well tolerated and had a positive effect with an increase in dietary energy, fat, and fiber intake, as well as a decreased dietary protein intake. No mineral or electrolyte abnormalities were observed during the study.

  5. Comparison of Intact PTH and Bio-Intact PTH Assays Among Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Yael; Benchetrit, Sydney; Golan, Eliezer; Zitman-Gal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    The third-generation bio-intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-84) assay was designed to overcome problems associated with the detection of C-terminal fragments by the second-generation intact PTH assay. The two assays have been compared primarily among dialysis populations. The present study evaluated the correlations and differences between these two PTH assays among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 not yet on dialysis. Blood samples were collected from 98 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. PTH concentrations were measured simultaneously by using the second-generation - PTH intact-STAT and third-generation bio-intact 1-84 PTH assays. Other serum biomarkers of bone mineral disorders were also assessed. CKD stage was calculated by using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (EPI) formula. Serum bio-intact PTH concentrations were strongly correlated but significantly lower than the intact PTH concentrations (r=0.963, PPTH concentrations by both assays (intact and bio-intact PTH) positively correlated with urea (r=0.523, r=0.504; P=0.002, respectively), phosphorus (r=0.532, r=0.521; PPTH assay detected significantly lower PTH concentrations compared with intact PTH assay. Additional studies that correlate the diagnosis and management of CKD mineral and bone disorders with bone histomorphometric findings are needed to determine whether bio-intact PTH assay results are better surrogate markers in these early stages of CKD. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  6. Modeling a Mobile Health Management Business Model for Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying-Li; Chang, Polun

    2016-01-01

    In these decades, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health problem. Information technology (IT) tools have been used widely to empower the patients with chronic disease (e.g., diabetes and hypertension). It is also a potential application to advance the CKD care. In this project, we analyzed the requirements of a mobile health management system for healthcare workers, patients and their families to design a health management business model for CKD patients.

  7. Research Article. Comparative Analysis of Hepcidin-25 and Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease with and without Anemia

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    Căldăraru Carmen Denise

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepcidin is a regulatory protein in iron metabolism; we do not know the role in chronic kidney disease anemia. Methods: 22 patients with CKD anemia and 15 patients with CKD without anemia were investigated. CKD anemia-inclusion criteria: over 18 years, hemoglobin ≤12 g/dl for women and ≤13 g/dl for men, no treatment for anemia 6 months before enrollment, glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and stable creatinine three months before enrollment. Exclusion criteria: infection, bleeding, malignancy, systemic or liver disease, immunosuppression, renal replacement therapy. CKD without anemia-inclusion criteria: over 18 years, no anemia or treatment for anemia, CKD with stable creatinine values three months before enrollment. Exclusion criteria: medical conditions known to have a role in the development of polycythemia. Hepcidin-25 and ferritin were measured by ELISA method. Erythropoietin (EPO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6 were evaluated using chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assays. Unpaired T test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Hemoglobin values were significantly lower in anemia group. There were no differences in terms of eGFR, age, body mass index, serum hepcidin, erythropoietin, fibrinogen, IL-6, and TNF-α between CKD patients with and without anemia. Serum hepcidin correlated positively with ferritin (r=0.45 p<0.05, TNF-α (r=0.54, p<0.05 and negatively with erythropoietin (r=-0.51, p<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that TNF-α is an independent predictor of serum hepcidin in our patients (p=0.003, R=0.71. Conclusion: We found no differences in serum hepcidin, erythropoietin and inflammatory markers in non-dialysis CKD patients with and without anemia.

  8. Type of dyslipidemia and achievement of the LDL-cholesterol goal in chronic kidney disease patients at the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawang, Tamon; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been defined as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Therefore, the current guideline has been recommended for CKD patients to reach and maintain a low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of less than 100 mg/dL. However, the data regarding the achievement of LDL-C goal in these patients is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the types of dyslipidemia affecting patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 and to determine whether these patients achieved LDL-C goal. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia who were followed-up at Siriraj Hospital between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 150 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia were recruited. The mean age was 72±10 years, and the body mass index was 25.6±4 kg/m(2); 60% had CKD stage 3 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 34±12 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 54% had type 2 diabetes. The percentage of patients with hypercholesterolemia was 78%, hypertriglyceridemia 54%, and low high-density lipoprotein-C 36%. Of these, 52% had mixed hyperlipidemia. Statin treatment was prescribed to 87% of the patients, of which only 31.3% achieved the LDL-C goal according to the National Cholesterol Education Program and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society recommendations. Patients who did not achieve the LDL-C goal had a higher cholesterol level at diagnosis and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and stroke than those who achieved it. Two-thirds of CKD patients with hyperlipidemia had mixed hyperlipidemia. Despite the high frequency of statin treatment, only one-third of patients with CKD achieved the LDL-C goal. Thus, a developmental plan for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD should be implemented to increase their achievement of the LDL-C goal.

  9. Factors Associated with Decreased Lean Tissue Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Yi-Wen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscle wasting is common and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, factors associated with decreased muscle mass in CKD patients are seldom reported. We performed a cross-sectional study of 326 patients (age 65.8 ± 13.3 years with stage 3–5 CKD who were not yet on dialysis. Muscle mass was determined using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM, a multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy device, and was expressed as the lean tissue index (LTI, lean tissue mass/height2. An LTI of less than 10% of the normal value (low LTI indicates muscle wasting. Patients with low LTI (n = 40 tended to be diabetic, had significantly higher fat tissue index, urine protein creatinine ratio, and interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, but had significantly lower serum albumin and hemoglobin levels compared with those with normal LTI. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age, sex, cardiovascular disease, and interleukin-6 were independently associated with LTI. Additionally, diabetes mellitus remained an independent predictor of muscle wasting according to low LTI by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We conclude that LTI has important clinical correlations. Determination of LTI may aid in clinical assessment by helping to identify muscle wasting among patients with stage 3–5 CKD.

  10. Definition, identification and treatment of resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Yelena R; Bomback, Andrew S

    2014-07-01

    Resistant hypertension, the inability to achieve goal blood pressure despite the use of three or more appropriately dosed antihypertensive drugs (including a diuretic), remains a common clinical problem, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). While the exact prevalence and prognosis of resistant hypertension in CKD patients remain unknown, resistant hypertension likely contributes significantly to increased cardiovascular risk and progression of kidney disease in this population. We review the identification and evaluation of patients with resistant hypertension, including the importance of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the identification of 'white-coat', 'masked' and 'non-dipper' hypertension, the latter of which has particular clinical and therapeutic importance in patients with resistant hypertension and CKD. We then discuss treatment strategies for resistant hypertension that target the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying resistance to treatment, including persistent volume excess, incomplete renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and inadequate nocturnal blood pressure control. Finally, we propose a treatment algorithm for evaluation and treatment of resistant hypertension in patients with CKD. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient satisfaction with nurse-led chronic kidney disease clinics: A multicentre evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sonya; Havas, Kathryn; Ersham, Susanne; Stone, Cassandra; Taylor, Berndatte; Graham, Anne; Bublitz, Lorraine; Purtell, Louise; Bonner, Ann

    2017-03-01

    There is growing international evidence that nurse-led chronic kidney disease (CKD) clinics provide a comprehensive approach to achieving clinical targets effective in slowing the progression of CKD. Across Queensland, Australia, these clinics have been established in many renal outpatient departments although patient satisfaction with these clinics is unknown. To measure patient satisfaction levels with CKD nurse-led clinics. This was a cross-sectional study undertaken at five clinics located in metropolitan, regional and remote hospitals in Queensland. Participants were >18 years of age (no upper age limit) with CKD (non-dialysis) who attended CKD nurse-led clinics over a six month period (N = 873). They completed the Nurse Practitioner Patient Satisfaction questionnaire which was modified for CKD. The response rate was 64.3 % (n = 561); half of the respondents were male (55.5 %), there was a median age range of 71-80 years (43.5 %) and most respondents were pensioners or retired (84.2 %). While the majority reported that they were highly satisfied with the quality of care provided by the nurse (83.8 %), we detected differences in some aspects of satisfaction between genders, age groups and familiarity with the nurse. Overall, patients' comments were highly positive with a few improvements to the service being suggested; these related to car-parking, providing more practical support, and having accessible locations. In an era of person-centred care, it is important to measure patient satisfaction using appropriate and standardised questionnaires. Our results highlight that, to improve services, communication strategies should be optimised in nurse-led clinics. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  12. Preliminary Study on the Kidney Elasticity Quantification in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Using Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiao Zhi; Yang, Bin; Fu, Ning Hua

    2015-01-01

    Virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) provides numerical measurements (shear wave velocity (SWV) values) of tissue stiffness. The purpose of this study was to describe the SWV values of the kidney by VTTQ and to examine the clinical usefulness of this procedure in the evaluation of elasticity changes in the kidneys of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sixty-five patients with CKD and seventy healthy participants were included in this study. A total of 270 kidneys were examined by VTTQ. The kidney elasticity was expressed as shear wave velocity. The SWV values, blood serum creatinine (Scr)/BUN and pathological findings were analyzed and compared between patients with CKD and healthy participants. In patients with CKD and healthy participants, the SWV values both gradually decreased from the renal cortex to the medulla and renal sinus The SWV value of the renal cortex in patients with CKD was less than that of healthy participants (P < 0.05), and the SWV value of the renal cortex in patients with renal insufficiency was significantly less than in those with normal renal function (2.46 ± 0.15 vs. 3.45 ± 0.26 m/s, P < 0.05). The best cutoff value for predicting renal insufficiency (Scr > 1.24 mg/dL or/and BUN > 21 mg/DL) was a SWV value of the renal cortex of less than 1.92 m/s with a sensitivity of 84.4% (95% CI: 67.2-94.7%) and a specificity of 96.8% (95% CI: 83.3-99.9%) (P < 0.001). VTTQ can sensitively detect the elasticity changes in patients with CKD, and it can effectively predict renal insufficiency. This technology provides a valuable tool for the assessment of CKD

  13. Lipid disorders in patients with renal failure: Role in cardiovascular events and progression of chronic kidney disease

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    Luca Visconti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of lipid disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD is usually characterized by high triglycerides and reduced high dense lipoprotein (HDL, associated with normal or slightly reduced low dense lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol. This dyslipidemia is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Keys for the cardiovascular risk reduction in these patients are lowering the number and modifying the composition of the cholesterol-carrying atherogenic lipoprotein particles. Statins have an important role in primary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality in non-hemodialyzed CKD patients. The benefits in terms of progression of renal failure are contradictory. Patient education regarding dietary regimen should be part of the CKD clinical management.

  14. The relationship of serum cortisol levels with depression, cognitive function and sleep disorders in chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the relationships between cortisol, cognitive function, depressive behavior, and sleep quality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients was investigated. Patients underwent history taking, physical examination, biochemical analysis, 24-h urine collection (for CKD patients only), measurement of dialysis adequacy (for HD patients only), evaluation of cognitive function, depressive behavior and sleep quality. Among study participants 58 had creatinine clearance ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Group 1), 41 had creatinine clearance between 30 and 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Group 2), 25 had creatinine clearance between 15 and 29 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Group 3) and 12 had creatinine clearance cognitive function and sleep quality. In conclusion serum cortisol levels were independently associated with depressive behavior both in CKD and HD patients but not with cognitive function and sleep quality.

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B core antibodies with negative Hepatitis B surface antigen in dialysis and chronic kidney disease patients

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    Nauman Tarif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI is a potential cause of infection transmission in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and dialysis-dependant patients. It is liable to be missed since the marker for OBI, hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb, is not done routinely. We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of OBI in CKD Stage II–V or requiring renal replacement therapy. It was a cross-sectional study carried out at Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from May 2104 to May 2015. A total of 188 patients were included in this study, 124 were dialysis dependent and 64 had acute or CKD Stage II–V. About 17.55% (n = 33 of patients had isolated HBcAb positive. Nearly 33.5% (n = 63 of patients were found to have hepatitis B surface antigen positive, indicating development of immunity by exposure to virus. About 20.74% (n = 39 of patients were co-positive with HBcAb also. The prevalence of isolated HBcAb in dialysis and CKD patients is high; therefore, testing for HBcAb should be a routine part of screening in our CKD population to rule out OBI. Further confirmation with polymerase chain reaction analysis for HBV viral DNA is recommended. Considering our circumstances, a consensus statement from the hepatologists and nephrologists is needed to further plan for the management of such cases.

  16. Prevalence of Hepatitis B core antibodies with negative Hepatitis B surface antigen in dialysis and chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarif, Nauman; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Sabir, Omer; Akhter, Rizwan; Rafique, Kashif; Rizvi, Nabiha

    2017-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is a potential cause of infection transmission in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis-dependant patients. It is liable to be missed since the marker for OBI, hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), is not done routinely. We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of OBI in CKD Stage II-V or requiring renal replacement therapy. It was a cross-sectional study carried out at Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from May 2104 to May 2015. A total of 188 patients were included in this study, 124 were dialysis dependent and 64 had acute or CKD Stage II-V. About 17.55% (n = 33) of patients had isolated HBcAb positive. Nearly 33.5% (n = 63) of patients were found to have hepatitis B surface antigen positive, indicating development of immunity by exposure to virus. About 20.74% (n = 39) of patients were co-positive with HBcAb also. The prevalence of isolated HBcAb in dialysis and CKD patients is high; therefore, testing for HBcAb should be a routine part of screening in our CKD population to rule out OBI. Further confirmation with polymerase chain reaction analysis for HBV viral DNA is recommended. Considering our circumstances, a consensus statement from the hepatologists and nephrologists is needed to further plan for the management of such cases.

  17. The vasopressin system: new insights for patients with kidney diseases: Epidemiological evidence and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W F; Devuyst, O; Roussel, R

    2017-10-01

    People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of severe outcomes, such as end-stage renal disease or cardiovascular disease, and CKD is a globally increasing health burden with a high personal and economic cost. Despite major progresses in prevention and therapeutics in last decades, research is still needed to reverse this epidemic trend. The regulation of water balance and the state of activation of the vasopressin system have emerged as factors tightly associated with kidney health, in the general population but also in specific conditions; among them, various stages of CKD, diabetes and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Basic science findings and also epidemiological evidence have justified important efforts towards interventional studies supporting causality, and opening therapeutic avenues. On the basis of recent clinical data, the blockade of V2 vasopressin receptors using tolvaptan in patients with rapidly progressing ADPKD has been granted in several countries, and a long-term randomized trial evaluating the effect of an increase in water intake in patients with CKD is on-going. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Marijuana and Cannabinoids in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Joshua L; Wyatt, Christina M

    2018-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, and legal recreational and medicinal use has gained public acceptance during the last decade. Twenty-nine US states have established medical marijuana programs, 8 of which have also legalized recreational marijuana, and Canada is expected to legalize recreational marijuana in 2018. Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are chronic conditions with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients experience substantial symptom burden that is frequently undertreated due to adverse medication side effects. This article reviews the available evidence for the use of medical marijuana to manage chronic pain, nausea/vomiting, anorexia/cachexia, and pruritus, all of which are frequently reported by patients with advanced CKD or ESRD. Potential adverse health effects of medical and recreational marijuana use are also discussed. Regardless of personal, social, and political beliefs, marijuana use is becoming mainstream, and nephrologists should be aware of the potential impact on our patient population. Further research is warranted to investigate the renal endocannabinoid system, the impact of marijuana use on kidney disease outcomes, and the risks and benefits of medical marijuana use on symptoms of advanced CKD and ESRD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resveratrol: Why Is It a Promising Therapy for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients?

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    Juliana F. Saldanha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a phenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries, and peanuts, shows promise for the treatment of cancer, aging, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Resveratrol can promote transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 activation, increase the expression level of SIRT-1, which is a sirtuin family protein, and reduce mTOR pathway signaling. This compound has anti-inflammatory properties in that it inhibits or antagonizes the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity, which is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that coordinates the inflammatory response. Inflammation and oxidative stress, which are common features in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, are interrelated and associated with cardiovascular disease and the progression of CKD itself. Because of the modulation of the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory-oxidative stress cycle, resveratrol could play an important role in controlling CKD-related metabolic derangements. Although resveratrol supplementation in theory is a promising therapy in this patient group, there are no studies evaluating its effects. Thus, the present review aims to describe the role of resveratrol in inflammation and oxidative stress modulation and its possible benefits to patients with CKD.

  20. Refusal of hemodialysis by hospitalized chronic kidney disease patients in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Salman Tahir; Saleem, Mohammad; Anjum, Roshina; Abdullah, Wajid; Shafi, Tahir

    2018-01-01

    In Pakistan, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are commonly diagnosed at a late stage. There is little information about the refusal of hemodialysis by hospitalized CKD patients who need hemodialysis (HD) and reasons for acceptance and refusal among these patients. All patients with Stage V CKD who had medical indications to undergo HD and were hospitalized at a tertiary care facility over a six-month period were invited to participate in this study. Patients were surveyed regarding acceptance or refusing of HD and reasons for their decisions. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics of patients were compared between patients who accepted or refused HD. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 47.9 ±12.1 years. The mean duration of diagnosis of CKD was 2.5 ± 0.6 months. Of all patients, 72 (57.6%) agreed to do HD and 53 (42.4%) refused HD. Patients with arteriovenous fistula in place (27.1 vs. 9.1%, P 0.02) and those in the middle- or higher-income group (64.4% vs. 38.6%, p = 0.03) were more willing to undergo HD. Trust in doctor's advice (86.1%) was the most common reason for acceptance of HD. Frequency of HD per week (52.8%), lifelong and permanent nature of HD (50.9%), advice by family members or friends (37.7%), perception of poor quality of life on HD (35.8%), and fear of HD needles and complications during HD (33.9%) were the most common reasons for refusal. Refusal of HD is common among hospitalized CKD patients with medical indications to undergo HD, especially in lower income group.

  1. Assessment of diet in chronic kidney disease female predialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głąbska, Dominika; Rojek-Trębicka, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is important in the therapy of predialysis patients. The aim of the presented single-centre descriptive study was to assess the diet in chronic kidney disease female predialysis patients with no previous dietary intervention, in comparison with recommendations, as well as the analysis of the energy, protein and phosphate intake in correlation with chosen laboratory measurements. The research was carried out in 31 female predialysis patients with CKD of different etiology, aged 29-79 years (GFR: 19.4±9.7 ml/min/1.73 m2). Main outcome measures were self-reported data from three-day dietary recall. Nutrients content and energy value of diet were compared with guidelines for chronic kidney disease patients or, in case of nutrients when they are not settled, with the recommendations for healthy women. All patients had a lower energy intake than the recommended level. At the same time, 35.8% of patients were characterised by improper protein intake--too low or too high. The majority of patients had low intake of most of vitamins and minerals. The total, animal and plant protein were positively correlated with the energy value of diet and with amount of most of the nutrients. Values of GFR were positively correlated with animal protein intake, while phosphate and creatinine in blood were negatively correlated with total and animal protein intake. The study highlights that diet of CKD predialysis patients with no previous dietary intervention is not properly balanced.

  2. Incidence of tuberculosis is high in chronic kidney disease patients in South East England and drug resistance common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Marlies; Palchaudhuri, Paramita; Riding, Alex; Begum, Parvin; Milburn, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    The risk of tuberculosis (TB) is significantly increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on TB in CKD in the UK are sparse; most information stems from countries with high background prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of TB in CKD patients in South East London and to describe the epidemiology, treatment, and outcome. CKD patients with TB between 1994 and 2010 were identified retrospectively. Data were collected on type of renal replacement therapy, the method of TB diagnosis, disease site, treatment regimens, and risk factors. Forty patients were identified of whom 67.5% had CKD stages IV-V. Sixty-five percent were from non-UK born ethnic minorities. Median time from diagnosis of CKD to TB development was 12 months (range 0-192 months). Cumulative incidence of TB was 1267/100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 630-1904; 85 × background UK rate] in hemodialysis patients; 398/100,000 (95% CI: 80-1160; 26 × background UK rate) in peritoneal dialysis; and 522/100,000 (CI: 137-909; 35 × background UK rate) in transplant recipients. Sixty-three percent of patients had pulmonary TB and 25% of patients with culture-positive TB had resistant isolates. Fifty percent of patients were immunosuppressed due to drugs, diabetes, and/or retroviral disease. Treatment regimens were according to recent national guidance in 73% of cases. Seventy-six percent of patients experienced side effects. Greater awareness of risk factors, drug resistance, treatment regimens, and potential side effects is needed.

  3. Evaluation of Urinary Indices for Albuminuria and Proteinuria in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Dennis Sung Chul Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Either protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR or albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR can be adopted for estimation of proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Estimated protein excretion rate (ePER and estimated albumin excretion rate (eAER may be superior to ACR and PCR. Reports show that urine albumin-to-protein ratio (APR may be useful in detecting tubular proteinuria, but should be compared with urine protein electrophoresis (PEP. Methods: Both 24-h urine and spot urine were collected from 77 stable CKD patients for measurement of albumin, protein, and creatinine, and PEP. Based on MDRD and CKD-EPI equations, ePERMDRD, ePERCKD-EPI, eAERMDRD and eAERCKD-EPI were calculated to estimate daily proteinuria and albuminuria. Glomerular CKD was defined by clinical and/or pathological evidence. Results: ACR correlated significantly with PCR. However, microalbuminuria was present in patients without pathologic proteinuria. Twenty-four-hour urine albumin correlated better with eAERMDRD and eAERCKD-EPI than ACR, and 24-h urine protein correlated better with ePERMDRD and ePERCKD-EPI than PCR. APR significantly but not well correlated with the albumin fraction in urine PEP. The albumin fraction obtained from urine PEP was significantly higher in patients with glomerulopathy than those with non-glomerular CKD, whereas there were no differences in APR between groups. In contrast with APR, the albumin fraction in urine PEP was independently associated with glomerular CKD. Conclusions: Both PCR and ACR are useful in evaluation of proteinuria. In quantifying daily proteinuria and albuminuria, ePER and eAER are superior to PCR and ACR, respectively. Compared with APR, urine PEP is more useful in diagnosing glomerular proteinuria.

  4. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  5. Independent Role of Underlying Kidney Disease on Renal Prognosis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease under Nephrology Care.

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    Luca De Nicola

    Full Text Available Primary kidney disease is suggested to affect renal prognosis of CKD patients; however, whether nephrology care modifies this association is unknown. We studied patients with CKD stage I-IV treated in a renal clinic and with established diagnosis of CKD cause to evaluate whether the risk of renal event (composite of end-stage renal disease and eGFR decline ≥ 40% linked to the specific diagnosis is modified by the achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of therapeutic goals for hypertension (BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg in patients with proteinuria ≥ 1 50 mg/24h and/or diabetes and ≤ 140/90 in those with proteinuria <150 mg/24h and without diabetes anemia (hemoglobin, Hb ≥ 11 g/dL, and proteinuria (≤ 0.5 g/24h. Survival analysis started after first year of nephrology care. We studied 729 patients (age 64 ± 15 y; males 59.1%; diabetes 34.7%; cardiovascular disease (CVD 44.9%; hypertensive nephropathy, HTN 53.8%; glomerulonephritis, GN 17.3%; diabetic nephropathy, DN 15.9%; tubule-interstitial nephropathy, TIN 9.5%; polycystic kidney disease, PKD 3.6%. During first year of Nephrology care, therapy was overall intensified in most patients and prevalence of main therapeutic goals generally improved. During subsequent follow up (median 3.3 years, IQR 1.9-5.1, 163 renal events occurred. Cox analysis disclosed a higher risk for PKD (Hazard Ratio 5.46, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.28-10.6 and DN (1.28,2.99-3.05, versus HTN (reference, independently of age, gender, CVD, BMI, eGFR or CKD stage, use of RAS inhibitors and achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of each of the three main therapeutic goals. No interaction was found on the risk of CKD progression between diagnostic categories and month-12 eGFR (P=0.737, as with control of BP (P=0.374, Hb (P=0.248 or proteinuria (P=0.590. Therefore, in CKD patients under nephrology care, diagnosis of kidney disease should be considered in conjunction with the main

  6. Independent Role of Underlying Kidney Disease on Renal Prognosis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease under Nephrology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Luca; Provenzano, Michele; Chiodini, Paolo; Borrelli, Silvio; Garofalo, Carlo; Pacilio, Mario; Liberti, Maria Elena; Sagliocca, Adelia; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Primary kidney disease is suggested to affect renal prognosis of CKD patients; however, whether nephrology care modifies this association is unknown. We studied patients with CKD stage I-IV treated in a renal clinic and with established diagnosis of CKD cause to evaluate whether the risk of renal event (composite of end-stage renal disease and eGFR decline ≥ 40%) linked to the specific diagnosis is modified by the achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of therapeutic goals for hypertension (BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg in patients with proteinuria ≥ 1 50 mg/24h and/or diabetes and ≤ 140/90 in those with