WorldWideScience

Sample records for disease cervical cancer

  1. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  2. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  3. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  4. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.

  5. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  6. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Cervical ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  7. Radical surgery in patients with residual disease after (chemo)radiation for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Aniek; Arts, Henriette J. G.; Klip, Harry; Nijhuis, Esther R.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Reyners, Anna K. L.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Thomas, Gillian; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine possible impact of routinely scheduled biopsies and more radical surgery for residual central disease in locally advanced cervical cancer after (chemo) radiation. Methods/Materials: Data were analyzed of a consecutive series of cervical cancer

  8. Cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: a preventable noncommunicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Prazuck, Thierry; Lethu, Thérèse; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Meye, Jean-François; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Infections caused by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for 7.7% of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. This disease is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and 50,000 deaths yearly, further increased by HIV infection. Areas covered: The current status of cervical cancer associated with HPV in sub-Saharan Africa has been systematically revised. The main issues discussed here are related to the public health burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and predictions for the coming decades, including molecular epidemiology and determinants of HPV infection in Africa, and promising prevention measures currently being evaluated in Africa. Expert commentary: By the year 2030, cervical cancer will kill more than 443,000 women yearly worldwide, most of them in sub-Saharan Africa. The increase in the incidence of cervical cancer in Africa could counteract the progress made by African women in reducing maternal mortality and longevity. Nevertheless, cervical cancer is a potentially preventable noncommunicable disease, and intervention strategies to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health concern should be urgently implemented.

  9. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  11. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  12. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  14. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  15. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  16. Gene expression profiling in cervical cancer: identification of novel markers for disease diagnosis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Cara M

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer. HPV contributes to neoplastic progression through the action of two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7, which interfere with critical cell cycle pathways, p53, and retinoblastoma. However, evidence suggests that HPV infection alone is insufficient to induce malignant changes and other host genetic variations are important in the development of cervical cancer. Advances in molecular biology and high throughput gene expression profiling technologies have heralded a new era in biomarker discovery and identification of molecular targets related to carcinogenesis. These advancements have improved our understanding of carcinogenesis and will facilitate screening, early detection, management, and personalised targeted therapy. In this chapter, we have described the use of high density microarrays to assess gene expression profiles in cervical cancer. Using this approach we have identified a number of novel genes which are differentially expressed in cervical cancer, including several genes involved in cell cycle regulation. These include p16ink4a, MCM 3 and 5, CDC6, Geminin, Cyclins A-D, TOPO2A, CDCA1, and BIRC5. We have validated expression of mRNA using real-time PCR and protein by immunohistochemistry.

  17. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  18. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  19. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  20. Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: One cause, two diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Tara A; Schiller, John T

    2017-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes greater than 5% of cancers worldwide, including all cervical cancers and an alarmingly increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). Despite markedly reduced cervical cancer incidence in industrialized nations with organized screening programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, as developing countries lack resources for universal, high-quality screening. In the United States, HPV-related OPC is only 1 of 5 cancers with a rising incidence since 1975 and now has taken over the cervix as the most common site of HPV-related cancer. Similar trends follow throughout North America and Europe. The need for early detection and prevention is paramount. Despite the common etiologic role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC, great disparity exists between incidence, screening modalities (or lack thereof), treatment, and prevention in these 2 very distinct cohorts. These differences in cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC and their impact are discussed here. Cancer 2017;123:2219-2229. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  8. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Secondary prevention of cervical cancer through the development and implementation of a system to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic and rehabilitation measures in the background and precancerous cervical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Badretdinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive evaluation and treatment of background and pre-cancerous cervical cancer of women were studied (n = 1022. There is the complex assessment of social and obstetric gynecological risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. A system for optimizing diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive and rehabilitative measures, taking into account the differentiated approach to the choice of treatment, follow-up in the near and long-term postoperative period. An individual approach to the selection of organ presentation or radical treatment using new technologies of surgical treatment are identified. Application of the developed system enabled a statistically significantly improve the results of treatment of background and precancerous cervical disease.

  10. Radical surgery for early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Due to an effective screening programme, in the Netherlands cervical cancer is often detected in early stages of disease. For early stage (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/IIA) cervical

  11. Expression profiling of cervical cancers in Indian women at different stages to identify gene signatures during progression of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Kannan, Sadhana; Deodhar, Kedar; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Mulherkar, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with developing countries accounting for >80% of the disease burden. Although in the West, active screening has been instrumental in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer, disease management is hampered due to lack of biomarkers for disease progression and defined therapeutic targets. Here we carried out gene expression profiling of 29 cervical cancer tissues from Indian women, spanning International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages of the disease from early lesion (IA and IIA) to progressive stages (IIB and IIIA–B), and identified distinct gene expression signatures. Overall, metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer and signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated, while focal adhesion, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction and WNT signaling were downregulated. Additionally, we identified candidate biomarkers of disease progression such as SPP1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STK17A, and DUSP1 among others that were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the samples used for microarray studies as well in an independent set of 34 additional samples. Integrative analysis of our results with other cervical cancer profiling studies could facilitate the development of multiplex diagnostic markers of cervical cancer progression

  12. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  13. Imaging in cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Follen, M.; Levenback, C.F.; Iyer, R.B.; Grigsby, P.W.; Boss, E.A.; Delpassand, E.S.; Fornage, B.D.; Fishman, E.K.

    2003-01-01

    Cervical cancer traditionally has been staged clinically. Advances in imaging could improve the staging of cervical cancer by facilitating the detection of lymph node metastases and micrometastases in distant organs. Such progress could lead to improvements in treatment selection and therefore

  14. Overview and Prevention of Cervical Cancer | Ogu | Nigerian Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer though a preventable disease, still has an estimated mortality of 80% from invasive cervical cancer in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of cervical cancer and the various modalities available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. Methodology: ...

  15. The role of pre-invasive disease in overdiagnosis: A microsimulation study comparing mass screening for breast cancer and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, Paula A; Rozemeijer, Kirsten; Naber, Steffie K; Heijnsdijk, Eveline Am; van Rosmalen, Joost; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-12-01

    Although early detection of cancer through screening can prevent cancer deaths, a drawback of screening is overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis has been much debated in breast cancer screening, but less so in cervical cancer screening. We examined the impact of overdiagnosis by comparing two screening programmes in the Netherlands. We estimated overdiagnosis rates by microsimulation for breast cancer screening and cervical cancer screening, using a cohort of women born in 1982 with lifelong follow-up. Overdiagnosis estimates were made analogous to two definitions formed by the UK 2012 breast screening review. Pre-invasive disease was included in both definitions. Screening prevented 921 cervical cancers (-55%) and 378 cervical cancer deaths (-59%), and 169 (-1.3%) breast cancer cases and 970 breast cancer deaths (-21%). The cervical cancer overdiagnosis rate was 74.8% (including pre-invasive disease). Breast cancer overdiagnosis was estimated at 2.5% (including pre-invasive disease). For women of all ages in breast cancer screening, an excess of 207 diagnoses/100,000 women was found, compared with an excess of 3999 diagnoses/100,000 women in cervical cancer screening. For breast cancer, the frequency of overdiagnosis in screening is relatively low, but consequences are evident. For cervical cancer, the frequency of overdiagnosis in screening is high, because of detection of pre-invasive disease, but the consequences per case are relatively small due to less invasive treatment. This illustrates that it is necessary to present overdiagnosis in relation to disease stage and consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  17. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.

  19. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  20. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  2. Effectiveness of postoperative radiation therapy in stage IB cervical cancer with residual disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.; Perez-Tamayo, C.; Komaki, R.U.; Terada, K.; Roberts, J.A.; Morley, G.W.; Greenberg, M.; Mattingly, R.; Hopkins, M.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with stage IB cervical cancer were treated with radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and pelvic radiation therapy to approximately 5,090 rad. Patients were divided into two groups: group I, nine patients with involved parametria or positive margins at surgery; group II, 12 patients with metastatic pelvic lymph nodes. Patients in group I had an actuarial survival of 40% at 5 years and 20% at 10 years; patients in group II had an actuarial survival of 67% at 5 and 10 years (.01 < P < .05). The overall actuarial survival was 55% at 5 years and 43% at 10 years. Thus, patients with stage IB disease and involved parametrium or surgical margins do poorly. Alternative forms of therapy should be considered when this disease picture is clinically suspected preoperatively

  3. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHAN, Sairah R.; ROCKALL, Andrea G.; BARWICK, Tara D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed.

  4. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  5. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  6. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the ... students) wrongly believed that blood test is used for cervical cancer screening. There is a ... [1] About half a million new cases are seen annually ...

  8. Awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among women of reproductive ... in depth knowledge on cervical cancer, the need for mass education on the disease and the ... Keywords: Tumour, behaviour, sexual age, Upper East, Ghana ...

  9. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical ...

  10. Role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xi Yang,1 Miao Da,2 Wenyuan Zhang,3 Quan Qi,4 Chun Zhang,5 Shuwen Han4 1Department of Intervention and Radiotherapy, Huzhou Central Hospital, 2Medical College of Nursing, Huzhou University, 3Department of Gynaecology, 4Department of Medical Oncology, 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Huzhou Central Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cervical cancer is a common malignant cancer among women worldwide. Changes in the vaginal microecological environment lead to multiple gynecological diseases, including cervical cancer. Recent research has shown that Lactobacillus may play an important role in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. This review explores the role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer. A total of 29 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on Lactobacillus in cervical cancer from two perspectives, including clinical studies and experimental studies, was analyzed. An association network for the mechanism by which Lactobacillus induces cervical cancer was constructed. In addition, we provide direction and insight for further research on the role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer. Keywords: CIN, cervical cancer, Lactobacillus, microorganism

  11. Invasive cervical cancer accompanied by IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Rin; Yamanishi, Yukio; Uda, Satoko; Terashima, Tsuyoshi; Higashi, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Toshihiro

    2016-09-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease that affects multiple organs and generates nodules or thickening. Discriminating these diseases from malignancy is important because glucocorticoid treatment is effective for patients with IgG4-RD. Coexistence of IgG4-RD with various malignant diseases has been reported, but there are few reports with regard to gynecologic malignant diseases. We encountered a case of invasive cervical cancer stage IIB accompanied by IgG4-RD. The patient was a 46-year-old woman. On pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography, systemic multiple lymph node swelling was seen, including in the neck and the mediastinum in addition to uterine cervix. Diagnosis (and hence, appropriate treatment choice) was achieved on pathology of the submandibular gland and uterus, and analysis of serum IgG4. IgG4-RD should be suspected in patients presenting with malignancy and unusual multiple lymph node swelling. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  13. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  14. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (HPV) will hopefully reduce cervical cancer rates globally even ... active people will get HPV at some time in their lives', making it ... cells due to HPV infection of the cervix are the first step in a series ..... A randomised controlled study of purified air administered to the 'breathing zone' at night to people with allergic asthma ...

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  17. Cervical cancer and pregnancy: treatment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Toth, R.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy and cervical carcinoma occurring concomitantly causes therapeutic and ethical dilemmas. The management for this situation will depend on the gestational age at the time of diagnosis, disease staging, size of the lesion and the patient’s wish to maintain pregnancy and fertility. Review of the literature suggest that pregnancy does not seem to influence the prognosis of cervical cancer. (author)

  18. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  19. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  20. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. ... has led to a significant decline in the incidence of cervical .... and malignant lesions as integration of the viral DNA into the.

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cervical Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rungoe, Christine; Simonsen, Jacob; Riis, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We examined the risk of cervical neoplasia (dysplasia or cancer) in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). We also calculated the reverse, the risk for diagnosis with cervical neoplasia before development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We...... established a national cohort of women diagnosed with UC (n = 18,691) or CD (n = 8717) between 1979 and 2011 and a control cohort of individually matched women from the general population (controls, n = 1,508,334). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of screening activity and diagnosis of cervical neoplasia in women...... with IBD were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) of cervical neoplasia before diagnosis of IBD were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Women with CD underwent cervical cancer screening as often as women in the general population (IRR, 0...

  2. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Burden of disease associated with cervical cancer in malaysia and potential costs and consequences of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunid, S; Zafar, A; Saperi, S; Amrizal, M

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 70% of cervical cancers worldwide are attributable to persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 and 18. Vaccination against HPV 16/18 has been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of associated precancerous and cancerous lesions. The aims of the present analyses were, firstly, to estimate the clinical and economic burden of disease attributable to HPV in Malaysia and secondly, to estimate long-term outcomes associated with HPV vaccination using a prevalence-based modeling approach. In the first part of the analysis costs attributable to cervical cancer and precancerous lesions were estimated; epidemiologic data were sourced from the WHO GLOBOCAN database and Malaysian national data sources. In the second part, a prevalence-based model was used to estimate the potential annual number of cases of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions that could be prevented and subsequent HPV-related treatment costs averted with the bivalent (HPV 16/18) and the quadrivalent (HPV 16/18/6/11) vaccines, at the population level, at steady state. A vaccine efficacy of 98% was assumed against HPV types included in both vaccines. Effectiveness against other oncogenic HPV types was based on the latest results from each vaccine's respective clinical trials. In Malaysia there are an estimated 4,696 prevalent cases of cervical cancer annually and 1,372 prevalent cases of precancerous lesions, which are associated with a total direct cost of RM 39.2 million with a further RM 12.4 million in indirect costs owing to lost productivity. At steady state, vaccination with the bivalent vaccine was estimated to prevent 4,199 cervical cancer cases per year versus 3,804 cases for the quadrivalent vaccine. Vaccination with the quadrivalent vaccine was projected to prevent 1,721 cases of genital warts annually, whereas the annual number of cases remained unchanged with the bivalent vaccine. Furthermore, vaccination with the bivalent vaccine was estimated to avert RM 45

  4. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  5. Impact of educational lectures on female adolescents’ knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer in the city of Jundiaí, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Ramos Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of adolescents living in Vila Ana and Morada das Vinhas region, in the city of Jundiaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on prevention and diagnosis of the main sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and on cervical cancer, as well as the immediate impact of educational lectures. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed to assess the knowledge of a particular group of female adolescents about STDs and cervical cancer, by means of a questionnaire applied before and after educational lectures. Results: After the lecture, there was an increased number of correct answers about sexual education, knowledge about HPV (44%, and prevention of cervical cancer (22%. Conclusion: The adolescents in our study had little knowledge about STDs and cervical cancer, but educative lectures could change this reality at a low cost to Public Health services.

  6. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a

  7. Regional Monitoring of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Lupse, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara; Salvari, Daniela; Catanet, Radu; Bernad, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most important causes of death in women in fertile age in Romania. In order to discover high-risk situations in the first stages of the disease it is important to enhance prevention actions, and ICT, respectively cloud computing and Big Data currently support such activities. The national screening program uses an information system that based on data from different medical units gives feedback related to the women healthcare status and provides statistics and reports. In order to ensure the continuity of care it is updated with HL7 CDA support and cloud computing. The current paper presents the solution and several results.

  8. Predictors of Locally Advanced Disease at Presentation and Clinical Outcomes Among Cervical Cancer Patients Admitted at a Tertiary Hospital in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassali, Mercy Nkuba; Tadele, Melese; Nkuba, Robert Michael; Modimowame, Jamieson; Enyeribe, Iwuh; Katse, Edwin

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to determine predictors of locally advanced disease at presentation and clinical outcomes among cervical cancer patients in Botswana to inform interventional strategies. Retrospective review of 149 medical records of new cervical cancer patients was conducted between August 2016 and February 2017 at the Princess Marina Hospital. Data collected included sociodemographics, presenting symptoms, stage of disease, comorbidities, interventions, and clinical outcomes. STATA 12 was used for data analysis. Frequencies were used to describe patient demographics and clinical variables. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between stage of disease at presentation and patient characteristics. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Mean age was 49.5 years. Nine (89.2%) in 10 patients had locally advanced cervical cancer (stage IB1-IVB). Two thirds (65.1%) were human immunodeficiency virus positive. Previous cervical cancer screening was low at 38.3%. Common symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding, low abdominal pain, and malodorous vaginal discharge reported among 75.8%, 66.4%, and 39.6% of cases, respectively. Overall, 32 (21.5%) were declared cured, 52 (34.9%) improved, and 11 (7.4%) opted for home-based care. Hospital deaths were 41 (27.5%). Major causes of death were renal failure (48.7%) and severe anemia (39%). Thirteen (8.7%) were lost to follow-up. Being unmarried (odds ratio [OR], 3.9), lack of cervical cancer screening (OR, 6.68), presentation with vaginal bleeding (OR, 7.69), and low abdominal pain (OR, 4.69) were associated with advanced disease at presentation. Lack of cervical cancer screening, vaginal bleeding, low abdominal pain, and unmarried status were associated with advanced disease at presentation. We recommend scale-up of cervical cancer screening and its integration into routine human immunodeficiency virus care. Capacity building in gynecologic oncology and palliative

  9. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Rangel-Gómez, Gudelia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural). During 1990-2000 a total of 48,761 cervical cancer (CC) deaths were reported in Mexico (1990 = 4,280 deaths/year; 2000 = 4,620 deaths/year). On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference = Mexico City) found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR] = 10.99; Nayarit, RR = 10.5). Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population). CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  10. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women of reproductive age group; yet screening for early detection of the disease among them is not a common practice in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening service among women of ...

  11. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  13. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  14. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  16. TCGA study identifies genomic features of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified novel genomic and molecular characteristics of cervical cancer that will aid in subclassification of the disease and may help target therapies that are most appropriate for each patient.

  17. Clustering self-organizing maps (SOM) method for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA as the main cause of cervical cancer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamam, A.; Aldila, D.; Fatimah, Arimbi, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    One of the most widely used clustering method, since it has advantage on its robustness, is Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method. This paper discusses the application of SOM method on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA which is the main cause of cervical cancer disease, the most dangerous cancer in developing countries. We use 18 types of HPV DNA-based on the newest complete genome. By using open-source-based program R, clustering process can separate 18 types of HPV into two different clusters. There are two types of HPV in the first cluster while 16 others in the second cluster. The analyzing result of 18 types HPV based on the malignancy of the virus (the difficultness to cure). Two of HPV types the first cluster can be classified as tame HPV, while 16 others in the second cluster are classified as vicious HPV.

  18. Issues in cervical cancer incidence and treatment in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H; Phaëton, Rébécca

    2010-09-01

    Cervical disease burden continues to be especially high in HIV-infected women, even in the era of effective antiretroviral medications. This review discusses the multiple issues surrounding HIV-associated cervical cancer. Also, the unique treatment-related issues in HIV-associated cervical cancer are addressed. The incidence of invasive cervical cancer has remained stable in industrialized nations; however, it is only estimated in developing countries secondary to a relative lack of data collection and registries. Trends in HIV-associated cervical cancer have changed in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recent molecular pathways suggest that the natural progression of human papillomavirus infection, the causal agent in all cervical cancers, may be related to immune system dysfunction as well as HIV/human papillomavirus synergistic mechanisms. When highly active retroviral therapies are used, invasive cervical cancer treatments are impacted by concomitant drug toxicities that could potentially limit therapeutic benefit of either HAART or the standard of care treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer, concomitant chemoradiotherapy. The significance and care of the patient with invasive cervical cancer is becoming a geographically relevant phenomenon such that it may be time to re-address the global definition. Further studies in treatment issues and drug-drug interactions with cervical cancer treatments in the setting of HIV are paramount.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Zhaojun; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%-20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer.

  20. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  3. Immunotherapy for cervical cancer: Can it do another lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Priya; Dhandapani, Hemavathi; Jayakumar, Hascitha; Seetharaman, Abirami; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    Cervical cancer, although preventable, is still the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries like India, where screening for cervical cancer is virtually absent, most women seek treatment only at advanced stages of the disease. Although standard treatment is curative in more than 90% of women during the early stages, for stage IIIb and above this rate drops to 50% or less. Hence, novel therapeutic adjuvants are required to improve survival at advanced stages. Lung cancer has shown the way forward with the use of Immunotherapeutic interventions as standard line of treatment in advanced stages. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanisms of immune evasion, strategies that can be employed to boost the immune system in order to improve the overall survival of the patients and summarize briefly the clinical trials that have been completed or that are underway to bring therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer to the clinics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  5. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  6. EFFICACY OF VACCINE PREVENTION OF HPV-ASSOCIATED DISEASES AND CERVICAL CANCER IN THE MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Krasnopol'skiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on high prevalence of papilloma virus infection and associated disorders in adults as well as in adolescents are becoming more and more frequently published in the world and domestic literature. The most severe outcome of the infection is cervical cancer which takes the second place in women of reproductive age. At present, the armamentarium of obstetricians, gynecologists, pediatricians and oncologists is enriched by a recombinant vaccine protecting against human papilloma virus and representing one of effective methods of prevention of HPV-associated disorders. There are two prophylactic vaccines in the world (quadrivalent Gardasil® and bivalent Cervarix®, which are used in 44 countries. One of the first results proving efficacy of vaccination is a decrease of incidence of anogenital warts that is well described in foreign literature. In the Moscow region, as a result of vaccination performed from 2008 to 2013, a decrease of incidence of anogenital warts in girls is also observed.

  7. Quality of life and sexuality in disease-free survivors of cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy alone: A comparison between total laparoscopy and laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meizhu; Gao, Huiqiao; Bai, Huimin; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible differences between total laparoscopy and laparotomy regarding their impact on postoperative quality of life and sexuality in disease-free cervical cancer survivors who received radical hysterectomy (RH) and/or lymphadenectomy alone and were followed for >1 year.We reviewed all patients with cervical cancer who had received surgical treatment in our hospital between January 2001 and March 2014. Consecutive sexually active survivors who received RH and/or lymphadenectomy for early stage cervical cancer were enrolled and divided into 2 groups based on surgical approach. Survivors were interviewed and completed validated questionnaires, including the European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Core Questionnaire including 30 items, the Cervical Cancer-Specific Module of European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire including 24 items (EORTC QLQ-CX24), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI).In total, 273 patients with histologically confirmed cervical cancer were retrospectively reviewed. However, only 64 patients had received RH and/or lymphadenectomy alone; 58 survivors meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled, including 42 total laparoscopy cases and 16 laparotomy cases, with an average follow-up of 46.1 and 51.2 months, respectively. The survivors in the 2 groups obtained good and similar scores on all items of the European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Core Questionnaire including 30 items and Cervical Cancer-Specific Module of European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire including 24 items, without significant differences after controlling for covariate background characteristics. To the date of submission, 21.4% (9/42) of cases in the total laparoscopy group and 31.2% (5/16) of cases in the laparotomy group had not resumed sexual behavior after RH. Additionally

  8. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  9. Radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagabu, Teruo; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nanayama, Kunihiko

    1976-01-01

    In order to observe the radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer, the author carried out irradiation of 60 Co in 16 cases of cervical cancer. The primary lesion of each case was exposed to radiation of 100 R once a day, 40 times in sequence, totaling 4,000 R. To evaluate this results, the vaginal smears were obtained everyday and examined for changes in cancerous cells caused by the irradiation. The results of our study showed that cervical cancer could be classified into three groups according to the radiosensitivity of its cancerous cells. In the group of low-radiosensitivity (11 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased gradually, and enlargement of the nuclei of the cancerous cells was observed from 2,000 R of irradiation, but the majority of the cancerous cells were those of nucleus after the irradiation of 4,000 R. In all of the 5 uterus removed, residual cancer lesion was noted. The radiocuability was unfavourable. In the group of high-radiosensitivity (4 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly. Enlargement of nucleus was noted from 1,000 R of the irradiation, the cancerous cells of small-sized nucleus appeared with the irradiation of 3,000 R but the cancerous cells almost disappeared with the irradiation of 4,000 R. The radiocuability was favourable. In the group of combination of high-radiosensitivity and low-radiosensitivity portions (one case of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly until the exposure to the radiation of 2,000 R but thereafter did slowly. In a removed uterus, the cancer lesion was noted, but the prognosis was favourable. The foregoing results suggest that changes in the nuclear diameter of the cancerous cells in vaginal smears during irradiation can tell the radiosensitivity of the cancerous cells. (Kanao, N.)

  10. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  11. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  12. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  13. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untre...

  14. Vaccines against human papilloma virus and cervical cancer: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of preventing human papilloma virus (HPV infection through currently approved vaccines, namely, Gardasil, manufactured by Merck and Co., Inc. (Whitehouse Station, NJ and Cervarix, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Philadelphia holds tremendous promise for the developing countries in decreasing the burden of HPV infection and its sequelae, such as cervical cancer, genital warts and anogenital cancers. Effective screening programs that have reduced the burden of this killer disease in the developed countries are still lacking in India, despite the high incidence of cervical cancer and the implementation of the National Cancer Control Programme since 1975. The recent breakthrough in the global war against cervical cancer will provide new insight for meeting the future challenge of the prevention of cervical cancer in India.

  15. Role of Protein Biomarkers in the Detection of High-Grade Disease in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Pap test was introduced in the 1940s, there has been an approximately 70% reduction in the incidence of squamous cell cervical cancers in many developed countries by the application of organized and opportunistic screening programs. The efficacy of the Pap test, however, is hampered by high interobserver variability and high false-negative and false-positive rates. The use of biomarkers has demonstrated the ability to overcome these issues, leading to improved positive predictive value of cervical screening results. In addition, the introduction of HPV primary screening programs will necessitate the use of a follow-up test with high specificity to triage the high number of HPV-positive tests. This paper will focus on protein biomarkers currently available for use in cervical cancer screening, which appear to improve the detection of women at greatest risk for developing cervical cancer, including Ki-67, p16INK4a, BD ProEx C, and Cytoactiv HPV L1.

  16. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women’s willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. Participants and Methods A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Results Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. “Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed” (47.6%), “No symptoms/discomfort” (34.1%) and “Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening” (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Conclusion Efforts are needed to increase women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:23843976

  17. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. A test called a Pap smear is ... in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the management of ...

  18. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  19. Therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in preinvasive disease of the cervix and cervical cancer in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolna, M.; Pisarski, T.; Kedzia, H.

    1993-01-01

    154 pregnant women with displasis and cervical carcinoma of the uterus treated in the Institute in years 1953-1990 underwent investigation. Authors noticed that only 50 pathologies were diagnosed in 1st trimester of pregnancy and 85% constituted precancerous and early forms of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Authors presented the model of management and care of pregnancy, labour and puerperium in these patients. Due to this procedure we obtained 90% comparability of preliminary and final diagnosis. (author)

  20. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  1. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2): Linking cervical cancer screening to a two-dose HPV vaccination ... In VACCS 1 the feasibility of linking cervical cancer with HPV vaccination was demonstrated. ... Article Metrics.

  2. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in ... and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. ... Results: Majority of the women have poor knowledge about cervical cancer ...

  3. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  4. Cervical cancer: current knowledge, perception and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynaecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer continues to persist in Nigeria like other developing countries despite the existence of ...

  5. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women worldwide. It is a preventable disease but still remains a leading cause of cancer deaths in developing countries like Nigeria despite the availability of preventive and curative protocols. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  7. Cervical cancer: evaluation of our results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cola, A.; Suárez, L.; Castillo, C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer in women occupies 3rd place in incidence and 5th as a cause of cancer death in our country. The evolution is mainly determined by the stage, nodal status and histological type. The treatment of these tumors is surgical, radiant and / or systemic, depending on your choice mainly Stadium. Objective: To analyze the characteristics, evolution, treatment and survival of patients carriers of cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients with cervical cancer treated at the Department of Oncology the Clinical Hospital in the period 1994-2004. Curves were constructed survival (sv) of total and free enfemedad sv sv by stage and after relapse by the method of Kaplan-Meier. Results: n = 75 patients, median age 45 years (24-90 years). Histological type: Epidermoid carcinomas 93% 5% 2% adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous. stadium (E) Initial: 31% IE, 38% EII, EIII 25%, 6% EIVA. Treatment was according to the stadium, considering that until 1999 was not standard concurrent chemoradiation. The median sv considering all stages was 124 months. The sv to 5 years for EI was 90% (median 188 sv months), for the ISI 65% (95 months) and the median sv CIRTs was 24 months. Followed for 13 months, 12 patients relapsed and the median after sv relapse was 8 months (95% CI 4-13 months) Conclusions: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature, however far from the optimal, so it is necessary to continue clinical trials in this regard

  8. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening among men in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M S; Amoateng, P

    2012-09-01

    The age-standardized mortality rate for cervical cancer in Ghana, West Africa is more than three times the global cervical cancer mortality rate (27.6/100,000 vs. 7.8/100,000 respectively). The Pap test and visual inspection with acetic acid are available at public and private hospitals in Ghana. Approximately, 2.7% of Ghanaian women obtain cervical cancer screenings regularly. Men in middle-income countries play a key role in cervical cancer prevention. Increasing spousal support for cervical cancer screening may increase screening rates in Ghana. Five focus groups were conducted with Ghanaian men (N = 29) to assess their cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening knowledge and beliefs. The qualitative data was analyzed via indexed coding. Targets for education interventions were identified including inaccurate knowledge about cervical cancer and stigmatizing beliefs about cervical cancer risk factors. Cultural taboos regarding women's health care behaviours were also identified. Several participants indicated that they would be willing to provide spousal support for cervical cancer screening if they knew more about the disease and the screening methods. Men play a significant role in the health behaviours of some Ghanaian women. Cervical cancer education interventions targeting Ghanaian men are needed to correct misconceptions and increase spousal support for cervical cancer screening.

  9. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer. Keywords: cisplatin, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, microRNA, molecular mechanism, resistance

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.

  12. The German cervical cancer screening model: development and validation of a decision-analytic model for cervical cancer screening in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Uwe; Sroczynski, Gaby; Hillemanns, Peter; Engel, Jutta; Stabenow, Roland; Stegmaier, Christa; Voigt, Kerstin; Gibis, Bernhard; Hölzel, Dieter; Goldie, Sue J

    2006-04-01

    We sought to develop and validate a decision-analytic model for the natural history of cervical cancer for the German health care context and to apply it to cervical cancer screening. We developed a Markov model for the natural history of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening in the German health care context. The model reflects current German practice standards for screening, diagnostic follow-up and treatment regarding cervical cancer and its precursors. Data for disease progression and cervical cancer survival were obtained from the literature and German cancer registries. Accuracy of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing was based on meta-analyses. We performed internal and external model validation using observed epidemiological data for unscreened women from different German cancer registries. The model predicts life expectancy, incidence of detected cervical cancer cases, lifetime cervical cancer risks and mortality. The model predicted a lifetime cervical cancer risk of 3.0% and a lifetime cervical cancer mortality of 1.0%, with a peak cancer incidence of 84/100,000 at age 51 years. These results were similar to observed data from German cancer registries, German literature data and results from other international models. Based on our model, annual Pap screening could prevent 98.7% of diagnosed cancer cases and 99.6% of deaths due to cervical cancer in women completely adherent to screening and compliant to treatment. Extending the screening interval from 1 year to 2, 3 or 5 years resulted in reduced screening effectiveness. This model provides a tool for evaluating the long-term effectiveness of different cervical cancer screening tests and strategies.

  13. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.

  14. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  15. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  16. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN......INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  17. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, S

    2016-01-01

    , which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were......OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical...... in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme...

  18. Cervical Cancer PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  19. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsainvil, Merlyn A

    The incidence of cervical cancer has declined dramatically due to Papanicolaou smear testing. However, some minority populations continue to suffer with high incidences and/or death rates of cervical cancer, due to lack of screening. This article updates on cervical cancer screening and prevention and discusses cultural impacts on screening. Knowledge deficits disproportionately affect ethnic minority groups and contribute to cancer incidence, whereas lack of healthcare coverage and low socioeconomic status contribute to screening disparities. Although minority women have cultural beliefs and practices that influence screening, recommendation and/or education from a provider often lead to screening.

  20. Awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix is a major public health issue in the developing countries. The burden of the disease is considerable with associated morbidity and mortality among women in their productive years. The lack of awareness and adequate information about cervical cancer and its prevention may be ...

  1. The guidelines for diagnostics and treatment of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inciura, A.; Juozaityte, E.

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. The purpose of this article is to analyze the main diagnostic and treatment strategies for all stages and recurrences of cervical cancer. The article reviews the epidemiological situation, clinical features, diagnostic procedures for detection of this tumor and for evaluation of the dissemination of the disease, staging criteria, TNM (Tumor, Nodes, Metastases) and FIGO (Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique) classification, as well as treatment and prognosis. Surgical treatment (radical type II or III hysterectomy and Iymphadenectomy) for early stage I and IIA cervical cancer is the main treatment method. Delivery of adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy or concomitant chemoradiation depends on the prognostic factors (tumor penetration to cervical tissues, Iymphovascular invasion, tumor invasion to paracervical tissues, and surgical margins). For treatment of more advanced stages of cervical cancer (IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IVA) concomitant chemoradiation: external beam radiotherapy with chemotherapy and brachytherapy is used. Description of the treatment guidelines for each stage of cervical cancer is given in this article. These guidelines are useful for good treatment practice. (author)

  2. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated...... the extent to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality. METHODS: QoL data from 346 cervical cancer patients from 14 countries who were included in a cervical...... module. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Active treatment had the strongest negative impact on 13 different QoL domains: physical, role, emotional, cognitive, social functioning, global health/QoL, fatigue, nausea and emesis, pain...

  3. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Aswathy; Javed, Reshma; Dinesh, Avani

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus) prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55-59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence.

  4. Human Papillomavirus and Vaccination in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Liahng Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is not only the most frequently reported cancer among women, but also the most common female genital tract neoplasm in Taiwan. Early detection is effective, because the development, maintenance and progression of precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] evolve slowly into invasive cancer, typically over a period of more than 10 years. It is now recognized that human papillomavirus (HPV infection is a necessary cause for over 99% of cervical cancer cases. Advances in the understanding of the causative role of HPV in the etiology of high-grade cervical lesions (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer have led to the development, evaluation and recommendation of HPV-based technologies for cervical cancer prevention and control. The prevention of HPV infection before the onset of CIN is now possible with recently available prophylactic HPV vaccines, e.g. the quadrivalent Gardasil (Merck & Co., NJ, USA and bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK. This review article provides an up-to-date summary of recent studies and available information concerning HPV and vaccination in cervical cancer.

  5. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  6. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  7. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  8. Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelaria, Myrna; Garcia-Arias, Alicia; Cetina, Lucely; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity

  9. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; In 't Hout, Bertha A.; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Jijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective

  10. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.R.; Zee, A.G. van der; Hout, B.A. van; Boomgaard, J.J.; Hullu, J.A. de; Pras, E.; Hollema, H.; Aalders, J.G.; Nijman, H.W.; Willemse, P.H.B.; Mourits, M.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a retrospective

  11. Modeling Cervical Cancer Prevention in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane J.; Brisson, Marc; Edmunds, W. John; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytology-based screening has reduced cervical cancer mortality in countries able to implement, sustain and financially support organized programs that achieve broad coverage. These ongoing secondary prevention efforts considerably complicate the question of whether vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types -16 and 18 should be introduced. Policy questions focus primarily on the target ages of vaccination, appropriate ages for a temporary “catch-up” program, possible revisions in screening policies to optimize synergies with vaccination, including the increased used of HPV DNA testing, and the inclusion of boys in the vaccination program. Decision-analytic models are increasingly being developed to simulate disease burden and interventions in different settings in order to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of primary and secondary interventions for informed decision-making. This article is a focused review on existing mathematical models that have been used to evaluate HPV vaccination in the context of developed countries with existing screening programs. Despite variations in model assumptions and uncertainty in existing data, pre-adolescent vaccination of girls is consistently found to be attractive in the context of current screening practices, provided there is complete and lifelong vaccine protection and widespread vaccination coverage. Questions related to catch-up vaccination programs, potential benefits of other non-cervical cancer outcomes and inclusion of boys are subject to far more uncertainty, and results from these analyses have reached conflicting conclusions. Most analyses find that some catch-up vaccination is warranted but becomes increasingly unattractive as the catch-up age is extended, and vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost-effective if reasonable levels of coverage are achieved in girls or coverage among girls can be improved. The objective of the review is to highlight points of consensus and qualitative

  12. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Af'idah, Dwi Intan; Widianto, Eko Didik; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  13. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer...... (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were...... 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P

  14. Eradication of cervical cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Xavier Bosch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains within the three most common cancer in women worldwide and is still the commonest female cancer in 41 of 184 countries. Within Latin America, cervical ranks as the most common cancer among women in Bolivia and Peru and the second most frequent in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, The Guyanas, Surinam and Venezuela. Due to its relatively early age at onset, it ranks among the three most frequent cancers in women aged below 45 years in 82% of all countries in the world irrespective of their screening practices.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i2.7777

  15. Detection and prognosis of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deregowski, Valerie; Van Criekinge, Wim; Dehaspe, Luc; Wisman, G. Bea A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Schuuring, E. M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and kits for identifying, diagnosing, prognosing, and monitoring cervical cancer. These methods include determining the methylation status or the expression levels of particular genes, or a combination thereof.

  16. Screening for Cervical Cancer: Experience from a University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Cervical cancer, cervical cytology, north-west Nigeria. Access this article .... involving a larger sample size will give better picture about the prevalent of ... Ridsdale LL. Cervical screening in general practice: Call and recall. J R.

  17. A consensus-based guideline defining clinical target volume for primary disease in external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toita, Takafumi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kaneyasu, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a consensus-based guideline to define clinical target volume for primary disease (clinical target volume primary) in external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer. The working subgroup of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) Radiation Therapy Study Group began developing a guideline for primary clinical target volume in November 2009. The group consisted of 10 radiation oncologists and 2 gynecologic oncologists. The process started with comparing the contouring on computed tomographic images of actual cervical cancer cases among the members. This was followed by a comprehensive literature review that included primary research articles and textbooks as well as information on surgical procedures. Extensive discussion occurred in face-to-face meetings (three occasions) and frequent e-mail communications until a consensus was reached. The working subgroup reached a consensus on the definition for the clinical target volume primary. The clinical target volume primary consists of the gross tumor volume, uterine cervix, uterine corpus, parametrium, vagina and ovaries. Definitions for these component structures were determined. Anatomical boundaries in all directions were defined for the parametrium. Examples delineating these boundaries were prepared for the posterior border of the parametrium for various clinical situations (id est (i.e.) central tumor bulk, degree of parametrial involvement). A consensus-based guideline defining the clinical target volume primary was developed for external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer. This guideline will serve as a template for radiotherapy protocols in future clinical trials. It may also be used in actual clinical practice in the setting of highly precise external beam radiotherapy, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  19. Social differences in sexual behaviour and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, S; Bosch, F X; Muñoz, N; Shah, K

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we first describe the variation of cervical cancer in relation to social class. Thereafter we examine the causes for the occurrence of socioeconomic differences in invasive cervical cancer, using data from two case-control studies carried out in Colombia and Spain. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing countries and the sixth most common in developed countries. In all areas, it is more frequent among women of low socioeconomic status, it is associated with multiple sexual partners and early age at first sexual intercourse, and both incidence and mortality are reduced by screening. According to population-based surveys in industrialized countries, men of low socioeconomic status report fewer sexual partners than men of high socioeconomic status but there is no clear indication that the same is true of women of low socioeconomic status. In the case-control studies in Spain and Colombia, the human papillomavirus and all other sexually transmitted diseases were more prevalent among women in low socioeconomic strata. Number of sexual partners and particularly contacts with prostitutes were higher among husbands of women of low socioeconomic status. Other potential risk factors for the disease, such as smoking and oral contraceptive use, and also cervical cancer screening (Pap smears), were more common in women of high social strata. Women with no schooling had a threefold higher risk in Spain and a fivefold higher risk in Colombia of having cervical cancer compared with women who had achieved a higher educational level. After adjustment for sexual behaviour, HPV DNA status, history of Pap smears and husband's contact with prostitutes, this association was considerably reduced. These results are indicative that socioeconomic differences in the incidence of cervical cancer can be partly explained by differences in the prevalence of HPV DNA. Men's sexual behaviour and particularly contacts with prostitutes might be a major contributor to

  20. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  1. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Adult Women in China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; He, Minfu; Chao, Ann; Engelgau, Michael M.; Saraiya, Mona; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among women in China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine screening for cervical cancer, and the WHO Global Monitoring Framework suggests that every nation monitors cervical cancer screening. However, little information is available on cervical cancer screening behavior among women in China. Methods. We used data from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System that included 51,989 women aged 18 years and older. We report the proportion of women who reported ever having had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. Overall, 21% of 51,989 women reported having ever had a Pap test. The highest proportion was reported among women aged 30–39 years (30.1%, 95% confidence interval, 26.8%–33.4%). In all geographic regions, women in rural areas were consistently less likely than women in urban areas to report having had a Pap test. Among women who reported ever having a Pap test, 82% reported having the most recent test in the past 3 years. Factors associated with reporting ever having a test were being aged 30–49 years, higher education, being married, and having urban health insurance. Conclusion. Our results indicate that screening programs need to be strengthened along with a more intense focus on specific demographic groups. National cervical cancer screening guidelines and comprehensive implementation strategies are needed to make screening services available and accessible to all women. Implications for Practice: This study is the largest nationwide and population-based assessment of self-reported history of Pap test for cervical cancer screening in China. This article describes cervical cancer screening behavior among women and examines key demographic and geographic factors. Only one

  3. Knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Mukama, Trasias; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, David

    2017-06-11

    To explore community knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda so as to generate data to inform interventions. A qualitative study using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Discussions and interviews carried out in the community within two districts in Eastern Uganda. Ten ( 10) focus group discussions with 119 screening-eligible women aged between 25 and 49 years and 11 key informant interviews with healthcare providers and administrators. Study participants' knowledge about cervical cancer causes, signs and symptoms, testing methods and prevention was poor. Many participants attributed the cause of cervical cancer to use of contraception while key informants said that some believed it was due to witchcraft. Perceptions towards cervical cancer and screening were majorly positive with many participants stating that they were at risk of getting cervical cancer. The facilitators to accessing cervical cancer screening were: experiencing signs and symptoms of cervical cancer, family history of the disease and awareness of the disease/screening service. Lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, health system challenges, fear of test outcome and consequences and financial constraints were barriers to cervical cancer screening. Whereas perceptions towards cervical cancer and screening were positive, knowledge of study participants on cervical cancer was poor. To improve cervical cancer screening, effort should be focused on reducing identified barriers and enhancing facilitators. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Health seeking behavior of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is increasingly recognized as one of the public health problems among women in developing countries. Most women with cervical cancer are seen in the health care system late with advanced stage of cancer. This study aims to explore the care seeking behavior of women with cervical cancer.

  5. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    year and 274,000 women die of the disease annually. ... and the overall knowledge was equally poor. ... population and HPV in women with cervical cancer. 6 ..... This finding is similar to the study done among rural women in. 28 india.

  6. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  7. Development of a next generation Semliki Forest virus-based DNA vaccine against cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Wall, Stephanie; Ljungberg, Karl; Peng IP, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Nijman, Hans W.; Liljeström, Peter; Daemen, Toos

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. The disease develops as a result of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) through persistent expression of early proteins E6 and E7 with transforming capacities in cervical epithelial cells. Our group pioneered

  8. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  9. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  10. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Campos, Lízia Maria Franco dos; Luz Dias, Francisca da; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2008-11-01

    Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON). Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners), age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 +/- 7.8) and passive (7.2 +/- 10.6) smoking versus no smoking (3.7 +/- 5.1); with/without alcoholism (7.8 +/- 1.4 and 6.9 +/- 10.1); with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 +/- 10.5 and 1.3 +/- 1.7); and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 +/- 4.3, 10.6 +/- 5.3, 22.7 +/- 11.9 and 1.3 +/- 1.4) found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05). We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  11. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  12. Vaccines for Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahomed, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of two prophylactic Human Papilloma Virus HPV vaccines and ethical issues related to HPV vaccination are reviewed in this paper. These vaccines have the potential of substantially reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality, and in particular cervical cancer. The vaccines cannot treat women with current HPV infection or HPV related disease. They should be administered before the commencement of sexual activity. The ideal age group is adolescent girls between the ages 9-13. Both vaccines are highly efficacious and immunogenic and induce high levels of serum antibodies after three doses for all vaccine-related HPV types. School-based vaccination is considered as a costeffective method for its delivery. Adequate education of both clinicians and patients is an essential to ensure effective implementation when considering a national vaccination program. (author)

  13. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-02-01

    The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.

  14. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria SUMMARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    24 patients who needed blood transfusion were adequately transfused and only 21.74% of all patients had complete treatment). ... cancer management in this centre with a view to finding ways to improve its management. Methods. All case notes for patients managed for cervical cancer in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching ...

  15. Proteomic alterations in early stage cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Güzel, Coşkun; Govorukhina, Natalia; Wisman, G.B.A.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard; Hollema, Harry; Guryev, Victor; Horvatovich, Peter; van der Zee, Ate; Bischoff, Rainer; Luider, Theo

    2018-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) allows the capture of cell types or well-defined structures in tissue. We compared in a semi-quantitative way the proteomes from an equivalent of 8,000 tumor cells from patients with squamous cell cervical cancer (SCC, n = 22) with healthy epithelial and stromal cells obtained from normal cervical tissue (n = 13). Proteins were enzymatically digested into peptides which were measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry and analyzed by “all-or-nothing” anal...

  16. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer: A ... Primary HPV prevention may be the key to reducing incidence and burden of cervical cancer ... Other resources included locally-published articles and additional internet ...

  17. A study of radiation therapy for the cervical stump cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Reiko; Arai, Tatsuo; Morita, Shinroku; Takamizawa, Hirokichi.

    1979-01-01

    During a period of 17 years, between 1961 and 1977, 59 cases of the cervical stump cancer were treated at NIRS Hospital. We could not epidemically find the difference between the cervical stump cancer and the cervical cancer. 5-year survival rate of cervical stump cancer was 90% in stage I, 86% in stage II, and 63% in stage III, respectively. These results show higher 5-year survival rates, compared with those of cervical cancer. The frequencies of radiation complication in rectum and bladder were lower in the case of cervical stump cancer than in cervical cancer. It was suggested that the optimal radiation dose for cervical stump cancer was 80 - 90 TDF at point A. (author)

  18. Effect of Training on Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Effect of Training on Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Human. Papiloma Virus Vaccine ... debut, multiple sexual partners, smoking, history of sexually ... prevent cervical cancer. These include ..... needed to understand and explain the.

  19. Severe Pelvic Floor Symptoms After Cervical Cancer Treatment Are Predominantly Associated With Mental and Physical Well-Being and Body Image A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, Menke H.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Velden, Jacobus van der; Burger, Matthé P. M.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify associations between demographic, disease-related, and psychological variables and severe distress from pelvic floor symptoms (PFSs) after cervical cancer treatment. Methods: This study was cross-sectional and questionnaire based. We included patients with cervical cancer

  20. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  2. Urothelial cancers following radiation therapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Seiji; Hasumi, Masaru; Sato, Jin; Mayuzumi, Takuji; Kumasaka, Fuminari; Shimizu, Toshihiro.

    1996-01-01

    Some reports have indicated that bladder cancer is induced by radiation therapy for cervical cancer. We encountered 6 cases of urothelial cancer (5 cases of bladder cancer and 1 case of ureter cancer) following radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Age at the time of diagnosis of cervical cancer ranged from 38 to 66 years, and the average was 51.2±11.0 (S.D.) years old. Age at the time of diagnosis of urothelial cancer ranged from 53 to 83 years, and the average was 67.5±10.3 years old. The interval between the diagnosis of cervical cancer and urothelial cancer ranged from 3 to 25 years, averaging 16.3 years. It is impossible to evaluate the risk of development of urothelial cancer after radiation therapy based on our data. However, it is important to make an effort to diagnose urothelial cancer at an early stage by educating patients (e.g., advising regular urine tests) after the follow-up period to cervical cancer. (author)

  3. Effect of hydronephrosis on survival in advanced stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goklu, Mehmet Rıfat; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Togrul, Cihan; Goklu, Yasemin; Tahaoglu, Ali Emre; Oz, Murat; Ertas, Ibrahim Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is frequently encountered in advanced stage cervical cancers, and may be associated with mortality. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the effect of hydronephrosis on survival in patients with inoperable advanced stage cervical cancer. The study data were acquired by retrospective analysis of the patient records belonging to 165 women with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage-IIIB or more advanced cervical cancer, which were not surgical candidates. Parameters including patient age, pathological diagnosis, disease stage, pelvic sidewall extension, presence of hydronephrosis and administration of chemoradiation were analyzed. Further, the effects of these variables on survival were assessed. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The distribution of the study patients according to disease stage was as follows: 131 (79.4%) had stage-IIIB, 18 (10.9%) had stage-IVB and 16 (% 9.7) patients had stage-IVA disease. Hydronephrosis was not evident in 91 (55.2%) of these patients, whereas 41 (24.8%) had unilateral and 33 (20%) patients had bilateral hydronephrosis. When compared to mean survival in patients who did not have hydronephrosis, survival was significantly shortened in patients who had bilateral and unilateral hydronephrosis (phydronephrosis (p>0.05). Although patient age, pathological type, pelvic involvement, and chemotherapy treatment rates were similar (p>0.05), radiotherapy requirement rate and disease stage were significantly different among the study groups (pHydronephrosis was found to be a significant predictor of poor survival in patients with advanced stage cervical cancer, irrespective of unilateral or bilateral involvement.While waiting for future studies with larger sample sizes, we believe that the FIGO stages in advanced cervical cancer could further be stratified into subgroups according to presence or absence of hydronephrosis.

  4. Identification of Distant Metastatic Disease in Uterine Cervical and Endometrial Cancers with FDG PET/CT: Analysis from the ACRIN 6671/GOG 0233 Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Michael S; Atri, Mostafa; Bandos, Andriy I; Mannel, Robert S; Gold, Michael A; Lee, Susanna I

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To assess the accuracy of staging positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in detecting distant metastasis in patients with local-regionally advanced cervical and high-risk endometrial cancer in the clinical trial by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) and the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG) (ACRIN 6671/GOG 0233) and to compare central and institutional reader performance. Materials and Methods In this prospective multicenter trial, PET/CT and clinical data were reviewed for patients enrolled in ACRIN 6671/GOG 0233. Two central readers, blinded to site read and reference standard, reviewed PET/CT images for distant metastasis. Central review was then compared with institutional point-of-care interpretation. Reference standard was pathologic and imaging follow-up. Test performance for central and site reviews of PET/CT images was calculated and receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. Generalized estimating equations and nonparametric bootstrap procedure for clustered data were used to assess statistical significance. Results There were 153 patients with cervical cancer and 203 patients with endometrial cancer enrolled at 28 sites. Overall prevalence of distant metastasis was 13.7% (21 of 153) for cervical cancer and 11.8% (24 of 203) for endometrial cancer. Central reader PET/CT interpretation demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value of 54.8%, 97.7%, 79.3%, and 93.1% for cervical cancer metastasis versus 64.6%, 98.6%, 86.1%, and 95.4% for endometrial cancer, respectively. By comparison, local institutional review demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and negative predictive value of 47.6%, 93.9%, 55.6%, and 91.9% for cervical cancer metastasis and 66.7%, 93.9%, 59.3%, and 95.5% for endometrial cancer, respectively. For central readers, the specificity and PPV of PET/CT detection of cervical and endometrial cancer metastases were all

  5. THE EFFECT OF EARLY CERVICAL CANCER DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Haller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment effectiveness and clinical outcome of patients with cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IA1 and IA2 are analyzed in three different time period at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Rijeka, Croatia. Method: Retrospective analysis of the hospital chart of all cervical cancer patients between 1991 and 2005 was conducted with five-year follow up. Results: Data on cervical cancer distribution by stage and five-year survival are presented. Separately analyzed age, histology type and treatment modalities in stage FIGO IA1 and IA2 during three consecutive five-year periods are presented. Conclusions: Conservative surgical approach – conization alone in stage IA1 of the squamous cell car- cinoma is reasonable and safe treatment option for reproductive active women. During observed periods conization became the most used surgical technique applied in almost two third of FIGO IA1 cervical cancer patients. Lymph vascular space invasion in stage IA1 lead to adjunct pelvic lymphadenectomy with unclear clinical benefit. In cervical cancer patients stage IA2 simple hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy could be accepted as a standard treatment. In these patients further studies are recommended to evaluate other less radical surgical techniques – simple and radical trachelectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radical hysterectomy in both stages IA1 and IA2, based on personal experience and literature data represents a surgical overtreatment and should be abandoned.

  6. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  7. Screening for cervical cancer in low-resource settings in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambouret, Rosemary

    2013-06-01

    Cervical cancer remains the most common malignancy in women living in low- and middle-income countries, despite the decline of the disease in countries where cervical cytology screening programs have been implemented. To review the current incidence of cervical cancer in low-resource countries, the availability and types of screening programs, and the treatment options. Literature review through PubMed, Internet search, and personal communication. Although data are incomplete, available figures confirm that the rate of cervical cancer deaths and the availability of cervical cancer screening programs are inversely proportional and vary, in general, by the wealth of the nation. Despite the success of cervical cytology screening, many major health care organizations have abandoned screening by cytology in favor of direct visualization methods with immediate treatment of lesions by cryotherapy provided by trained, nonmedical personnel.

  8. The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianyu; Zhang Yun; Liang Biling; Yang Zehong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detection of cervical cancer, and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for evaluating cervical cancer before and after chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients with cervical squamous carcinoma and 20 patients with other pelvic abnormalities underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in addition to routine MR imaging. The ADC values of normal cervical tissue, cervical area before and after chemoradiotherapy were measured and compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to investigate whether ADC values could help in discrimination among normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer before and after therapy, and to obtain the optimal ADC threshold value. Results: Cervical cancer lesion demonstrated obviously hyperintensity on DWI images. The mean ADC value of cervical carcinoma (1.110 ± 0.175 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) was significantly lower than that of normal cervical tissue (1.593 ± 0.151 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P -3 mm 2 /s) was significantly higher than that before therapy (1.013 ± 0.094 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P -3 mm 2 /s, between cervical area before and after therapy was 1.255 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was 1.525 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 84.8%, 95.5% and 100%, 70% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: DWI can be applied for the detection of cervical cancer because of its superior disease contrast with normal tissue. The measurement of the ADC values can be a useful tool to monitor the response to therapy for cervical carcinoma.

  9. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, L.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study

  10. Long-term prospective longitudinal evaluation of emotional distress and quality of life in cervical cancer patients who remained disease-free 2-years from diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegna, Giovanna; Petrillo, Marco; Fuoco, Gilda; Venditti, Laura; Terzano, Serena; Anchora, Luigi Pedone; Scambia, Giovanni; Ferrandina, Gabriella

    2013-03-18

    A long-term prospective assessment of QoL in cervical cancer patients is still lacking. Here, we provide the first 2-years prospective, longitudinal study evaluating emotional distress and QoL in early stage (ECC) and locally advanced (LACC) cervical cancer patients who remained disease-free 2-years from diagnosis. The questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Global Health Status items of EORTC QLQ-C30 (GHS), and EORTC QLQ-CX24 (CX24) have been administered by a dedicated team of psycho-oncologists, administered at baseline, and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months from surgery The Generalized Linear Model for repeated measure was used to analyze modifications of QoL measures over time. In both groups, an early reduction of the percentage of patients with anxiety levels ≥11 was observed at the 3-month evaluation (ECC: 25.7% at baseline Vs 14.7% after 3 months, p value=0.001; LACC: 22.2% at baseline Vs 15.4% after 3 months, p value=0.001). Despite this favorable trend, after 2 years from diagnosis, 11.9% of ECC and 15.6% of LACC patients still showed an anxiety score ≥11. No significant changes over time were observed in term of Depression levels. Focusing on QoL issues, mean GHS and Sexual Activity scores showed an improvement over time in both groups compared to baseline (GHS: 5.7% difference for ECC, p value=0.001, and 11.0% in LACC, p value=0.001; SXA: 13.9% difference for ECC, p value=0.001; and 6.1% in LACC, p value=0.008). On the other hand, Body Image mean scores were significantly impaired by chemoradiation administration in LACC patients, without long-term recovery (7.5% difference, p value=0.001). Finally, in both groups, lymphedema (LY) and menopausal symptoms (MS) showed an early worsening which persisted 2-year after surgery (LY: 19.5% difference for ECC, p value=0.014, and 27.3% in LACC, p value=0.001; MS: 14.4% difference for ECC, p value=0.004, and 16.0% in LACC, p value=0.002). Despite a significant improvement over time, elevated

  11. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, Magali; Cantú, David; Herrera, Norma; Lopez, Carlos M; De la Garza, Jaime G; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that IAPs, in particular XIAP, survivin and c-IAP1, are overexpressed in several malignancies. In the present study we investigate the expression of c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP and survivin and its isoforms in cervical cancer. We used semiquantitative RT-PCR assays to analyze 41 cancer and 6 normal tissues. The study included 8 stage I cases; 16 stage II; 17 stageIII; and a control group of 6 samples of normal cervical squamous epithelial tissue. c-IAP2 and XIAP mRNA levels were similar among the samples, cervical tumors had lower c-IAP1 mRNA levels. Unexpectedly, a clear positive association was found between low levels of XIAP and disease relapse. A log-rank test showed a significant inverse association (p = 0.02) between XIAP expression and tumor aggressiveness, as indicated by disease relapse rates. There were no statistically significant differences in the presence or expression levels of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 among any of the clinical variables studied. Survivin and its isoforms were undetectable in normal cervical tissues, in contrast with the clear upregulation observed in cancer samples. We found no association between survivin expression and age, clinical stage, histology or menopausal state. Nevertheless, we found that adenocarcinoma tumors expressed higher levels of survivin 2B and DeltaEx3 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04 respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis). A multivariate Cox's partial likelihood-based analysis showed that only FIGO stage was an independent predictor of outcome. There are no differences in the expression of c-IAP2 and XIAP between normal vs. cancer samples, but XIAP expression correlate in cervical cancer with relapse of this disease in the patients. Otherwise, c-IAP1 was downregulated in the cervical cancer samples. The expression of survivin was upregulated in the patients with cervical cancer. We have found that adenocarcinoma presented higher levels of survivin isoforms 2B and DeltaEx3

  12. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  13. Second cancers following radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, R.A.; Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Flannery, J.T.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Incidence of second primary cancers was evaluated in 7,127 women with invasive cancer of the cervix uteri, diagnosed between 1935 and 1978, and followed up to 38 years (average, 8.9 yr) in Connecticut. Among 5,997 women treated with radiation, 449 developed second primary cancers compared with 313 expected (relative risk . 1.4) on the basis of rates from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Excess incidence was noticeable 15 years or more after radiotherapy and attributed mostly to cancers of sites in or near the radiation field, especially the bladder, kidneys, rectum, corpus uteri, and ovaries. No excess was found for these sites among the 1,130 nonirradiated women. The ratio of observed to expected cancers for these sites did not vary appreciably by age at irradiation. The data suggested that high-dose pelvic irradiation was associated with increase in cancers of the bladder, kidneys, rectum, ovaries, corpus uteri, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but, apparently, not leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, breast cancer, or colon cancer

  14. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede R; Kuljanic Vlasic, Karin; Waldenstrom, Ann-Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report on the development and validation of a cervical cancer module for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life (QoL) questionnaire (QLQ), which was designed to assess disease-specific and treatment-specific aspects of Qo......L in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: The cervical cancer module (EORTC QLQ-CX24) was developed in a multicultural, multidisciplinary setting to supplement the EORTC QLQ-C30 core questionnaire. The QLQ-C30 and the cervical cancer module were administered to 346 patients with cervical cancer who underwent...... compliance with questionnaires (65%). CONCLUSIONS: The current psychometric analyses supported the content and construct validity and the reliability...

  15. Cervical cancer and the human immunodeficiency virus: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women. It comprises approximately 12% of all cancers and is the commonest cancer in women in developing countries. The most recent compilation of global data indicates that an estimated 490 000 new cases of cervical cancer occur annually worldwide and ...

  16. Cervical cancer stem cells and correlation with radiation response in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Supriya; Goda, Jayant Sastri; Deodhar, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    While tumour-initiating cells (TIC) have been reported across solid tumours, there is dearth of data regarding TICs and radiation response in cervical cancer. From October, 2013- July, 2015 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were included. Pretreatment biopsy was obtained. IHC was performed for SOX-2,OCT-4, Nanog (ESC), CD44 and Podoplanin (TIC). Semiquantitative scoring was used for IHC. All patients received uniform concurrent chemoradiation and brachytherapy. On follow up, local control and distant relapse was recorded

  17. Knowledge, Perception, and Acceptance of HPV Vaccination and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endarti, Dwi; Satibi, Satibi; Kristina, Susi Ari; Farida, Muhaya Almira; Rahmawanti, Yuni; Andriani, Tika

    2018-04-27

    cervical cancer. Conclusions: Either knowledge or perception of cervical cancer and strategies toward it among Indonesian women particularly in Yogyakarta province were still unsatisfied. Efforts should be improved for supporting cervical cancer prevention and control in Indonesia through such as education on cervical cancer disease and strategies toward it. Creative Commons Attribution License

  18. HPV genotype distribution in older Danish women undergoing surgery due to cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Mejlgaard, Else; Gravitt, Patti

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 in cervical cancer may decrease with age. This study aimed to describe the HPV genotype distribution in Danish women aged 55 years or older with cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we identified 153...... cases of cervical cancer diagnosed at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (1990-2012) and Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark (2007-2012). All women had surgery to treat the disease. HPV genotyping was performed on cervical cancer tissue using the INNO LiPA HPV genotyping extra (Fujirebio......, Belgium) at the Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The main outcome was to estimate the age-specific prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes included in the bivalent, the quadrivalent, and the nonavalent vaccine. RESULTS: Of 121 cases of cervical cancer included in this study, 113...

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, practice on human papilloma virus and cervical cancer among Trinidadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekuri, A; Bassaw, B; Affan, A M; Habet, G; Mungrue, K

    2012-10-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major reproductive health problem among women especially in developing countries where about 190,000 women die from this disease annually. Despite efforts to reduce the burden of this disease, most attempts in low-resourced countries have not been successful partly from lack of awareness by women of this common cancer, as well as the role the human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in its aetiology and pathogenesis. To determine knowledge, attitudes and practice of women in Trinidad (a developing country) on HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 426 women in the reproductive age. A majority (58.4%) of participants had attained secondary level education. Whereas 326 (76.5%) women knew of cervical cancer, only 108 (25.4%) were aware of HPV and 68 (15.9%) knew of the association between HPV and cervical cancer. This study highlights the limited awareness of Trinidadian women with respect to HPV and its implication in cervical cancer aetiology. If the scourge of cervical cancer is to be adequately addressed, especially in low-resourced countries, then mass educational programmes on HPV, cervical cancer prevention, including screening and early detection and treatment of pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix, must be given high priority.

  20. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  1. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  2. Gene expression in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; Buist, Marrije R.; Moerland, Perry D.; van Thernaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pelvic lymph node metastases are the main prognostic factor for survival in early stage cervical cancer, yet accurate detection methods before surgery are lacking. In this study, we examined whether gene expression profiling can predict the presence of lymph node metastasis in early stage

  3. Awareness and risk factors for cervical cancer among Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancy in Nigeria. Previous evidence reported a high awareness but a low practice in cervical screening amongst Nigerian woman. Respondents attributed this to poor physician referral. Objective: To determine the level of cervical cancer awareness amongst out ...

  4. Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  5. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  7. CLINIC VISITS AND CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN ACCRA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A ... graphic factors influencing cervical cancer screening was assessed. Results: ... Conclusion: While we wait for a national program for cervical .... Mean age at first inter- course(yrs).

  8. The evaluation of older patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Y

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ying Gao,1 Jin-lu Ma,1,* Fei Gao,2,* Li-ping Song11Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 2Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The number of elderly patients being diagnosed with cervical cancer is increasing, and the outcome of cervical cancer related to age is controversial. We conducted a retrospective analysis in patients treated for advanced cervical cancer in order to investigate patient characteristics and prognosis of older patients.Methods: Medical records were collected of 159 patients with cervical cancer who had been treated with radiotherapy or combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy from January 2007 to January 2009. The patients were divided into two age groups: (1 patients ≥65 years old, and (2 patients <65 years old. There were 52 women in group 1, 107 in group 2. Prognosis, patient characteristics, treatment, and toxicities were evaluated.Results: With a median follow-up of 36.5 months, local control for groups 1 and 2 was 88.5% and 79.4%, respectively. Disease-free survival for the two groups was 71.2% and 67.3%; overall survival was 73.1% and 72.9%. As shown by univariate analyses, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05. Seventy-six patients had human papillomavirus (HPV at diagnosis (twelve women ≥65 years, 64 women ≤65 years; P = 0.000. Forty-two women tested positive for HPV 16, while 32 women tested positive for HPV 18 respectively. Pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph-node metastasis was found in 25 patients (eight in group 1, 17 in group 2; P = 0.960 on computed tomography scan. Of the 159 patients analyzed, sixteen patients (16/52 in group 1 received concurrent chemotherapy, while 96 (96/107 in group 2 completed that treatment.Conclusions: Cervical cancer has the same prognosis in old and

  9. Systemic treatment of advanced, persistent or recurrent cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2015-01-01

    The cervical cancer is the third most common malignancy in women in the world. Despite advances in screening and treatment there are a relatively large number of patients who are diagnosed with advanced stage of disease, or who have inoperable recurrence. In this group of patients, the main aim of a treatment is palliative intent. The main cytotoxic agent is cisplatin, but the responses are also observed with other chemotherapy agents. Improved therapeutic results are observed with combined platinum-based chemotherapy regimens as compared to cisplatin monotherapy. Overall, however, the treatment results in advanced, persistent and recurrent cervical cancer are unfavorable and disease is considered to be relatively chemo resistant. The new treatment approaches are searched and a significant therapeutic benefit, as far as progression-free and overall survival, has been recently demonstrated when adding bevacizumab to systemic chemotherapy. The current article is a review of systemic treatment in advanced, persistent and recurrent metastatic carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  10. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Zee, Ate G.J. van der; Hout, Bertha A. in 't; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; Hullu, Joanne A. de; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Nijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H.B.; Mourits, Marian J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB1 to IVA treated with (chemo) radiation between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed. Patients underwent gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after completion of treatment. Cervical biopsy samples were taken from patients judged to be operable. In case of residual cancer, salvage surgery was performed. Results: Between 1994 and 2001, 169 consecutive cervical cancer patients received primary (chemo) radiation, of whom 4 were lost to follow-up. Median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 44-71) and median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.5-5.9). In each of 111 patients a biopsy sample was taken, of which 90 (81%) showed no residual tumor. Vital tumor cells were found in 21 of 111 patients (19%). Salvage surgery was performed in 13 of 21 (62%) patients; of these patients, 5 (38%) achieved long-term, complete remission after salvage surgery (median follow-up, 5.2 years; range, 3.9-8.8 years). All patients with residual disease who did not undergo operation (8/21) died of progressive disease. Locoregional control was more often obtained in patients who underwent operation (7 of 13) than in patients who were not selected for salvage surgery (0 of 8 patients) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after (chemo) radiation with cervical biopsies allows identification of those cervical cancer patients who have residual local disease, of whom a small but significant proportion may be salvaged by surgery

  11. Original Research Cervical cancer in southern Malawi: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by the fact that many cancers may go unrecorded and that ... International Agency for Research on Cancer's (IARC) ... All patients with a new diagnosis of cervical cancer presenting to QECH between ..... A specialist cervical cancer nurse could be appointed to ... Zuma, T., et al., The role of traditional health practitioners in.

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening by Female Workers in South East Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India, with approximately 71,600 new cases occurring ... cancer is the most common cancer among women and ... The poor utilization of the cervical ... known that pre-cancerous lesions are detectable for 10 ... of cervical cancer deaths decreased from 70% between .... screening should be 30 - 40 years, which is the age.

  13. Cervical cancer: a missed health priority in Tanzania | Saleh | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri. It is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide and is among the largest causes of global cancer mortality. Human papilloma virus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually, particularly subtypes 16 and 18 are responsible for causing majority of cervical cancer ...

  14. Beliefs about the causes of cervical cancer in Botswana: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, D M

    2009-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality and morbidity for women in Botswana. Yet, little is known about what women believe to be the causes of the disease. This paper presents data on factors women in Botswana believe are responsible for the high incidence of cervical cancer in their country. Data were part of a larger study that explored knowledge and perceptions about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening from the perspectives of the clients and the healthcare providers. The study that generated the data included 30 women of all socio-economic levels, recruited by network sampling. The women's ages ranged from 31 to 54 years. Demographic data were analysed descriptively. Individualized interview data were content-analysed. The identified causes of cervical cancer were classified as cervical irritants and non-irritants. The most commonly cited cervical irritants were vaginally inserted chemical agents and traditional medicine. Participants identified vaginally inserted chemical substances and traditional medicines as possible explanations for the high incidence of cervical cancer in Botswana. They reported that women used these substances for sexual and hygienic purposes. Although these factors are believed to be the causes of cervical cancer and have not yet been medically acknowledged, verbal reports suggest that their use is problematic. There is a need for health education and for further research to affirm women's beliefs about the harmful effects of intravaginal agents.

  15. YouTube as a Source of Information on Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Janak; Sharma, Priyadarshani; Arjyal, Lubina; Uprety, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) for videos using the keyword Cervical cancer on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. We studied 172 videos using the keyword Cervical cancer on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  16. Cervical cancer risk levels in Turkey and compliance to the national cervical cancer screening standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Ayla; Ergör, Gül

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening with Pap smear test is a cost-effective method. The Ministry of Health in Turkey recommends that it be performed once every five years after age 35. The purpose of this study was to determine the cervical cancer risk levels of women between 35 and 69, and the intervals they have the Pap smear test, and to investigate the relation between the two. This study was performed on 227 women aged between 35 and 69 living in Balçova District of İzmir province. Using the cervical cancer risk index program of Harvard School of Public Health, the cervical cancer risk level of 70% of the women was found below average, 22.1% average, and 7.9% above average. Only 52% of the women have had Pap smear test at least once in their lives. The percentage screening regularly in conformity with the national screening standard was 39.2%. Women in the 40-49 age group, were married, conformed significantly more (pducation and decreased with the cervical cancer risk level (pducation level, menstruation state of the women and the economic level of the family. Not having the Pap smear test in conformity with the national cervical cancer screening standard in 35-39 age group was 2.52 times more than 40-49 age group, while it was 3.26 times more in 60-69 age group (pducation level might cause not having Pap smear test. Under these circumstances, the cervical cancer risk levels should be determined and the individuals should be informed. Providing Pap smear test screening service to individuals in the target group of national screening standard, as a public service may resolve the inequalities due to age and educational differences.

  17. The investment case for cervical cancer elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Vivien Davis; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2017-07-01

    We already know what causes cervical cancer, how to prevent it, and how to treat it, even in resource-constrained settings. Inequitable access to human papillomavirus vaccine for girls and screening and precancer treatment for women in low- and middle-income countries is unacceptable on ethical, social, and financial grounds. The burden of cervical cancer falls on the poor and extends beyond the narrow bounds of the family, affecting national economic development and community life, as family resources are drained and poverty tightens its grip. Proven solutions are available and the priorities for the next few years are clear, as shown by the papers in this Supplement. Sustained political commitment and strategic investments in cervical cancer prevention can not only save millions of lives over the next 10 years, but can also pave the way for the broader fight against all cancers. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  18. A study of chronic fatigue in Norwegian cervical cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Rita; Dahl, Alv A; Hess, Siri Lothe; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2017-09-01

    Chronic fatigue after treatment is a common adverse event in cancer patients, but there are few studies in long-term survivors of cervical cancer. The aim of this investigation was to explore the prevalence of chronic fatigue and its association with various clinical and treatment-related factors in a population-based cohort of Norwegian cervical cancer survivors treated by any modality. All patients, treated for cervical cancer from 2000 through 2007 in the Health Region of South-Eastern Norway, cancer-free, alive and aged ≤75years by the end 2013 (n=822) received a questionnaire covering chronic fatigue and other clinical variables. 461 of 822 survivors (56%) completed the questionnaire and 382 entered the analyses. Chronic fatigue was reported by 23% (95% confidence interval 19%-27%) with a median age of 52years (range 32-75) at survey, 11years (range 7-15) after diagnosis. Among survivors treated by minimal invasive- or radical surgery, 19% had chronic fatigue, while the prevalence was 28% in those treated with radiation and concomitant chemotherapy (chemoradiation). The chronic fatigue group reported significantly more cardiovascular disease, obesity, less physical activity, more treatment-related symptom experience, more menopausal symptoms, higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and poorer quality of life than the non-fatigued group. In multivariate analysis only increased level of depression and poorer global quality of life were significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue was reported by 23% of long-term survivors after cervical cancer at a mean of 11years after treatment. Some of the associated factors are amenable to prevention and/or treatment and should be subjects of attention at follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented.

  20. Exploring the barriers to health care and psychosocial challenges in cervical cancer management in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngutu M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mariah Ngutu, Isaac K Nyamongo Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies (IAGAS, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 years and 44 years in Kenya, resulting in an estimated 4,802 women being diagnosed with cervical cancer and 2,451 dying from the disease annually. It is often detected at its advanced invasive stages, resulting in a protracted illness upon diagnosis. This qualitative study looked at the illness trajectories of women living with cervical cancer enrolled for follow-up care at Kenyatta National Hospital cancer treatment center and the Nairobi Hospice, both in Nairobi county, Kenya. Using the qualitative phenomenological approach, data were collected through 18 in-depth interviews with women living with cervical cancer between April and July 2011. In-depth interviews with their caregivers, key informant interviews with health care workers, and participant observation field notes were used to provide additional qualitative data. These data were analyzed based on grounded theory’s inductive approach. Two key themes on which the data analysis was then anchored were identified, namely, psychosocial challenges of cervical cancer and structural barriers to quality health care. Findings indicated a prolonged illness trajectory with psychosocial challenges, fueled by structural barriers that women were faced with after a cervical cancer diagnosis. To address issues relevant to the increasing numbers of women with cervical cancer, research studies need to include larger samples of these women. Also important are studies that allow in-depth understanding of the experiences of women living with cervical cancer. Keywords: qualitative, illness trajectories, women, cervical cancer

  1. Targeting mitochondrial respiration as a therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shenglan; Chen, Heng; Tan, Wei

    2018-05-23

    Targeting mitochondrial respiration has been documented as an effective therapeutic strategy in cancer. However, the impact of mitochondrial respiration inhibition on cervical cancer cells are not well elucidated. Using a panel of cervical cancer cell lines, we show that an existing drug atovaquone is active against the cervical cancer cells with high profiling of mitochondrial biogenesis. Atovaquone inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis with varying efficacy among cervical cancer cell lines regardless of HPV infection, cellular origin and their sensitivity to paclitaxel. We further demonstrated that atovaquone acts on cervical cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In particular, atovaquone specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III but not I, II or IV activity, leading to respiration inhibition and energy crisis. Importantly, we found that the different sensitivity of cervical cancer cell lines to atovaquone were due to their differential level of mitochondrial biogenesis and dependency to mitochondrial respiration. In addition, we demonstrated that the in vitro observations were translatable to in vivo cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Our findings suggest that the mitochondrial biogenesis varies among patients with cervical cancer. Our work also suggests that atovaquone is a useful addition to cervical cancer treatment, particularly to those with high dependency on mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  3. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Allie K. [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wise-Draper, Trisha M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wells, Susanne I., E-mail: Susanne.Wells@cchmc.org [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  4. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Allie K.; Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed

  5. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer, though preventable, remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in developing countries after breast. Lack of awareness and access to preventive methods remains a key factor contributing to high levels of cervical cancer in these populations. Objectives: The study aimed to ...

  6. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ordikhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  7. New technologies in cervical cancer precursor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M E; Blumenthal, P D

    2000-09-01

    The current literature reflects three routes toward improving cervical cancer screening. The first is to improve the test qualities of cytology-based screening. The use of liquid-based cytology and computerized analysis of Papanicolaou tests are examples of attempts at this approach. Secondly, through various combinations of parallel or sequential tests, either the sensitivity or the specificity of a given test could be improved depending on the tests chosen and the order in which they were performed (eg, Papanicolaou test followed by human papillomavirus [HPV] or vice versa). Several excellent studies have been published this year on the use of HPV DNA testing as a primary screening modality and as an adjunct to the triage of mildly abnormal cytologic findings. The recent literature also reflects increasing interest in visual inspection of the cervix and self-collected samples for HPV testing as an equally effective and viable alternative to cytology in low-resource settings. A third possibility is to make use of advances in digital and spectroscopic techniques. In these cost-conscious times, a significant number of articles address the cost-effectiveness of these technologies and the real value of cervical cancer screening. This article reviews the current literature concerning both the advent of new cervical cancer screening technologies and the rediscovery of old ones.

  8. Cervical cancer screening among Lebanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Orm, I R; Sakr, R E; Adib, S M

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a very common malignancy amongst women worldwide. Pap smear is an effective and inexpensive screening test in asymptomatic women. The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of Pap smear screening for cervical cancer among Lebanese women and to determine associated sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. This national survey included 2255 women, selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling across Lebanon. A questionnaire about practices and perceptions related to cervical cancer screening was developed based on the "Health Belief Model". The weighted national prevalence of "ever-use" of the Pap smear for screening purposes was 35%. Most important determinants of screening behavior were: residence within Greater Beirut, higher socio-economic status and educational attainment, marriage status, presence of a health coverage, awareness of Pap smear usefulness, knowing someone who had already done it, and a balance between perceived benefits and perceived barriers to Pap smear screening. Regular information campaigns regarding the availability and effectiveness of the test should be devised, targeting in priority the sexually vulnerable women in Lebanon. Moreover, healthcare providers should be encouraged to discuss with their patients the opportunity of obtaining a Pap smear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Technological advances in radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lorraine; Morgia, Marita; Fyles, Anthony; Milosevic, Michael

    2011-09-01

    To discuss the important technological advances that have taken place in the planning and delivery of both external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, and the implications for improved clinical outcomes. Technological advances in external beam radiation treatment and brachytherapy for patients with cervical cancer allow more precise targeting of tumour and relative sparing of surrounding normal organs and tissues. Early evidence is emerging to indicate that these advances will translate into improvements in tumour control and reduced side effects. However, there are patient, tumour and treatment-related factors that can detract from these benefits. Foremost among these is complex, unpredictable and sometimes dramatic internal tumour and normal organ motion during treatment. The focus of current research and clinical development is on tracking internal anatomic change in individual patients and adapting treatment plans as required to assure that optimal tumour coverage and normal tissue sparing is maintained at all times. The success of this approach will depend on clear definitions of target volumes, high resolution daily soft tissue imaging, and new software tools for rapid contouring, treatment planning and quality assurance. Radiation treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is evolving rapidly, driven by advances in technology, towards more individualized patient care that has the potential to substantially improve clinical outcomes.

  10. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... Hospital, Rigs-hospitalet and Roskilde Hospital, Denmark. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01880710....

  11. Second cancer after radiotherapy of the uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Tadashi; Soejima, Toshinori; Hirota, Saeko; Obayashi, Kayoko; Ishida, Teruko; Takada, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Shoji; Kimura, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    To study the relative risk of second cancer after radiotherapy, we reviewed 2465 cases of uterine cervical cancer who were treated in our institute from 1962 to 1986 and were followed up for more than 5 years. Among them, 1502 cases were treated by radiotherapy with or without surgery (radiotherapy group), and the remainder were treated by surgery only (surgery only group). We defined second cancer as malignancy that occurred in another organ after an interval of 5 years or more from the end of treatment of the first cancer. The relative risk of second cancer was computed by the person-year method advocated by Schoenberg. Second cancer was observed among 8 cases of the surgery group, whereas 43 cases were observed among the radiotherapy group. The cases were: rectal cancer, 6 cases; bladder cancer, 4 cases. The observed and expected ratio (O/E ratio) was 4.02 in rectal cancer and 7.98 in bladder cancer. This incidence of the both cancers was significantly high in the radiotherapy group. Three of the 6 cases with rectal cancer underwent operation in our institute. The incubation periods between the first and second cancers were from 9 to 21 years. Each case exhibited symptoms of chronic radiation proctitis after radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. It is thought necessary to follow up such cases carefully to detect radiation induced cancer. (author)

  12. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K Fort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat11Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USABackground: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital

  13. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...... of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific....

  14. SPIRITUAL EMOTIONAL FREEDOM TECHNIQUE DECREASING STRESS ON PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmaniarti Z,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is known as one of deadly disease. The global incidence of cervical cancer is the second largest in the entire world, including in Indonesia. RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung, cervical cancer ranked fi rst (62.27% compared with other fi ve types of obstetry and gynecology malignancies (suspected malignant ovarian tumors 16.12%, ovarian cancer 11.76%, vulva cancer 8.65% and endometrial cancer 1.19% (Destiana, 2012. Chemotherapy as one of cancer treatment causes various side effects include hair loss, nails blackened, nausea and vomiting, that could makes patient stressful. SEFT ( Spiritual Emotional Freedom Technique is useful to overcome negative emotions through a combination technique that uses psychological energy, spiritual strength, and praying. SEFT is an effective intervention in manage stress, there are some techniques that practiced simply such as praying, NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming, hypnotherapy, visualisation, meditation, relaxation, imagery and desensitisasi (Zainuddin, 2008. The purpose of this study was to explain reducing stress on patiens with cervical cancer through Spiritual Emotional Freedom Technique (SEFT at RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Improvements on patient’s stress will lead to a better result on cervical cancer therapy. Methods: This study was used quasy experiment pre-post test randomize control group design. Patient with cervical cancer at stadium I to III that taking chemotherapy was selected by using purposive sampling and divided into two groups. Each group contains 34 patients. Intervention group was given SEFT in three round. Each round took 30 minutes. Before and after intervention patients was given Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Result: The result of this research showed that patient’s stress getting lower signifi cantly after intervention. Discussion: SEFT could reduced stress on patients with cervical cancer that

  15. Prevalence of High risk Human Papillomavirus in cervical dysplasia and cancer samples from twin cities in Pakistan

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    Sana Gul

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

  16. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee, Department of Health and Human Services...

  17. Temporal Patterns of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Danish Women 55 Years and Older Diagnosed With Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Hee, Lene; Blaakær, Jan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the screening history in postmenopausal women diagnosed with cervical cancer during 1990-2013 by age and screening period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This hospital-based cohort study included women 55 years and older diagnosed with cervical cancer...... at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, during 1990-2013. Information on their previous history of cervical cancer screening was obtained from the Danish Pathology Databank. RESULTS: Overall, 47.0% (95% CI = 42.6-51.4) had no record of screening before their cervical cancer diagnosis. This proportion...

  18. Bevacizumab with metronomic chemotherapy of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in recurrent cervical cancer: Four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Isono-Nakata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Standard chemotherapy for women with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer involves a combination of paclitaxel, platinum, and bevacizumab. However, for patients who experience anaphylaxis in response to paclitaxel or platinum, have permanent peripheral neuropathy, or develop early recurrence or progressive disease during first-line chemotherapy, the development of a non-taxane non-platinum regimen is mandatory. Clinical trials using anti-angiogenic treatment demonstrated favorable outcomes in cases of highly vascularized cervical cancer. Metronomic chemotherapy has been considered an anti-angiogenic treatment, although its use in combination with bevacizumab has not been studied in cervical cancer. We treated four patients with recurrent cervical cancer with 50 mg of oral cyclophosphamide daily and 15 mg/kg of intravenous bevacizumab every 3 weeks (CFA-BEV. One patient experienced disease progression after 4 months, whereas the other three patients continued the regimen until their last follow-up at 13, 14, and 15 months, respectively. One patient suffered from grade 3 neutropenia; however, no grade 2 or higher non-hematological toxicities were observed. These cases demonstrate the use of CFA-BEV with minimal toxicity and expected anti-cancer activity and indicate that this regimen should be considered for second-line chemotherapy in advanced recurrent cervical cancer. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Metronomic chemotherapy, Bevacizumab

  19. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anita Ww; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Four datasets of women aged 20-29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest cytology. Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  20. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Ethiopian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kress CM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of

  2. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    小濵, 京子; 丸, 光惠; 前田, 留美; 久保田, 俊郎

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. Methods: A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. Results: The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had...

  3. Prognostic significance of annexin A2 and annexin A4 expression in patients with cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chel Hun; Chung, Joon-Yong; Chung, Eun Joo; Sears, John D.; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Hewitt, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The annexins (ANXs) have diverse roles in tumor development and progression, however, their clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been elucidated. The present study was to investigate the clinical significance of annexin A2 (ANXA2) and annexin A4 (ANXA4) expression in cervical cancer. ANXA2 and ANXA4 immunohistochemical staining were performed on a cervical cancer tissue microarray consisting of 46 normal cervical epithelium samples and 336 cervical cancer cases and compared the data with clinicopathological variables, including the survival of cervical cancer patients. ANXA2 expression was lower in cancer tissue (p = 0.002), whereas ANXA4 staining increased significantly in cancer tissues (p < 0.001). ANXA2 expression was more prominent in squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0.001), whereas ANXA4 was more highly expressed in adeno/adenosquamous carcinoma (p < 0.001). ANXA2 overexpression was positively correlated with advanced cancer phenotypes, whereas ANXA4 expression was associated with resistance to radiation with or without chemotherapy (p = 0.029). Notably, high ANXA2 and ANXA4 expression was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.004 and p = 0.033, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that ANXA2+ (HR = 2.72, p = 0.003) and ANXA2+/ANXA4+ (HR = 2.69, p = 0.039) are independent prognostic factors of disease-free survival in cervical cancer. Furthermore, a random survival forest model using combined ANXA2, ANXA4, and clinical variables resulted in improved predictive power (mean C-index, 0.76) compared to that of clinical-variable-only models (mean C-index, 0.70) (p = 0.006). These findings indicate that detecting ANXA2 and ANXA4 expression may aid the evaluation of cervical carcinoma prognosis. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2459-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aswathy Sreedevi, Reshma Javed, Avani Dinesh Community Medicine, AIMS, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India Abstract: Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55–59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence. Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, screening, prevention, epidemiology, India

  5. Cervical cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in four US-Affiliated Pacific Islands between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, Virginia; Royalty, Janet; Miller, Jacqueline W; Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Benard, Vicki B; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is double that of the US mainland. American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam and the Republic of Palau receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to implement cervical cancer screening to low-income, uninsured or under insured women. The USAPI grantees report data on screening and follow-up activities to the CDC. We examined cervical cancer screening and follow-up data from the NBCCEDP programs in the four USAPIs from 2007 to 2015. We summarized screening done by Papanicolaou (Pap) and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) tests, follow-up and diagnostic tests provided, and histology results observed. A total of 22,249 Pap tests were conducted in 14,206 women in the four USAPIs programs from 2007-2015. The overall percentages of abnormal Pap results (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse) was 2.4% for first program screens and 1.8% for subsequent program screens. Histology results showed a high proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (57%) among women with precancers and cancers. Roughly one-third (32%) of Pap test results warranting follow-up had no data recorded on diagnostic tests or follow-up done. This is the first report of cervical cancer screening and outcomes of women served in the USAPI through the NBCCEDP with similar results for abnormal Pap tests, but higher proportion of precancers and cancers, when compared to national NBCCEDP data. The USAPI face significant challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening, particularly in providing and recording data on diagnostic tests and follow-up. The screening programs in the USAPI should further examine specific barriers to follow-up of women with abnormal Pap results and possible solutions to address them. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria | Sule | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper\\'s objective was to identify factors influencing cervical cancer management in Zaria with a view to improving the outcome of management. Case notes of patients managed for cervical cancer in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria between January 1 1999 and December 31 2003, were ...

  8. Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. Methods: awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme.

  9. Apoptosis induction of epifriedelinol on human cervical cancer cell line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present investigation evaluates the antitumor activity of epifriedelinol for the management of cervical cancer by inducing process of apoptosis. Methods: Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line, C33A and HeLa were selected for study and treated with epifriedelinol at a concentration of (50-1000 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity of ...

  10. Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North Eastern ... of obstetrics and gynaecology in two tertiary institutions in Northeastern Nigeria ... be used to increase both awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services. Adoption of social marketing strategy may lead to improvement in the use of ...

  11. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  12. Immunology and Immunotherapy of high grade cervical lesions and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy Jacqueline de

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The immune system plays an important role in the protection against HPV and failure of the immune system can lead to the development of cervical cancer. Immunotherapy aims at the restoration of an effective anti-tumour immunity. This

  13. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  14. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    to cervical cancer. Implementing evidence-based interventions such as human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls, ... compared to North America with cervical cancer .... 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine that protects against ...

  15. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV as well as the ... is a global public health issue as it is the second ... younger population with the highest rate in the age range of 20 to 30 years which include many college-aged students5,9. ... If the current mortality trend of cervical cancer.

  16. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage…

  17. Association between cervical screening and prevention of invasive cervical cancer in Ontario: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicus, Danielle; Sutradhar, Rinku; Lu, Yan; Kupets, Rachel; Paszat, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cervical screening in the prevention of invasive cervical cancer among age groups, using a population-based case-control study in the province of Ontario, Canada. Exposure was defined as cervical cytology history greater than 3 months before the diagnosis date of cervical cancer (index date). Cases were women who were diagnosed with cervical cancer between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2008. Controls were women without a diagnosis of cervical cancer on, or before, December 31, 2008. Two controls were matched to each case on year of birth and income quintile, as of the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for having been screened among those with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening performed between 3 and 36 months before the index date was protective against invasive cervical cancer in women aged 40 through 69 years. In women younger than 40 years, cervical cancer screening performed 3 to 36 months before the index date was not protective. Cervical screening is associated with a reduced risk for invasive cervical cancer among women older than 40 years. Cervical cancer resources should be focused on maximizing the risk reduction.

  18. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  19. Hydronephrosis in patients with cervical cancer: an assessment of morbidity and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krishna; Foster, Nathan R; Kumar, Amanika; Grudem, Megan; Longenbach, Sherri; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie; Haddock, Michael; Dowdy, Sean; Jatoi, Aminah

    2015-05-01

    Hydronephrosis is a frequently observed but understudied complication in patients with cervical cancer. To better characterize hydronephrosis in cervical cancer patients, the current study sought (1) to describe hydronephrosis-associated morbidity and (2) to analyze the prognostic effect of hydronephrosis in patients with a broad range of cancer stages over time. The Mayo Clinic Tumor Registry was interrogated for all invasive cervical cancer patients seen at the Mayo Clinic from 2008 through 2013 in Rochester, Minnesota; these patients' medical records were then reviewed in detail. Two hundred seventy-nine cervical cancer patients with a median age of 49 years and a range of cancer stages were included. Sixty-five patients (23 %) were diagnosed with hydronephrosis at some point during their disease course. In univariate analyses, hydronephrosis was associated with advanced cancer stage (p hydronephrosis. All but one patient underwent stent placement or urinary diversion; hydronephrosis-related morbidity included pain, urinary tract infections, nausea and vomiting, renal failure, and urinary tract bleeding. In landmark univariate survival analyses, hydronephrosis was associated with worse survival at all time points. In landmark multivariate analyses (adjusted for patient age, stage, cancer treatment, and tumor histology), hydronephrosis was associated with a trend toward worse survival over time (hazard ratios ranged from 1.47 to 4.69). Hydronephrosis in cervical cancer patients is associated with notable morbidity. It is also associated with trends toward worse survival-even if it occurs after the original cancer diagnosis.

  20. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  1. Predictors of cervical cancer screening adherence in the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Karen; LoBiondo-Wood, Geri; Dains, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates have decreased dramatically since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Nevertheless, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates for 2013 predicted more than 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States. Given that some subpopulations in the United States are at a higher risk for cervical cancer than others, efforts to increase screening adherence are warranted. Many studies have explored the demographics of underscreened women, but no systematic reviews of screening demographics in adult US women were identified in the past 10 years, after release of the 2002 ACS cervical cancer screening guidelines. Knowledge of adherence to these guidelines becomes important as new guidelines were developed and released in 2012. The purpose of this systematic review of relevant studies was to identify factors that predict the use of cervical cancer screening in US women. Variables found to be significantly associated with adherence to screening included education, financial status, acculturation, psychosocial issues, and marital status. Using this information, nurse practitioners and other providers can target specific at-risk populations to increase screening by educating women about the need for cervical cancer screening and ensuring access to methods for prevention and early detection of the disease.

  2. Radiotherapy for bone metastases from cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Kazue; Ajimu, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Hayashi, Kuniaki

    1989-03-01

    The authors have investigated 6 cases of bone metastases from cervical cancer out of a total of 90 cases of metastatic bone tumors that were irradiated for relief of associated pain at the Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University Hospital from April 1977 to March 1987. In 2 of the 6 cases, a rare, delayed recurrence with paraaortic lymph node metastases was seen. An invasion to the proasmajor muscle, iliomajor muscle was demonstrated by Computed Tomography after the initiation of therapy, so that the size of the field was modified. Computed Tomography was found useful to determine the exact field size for radiotherapy of metastatic bone tumor.

  3. Mortality Among Women With Cervical Cancer During or Shortly After a Pregnancy in Denmark 1968 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer diagnosed in relation to a pregnancy is rare; however, the current trend to have children later in life increases the risk of pregnancy and cervical cancer coinciding. We investigated the mortality of women diagnosed with cervical cancer during or in relation...... to a pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry, we identified women diagnosed with a primary cervical cancer at ages 15 to 44 years during 1968 to 2006 born after April 1, 1935. The women were linked to several Danish national registries to obtain information on births...... and abortions. In addition, linkage was made to the Cause of Death Register. Overall and cause-specific hazards ratios (HRs) were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for age, calendar year, and extent of disease. RESULTS: A total of 6135 cervical cancers were identified. Among these...

  4. Proficiency-based cervical cancer brachytherapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sherry; Francis, Louise; Todor, Dorin; Fields, Emma C

    2018-04-25

    Although brachytherapy increases the local control rate for cervical cancer, there has been a progressive decline in its use. Furthermore, the training among residency programs for gynecologic brachytherapy varies considerably, with some residents receiving little to no training. This trend is especially concerning given the association between poor applicator placement and decline in local control. Considering the success of proficiency-based training in other procedural specialties, we developed and implemented a proficiency-based cervical brachytherapy training curriculum for our residents. Each resident placed tandem and ovoid applicators with attending guidance and again alone 2 weeks later using a pelvic model that was modified to allow for cervical brachytherapy. Plain films were taken of the pelvic model, and applicator placement quality was evaluated. Other evaluated metrics included retention of key procedural details, the time taken for each procedure and presession and postsession surveys to assess confidence. During the initial session, residents on average met 4.5 of 5 placement criteria, which improved to 5 the second session. On average, residents were able to remember 7.6 of the 8 key procedural steps. Execution time decreased by an average of 10.5%. Resident confidence with the procedure improved dramatically, from 2.6 to 4.6 of 5. Residents who had previously never performed a tandem and ovoid procedure showed greater improvements in these criteria than those who had. All residents strongly agreed that the training was helpful and wanted to participate again the following year. Residents participating in this simulation training had measurable improvements in the time to perform the procedure, applicator placement quality, and confidence. This curriculum is easy to implement and is of great value for training residents, and would be particularly beneficial in programs with low volume of cervical brachytherapy cases. Simulation programs could

  5. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  6. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  7. Mechanoreceptors in Diseased Cervical Intervertebral Disc and Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Yang, Cheng; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xinwu; Yang, Yi; Peng, Baogan

    2017-04-15

    We collected the samples of cervical intervertebral discs from patients with vertigo to examine the distribution and types of mechanoreceptors in diseased cervical disc. The aim of this study was to determine whether mechanoreceptors are distributed more abundantly in cervical discs from patients with cervical spondylosis, and whether they are related to vertigo. Previous limited studies have found that normal cervical intervertebral discs are supplied with mechanoreceptors that have been considered responsible for proprioceptive functions. Several clinical studies have indicated that the patients with cervical spondylosis manifested significantly impaired postural control and subjective balance disturbance. We collected 77 samples of cervical discs from 62 cervical spondylosis patients without vertigo, 61 samples from 54 patients with vertigo, and 40 control samples from 8 cadaveric donors to investigate distribution of mechanoreceptors containing neurofilament (NF200) and S-100 protein immunoreactive nerve endings. The immunohistochemical investigation revealed that the most frequently encountered mechanoreceptors were the Ruffini corpuscles in all groups of cervical disc samples. They were obviously increased in the number and deeply ingrown into inner annulus fibrosus and even into nucleus pulposus in the diseased cervical discs from patients with vertigo in comparison with the discs from patients without vertigo and control discs. Only three Golgi endings were seen in the three samples from patients with vertigo. No Pacinian corpuscles were found in any samples of cervical discs. The diseased cervical discs from patients with vertigo had more abundant distribution of Ruffini corpuscles than other discs. A positive association between the increased number and ingrowth of Ruffini corpuscles in the diseased cervical disc and the incidence of vertigo in the patients with cervical spondylosis was found, which may indicate a key role of Ruffini corpuscles in the

  8. Renal Metastasis from Primary Cervical Cancer: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, See Hyung; Kwon, Sun Young

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis of malignant tumors to the kidney is clinically rare and often discovered by autopsy. Primary lymphoma and lung cancer are known that can metastasize to the kidney. Other malignant tumor metastasis to the kidney is very unusual. Primary cervical cancer metastasis to adjacent pelvic organs and lymph nodes are well known followed by abdominal solid organs such as the liver and adrenal glands. However, reported primary cervical cancer metastasis to the kidney is extremely rare and mostly appeared as bilateral multiple renal masses. We report here on a rare case of unilateral single renal metastasis from primary cervical cancer after concur- rent chemoradiotherapy.

  9. Cervical cancer in South Africa: An overview of current status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current estimates are that 493 243 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer per year and 273 505 die from the disease.1. Globally it is the second most common cancer in women and the most common in developing countries. In Africa, which has a population of 267.9 million women aged 15 years or greater, it is

  10. The invasive cervical cancer review: psychological issues surrounding disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S M; Moss, E; Redman, C W E

    2013-04-01

    An audit of the screening history of all new cervical cancer cases has been a requirement since April 2007. While NHS cervical screening programmes (NHSCSP) guidance requires that women diagnosed with cervical cancer are offered the findings of the audit, as yet there has been no research to investigate the psychological impact that meeting to discuss the findings might have on patients. This is in spite of the fact that cytological under-call may play a role in as many as 20% of cervical cancer cases. This review draws on the literature concerning breaking bad news, discussing cancer and disclosing medical errors, in order to gain insight into both the negative and positive consequences that may accompany a cervical screening review meeting. We conclude that while patients are likely to experience some distress at disclosure, there are also likely to be positive aspects, such as greater trust and improved perception of care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Correlation of DNA Ploidy with Progression of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Kalra, N.; Shukla, Y.; Mehrotra, S.; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of squamous cell carcinomas of cervix are preceded by visible changes in the cervix, most often detected by cervical smear. As cervical cancer is preceded by long precancerous stages, identification of the high-risk population through detection of DNA ploidy may be of importance in effective management of this disease. Here we attempted to correlate aneuploidy DNA patterns and their influence on biological behavior of flow-cytometry analysis of DNA ploidy which was carried out in cytologically diagnosed cases of mild (79), moderate (36), and severe (12) dysplasia, as well as “atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS)” (57) along with controls (69), in order to understand its importance in malignant progression of disease. Cytologically diagnosed dysplasias, which were employed for DNA ploidy studies, 39 mild, 28 moderate, and 11 severe dysplasia cases were found to be aneuploidy. Out of the 69 control subjects, 6 cases showed aneuploidy pattern and the rest 63 subjects were diploid. An aneuploidy pattern was observed in 8 out of 57 cases of cytologically evaluated ASCUS. The results of the followup studies showed that aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in cervical smear. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy may provide a strategic diagnostic tool for early detection of carcinoma cervix. Therefore, it is a concept of an HPV screening with reflex cytology in combination with DNA flow cytometry to detect progressive lesions with the greatest possible sensitivity and specificity.

  12. HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraho, Mohamed; Amarti-Riffi, Afaf; El-Mzibri, Mohammed; Bezad, Rachid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Benideer, Abdelatif; Matar, Noureddine; Qmichou, Zinab; Abda, Naima; Attaleb, Mohammed; Znati, Kaoutar; El Fatemi, Hind; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Filali Adib, Abdelhai; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Nejjari, Chakib

    2017-06-20

    Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included. Odds-ratios and corresponding confidence-intervals were computed by conditional logistic regression models. Current HPV infection was detected in 92.5% of cases and 13.9% of controls. HPV16 was the most common type for both cases and controls. Very strong associations between HPV-sub-types and cervical cancer were observed: total-HPV (OR = 39), HPV16 (OR = 49), HPV18 (OR = 31), and multiple infections (OR = 13). Education, high parity, sexual intercourse during menstruation, history of sexually transmitted infections, and husband's multiple sexual partners were also significantly associated with cervical cancer in the multivariate analysis. Our results could be used to establish a primary prevention program and to prioritize limited screening to women who have specific characteristics that may put them at an increased risk of cervical cancer.

  13. The high burden of cervical cancer in Fiji, 2004-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Irwin; Fong, James J; Buadromo, Eka M; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed S; Garland, Suzanne M; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M

    2013-05-01

    There are few population-based data on the disease burden of cervical cancer from developing countries, especially South Pacific islands. This study aimed to determine the incidence and mortality associated with cervical cancer and the coverage of Papanicolaou (Pap) cervical cytology in 20- to 69-year-old women in Fiji from 2004 to 2007. National data on the incident cases of histologically confirmed cervical cancer and the associated deaths, and on Pap smear results were collected from all pathology laboratories, and cancer and death registries in Fiji from 2004 to 2007. There were 413 incident cases of cervical cancer and 215 related deaths during the study timeframe. The annualised incidence and mortality rates in 20- to 69-year-old Melanesian Fijian women, at 49.7 per 100?000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 43.7-56.4) and 32.3 per 100?000 (95% CI: 26.9-38.4) respectively, were significantly higher than among 20- to 69-year-old Indo-Fijian women at 35.2 per 100?000 (PFiji is high, whereas Pap smear coverage is very low. Greater investment in alternative screening strategies and preventive measures should be integrated into a comprehensive, strategic cervical cancer control program in Fiji.

  14. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (-25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.

  15. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (−25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

  16. Understanding differences in cervical cancer incidence in Western Europe: comparing Portugal and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Diana; Mesher, David; Pista, Angela; Baguelin, Marc; Jit, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer incidence has decreased over time in England particularly after the introduction of organized screening. In Portugal, where opportunistic screening has been widely available with only slightly lower coverage than that of the organized programme in England, rates of cervical cancer have been higher than in England. We compared the burden of cervical cancer, risk factors and preventive interventions over time in both countries, to identify elements hindering the further decline in incidence and mortality in Portugal. We used joinpoint regression to identify significant changes in rate time-trends. We also analyzed individual-level Portuguese data on sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus prevalence, and recent aggregate data on organized and opportunistic screening coverage. We compared published estimates of survival, risk factors and historical screening coverage for both countries. Despite stable incidence, cervical cancer mortality has declined in both countries in the last decade. The burden has been 4 cases and 1 death per 100 000 women annually higher in Portugal than in England. Differences in human papillomavirus prevalence and risk factors for infection and disease progression do not explain the difference found in cervical cancer incidence. Significant mortality declines in both countries followed the introduction of different screening policies, although England showed a greater decline than Portugal over nearly 2 decades after centralizing organized screening. The higher rates of cervical cancer in Portugal compared to England can be explained by differences in screening quality and coverage.

  17. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku, Constance A; Browne, Edmund Nii Laryea; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Moyer, Cheryl; Kolbilla, David; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to inquire about risk factors and perception of risk of cervical cancer. Specific risk factors that were explored included early coitarche, multiple sexual partners, polygamous relationships, history of smoking, and having a current partner who had multiple sexual partners. Sixty-one per cent of women reported that they had no personal risk for cervical cancer. 27% of respondents were in polygamous relationships, and of those, more than half didn't think they were at an increased risk of cervical cancer. 2 women had a total of ≥ 5 sexual partners in their lifetime and neither believed they were at any risk for cervical cancer. 23% said their current partner had had at least 2 sexual partners in his lifetime, and of those, (61%) thought they were at no risk for cervical cancer. 46% of respondents reported not having any of the risk factors listed in the study. 23% of respondents reported having one risk factor while 21% had two risk factors and 11% had three or more risk factors. Women's perception of personal risk for cervical cancer is lower than their actual risk based on the five behavioural risk factors assessed and a lack of knowledge of the personal factors for the disease. This project was supported by NIH Research Training Grant #R25 TW009345 funded by the Fogarty International Centre, in partnership with several NIH Institutes (NIMH, NIGMS, NHLBI, OAR and OWH).

  18. Targeting Human Papillomavirus to Reduce the Burden of Cervical, Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer and Pre-Invasive Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygard, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  19. Survival of Patients With Cervical Cancer in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoda Thulaseedharan, Jissa; Malila, Nea; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Esmy Pulikottil, Okuru; Hakama, Matti; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ survival after diagnosis of cervical cancer is indirectly influenced by socio-economic factors. We evaluated this survival and its socio-economic determinants in a rural population in south India. Methods: We assessed 165 women diagnosed with cervical cancer from the routine care control arm of a randomized screening trial conducted in rural south India. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to illustrate the observed survival of cancer patients. The effect of socio-econom...

  20. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region....... There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region....

  1. IFNG polymorphism (+874 T>A is not a risk factor for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Melani Maskoen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer cases are rising and many women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV. Interferon gamma (IFN-ã is one of the key regulatory cytokines that influence the HPV clearance. The production and the function of IFN-ã may impaired by the defect of the IFNG gene leading to the cervical malignant progression. This study aimed to examine the association between IFNG+874 T>A polymorphism and cervical cancer in women Methods In a case-control study design, consecutive untreated women with cervical cancer who showed for the first time in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung were enrolled (n=98 and for controls women who came for PAP smear (n = 81. Controls were not matched in ages and ethnicities. DNA extracted from blood was amplified by amplification refractory mutation system - polymerase chain reaction method (ARMS – PCR to detect IFNG+874 T>A polymorphism. Results The distribution of IFNG genotypes TT, TA and AA for women with cervical cancer who met the inclusion criteria (n= 64 and with negative intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (n=42 were 14.1%, 50.0%, 35.9% and 7.1%, 52.4%, 40.5%, respectively. No significant differences could be observed between both groups (p=0.64. Stratifying the cervical cancer women into a group of squamous cell carcinoma (n = 54 revealed no statistical different. Conclusion IFNG +874 T>A polymorphismseems not to contribute in susceptibility to cervical cancer. Identification of other variants in IFNG gene signaling and its role in the development of cervical cancer diseases need to be further examined.

  2. Application of the Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Schatzi H; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-03-01

    The Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention describes 4 main causes of cervical cancer incidence: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lack of screening, screening errors, and not receiving follow-up care. We present 2 applications of the Carolina Framework in which we identify high-need counties in North Carolina and generate recommendations for improving prevention efforts. We created a cervical cancer prevention need index (CCPNI) that ranked counties on cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccine initiation and completion, Pap smear screening, and provision of Pap tests to rarely- or never-screened women. In addition, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 key informants from programs and agencies involved in cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina. North Carolina's 100 counties varied widely on individual CCPNI components, including annual cervical cancer mortality (median 2.7/100,000 women; range 0.0-8.0), adolescent girls' HPV vaccine initiation (median 42%; range 15%-62%), and Pap testing in the previous 3 years among Medicaid-insured adult women (median 59%; range 40%-83%). Counties with the greatest prevention needs formed 2 distinct clusters in the northeast and south-central regions of the state. Interviews generated 9 recommendations to improve cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina, identifying applications to specific programs and policies in the state. This study found striking geographic disparities in cervical cancer prevention need in North Carolina. Future prevention efforts in the state should prioritize high-need regions as well as recommended strategies and applications in existing programs. Other states can use the Carolina Framework to increase the impact of their cervical cancer prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early stage cervical cancer of the uterine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneyasu, Yuuko; Fujiwara, Hisaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the present state of radiotherapy (RT) of early stage cervical cancer involving the history, outcomes of clinical trials, procedure for each stage, irradiation methods, concurrent chemo-RT (CCRT), late adverse events, and QOL after RT. It has a history of >100 years from the brachytherapy with radium, but is not yet completely established even now. There are many RT trials hitherto. Retrospectively, no significant difference is seen in outcomes of radical RT and surgery: 80-90% efficacy for stage I and 60-80% for II in the former, respectively, and 80-96% and 65-80%, in the latter. Between RT and surgery, there is a report of randomized comparative study in Italy. In Japan, reported are comparative outcomes based on patients' choice for therapy, retrospective studies including authors' one, prospective multi-institutional cooperative trials by Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group, and Treatment Guidelines for Cervical Cancer (2007). RT procedure depends on the stage defined by FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) and at stages I-II, intracavitary RT is major with optimal dose 29 Gy/5 fractions for I, and 23/4 Gy with external total pelvic radiation 50 Gy for II. In external radiation, the planning target volume includes the whole pelvic field with 1.8-2 Gy/5 weeks and optionally, the extended field when metastasis suspicious. Intracavitary RT with application device in the uterine is of significance for the cancer as 50% complete cure even in stage III is reported. CCRT brings about good prognosis, which is shown in a Japanese trial to compare postoperative RT alone and CCRT with CDDP and 5-FU. The late adverse events are seen mainly in the large bowel and studies of QOL, an important factor for choice of treatment, are now in progress. (T.T.)

  4. The development of genes associated with radiosensitivity of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyan; Chen Zhihua; He Guifang

    2007-01-01

    It has a good application prospect to predict effects of radiotherapy by examining radiosensitivity of patients with cervical cancers before their radiotherapy. Prediction of tumor cell radiosensitivity according to their level of gene expression and gene therapy to reverse radio-resistance prior to radiation on cervical cancers are heated researches on tumor therapy. The expression of some proliferation-related genes, apoptosis-related genes and hypoxia-related genes can inerease the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer. Microarray technology may have more direct applications to the study of biological pathway contributing to radiation resistance and may lead to development of alternative treatment modalities. (authors)

  5. Expected effect of vaccination using bivalent vaccine on incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in terms of health care system in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielik, J.; Marusakova, E.; Masak, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Human papillomavirus is a dominant cause of cervical dysplasia with possible transition to cervical cancer. The main purpose of the study was to make a qualified forecast of the potential of vaccination using a bivalent vaccine on the incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer as well as disease-related mortality in the Slovak Republic. Methods: The method of evaluation was the use of the Markov model that is strictly based on either epidemiological data from official institutions such as the National Oncology Register of the Slovak Republic, Statistic Office of the Slovak Republic, or the data from health insurance companies and the opinion of the experts´ panel of the Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Results: Results obtained by modelling suggest that the introduction of HPV vaccination into the national immunization programme would result in a reduction of at least 84 deaths of women during the monitored period. Every cervical cancer death averted means 31 life years saved on average. Depending on the vaccination coverage in the cohort, HPV vaccination would cause a reduction of registered cervical dysplasia by 26,900 to 131,808 cases, a reduction of registered carcinoma in situ by 1,371 to 6,714 cases, and a decrease of registered invasive cervical carcinoma by 1,645 to 8,058 cases. Conclusion: The results of the analysis confirmed that HPV vaccination in 12-year old girls has the potential to significantly reduce both the incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer and mortality due to cervical cancer, whereby this form of primary intervention is also cost-effective. Vaccination also enhances the effect of standard secondary prevention realized by age dependant screening. (author)

  6. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While developed countries have recorded significant reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer owing to organizedscreening programs, treatment of premalignant cervical lesions, and follow‑up of treated cases, developing countries including Nigeria are yet to optimally utilize screening services due to lack of organized ...

  7. OPPORTUNISTIC CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bai Prabhu T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. In developing countries where organized screening programmes are lacking, antenatal clinics may provide an opportunity for screening. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and management of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy. Methodology: This was a prospective study conducted at the Meenakshi Medical College and RI, Kancheepuram, India, from July 2013 to June 2014. Convenience sampling technique was used. After adequate counselling, 300 antenatal mothers between 12 and 34 weeks of gestation were screened with conventional Pap smear. Colposcopy directed biopsy was taken where and when necessary. Results: Among the 300 pregnant women, 90 (30% were primigravidae and 210 (70% were multigravidae. 80% were between 21 and 30 years of age. 290 (96.6% women have never had a pap smear in the past. Conventional Pap smear was taken at 21 weeks of gestation in 20% of cases. ASCUS , LSIL and HSIL were reported in one case each. In those with LSIL and HSIL , Colposcopy directed biopsy was reported as CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. These two cases were kept under observation during the antenatal period. The CIN II lesion persisted on postpartum follow up and was treated with LLETZ. Conclusion: In countries like India Pap smear screening during pregnancy is worthwhile and the antenatal clinics provide ample opportunities for the screening.

  8. Diffusion-weighted MRI in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Haider, Masoom A.; Syed, Aejaz M.; Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the potential value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement with MRI in the assessment of cervix cancer. Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed in 47 patients with cervical carcinoma undergoing chemoradiation therapy and 26 normal controls on a 1.5-T system with a b-value of 600 s/mm 2 . FIGO stage, tumor volume, nodal status, interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and oxygen measurements were recorded. Response was defined as no visible tumor 3-6 months following completion of therapy. The average median ADC (mADC) of cervical carcinomas (1.09±0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) was significantly lower than normal cervix (2.09±0.46 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P -3 mm 2 /s) compared to T2b (1.21 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and T3/T4 (1.10 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P<0.001). In patients with squamous carcinomas the 90th percentile of ADC values was lower in responders than non-responders (P<0.05). Median ADC in cervix carcinoma is significantly lower compared to normal cervix. ADC may have predictive value in squamous tumors, but further long-term study will determine the ultimate clinical utility. (orig.)

  9. Long-Term Survival and Risk of Second Cancers After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Sato, Shinichiro; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Arai, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of second cancers after cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy for Asian populations. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 2,167 patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy between 1961 and 1986. Intracavitary brachytherapy was performed with high-dose rate source (82%) or low-dose rate source (12%). Relative risk (RR), absolute excess risk (AR), and cumulative risk of second cancer were calculated using the Japanese disease expectancy table. For 1,031 patients, the impact of smoking habit on the increasing risk of second cancer was also evaluated. Results: The total number of person-years of follow-up was 25,771, with 60 patients being lost to follow-up. Among the 2,167 patients, 1,063 (49%) survived more than 10 years. Second cancers were observed in 210 patients, representing a significant 1.2-fold risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) of developing second cancer compared with the general population, 1.6% excess risk per person per decade of follow-up, and elevating cumulative risk up to 23.8% (95% CI, 20.3-27.3) at 30 years after radiotherapy. The RR of second cancer was 1.6-fold for patients with the smoking habit and 1.4-fold for those without. Conclusions: Small but significant increased risk of second cancer was observed among Japanese women with cervical cancer mainly treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. Considering the fact that about half of the patients survived more than 10 years, the benefit of radiotherapy outweighs the risk of developing second cancer

  10. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and their association with cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maneesh Kumar Gupta

    2015-11-17

    Nov 17, 2015 ... gene polymorphisms with cervical cancer in a north Indian population. Genotyping of ... diseases like coronary heart disease, breast cancer, cervical cancer etc ...... Environmental risk factors for prevention and molecular inter-.

  11. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330

  13. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2016-01-01

    of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland......OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...

  14. Chromosomal instability as a prognostic marker in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How, Christine; Bruce, Jeff; So, Jonathan; Pintilie, Melania; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hui, Angela; Clarke, Blaise A; Hedley, David W; Hill, Richard P; Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women globally, and despite treatment, distant metastasis and nodal recurrence will still develop in approximately 30% of patients. The ability to predict which patients are likely to experience distant relapse would allow clinicians to better tailor treatment. Previous studies have investigated the role of chromosomal instability (CIN) in cancer, which can promote tumour initiation and growth; a hallmark of human malignancies. In this study, we sought to examine the published CIN70 gene signature in a cohort of cervical cancer patients treated at the Princess Margaret (PM) Cancer Centre and an independent cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cervical cancer patients, to determine if this CIN signature associated with patient outcome. Cervical cancer samples were collected from 79 patients, treated between 2000–2007 at the PM, prior to undergoing curative chemo-radiation. Total RNA was extracted from each patient sample and analyzed using the GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix). High CIN70 scores were significantly related to increased chromosomal alterations in TCGA cervical cancer patients, including a higher percentage of genome altered and a higher number of copy number alterations. In addition, this same CIN70 signature was shown to be predictive of para-aortic nodal relapse in the PM Cancer Centre cohort. These findings demonstrate that chromosomal instability plays an important role in cervical cancer, and is significantly associated with patient outcome. For the first time, this CIN70 gene signature provided prognostic value for patients with cervical cancer

  15. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  16. Intraoperative irradiation in advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, G.; Goldson, A.L.; Ashayeri, E.; Petrilli, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional treatment of cervical cancer, such as radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy or pelvic exenteration, is limited to the pelvis. Standard radio-therapeutic treatment is a combination of external-beam radiotherapy to the pelvis and intracavitary applications. However, there is a group of patients for whom external radiotherapy alone has limitations. This group consists primarily of patients with large pelvic lymph nodes containing metastatic cancer, metastatically involved paraaortic lymph nodes outside the usual pelvic radiation field, or large central tumors with parametrial involvement. In patients with cancer of the cervix, the incidence of metastasis to paraaortic lymph nodes is high. Attempts to treat paraaortic nodes with external radiotherapy have resulted in high complication rates because the treatment field includes the highly sensitive gastrointestinal tract. External radiation therapy after retroperitoneal exploration of lymph nodes does not seem to improve survival. In an attempt to circumvent the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional external-beam irradiation, the authors initiated a pilot study of intraoperative electron-beam irradiation of the paraaortic nodes and of the large metastatic lymph nodes in the pelvis. The intraoperative boost was followed by conventional fractionated external-beam irradiation. The theoretical advantages of this procedure include a higher radiation tumor dose without a concomitant increase in treatment morbidity and mortality

  17. Provider Perspectives on Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ornelas, India J; Do, H Hoai; Magarati, Maya; Jackson, J Carey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2017-06-01

    Many refugees in the United States emigrated from countries where the incidence of cervical cancer is high. Refugee women are unlikely to have been screened for cervical cancer prior to resettlement in the U.S. National organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for refugee women soon after resettlement. We sought to identify health and social service providers' perspectives on promoting cervical cancer screening in order to inform the development of effective programs to increase screening among recently resettled refugees. This study consisted of 21 in-depth key informant interviews with staff from voluntary refugee resettlement agencies, community based organizations, and healthcare clinics serving refugees in King County, Washington. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. We identified the following themes: (1) refugee women are unfamiliar with preventive care and cancer screening; (2) providers have concerns about the timing of cervical cancer education and screening; (3) linguistic and cultural barriers impact screening uptake; (4) provider factors and clinic systems facilitate promotion of screening; and (5) strategies for educating refugee women about screening. Our findings suggest that refugee women are in need of health education on cervical cancer screening during early resettlement. Frequent messaging about screening could help ensure that women receive screening within the early resettlement period. Health education videos may be effective for providing simple, low literacy messages in women's native languages. Appointments with female clinicians and interpreters, as well as clinic systems that remind clinicians to offer screening at each appointment could increase screening among refugee women.

  18. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2015-01-01

    sense to determine the indicators also for the true at-risk populations. We described the frequency of total hysterectomy in Denmark and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and the screening coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With data from five Danish population-based registries......% (adjusted). In Denmark, hysterectomies do not have a large overall impact on the calculated cancer incidence and screening coverage. Nevertheless, at ≥ 65 years adjusted rates would increase by almost 20% compared to unadjusted rates. This suggests that calculating disease risks per organ-years may have......, the incidence rate of cervical cancer and the screening coverage for women aged 23-64 years on 31 December 2010 were calculated with and without adjustments for hysterectomies undertaken for reasons other than cervical cancer. They were calculated as the number of cases divided by 1) the total number of woman...

  19. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.

  20. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-14

    Jul 14, 2012 ... names in a prepared sampling frame of each group of workers, and thereafter ... Following individual counseling of eligible participants, .... Stanley M. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccines versus cervical cancer screening.

  1. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees (Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Somalis) in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  2. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attending Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH) general outpatient clinic. Methodology: This .... the impact of current efforts at increasing awareness about cervical cancer is .... movie stars or music artists in disseminating information on.

  3. A Literature Review of Cervical Cancer Screening in Transgender Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Kayla C

    2018-02-01

    Most female-to-male (FTM) transgender men retain their cervixes and need comprehensive sexual health care, including cervical cancer screening. According to the literature, FTM individuals obtain cervical cancer screening less frequently and are less likely to be up to date on their Pap tests compared with cisgender women. Misinformation related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer risk was noted for health care providers and FTM individuals. Absence of transgender-specific guidelines or trained health care providers presents barriers to cervical cancer screening for FTM individuals, and further research is indicated to develop comprehensive guidelines unique to the needs and experiences of this population. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  4. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  5. Prediction of rehabilitation needs after treatment of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Tina Broby; Sørensen, Bente; Dieperink, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women treated for cervical cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy have reported serious bowel, vaginal, and sexual late effects. The purpose of this study was to describe late adverse effects, health-related quality of life, and self-efficacy in a representative Danish cervical cancer...... population in order to describe rehabilitation needs. METHODS: Women, mean age 55 years, treated for cervical cancer from January 2010 to July 2013, who were alive and without known relapse/metastases were included in this cross-sectional study. EORTC QLQ C30 and CX24 and self-efficacy questionnaires were......: This study found that young, obese survivors with locally advanced cervical cancer and survivors who received chemotherapy may have a serious risk of developing late adverse effects; thus, rehabilitation should target these needs....

  6. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profile of cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-08-21

    Aug 21, 2015 ... Results: The incidence of cervical cancer in Butembo was 0.97% with a peak in 2011 .... bleeding, vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, Schiller. Test, clinical ..... female students and staff in a tertiary institution in the Niger Delta.

  7. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    essential step in the development of invasive cervical cancer.[3] HPV is highly infectious ... [6] Local reactions such as pain, swelling and redness can occur, as may ..... events, and undergraduate medical students at the University of Pretoria.

  8. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Cervical Cancer (Cervix Uteri)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einhorn, Nina [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Trope, Claes; Ridderheim, Mona; Boman, Karin; Sorbe, Bengt; Cavallin-Staahl, Eva

    2003-09-01

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for cervical cancer is based on data from 1 meta-analysis and 34 randomized trials. In total, 35 scientific articles are included, involving 7,952 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 34,024 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in these points: There are limited scientific data supporting that postoperative pelvic radiotherapy improves disease-free survival in early cervical cancer. No firm conclusion can be drawn. There is moderate scientific evidence that external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy gives a similar disease-free and overall survival rate as radical hysterectomy in early cervical cancer. There is strong scientific evidence that concomitant radiochemotherapy improves disease-free and overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in early cervical cancer. The NCI has recently published an announcement stating that cisplantin-based chemotherapy should be used concomitantly with radiotherapy in cervical cancer. No solid documentation for this statement can be found concerning locally advanced stages (>IIB). There is a strong scientific evidence that cisplatin-based chemotherapy given concomitantly with radiotherapy is superior to concomitant chemotherapy with hydroxyurea. There is no scientific evidence to show that neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy improves disease-free or overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with localized cervical cancer. There is moderate scientific evidence that high-dose-rate brachytherapy gives the same local control rate as low-dose-rate brachytherapy but with fewer rectal complications.

  9. Experiences of Batswana women diagnosed with both HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Molefe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The central phenomenon of interest to the authors was the experiences of Batswana women who have been diagnosed with both HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. They wanted to know how these women and their families coped with the burden of the two ‘fatal’ diseases. This interest was brought about by the current surge in cervical cancer cases in the country, and the relationship between the two diseases. There is scant literature on the experiences of women with the dual diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of Batswana women who are diagnosed with both HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. The research question was ‘What are the experiences of Batswana women diagnosed with both HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer?’ A phenomenological descriptive qualitative research design was therefore appropriate to answer the research question. Semi-structured interviews and field notes were used to collect data. One-to-one interviews were conducted with six women diagnosed with the two diseases. Both convenience and purposive sampling techniques were used in selection of participants. The seven procedural steps proposed by Collaizi (1978 were utilized in data analysis as the study was based on the phenomenology approach. The findings revealed that HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer are chronic illnesses that can instill chronic emotional pain. Reactions to diagnosis with these diseases include pain, fear or intense sadness. Coping with these conditions can be facilitated by different strategies such as acceptance, having hope, support from others and positive thinking. Support can come from children, family members, informal or formal groups and health service providers.

  10. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Cervical Cancer (Cervix Uteri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einhorn, Nina; Trope, Claes; Ridderheim, Mona; Boman, Karin; Sorbe, Bengt; Cavallin-Staahl, Eva

    2003-01-01

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for cervical cancer is based on data from 1 meta-analysis and 34 randomized trials. In total, 35 scientific articles are included, involving 7,952 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 34,024 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in these points: There are limited scientific data supporting that postoperative pelvic radiotherapy improves disease-free survival in early cervical cancer. No firm conclusion can be drawn. There is moderate scientific evidence that external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy gives a similar disease-free and overall survival rate as radical hysterectomy in early cervical cancer. There is strong scientific evidence that concomitant radiochemotherapy improves disease-free and overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in early cervical cancer. The NCI has recently published an announcement stating that cisplantin-based chemotherapy should be used concomitantly with radiotherapy in cervical cancer. No solid documentation for this statement can be found concerning locally advanced stages (>IIB). There is a strong scientific evidence that cisplatin-based chemotherapy given concomitantly with radiotherapy is superior to concomitant chemotherapy with hydroxyurea. There is no scientific evidence to show that neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy improves disease-free or overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with localized cervical cancer. There is moderate scientific evidence that high-dose-rate brachytherapy gives the same local control rate as low-dose-rate brachytherapy but with fewer rectal complications

  11. The value of prognostic factors for uterine cervical cancer patients treated with irradiation alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigienė, Rūta; Valuckas, Konstantinas P; Aleknavičius, Eduardas; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Letautienė, Simona R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate and evaluate the prognostic value of and correlations between preclinical and clinical factors such as the stage of the disease, blood Hb level before treatment, size of cervix and lymph nodes evaluated by CT, age, dose of irradiation and duration of radiotherapy related to overall survival, disease-free survival, local control and metastases-free survival in cervical cancer patients receiving radiotherapy alone. 162 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIA-IIIB cervical carcinoma treated with irradiation were analysed. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox regression model were performed to determine statistical significance of some tumor-related factors. The Hb level before treatment showed significant influence on overall survival (p = 0.001), desease free survival (p = 0.040) and local control (p = 0.038). The lymph node status (>10 mm) assessed on CT had impact on overall survival (p = 0,030) and local control (p = 0,036). The dose at point A had impact on disease free survival (p = 0,028) and local control (p = 0,021) and the radiotherapy duration had showed significant influence on overall survival (p = 0,045), disease free survival (p = 0,006) and local control (p = 0,033). Anemia is a significant and independent prognostic factor of overall survival, disease-free survival and local control in cervical cancer patients treated with irradiation. The size of lymph nodes in CT is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and local control in cervical cancer patients. The size of cervix uteri evaluated by CT has no prognostic significance in cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. The prognostic value of FIGO stage of cervical cancer is influenced by other factors, analyzed in this study and is not an independent prognostic factor

  12. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cause of female genital cancer and female cancer deaths in developing countries such as Nigeria. The most recent government estimates put the number of new cases at 25,000 per year. According to the latest global estimates, 493, 000 new cases occur each year and ...

  13. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  14. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema R; Adame-Gómez, Jesús; Valle-Flores, Heidi N del; Coppe, José Fco; Sierra-López, Laura; Romero-Hernández, Mirna A; Carmen Alarcón-Romero, Luz del; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression

  15. Actinic cell effects after radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha, C.M.L.; Bergmann, A.; Chaves, C.B.P.; Thuler, L.C.S.; Araújo Junior, M.L.C.; Souza, S.A.L. de

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It is very common for patients with cervical cancer to be referred to the radiotherapy when the disease is in advanced stages, this fact determines high rates of locoregional recurrence. Radiation treatment causes actinic morphological changes, not only in neoplastic epithelial cells, but also in normal cells. These changes induced by radiation, often make difficult the differential diagnosis of the residual lesion, resulting in a dilemma in cytopathological follow-up. Objective: To describe the actinic cytopathologic changes in patients submitted to radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Methodology: The re-evaluation of cytopathologic smears and description of actinic cytopathic effects were performed. This information was complemented by the cytopathological report of the smears, available in the archives of the Division of Pathology (DIPAT) / INCA. Results: The most frequent cytopathological changes observed were: nuclear activation, cytoplasmic enhancement, cytoplasmic vacuolisation, eosinophilia, polychromasia, multinucleated giant cells, binucleation, nuclear vacuolisation, prominent nucleoli, as well as presence of leukocyte exudate. Conclusion: The cytopathological diagnosis of tumor persistence or recurrence after radiotherapy is always a great challenge for the professional, even the experienced one. Studies and reports in the literature on actinic cytopathologic changes and radiotherapy are scarce

  16. [Isolated splenic metastases from cervical cancer: a rare entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón-López, José Sebastián; Souto-del Bosque, Rosalía; Montañez-Lugo, Juan Ignacio; Chávez-González, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Splenic metastases from solid tumors are a rare event with an incidence of only 2.9% to 9%. Splenic metastases from cervical cancer are a rare entity. Only a few cases have been reported of isolated spleen metastases from cervical cancer. We present the case of a 76-year-old woman with moderately differentiated endocervical adenocarcinoma stromal and endocervical invasion. Clinical stage was Ib1 and Ca-125 values of 150 U. She was managed with hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. She received pelvic radiotherapy (45 Gy) followed 24 Gy of brachytherapy. Two years later she presented with abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed two splenic parenchymal lesions without disease in the remainder of the abdominal cavity and chest with a Ca-125 of 2,733 U. The patient is submitted to splenectomy. Histopathology demonstrates splenic metastases of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma from the endocervix. Immunohistochemical stain showed positivity from carcinoembryonic antigen; estrogen and progesterone receptors are negative. Ca-125 level 8 weeks after surgery was 16 U/ml. The patient received six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin. At 12 months follow-up the patient is alive and without evidence of tumor activity. The spleen is an uncommon site of metastasis. Splenectomy is considered the appropriate treatment in order to avoid complications such as splenic rupture and splenic vein thrombosis as well as to improve pain control from splenomegaly. Twelve months after surgery our patient is alive and without evidence of tumor activity.

  17. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  18. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  19. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Survival of a cohort of women with cervical cancer diagnosed in a Brazilian cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Calazan do Carmo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess overall survival of women with cervical cancer and describe prognostic factors associated. METHODS: A total of 3,341 cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed at the Brazilian Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1999 and 2004 were selected. Clinical and pathological characteristics and follow-up data were collected. There were performed a survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and a multivariate analysis through Cox model. RESULTS: Of all cases analyzed, 68.3% had locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. The 5-year overall survival was 48%. After multivariate analysis, tumor staging at diagnosis was the single variable significantly associated with prognosis (p<0.001. There was seen a dose-response relationship between mortality and clinical staging, ranging from 27.8 to 749.6 per 1,000 cases-year in women stage I and IV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that early detection through prevention programs is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival.

  1. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  2. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    /119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  3. Distribution of Human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Serbia are among the highest in Europe and data on Human papilloma virus (HPV type distribution are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV types in archival specimens of cervical cancer tissues of women in the Serbian population. A total of 45 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of cervical carcinoma were used in this study. The procedure included deparaffinization of tissue samples, DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. HPV was detected in 32 samples (71%. Genotyping revealed the presence of 6 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 33, 45, 53 and 58, where HPV type 16 was the most prevalent type (73.7%. The results of this study and further studies will provide more detailed information about HPV genotype distribution and may contribute to the formulation of national guidelines for the prevention of cervical cancer. [175073

  4. A review of topotecan in combination chemotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Robati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minoo Robati, David Holtz, Charles J DuntonDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Main Line Gynecologic Oncology, Lankenau Hospital, Wynnewood, PA, USAAbstract: Treatment of advanced, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiation has been the primary treatment modality for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Concomitant systemic cisplatin chemotherapy and radiation have shown high response rates with improvements in durable remissions and overall survival. Cisplatin has been the standard medication for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. Combinations with other chemotherapeutic agents have been the subject of clinical trials with varying results. The toxicity of combination chemotherapy and tolerability of patients are other factors that should be considered in the management of patients with advanced disease. Recently topotecan, in combination with cisplatin, achieved increased response and overall survival rates without further compromising the patients’ quality of life. This review focuses on the mechanism of action and toxicities of topotecan, as well as its role as a radio-sensitizer and chemotherapeutic agent in the management of advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer. Other combination modalities and dosages are also discussed.Keywords: topotecan, combination chemotherapy, advanced cervical cancer

  5. Carbonic anhydrase XII expression is associated with histologic grade of cervical cancer and superior radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chong Woo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Joo-Young; Shin, Hye-Jin; Lim, Hyunsun; Lee, Sun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Lim, Myong-Cheol; Song, Yong-Jung

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12) is associated with histologic grade of the tumors and radiotherapy outcomes of the patients with invasive cervical cancer. CA12 expression was examined by immunohistochemical stains in cervical cancer tissues from 183 radiotherapy patients. Histological grading was classified as well (WD), moderately (MD) or poorly differentiated (PD). Oligonucleotide microarray experiment was performed using seven cervical cancer samples to examine differentially expressed genes between WD and PD cervical cancers. The association between CA12 and histological grade was analyzed by chi-square test. CA12 and histological grades were analyzed individually and as combined CA12 and histologic grade categories for effects on survival outcome. Immunohistochemical expression of CA12 was highly associated with the histologic grade of cervical cancer. Lack of CA12 expression was associated with PD histology, with an odds ratio of 3.9 (P = 0.01). Microarray analysis showed a fourfold reduction in CA12 gene expression in PD tumors. CA12 expression was marginally associated with superior disease-free survival. Application of the new combined categories resulted in further discrimination of the prognosis of patients with moderate and poorly differentiated tumor grade. Our study indicates that CA12 may be used as a novel prognostic marker in combination with histologic grade of the tumors

  6. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  7. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  8. Second primary cancers in survivors of cervical cancer in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Melina; Liu, Lifang; Kenter, Gemma G.; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated the effects of socio-demographic, treatment- and tumor-specific determinants on the risk of developing a second malignancy among patients treated for cervical cancer. Material and methods: We included patients with a first cervical cancer (N = 12,048) from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), 1989–2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess risks (AER) per 10,000 person-years were calculated to estimate the burden of second cancers in cervical cancer survivors. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed to identify predictors for second cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Results: During the study period, 676 (5.6%) patients were diagnosed with a second cancer. Smoking-related cancers contributed the most to the overall burden of second cancers (AER = 21) and risks remained elevated after 10 years of follow-up (SIR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.2), yet it decreased markedly in the younger birth cohorts. Cervical cancer survivors who underwent radiotherapy were at higher risk for a second tumor when compared to those without radiotherapy, especially at smoking-related sites (IRR = 1.6 (1.2–2.3)). Conclusion: Patients with cervical cancer had a significantly increased risk for a second cancer compared to the general population, especially for smoking- and irradiation-related tumors. Long-term follow-up suggested the importance of smoking cessation and the benefits of counseling cervical cancer patients accordingly, particularly those who received radiotherapy

  9. Optimization of the extent of surgical treatment in patients with stage I in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, A. L.; Lyapunov, A. Yu., E-mail: Lyapunov1720.90@mail.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kolomiets, L. A. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The study included 26 patients with FIGO stage Ia1–Ib1 cervical cancer who underwent fertility-sparing surgery (transabdominaltrachelectomy). To visualize sentinel lymph nodes, lymphoscintigraphy with injection of 99mTc-labelled nanocolloid was performed the day before surgery. Intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes using hand-held gamma probe was carried out to determine the radioactive counts over the draining lymph node basin. The sentinel lymph node detection in cervical cancer patients contributes to the accurate clinical assessment of the pelvic lymph node status, precise staging of the disease and tailoring of surgical treatment to individual patient.

  10. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  11. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Burkina Faso: Needs for Patient and Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaore, Salomon; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne M R; Koanda, Seni; Haynatzki, Gleb; Chamberlain, Robert M; Soliman, Amr S

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer deaths for women in low-income African countries, such as Burkina Faso. Given that cervical cancer is a preventable disease through early detection and vaccination, this study aimed at understanding the barriers to cervical cancer early detection in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Women seeking screening and treatment for cervical cancer (n = 351) during the period of May-August 2014, at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital, were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward cervical cancer. Interview questions elicited information about sociodemographic of participants, history of screening, knowledge of cervical cancer, and attitudes toward cervical screening. Scores were assigned to responses of questions and knowledge, and tertitles of distributions were used for comparison. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to predict cervical screening. Study participants were relatively young (37.5 ± 10.7 years) and predominately resident of urban areas (83.8 %), and over half had no or less than high school education. Over 90 % of participants had heard about cervical cancer, and about 55 % of them had intermediate-level knowledge of the disease, its screening, and/or risk factors. Knowledge level was lower among rural than urban residents. Predictors of screening included higher level of education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.48-3.23), older age (OR = 1.1; 95 % CI 1.06-1.12), higher socioeconomic standard (SES) (OR = 1.5; 95 % CI 1-2.37), urban residence (OR = 2.0; 95 % CI 1.19-3.25), encouragement for screening by a health care worker (1.98; 95 % CI 1.06-3.69), and employment (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 1.13-3.11). Low awareness and socioeconomic barriers lead to underutilization of screening services of women. Motivation and education by healthcare workers are important factors for increasing screening

  12. Extensive Tattoos Mimicking Lymphatic Metastasis on Positron Emission Tomography Scan in a Patient With Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Narine; Zheng, Ma; Bristow, Robert E; Eskander, Ramez N

    2015-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) fused with computed tomography (CT) imaging is common in the clinical assessment of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Limitations to the utilization and interpretation of PET-CT scans in patients with cervical cancer have been described, including false-positive findings secondary to tattoo ink. A 32-year-old woman presented with clinical stage 1B1 cervical cancer and extensive tattoos of the lower extremities. Preoperative PET-CT scan identified two ileac lymph nodes with increased fluorine-18-deoxyglucose uptake suspicious for metastatic disease. At the time of surgical resection, bilateral pigmented lymph nodes were identified with histologic examination showing deposition of tattoo ink and no malignant cells. Physicians should be cognizant of the possible effects of tattoos on PET-CT findings while counseling patients and formulating a treatment program.

  13. dose in cervical cancer intracavitary brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siavashpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the optimum organ filling point for organs at risk (OARs dose in cervical cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy. Material and methods : In a retrospective study, 32 locally advanced cervical cancer patients (97 insertions who were treated with 3D conformal external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy during 2010-2013 were included. Rotterdam HDR tandem-ovoid applicators were used and computed tomography (CT scanning was performed after each insertion. The OARs delineation and GEC-ESTRO-based clinical target volumes (CTVs contouring was followed by 3D forward planning. Then, dose volume histogram (DVH parameters of organs were recorded and patients were classified based on their OARs volumes, as well as their inserted tandem length. Results : The absorbed dose to point A ranged between 6.5-7.5 Gy. D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³ of the bladder significantly increased with the bladder volume enlargement (p value < 0.05. By increasing the bladder volume up to about 140 cm3, the rectum dose was also increased. For the cases with bladder volumes higher than 140 cm3, the rectum dose decreased. For bladder volumes lower than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose decreased; however, for bladder volumes higher than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose increased. The D 2cm ³ of the bladder and rectum were higher for longer tandems than for shorter ones, respectively. The divergence of the obtained results for different tandem lengths became wider by the extension of the bladder volume. The rectum and sigmoid volume had a direct impact on increasing their D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³, as well as decreasing their D 10 , D 30 , and D 50 . Conclusions : There is a relationship between the volumes of OARs and their received doses. Selecting a bladder with a volume of about 70 cm3 or less proved to be better with regards to the dose to the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid.

  14. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and their association with cervical cancer: A North Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Kumar Gupta

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Therefore, the promoter polymorphisms in cytokine genes can be used as biomarkers to predict cervical cancer susceptibility in a north Indian population. However, such studies need to be carried out in different ethnic populations in order to discover the specific risk alleles, genotypes and combinations for disease prediction.

  15. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the...

  16. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2012, Volume 77, Number 214, Page 66469. A teleconference line...

  17. Large scale study of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer and different cytological cervical specimens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansaenroj, Jira; Junyangdikul, Pairoj; Chinchai, Teeraporn; Swangvaree, Sukumarn; Karalak, Anant; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Identification of high-risk HPV genotypes in patients is essential for vaccination and prevention programs while the geographic distribution of cervical cancer varies widely. HPV 16 is the major cause of cervical cancer followed by HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 52, or HPV 58 depending on geographic area. In this study, the distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical specimens from women living in Thailand was analyzed by HPV testing with electrochemical DNA chip and PCR direct sequencing. The 716 specimens were grouped according to their cytological grades; 100 normal, 100 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 100 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 416 specimens of cervical cancer. The results showed that HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 52, and HPV 58 are the most common HPV genotypes in Thailand, respectively. With respect to age, women below the age of 26 years were almost negative for high-risk HPV DNA exclusively. Conversely, high prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA and abnormal cytology were usually found in women between 26 and 45 years while cervical cancer was detected mainly in women above the age of 45 years. To increase protection efficiency, a vaccine including HPV 52 and HPV 58 should be offered to Asian women, and primary HPV screening should start at 26-30 years of age. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Vietnamese American women’s beliefs and perceptions on cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines: A community-based participatory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains commonly diagnosed in Vietnamese American women. Despite efforts to increase cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women, participation rates are persistently lower than the national goal. The objective of this study is to explore beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines. A qualitative descriptive investigation captured group perceptions about meaning and beliefs of cervical cancer, screening, and cancer prevention vaccines, and participants’ stories using a community-based participatory research approach. Forty Vietnamese American women were recruited from the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area into four focus groups. Using a process of directed content analysis, focus group transcripts were coded for themes. We found that cervical cancer continues to be a difficult topic to discuss, and Vietnamese American women may not bring the topic up themselves to their health care providers. Some women experienced intense emotions of fear or shame of having their cervix examined. Women delayed seeking cervical cancer screening and needed to have early warning signs, which guided them as to when to seek health care. Women focused on cleanliness through vaginal and/or perineal washing as primary prevention for cervical cancer. There were limited awareness and knowledge about cancer prevention vaccines, specifically the human papillomavirus. Some women relied heavily on their informal social networks of family, friends, or community for health knowledge. Fear and misunderstanding dominated the beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer screening and prevention. These findings underscored the importance of having culturally-specific findings, which will inform a multicomponent intervention to promote cervical cancer screening and cancer prevention vaccine uptake within this population.

  19. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  20. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  1. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Putchong, Choenkwan; Sirisamutr, Teera; Teerawattananon, Yot; Tantivess, Sripen

    2010-07-02

    Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country's political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country's political crisis, the MoPH's campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a crucial factor that drew the attention of policymakers to the cervical

  2. Cervical necrosis after chemoradiation for cervical cancer: case series and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawaz, Ziad Simon; Barkati, Maroie; Beauchemin, Marie-Claude; Sauthier, Philippe; Gauthier, Philippe; Nguyen, Thu Van

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the management of cervical necrosis (CN) following radiotherapy (RT) and the impact of smoking status. This rare complication mimics a neoplastic recurrence, and causes concern among attending physicians. Between July 2008 and March 2013, 5 women on 285 with localized cervical cancer had a CN following RT. Patients were treated with concomitant chemoradiation. The medical records were reviewed to abstract demographic and clinical information until March 2013. 1.75% (95% confidence interval: 0.23 to 3.28%) developed CN. All patients were smokers with a mean of 19.5 pack-years (range: 7.5-45 pack-years). All patients were treated with weekly Cisplatin chemotherapy and external beam radiation to the pelvis, 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Four patients received an extra boost with a median dose of 7.2 Gy (range: 5.4-10 Gy). All patients had intracavitary brachytherapy (range: 27.9 to 30 Gy). Clinical presentation was similar for all the cases: vaginal discharge associated with pain. Mean time for time post-radiation therapy to necrosis was 9.3 months (range: 2.2-20.5 months). Standard workup was done to exclude cancer recurrence: biopsies and radiologic imaging. Conservative treatment was performed with excellent results. Resolution of the necrosis was complete after a few months (range: 1 to 4 months). Median follow-up until March 2013 was 19 months. All the patients were alive with no clinical evidence of disease. This study, the largest to date, shows that conservative management of CN after RT is effective, and should be attempted. This complication is more common in smokers, and counseling intervention should result in fewer complications of CN

  3. The polymethyl methacrylate cervical cage for treatment of cervical disk disease Part III. Biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyi-Feng; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2006-10-01

    In a previous article, we used the PMMA cervical cage in the treatment of single-level cervical disk disease and the preliminary clinical results were satisfactory. However, the mechanical properties of the PMMA cage were not clear. Therefore, we designed a comparative in vitro biomechanical study to determine the mechanical properties of the PMMA cage. The PMMA cervical cage and the Solis PEEK cervical cage were compressed in a materials testing machine to determine the mechanical properties. The compressive yield strength of the PMMA cage (7030 +/- 637 N) was less than that of the Solis polymer cervical cage (8100 +/- 572 N). The ultimate compressive strength of the PMMA cage (8160 +/- 724 N) was less than that of the Solis cage (9100 +/- 634 N). The stiffness of the PMMA cervical cage (8106 +/- 817 N/mm) was greater than that of the Solis cage (6486 +/- 530 N/mm). The elastic modulus of the PMMA cage (623 +/- 57 MPa) was greater than that of the Solis cage (510 +/- 42 MPa). The elongation of PMMA cage (43.5 +/- 5.7%) was larger than that of the Solis cage (36.1 +/- 4.3%). Although the compressive yield strength and ultimate compressive strength of the PMMA cervical cage were less than those of the Solis polymer cage, the mechanical properties are better than those of the cervical vertebral body. The PMMA cage is strong and safe for use as a spacer for cervical interbody fusion. Compared with other cage materials, the PMMA cage has many advantages and no obvious failings at present. However, the PMMA cervical cage warrants further long-term clinical study.

  4. Optimal management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntekim, Atara; Campbell, Oladapo; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The clinical management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients has challenges mainly due to the concerns on immune status. At present, their mode of management is similar to HIV-seronegative patients involving the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy concurrently as indicated. HIV infection, cancer, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy lower immunity through reduction in CD4 cell counts. At present there are no treatment guidelines for HIV-positive patients. This study was done to systematically review the literature on cervical cancer management in HIV-positive patients and treatment outcomes. A systematic literature search was done in the major databases to identify studies on the management of HIV-positive patients with cervical cancer. Identified studies were assessed for eligibility and inclusion in the review following the guidelines of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and CRD's (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. Eight eligible studies were identified from the literature. Three of them were prospective while five were retrospective studies. Notably, the average age at diagnosis of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients was a decade lower than in seronegative patients. There was no difference in distribution of stages of disease at presentation between HIV-positive and negative patients. Mild acute toxicity (Grades 1 and 2) was higher in HIV-positive patients than in HIV-negative patients in hematopoietic system. In the grades 3 and 4 reactions, anemia was reported in 4% versus 2% while gastrointestinal reactions were reported in 5% versus 2% respectively. In general, patients who were started early on HAART had higher rates of treatment completion. The study supports the suggestion that HAART should be commenced early at cervical cancer diagnosis in HIV-positive patients diagnosed with cervical cancer to ensure less toxicity and better treatment compliance

  5. Epigenetic Silencing of CXCR4 Promotes Loss of Cell Adhesion in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of chemokine signaling pathways, recent reports have described the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis and its role in cancer progression and metastasis. Interestingly, we found downregulation of CXCR4 at both transcript and protein level in cervical cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We also found CXCR4 promoter hypermethylation in cervical cancer cell lines and primary biopsy samples. DNA hypomethylating drug 5-AZA-2′-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A treatments in cell lines reactivate both CXCR4 transcription and protein expression. Cell adhesion assay demonstrated that autocrine SDF-1α promotes the loss of cell adhesion while paracrine SDF-1α predominantly protects the normal cervical cells from loss of cell adhesion. Cervical cancer cell line C-33A having increased expression of CXCR4 after TSA treatment showed increased cell adhesion by paracrine source of SDF-1α in comparison to untreated C-33A. These findings demonstrate the first evidence that epigenetic silencing of CXCR4 makes the cells inefficient to respond to the paracrine source of SDF-1α leading to loss of cell adhesion, one of the key events in metastases and progression of the disease. Our results provide novel insight of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in tumor microenvironment which may be promising to further delineate molecular mechanism of cervical carcinogenesis.

  6. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  7. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astride Audirac-Chalifour

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST. Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036.When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006 and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001. The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings.

  8. Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robyn Banerjee,1 Mitchell Kamrava21Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Dramatic advances have been made in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Radiation treatment planning has evolved from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, incorporating magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography into the treatment paradigm. This allows for better delineation and coverage of the tumor, as well as improved avoidance of surrounding organs. Consequently, advanced brachytherapy can achieve very high rates of local control with a reduction in morbidity, compared with historic approaches. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art gynecologic brachytherapy, with a focus on recent advances and their implications for women with cervical cancer.Keywords: cervical cancer, brachytherapy, image-guided brachytherapy

  9. [Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X Y; Zheng, R S; Sun, K X; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-04-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China based on the cancer registry data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitted cervical cancer incidence and deaths in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of cervical cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases and death certificate-only cases were 86.07% and 1.01%, respectively. The mortality to incidence ratio was 0.30. The estimates of new cases were about 102 000 in China in 2014, with a crude incidence rate of 15.30/100 000. The age-standardized incidence rates by China standard population (ASR China) and world standard population (ASR world) of cervical cancer were 11.57/100 000 and 10.61/100 000, respectively. Cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer in China was 1.11%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates in urban areas were 15.27/100 000 and 11.16/100 000, respectively, whereas those were 15.34/100 000 and 12.14/100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of cervical cancer deaths were about 30 400 in China in 2014, with a crude mortality rate of 4.57/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 3.12/100 000 and 2.98/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 0.33%. The crude and ASR China mortality rates were 4.44/100 000 and 2.92/100 000 in urban areas, respectively, whereas those were 4.72/100 000 and 3.39/100 000 in rural areas. Conclusions: There is still a heavy burden of

  10. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  11. Preferences for cervical cancer screening: The role of implicit associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I.J.; Kwaadsteniet, E.W. de; Voorst, A. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Pieterse, A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Implicit associations influence behaviour, but their impact on cancer screening intentions is unknown. Methods: We assessed implicit associations with cervical cancer screening using an evaluative priming task. Participants were shown primes ('Pap test', neutral or non-word) followed by

  12. Women's perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and ..... 11.5. 2. < 0.003. X2, Chi-Square; df, degrees of freedom; p, probability. ... cervical cancer screening services than single, divorced or widowed ...

  13. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  14. Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-seven percent of the cervical cancer patients were referred to Ocean Road Cancer Institute for radiotherapy and or chemotherapy. Patients discharged home for palliative care were 30% and 17% patients died at the hospital. Known HIV positive patients were significantly associated with death and terminal care seen ...

  15. Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Review of Outcome among Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the second leading female cancer world-wide and the most common female ... Interestingly, it has a pre-invasive stage, which can be detected through screening. ... primarily to screen for cervical cancer and where they exist, the acceptance ...

  16. Clinico-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer in Ghanaian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study found high prevalence of cervical cancer among female geni- tal tract cancers in Accra Ghana. ..... (serotypes 16, 18, 33, 35, 45) of human papilloma- virus (HPV), that are known to cause the condition and the high prevalence of HIV ...

  17. Knowledge, Practices and Education of Clients on Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most patients with cancer of the cervix present late with poor prognosis. Health workers' knowledge and utilization of the screening services might influence their clients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, practice and education of clients on cervical cancer and its screening among female ...

  18. Role of HPV Vaccine in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer which affects relatively young women of child bearing age is considered to be the second most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries, a reflection of global health inequity. There are more than 450,000 newly diagnosed cases annually with over a quarter of million deaths recorded out of which over 80 percent are from the developing countries especially Africa, South Asia, South and Central America, and the Caribbean, with an exponential rise expected from this figure by 2020. The preventive measures available (Pap smear and HPV vaccine aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, has been shown to be very effective but difficult to implement especially in the developing countries partly due to lack of resources and mainly lack of government commitment amongst other things. This forms the basis of this review to look at the position of HPV vaccine in the prevention of cancer of the cervix. Method: In the course of this write-up, relevant literatures were reviewed using manual library search, relevant websites and internet articles. The key words employed were: cervical cancer, human papilloma virus, pap smear and vaccination. Results: It has been shown that, where resources permits, combining HPV vaccine in combination with pap smear screening methods especially to high risk group would greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer of the cervix. Conclusion: Although there are so many essential questions still unanswered, considering the havoc caused by this preventable gynaecological malignancy and coupled with the ever increasing costs of its treatment, the advantages of using HPV vaccine in addition to routine Pap smear as a means of preventing cancer of the cervix greatly outweighs the disadvantages. However, there is the need for caution to be adhered to when it comes to large scale vaccination programs in view of

  19. Humeral Metastasis from Cervical Cancer: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Chhabra; KanikaTaneja; Megha Ralli; Sunita Singh; Aditi Arora; Sohrab Arora; Pansi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Long bone metastasis in cervical cancer is a rare presentation generally seen in the lumbar column or ribs. The reported rates of bone metastases are between 15%-29%. It is associated with poor prognosis. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging are useful techniques for diagnosis. In this case report, a 32-year old female with a previous history of cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IIIA presented with severe pain and swelling in her right humerus. X-ray and magnetic resonance imag...

  20. Cervical cancer in South Africa: An over- view of current status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current estimates are that 493 243 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer per ... estimated that 78 897 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer annually and 61 671 ..... eye aided by a bright light source. ... References. 1. Ferly Bray F ...

  1. Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer: Predictors of HPV Vaccination among Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Fang Num, Kelly Sze; How Koh, Raymond Chee

    2017-06-25

    Background: The objective of this study is to determine the influence of dental students’ knowledge and attitude regarding human papillomavirus infection of cervical cancer on willingness to pay for vaccination. Basic research design: A convenience sampling method was used. The minimal sample size of 136 was calculated using the Raosoft calculator with a 5 % margin of error and 95% confidence level. Participants: The study population were all final year dental students from the School of Dentistry. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure knowledge levels and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus vaccination. Contingent valuation was conducted for willingness to pay for vaccination. Main outcome measures: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that human papillomavirus are associated with oropharynx cancer and the American Dental Association insist on expanding public awareness of the oncogenic potential of some HPV infections. Thus, as future dental practitioners, dental students should be aware of human papillomavirus and their links with cancer and the benefits of vaccination. Results: Knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer did not impact on attitudes towards vaccines. However, significant correlation existed between knowledge and willingness to pay for vaccination. Conclusions: Dental students’ knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer has no influence on their attitude towards HPV vaccines. However, their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination is influenced by their knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Awareness of Cervical Cancer Causes and Pre-determinants of Likelihood to Screen among Women in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Schatzi H.; Walmer, Kathy A.; Boggan, Joel C.; Gichane, Margaret W.; Calo, William A.; Beauvais, Harry A.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Haiti. Given this high disease burden, we sought to better understand women’s knowledge of its causes and the socio-demographic and health correlates of cervical cancer screening. Methods Participants were 410 adult women presenting at clinics in Léogâne and Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We used bivariate and multivariate logic regression to identify correlates of Pap smear receipt. Results Only 29% of respondents had heard of human papillomavirus (HPV), while 98% were aware of cervical cancer. Of those aware of cervical cancer, 12% believed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause it, and only 4% identified HPV infection as the cause. Women with a previous STI were more likely to have had Pap smear (34% vs. 71%, OR=3.45; 95% CI: 1.57–7.59). Screening was also more likely among women who were older than age 39, better educated and employed (all p<.05). Almost all women (97%) were willing to undergo cervical cancer screening. Conclusions This sample of Haitian women had limited awareness of HPV and cervical cancer causes; but when provided with health information, they saw the benefits of cancer screening. Future initiatives should provide health education messages, with efforts targeting young and at-risk women. PMID:27906806

  3. Postoperative radiation for cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Kimberly; Han, Ihn; Deppe, Gunter; Malviya, Vinay; Malone, John; Christensen, Carl; Chuba, Paul; Porter, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy for early-stage cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of 83 patients who received postoperative radiation therapy at our facility from March 1980 to November 1993 for early stage cervix cancer with positive surgical margins, positive pelvic or periaortic lymph nodes, lymphovascular space invasion, deep invasion, or for disease discovered incidentally at simple hysterectomy. Twenty-eight patients received low dose rate (LDR) intracavitary radiation with or without external beam pelvic irradiation and 55 patients received external beam pelvic irradiation with high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary implants. Of these 83 patients, 66 were evaluable--20 LDR and 46 HDR patients. All patients received 45-50 Gy external beam irradiation and 20 Gy LDR equivalent intracavitary irradiation prescribed to 0.5 cm below the mucosa. Ninety percent of the LDR group and 92% of the HDR group completed treatment within < 56 days. Treatment-related toxicities were scored according to the GOG toxicity scale. Mean and median follow-up times were 101 months and 111 months (3-172 months) for the LDR group and 42 and 40 months (3-98 months) for the HDR group. Results: The 5-year disease-free survival was 89% for the LDR group and 72% for the HDR group. Local control was observed in 90% (18 out of 20) of the LDR patients and 89% (41 out of 46) of the HDR patients for an overall local control rate of 89.5%. Two of 20 LDR patients (10%) experienced recurrence (two pelvic with distant metastasis). Nine of 46 HDR patients (22%) had recurrence of disease (three pelvic, four distant metastasis, and two pelvic with distant metastasis). In the HDR group, 6 out of 16 (38%) with positive lymph nodes died of disease whereas, 27 out of 30 (90%) of the patients with negative lymph nodes remain free of disease. Three of 20 (15%) LDR patients and 4 out of 46 (9%) HDR patients experienced

  4. A joint model of persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer risk: Implications for cervical cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Katki, Hormuzd A.; Cheung, Li C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2015-01-01

    New cervical cancer screening guidelines in the US and many European countries recommend that women get tested for human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform decisions about screening intervals, we calculate the increase in precancer/cancer risk per year of continued HPV infection. However, both time to onset of precancer/cancer and time to HPV clearance are interval-censored, and onset of precancer/cancer strongly informatively censors HPV clearance. We analyze this bivariate informatively interv...

  5. Why HPV Vaccine is Important to My Family: The Story of a Cervical Cancer Survivor

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-06

    A young mom’s world is turned upside-down when she’s diagnosed with cervical cancer. Learn what she’s doing to protect her kids from HPV-related cancers.  Created: 5/6/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/6/2013.

  6. The prognostic values of the expression of Vimentin, TP53, and Podoplanin in patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaying; Lu, Jiaqi; Wang, Chao; Xue, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), TP53, and Podoplanin have been implicated in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of human cancers. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of these markers in cancer patients is still not clear. In this study, we sought to determine the prognostic values of Vimentin, TP53, and Podoplanin in patients with cervical cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of Vimentin, TP53, and Podoplanin, respectively, in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent normal cervical tissues. Additionally, the expression levels of Podoplanin were also measured in 130 cervical cancer patients (FIGO stages Ib1-IIa2) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. The mRNA expression levels of Vimentin, TP53, and Podoplanin were considerably elevated in cervical cancer tissues, compared with those in the adjacent normal cervical tissues. Additionally, the protein expression levels of Vimentin were closely correlated with the age of onset (P = 0.007), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007), lymphatic invasion (P = 0.024), disease recurrence (P < 0.001), and the clinical prognosis of patients with cervical cancer (P < 0.001). Our multivariate analysis also suggests that Vimentin is an independent marker for survival in cervical cancer patients. Furthermore, the expression levels of Vimentin are negatively correlated with the proliferation marker Ki67 expression. Our data show that Vimentin can serve as an independent prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients with primary surgery. Registration number ChiCTR-TRC-06000236 Registered 15 December 2006.

  7. Reduced rate of human papillomavirus infection and genetic overtransmission of TP53 72C polymorphic variant lower cervical cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsbeih, Ghazi A; Al-Harbi, Najla M; Bin Judia, Sara S; Khoja, Hatim A; Shoukri, Mohamed M; Tulbah, Asma M

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a predominantly human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven disease worldwide. However, its incidence is unexplainably low in western Asia, including Saudi Arabia. Using this paradigm, we investigated the role of HPV infection rate and host genetic predisposition in TP53 G72C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) presumed to affect cancer incidence. Patients treated between 1990 and 2012 were reviewed, and a series of 232 invasive cervical cancer cases were studied and compared with 313 matched controls without cancer. SNP was genotyped by way of direct sequencing. HPV linear array analysis was used to detect and genotype HPV in tumor samples. The incidence of cervical cancer revealed bimodal peaks at 42.5 years, with a slighter rebound at 60.8 years. Among all cases, 77% were HPV-positive and 16 HPV genotypes were detected-mostly genotypes 16 (75%) and 18 (9%)-with no difference by age, histology, or geographical region. Although the TP53 G72C genotype was not associated with overall cervical cancer risk, it was significantly associated with HPV positivity (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.90; P = .016). Furthermore, the variant C allele was significantly overtransmitted in the population (P Cervical cancer incidence displays bimodal curve peaking at a young age with secondary rebound at older age. The combination of relative low HPV infection and variant TP53 72C allele overtransmission provide a plausible explanation for the low incidence of cervical cancer in our population. Therefore, HPV screening and host SNP genotyping may provide more relevant biomarkers to gauge the risk of developing cervical cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2459-66. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  8. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  10. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a..., and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The... National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program; presentations on outcomes of Care Coordination...

  11. Does lowering the screening age for cervical cancer in The Netherlands make sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Maaike A.; de Kok, Inge M.C.M.; Siesling, Sabine; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for the age to initiate cervical cancer screening should be directed towards maximum detection of early cervical cancer. However, the screening programme should do more good than harm. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether the target age for cervical cancer screening

  12. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high

  13. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a... detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national.... Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised...

  14. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Junichi; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Seki, Noriko; Hongo, Atsushi; Mizutani, Yasushi; Miyagi, Yasunari; Yoshinouchi, Mitsuo; Kudo, Takafumi

    2001-01-01

    Recently, attempts have made to use radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in various solid tumors including cervical cancer. Twenty-four patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were treated with concurrent Carboplatin (16-24 mg/m 2 /day) or Nedaplatin (20 mg/m 2 /week) and conventional radiotherapy. Of 13 evaluable patients, there were nine complete responders and four partial responders. There was no renal damage or grade 4 hematological toxicity. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions were mild. One patient had grade 3 dermatologic toxicity after delayed radiation therapy. This pilot study suggests that daily Carboplatin or weekly Nedaplatin administered with standard radiation therapy is safe, well-tolerated, and thus may be useful as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. (author)

  15. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... cancer screening policies and inadequacies in the key organisational elements of the programme such as registration and monitoring required for quality-assurance and fail-safe mechanisms. Based on data from available screening registers, coverage of the screening test taken within the population...

  16. Highlights on recurrence after surgery for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine

    Objective After surgery due to cervical cancer women are offered to attend a follow-up program 10 times during five years with the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the follow-up program, which has remained unchanged for 20 years even though reminding...... and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital. 524 patients were identified from 1996 to 2011...... with the diagnosis of cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the national pathological database and patient files information was extracted. Information was stored in Epidata. Associations were calculated using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results 133(25%) women of 524 needed...

  17. HIV serostatus and tumor differentiation among patients with cervical cancer at Bugando Medical Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matovelo Dismas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for the association between Human immunodeficiency virus infection and cervical cancer has been contrasting, with some studies reporting increased risk of cervical cancer among HIV positive women while others report no association. Similar evidence from Tanzania is scarce as HIV seroprevalence among cervical cancer patients has not been rigorously evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between HIV and tumor differentiation among patients with cervical cancer at Bugando Medical Centre and Teaching Hospital in Mwanza, North-Western Tanzania. Methods This was a descriptive analytical study involving suspected cervical cancer patients seen at the gynaecology outpatient clinic and in the gynaecological ward from November 2010 to March 2011. Results A total of 91 suspected cervical cancer patients were seen during the study period and 74 patients were histologically confirmed with cervical cancer. The mean age of those confirmed of cervical cancer was 50.5 ± 12.5 years. Most patients (39 of the total 74–52.7% were in early disease stages (stages IA-IIA. HIV infection was diagnosed in 22 (29.7% patients. On average, HIV positive women with early cervical cancer disease had significantly more CD4+ cells than those with advanced disease (385.8 ± 170.4 95% CI 354.8-516.7 and 266.2 ± 87.5, 95% CI 213.3-319.0 respectively p = 0.042. In a binary logistic regression model, factors associated with HIV seropositivity were ever use of hormonal contraception (OR 5.79 95% CI 1.99-16.83 p = 0.001, aged over 50 years (OR 0.09 95% CI 0.02-0.36 p = 0.001, previous history of STI (OR 3.43 95% CI 1.10-10.80 p = 0.035 and multiple sexual partners OR 5.56 95% CI 1.18-26.25 p = 0.030. Of these factors, only ever use of hormonal contraception was associated with tumor cell differentiation (OR 0.16 95% CI 0.06-0.49 p = 0.001. HIV seropositivity was weakly associated with

  18. Kaempferia parviflora Extract Exhibits Anti-cancer Activity against HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Na Takuathung, Mingkwan; Mungkornasawakul, Pitchaya; Wikan, Nitwara; Smith, Duncan R; Nimlamool, Wutigri

    2017-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat several diseases including cancer, and several studies have reported cytotoxic activities of extracts of KP against a number of different cancer cell lines. However, many aspects of the molecular mechanism of action of KP remain unclear. In particular, the ability of KP to regulate cancer cell growth and survival signaling is still largely unexplored. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of KP on cell viability, cell migration, cell invasion, cell apoptosis, and on signaling pathways related to growth and survival of cervical cancer cells, HeLa. We discovered that KP reduced HeLa cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. The potent cytotoxicity of KP against HeLa cells was associated with a dose-dependent induction of apoptotic cell death as determined by flow cytometry and observation of nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, KP-induced cell apoptosis was likely to be mediated through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway since caspase 9 and caspase 7, but not BID, were shown to be activated after KP exposure. Based on the observation that KP induced apoptosis in HeLa cell, we further investigated the effects of KP at non-cytotoxic concentrations on suppressing signal transduction pathways relevant to cell growth and survival. We found that KP suppressed the MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in cells activated with EGF, as observed by a significant decrease in phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Elk1, PI3K, and AKT. The data suggest that KP interferes with the growth and survival of HeLa cells. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on EGF-stimulated signaling, KP potently suppressed the migration of HeLa cells. Concomitantly, KP was demonstrated to markedly inhibit HeLa cell invasion. The ability of KP in suppressing the migration and invasion of HeLa cells was associated with the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 production. These data strongly suggest that KP may slow

  19. Can we rely on cancer mortality data? Checking the validity of cervical cancer mortality data for Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primic Zakelj, M.; Pompe Kirn, V.; Skrlec, F.; Selb, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Valid inference on cervical cancer mortality is very difficult since - on the basis of death certificates - it is not always possible to distinguish between cervix, corpus and unspecified uterine cancer deaths. Our aim was to estimate the extent to which cervical cancer as the official cause of death reflects the true mortality from cervical cancer in Slovenia. Material and methods. The data on 2245 deaths from cervix, corpus uteri, and uterus-unspecified cancers for the period 1985-1999 were linked to the Cancer Registry of Slovenia database from the mortality database of Slovenia. Results. Officially, in the period 1985-1999, there were 878 cervical cancer deaths. The comparison of these causes of death with the cancer sites registered in the Cancer Registry revealed that they include only 87.7% patients with a previous diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of 650 corpus uteri cancer deaths, 17. 1 % of patients were registered to have cervical cancer, and of 717 unspecified uterine cancer deaths, 31.4% were registered. Taking into account the correctly identified cervical cancer cases among cervical cancer deaths and misclassified cervical cancer deaths as corpus uteri and unspecified uterine, the corrected number of deaths would be 1106. Conclusions. When evaluating the impact of cervical cancer mortality from national mortality rates, the stated underestimation should be taken into account. However, this does not hold for some other cancers. (author)

  20. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  1. MRI in degenerative diseases of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubeus, P.; Sander, B.; Hosten, N.; Mayer, H.M.; Weber, U.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    MRI has grown increasingly important in recent years in diagnosis of degenerative diseases of the cervical spine, due to improvements of method that have made it a valuable diagnostic tool. The following contribution gives a brief introduction to the pathophysiology of degenerative changes in the cervical vertebral column and to the indications for MRI, describing within the framework of imaging the present state of MR examination technique. The ranking of the various gradient echo sequences, of the 3D methods and of the administration of contrast media in cervical myelopathy and radiaculopathy is discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. The ideal cervical cancer screening recommendation for Belgium, an industrialized country in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer should be a historical disease, why are we not succeeding! The prophylactic vaccination will reduce cervical cancer by almost 80% in Belgium. Cervical cancer screening should therefore remain in order to prevent the remaining 20%. The current used Pap cytology test misses 50% of all clinically significant precancers and cancers at the time of testing. The test should remain but the analysis should be altered. The screening should be modified based on our knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) as causal factor. Instead of looking for a cell abnormality, one should look for the presence of HPV. Then depending on the test, only two to ten percent of all relevant lesions are missed. The introduction of the vaccination should lead to the re-introduction of the screening based on HPV. This will not only lead to a considerable reduction in morbidity and mortality, allow longer screening intervals, but it will also be more cost-effective. More for less should be the driving force in cervical cancer screening if we want to be successful.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuza, Jean Damascène; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Pace, Lydia Eleanor; Ntaganira, Joseph; Riedel, David James

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010 to June 2013. Women aged 30 to 50 years screened for cervical cancer by trained doctors, nurses and midwives. Prevalence of pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions was determined. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess risk factors associated with cervical cancer. The prevalence of pre-cancer and invasive cervical cancer was 5.9% (95% CI 4.5, 7.5) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.9, 2.5), respectively. Risk factors associated with cervical cancer in multivariate analysis included initiation of sexual activity at less than 20 years (OR=1.75; 95% CI=(1.01, 3.03); being unmarried (single, divorced and widowed) (OR=3.29; 95% CI=( 1.26, 8.60)); Older age of participants (OR= 0.52; 95% CI= (0.28, 0.97)), older age at the first pregnancy (OR=2.10; 95% CI=(1.20, 3.67) and higher number of children born (OR=0.42; 95%CI =(0.23, 0.76)) were protective. Cervical cancer continues to be a public health problem in Rwanda, but screening using VIA is practical and feasible even in rural settings.

  4. The Prognostic Value of TRAIL and its Death Receptors in Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduro, John H.; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Hoor, Klaske A. ten; Pras, Elisabeth; Arts, Henriette J.G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Hollema, Harry; Mom, Constantijne H.; Jong, Steven de; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Zee, Ate G.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Preclinical data indicate a synergistic effect on apoptosis between irradiation and recombinant human (rh) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), making the TRAIL death receptors (DR) interesting drug targets. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of DR4, DR5, and TRAIL in cervical cancer and to determine their predictive and prognostic value. Methods and Materials: Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumors of 645 cervical cancer patients treated with surgery and/or (chemo-)radiation between 1980 and 2004. DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression in the tumor was studied by immunohistochemistry and correlated to clinicopathological variables, response to radiotherapy, and disease-specific survival. Results: Cytoplasmatic DR4, DR5, and TRAIL immunostaining were observed in cervical tumors from 99%, 88%, and 81% of the patients, respectively. In patients treated primarily with radiotherapy, TRAIL-positive tumors less frequently obtained a pathological complete response than TRAIL-negative tumors (66.3% vs. 79.0 %; in multivariate analysis: odds ratio: 2.09, p ≤0.05). DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression were not prognostic for disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Immunostaining for DR4, DR5, and TRAIL is frequently observed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in cervical cancer patients. Absence of TRAIL expression was associated with a higher pathological complete response rate to radiotherapy. DR4, DR5, or TRAIL were not prognostic for disease-specific survival.

  5. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Qureshi, Samera A; Kour, Prabhjot; Kumar, Bernadette; Diaz, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali) women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women's participation in cervical cancer screening: 1) in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2) verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3) the initiation of better recall through SMS and letters written in native languages. Finally, an intervention study that compares the aforementioned strategies and proves their effectiveness in increasing immigrant women's participation in cervical cancer screening is recommended.

  6. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc [Hopital Cochin, Service de Radiologie B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Liote, Frederic [Hopital Lariboisiere, Federation de Rhumatologie, Paris (France); Carlier, Robert [Hopital Raymond Poincare, Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2006-02-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  7. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc; Liote, Frederic; Carlier, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  8. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits

  9. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

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    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  10. A rare case of ileal metastasis from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, L; David, L; Orban, C; Herlea, V; Toma, L

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old woman, with a history of radiation-treated and surgically- resected cervical cancer, who was admitted to our clinic for intermittent sub occlusive symptoms. CT scan revealed a liver nodule and intestinal obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected liver metastasis and resolution of intestinal obstruction.Intraoperatively an ileal tumour was found to be the cause of the obstruction. Anatomo-pathological findings were consistent with an ileal metastasis from the cervical cancer.The liver nodule was only an area of focal steatosis. Celsius.

  11. Sex, drugs, and politics: the HPV vaccine for cervical cancer.

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    Casper, Monica J; Carpenter, Laura M

    2008-09-01

    HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. While most strains are relatively harmless, some increase a woman's risk of developing cervical cancer. This article explores the intimate, contested relationships among etiologies of cervical cancer, development and use of the new HPV vaccine, and contested notions of sexuality. We particularly focus on shifts in US health care and sexual politics, where the vaccine has animated longstanding concerns about vaccination (e.g. parental rights, cost, specialisation) and young women's bodies and behaviour. We conclude that vaccines are a distinctive kind of pharmaceutical, invoking notions of contagion and containment, and that politics shape every aspect of the pharmaceutical life course.

  12. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

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    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  13. Trend of Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Treating Cervical Disease in Korea

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    Seok-Hee Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS the National Digital Science Library (NDSL, and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were ‘pain on cervical spine’, ‘cervical pain’, ‘ruptured cervical disk’, ‘cervical disc disorder’, ‘stiffness of the neck’, ‘cervical disk’, ‘whiplash injury’, ‘cervicalgia’, ‘posterior cervical pain’, ‘neck disability’, ‘Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP’, and ‘Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD’. Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1 Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2 Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3 In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4 For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patient’s condition.

  14. Modeling human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in the United States for analyses of screening and vaccination

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    Ortendahl Jesse

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To provide quantitative insight into current U.S. policy choices for cervical cancer prevention, we developed a model of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, explicitly incorporating uncertainty about the natural history of disease. Methods We developed a stochastic microsimulation of cervical cancer that distinguishes different HPV types by their incidence, clearance, persistence, and progression. Input parameter sets were sampled randomly from uniform distributions, and simulations undertaken with each set. Through systematic reviews and formal data synthesis, we established multiple epidemiologic targets for model calibration, including age-specific prevalence of HPV by type, age-specific prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, HPV type distribution within CIN and cancer, and age-specific cancer incidence. For each set of sampled input parameters, likelihood-based goodness-of-fit (GOF scores were computed based on comparisons between model-predicted outcomes and calibration targets. Using 50 randomly resampled, good-fitting parameter sets, we assessed the external consistency and face validity of the model, comparing predicted screening outcomes to independent data. To illustrate the advantage of this approach in reflecting parameter uncertainty, we used the 50 sets to project the distribution of health outcomes in U.S. women under different cervical cancer prevention strategies. Results Approximately 200 good-fitting parameter sets were identified from 1,000,000 simulated sets. Modeled screening outcomes were externally consistent with results from multiple independent data sources. Based on 50 good-fitting parameter sets, the expected reductions in lifetime risk of cancer with annual or biennial screening were 76% (range across 50 sets: 69–82% and 69% (60–77%, respectively. The reduction from vaccination alone was 75%, although it ranged from 60% to 88%, reflecting considerable parameter

  15. Screening for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

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    Dr. Philip Castle is a Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y., USA and the CEO and Co-Founder of the Global Coalition Against Cervical Cancer (Arlington, VA, USA). He is also a Visiting Professor at the Cancer Institute/Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College in Beijing, P.R. China and was Honorary Professor at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Previously, Dr. Castle was the Chief Scientific Officer of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) (2011-2). He was a Senior, Tenured Investigator (2010-11) and Tenure-Track Investigator (2003-10) in the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) at the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). He received his Ph.D. in Biophysics in 1995 and M.P.H. in Epidemiology in 2000 from the Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Castle regularly participates in the development of national and international guidelines for cervical cancer prevention. Dr. Castle serves as a consultant for several countries, including Nicaragua, Norway, and Australia, on the development of national cervical cancer prevention programs and is participating in/consulting on pilot/demonstration projects in El Salvador and Botswana. He was recently a member of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Prevention (NBCCEDP) Advisory Committee. Dr. Castle is a member of the Board of Directors of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP). He serves as steering committee member of the American Society for Clinical Oncology’s Cervical Cancer Resource Stratified Secondary Prevention Guideline Panel. For his work in cervical cancer prevention, Dr. Castle has received (1) An EUROGIN Distinguished Service Award (2006); (2) a NIH Merit Award for introduction of HPV testing into low-resource settings in the U.S. (2007); (3) a

  16. Determinants of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake Among Women in Turkey.

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    Sözmen, Kaan; Unal, Belgin; Sakarya, Sibel; Dinc, Gonul; Yardim, Nazan; Keskinkilic, Bekir; Ergör, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on breast and cervical cancer screening among women 30 years and older in Turkey. We used data from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle variables, and cancer screening. Overall, 22.0% of women ever had a Pap smear test for cervical cancer screening and 19.0% ever had a mammography for breast cancer screening(n = 6846). Individuals with a university degree, social security, doing moderate physical activity, and consuming 5 portions of fruit or vegetable/day were more likely to receive Pap smear test and mammography. Residing in the eastern region and living in rural area was associated with lower likelihood of receiving both types of screening. © 2016 APJPH.

  17. Radiosensitivity is increased by knockdown of FTS in uterine cervical cancer cells

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    Park, Wo Yoon; Anandharaj, Arunkumar; Cinghu, Senthikumar; Kim, Won Dong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Ran [Dept. of Environmental and Tropical Medicine, Konkuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Uterine cervical cancer is still the second largest cancer in women worldwide, despite of effective screening methods. Radiotherapy is used to treat all the stages of cervical cancer and more than 60% of cervical cancer patients receive radiotherapy. New therapeutic targets or approaches are needed to further increase the results of radiotherapy. In the present study, we demonstrated the radiation induced overexpression and nuclear export of FTS in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we showed that silencing of FTS expression with FTS shRNA enhanced radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis FTS is involved in radioresistance of cervical cancer. Targeted inhibition of FTS can shutdown the key elemental characteristics of cervical cancer and could lead to an effective therapeutic strategy.

  18. Radiosensitivity is increased by knockdown of FTS in uterine cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Wo Yoon; Anandharaj, Arunkumar; Cinghu, Senthikumar; Kim, Won Dong; Yu, Jae Ran

    2012-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is still the second largest cancer in women worldwide, despite of effective screening methods. Radiotherapy is used to treat all the stages of cervical cancer and more than 60% of cervical cancer patients receive radiotherapy. New therapeutic targets or approaches are needed to further increase the results of radiotherapy. In the present study, we demonstrated the radiation induced overexpression and nuclear export of FTS in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we showed that silencing of FTS expression with FTS shRNA enhanced radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis FTS is involved in radioresistance of cervical cancer. Targeted inhibition of FTS can shutdown the key elemental characteristics of cervical cancer and could lead to an effective therapeutic strategy

  19. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study

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    Ndikom Chizoma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. Method This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. Findings The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%, mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39% and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8% and had secondary education (39%. The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result

  20. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikom, Chizoma Millicent; Ofi, Bola Abosede

    2012-08-06

    Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%), mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39%) and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8%) and had secondary education (39%). The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result. There is an urgent need for more enlightenment

  1. Using HPV prevalence to predict cervical cancer incidence.

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    Sharma, Monisha; Bruni, Laia; Diaz, Mireia; Castellsagué, Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Kim, Jane J

    2013-04-15

    Knowledge of a country's cervical cancer (CC) burden is critical to informing decisions about resource allocation to combat the disease; however, many countries lack cancer registries to provide such data. We developed a prognostic model to estimate CC incidence rates in countries without cancer registries, leveraging information on human papilloma virus (HPV) prevalence, screening, and other country-level factors. We used multivariate linear regression models to identify predictors of CC incidence in 40 countries. We extracted age-specific HPV prevalence (10-year age groups) by country from a meta-analysis in women with normal cytology (N = 40) and matched to most recent CC incidence rates from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents when available (N = 36), or Globocan 2008 (N = 4). We evaluated country-level behavioral, economic, and public health indicators. CC incidence was significantly associated with age-specific HPV prevalence in women aged 35-64 (adjusted R-squared 0.41) ("base model"). Adding geographic region to the base model increased the adjusted R-squared to 0.77, but the further addition of screening was not statistically significant. Similarly, country-level macro-indicators did not improve predictive validity. Age-specific HPV prevalence at older ages was found to be a better predictor of CC incidence than prevalence in women under 35. However, HPV prevalence could not explain the entire CC burden as many factors modify women's risk of progression to cancer. Geographic region seemed to serve as a proxy for these country-level indicators. Our analysis supports the assertion that conducting a population-based HPV survey targeting women over age 35 can be valuable in approximating the CC risk in a given country. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  2. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer among HIV-Infected Women in Ethiopia

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    Netsanet Shiferaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among Ethiopian women. Low awareness of cervical cancer, in combination with low health care seeking behavior, is a key challenge for cervical cancer prevention. This study assessed the knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2012 among HIV-infected women between 21 and 49 years of age. Basic descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS. Results. A total of 432 HIV-infected women participated in this study. About 71% of participants had ever heard of cervical cancer. Among women who had ever heard of cervical cancer, 49% did not know the cause while 74% were able to identify at least one risk factor for cervical cancer. Only 33% of women were able to correctly address when women should seek care and 33% identified at least one treatment option for cervical cancer. Conclusion. This study revealed that knowledge about cervical cancer was generally low, in particular for health care seeking behavior and treatment of cervical cancer. Health awareness programs should be strengthened at both community and health facility levels with emphasis highlighting the causes, risk factors, care seeking behaviors, and treatment options for cervical cancer.

  3. No Value for Routine Chest Radiography in the Work-Up of Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients

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    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; de Jong, Pim A.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verheijen, René H. M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging. Methods All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our tertiary referral center in the Netherlands (January 2006 – September 2013), and for whom ≥6 months follow-up was available, were included. As part of the staging procedure, patients underwent a routine two-directional digital chest radiograph. Findings were compared to a composite reference standard consisting of all imaging studies and histology obtained during the 6 months following radiography. Results Of the 402 women who presented with cervical cancer, 288 (71.6%) underwent chest radiography and had ≥6 months follow-up. Early clinical stage (I/II) cervical cancer was present in 244/288 (84.7%) women, while 44 (15.3%) presented with advanced disease (stage III/IV). The chest radiograph of 1 woman – with advanced pre-radiograph stage (IVA) disease – showed findings consistent with pulmonary metastases. Radiographs of 7 other women – 4 early, 3 advanced stage disease – were suspicious for pulmonary metastases which was confirmed by additional imaging in only 1 woman (with pre-radiograph advanced stage (IIIB) disease) and excluded in 6 cases, including all women with early stage disease. In none of the 288 women were thoracic skeletal metastases identified on imaging or during 6 months follow up. Radiography was unremarkable in 76.4% of the study population, and showed findings unrelated to the cervical carcinoma in 21.2%. Conclusion Routine chest radiography was of no value for any of the early stage cervical cancer patients presenting at our tertiary center over a period of 7.7 years. PMID:26135733

  4. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006-2012.

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    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008-2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden.

  5. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

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    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  6. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population.

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    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S; Katzenstein, T L; Johansen, I Somuncu; Pedersen, G; Junge, J; Helleberg, M; Storgaard, M; Obel, N; Lebech, A-M

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in Denmark compared with that in women in the general population. We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of 15 age-matched women per WLWH from the general population for the period 1999-2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall incidences of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+, but not ICC, were higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and a CD4 count < 200 cells/μL. In women with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, when we compared subgroups of WLWH and controls where women in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme and with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  7. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico Cáncer cervical, una enfermedad de la pobreza: diferencias en la mortalidad por áreas urbanas y rurales en México

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    Lina Sofía Palacio-Mejía

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural. RESULTS: During 1990-2000 a total of 48 761 cervical cancer (CC deaths were reported in Mexico (1990=4 280 deaths/year; 2000=4 620 deaths/year. On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference=Mexico City found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR]=10.99; Nayarit, RR=10.5. Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population. CONCLUSIONS: CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection.OBJETIVO: Analizar las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino en las poblaciones urbanas y rurales de las regiones y entidades federativas de México, y su relación con factores relacionados con la pobreza, durante el periodo de 1990 a 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron las bases de datos de población del Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, las estimaciones de población del Consejo Nacional de Población para el periodo de 1990 a 2000 y las Estadísticas Vitales de Mortalidad registradas por la Secretaría de Salud y el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. Estos datos fueron analizados para obtener tendencias de mortalidad, y se obtuvieron

  8. Examining attitudes and knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer risk among female clinic attendees in Johannesburg, South Africa.

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    Francis, Shelley A; Nelson, Jennifer; Liverpool, Joan; Soogun, Soji; Mofammere, Nokuthula; Thorpe, Roland J

    2010-11-23

    Developing countries account for 85% of the nearly 500,000 yearly cases of cervical cancer worldwide with approximately 250,000 deaths occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. In South Africa, cervical cancer is the 3(rd) leading cause of death among women. Although cervical cancer can be screened for with regular Pap tests, access to preventive screenings may be nearly non-existent in resource poor settings that have limited public health infrastructure and where women may lack basic health education. Therefore, it is important to understand women's attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine, and assess their access to preventive screening in order to mitigate their risk for developing the disease. Eighty-six women, ages 18-44 with at least one child who presented at an antenatal clinic in a township in Johannesburg were recruited to complete a brief questionnaire. Using both descriptive and multivariate statistics, we assessed knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV, and the vaccine; assessed maternal-child communication about sex and STDs, assessed willingness to vaccinate child; and identified barriers to assessing medical care and the vaccine. The majority of participants were unfamiliar with HPV and cervical cancer, were concerned about their child's and their own risk for HPV and cervical cancer, faced numerous barriers to accessing screening, and were willing to vaccinate their child. Our findings indicate that women in developing countries need increased access to screening and education about HPV and cervical cancer prevention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward cervical cancer among women attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Department: A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey in South India.

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    Narayana, G; Suchitra, M Jyothi; Sunanda, G; Ramaiah, J Dasaratha; Kumar, B Pradeep; Veerabhadrappa, K V

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer-related deaths among women in India are often due to late diagnosis of disease. Knowledge about disease and early screening is the most effective measure for cervical cancer prevention. Lack of awareness, negative attitude, and poor practice about cervical cancer and screening are the major causes to increase the incidence of disease. The study is designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward cervical cancer, screening, and prevention. A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in women attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a secondary care referral hospital. A total of 403 subjects were enrolled and subjected for interview using prevalidated KAP questionnaire on cervical cancer. Descriptive statistics were used to represent the sociodemographic characteristics and KAP levels. Association of sociodemographic variables with KAP levels is determined using Chi-square test. Most of (301; 74.6%) the respondents had heard about cervical cancer and majority of them are heard from media (168; 41.6%) and friends (83; 20.5%). Most women knew symptoms (259; 64.2%), risk factors (253; 62.7%), screening methods (310; 76.9%), and preventive measures (249; 61.7%) for cervical cancer. More than half of the women (252; 62.5%) having positive attitude toward screening. More than three-fourth of women (349; 86.6%) are not having practice toward cervical cancer screening. Sociodemographic characteristics are strongly associated with KAP levels. Although women are having good knowledge, positive attitude toward cervical cancer screening and prevention still there is a gap to transform it into practice. There is a need for more educational programs to connect identified knowledge slits and uplift of regular practice of cervical cancer screening.

  10. Automated recommendation for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

  11. Human Papilloma Virus 16 and 18 Association in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancers by In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Manisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate the association of high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16, 18 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers by in-situ hybridization (ISH technique. Study Group: Cervical biopsy and hysterectomy specimen of 78 young and adult women, attending Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, who were clinically or cytologically suspected of cervical intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer were taken as source of target viral DNA. Material: Formalin 10% as fixative H & E stain as routine staining agent In-situ hybridization kit for HPV 16 and 18 DNA. Method: After following standard protocol for surgical grossing, HPV 16, 18 In-situ hybridization kit was used on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results: The percentage of positive cases was highest in cervical cancer patients followed by cervical intraepithelial lesions, high grade, and low grade. Conclusion: This study has been carried out for the first in our state and our results show high degree of positivity of HPV 16/18 in females with cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers attending our tertiary care hospital.

  12. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.

  13. Integration of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo L; Tsu, Vivien; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hildesheim, Allan; Muñoz, Nubia; Murillo, Raul; Sánchez, Gloria Ines; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-08-19

    Despite substantial efforts to control cervical cancer by screening, most Latin American and Caribbean countries continue to experience incidence rates of this disease that are much higher than those of other Western countries. The implementation of universal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent women is the best prospect for changing this situation. Even though there are financial challenges to overcome to implement such a policy, there is broad political support in the region for adopting universal HPV vaccination. The costs of implementing this policy could be largely alleviated by changing cervical cancer control practices that rely on inefficient use of resources presently allocated to cytology screening. In view of the strong evidence base concerning cervical cancer prevention technologies in the region and the expected impact of vaccination on the performance of cytology, we propose a reformulation of cervical cancer screening policies to be based on HPV testing using validated methods followed by cytologic triage. This approach would serve as the central component of a system that plays the dual role of providing screening and surveillance as integrated and complementary activities sharing centralized resources and coordination.

  14. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H. Y. S.; Chan, K. K. L.; Cheung, A. N. Y.; Garland, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to health care is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  15. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Chan, Karen K. L.; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J.; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. PMID:21559068

  16. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: Comparison with surgicopathological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. Objective: We have done meta-analysis with an objective to evaluate the efficacy of FDG PET/CT and its current clinical role in early stage and operable cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Studies in which FDG PET/CT was performed before surgery in patients with early stage cervical cancers were included for analysis. PET findings were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis rather than clinical follow-up. FDG PET/CT showed lower sensitivity and clinically unacceptable negative predictive value in detecting nodal metastases in early stage cervical cancer and therefore, can not replace surgicopathological staging. False negative results in presence of microscopic disease and sub-centimeter diseased nodes are still the area of concern for metabolic imaging. However, these studies are single institutional and performed in a small group of patients. There is enough available evidence of clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in locally advanced cervical cancer. But these results can not be extrapolated for early stage disease. Conclusion: The current data suggest that FDG PET/CT is suboptimal in nodal staging in early stage cervical cancer. PMID:23559711

  17. Autophagy regulates the stemness of cervical cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yi Yang,1,2 Li Yu,1 Jin Li,1 Ya Hong Yuan,1 Xiao Li Wang,1 Shi Rong Yan,1 Dong Sheng Li,1 Yan Ding1 1Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, 2Reproductive Center, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a rare population of multipotent cells with the capacity to self-renew. It has been reported that there are CSCs in cervical cancer cells. Pluripotency-associated (PA transcription factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44 have been used to isolate CSCs subpopulations. In this study, we showed that autophagy plays an important role in the biological behavior of cervical cancer cells. The expression of the autophagy protein Beclin 1 and LC3B was higher in tumorspheres established from human cervical cancers cell lines (and CaSki than in the parental adherent cells. It was also observed that the basal and starvation-induced autophagy flux was higher in tumorspheres than in the bulk population. Autophagy could regulate the expression level of PA proteins in cervical CSCs. In addition, CRISPR/Cas 9-mediated Beclin 1 knockout enhanced the malignancy of HeLa cells, leading to accumulation of PA proteins and promoted tumorsphere formation. Our findings suggest that autophagy modulates homeostasis of PA proteins, and Beclin 1 is critical for CSC maintenance and tumor development in nude mice. This demonstrates that a prosurvival autophagic pathway is critical for CSC maintenance. Keywords: cervical cancer, autophagy, cancer stem cell, LC3, Oct4

  18. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: comparison with surgicopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. We have done meta-analysis with an objective to evaluate the efficacy of FDG PET/CT and its current clinical role in early stage and operable cervical cancer. Studies in which FDG PET/CT was performed before surgery in patients with early stage cervical cancers were included for analysis. PET findings were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis rather than clinical follow-up. The current data suggest that FDG PET/CT is suboptimal in nodal staging in early stage cervical cancer

  19. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  20. Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanu Zewdie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the local languages into English language. Key categories and thematic frameworks were identified using the health belief model as a framework, and presented in narratives using the respondents own words as an illustration. Results Participants had very low awareness of cervical cancer. However, once the symptoms were explained, participants had a high perception of the severity of the disease. The etiology of cervical cancer was thought to be due to breaching social taboos or undertaking unacceptable behaviors. As a result, the perceived benefits of modern treatment were very low, and various barriers to seeking any type of treatment were identified, including limited awareness and access to appropriate health services. Women with cervical cancer were excluded from society and received poor emotional support. Moreover, the aforementioned factors all caused delays in seeking any health care. Traditional remedies were the most preferred treatment option for early stage of the disease. However, as most cases presented late, treatment options were ineffective, resulting in an iterative pattern of health seeking behavior and alternated between traditional remedies and modern treatment methods. Conclusion Lack of awareness and health seeking behavior for cervical cancer was common due to misconceptions about the cause of the disease. Profound social consequences and exclusion were common. Access to services for diagnosis and treatment were poor for a variety of psycho

  1. Description of cervical cancer mortality in Belgium using Bayesian age-period-cohort models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To correct cervical cancer mortality rates for death cause certification problems in Belgium and to describe the corrected trends (1954-1997) using Bayesian models. Method Cervical cancer (cervix uteri (CVX), corpus uteri (CRP), not otherwise specified (NOS) uterus cancer and other very rare uterus cancer (OTH) mortality data were extracted from the WHO mortality database together with population data for Belgium and the Netherlands. Different ICD (International Classification of Diseases) were used over time for death cause certification. In the Netherlands, the proportion of not-otherwise specified uterine cancer deaths was small over large periods and therefore internal reallocation could be used to estimate the corrected rates cervical cancer mortality. In Belgium, the proportion of improperly defined uterus deaths was high. Therefore, the age-specific proportions of uterus cancer deaths that are probably of cervical origin for the Netherlands was applied to Belgian uterus cancer deaths to estimate the corrected number of cervix cancer deaths (corCVX). A Bayesian loglinear Poisson-regression model was performed to disentangle the separate effects of age, period and cohort. Results The corrected age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) decreased regularly from 9.2/100 000 in the mid 1950s to 2.5/100,000 in the late 1990s. Inclusion of age, period and cohort into the models were required to obtain an adequate fit. Cervical cancer mortality increases with age, declines over calendar period and varied irregularly by cohort. Conclusion Mortality increased with ageing and declined over time in most age-groups, but varied irregularly by birth cohort. In global, with some discrete exceptions, mortality decreased for successive generations up to the cohorts born in the 1930s. This decline stopped for cohorts born in the 1940s and thereafter. For the youngest cohorts, even a tendency of increasing risk of dying from cervical cancer could be observed, reflecting

  2. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis from uterine cervical cancer is rare, with an incidence of 0.5%, and usually occurs late in the course of the disease. We report a case of uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation. A 50-year-old woman with headache, vertigo, amnesia and loss of appetite was admitted for persistent vomiting. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a solitary right frontal cerebral lesion with ring enhancement and uterine cervical tumor. She was diagnosed with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma with parametrium invasion and no other distant affected organs were detected. The cerebral lesion was surgically removed and pathologically proved to be metastasis of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by cerebral radiation therapy, but multiple metastases to the liver and lung developed and the patient died 7 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  5. a survey on drug related problems in cervical cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Cisplatin/5FU/paclitaxel. 6. 9.23. 6. Seizure. Cisplatin. 2. 3.08. 7. Loss of hair. Cisplatin/5FU/Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. 8. Nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin. 3. 4.62. 9. Hypotension. Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. TOTAL. 65. 100. Table 3: Relationship between cervical cancer patients' factors and DRPs. Patients Factor. Drug Related Problems (DRPs).

  6. Should helical tomotherapy replace brachytherapy for cervical cancer? Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Wei, Ming-Chow; Hsu, Yao-Peng; Chong, Ngot-Swan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsieh, Yen-Ping; Wang, Li-Ying; Shueng, Pei-Wei

    2010-11-23

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) administered via a helical tomotherapy (HT) system is an effective modality for treating lung cancer and metastatic liver tumors. Whether SBRT delivered via HT is a feasible alternative to brachytherapy in treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients with unusual anatomic configurations of the uterus has never been studied. A 46-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cervical tumor with direct invasion of the right parametrium, bilateral hydronephrosis, and multiple uterine myomas. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB cervical cancer was diagnosed. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by SBRT delivered via HT was administered instead of brachytherapy because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas with bleeding tendency. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed after 6 weeks of treatment because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas. Neither pelvic MRI nor results of histopathologic examination at X-month follow-up showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Only grade 1 nausea and vomiting during treatment were noted. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was noted at 14-month follow-up. No fistula formation and no evidence of haematological, gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities were noted on the most recent follow-up. CCRT followed by SBRT appears to be an effective and safe modality for treatment of cervical cancer. Larger-scale studies are warranted.

  7. Should helical tomotherapy replace brachytherapy for cervical cancer? Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu-Jen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT administered via a helical tomotherapy (HT system is an effective modality for treating lung cancer and metastatic liver tumors. Whether SBRT delivered via HT is a feasible alternative to brachytherapy in treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients with unusual anatomic configurations of the uterus has never been studied. Case Presentation A 46-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a cervical tumor with direct invasion of the right parametrium, bilateral hydronephrosis, and multiple uterine myomas. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IIIB cervical cancer was diagnosed. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT followed by SBRT delivered via HT was administered instead of brachytherapy because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas with bleeding tendency. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed after 6 weeks of treatment because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas. Neither pelvic MRI nor results of histopathologic examination at X-month follow-up showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Only grade 1 nausea and vomiting during treatment were noted. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was noted at 14-month follow-up. No fistula formation and no evidence of haematological, gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities were noted on the most recent follow-up. Conclusions CCRT followed by SBRT appears to be an effective and safe modality for treatment of cervical cancer. Larger-scale studies are warranted.

  8. Utilisation and outcomes of cervical cancer prevention services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proportion of women undergoing cervical cancer screening after HIV diagnosis at primary health clinics, demographic characteristics of women referred for colposcopy at a tertiary centre, and outcomes of therapy for precancerous lesions of the cervix. Results. The proportion of women undergoing at least one Pap ...

  9. A review of patients with advanced cervical cancer presenting to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outcomes of cervical cancer patients who entered care at Tiyanjane Clinic in Blantyre, Malawi ... a palliative approach from the time of presentation. Opportunities for ... to start on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), irrespective of ..... antenatal care, maternity care, under 5 clinics, family planning clinics, exposed ...

  10. Chemoradiation therapy efficacy in patients with local cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemal'tsova, O.A.

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy of the original chronomodulation chemoradiation for local cervical cancer (CC) comparing it with the results of the standard treatment protocol and Hydrea administration as a radiomodifier. The use of the original protocol reduced the number of long-term metastases 6.3 times when compared with Hydrea use and 4.5 times when compared with the traditional treatment

  11. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the awareness and acceptability of the HPV vaccine and screening for cervical cancer among female health-care workers in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 177 female health-care workers selected systematically from the ...

  12. Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Africa: A Daunting Task ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa has a high estimated incidence of cervical cancer, thus requiring the development of an effective prevention strategy. Cytology-based screening is beyond the capacity of many African countries, hence the need for alternatives. Visual inspection of the cervix after application of 3–5% acetic acid (VIA) is a promising ...

  13. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancies in the females and its burden is enormous, to the patient and her community. It is largely preventable or curable when detected at the very early stage through effective screening programme. Very poor clients' attendance has been noticed at the services provided ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening in Enugu, Nigeria. | Chukwuali | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Though preventable by early detection and treatment of the pre-invasive stage, carcinoma of the cervix remains the commonest gynaecological malignancy in Nigeria and a leading cause of death among women. The preventive role of cervical cancer screening is directly related to the proportion of the population ...

  15. Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on respondents' biodata, knowledge of STIs, human papilloma virus and cervical cancer, health and communication resources in their communities. This was supplemented by focus group discussions among religious and tribal groups within the urban and rural communities. We found a low level of awareness about HPV ...

  16. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and

  17. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In India, it is one the leading causes of mortality among women accounting for ... Knowledge about cervical cancer, its screening among women. • Role of health ..... by health professional [14 (16.9)], lack of time [4 (4.8)], fear of having a bad ...

  18. Should helical tomotherapy replace brachytherapy for cervical cancer? Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Wei, Ming-Chow; Hsu, Yao-Peng; Chong, Ngot-Swan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsieh, Yen-Ping; Wang, Li-Ying; Shueng, Pei-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) administered via a helical tomotherapy (HT) system is an effective modality for treating lung cancer and metastatic liver tumors. Whether SBRT delivered via HT is a feasible alternative to brachytherapy in treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients with unusual anatomic configurations of the uterus has never been studied. A 46-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cervical tumor with direct invasion of the right parametrium, bilateral hydronephrosis, and multiple uterine myomas. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB cervical cancer was diagnosed. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by SBRT delivered via HT was administered instead of brachytherapy because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas with bleeding tendency. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed after 6 weeks of treatment because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas. Neither pelvic MRI nor results of histopathologic examination at X-month follow-up showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Only grade 1 nausea and vomiting during treatment were noted. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was noted at 14-month follow-up. No fistula formation and no evidence of haematological, gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities were noted on the most recent follow-up. CCRT followed by SBRT appears to be an effective and safe modality for treatment of cervical cancer. Larger-scale studies are warranted

  19. Evaluation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Program At A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But the condition is preventable through regular screening of women those are 'at risk\\' for abnormal changes in the cervix and treating them who have positive results. Although screening facilities are ... Keywords: Cervical cancer, Pap smear test, knowledge, practice, programme coverage. East African Journal of Public ...

  20. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach. *Williams M1 ... Conclusion: The results of this study can be used to inform the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer education ... psychological barriers, and specific cultural barriers to ... Technology reviewed the interview guide to establish.

  1. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  2. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Abe, Madoka; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  3. Treatment results of incomplete chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ying Gao,1,* Fei Gao,2,* Zi Liu,1 Li-ping Song1 1Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Regimens that combine chemotherapy and radiotherapy increase toxicity and compromise a patient’s ability to adhere to the treatment plan. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a partially completed chemoradiation regimen prescribed for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Methods: Medical records of 156 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer stage IIB–IVA who received chemoradiation with cisplatin (40 mg/m2 and 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2 from October 2006 to October 2008 were collected. The treatment protocol called for two cycles of chemotherapy. External beam radiation therapy was administered using a 10-MeV electron beam. Local control, disease free survival, overall survival, and toxicities were evaluated. Results: With a median follow-up of 37.5 months, 89 patients (57% completed the planned protocol. Sixty seven patients (43% completed fewer than two cycles. The 3-year local control rate was significantly better in the patient group that completed the prescribed plan (92.1% compared to 80.6%; P = 0.033. No statistical significance was observed between the groups that completed or did not complete the two cycle protocol with regard to disease free survival (80.9% and 73.2%, respectively; P = 0.250, overall survival (84.3% and 79.1%; P = 0.405, and progression survival (3.4% and 3.0%; P = 0.892. Differences in acute hematologic toxicity and subcutaneous toxicity were observed between the two groups. Conclusions: Completion of two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with radiotherapy was effective, safe, and responsible for better local control

  4. CCR2-V64I polymorphism is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer but not with HPV infection or pre-cancerous lesions in African women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Koushik; Dandara, Collet; Hoffman, Margaret; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer, caused by specific oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV), is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. A large number of young sexually active women get infected by HPV but only a small fraction of them have persistent infection and develop cervical cancer pointing to co- factors including host genetics that might play a role in outcome of the HPV infection. This study investigated the role of CCR2-V64I polymorphism in cervical cancer, pre-cancers and HPV infection in South African women resident in Western Cape. CCR2-V64I polymorphism has been previously reported to influence the progression to cervical cancer in some populations and has also been associated with decreased progression from HIV infection to AIDS. Genotyping for CCR2-V64I was done by PCR-SSP in a case-control study of 446 women (106 black African and 340 mixed-ancestry) with histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer and 1432 controls (322 black African and 1110 mixed-ancestry) group-matched (1:3) by age, ethnicity and domicile status. In the control women HPV was detected using the Digene Hybrid Capture II test and cervical disease was detected by cervical cytology. The CCR2-64I variant was significantly associated with cervical cancer when cases were compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Further analysis comparing selected groups within the controls showed that individuals with abnormal cytology and high grade squamous intraepitleial neoplasia (HSIL) did not have this association when compared to women with normal cytology. HPV infection also showed no association with CCR2-64I variant. Comparing SIL positive controls with the cases showed a significant association of CCR2-64I variant (P = 0.001) with cervical cancer. This is the first study of the role of CCR2-V64I polymorphism in cervical cancer in an African population. Our results show that CCR2-64I variant is associated with the risk of cervical cancer but does not affect the susceptibility to HPV

  5. Use of Tc-99m - nanocolloid for sentinel node indentification in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubalewska, A.; Sowa-Staszczak, A.; Huszczno, B.; Markocka, A.; Pitynski, K.; Basta, A.; Oplawski, M.; Basta, P.

    2003-01-01

    The initial draining lymph node for a primary tumor is referred to as the sentinel node. Firstly adopted in the management of patients with cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer, it is now widely tested in cervical cancer. In patients with cervical cancer, lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor for survival. In patients with cervical cancer FIGO stage I and II pelvic lymph node metastases are expected in 0-16 and 24.5-31% and para-aortic lymph node metastases are expected in 0-22 and 11-19% of patients. The removal of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes is essential for assessing the biology of the disease. Lymphoscintigraphy enables the visualisation of lymphatic drainage patterns from a great variety of tumour sites prior to surgery. Therefore, the current procedure is to perform the pre-operative mapping of sentinel nodes by static and/or dynamic lymphoscintigraphy, followed by in vivo identification using a gamma detection probe and selective surgical resection. Between 2001-2003, 37 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stage I-IIa were seemed to be qualified to undergo lymphoscintigraphy. The day before surgery 99m Tc-nanocolloid (100 MBq; 0.5-1.0 ml in volume) was applied in each quadrant of the cervix or around the tumor. The static scintigraphic scans were performed after 2 hours p.i. using a dual-head large-field-of-view Siemens gamma-camera equipped with high resolution collimators. SNs were identified intra-operatively using a handheld gamma detection probe (Navigator GPS-Tyco) and intra-operative lymphatic mapping with blue dye. After a resection of the SNs, a standard radical hysterectomy with pelvic and low para-aortic lymph node dissection was performed. Tumor characteristics were compared with sentinel node detection and with the histopathological and immunohistochemical results. The scintigraphy showed a focal uptake in 35 of the 37 patients. In all women one or more sentinel lymph nodes were identified intra-operatively. Of them, 24

  6. Usefulness of 18FDG PET in the management of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhocine, T.; Rigo, P.

    2002-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the second most common gynaecological cancer worldwide. Despite substantial advances in screening the pre-invasive forms, the management of women suffering from invasive cervical carcinomas remains problematic. In pre-treatment staging, the evaluation of the loco-regional and distant extent of the disease, according to the international federation of gynecology and obstetrics, has shown to be sub-optimal. After treatment, the routine surveillance protocol, based on a physical examination at the control visits and clinically oriented conventional imaging procedures, most often fails to accurately detect a recurrent disease. Its sensitivity is particularly low for asymptomatic women. On the other hand, the clinical value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the field of oncology is nowadays firmly established. In many tumour types, including the gynaecological cancers such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer, the metabolic imaging has proved to play a determinant role in both the pre-treatment and post-treatment evaluation. In the present review-article, we analyse in the light of the literature data and our experience, the potential contribution of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the management of cervical cancer. (authors)

  7. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation for women with chronic conditions in France: results from a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Panayotis; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2016-03-31

    Comorbidity at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival among women suffering from cervical or breast cancer. Although cancer screening practices have proven their efficacy for mortality reduction, little is known about adherence to screening recommendations for women suffering from chronic conditions. We investigated the association between eleven chronic conditions and adherence to cervical and breast cancer screening recommendations in France. Using data from a cross-sectional national health survey conducted in 2008, we analyzed screening participation taking into account self-reported: inflammatory systemic disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, osteoarthritis and thyroid disorders. We first computed age-standardized screening rates among women who reported each condition. We then estimated the effect of having reported each condition on adherence to screening recommendations in logistic regression models, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours, healthcare access and healthcare use. Finally, we investigated the association between chronic conditions and opportunistic versus organized breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were conducted among 4226 women for cervical cancer screening and 2056 women for breast cancer screening. Most conditions studied were not associated with screening participation. Adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations was higher for cancer survivors (OR = 1.73 [0.98-3.05]) and lower for obese women (OR = 0.73 [0.57-0.93]), when accounting for our complete range of screening determinants. Women reporting chronic respiratory disease or diabetes participated less in cervical cancer screening, except when adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations was lower for

  8. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation for women with chronic conditions in France: results from a national health survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Panayotis; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival among women suffering from cervical or breast cancer. Although cancer screening practices have proven their efficacy for mortality reduction, little is known about adherence to screening recommendations for women suffering from chronic conditions. We investigated the association between eleven chronic conditions and adherence to cervical and breast cancer screening recommendations in France. Using data from a cross-sectional national health survey conducted in 2008, we analyzed screening participation taking into account self-reported: inflammatory systemic disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, osteoarthritis and thyroid disorders. We first computed age-standardized screening rates among women who reported each condition. We then estimated the effect of having reported each condition on adherence to screening recommendations in logistic regression models, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours, healthcare access and healthcare use. Finally, we investigated the association between chronic conditions and opportunistic versus organized breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were conducted among 4226 women for cervical cancer screening and 2056 women for breast cancer screening. Most conditions studied were not associated with screening participation. Adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations was higher for cancer survivors (OR = 1.73 [0.98–3.05]) and lower for obese women (OR = 0.73 [0.57–0.93]), when accounting for our complete range of screening determinants. Women reporting chronic respiratory disease or diabetes participated less in cervical cancer screening, except when adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations was lower for

  9. Determinants of a GP visit and cervical cancer screening examination in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Michael Labeit

    Full Text Available In the UK, women are requested to attend a cervical cancer test every 3 years as part of the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. This analysis compares the determinants of a cervical cancer screening examination with the determinants of a GP visit in the same year and investigates if cervical cancer screening participation is more likely for women who visit their GP.A recursive probit model was used to analyse the determinants of GP visits and cervical cancer screening examinations. GP visits were considered to be endogenous in the cervical cancer screening examination. The analysed sample consisted of 52,551 observations from 8,386 women of the British Household Panel Survey.The analysis showed that a higher education level and a worsening self-perceived health status increased the probability of a GP visit, whereas smoking decreased the probability of a GP visit. GP visits enhanced the uptake of a cervical cancer screening examination in the same period. The only variables which had the same positive effect on both dependent variables were higher education and living with a partner. The probability of a cervical cancer screening examination increased also with previous cervical cancer screening examinations and being in the recommended age groups. All other variables had different results for the uptake of a GP visit or a cervical cancer screening examination.Most of the determinants of visiting a GP and cervical cancer screening examination differ from each other and a GP visit enhances the uptake of a smear test.

  10. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S; Fleuren, GJ; Baelde, JJ; Schuuring, E; Kenter, GG; Gorter, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective. In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  11. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S; Fleuren, GJ; Baelde, JJ; Schuuring, E; Kenter, GG; Gorter, A

    Objective. In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  12. Human papilloma virus (HPV) status associated with prognosis of cervical cancer after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harima, Yoko; Miyazaki, Yuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Sawada, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Our study explored whether the HPV status of tumors is associated with the outcome of radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. A total of 84 patients with cervical cancer (6 stage I, 10 stage II, 49 stage III, and 19 stage IV) who underwent definitive radiotherapy between January 1995 and June 2000 were included in this study. Tumor samples were obtained from all patients by punch biopsy prior to radiotherapy. The presence of HPV and its type were analyzed by PCR-based assay using the consensus primers for E6 and L1 regions. Actuarial methods were used to calculate overall survival, and disease-free survival. A total of 42 patients (50%) had cancer recurrence after radiotherapy. HPV-positive tumors were found in 76.2% (64 cases) of the patients. HPV-negative patients survived significantly shorter compared to the HPV-positive patients in the overall survival (p=0.007) and the disease-free survival (p=0.005). According to multivariate analysis, HPV status is a significant predictor of both overall (p=0.02) and disease-free survival time (p=0.005). These results of this study suggest that HPV-negative patients with cervical carcinoma are have a significantly poorer prognosis after radiotherapy, and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. (author)

  13. Human papilloma virus (HPV) status associated with prognosis of cervical cancer after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harima, Yoko; Miyazaki, Yuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Our study explored whether the HPV status of tumors is associated with the outcome of radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. A total of 84 patients with cervical cancer (6 stage I, 10 stage II, 49 stage III, and 19 stage IV) who underwent definitive radiotherapy between January 1995 and June 2000 were included in this study. Tumor samples were obtained from all patients by punch biopsy prior to radiotherapy. The presence of HPV and its type were analyzed by PCR-based assay using the consensus primers for E6 and L1 regions. Actuarial methods were used to calculate overall survival, and disease-free survival. A total of 42 patients (50%) had cancer recurrence after radiotherapy. HPV-positive tumors were found in 76.2% (64 cases) of the patients. HPV-negative patients survived significantly shorter compared to the HPV-positive patients in the overall survival (p=0.007) and the disease-free survival (p=0.005). According to multivariate analysis, HPV status is a significant predictor of both overall (p=0.02) and disease-free survival time (p=0.005). These results of this study suggest that HPV-negative patients with cervical carcinoma are have a significantly poorer prognosis after radiotherapy, and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. (author)

  14. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.

  15. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Kyoko; Maru, Mitsue; Maeda, Rumi; Kubota, Toshiro

    2015-09-30

    To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had severe fatigue. The participants had higher physical activity levels compared with the findings in previous studies, and reported an average of 40 min/day of moderate to vigorous activity. Moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity were derived from essential social activities rather than leisure time exercise. There were no significant differences in physical activity levels between the lower and higher CRF groups. Our study results suggested that the higher level of physical activity in daily living itself had no relationship with decreasing CRF among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. It would be better to focus on cognitive and psychological factors before introducing physical activity programs and be careful of the characteristics of the participants' physical activity among this population in daily basis.

  16. Long-term risk of cervical cancer following conization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3-A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Freja Laerke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Using nationwide Danish registries we examined the long-term risk of cervical cancer in women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (including adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)) on the cone compared to women with a normal cytology test. Initially, we identified women born 1918......-1990, who were recorded as living in Denmark between January 1, 1978 and December 31, 2012. From the Pathology Data Bank information on CIN3 on the cone, margins status, histological type of CIN3 and cervical cytology results was extracted. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the relative...... risk of subsequent cervical cancer. We included 59,464 women with CIN3 on the cone and 1,918,508 women with a normal cytology test. Overall, women diagnosed with CIN3 had a higher risk of subsequent cervical cancer compared to women with normal cytology (HR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.81-2.35). Analyses according...

  17. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themba G Ginindza

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC, and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden.A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($.The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million. Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million. Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million.According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV infection with a national HPV immunization

  18. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam

    2012-01-01

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass from

  19. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  20. Analysis of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 gene polymorphisms and risk of cervical cancer in an East Indian population: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanshu Sur

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: PTGS-2 genotype rs689466:—1195A/G gene polymorphism demonstrated strongly associated with cervical cancer disease. However, exon1-+837T > C polymorphism was not associated with cancer risk in East Indian women. Further studies evaluating the role of PTGS-2 gene polymorphisms in ethnically diverse populations and a larger cohort may help in understanding the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancer in women worldwide.

  1. Investigational drugs for the treatment of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Ferrero, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is currently the fourth most common malignant disease of women worldwide. Although the incidence and the mortality rates have been decreasing with screening detection and new treatment strategies, a significant number of metastatic or recurrent disease is still diagnosed. For those patients not amenable to curative treatments, such as surgery and radiation, palliative chemotherapy remains the standard of care. As chemotherapy regimens have limited activity, research is focalized on investigating novel pharmacologic strategies. Areas covered: This paper aims to give a complete and updated overview on investigated therapies for the treatment of CC. The authors review the results of clinical studies and highlight the ongoing trials. Expert opinion: Agents targeting various molecular pathways including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), epigenetics and other biological mechanisms represent interesting investigational opportunities. Amongst such drugs, bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, was the first targeted drug recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with metastatic, recurrent, or persistent CC. Another interesting experimental approach is represented by immunotherapy, which is leading to promising results with to the development of therapeutic vaccines and immune checkpoints inhibitors.

  2. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: three public policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, Frida S; Beran, Tanya N

    2012-01-10

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Less than one quarter (22.6%) of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03) and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10) were significantly associated with screening uptake. Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of the disease must include specific information on how to prevent it

  3. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  4. ATF1 and RAS in exosomes are potential clinical diagnostic markers for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhua; Wang, Wei; Yang, Baozhi; Tian, Hongge

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. It is highly lethal yet can be treated when found in early stage. Thus, early detection is of significant important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Exosomes have been used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. It is unknown that whether blood exosomes associated with cervical cancer can be detected and if these exosomes can accurately represent the developmental stage of cervical cancer. Mouse models were made out of a relapsed cervical cancer patient's tumour sample for original and recurrent cervical cancer, and gene analysis in both tumours and exosomes in these mouse models were performed. We found that activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and RAS genes were significantly up-regulated in tumours of both primary and recurrent cervical cancer mouse model, and they can also be detected in the blood exosomes of the mouse model. Our results indicated that ATF1 and RAS could be potential candidate biomarkers for cervical cancer in early diagnosis. ATF1 and RAS genes were found significantly elevated in tumours of primary and recurrent cervical cancer mouse model, and they were also detected in the blood exosomes. Therefore, ATF1 and RAS could be used as a diagnostic marker for cervical cancer in the future. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Factors Affecting Myocardial Infarction in Cervical Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ching-Chih; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiation therapy has been suggested to increase the risk of coronary heart disease for cervical cancer patients, but the results of studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the factors which influence the risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI) in cervical cancer patients with a large, nationwide cohort. Methods The study analyzed data from the 1996 to 2010 National Health Insurance Research Database provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. The assessed number of patients with cervical cancer with radiotherapy only, surgery with bilateral oophorectomy only, and with appendectomy were 308, 323 and 229, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the risk of myocardial infarction. Results The adjusted hazard ratio for cervical cancer in patients with MI was 1.97 (95% CI, 0.97 - 3.91; P = 0.05) for the group that received RT alone, and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.11 - 3.75; P = 0.01) for the surgery group when compared with controls. The more risk comorbidities they have, the higher the risk of myocardial infarction would be for the patients. Conclusion The incidence of MI was significantly higher among cervical cancer patients with RT alone or surgery with bilateral oophorectomy alone than among general populations. RT might be as a factor to increase risk as bilateral oophorectomy. Whether RT itself triggers menopause or impairs the ovarian hormone production that increases the risk of MI needs to be further investigated. PMID:24171059

  6. Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Toshifumi; Iwae, Shigemichi; Tanaka, Hironori; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Inoue, Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively by comparing neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves and that with the resection of cervical nerves. Pharyngolaryngectomy or pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy with bilateral neck dissection was performed in 76 hypopharyngeal cancer cases between January 1992 and November 2001. Neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves was performed on 42 sides of the neck in 21 cases (the cervical nerve-resected group). In 55 cases we attempted to employ neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves, but in 9 cases the cervical nerves were resected because of their nodal adhesion or involvement Neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves was performed on 92 sides of the neck in 46 cases (the cervical nerve-preserved group). There were significant differences between background factors of two groups about age, sex, induction chemotherapy, preservation of accessory nerve, and pN classification. The 5-year cumulative control rates of cervical lymph nodes were 81.3% for the cervical nerve-resected group and 79.7% for the cervical nerve-preserved group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. It was suggested that neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for cases whose cervical nerves were able to be preserved from metastatic lymph nodes under induction chemotherapy and post-operative irradiation was as effective to control cervical lymph nodes as neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves. (author)

  7. [The role of the vaccine prophylaxis of cervical cancer among female military personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidt, A A; Alieva, M T; Ivanova, L V; Molchanov, O V

    2015-06-01

    The authors presented results of the study concerning human papillomavirus infecting of military students of higher military educational institutions of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. In the Center for Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Kirov Military-Medical Academy was performed a dynamic examination of 478 female cadets aged 17-25. The high level of high-risk HPV viruses was revealed during the examination what proves the necessity of prophylaxis enhancing with the aim to prevent gynecological diseases and reproductive health promotion. The main ways of cervical cancer prophylaxis are health education, in-depth medical examination of women with the aim to reveal and treat gynecological diseases (this medical examination should be carried out twice a year), primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination.

  8. Tetraspanin 1 promotes invasiveness of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölters, Sebastian; Anacker, Jelena; Jansen, Lars; Beer-Grondke, Katrin; Dürst, Matthias; Rubio, Ignacio

    2013-08-01

    Tetraspanins are a heterogeneous group of 4-transmembrane proteins that segregate into so-called tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) along with other cell surface proteins such as integrins. TEMs of various types are reportedly involved in the regulation of cell growth, migration and invasion of several tumour cell types, both as suppressors or supporting structures. Tetraspanin 1 (Tspan1, NET-1), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) of tetraspanins, is overexpressed in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and terminal carcinomas but its precise function in the context of carcinoma of the cervix uteri is not known. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the role of tetraspanin 1 in the cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and HeLa. We document that tetraspanin 1 increases the invasive potential of cervical cancer cells, whereas proliferation, growth in soft agar and adhesion are largely unaffected. In line with the latter findings, our data exclude the participation of testraspanin in integrin-mediated activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and in EGFR-dependent signalling to the Ras/Erk pathway. In conclusion, our data argue against a role for tetraspanin 1 as a genuine mediator of cell surface receptor signalling but rather document a role for tetraspanin 1 in the control of cervical cancer cell motility and invasion.

  9. Influences on uptake of reproductive health services in Nsangi community of Uganda and their implications for cervical cancer screening

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    Mirembe Florence

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed or referred with cervical cancer in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital have advanced disease. Plans are underway for systematic screening programmes based on visual inspection, as Pap smear screening is not feasible for this low resource country. Effectiveness of population screening programmes requires high uptake and for cervical cancer, minimal loss to follow up. Uganda has poor indicators of reproductive health (RH services uptake; 10% postnatal care attendance, 23% contraceptive prevalence, and 38% skilled attendance at delivery. For antenatal attendance, attendance to one visit is 90%, but less than 50% for completion of care, i.e. three or more visits. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using eight focus group discussions with a total of 82 participants (16 men, 46 women and 20 health workers. We aimed to better understand factors that influence usage of available reproductive health care services and how they would relate to cervical cancer screening, as well as identify feasible interventions to improve cervical cancer screening uptake. Results Barriers identified after framework analysis included ignorance about cervical cancer, cultural constructs/beliefs about the illness, economic factors, domestic gender power relations, alternative authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge, and unfriendly health care services. We discuss how these findings may inform future planned screening programmes in the Ugandan context. Conclusion Knowledge about cervical cancer among Ugandan women is very low. For an effective cervical cancer-screening programme, awareness about cervical cancer needs to be increased. Health planners need to note the power of the various authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge such as paternal aunts (Sengas and involve them in the awareness campaign. Cultural and economic

  10. The central nervous system of the fetus in pregnant women after organ-preserving treatment of precancer and early stages of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.O.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a promising method of research in tocology. The use of MRI for the first time with high precision anatomical interpretation to diagnose the state of the Central nervous system of the fetus in pregnant women after organ-preserving treatment of precancerous cervical disease and early stages of cervical cancer

  11. Human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA associated with prognosis of cervical cancer after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harima, Yoko; Sawada, Satoshi; Nagata, Kenji; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The importance of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in the outcome of cervical cancer after radiotherapy remains unknown. Our study explored whether the HPV status of tumors is associated with the outcome of radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and materials: A total of 84 patients with cervical cancer (6 Stage I, 10 Stage II, 49 Stage III, and 19 Stage IV) who underwent definitive radiotherapy between January 1995 and June 2000 were included in this study. Tumor samples were obtained from all patients by punch biopsy before radiotherapy. The presence of HPV and its type were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay using the consensus primers for E6 and L1 regions. Actuarial methods were used to calculate overall survival and disease-free survival. Results: A total of 42 patients (50%) had cancer recurrence after radiotherapy. HPV-positive tumors were found in 76.2% (64 cases) of patients. HPV-negative patients survived for significantly shorter time periods compared to the HPV-positive patients in the overall survival (p=0.007) and the disease-free survival (p=0.005). According to multivariate analysis, HPV status is a significant predictor of both overall (p=0.02) and disease-free survival time (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that HPV-negative patients with cervical carcinoma have a significantly poorer prognosis after radiotherapy, and HPV status may be used as a marker to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer

  12. The lncRNA PVT1 Contributes to the Cervical Cancer Phenotype and Associates with Poor Patient Prognosis.

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    Marissa Iden

    Full Text Available The plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 gene (PVT1 is an lncRNA that has been designated as an oncogene due to its contribution to the phenotype of multiple cancers. Although the mechanism by which PVT1 influences disease processes has been studied in multiple cancer types, its role in cervical tumorigenesis remains unknown. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the role of PVT1 in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. PVT1 expression was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR in 121 invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC samples, 30 normal cervix samples, and cervical cell lines. Functional assays were carried out using both siRNA and LNA-mediated knockdown to examine PVT1's effects on cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Our results demonstrate that PVT1 expression is significantly increased in ICC tissue versus normal cervix and that higher expression of PVT1 correlates with poorer overall survival. In cervical cancer cell lines, PVT1 knockdown resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while apoptosis and cisplatin cytotoxicity were significantly increased in these cells. Finally, we show that PVT1 expression is augmented in response to hypoxia and immune response stimulation and that this lncRNA associates with the multifunctional and stress-responsive protein, Nucleolin. Collectively, our results provide strong evidence for an oncogenic role of PVT1 in cervical cancer and lend insight into potential mechanisms by which PVT1 overexpression helps drive cervical carcinogenesis.

  13. Whole pelvic helical tomotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer: technical implementation of IMRT with helical tomothearapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Wei, Ming-Chow; Lee, Hsing-Yi; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Chen, Chien-An; Wang, Li-Ying; Hsieh, Yen-Ping; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2009-01-01

    To review the experience and to evaluate the treatment plan of using helical tomotherapy (HT) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Between November 1st, 2006 and May 31, 2009, 10 cervical cancer patients histologically confirmed were enrolled. All of the patients received definitive concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with whole pelvic HT (WPHT) followed by brachytherapy. During WPHT, all patients were treated with cisplatin, 40 mg/m 2 intravenously weekly. Toxicity of treatment was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). The mean survival was 25 months (range, 3 to 27 months). The actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control and distant metastasis-free rates at 2 years were 67%, 77%, 90% and 88%, respectively. The average of uniformity index and conformal index was 1.06 and 1.19, respectively. One grade 3 of acute toxicity for diarrhea, thrombocytopenia and three grade 3 leucopenia were noted during CCRT. Only one grade 3 of subacute toxicity for thrombocytopenia was noted. There were no grade 3 or 4 subacute toxicities of anemia, leucopenia, genitourinary or gastrointestinal effects. Compared with conventional whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT), WPHT decreases the mean dose to rectum, bladder and intestines successfully. HT provides feasible clinical outcomes in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. Long-term follow-up and enroll more locally advanced cervical carcinoma patients by limiting bone marrow radiation dose with WPHT technique is warranted

  14. Evaluation of the knowledge regarding prevention of cervical cancer among women from a Health Unit

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    Ernandes Gonçalves Dias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is a disease with high degree of morbidity and mortality, but has early detection by performing screening test which allows healing. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge regarding prevention of Cervical Cancer among women in a Basic Health Unit in Minas Gerais. Methods: This is a study descriptive with approach qualitative with 44 women. Was used as the data collection instrument of a semistructured script consisting of subjective questions. Data were collected between March April 2014. Results: The women had age of 40-57 years old, 33 (75% were married, 43(97,73% had children, 20 (45,45% had incomplete primary education, 36 (81,82% were responsible for all financial income of the family and lived with up to the minimum wage. As for the Pap smear, considered important, however showed little clarity as to the meaning of prevention. Performed the test as means of prevention and early diagnosis of Cervical Cancer. Among women who did not perform the preventive the cause was discouragement. Conclusion: We conclude that although the Pap smear be offered for free, there is still women who do not have adequate knowledge about the same and not makes periodically, fitting to health services intensify health education programs to seeking to raise awareness about the importance of regular practice of the Pap smear. Keywords: Cervix Uteri. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Health centers.

  15. Adjuvant hysterectomy after radiochemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hass, Peter [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Magdeburg (Germany); Eggemann, Holm; Costa, Serban Dan; Ignatov, Atanas [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with concomitant chemotherapy (cCT) (=RCT) plus intracavitary (±interstitial) brachytherapy (iBT) is standard of care for advanced cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate morbidity and survival outcome of simple adjuvant hysterectomy (AH) after EBRT/cCT and to compare it with the standard treatment. Patients with FIGO stage III cervical cancer were treated with EBRT/cCT and then divided in two groups: group 1 was further treated with standard intracavitary/interstitial BT, while group 2 underwent AH. From 881 women with cervical cancer, 248 were eligible for analysis: 161 received iBT and 87 underwent AH. The median follow-up of the study was 53 months. Clinical and pathological characteristics were well balanced in the two groups. After EBRT/cCT, complete clinical response was observed in 121 (48.8%) of 246 patients. Clinical complete response was observed in 81 (50.3%) of 161 patients in group 1. At 6 weeks after EBRT/cCT, 40 (46.0%) of 87 patients in the surgery group had pathological complete response. Intra- and postoperative complications were observed in 10 (11.5%) of 87 cases. The rates of locoregional recurrence and metastasis were similar in both groups. Progression-free (PFS) and disease-specific overall survival (DOS) for these patients were similar between the control and surgery group. Interestingly, PFS and DOS were significantly improved by AH for the patients with residual tumor. AH could improve survival in patients with residual disease after RCT and is characterized by a low complication rate. (orig.) [German] Die Teletherapie (EBRT) mit begleitender Chemotherapie (cCT), entsprechend einer Radiochemotherapie (RCT), plus intrakavitaere (± interstitielle) Brachytherapie (iBT) ist Standard in der Behandlung des fortgeschrittenen Zervixkarzinoms. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Morbiditaet und das Ueberleben zwischen der einfachen adjuvanten Hysterektomie (AH) nach EBRT/cCT und dem

  16. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  17. Quality of life of women undergoing treatment for cervical cancer

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    Francieli Ana Dallabrida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of women with cervical cancer. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed with 43 women undergoing oncological treatment assisted at an Oncology High Complexity Center, in the Southern region of Brazil. The instrument used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30, and the data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The average age was 54.6 years old. Married women prevailed (53.4%, with incomplete elementary education (72.1% and income from one to two minimum wages (62.8%. Quality of Life was considered very satisfactory. According to the development scales and emotional functioning, the result was from regular to satisfactory. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue, lack of appetite and pain. There is a need of structure of public health policies, for preventing cervical cancer in the most vulnerable population.

  18. What School Nurses Need to Know about Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the New Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jeanie

    2007-01-01

    At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk,…

  19. Treatment of intra-epitelial lesions and cervical cancer during pregnancy

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    Guilherme Lippi Ciantelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer found during pregnancy. The estimated frequency is one case to 1.000 to 5.000 pregnancies, however, only 3% of cervical cancers are diagnosed during pregnancy. Considering there are still discussions regarding how to conduct this type of situation, the authors report in this article the literature update on the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer discovered during pregnancy.

  20. Radiotherapy of Recurrent Uterine Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il; Chai, Kyu Young; Kang, Soon Beom; Lee, Hyo Pyo; Shin, Myon Woo

    1987-01-01

    Forty seven patients with locally recurrent uterine cerival cancer after surgery were treated with radiation during the 6 year period from 1979 through 1984 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Seoul National University Hospital. In 30 out of the 47 patients, recurrence was diagnosed within 2 years after surgery. Site of recurrence was vagina in 19 patients, vagina and parametrium in 21 patients and parametrium only in 7 patients. Complete tumor control was achieved in 35 patients (74.5%) ; the complete response rates were 94.7% (18/19( in vaginal recurrences, 57.1% (12/21) in combined vaginal and parametrial recurrences and 71.4% (5/7) in parametrial recurrences. Overall and disease free survival rates at 4 years were 55.2 and 50.1 percent, respectively, for entire group. Overall 4 year survival rates were 77.0% for vaginal recurrences, 44.1% for vaginal and parametrial recurrences and 42.9% for parametrial recurrences. When the disease extent was classified in the same way as the staging system of FIGO, the 4 year survival was 80.4, 73.0, 25.0 and 0 percent for stage IIa, IIb and IVa, respectively

  1. [Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in México: a constant struggle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Given that human papillomavirus and cervical cancer are a health problem in México, since they affect women of reproductive age and have a negative impact on our society, it is crucial to prevent those diseases and to raise awareness among physicians who deal with their clinical and therapeutic management. That is the reason why we show three Original contributions and 13 Current themes in this supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

  2. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

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    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  3. Tafazzin (TAZ promotes the tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells and inhibits apoptosis.

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    Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Tafazzin (TAZ is often aberrantly expressed in some cancers, including rectal cancer and thyroid neoplasms. However, the function of TAZ in cervical cancer cells remains unknown. This study aims to explore the expression and function of TAZ in cervical cancer cells. Here, we determined the expression of TAZ protein in normal cervical tissue (NC, n = 27, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, n = 26 and squamous cervical carcinoma (SCC, n = 41 by immunohistochemistry, the expression of TAZ protein gradually increased from NC to HSIL to SCC. TAZ was overexpressed or down-regulated in cervical cancer cells by stably transfecting a TAZ-expressing plasmid or a shRNA plasmid targeting TAZ. In vitro, the cell growth curves and MTT assays showed that TAZ may promote the growth and viability of cervical cancer cells. In vivo, xenografts experiment showed that TAZ may increase tumor-forming ability. The percentage of apoptosis cells analyzed by FACS and TUNEL assays consistently showed that TAZ inhibits apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, the Cleaved Caspase 9 and Cleaved Caspase 3 were down-regulated by TAZ in cervical cancer cells. Taken together, this study demonstrated that TAZ is overexpressed in cervical cancer and may promote tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells and inhibit apoptosis.

  4. Stanniocalcin 2 promotes cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Ying; Cheng, Hairong; Yang, Guichun; Tan, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in the female reproductive system. Treatment of cervical cancer involves surgical removal and chemotherapy. Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs including cisplatin has increasingly become an important problem in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. We found in this study that stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression was upregulated in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. The levels of STC2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines were positively correlated with the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in cisplatin resistant cervical cancer cells, the levels of STC2 expression were significantly elevated. Modulation of STC2 expression by siRNA or overexpression in cisplatin resistant cells resulted in altered cell survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Finally, we found that there was significant difference in the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cervical cancer cells, and that STC2 could regulate the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • STC2 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation. • Cisplatin resistant cells had elevated STC2 levels and enhanced proliferation. • STC2 regulated cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells. • STC2 regulated the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  5. [Translation of knowledge on cervical cancer: is there a gap between research on causes and research on patient care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ochoa, Héctor; García, Luis; Castaño, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    This article constructs a map on the translation of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, based on citation networks analysis and the use of Gene Ontology terms and Medical Subject Headings. We identified two areas of research that are poorly interconnected and differ in structure, content, and evolution. One focuses on causes of cancer and the other on patient care. The first research area showed a knowledge translation process where basic research and clinical research are communicated through a set of articles that consolidate human papillomavirus infection as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. The first area aims to prevent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer, while the second aims to stage and treat the disease.

  6. Whole-Lesion Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for the Assessment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Shi, Hua; Chen, Ying; Liu, Song; Li, Weifeng; Jiang, Zhuoran; Wang, Huanhuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Ge, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the application of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical cancer. A total of 54 women (mean age, 53 years) with cervical cancers underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm prospectively. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of ADC values was performed. Paired sample t test was used to compare differences in ADC histogram parameters between cervical cancers and normal cervical tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to identify the optimal threshold of each parameter. All histogram parameters in this study including ADCmean, ADCmin, ADC10%-ADC90%, mode, skewness, and kurtosis of cervical cancers were significantly lower than those of normal cervical tissues (all P histogram analysis of ADC maps is useful in the assessment of cervical cancer.

  7. Barriers to early detection of cervical-uterine cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, E C; Castro, R; Allen, B; Nájera, P; Alonso de Ruíz, P A; Hernández-Avila, M

    1999-04-01

    In Mexico, a woman dies of cervical-uterine cancer every 2 hours, indicating a low impact by the national program for early detection of this cancer, principally because of problems related to quality and coverage. Through a qualitative study, we identified the principal barriers to use of the detection program from the point of view of actual and potential program users. Four focus groups were organized in standard conditions in Mexico City (urban, developed) and in the southern state of Oaxaca (rural, economically disadvantaged area). Participants were either women with at least one previous Papanicolaou (Pap) test or women who had never had the test. Barriers to Pap test use included (1) lack of knowledge about cervical-uterine cancer etiology, (2) not knowing that the Pap test exists, (3) the conception that cancer is an inevitably fatal disease, (4) problems in doctor/medical institution-patient relationships, (5) giving priority to unmet needs related to extreme poverty, (6) opposition by the male sexual partner, (7) rejection of the pelvic examination, (8) long waits for sample collection and receiving results, and (9) perceived high costs for care. To increase coverage of the early detection program for cervical-uterine cancer in Mexico, the needs, perceptions, and beliefs of women and their partners must be taken into account when developing policy and planning, given the role these factors play in the decision-making process that leads to their participation or nonparticipation in this program.

  8. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that does not go away: discharge may be gray, white or yellow in color Painful sexual intercourse ... Names Cervical inflammation; Inflammation - cervix Images Female reproductive anatomy Cervicitis Uterus References Eckert LO, Lentz GM. Infections ...

  9. Clinicopathological analysis of cervical cancer seen in a tertiary health facility in Nnewi, south-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Onyiaorah, I V; Ugboaja, J O; Anyiam, D C D; Eleje, G U

    2010-04-01

    Cervical cancer remains the commonest gynaecological cancer among women in the developing countries. The records of all the histologically confirmed cervical cancer patients managed in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, over a 5 year period were analysed for the clinical presentation and histological pattern of the malignancy. A total of 75 cases of cervical cancer were managed over the period giving an incidence of 65.2% of all gynaecological cancers and 13.4% of all gynaecological admissions. The majority of the patients were grandmultiparous women (81.3%) with a mean parity of 6.8. The modal age range was 60-69 years (38.7%) and the majority (94.7%) of the patients belonged to the low socioeconomic class. Squamous cell carcinoma of varying differentiation (89.3%) was the commonest histological type seen and adenocarcinoma accounted for only 8.0%. The common clinical features were post-menopausal bleeding (84.0%), vaginal discharge (72.0%), contact bleeding (63.9%) and abdominal pain (56.2%). Most (89.3%) of the patients presented late, in advanced stages of the disease, and almost all (97.3%) were referred for radiotherapy. The incidence of cervical cancer is high in our environment. Community sensitisation and provision of free cervical screening is recommended for early detection and treatment.

  10. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Breast and Cervical Cancers in Mongolia: A National Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Pooja; Dugee, Otgonduya; Enkhtuya, Palam; Knaul, Felicia M; Demaio, Alessandro R

    2015-11-01

    Mongolia bears the second-highest cancer burden in the world (5,214 disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 people, age standardized). To determine drivers of the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases, including breast and cervical cancers, a national knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey was implemented in 2010. This paper analyzed the results of the 2010 KAP survey, which sampled 3,450 households nationally. Reflecting Mongolian screening policies, women aged 30 and older were included in analyses of questions regarding breast and cervical cancer (n = 1,193). Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (MORs) were derived through logistic regression to determine associations between demographic covariables (residence, age, education, employment) and survey responses. This study found that 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.3-28.3) and 22.1% (95% CI: 19.8-24.5) of female participants aged 30 years or older self-rated their knowledge of breast and cervical cancers, respectively, as "none." Employment and education were associated with greater awareness of both cancers and participation in screening examinations (p migration. Finally, although there is awareness that early detection improves outcomes, a significant proportion of women do not engage in screening. These trends warrant further research on barriers and solutions. The rising burden of breast and cervical cancers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, necessitates the development of effective strategies for cancer control. This paper examines barriers to health service use in Mongolia, a country with a high cancer burden. The 2010 national knowledge, attitude and practices survey data indicate that cancer control efforts should focus on improving health education among lower-educated, rural, and unemployed populations, who display the least knowledge of breast and cervical cancers. Moreover, the findings support the need to emphasize individual risk for disease in cancer

  11. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology: a prognostic marker for tumor progression in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana E; Navarro-Tito, Napoleón; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del C; Ortuño-Pineda, Carlos; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Ortiz-Ortiz, Julio; Garibay-Cerdenares, Olga L; Jiménez-López, Marco A; Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A

    2018-03-27

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth cause of mortality by neoplasia in women worldwide. The use of immunomarkers is an alternative tool to complement currently used algorithms for detection of cancer, and to improve selection of therapeutic schemes. Aberrant expression of Ezrin and E-cadherin play an important role in tumor invasion. In this study we analyzed Ezrin and E-cadherin expression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples, and evaluated their potential use as prognostic immunomarkers. Immunocytochemical staining of Ezrin and E-cadherin was performed in cervical samples of 125 patients. The cytological or histological diagnostic was performed by Papanicolaou staining or H&E staining, respectively. HPV genotyping was determined using INNO-LIPA Genotyping Extra kit and the HPV physical status by in situ hybridization. Ezrin expression in HaCaT, HeLa and SiHa cell lines was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot. High Ezrin expression was observed in cervical cancer samples (70%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV (43%), and samples with integrated viral genome (47%). High Ezrin expression was associated with degree of SIL, viral genotype and physical status. In contrast, low E-cadherin expression was found in cervical cancer samples (95%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV/LR-HPV (87%) and integrated viral genome (72%). Low E-cadherin expression was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. Interestingly, Ezrin nuclear staining was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. High Ezrin expression, high percent of nuclear Ezrin and low E-cadherin expression behaved as risk factors for progression to HSIL and cervical cancer. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology samples could be a potential prognostic marker, useful for identifying cervical lesions with a high-risk of progression to cervical cancer.

  12. A strategic assessment of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Dzuba Ilana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a preventable disease, cervical cancer claims the lives of almost half a million women worldwide each year. India bears one-fifth of the global burden of the disease, with approximately 130,000 new cases a year. In an effort to assess the need and potential for improving the quality of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in Uttar Pradesh, a strategic assessment was conducted in three of the state's districts: Agra, Lucknow, and Saharanpur. Methods Using an adaptation of stage one of the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to Improving Reproductive Health Policies and Programmes, an assessment of the quality of cervical cancer services was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of stakeholders. The assessment included a review of the available literature, observations of services, collection of hospital statistics and the conduct of qualitative research (in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to assess the perspectives of women, providers, policy makers and community members. Results There were gaps in provider knowledge and practices, potentially attributable to limited provider training and professional development opportunities. In the absence of a state policy on cervical cancer, screening of asymptomatic women was practically absent, except in the military sector. Cytology-based cancer screening tests (i.e. pap smears were often used to help diagnose women with symptoms of reproductive tract infections but not routinely screen asymptomatic women. Access to appropriate treatment of precancerous lesions was limited and often inappropriately managed by hysterectomy in many urban centers. Cancer treatment facilities were well equipped but mostly inaccessible for women in need. Finally, policy makers, community members and clients were mostly unaware about cervical cancer and its preventable nature, although with information, expressed a strong interest in having services

  13. Integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of patients with primary cervical cancer: preliminary results

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    Grueneisen, Johannes; Kinner, Sonja; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael [University Hospital Dusseldorf, University of Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Heubner, Martin; Aktas, Bahriye [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Essen (Germany); Ruhlmann, Verena [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of cervical cancer patients, as well as to investigate a potential association between PET/MRI derived functional parameters and prognostic factors of cervical cancer. The present study was approved by the local institutional review board. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a whole-body PET/MRI examination after written informed consent was obtained. Two radiologists separately evaluated the PET/MRI data sets regarding the determination of local tumor extent of primary cervical cancer lesions, as well as detection of nodal and distant metastases. Furthermore, SUV and ADC values of primary tumor lesions were analyzed and correlated with dedicated prognostic factors of cervical cancer. Results based on histopathology and cross-sectional imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. PET/MRI enabled the detection of all 27 primary tumor lesions of the uterine cervix and allowed for the correct determination of the T-stage in 23 (85 %) out of the 27 patients. Furthermore, the calculated sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of nodal positive patients (n = 11) were 91 %, 94 % and 93 %, respectively. PET/MRI correctly identified regional metastatic disease (N1-stage) in 8/10 (80 %) patients and non-regional lymph node metastases in 5/5 (100 %) patients. In addition, quantitative analysis of PET and MRI derived functional parameters (SUV; ADC values) revealed a significant correlation with pathological grade and tumor size (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated PET/MRI for the assessment of primary tumor and the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. Providing additional prognostic information, PET/MRI may serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for cervical cancer patients in a pretreatment setting

  14. Integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of patients with primary cervical cancer: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Kinner, Sonja; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Umutlu, Lale; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael; Heubner, Martin; Aktas, Bahriye; Ruhlmann, Verena

    2015-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of cervical cancer patients, as well as to investigate a potential association between PET/MRI derived functional parameters and prognostic factors of cervical cancer. The present study was approved by the local institutional review board. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a whole-body PET/MRI examination after written informed consent was obtained. Two radiologists separately evaluated the PET/MRI data sets regarding the determination of local tumor extent of primary cervical cancer lesions, as well as detection of nodal and distant metastases. Furthermore, SUV and ADC values of primary tumor lesions were analyzed and correlated with dedicated prognostic factors of cervical cancer. Results based on histopathology and cross-sectional imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. PET/MRI enabled the detection of all 27 primary tumor lesions of the uterine cervix and allowed for the correct determination of the T-stage in 23 (85 %) out of the 27 patients. Furthermore, the calculated sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of nodal positive patients (n = 11) were 91 %, 94 % and 93 %, respectively. PET/MRI correctly identified regional metastatic disease (N1-stage) in 8/10 (80 %) patients and non-regional lymph node metastases in 5/5 (100 %) patients. In addition, quantitative analysis of PET and MRI derived functional parameters (SUV; ADC values) revealed a significant correlation with pathological grade and tumor size (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated PET/MRI for the assessment of primary tumor and the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. Providing additional prognostic information, PET/MRI may serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for cervical cancer patients in a pretreatment setting

  15. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in rheumatic diseases: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raposo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An association between immune-mediated diseases and cervical pre-malignant and malignant lesions is described, having the human papillomavirus (HPV infection a causal role. Related studies have been generally focused on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, but relatively to other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Sjögren's syndrome (SS and systemic sclerosis (SSc, data has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review analysis of the literature in PubMed, including articles published until March of 2015, in patients with RA, SS, SLE and SSc, to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer, and associated factors, with particular interest on the role of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive treatment. Moreover, safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines in these patients was investigated. Of 476 articles identified, 27 were finally included. The studies showed an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia and cancer, with the HPV infection being an important associated factor, in particular in SLE patients. The data relatively to other rheumatic diseases was very scarse, but an increased prevalence of smear abnormalities was also found in RA. Patients exposed to glucocorticoids and to long-term immunosuppression, particularly cyclophosphamide, have increased risk of presenting more pre-malignant lesions than the general population. The available vaccines seem to be generally safe and immunogenic in the short- period evaluation, but long-term follow-up is required to evaluate the impact of the vaccine in the protection against HPV infection and occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions.

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening Service Uptake and Associated Factors among Age Eligible Women in Mekelle Zone, Northern Ethiopia, 2015: A Community Based Study Using Health Belief Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinsermu Bayu

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, with about 500,000 new patients diagnosed and over 250,000 deaths every year. Cervical cancer screening offers protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. But there is very low participation rate in screening for cervical cancer among low and middle-income countries.This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening service uptake and its associated factor among age eligible women in Mekelle zone, northern Ethiopia, 2015.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle zone among age eligible women from February to June 2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 1286 women in to the study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Data was entered and cleaned using EPINFO and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess association between dependent and independent variables with 95% CI and p-value less than 0.05 was set for association.The study revealed that among 1186 age eligible women, only 235(19.8% have been screened for cervical cancer. Age (AOR = 1.799, 95%CI = 1.182-2.739, history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 1.635, 95%CI = 1.094-2.443, history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 1.635,95%CI = 1.094-2.443, HIV sero status (AOR = 5.614, 95%CI = 2.595-12.144, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer (AOR = 2.225, 95%CI = 1.308-3.783, perceived barriers to premalignant cervical lesions screening (AOR = 2.256, 95%CI = 1.447-3.517 and knowledge on cervical cancer and screening (AOR = 2.355, 95%CI = 1.155-4.802 were significant predictors of cervical cancer screening service uptake.Magnitude of cervical cancer screening service uptake among age eligible women is still unacceptably low. Age of the women, history of multiple sexual partners

  17. Clinical evaluation of chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Yuko; Okawa, Tomohiko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan); Okawa-Kita, Midori

    1997-11-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer has a poor prognosis, poor survival rate, and high local failure rate. A number of questions regarding the optimal agents and schedule of concurrent chemoradiation remain unanswered. To improve the cure rate for advanced or recurrent cervix cancer, we studied intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) with or without radiotherapy. We analyzed 52 cases of advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated by IAIC with or without radiotherapy. IAIC regimen was separated into two groups: group I consisted of 5-FU+MMC{+-}ADM (30 cases) and group II of CDDP+MMC{+-}5-FU (22 cases). The tip of the catheter was placed in the bifurcation of abdominal aorta or the bilateral internal iliac arteries (7 cases). The overall response rate (CR+PR) was 71%, 87% in patients receiving radiotherapy, 50% in those without radiotherapy, and 100% in primary cases. The five-year survival rate was 20% in primary cases, 14% in recurrent cases, 3% in group I and 38% in group II by chemotherapy regimen. Severe (more than grade III) hematological acute side effects were found in 48% of all cases, but recovered by interruption of drugs. In 7 cases in which the tip of the catheter was placed in internal iliac arteries, there were severe skin ulcers in 2 cases and severe pain of leg or gluteal region which need narcotics in 2 cases. These data suggest that IAIC mainly with cisplatin with or without radiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. But we should check blood flow distribution periodically, and control the concentration of drugs. To improve the survival rate for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, we should discuss neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and maintenance systemic chemotherapy. (author)

  18. Clinical evaluation of chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneyasu, Yuko; Okawa, Tomohiko; Okawa-Kita, Midori.

    1997-01-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer has a poor prognosis, poor survival rate, and high local failure rate. A number of questions regarding the optimal agents and schedule of concurrent chemoradiation remain unanswered. To improve the cure rate for advanced or recurrent cervix cancer, we studied intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) with or without radiotherapy. We analyzed 52 cases of advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated by IAIC with or without radiotherapy. IAIC regimen was separated into two groups: group I consisted of 5-FU+MMC±ADM (30 cases) and group II of CDDP+MMC±5-FU (22 cases). The tip of the catheter was placed in the bifurcation of abdominal aorta or the bilateral internal iliac arteries (7 cases). The overall response rate (CR+PR) was 71%, 87% in patients receiving radiotherapy, 50% in those without radiotherapy, and 100% in primary cases. The five-year survival rate was 20% in primary cases, 14% in recurrent cases, 3% in group I and 38% in group II by chemotherapy regimen. Severe (more than grade III) hematological acute side effects were found in 48% of all cases, but recovered by interruption of drugs. In 7 cases in which the tip of the catheter was placed in internal iliac arteries, there were severe skin ulcers in 2 cases and severe pain of leg or gluteal region which need narcotics in 2 cases. These data suggest that IAIC mainly with cisplatin with or without radiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. But we should check blood flow distribution periodically, and control the concentration of drugs. To improve the survival rate for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, we should discuss neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and maintenance systemic chemotherapy. (author)

  19. Incidence of Hydronephrosis in Cervical Cancer Patients in A Tertiary Hospital Lagog, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowunmi, A C; Ajekigbe, A T; Alabi, A O; Popoola, A O; Fatiregun, O A; Akinyanju, A M

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is still a global health challenge that affects women of reproductive age group and consequently causes a drawback on the social and economic stability of nations. Developing countries suffer a greater burden of the disease because of several factors such as poverty, multiple sexual partners, unbalanced diet, poor knowledge and attitude to prevention of diseases and late-presentation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of hydronephrosis in cervical cancer patients in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria for the period of 3 years (2010-2012). This study is a cross sectional study carried out among cervical cancer patients seeking treatment in the Radiotherapy department of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), between the year 2010 and 2012, to find out the incidence of hydronephrosis using abdominopelvic ultrasonography. The incidence of hydronephrosis during the 3years period studied was 43.7%. A rise in the incidence of hydronephrosis of 5.4% in 2011 and 13.3% in 2012 was noted. The mean age of the patients was 55.5 years. 122 (56.7%) were grand multiparous and 123 (57.2%) had multiple sexual partners. An increase of 8.3% in 2011 and 9.3% in 2012 was noted in the incidence of cervical cancer cases studied. 107 (49.8%) presented at stages III and IV. Late presentation of patients is still a major challenge affecting treatment outcomes. The presence of hydronephrosis was noticed at staging, during or after treatment, resulting in the need to separate this population from current Stage IIIB classification. The presence of hydronephrosis may or may not be related to the disease and so adequate staging is important.

  20. Program spending to increase adherence: South African cervical cancer screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adherence is crucial for public health program effectiveness, though the benefits of increasing adherence must ultimately be weighed against the associated costs. We sought to determine the relationship between investment in community health worker (CHW home visits and increased attendance at cervical cancer screening appointments in Cape Town, South Africa.We conducted an observational study of 5,258 CHW home visits made in 2003-4 as part of a community-based screening program. We estimated the functional relationship between spending on these visits and increased appointment attendance (adherence. Increased adherence was noted after each subsequent CHW visit. The costs of making the CHW visits was based on resource use including both personnel time and vehicle-related expenses valued in 2004 Rand. The CHW program cost R194,018, with 1,576 additional appointments attended. Adherence increased from 74% to 90%; 55% to 87%; 48% to 77%; and 56% to 80% for 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month appointments. Average per-woman costs increased by R14-R47. The majority of this increase occurred with the first 2 CHW visits (90%, 83%, 74%, and 77%; additional cost: R12-R26.We found that study data can be used for program planning, identifying spending levels that achieve adherence targets given budgetary constraints. The results, derived from a single disease program, are retrospective, and should be prospectively replicated.

  1. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  2. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

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    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  3. Perceived cervical cancer risk among women treated for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: The importance of specific knowledge.

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    Sonia Andersson

    Full Text Available Women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. We examine how women with high-grade CIN perceive their own risk, and about pertinent knowledge concerning human high-risk papillomavirus (HPV, CIN and cervical cancer.All patients who underwent first-time treatment of high-grade CIN (grade 2+ were followed-up at 6-months at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden and were invited to participate in the present study. This included completion of a questionnaire examining sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived risk of cervical cancer without regular gynecologic follow-up, and 14 queries about HPV, CIN and cervical cancer knowledge, inter alia.The participation rate was 96.6%, with 479 women enrolled in this study. Over 75% were age 40 or younger, over half had completed university education. Most were married or co-living with their partner and were gainfully employed. On a scale scored from 10 (highest self-perceived risk of cervical cancer without regular gynecologic follow-up to 1 (lowest self-perceived risk, 64% rated their risk ≥ 7; almost 30% viewed their risk ≤ 6 and 7.5% did not rate their risk. A Specific Knowledge Scale with six of the queries explained 58.3% of the total variance. Nearly 30% of the women answered four or fewer of the six queries correctly. The Specific Knowledge Scale predicted self-perceived cervical cancer risk (Odds ratio = 11.3, 95% Confidence Interval 5.6 - 22.6 after adjusting for age, income and education. Most of the women with low self-perceived cervical cancer risk did not rate their HPV-related knowledge as good. However, 32 predominantly university-educated women, with low self-perceived cervical cancer risk, considered their HPV-related knowledge good.It is vital to effectively convey accurate information about these patients' cervical cancer risk, needed preventive and follow-up measures, together with the relevant

  4. Nanocarriers for the Effective Treatment of Cervical Cancer: Research Advancements and Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nida; Pathak, Kamla

    2018-04-02

    Cervical cancer being the cancer of cervix is caused by the aberrant cell growth that acquires an ability to spread/ invade to other body parts as well. It has been reported to be the second most commonest cause of death and cancer as well among women. Based on the severity of the disease, treatment aspect needs to be explored more in order to overcome the limitations acquired by conventional treatment. Recently, nanocarriers based drug delivery systems including liposomes, nanofibres, metallic NPs, polymeric NPs, dendrimers, polymeric micelles, antibody-drug conjugates etc. have been explored to target and treat cervical cancer. This review highlights numerous recent research and patent reports as well on nanocarriers based systems. Patents viz US, EP and WIPO have been retrieved using sites www.uspto.gov/patft and www.freepatentsonline.com to collect literature on nanocarriers. Various research reports and patents revealed nanocarriers to be effective in treating cervical cancer and these carriers are observed to be safer than the conventional treatment. Nanocarriers results in transforming drug distribution that can overpower drug resistance. Further, nanocarriers based drug delivery systems can particularly target drugs to cellular, subcellular and tissue sites. By enhancing the drug's bioavailability at the desired site, these systems result in therapeutic benefits like enhanced safety and efficacy. Also, in combination with other treatment approaches like radiation, photothermal and gene therapy, nanocarriers are reported to be quite effective and can define novel strategies to combat cervical cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Management of Cervical Cancer: Strategies for Limited-Resource Centres - A Guide for Radiation Oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among women globally, even though it is the cancer with the greatest demonstrated potential for secondary prevention. In some regions of the world the incidence is alarmingly high, such as in sub-Saharan Africa, some countries in Latin America, India and South-East Asia. This disease is highly preventable and curable at a relatively low risk and low cost when screening of asymptomatic women is available, together with appropriate diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In developing clinical guidelines, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has selected forms of cancer or clinical situations that are very common in low and middle income Member States and for which radiation oncologists consistently express a need for guidance. Clinical guidelines for the management of cervical cancer do exist in the published literature. However, these guidelines have usually been developed in and for affluent environments where all modern diagnosis and treatment modalities are available for the practitioner. In limited resource environments, the radiation oncologist is faced with the question, what would be the minimally acceptable line of action with the limited resources available? Clinical guidelines focusing on low and middle income countries provide a practical tool to these practitioners. This publication is aimed at the radiation oncologist working in centres with limited resources and treating a large number of patients with cervical cancer on a daily basis. The approach and techniques are intended to be simple, feasible and resource sparing to the extent that this is possible when dealing with a complex treatment modality. The Division of Human Health is placing special emphasis on the subject of cervical cancer, which is addressed not only in this guide but also in regional training courses and coordinated research projects on the subject

  6. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (psocial marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  7. EXPRESSION OF HPV 16 AND 18 IN CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kodali Venkataramana; Prasad Usha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is by far the most common human papilloma virus related disease. Nearly, all cases of cervical cancer can be attributable to human papilloma virus infection. Infection with the human papilloma virus is the main risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer especially the high-risk types. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus 16 and 18 in various grades of cervical intraepithelia...

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korfage, Ida J.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Mols, Floortje; Poll-Franse, Lonneke van de; Kruitwagen, Roy; Ballegooijen, Marjolein van

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. Methods and Materials: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive after Jan 2006 were identified through the cancer registry. Generic HRQoL (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, EQ-5D), cervical cancer-specific HRQoL (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module), and anxiety (6-item State Trait Anxiety Inventory) were assessed and compared with a reference population (n = 349). Data for tumor characteristics at diagnosis and disease progression were available. Results: A total of 291 women responded (69%), with a mean age of 53 ± 13 (SD) years (range, 31-88 years). Treatment had consisted of surgery (n = 195) or a combination of therapies (n = 75); one woman had not been treated. Of all women, 85% were clinically disease free, 2% had a recurrence/metastasis, and in 13%, this was unknown. After controlling for background characteristics (age, education, job and marital status, having children, and country of birth), generic HRQoL scale scores were similar to the reference population, except for worse mental health in survivors. The most frequent symptoms were crampy pain in the abdomen or belly (17%), urinary leakage (15%), menopausal symptoms (18%), and problems with sexual activity. Compared with the 6-10-year survivors, more sexual worry and worse body image were reported by the 2-5-year survivors. Compared with surgery only, especially primary radiotherapy was associated with an increased frequency of treatment-related side effects, also after controlling for age and disease stage at diagnosis and follow-up. Conclusions: Most cervical cancer survivors were coping well, although their mental health was worse than in the reference population. Even after 2-10 years, radiotherapy was

  9. Model of health information sharing behavior among patients in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil Tri atmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second highest cause of death for women in Indonesia, despite a deadly illness, patients with cervical cancer are not desperate to survive. Instead, they are motivated to undertake positive actions, one of which is to do health informtion sharing or share information on environmental health tersekatnya. This study aims to look at how the patterns of behavior of sharing health information on cervical cancer patients, as well as the motive behind their actions the health information sharing. This study uses the method of qualitative research grounded approach. Location of the study conducted in Surabaya, while the search for informants researchers used snowball sampling. The results from this study is there are different behavior patterns of health information sharing among cervical cancer patients who have been diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer with cervical cancer at an early stage level.

  10. Young Asian Americans' knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Beverly J; Chilton, Janice A; Camingue, Pamela T; Hajek, Richard A

    2011-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health disparity among Asian Americans, with cervical cancer rates of Vietnamese women being significantly higher than for the general US female population and low screening rates reported for Asian American females. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with young Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean adults (ages 18-29) to collect information on knowledge, perceptions and sources of information regarding cervical cancer, Pap tests and the human papillomavirus. 16 Korean, 18 Vietnamese, and 18 Filipino (50% female) adults participated in the study. Many participants had never heard of HPV, cervical cancer and Pap testing. Cervical cancer screening rates were low for Korean and Vietnamese females and were influenced by moral beliefs and lack of awareness. Culturally relevant education materials that consider specific Asian ethnicity and language are needed to increase awareness of cervical cancer, Pap testing, and HPV among Asian American young adults.

  11. Risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, C H; Liu, J; Feldman, S; Solomon, D H; Kim, S C

    2017-06-01

    Objective Prior studies suggest an increased risk of cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the relationship with immunosuppressive drugs is not well studied in US nationwide cohorts. We compared the risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus who started immunosuppressive drugs versus hydroxychloroquine. Methods We identified systemic lupus erythematosus patients initiating immunosuppressive drugs or hydroxychloroquine using claims data from two US commercial health plans and Medicaid (2000-2012). We used a validated claims-based algorithm to identify high-grade cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. To account for potential confounders, including demographic factors, comorbidities, medication use, HPV vaccination status, and health care utilization, immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine initiators were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. We used inverse variance-weighted, fixed effect models to pool hazard ratios from the propensity score-matched Medicaid and commercial cohorts. Results We included 2451 matched pairs of immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine new users in the commercial cohort and 7690 matched pairs in Medicaid. In the commercial cohort, there were 14 cases of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer among immunosuppressive drugs users and five cases among hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% CI 0.89-6.85, hydroxychloroquine = ref). In Medicaid, there were 46 cases among immunosuppressive drugs users and 29 cases in hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.78-1.98, hydroxychloroquine = ref). The pooled hazard ratio of immunosuppressive drugs was 1.40 (95% CI 0.92-2.12). Conclusion Among women with systemic lupus erythematosus, immunosuppressive drugs may be associated with a greater, albeit not statistically significant, risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared to patients receiving

  12. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  13. Cervical cancer. Application of MR imaging in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebe, Kazuyu; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of application of MRI in arrangement of brachytherapy of cervical cancer, a method was proposed to see the radiation doses in surrounding tissues by superimposing the dose distribution pattern of the radiation source on the MR image. The applicator for the source was filled with water to get its T2-weighted image and was inserted in the patients. The MRI apparatus was Siemens Magnetom Vision (1.5T) with phased array coil. T2-weighted sagittal and coronary images were taken by turbospin echo and HASTE methods. The section thickness was 5 mm. The dose distribution pattern was superimposed on the frontal and lateral images by Siemens Mevaplan to see the doses in surrounding tissues. In 4 patients, it was possible to estimate the radiation dose in the posterior wall of bladder, anterior wall of rectum and urinary duct. The method is promising for arranging brachytherapy of cervical cancer. (K.H.)

  14. Women's knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vicente Chiconela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate women's knowledge and attitudes regarding the importance of cervical cancer screening. This is a descriptive, exploratory, with a qualitative approach study, carried out with 14 women assisted at a health service in Mozambique. Data collection occurred with a semi-structured interview from February to March 2015. The results were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Although most women have heard of cervical cancer (CC on television and in hospital lectures, they have little knowledge about prevention, are unaware of the importance of the screening and have the exam due to gynecological complaints. Women's knowledge is incipient and below the expectations about the importance of the screening.

  15. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSETTE M WHEELER

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.El potencial uso de vacunas de virus del papiloma humano (VPH en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervical posiblemente será implementado durante los próximos años. Cerca de los 20 genotipos de VPH de los 75 que se encuentran identificados infectan el tracto genital femenino, pero son cuatro subtipos: 16, 18, 31 y 45 los que se han asociado en cerca de 80% a cáncer cervical. En este ensayo se plantea que para poder diseñar una vacuna profiláctica contra la infección de VPH, efectiva, se debe garantizar una adecuada respuesta inmune a través de cuatro metas: a activación de antígenos presentes en la célula; b superar la respuesta del huésped y la variabilidad genética viral en la respuesta de células T; c generación de altos niveles de células T y B de memoria, y d persistencia de antígenos.

  16. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Irwin; Buadromo, Eka; Stevens, Matthew P; Fong, James; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M

    2011-09-01

    There is currently limited information about human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women in the South Pacific region. This study's objective was to determine HPV genotypes present in cervical cancer (CC) and precancers (cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 3) in Fiji. Cross-sectional analysis evaluated archival CC and CIN3 biopsy samples from 296 women of Melanesian Fijian ethnicity (n=182, 61.5%) and Indo-Fijian ethnicity (n=114, 38.5%). HPV genotypes were evaluated using the INNO-LiPA assay in archival samples from CC (n=174) and CIN3 (n=122) among women in Fiji over a 5-year period from 2003 to 2007. Overall, 99% of the specimens tested were HPV DNA-positive for high-risk genotypes, with detection rates of 100%, 97.4% and 100% in CIN3, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenosquamous carcinoma biopsies, respectively. Genotypes 16 and 18 were the most common (77%), followed by HPV 31 (4.3%). Genotype HPV 16 was the most common identified (59%) in CIN3 specimens, followed by HPV 31 (9%) and HPV 52 (6.6%). Multiple genotypes were detected in 12.5-33.3% of specimens, depending on the pathology. These results indicated that the two most prevalent CC-associated HPV genotypes in Fiji parallel those described in other regions worldwide, with genotype variations thereafter. These data suggest that the currently available bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines could potentially reduce cervical cancers in Fiji by over 80% and reduce precancers by at least 60%.

  17. Physical state & copy number of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in progression of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV infection and its integration in host genome is a key event in malignant transformation of cervical cells. HPV16 being a dominant HR-HPV type, we undertook this study to analyze if viral load and physical state of the virus correlated with each other in the absence of other confounding variables and examined their potential as predictors of progressive cervical lesions. Methods: Both, viral load and integration status of HPV16 were determined by real time URR PCR and estimation of E2:E6 ratio in a total of 130 PGMY-RLB -confirmed, monotypic HPV16-infected cervical DNA samples from biopsies of cytology-confirmed low grade (LSIL, 30 and high grade (HSIL, 30, and invasive carcinoma, (squamous cell carcinoma SCC, 70 cases. Results: Investigation of DNA samples revealed a gradual increase in HPV16 viral load over several magnitudes and increased frequency of integration from LSIL to HSIL and HSIL to invasive cancer in relation to the severity of lesions in monotypic HPV16-infected cervical tissues. In a substantial number of precancer (11/60 and cancer cases (29/70, HPV16 was detected in concomitant mixed form. The concomitant form of HPV16 genome carried significantly higher viral load. Interpretation & conclusions: Overall, viral load and integration increased with disease severity and could be useful biomarkers in disease progression, at least, in HPV16-infected cervical pre-cancer and cancer lesions.

  18. Identifying Molecular Culprits of Cervical Cancer Progression | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is found in 99.7% of invasive cervical carcinomas, providing strong evidence that the virus is a causative agent in the development of this disease. However, most women who become infected with HPV do not develop invasive cervical lesions, indicating that additional exogenous or genetic factors may determine whether HPV preclinical lesions will

  19. Vaginal Radical Trachelectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Results of the Danish National Single Center Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, L; Høgdall, C; Loft, A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present and evaluate an unselected national single center strategy with fertility preserving trachelectomy in cervical cancer. In 2003 nationwide single-center referral of women for trachelectomies was agreed upon between all Danish departments performing cervical cancer surgery...... a total of 77 pregnancies. Of the 72 women 40 were referred to fertility treatment. First and second trimester miscarriage rates were 21.6% and 2.7%, respectively. A total of 53 children were born of which 41 were delivered after gestational week 34. CONCLUSION: This unselected national single center...... of 120 unselected consecutive VRTs were assessed. To obtain complete follow-up about fertility treatment, pregnancy and obstetric outcome the women filled out an electronic questionnaire. Median follow-up: 55.7 months. RESULTS: 85.8% of the patients had stage IB1 disease, 68.3% squamous cell carcinomas...

  20. Single Marital Status and Infectious Mortality in Women With Cervical Cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Hiroko; Eckhardt, Sarah E; Castaneda, Antonio V; Blake, Erin A; Pham, Huyen Q; Roman, Lynda D; Matsuo, Koji

    2017-10-01

    Unmarried status including single marital status is associated with increased mortality in women bearing malignancy. Infectious disease weights a significant proportion of mortality in patients with malignancy. Here, we examined an association of single marital status and infectious mortality in cervical cancer. This is a retrospective observational study examining 86,555 women with invasive cervical cancer identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program between 1973 and 2013. Characteristics of 18,324 single women were compared with 38,713 married women in multivariable binary logistic regression models. Propensity score matching was performed to examine cumulative risk of all-cause and infectious mortality between the 2 groups. Single marital status was significantly associated with young age, black/Hispanic ethnicity, Western US residents, uninsured status, high-grade tumor, squamous histology, and advanced-stage disease on multivariable analysis (all, P single marital status was significantly associated with increased cumulative risk of all-cause mortality (5-year rate: 32.9% vs 29.7%, P single marital status remained an independent prognostic factor for increased cumulative risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.20; P single marital status remained significantly increased risk of infectious mortality after propensity score matching (adjusted HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.34-3.73; P = 0.002). Single marital status was associated with increased infectious mortality in women with invasive cervical cancer.